WorldWideScience

Sample records for lemongrass oregano oil

  1. A Weibull model to describe antimicrobial kinetics of oregano and lemongrass essential oils against Salmonella Enteritidis in ground beef during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; Soares, Rodrigo de Araújo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in in vitro experiments, and inoculated in ground bovine meat during refrigerated storage (4±2 °C) for 6 days was evaluated. The Weibull model was tested to fit survival/inactivation bacterial curves (estimating of p and δ parameters). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for both EOs on S. Enteritidis was 3.90 μl/ml. The EO concentrations applied in the ground beef were 3.90, 7.80 and 15.60 μl/g, based on MIC levels and possible activity reduction by food constituents. Both evaluated EOs in all tested levels, showed antimicrobial effects, with microbial populations reducing (p≤0.05) along time storage. Evaluating fit-quality parameters (RSS and RSE) Weibull models are able to describe the inactivation curves of EOs against S. Enteritidis. The application of EOs in processed meats can be used to control pathogens during refrigerated shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lemongrass Oil Granules AS Aedes Aegypti Larvicide

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyani, Sri

    2014-01-01

    One way to prevent the spread of Haemorrhage Dengue Fever is the use of abate. The use of abate as larvicides often complained causing an unpleasant smell, and can cause resistance. Lemongrass oil is reported to have activity as larvicides, and this study aims to make granules of lemongrass oil preparation, as well as determining the value of LC50, LC90 against larvae of Ae. aegypti instar III. The granules of lemongrass oil preparation are made with lactose filler and binder CMC-Na. Larvicid...

  3. Polylactic Acid?Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Liakos, Ioannis L.; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D?Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence micro...

  4. Oregano powder substitution and shelf life in pork chorizo using Mexican oregano essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) from Mexican oregano, Lippia berlandieri Schauer, as a substitute for oregano powder on pork chorizo physicochemical characteristics, texture, antioxidant capacity, aerobic bacteria colony counts, and sensory evaluation ...

  5. Anti-dandruff Hair Tonic Containing Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisripipat, Wannee; Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2015-01-01

    Natural remedies for treating dandruff are becoming popular. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-head efficacy evaluation was conducted 30 Thai volunteers aged 20-60 years experiencing dandruff measured at level 3 on D-Squame® scale. An easy to use hair tonic containing essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) active against lipophilic yeasts was developed and then evaluated for efficacy and preference. The base formulation with the significantly highest preference (p lemongrass oil hair tonics with 5, 10, or 15% reduced dandruff significant (p lemongrass oil seems to be the most effective preparation. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-07-07

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  7. Polylactic Acid—Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs. The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid—lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  8. Oregano

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and is closely related to mint, thyme, marjoram, basil, sage, and lavender. Oregano is native to warm ... in people allergic to Lamiaceae family plants, including basil, hyssop, lavender, marjoram, mint, and sage. Diabetes: Oregano ...

  9. Whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prestes Lessa Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to prepare whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil at different concentrations, and evaluate their properties and antimicrobial activity. Films were more flexible with increasing the concentration of oregano oil and water vapor permeability was higher in the films with oregano oil. Increasing the concentration of essential oil decreased the water solubility. The solubility of control film and film with 1.5% oregano oil was 20.2 and 14.0%, respectively. The addition of 1% of oregano oil improved the resistance of the films. The tensile strength for the control film was 66.0 MPa, while for the film with 1% of oregano oil was 108.7 MPa. Films containing 1.5% oregano oil showed higher antimicrobial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged from 0 to 1.7 cm. The results showed that the whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil has potential application as active packaging.

  10. Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on growth performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity of broiler chickens. ... promoting effects and also displayed potent antibacterial effects against cecal E. coli.

  11. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  12. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil against Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to discover new and natural antimicrobial treatments against Salmonella Newport on organic produce, we evaluated the antimicrobial effect of lemongrass essential oil on four different types of organic leafy greens inoculated with S. Newport. The effects of lemongrass treatment exposure...

  14. Application of lemongrass oil in vapour phase for the effective control of anthracnose of 'Sekaki' papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Wee Pheng, T; Mustafa, M A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the potential use of lemongrass essential oil vapour as an alternative for synthetic fungicides in controlling anthracnose of papaya. Lemongrass oil used in the study was characterized using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) before it was tested against anthracnose of papaya in vitro and in vivo. The GC-FID analysis showed that geranial (45·6%) and neral (34·3%) were the major components in lemongrass oil. In vitro study revealed that lemongrass oil vapour at all concentrations tested (33, 66, 132, 264 and 528 μl l(-1) ) suppressed the mycelial growth and conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. For the in vivo study, 'Sekaki' papaya were exposed to lemongrass oil fumigation (0, 7, 14, 28 μl l(-1) ) for 18 h and at room temperature for 9 days. Lemongrass oil vapour at the concentration of 28 μl l(-1) was most effective against anthracnose of artificially inoculated papaya fruit while quality parameters of papaya were not significantly altered. This suggests that lemongrass oil vapour can control anthracnose disease development on papaya without affecting its natural ripening process. The potential practical application of this technology can reduce reliance on synthetic fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases in papaya. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-20

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  16. Inhibitory effect of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H Y; Wu, J; Lin, L

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection in dairy products is of mounting public concern. To inhibit bacterial growth, we engineered stimuli-responsive liposomes containing lemongrass oil for this study. The controlled release of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil is triggered by listerolysin O, secreted by L. monocytogenes. We investigated the antibiotic activities of lemongrass oil liposomes against L. monocytogenes in cheese. We also assessed their possible effects on the quality of the cheese. Liposomes containing lemongrass oil (5.0mg/mL) presented the optimal polydispersity index (0.246), zeta-potential (-58.9mV) and entrapment efficiency (25.7%). The liposomes displayed satisfactory antibiotic activity against L. monocytogenes in cheese over the storage period at 4°C. We observed no effects on the physical and sensory properties of the cheese after the liposome treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combustion characteristics of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil in a partial premixed charge compression ignition engine

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Alagumalai

    2015-01-01

    Indeed, the development of alternate fuels for use in internal combustion engines has traditionally been an evolutionary process in which fuel-related problems are met and critical fuel properties are identified and their specific limits defined to resolve the problem. In this regard, this research outlines a vision of lemongrass oil combustion characteristics. In a nut-shell, the combustion phenomena of lemongrass oil were investigated at engine speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17....

  18. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  19. [Anti-Candida albicans activity of essential oils including Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigeru; Sato, Yuichi; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 12 essential oils, popularly used as antifungal treatments in aromatherapy, on growth of Candida albicans were investigated. Mycelial growth of C. albicans, which is known to give the fungus the capacity to invade mucosal tissues, was inhibited in the medium containing 100 micro g/ml of the oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica). Not only lemongrass oil but also citral, a major component of lemongrass oil (80%), in the range of 25 and 200 micro g/ml inhibited the mycelial growth but allowed yeast-form growth. More than 200 micro g/ml of citral clearly inhibited both mycelial and yeast-form growth of C. albicans. These results provide experimental evidence suggesting the potential value of lemongrass oil for the treatment of oral or vaginal candidiasis.

  20. Edible antimicrobial films based on microencapsulated lemongrass oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos C, Rubén O; Alberti R, Francesca V; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2016-01-01

    Edible films and coatings have been proposed as viable alternatives for the preservation of fresh food such as fruit, meat, fish and cheese. They can be designed to contain natural antioxidants, vitamins and antimicrobials in order to extend shelf life of the product keeping the natural sensorial properties. Essential oils have been targeted as potential active principles for edible films and coatings given their well-recognized antioxidant, antimicrobial and sensory properties. In the present work, lemongrass oil (LMO) microcapsules were prepared by the emulsification-separation method using sodium caseinate as wall material. Microcapsules had an average size of 22 μm and contained over 51 % oil in their nucleus. The release kinetics of the LMO components was studied for both, microcapsules and microcapsule containing films. Experimental data for the controlled release of LMO components showed good correlation with Peppas and Weibull models. The effect of the alginate matrix on the release parameters of the mathematical models could be detected by the modification of the b constant of the Weibull equation which changed from 0.167 for the microcapsules to 0.351 for the films. Films containing LMO at concentrations of 1250, 2500 and 5000 ppm were able to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Listeria monocytogenes ISP 65-08 in liquid cultures. A possible future application of these films for shelf life extension of fresh food is discussed.

  1. The use of the oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and hydrosol in green olive fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Musa Özcan; Derya Arslan; Ali Osman Aydar

    2008-01-01

    The effect of oregano the (Origanum vulgare L.) oil at the levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3% and oregano hydrosol on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the green olive (Edremit variety) fermentation was investigated. The initial pH of the oregano oil added samples were higher than the other treatments, which were above 5.8. The highest final acidity was observed in the hydrosol+brine combination (0.53%). The initial LAB population on the first day of the fermentati...

  2. The repellency of lemongrass oil against stable flies, tested using video tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Tramut, Coline; Salem, Ali; Liénard, Emmanuel; Delétré, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Martin, Thibaud; Duvallet, Gérard; Jay-Robert, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) is an effective repellent against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). In this study, its effectiveness was assessed on stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in laboratory conditions. First, we demonstrated that lemongrass oil is an active substance for antennal olfactory receptor cells of Stomoxys calcitrans as indicated by a significant increase in the electroantennogram responses to increasing doses of lemongrass oil. Feeding-choice tests in a flight cage with stable flies having access to two blood-soaked sanitary pads, one of which was treated with lemongrass oil, showed that stable flies (n = 24) spent significantly more time in the untreated zone (median value = 218.4 s) than in the treated zone (median value = 63.7 s). No stable flies fed on the treated pad, whereas nine fed on the untreated pad. These results suggest that lemongrass oil could be used as an effective repellent against stable flies. Additional studies to confirm its spatial repellent and feeding deterrent effects are warranted. PMID:23759542

  3. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  4. Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj B Warad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing. Results: Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy.

  5. Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warad, Shivaraj B.; Kolar, Sahana S.; Kalburgi, Veena; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing. Results: Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy. PMID:24991068

  6. The use of the oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and hydrosol in green olive fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Musa Özcan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oregano the (Origanum vulgare L. oil at the levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3% and oregano hydrosol on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the green olive (Edremit variety fermentation was investigated. The initial pH of the oregano oil added samples were higher than the other treatments, which were above 5.8. The highest final acidity was observed in the hydrosol+brine combination (0.53%. The initial LAB population on the first day of the fermentation was high in the diluted hydrosol (8.89 log cfu ml-1 and control (8.47 log cfu ml-1 samples. But a significant difference was not observed between the LAB counts of the treatments on the 40th day of fermentation. The control and brine+oregano hydrosol samples had the highest sensory scores.

  7. simulation effect of gamma radiation on growth and essential oil production of lemongrass cymbopogon citratus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elseoud, M.A.; Deaf, M.N.; Afifi, R.A; Abo-Etia, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on growth and volatile oil production of lemongrass, C ymbopogon citratus L. i n this consideration, lemongrass segments were exposed to irradiation doses of 0.5,10,20 and 40 gray and cultivated in the experimental field of atomic energy authority, Inshas. three consequent harvest were taken at flowering stage as the fresh weights were recorded . volatile oil contents, volatile oil constituents and sugars content were determined in the plants herb. results showed that irradiation doses up to 20 gray induced a stimulation effect on plant growth as it increased the fresh weight of plant herb. data of total oil content (cc/plant ) showed noticeable enhancement up to irradiation dose of 20 gray, however, a slight decline was recorded with the higher irradiation dose of 40 gray. GLC of lemongrass volatile oil revealed that 19 components are resulted as citral aa nd citral bw ere the most predominant components . the impact of the studied irradiation treatments on the constituents of lemongrass oil was discussed. in addition, sugars content were determined and some increases were resulted in response to the studied gamma irradiation treatments

  8. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Aqueous Oregano Infusion Application on Microbiological Properties of Samarella (Tsamarella), a Traditional Meat Product of Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Beyza Ulusoy; Canan Hecer; Doruk Kaynarca; Şifa Berkan

    2018-01-01

    Different types of dried meat products manufactured by different drying and curing methods are very common and well-known with a long history all over the world. Samarella (tsamarella) is one of these products and is famous among traditionally produced meat products in Cypriot gastronomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) and aqueous oregano infusion (AOI) applications on the microbiological properties of samarella. In order to carry out this s...

  10. Combustion characteristics of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus oil in a partial premixed charge compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Alagumalai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, the development of alternate fuels for use in internal combustion engines has traditionally been an evolutionary process in which fuel-related problems are met and critical fuel properties are identified and their specific limits defined to resolve the problem. In this regard, this research outlines a vision of lemongrass oil combustion characteristics. In a nut-shell, the combustion phenomena of lemongrass oil were investigated at engine speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17.5 in a 4-stroke cycle compression ignition engine. Furthermore, the engine tests were conducted with partial premixed charge compression ignition-direct injection (PCCI-DI dual fuel system to profoundly address the combustion phenomena. Analysis of cylinder pressure data and heat-release analysis of neat and premixed lemongrass oil were demonstrated in-detail and compared with conventional diesel. The experimental outcomes disclosed that successful ignition and energy release trends can be obtained from a compression ignition engine fueled with lemongrass oil.

  11. Bioactivity of essential oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) as antioxidant agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, Nenden Indrayati; Hidayat, Ika Wiani; Rachman, Saadah Diana; Ersanda

    2018-02-01

    Free radical induced oxidative stress that influences the occurrence of various degenerative diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and premature aging. In the case that body's antioxidant defense system does not have excessive antioxidants, additional natural antioxidant via food or other nutrients intake is needed. Stems of lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus Stapf are known to contain phenolic compounds that are known to have antioxidant activity. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) plant is well known herb in Asia, espesially in Indonesia and used for cooking and has many health benefits. A study has been carried out to determine antioxidant potential of stems of lemongrass. In this the primary study is to examine essential oil Cymbopogon citratus Stapf from Cileles Jatinangor as an antioxidant agent. Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf was isolated from 1272 g of dried stem by using Karlsruhe steam distillation methods with 0.24% in yield. The product of essential oil was also tested against antioxidant activity DPPH and resulted low activity compare to ascorbic acid and lemongrass oil standard as reference material.

  12. Lemongrass productivity oil content and composition as a function of nitrogen sulfur and harvest time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemongrass [Cymbopogon flexuosus (Steud.) Wats, (syn. Andropogon nardus var. flexuosus Hack; A. flexuosus Nees)] is one of the most widely grown essential oil plants in the world. Field experiments were conducted at Verona and Poplarville, Mississippi, to evaluate the effects of N (0, 40, 80, and 16...

  13. A Study on Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Different Cultivars of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Gupta, Ritam Muhury, Deepak Ganjewala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cymbopogon flexuosus popularly known as lemongrass provides a lemon scented essential oil which is widely used in flavour and fragrance, perfumery, food and pharmaceuticals. The aim of the present study was to assess antimicrobial activities of essential oils of three lemongrass cultivars viz., Pragati, Praman and Suvarna. Methods: Essential oils were isolated from one month old plants by hydro-distillation in mini Clevenger apparatus for 2 h. Antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method Results: Lemongrass oils exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all the microbes except E coli. Mean inhibition zone diameter (mm against bacteria was ranged 27-38 mm. B. Subtilis was the most sensitive bacterium to all essential oils. Essential oils also showed strong antifungal effects against both A. niger and C. albicans with mean inhibition zone diameter (mm values 20-26 and 27-29 mm, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that antimicrobial activity shown by essential oils were significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The study revealed strong antimicrobial potential of the essential oil against pathogenic microbial strains which may be of high clinical importance in future.

  14. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and chemical analysis of lemongrass essential oil (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and pure citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukwu, Emmanuel C; Bowles, Melissa; Edwards-Jones, Valerie; Bone, Heather

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of lemongrass essential oil (C. flexuosus) and to determine cytotoxic effects of both test compounds on human dermal fibroblasts. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was observed in four of five Acinetobacter baumannii strains with two strains confirmed as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). All the strains tested were susceptible to both lemongrass and citral with zones of inhibition varying between 17 to 80 mm. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of citral (mic-0.14 % and mbc-0.3 % v/v) was lower than that of Lemongrass (mic-0.65 % and mbc-1.1 % v/v) determined using the microtitre plate method. Cell viability using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF; 106-05a) was determined following exposure to both compounds and a control (Grapeseed oil) using the XTT assay and the IC 50 determined at 0.095 % (v/v) for citral and 0.126 % (v/v) for lemongrass. Grapeseed oil had no effect on cell viability. Live cell imaging was performed using the LumaScope 500 imaging equipment and changes in HDF cell morphology such as necrotic features and shrinkage were observed. The ability of lemongrass essential oil (EO) and citral to inhibit and kill MDR A. baumannii highlights its potential for use in the management of drug-resistant infections; however, in vitro cytotoxicity does suggest further tests are needed before in vivo or ex vivo human exposure.

  15. Penicillium expansum Inhibition on Bread by Lemongrass Essential Oil in Vapor Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani López, Emma; Valle Vargas, Georgina P; Palou, Enrique; López Malo, Aurelio

    2018-02-23

    The antimicrobial activity of lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil (EO) in the vapor phase on the growth of Penicillium expansum inoculated on bread was evaluated, followed by a sensory evaluation of the bread's attributes after EO exposure. The lemongrass EO was extracted from dry leaves of lemongrass by microwave-assisted steam distillation. The chemical composition of the lemongrass EO was determined using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The refractive index and specific gravity of the EO were also determined. Bread was prepared and baked to reach two water activity levels, 0.86 or 0.94, and then 10 μL of P. expansum spore (10 6 spores per mL) suspension was inoculated on the bread surface. Concentrations of lemongrass EO were tested from 125 to 4,000 μL/L air , whereas mold radial growth was measured for 21 days. For sensory evaluation, breads were treated with lemongrass EO vapor at 0, 500, or 1,000 μL/L air for 48 h and tested by 25 untrained panelists. The EO yield was 1.8%, with similar physical properties to those reported previously. Thirteen compounds were the main components in the EO, with citral being the major compound. P. expansum was inhibited for 21 days at 20°C with 750 μL of EO/L air , and its inhibition increased with increasing concentrations of EO. Sensory acceptance of bread exposed to vapor concentrations of 500 or 1,000 μL of EO/L air or without EO was favorable; similar and no significant differences ( P > 0.05) were observed among them.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of oregano (Lippia palmeri S. Wats) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Nieblas, Ma. Magdalena; Robles-Burgueño, Ma. Refugio; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-León, Alberto; Morales-Trejo, Adriana; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Lippia palmeri S. Wats essential oil extracted from plants collected of two localities (Álamos and Puerto del Orégano) in the State of Sonora, México, was examined. Essential oils (EO) were obtained from oregano leaves by steam distillation, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer, and their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens investigated by disc diffusion. Álamos and Puerto del Orégano essential oils (...

  17. Attraction behaviour of Anagrus nilaparvatae to remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil and its volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guo-Feng; Mo, Xiao-Chang; Fouad, Hatem; Abbas, Ghulam; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2018-03-01

    Utilisation of Anagrus nilaparvatae is a promising and effective method for planthoppers manipulation. Twenty-seven components of remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil were identified by GC/MS and nine volatiles were selected for behavioural experiments. In this study, we noted that the remote lemongrass oil was attractive to female A. nilaparvatae at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. α-Pinene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, carveol and D-carvone attracted female wasps in the dose-dependent bioassays. Blend 1 (a mixture of eucalyptol, D-carvone, carveol, α-pinene, and β-pinene with ratios of remote lemongrass oil volatiles of 625:80:11:5:3) attracted female wasps at 10 mg/L, while blend 2 (a mixture of the same five volatiles at the same loading ratio) attracted them at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results suggested that plant essential oils could be attractants for natural enemies to control pests. The ratios of volatiles in the mixtures affect the attractiveness of the synthetic mixtures.

  18. Selection and production of oregano rich in essential oil and carvacrol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mheen, van der H.J.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in oregano essential oil and its component carvacrol for the use as a feed additive with antimicrobial properties, enhancing the health of poultry and pigs. This chapter describes the initial agronomic attempts (in the years 2001-2004) to acquire and develop Origanum

  19. The Isolation of Sitronellal and Rhodinol from Lemongrass Oil Using Vacuum Distillation Fractination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriana Djafar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main componenet of lemongrass oil that is sitronellal and rhodinol (sitronellol and geraniol was isolated by using vacuum of distillation fraksinasi. Variably the research included the variable continue to, that is the sample weight (300 mL and process time (4 hours; and the variable changed, that is the pressure (80, 95 and 100 mbar and the temperature (145, 150, and 160o C. Results of the analysis of the ras material showed that lemongrass oil that came from Kota Panjang, Gayo Lues, Province Aceh had the content sitronellal that was high that is of 51.067% and rhodinol of 30.761%. The characteristics from lemongrass oil was yellow faded, the ray index 1.466, the specific gravity 0.889 solubility in alcohol 1:1 clear and the round of optics 19.15. The distillation sitronellal, 28.87% rhodinol (22.60% geraniol and 6.27% sitronellol and 11% other component. The condition for the process that was good enough in the isolation sitronellol used distillation vacuum of fraksinasi with the temperature and the pressure that were low that is 145o C and 80 mbar. The condition for the process that was quite good in the isolation rhodinol was use to use vacuum of distillation fraksinasi in the temperature and the pressure that were not too high and or low that is 150o C and 95 mbar.

  20. Possibility for use essential oils in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry with special emphasis on oregano oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the latest studies on possible applications of oregano essential oil in veterinary medicine and animal livestock production. The first part of the paper deals with the definition of essential oils, possibilities for their extraction from plants, possibilities for their application in human and veterinary medicine, the interest of a science in essential oils, and, essential oils classification based on their use in human and veterinary medicine. The second part of the review deals with the properties of oregano essential oil, its main active principles, carvacrol and thymol and its application in veterinary medicine and animal livestock production. Oregano essential oil may be applied in animal feed, in the treatment of coccidiosis of domestic animals and candidiasis. It can be applied as a larvicide, repellent, insecticide and acaricide. It is used in aquaculture to treat fish diseases caused by bacteria and parasites or in the hatchery industry as a disinfectant for eggs or for disinfection of manure. The greatest potential of oregano essential oil is the possibility of its application in organic agriculture and organic animal husbandry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31087

  1. Effects of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral on antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties of carrot puree films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Huan; Wei, Jing; Ma, Zhongsu

    2011-02-01

    The effects against staphfloccus aureus and escherichia coli of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral in chitosan-corn starch-gelatin-carrot puree films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations were investigated along with the mechanical and barrier properties of the films. The presence of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral did not change the good oxygen barrier of the films, but did significantly modify tensile properties and water vapor permeability, and made films darker. The data also show that the antimicrobial activities were in the following order: cinnamaldehyde > carvacrol > oregano oil > citral. Moreover, the antimicrobial films were more effective against staphfloccus aureus than against the escherichia coli. This study showed that oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral, especially the first three, could be used to prepare antimicrobial edible films for food applications.

  2. Combined Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculation for essential oil of Lemongrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Rozilaine A. P. G.; Picanço, Nágela F. M.; Campo, Gladís S. D. L.; Faria, Jorge L. B.; Instituto de Física/UFMT Collaboration; Instituto Federal de Mato Grosso/IFMT Team

    2014-03-01

    The essential oils have increased food's industry interest by the presence of antioxidant and antimicrobial. Many of them have antimicrobial and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. But, due to the concentrations required to be added in the food matrix, the sensory quality of the food is changed. The production and composition of essential oil extracted from plants depend on the plant-environment interactions, the harvest season, phenophase and physiological state of the vegetal. Cymbopogom citratus (Lemongrass) has a good yield in essential oil with neral (citral A), geranial (citral B) and myrcene, reaching 90% of the oil composition. In our experimental work, the essential oil of lemongrass was obtained by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus for 4 hours. The compound was further analyzed by Raman scattering in a spectrometer HR 800, with excitation at 633nm, in the range 80-3400 cm-1. The spectrum obtained was compared with DFT calculations of molecules of the oil components. Our results show the vibrational signatures of the main functional groups and suggest a simple, but very useful, methodology to quantify the proportions of these components in the oil composition, showing good agreement with Raman data. CNPq/Capes/Fapemat.

  3. Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, β-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and γ-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Use of reverse osmosis membranes for the separation of lemongrass essential oil and supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.V. Sarmento

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is still used very little by industry, the process of essential oil extraction from vegetable matrices with supercritical CO2 is regarded as a potentially viable technique. The operation of separating the extract from the solvent is carried out by reducing the pressure in the system. Separation by membranes is an alternative that offers lower energy consumption and easier operation than traditional methods of separation. Combining the processes essential oil extraction with supercritical CO2 and separation by membranes permits the separation of solvent and oil without the need for large variations in extraction conditions. This results in a large energy savings in the case of solvent repressurisation and reuse. In this study, the effectiveness of reverse osmosis membranes in separating lemongrass essential oil from mixtures with supercritical CO2 was tested. The effects of feed oil concentration and transmembrane pressure on CO2 permeate flux and oil retention were studied for three membrane models.

  5. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  6. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils from different parts of the oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Ma, Guang-Qiang; Yang, Ming; Yan, Li; Xiong, Wei; Shu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Han-Lin

    This research was undertaken in order to characterize the chemical compositions and evaluate the antioxidant activities of essential oils obtained from different parts of the Origanum vulgare L. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heat stroke, fever, vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and respiratory disorders. The chemical compositions of the three essential oils from different parts of the oregano (leaves-flowers, stems, and roots) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of each essential oil was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and reducing the power test. Among the essential oils from different parts of the oregano, the leaf-flower oils have the best antioxidant activities, whereas the stem oils are the worst. The results of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of the essential oils were (0.332±0.040) mg/ml (leaves-flowers), (0.357±0.031) mg/ml (roots), and (0.501±0.029) mg/ml (stems), respectively. Interestingly, the results of reducing the power test also revealed that when the concentration exceeded 1.25 mg/ml, the leaf-flower oils had the highest reducing power; however, the stem oils were the lowest.

  7. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil on the quality of papaya MJ9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Evirananda, I. P.; Kawiji

    2017-02-01

    Edible films and coatings have emerged as an alternative packaging in food applications and have received much attention due to their advantages. The incorporation of essential oils in film matrices to give antimicrobial properties had been observed recently, and could be used as promising preservation technology. In this study, cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) was applied by spraying and dipping methods to preserve papaya MJ9 during storage at room temperature. The quality of papaya MJ9 was analyzed based on its physicochemical and microbiological properties. The addition of lemongrass essential oil (1%) significantly inhibited the microbial growth on papaya MJ9 by reducing the value of total yeast and mold as compared to the control. This study also showed that for parameters of weight loss, total soluble solid, vitamin C, and total titratable acid, papaya MJ9 with cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) had the lower values than control, however, they had the higher value than control on firmness parameter. These results indicate that cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) can be used as an alternative preservation for papaya MJ9.

  9. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  10. Effect of essential oils of thyme, oregano and their combination on quality of quail meat in comparison with virginiamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Hajipour dehbalaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, poultry meat is prone to oxidative deterioration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oils of thyme, oregano and their combination in comparison with virginiamycin on quality of quail’s meat. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal control (without any added compounds or with 100 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 100 and 200 mg/kg of thyme and oregano essential oils, as well as an equal mixture of thyme and oregano essential oil (levels of 50 and 100 mg /kg.  At the end of 35 days of the experiment, two birds from each group were slaughtered for testing the meat quality (including malondialdehyde, pH, water holding capacity, dripping loss and cooking loss. Results showed that essential oils of thyme, oregano and their mixture reduced the thiobarbituric acid value, dripping loss and cooking loss; on the other hand pH value and water holding capacity was increased. Oregano and thyme essential oils contain compounds with high antioxidant properties. Therefore, the presence of these compounds in the bloodstream and their accumulation in the muscle tissue could results in an increase in the antioxidant capacity and consequently enhance the keeping quality of meat. It seems that the application of natural antioxidants such as thymol or carvacrol could be helpful to improve the quality of poultry meat.

  11. Encapsulation of lemongrass oil with cyclodextrins by spray drying and its controlled release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunpee, Sarunya; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rangsadthong; Yoshii, Hidefumi; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Soottitantawat, Apinan

    2017-04-01

    Inclusion of the two isomers of citral (E-citral and Z-citral), components of lemongrass oil, was investigated within the confines of various cyclodextrin (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) host molecules. Aqueous complex formation constants for E-citral with α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD were determined to be 123, 185, and 204 L/mol, respectively, whereas Z-citral exhibited stronger affinities (157, 206, and 253 L/mol, respectively). The binding trend γ-CD > β-CD > α-CD is a reflection of the more favorable geometrical accommodation of the citral isomers with increasing cavity size. Encapsulation of lemongrass oil within CDs was undertaken through shaking citral:CD (1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1 molar ratio) mixtures followed by spray drying. Maximum citral retention occurred at a 1:1 molar ratio with β-CD and α-CD demonstrating the highest levels of total E-citral and Z-citral retention, respectively. Furthermore, the β-CD complex demonstrated the slowest release rate of all inclusion complex powders.

  12. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Aqueous Oregano Infusion Application on Microbiological Properties of Samarella (Tsamarella), a Traditional Meat Product of Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Beyza; Hecer, Canan; Kaynarca, Doruk; Berkan, Şifa

    2018-03-21

    Different types of dried meat products manufactured by different drying and curing methods are very common and well-known with a long history all over the world. Samarella (tsamarella) is one of these products and is famous among traditionally produced meat products in Cypriot gastronomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) and aqueous oregano infusion (AOI) applications on the microbiological properties of samarella. In order to carry out this study, traditional methods were followed for experimental production of samarella. As a result of this study, five percent OEO application was found to be more effective to reduce microbiological counts but this ratio of OEO application was not accepted by panelists. According to all microbiological results correlated with the sensorial scores, it is concluded that one percent OEO application can be used for samarella production as an alternative preservative method.

  13. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Aqueous Oregano Infusion Application on Microbiological Properties of Samarella (Tsamarella, a Traditional Meat Product of Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Ulusoy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of dried meat products manufactured by different drying and curing methods are very common and well-known with a long history all over the world. Samarella (tsamarella is one of these products and is famous among traditionally produced meat products in Cypriot gastronomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO and aqueous oregano infusion (AOI applications on the microbiological properties of samarella. In order to carry out this study, traditional methods were followed for experimental production of samarella. As a result of this study, five percent OEO application was found to be more effective to reduce microbiological counts but this ratio of OEO application was not accepted by panelists. According to all microbiological results correlated with the sensorial scores, it is concluded that one percent OEO application can be used for samarella production as an alternative preservative method.

  14. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  15. Fungicidal and anti-aflatoxigenic effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (lemongrass) against Aspergillus flavus Link. isolated from stored rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranagama, P A; Abeysekera, K H T; Abeywickrama, K; Nugaliyadde, L

    2003-01-01

    To develop a natural fungicide against aflatoxigenic fungi, to protect stored rice, using the essential oil of lemongrass. Aspergillus flavus Link. was isolated from stored rice and identified as an aflatoxigenic strain. Lemongrass oil was tested against A. flavus and the test oil was fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogen at 0.6 and 1.0 mg ml(-1), respectively. Aflatoxin production was completely inhibited at 0.1 mg ml(-1). The results obtained from the thin layer chromatographic bioassay and gas chromatography indicated citral a and b as the fungicidal constituents in lemongrass oil. During the fumigant toxicity assay of lemongrass oil, the sporulation and the mycelial growth of the test pathogen were inhibited at the concentrations of 2.80 and 3.46 mg ml(-1), respectively. Lemongrass oil could be used to manage aflatoxin formation and fungal growth of A. flavus in stored rice. Currently, fungicides are not used to control fungal pests or mycotoxin production on stored rice. Rice treated with the essential oil of lemongrass could be used to manage fungal pests as well as the insect pests in stored rice. The essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers, as synthetic chemical fungicides can cause adverse health effects to consumers.

  16. Effects of oregano essential oil and attapulgite on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must .... Natural zeolites have been investigated extensively over the last decade, because of the good ...... human colon to essential oils.

  17. Protective effect of lemongrass oil against dexamethasone induced hyperlipidemia in rats: possible role of decreased lecithin cholesterol acetyl transferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V R Santhosh; Inamdar, Md Naseeruddin; Nayeemunnisa; Viswanatha, G L

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of lemongrass oil against in dexamethasone induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Administration of dexamethasone was given at 10 mg/kg, sc. to the adult rats for 8 d induces hyperlipidemia characterized by marked increase in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels along with increase in atherogenic index. Lemongrass oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, po.) treatment has showed significant inhibition against dexamethasone hyperlipidemia by maintaining the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic index near to the normal levels and the antihyperlipidemic effect of the lemongross oil was comparable with atorvastatin 10 mg/kg, po. The possible mechanism may be associated with decrease in lecithin cholesterol acetyl transferase (LCAT) activity. These results suggested that Lemon gross oil possess significant anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  19. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital

    Full Text Available The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale. Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  20. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  1. Extraction of citral oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) by steam-water distillation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, P. N.; Husin, H.; Asnawi, T. M.; Adisalamun

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, production of citral oil from lemon grass (Cymbopogon Cytratus) is done by a traditional technique whereby a low yield results. To improve the yield, an appropriate extraction technology is required. In this research, a steam-water distillation technique was applied to extract the essential oil from the lemongrass. The effects of sample particle size and bed volume on yield and quality of citral oil produced were investigated. The drying and refining time of 2 hours were used as fixed variables. This research results that minimum citral oil yield of 0.53% was obtained on sample particle size of 3 cm and bed volume of 80%, whereas the maximum yield of 1.95% on sample particle size of 15 cm and bed volume of 40%. The lowest specific gravity of 0.80 and the highest specific gravity of 0.905 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 80% and particle size of 12 cm with bed volume of 70%, respectively. The lowest refractive index of 1.480 and the highest refractive index of 1.495 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 70% and sample particle size of 15 cm with bed volume of 40%, respectively. The solubility of the produced citral oil in alcohol was 70% in ratio of 1:1, and the citral oil concentration obtained was around 79%.

  2. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF GARLIC AND OREGANO EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST DIFFERENT BACTERIAL STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is often concerned about the bacterial diseases and the diversity of treatment possibilities. The herbal medicines overreach the medical world because the less number of side effects than synthetic drugs and their low costs. In addition to conventional drugs, the natural remedies can solve exceptional health problems. In this study the antibacterial actions of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous plant extracts (Allium sativum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were tested. Also, we tested the antimicrobial effects of garlic and oregano essential oils against three bacterial strains. The extracts were tested by diffusion method and certain variants were used. The antibacterial effects were read after 24h of incubation at 37°C. The most obvious effect was observed for oregano essential oil and the smallest growth inhibition was registered for aqueous extracts. The alcoholic extracts were more efficient after concentration by evaporation. The most sensitive bacterial strain was Staphylococcus aureus strain. However the Citrobacter freundii clinical strain had not so high sensitivity at plant extracts, we shall consider the plant extracts as a good alternative to synthetic drugs.

  4. Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdones, Ángela; Tur, Núria; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film-forming dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro-Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre-harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. The application of the FFDs at '3 Leaves' stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer-EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the 'Fruit' stage the pre-harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer-EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non-treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. The application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. DRYING TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF GRANULE CONTAINING OIL COMBINATION OF LEMONGRASS-KAFFIR LIME LEAVES ON TOTAL LOSS OF OIL AND LARVICIDE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Granules of lemongrass and kaffir lime oil are reported to have larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with LC50 of 38.30ppm and 39.58ppm, while LC90 of 51.57ppm and 79.43ppm respectively. During the manufacture of granules, loss of oil are reported by 64.20% to 65.91% for lemongrass and kaffir lime oil. This research aims to make granules combination from lemongrass and kaffir lime oils by varying the temperature of the drying granules and testing its larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. Oil combination is selected by using analysis simplex lattice design, and the combination chosen is made of granules, in drying room temperature for 24h, a temperature of 50°C for 2h 30min and a temperature of 70°C for 1h. Larvicidal activity testing against larvae of Ae. aegypti is done by using the third instar larvae 20 for each granule solution made in 5 series of concentration, and left exposed for 24h. The number of deaths of larvae is calculated and analyzed by modified probit analysis Finney to determine LC50 and LC90. The results showed the combination lemongrass-kaffir lime oil is selected ratio of 9:1, and drying the granules with a temperature of 70°C for 1h produces the greatest larvicidal activity with 63.17ppm LC50 and LC90 of 85.04ppm.

  6. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant factors in oregano and rosemary gourmet olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimidou, Maria

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to examine the presence of antioxidants and pro-oxidants in oregano and rosemary gourmet oils. Dry, ground plant material (5% w/w was infused to olive oil for 24, 48 and 72 hours and then it was removed by filtration. All preparations were found acceptable using a panel test. The total polar phenol content increased 3.5 and 1.7 times in oregano and rosemary gourmet oils with respect to that of the control sample. A qualitative enrichment of the methanol:water fraction of olive oil with phenolic compounds from herbs were found using HPLC. No rosmarinic acid was detected in the gourmet oils. Vanillic acid was only found in the rosemary gourmet oil. The presence of flavonoids was assessed using TLC. a-Tocopherol content of the oil matrix was not changed after herb infusion. A significant increase was found in pheophytin, a,b-carotene and lutein content of oregano flavoured oils. The oxidative stability of gourmet oils was greater to that of the control using the Rancimat test. In photo-oxidation, oregano flavoured oil was less stable than the rosemary one. Total chlorophyll content may be a critical factor for the shelf life of these preparations. Suitable labelling suggesting avoidance of light may be useful for a safe domestic use.El estudio fue realizado para examinar la presencia de antioxidantes y pro-oxidantes en aceites de oliva con aroma a orégano y romero. El material vegetal seco y molido se añade al aceite de oliva en proporción (5% w/w durante 24, 48 y 72 horas y posteriormente se elimina por filtración. Todas las preparaciones se encontraron aceptables usando un panel de catadores. El contenido de fenoles polares totales aumentó 3,5 y 1,7 veces, en aceites con aroma a orégano y romero, con respecto al de las muestras control. Un enriquecimiento cualitativo de la fracción metanol: agua del aceite de oliva, con compuestos fenólicos de las hierbas, se encontró usando HPLC. No se detectó

  7. Antibacterial Effects of Allspice, Garlic, and Oregano Essential Oils in Tomato Films Determined by Overlay and Vapor-Phase Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, garlic and oregano essential oils (EOs) in tomato puree film forming solutions (TPFFS) formulated into edible films at 0.5-3.0% (w/w) concentrations w...

  8. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100–400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486

  9. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-07

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat.

  10. [The antibacterial activity of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) against clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Wasiela, Małgorzata; Głowacka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum L.) essential oil against clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of oregano essential oil was investigate against 2 tested and 20 clinical bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and 20 clinical strains o Pseudomonas aeruginosa come from patients with different clinical conditions. The agar dilution method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations ofoil. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results of experiments showed that the tested oil was active against all of the clinical strains from both genus of bacteria, but strains of Escherichia coli were more sensitive to tested oil. Essential oil from Origanum heracleoticum L. inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains with different patters of resistance. The obtained outcomes will enable further investigations using oregano essential oil obtained from Origanum heracleoticum L. as alternative antibacterial remedies enhancing healing process in bacterial infections and as an effective means for the prevention of antibiotic-resistant strain development.

  11. Antinociceptive action and redox properties of citronellal, an essential oil present in lemongrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; da Silva, Francilene Amaral; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Melo, Mônica Santos; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2011-06-01

    Citronellal (CT) is a monoterpenoid and the major constituent of the mixture of terpenoids that give the citronella oil its lemon scent. Citronella oil is widely used around the world for various purposes and is mainly obtained from plants of the Cymbopogon genus, which are known as "lemongrass." Considering these plants have been used worldwide for various medicinal purposes, the interest of researchers to understand the biological activities of monoterpenoids related to the Cymbopogon genus has been increasing. In the present work, we investigated the antinociceptive action and the redox properties of CT. Our results indicate that intraperitoneal injection of CT was effective in reducing nociceptive face-rubbing behavior in both phases of the formalin test, which was also naloxone-sensitive. CT also evoked antinociceptive response in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. The total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter and total antioxidant reactivity assays indicate that CT at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/mL exerts a significant antioxidant activity, which is probably related to its ability to scavenge superoxide and nitric oxide, but not H(2)O(2) or hydroxyl radicals, as evaluated separately by specific in vitro tests. These results show for the first time the antinociceptive potential of CT and indicate that the antioxidant properties of this compound may rely on its mechanism of biological actions because CT-containing natural products are used to treat various diseases related to oxidative stress and reactive species.

  12. Profiling of The Lemongrass Oil Aroma and Their Structure-Odor Relationship: In Silico Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udrika Lailatul Qodri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structure-odor relationship (SOR has previously studied by semantic numerically in different Fragrance. We hypothesise that in silico method such as molecular dynamics, together with docking of the interaction between human olfactory receptor (OR1G1 and ligands, can offer extremely valuable tools of modelling SOR. Hence, the present study was carried out to express the SOR of citronellal oil fraction compare with reference smelling of floral, musk, green, wood, and fruit by employing docking and multiple discriminant analysis (MDA. Our study reveals that the number dissociation constant (Kd, bond distance, HOMO-LUMO (AE, dipole moment, kind of amino acids, Log P, surface area and hydropathy as the variable SOR from in silico anaysis. Our result has shown ligands and OR1G1 interacted with Van Der Waals and electrostatic model. MDA analysis shown molecule reference floral and fraction of lemongrass oil have similar correlation based on variable SOR with linier regression of all variable SOR to Kd value for every reference odor is R2 = 1.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are a new group of natural products. They are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil, propolis and pollen extract addition on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=40 were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oiland propolis or pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.5 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second and third experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with propolis extract and pollen extract of the same dose at 0.5 g/kg. The results suggest that the most of qualitative parameters of egg internal content were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or bee products addition (P>0.05. A statistically significant differencein favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of oregano essential oilat a dose of0.5 g/kg and in the group with pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  14. Consumer profile and acceptability of cooked beef steaks with edible and active coating containing oregano and rosemary essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Kempinski, Emilia Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Sary, Cesar; Ramos, Tatiane Rogelio; Campo, María Del Mar; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do

    2018-09-01

    Fresh animal products are highly perishable and characterized by a short shelf-life. Edible coatings with natural antioxidants (essential oils: EOs) could improve stability, ensure quality, and increase the shelf-life of fresh products. Due to the strong flavor of EOs, their use should consider consumer preferences and sensory acceptability. This study evaluated the effects of edible coating (with oregano and rosemary essential oil) on beef in relation to consumer preferences, besides the determination of habits of consumption and buying intentions of consumers. Acceptability scores from three clusters of consumers was described. Coating with oregano was the preferred. The higher consumer acceptance and willingness to buy this product indicate a great potential and possibility of using coatings with essential oils in fresh animal products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fungal inactivation by Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Hernández-Zamoran, Erika; López-Mendoza, Ingrid; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-04-01

    Edible films can incorporate antimicrobial agents to provide microbiological stability, since they can be used as carriers of a wide number of additives that can extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of low antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Oregano essential oil was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan, and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. Mold radial growth was evaluated inoculating spores in 2 ways: edible films were placed over inoculated agar, Film/Inoculum mode (F/I), or the edible films were first placed in the agar and then films were inoculated, Inoculum/Film mode (I/F). The modified Gompertz model adequately described growth curves. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth parameters between the 2 modes of inoculation. Antifungal effectiveness of edible films was starch > chitosan > amaranth. In starch edible films, both studied molds were inhibited with 0.50% of essential oil. Edible films added with Mexican oregano essential oil could improve the quality of foods by controlling surface growth of molds.

  16. Oxygen introduction during extraction and the improvement of antioxidant activity of essential oils of basil, lemon and lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Freitas Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oil extraction is commonly carried out by using the hydrodistillation method, which is described in official compendia of food quality control and medicinal plants. Despite the widespread use of this method, few studies have evaluated the effect of the atmosphere change during extraction on the composition and antioxidant activity of essentials oils. Therefore, a study of oxygen introduction influence during the extraction of essential oils from basil, lemongrass and lemon by hydrodistillation was performed. Total amount of oxygenated compounds (e.g., linalool, camphor, α-terpineol, neral, geranial, eugenol and α-muurolol increased for all essential oils extracted under oxygen flow. Antioxidant activity evaluated by using the ORAC method significantly increased (P<0.0001 with oxygen from 618 to 906, 355 to 613 and 72 to 262µmol Trolox g-1 oil for basil, lemongrass and lemon, respectively. Therefore, the simple modification proposed could be considered a suitable alternative to obtain essential oils with higher antioxidant activity.

  17. Antimicrobial effectiveness of oregano and sage essential oils incorporated into whey protein films or cellulose-based filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Maite; Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Maté, Juan I

    2010-07-01

    In this study the antimicrobial effectiveness of oregano and sage essential oils (EOs) incorporated into two different matrices, whey protein isolate (WPI) and cellulose-based filter paper, was analysed. Antimicrobial properties of WPI-based films containing oregano and sage EOs were tested against Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. Oregano EO showed antimicrobial activity against all three micro-organisms. The highest inhibition zones were against L. innocua. However, sage EO did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the micro-organisms. Antimicrobial activity was confirmed for both EOs using cellulose-based filter paper as supporting matrix, although it was significantly more intense for oregano EO. Inhibition surfaces were significantly greater when compared with those of the WPI films. This finding is likely due to the higher porosity and diffusivity of the active compounds in the filter paper. The interactions between the EOs and the films have a critical effect on the diffusivity of the active compounds and therefore on the final antimicrobial activity. As a result, to obtain active edible films, it is necessary to find the equilibrium point between the nature and concentration of the active compounds in the EO and the formulation of the film.

  18. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging.

  19. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging. PMID:27433114

  20. Ecotoxicological assays of Diethyltoluamide and Lemongrass Essencial Oil in irradiated and non-irradiated aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Martini, Gisela A.; Rogero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrates can be potentially exposed to nonradioactive contaminants in conjunction with ionizing radiation, especially in highly industrialized areas surrounding nuclear facilities, where radionuclides can accidentally be discharged in the aquatic environment containing stable chemicals. The aquatic organisms have continually been exposed to chemical contaminants like personal care products (PCPs) which have been found in various environmental matrices and may cause adverse effects to aquatic life and human health as radioactive products. In this study was used C. silvestrii as bioindicator organism in chronic ecotoxicity assays with lemongrass essencial oil (LEO) and Diethyltoluamide (DEET), both are insect repellent. In addition to exposition of the compounds, the organisms were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 source. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of gamma radiation and mosquito repellent products in the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii utilizing standardized ecotoxicological tests. The C. silvestrii inhibition concentration (IC25; 7 days) result after DEET exposition was 16.4 ± 1.4 mg L -1 and for LEO was 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L -1 . In the irradiated (25 Gy) C. silvestrii exposed to DEET and LEO, the concentration that inhibited reproduction was 16.1 ± 0.9 mg L -1 and 2.4 ± 0.3 mg L -1 respectively. The results showed that the reproduction of irradiated C. silvestrii was not significantly affected when compared with non-irradiated organisms when exposed to DEET or LEO. (author)

  1. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inactivation of Norovirus by Lemongrass Essential Oil Using a Norovirus Surrogate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Won; You, Hyun Ju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Do Kyung; Choi, Joo-Bong; Kim, Ji-Ah; Lee, Hee Jung; Joo, In Sun; Lee, Jeong Su; Kang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Giljae; Ko, Gwang Pyo; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on the infectivity and viral replication of norovirus. Murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate of human norovirus, was preincubated with LGEO and then used to infect RAW 264.7 cells in a plaque reduction assay. LGEO exhibited a significant reduction in MNV-1 plaque formation in both time- and dose-dependent manners. The quantification of viral genome by quantitative real-time PCR showed similar results in line with those of the plaque reduction assay. It was revealed that citral, a single compound in LGEO, showed dramatic reduction in MNV-1 infectivity (-73.09% when using a treatment of 0.02%, v/v). The inhibitory activity of LGEO on viral replication was further investigated in HG23 cells that harbored a human norovirus replicon. LGEO treatment significantly reduced viral replication in HG23 cells, which suggests that LGEO may have dual inhibitory activities that inactivate viral coat proteins required for viral infection and suppress norovirus genome replication in host cells. In animal experiments, oral administration of murine norovirus preincubated with LGEO significantly suppressed virus infectivity in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that LGEO, in particular the LGEO component citral, inactivates the norovirus and its subsequent replication in host cells. Thus, LGEO shows promise as a method of inhibiting norovirus within the food industry.

  3. The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukwu, E C; Allen, S C H; Phillips, C A

    2012-11-01

    To determine the sensitivity of five strains of Staphylococcus aureus to five essential oils (EOs) and to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass and grapefruit EOs. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. All of the strains tested were susceptible to lemongrass, grapefruit, bergamot and lime EOs with zones of inhibition varying from 2·85 to 8·60 cm although they were resistant to lemon EO. Lemongrass EO inhibited biofilm formation at 0·125% (v/v) as measured by colorimetric assay and at 0·25% (v/v) no metabolic activity was observed as determined by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction. Grapefruit EO did not show any anti-biofilm activity. Following exposure to lemongrass EO extensive disruption to Staph. aureus biofilms was shown under scanning electron microscopy. In comparison to the other EOs tested, lemongrass exhibited the most effective antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. The effect of lemongrass EO highlights its potential against antibiotic resistant Staph. aureus in the healthcare environment. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Characterization of Active Packaging Films Made from Poly(Lactic Acid)/Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate) Incorporated with Oregano Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Liu; Hongli Li; Lin Jiang; Yongming Chuan; Minglong Yuan; Haiyun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Antimicromial and antioxidant bioactive films based on poly(lactic acid)/poly(trimenthylene carbonate) films incorporated with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (OEO) were prepared by solvent casting. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, physical, thermal, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were examined. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the cross-section of films became rougher when OEO was incorporated into PLA/PTMC blends. Differ...

  5. FORMULATION OF NANOEMULSION MOUTHWASH COMBINATION OF LEMONGRASS OIL (Cymbopogon citratus AND KAFFIR LIME OIL (Citrus hystrix FOR ANTICANDIDIASIS AGAINST Candida albicans ATCC 10231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Juniatik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a fungal infection disease that still become health problem in Indonesia, especially oral candidiasis that largerly caused by Candida albicans abnormal growth on oral cavity. Lemongrass oil and kaffir lime oil have been proven to have antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The composition of limonen, α-terpineol, sitronelil acetate, terpineol, β-pinene, on kaffir lime oil and citronelal on lemongrass oil make the combination of both oils have the potential as an alternative theraphy for oral candidiasis. It formulates in the form of nanoemulsion mouthwash. Nanoemulsion is chosen because it has some advantages like clear, stable, and increasing the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and kaffir lime oil. The study begins with plants determination, essential oils charecterization tests (solubility, refractative index, and specific gravity, and essential oil content analysis by GC-MS. Nanoemulision formulates by water titration method. Optimization of oil mix and VCO do to get a clear and stable nanoemulsion. The best formula is characterized (transmittance, particle size, viscosity, zeta potential, and stability test, then analyze the essential oil chemical compounds in the optimum formula and test the inhibitory effect of the formula by microdilution method. Inhibiton data analysis use One Way ANOVA. Based on the results of the study, 0.4 % oil mix, 3.6 % VCO, 17.3 % tween 80, 8.7 % PEG 400 dan 70 % water is the best formula that can form a nanoemulsion system with an average particle size 21,4 nm, low viscosity, low zeta potential and stable during freez-thaw storage. Nanoemulsion significantly has inhibitory effect more effective than positive control.

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Varied Carvacrol Concentrations on Salmonella Recovery in Oregano and How Corn Oil Can Minimize the Effect of Carvacrol during Preenrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubrun, Junia Jean-Gilles; Addy, Nicole; Keltner, Zachary; Farris, Samantha; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy E

    2018-06-01

    Phenolic compounds, like carvacrol, in oregano interfere with the detection of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. Carvacrol concentration varies based on plant cultivars and growth region. Six oregano cultivars were used to compare the impact of carvacrol concentration on Salmonella and to evaluate the effectiveness of corn oil to help increase Salmonella survival for detection. The results of Agilent 1200 series high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that carvacrol concentration in the six oregano cultivars ranged from 64 to 11,200 ppm. Oregano samples were artificially contaminated with S. enterica and were preenriched in Trypticase soy broth with or without 2% (v/v) corn oil. After 18 to 24 h at 37°C, aliquots were transferred to selective enrichment broths. Salmonella was recovered onto xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Six Salmonella serovars were compared, and recovery varied based on carvacrol concentration and serovar. Samples with higher concentrations of carvacrol showed Salmonella recovery only when they were preenriched with corn oil. Based on metagenomic analysis, the microflora associated with the oregano also varied per cultivar. The results show that, as carvacrol levels increased, Salmonella survival decreased. However, the addition of corn oil to the preenrichment broth can minimize the antimicrobial effects of the phenolic compounds, thus allowing for increased detection of Salmonella from oregano cultivars.

  7. Preliminary assays for lemongrass essential oil ecotoxicological test in D. similis and C. silvestrii submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose R.; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are of great interest in ecotoxicological studies due to being found some of these products in the superficial waters and sediments, water and sewage treatment effluents. It was verified an increase of insect repellent chemical products in the aquatic environment because of the increase of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes like dengue. As these compounds show toxicity, the use of essential oils natural products with repellent properties is increasing and the literature about the impact in the aquatic environment is scarce. The hydric frame would suffer natural radiation and radiations from energy generation nuclear plants impacts fall out of tests and nuclear accidents. There is no universal definition of environmental protection and there are few studies on radiation effects in the aquatic environment. In this study was determined the lemon grass essential oil toxicity level as well as the lethal dose of ionizing radiation, LD 50 , in aquatic organisms. Cytotoxicity test was performed by in vitro neutral red uptake method in NCTC clone L929 cell line. In the LD 50 test aquatic organisms were submitted to gamma radiation. The essential oil of lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus showed cytotoxicity index IC 50 about 50μg.mL -1 . The LD 50 for Daphnia similis was 242 Gy and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii about 525 Gy. Studies will be continued with acute and chronic ecotoxicological tests of lemongrass essential oil in natural organisms and in organisms submitted to gamma radiation, utilizing the results obtained in this work. (author)

  8. Preliminary assays for lemongrass essential oil ecotoxicological test in D. similis and C. silvestrii submitted to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose R., E-mail: gtgimiliani@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Culturas Celulares

    2011-07-01

    Pharmaceutical products are of great interest in ecotoxicological studies due to being found some of these products in the superficial waters and sediments, water and sewage treatment effluents. It was verified an increase of insect repellent chemical products in the aquatic environment because of the increase of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes like dengue. As these compounds show toxicity, the use of essential oils natural products with repellent properties is increasing and the literature about the impact in the aquatic environment is scarce. The hydric frame would suffer natural radiation and radiations from energy generation nuclear plants impacts fall out of tests and nuclear accidents. There is no universal definition of environmental protection and there are few studies on radiation effects in the aquatic environment. In this study was determined the lemon grass essential oil toxicity level as well as the lethal dose of ionizing radiation, LD{sub 50}, in aquatic organisms. Cytotoxicity test was performed by in vitro neutral red uptake method in NCTC clone L929 cell line. In the LD{sub 50} test aquatic organisms were submitted to gamma radiation. The essential oil of lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus showed cytotoxicity index IC{sub 50} about 50{mu}g.mL{sup -1}. The LD{sub 50} for Daphnia similis was 242 Gy and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii about 525 Gy. Studies will be continued with acute and chronic ecotoxicological tests of lemongrass essential oil in natural organisms and in organisms submitted to gamma radiation, utilizing the results obtained in this work. (author)

  9. Predicting the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oregano bract essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Moghadassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of essential oils using compressed carbon dioxide is a modern technique offering significant advantagesover more conventional methods, especially in particular applications. The prediction of extraction efficiency is a powerful toolfor designing and optimizing the process. The current work proposed a new method based on the artificial neural network(ANN for the estimation of the extraction efficiency of the essential oil oregano bract. In addition, the work used the backpropagationlearning algorithm, incorporating different training methods. The required data were collected; pre-treating wasused for ANN training. The accuracy and trend stability of the trained networks were verified according to their ability to predictunseen data. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm has been found to be the most suitable algorithm, with the appropriatenumber of neurons (i.e., ten neurons in the hidden layer and a minimum average absolute relative error (i.e., 0.019164. Inaddition, some excellent predictions with maximum error of 0.039313 were observed. The results demonstrated the ANN’scapability to predict the measured data. The ANN model performance was also compared to a suitable mathematical model,thereby confirming the superiority of the ANN model.

  10. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nine essential oils (EO) on P. phosphoreum and determine the effect of oregano oil on the shelf-life of modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) cod fillets. Methods and Results: The antimicrobial effect of EO was studied in a liquid medium and in product...... storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...... at 2degreesC. Conclusions: Oregano oil reduced the growth of P. phosphoreum and extended the shelf-life of MAP cod fillets. Significance and Impact of the Study: Mild and natural preservation using EO can extend the shelf-life of MAP seafood through inhibiting the specific spoilage organism P...

  11. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  12. Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Kyung Bin; Lee, Youn Suk; Chung, Dae Sung; Min, Sea C

    2013-10-01

    Nanoemulsions containing lemongrass oil (LO) were developed for coating plums and the effects of the nanoemulsion coatings on the microbial safety and physicochemical storage qualities of plums during storage at 4 and 25 °C were investigated. The emulsions used for coating were produced by mixing a carnauba wax-based solution (18%, w/w) with LO at various concentrations (0.5% to 4.0%, w/w) using dynamic high pressure processing at 172 MPa. The coatings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their ability to preserve various physicochemical qualities of plums. Uniform and continuous coatings on plums, formed with stable emulsions, initially inhibited S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.2 to 2.8 and 0.8 to 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on the concentration of LO and the sequence of coating. The coatings did not significantly alter the flavor, fracturability, or glossiness of the plums. The antimicrobial effects of the coatings against S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were demonstrated during storage at 4 and 25 °C. The coatings reduced weight loss and ethylene production by approximately 2 to 3 and 1.4 to 4.0 fold, respectively, and also retarded the changes in lightness and the concentration of phenolic compounds in plums during storage. The firmness of coated plums was generally higher than uncoated plums when stored at 4 °C and plum respiration rates were reduced during storage. Coatings containing nanoemulsions of LO have the potential to inhibit Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 contamination of plums and may extend plum shelf life. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  13. Ecotoxicological assays of Diethyltoluamide and Lemongrass Essencial Oil in irradiated and non-irradiated aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Martini, Gisela A.; Rogero, Jose R., E-mail: sorogero@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic invertebrates can be potentially exposed to nonradioactive contaminants in conjunction with ionizing radiation, especially in highly industrialized areas surrounding nuclear facilities, where radionuclides can accidentally be discharged in the aquatic environment containing stable chemicals. The aquatic organisms have continually been exposed to chemical contaminants like personal care products (PCPs) which have been found in various environmental matrices and may cause adverse effects to aquatic life and human health as radioactive products. In this study was used C. silvestrii as bioindicator organism in chronic ecotoxicity assays with lemongrass essencial oil (LEO) and Diethyltoluamide (DEET), both are insect repellent. In addition to exposition of the compounds, the organisms were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 source. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of gamma radiation and mosquito repellent products in the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii utilizing standardized ecotoxicological tests. The C. silvestrii inhibition concentration (IC25; 7 days) result after DEET exposition was 16.4 ± 1.4 mg L{sup -1} and for LEO was 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L{sup -1}. In the irradiated (25 Gy) C. silvestrii exposed to DEET and LEO, the concentration that inhibited reproduction was 16.1 ± 0.9 mg L{sup -1} and 2.4 ± 0.3 mg L{sup -1} respectively. The results showed that the reproduction of irradiated C. silvestrii was not significantly affected when compared with non-irradiated organisms when exposed to DEET or LEO. (author)

  14. Effect of direct adding oregano essential oil (Origanum syriacum L.) on quality and stability of chicken meat patties

    OpenAIRE

    AL-HIJAZEEN, Marwan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Evaluate of Origanum syriacum L. essential oil grown in Jordan, and other comparable antioxidant on TBARS, total carbonyl, color values, and sensory attributes of raw chicken meat was investigated. Six treatments were prepared: (1) control (no additive); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil (OE); (3) 150 ppm OE; (4) 300 ppm L-ascorbic acid (E-300); (5) 5 and 14 ppm butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA/E-320) for both breast and thigh meat respectively, and 6) 150 ppm Sodium nitrite (E-250), wer...

  15. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-03

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry.

  16. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry. PMID:29301339

  17. Protective effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil on DNA damage and carcinogenesis in female Balb/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidinotto, Lucas T; Costa, Celso A R A; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Costa, Mirtes; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luís F

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of oral treatment with lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil (LGEO) on leukocyte DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU). Also, the anticarcinogenic activity of LGEO was investigated in a multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)antracene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxibuthyl)nitrosamine in Balb/C female Balb/c mice (DDB-initiated mice). In the short-term study, the animals were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (negative control), MNU group (positive control) and LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 5 weeks) plus MNU group (test group). Blood samples were collected to analyze leukocyte DNA damage by comet assay 4 h after each MNU application at the end of weeks 3 and 5. The LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ treated group showed significantly lower (P lemongrass essential oil provided protective action against MNU-induced DNA damage and a potential anticarcinogenic activity against mammary carcinogenesis in DDB-initiated female Balb/C mice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The effect of vacuum packaging, EDTA, oregano and thyme oils on the microbiological quality of chicken's breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelková, Adriana; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Rovná, Katarína; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana

    2014-10-01

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils, on the chicken breast fillets was examined in this study. The chicken breast fillets were stored under vacuum packaging (VP), at 4 ± 0.5 °C for a period of 18 days. There were used the following treatments of chicken breast fillets: Air-packaged (AC, control samples), vacuum-packaged (VPC, control samples), VP with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w (VPEC, control samples), VP with oregano oil 0.20% v/w (VP + O) and VP with thyme oil 0.20% v/w, (VP + T). The quality assessment for vacuum packaging of the product in accordance with the terms above and EDTA treatment, oregano and thyme oil was established by microbiological analyzes. The microbiological properties as the total viable counts on Plate Count Agar, after incubation for 2 days at 37 °C and coliform bacteria on Violet Red Bile Glucose agar incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, lactobacilli on Rogosa and Sharpe agar after incubation 48-78 h at 37 °C in an aerobic atmosphere supplemented with carbon dioxide (5% CO2) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Pseudomonas Isolation agar (PIA, Oxoid, UK) after incubation at 48 h at 35 °C were monitored. The using of oregano, thyme oil and EDTA with combination of vacuum packaging has significant effects to reduction of all followed groups of microorganisms compared with control group without vacuum packaging and untreated control group. The natural preservatives can be used as alternatives to chemical additives which could extend the meat and meat products shelf life. The knowledge about them can have an important economic feedback by reducing losses attributed to spoilage and by allowing the products to reach distant and new markets. This study shows how using of natural antimicrobials can extend the shelf-life of the meat product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomolecular characterization of wild sicilian oregano: phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts, and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio; Speciale, Antonio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Pasquale, Andrea; Curcuruto, Giusy; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    An extensive survey of wild Sicilian oregano was made. A total of 57 samples were collected from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. Based on morphological and production characteristics obtained from the 57 samples, cluster analysis was used to divide the samples into homogeneous groups, to identify the best biotypes. All samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying a cascade-extraction protocol and hydrodistillation, to obtain the non volatile components and the essential oils, respectively. The extracts contained thirteen polyphenol derivatives, i.e., four flavanones, seven flavones, and two organic acids. Their qualitative and quantitative characterization was carried out by LC/MS analyses. The essential oils were characterized using a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS analyses; a total of 81 components were identified. The major components of the oils were thymol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene. Cluster analysis was carried out on both phytochemical profiles and resulted in the division of the oregano samples into different chemical groups. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts was investigated by the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) colorimetric assay, by UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and by determining the O(2)(∙-)-scavenging activity. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Application of molecular sieves in the fractionation of lemongrass oil from high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paviani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous process of high-pressure extraction and fractionation of lemongrass essential oil using molecular sieves. For this purpose, a high-pressure laboratory-scale extraction unit coupled with a column with four different stationary phases for fractionation: ZSM5 zeolite, MCM-41 mesoporous material, alumina and silica was employed. Additionally, the effect of carbon dioxide extraction variables on the global yield and chemical composition of the essential oil was also studied in a temperature range of 293 to 313 K and a pressure range of 100 to 200 bar. The volatile organic compounds of the extracts were identified by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS. The results indicated that the extraction process variables and the stationary phase exerted an effect on both the extraction yield and the chemical composition of the extracts.

  1. De novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provides First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Meena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavour, fragrance, cosmetic and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step towards understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases (TPS, pyrophosphatases (PPase, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, aldo-keto reductases (AKR, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD, alcohol acetyltransferases (AAT and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified enzymes in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats (SSRs were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  2. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R; Venkata Rao, D K; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H B; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  3. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R.; Venkata Rao, D. K.; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H. B.; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition. PMID:27516768

  4. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  5. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, Ulla; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    . Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...... of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content......Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties...

  6. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, Ulla; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties....... Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...... of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content...

  7. Application of Edible Films Containing Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil on Queso Blanco Cheese Prepared with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdian, Cristhiam; Chouljenko, Alexander; Solval, Kevin Mis; Boeneke, Charles; King, Joan M; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB. Thus, incorporation of OEO into an edible film prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) may improve the shelf life of QB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that FO was successfully retained by the cheese after homogenization. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) and yeast and mold counts (YMC) of the wrapped cheeses were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. The oxidation rate increased significantly for nonwrapped QB containing FO (QBFO) during storage, however wrapping with WPI edible films containing OEO (WOF) significantly limited lipid oxidation and prevented growth of yeasts and molds. This study demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of WOF for preservation of QBFO during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Comparison study of moisture content, colour properties and essential oil compounds extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Shazlin; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Haiyee, Zaibunnisa Abdul

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the properties of moisture content, colour and essential oil compounds between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus). The essential oil was extracted using two different methods which are hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). There was no significant difference of moisture content between stem and leaves of lemongrass. The lightness (L) and yellowness (+b) values of the stems were significantly higher (pleaves. The highest yield of essential oil was obtained by extraction using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in leaves (˜ 0.7%) by treatment at 1700psi and 50°C. The main compound of extracted essential oil was citral (geranial and neral).

  9. Anti-proliferative effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemongrass) on intracellular amastigotes, bloodstream trypomastigotes and culture epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G F; Cardoso, M G; Guimarães, L G L; Freire, J M; Soares, M J

    2007-10-01

    This study analyses the anti-proliferative effect of lemongrass essential oil and its main constituent (citral) on all 3 evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Steam distillation was used to obtain lemongrass essential oil, with chemical composition determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC50/24 h (concentration that reduced the parasite population by 50%) of the oil and of citral upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber, while morphological alterations were visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with the essential oil resulted in epimastigote growth inhibition with IC50=126.5 microg/ml, while the IC50 for trypomastigote lysis was 15.5 microg/ml. The IC50/48 h for the Association Index (% macrophage infection x number of amastigotes per cell) was 5.1 microg/ml, with a strong inhibition of intracellular amastigote proliferation. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated cytoplasmic and nuclear extraction, while the plasma membrane remained morphologically preserved. Our data show that lemongrass essential oil is effective against T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, and that its main component, citral, is responsible for the trypanocidal activity. These results indicate that essential oils can be promising anti-parasitic agents, opening perspectives to the discovery of more effective drugs of vegetal origin for treatment of parasitic diseases. However, additional cytotoxicity experiments on different cell lines and tests in a T. cruzi-mouse model are needed to support these data.

  10. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Runqiang; He, Jun; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-10-12

    In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were ( Z )-ligustilide (44.58%) and senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola , with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w : w ). Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC) was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution) was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC) on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  11. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO and lemongrass oil (LO against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z-ligustilide (44.58% and senkyunolide A (26.92%, and that of LO were geranial (42.16% and neral (32.58%, respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w:w. Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  12. Effects of lemongrass oil and citral on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chun Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from a lemongrass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus [lemongrass oil (LO] is used in various food and aroma industry products and exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antimicrobial activities. To investigate the effects of 200 LO (200 mg/kg and 400 LO (400 mg/kg and its major component, citral (240 mg/kg, on drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in the liver, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a pelleted diet and administered LO or citral by gavage for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of feeding, the effects of LO and citral on the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen were determined. The results showed that rats treated with 400 LO or citral had significantly reduced hepatic testosterone 6β-hydroxylation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activities. In addition, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity was significantly increased by citral, and Uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP glucurosyltransferase activity was significantly increased by 400 LO in the rat liver. Treatment with 400 LO or citral reduced lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels in the liver. After acetaminophen treatment, however, LO and citral treatment resulted in little or no change in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and acetaminophen-protein adducts content in the liver. Our results indicate that LO and citral may change the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and reduce oxidative stress in the liver. However, LO and citral may not affect the detoxification of acetaminophen.

  13. Effects of lemongrass oil and citral on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chien-Chun; Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Chang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Yun-Ta; Yao, Hsien-Tsung

    2018-01-01

    The essential oil from a lemongrass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus [lemongrass oil (LO)] is used in various food and aroma industry products and exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antimicrobial activities. To investigate the effects of 200 LO (200 mg/kg) and 400 LO (400 mg/kg) and its major component, citral (240 mg/kg), on drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in the liver, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a pelleted diet and administered LO or citral by gavage for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of feeding, the effects of LO and citral on the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen were determined. The results showed that rats treated with 400 LO or citral had significantly reduced hepatic testosterone 6β-hydroxylation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activities. In addition, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity was significantly increased by citral, and Uridine 5'-diphospho (UDP) glucurosyltransferase activity was significantly increased by 400 LO in the rat liver. Treatment with 400 LO or citral reduced lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels in the liver. After acetaminophen treatment, however, LO and citral treatment resulted in little or no change in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and acetaminophen-protein adducts content in the liver. Our results indicate that LO and citral may change the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and reduce oxidative stress in the liver. However, LO and citral may not affect the detoxification of acetaminophen. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Celso A R A; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Takahira, Regina K; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Barbisan, Luís F; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is currently used in traditional folk medicine. Although this species presents widespread use, there are no scientific data on its efficacy or safety after repeated treatments. Therefore, this work investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of this lemongrass's essential oil (EO) in male Swiss mice. The single LD(50) based on a 24h acute oral toxicity study was found to be around 3500 mg/kg. In a repeated-dose 21-day oral toxicity study, mice were randomly assigned to two control groups, saline- or Tween 80 0.01%-treated groups, or one of the three experimental groups receiving lemongrass EO (1, 10 or 100mg/kg). No significant changes in gross pathology, body weight, absolute or relative organ weights, histology (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen and urinary bladder), urinalysis or clinical biochemistry were observed in EO-treated mice relative to the control groups. Additionally, blood cholesterol was reduced after EO-treatment at the highest dose tested. Similarly, data from the comet assay in peripheral blood cells showed no genotoxic effect from the EO. In conclusion, our findings verified the safety of lemongrass intake at the doses used in folk medicine and indicated the beneficial effect of reducing the blood cholesterol level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase equilibrium data for systems composed of oregano essential oil compounds and hydroalcoholic solvents at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capellini, Maria C.; Carvalho, Fernanda H.; Koshima, Cristina C.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for p-cymene, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, ethanol and water were determined. • Complete second order models were fitted to the experimental data. • Distribution coefficients of thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol in pure and mixed solute were evaluated. • Mass fractions of oxygenated compounds and water influenced the distribution coefficients of the essential oil components. • NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models satisfactorily describe the partition of components and solvent selectivity. - Abstract: The deterpenation process of essential oils consists of terpene removal and a consequent concentration of oxygenated compounds, which increases the sensorial quality, the aromatic potential and the oxidative stability of the oil. Deterpenation of oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) essential oil, which has been used extensively as a popular medication and as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antimutagenic and a powerful antioxidant agent, can be performed by (liquid + liquid) extraction using hydroalcoholic solvents. This research presents (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for model systems composed of p-cymene, thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, some of the main components of oregano essential oil, using hydrous ethanol as the solvent with the water mass fraction ranging from 0.28 to 0.41 at T = (298.2 ± 0.1) K. The results show that an increase in the hydration of the alcoholic solvent causes a negative influence on the values of the distribution coefficient for the three oxygenated compounds (thymol, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol), with an increase in solvent selectivity. An increase in the content of oxygenated compounds in the terpene-rich phase reduces their distribution coefficients and the selectivity values. In addition, binary interaction parameters were estimated correlating the experimental data using the NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models, and the global deviations were

  16. The Influence of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Albumen Qualitative Parameters and Microbiological Indicators of Table Eggs Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are intensive fragrant, oily liquid substances contained in different parts of the plant. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral, antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oils or pollen on egg albumen physical parameters and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with oregano essential oil and pollen extract supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with oregano essential oil addition in a dose 0.25 g/kg, the feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the dose at 0.4 g/kg. The results suggest that a statistically significant difference in favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.The paper abstract will be written with Times New Roman 10 pt., justify. It will contain maximum 200 words. A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s and year(s. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first

  17. Combined effect of nanoemulsion and EGR on combustion and emission characteristics of neat lemongrass oil (LGO)-DEE-diesel blend fuelled diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthi, R.; Sankaranarayanan, G.; Pitchandi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neat lemongrass oil can be used as an alternate fuel in diesel engine. • The combined effect of nano emulsion and EGR using LGO25-DEE-Diesel is investigated. • The BTE is improved for nano emulsion fuel blend. • The NO_x and smoke emissions decrease significantly. • Cylinder pressure and Heat release rate increase with longer ignition delay. - Abstract: In the present experimental study, the combined effects of nanoemulsion and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, variable compression ratio diesel engine fueled with neat lemongrass oil (LGO)-diesel-DEE (diethyl ether) blend are investigated. The Neat Lemongrass oil could be used as a new alternate fuel in compression ignition engines without any engine modifications. The entire investigation was conducted in the diesel engine using the following test fuels: emulsified LGO25, cerium oxide blended emulsified LGO25 and DEE added emulsified LGO25 with EGR respectively and compared with standard diesel and LGO25 (75% by volume of diesel and 25% by volume of lemongrass oil) fuels. The combined effect of DEE added nano-emulsified LGO25 with EGR yielded a significant reduction in NO_x and smoke emission by 30.72% and 11.2% respectively compared to LGO25. Furthermore, the HC and CO emissions were reduced by 18.18% and 33.31% respectively than with LGO25. The brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption increased by 2.4% and 10.8% respectively than LGO25. The combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure and heat release rate increased by 4.46% and 3.29% respectively than with LGO25. The combustion duration and ignition delay increase at nano-emulsified LGO25 with DEE and EGR mode but decrease for nano-emulsified LGO25 fuel.

  18. Influence of Food Characteristics and Food Additives on the Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic and Oregano Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Juan; Alheiro, Joana; Pinto, Ana Luisa; Soares, Luciana; Falco, Virgilio; Fraqueza, Maria João; Patarata, Luis

    2017-06-10

    Utilization of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial agents against foodborne disease has gained importance, for their use as natural preservatives. Since potential interactions between EOs and food characteristics may affect their antimicrobial properties, the present work studies the influence of fat, protein, pH, a w and food additives on the antimicrobial effect of oregano and garlic EOs against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that protein, pH, a w , presence of beef extract, sodium lactate and nitrates did not influence their antimicrobial effect. In contrast, the presence of pork fat had a negative effect against both EOs associated with their dilution of the lipid content. The addition of food phosphates also exerts a negative effect against EOs probably associated with their emulsification properties as observed with the addition of fat. The results may help the food industry to select more appropriate challenges to guarantee the food safety of foodstuffs.

  19. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

  20. Susceptibility of Postharvest Pathogens to Esential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božik M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial volatile substances from plants represent alternatives to synthetic pesticides and food preservatives. In this study, the compositions of some essential oils were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and the inhibitory properties of the essential oils and their components against the bacterial postharvest pathogens Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (CCM 1008, Pseudomonas syringae (CCM 7018, Xanthomonas campestris (CCM 22 were determined by the microdilution method. Essential oils from oregano, cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender, clove, rosemary, tea tree, eucalyptus, garlic, and ginger and their components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol were used in the tests. The essential oil components exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The oregano and cinnamon essential oils were most effective. The rosemary, lavender, tea tree, eucalyptus, garlic, and ginger oils were not effective at the tested concentrations. In conclusion, certain essential oils, particularly their components, are highly effective and could be used for the control of postharvest bacterial pathogens.

  1. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-06-01

    Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil (LEO), which has citral as its main component, has exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in both animal and human cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a commercially available LEO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. We first studied the impact of LEO on 17 protein biomarkers that are critically associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. LEO significantly inhibited production of the inflammatory biomarkers vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG); decreased levels of the tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1); and inhibited the immunomodulatory biomarker macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Furthermore, we studied the impact of LEO on genome-wide gene expression profiles. LEO significantly modulated global gene expression and robustly impacted signaling pathways, many of which are critical for inflammation and tissue remodeling processes. This study provides the first evidence of the anti-inflammatory activity of LEO in human skin cells and indicates that it is a good therapeutic candidate for treating inflammatory conditions of the skin.

  2. Flaxseed gum in combination with lemongrass essential oil as an effective edible coating for ready-to-eat pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Basharat; Srivastava, Abhaya Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Flaxseed gum (FSG) in combination with lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) was investigated for coating of ready-to-eat pomegranate arils. FSG was used at 0.3% and 0.6% concentrations and with both concentrations LGEO was incorporated at levels of 0ppm, 200ppm, 500ppm and 800ppm. Changes in headspace gases, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes of pomegranate arils stored at 5°C were studied on different days of analysis during the 12day storage period. Coatings containing LGEO were effective in reducing total plate count and yeast and mold populations. Increasing LGEO concentrations in the coatings resulted in more decline in microbial populations. Reduced weight loss occurred in coated samples as compared to uncoated (control) sample. Coated samples showed a gradual decrease in ripening index in contrast with control where a significantly higher decline was observed. Total soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity significantly varied over the storage period. Color change (ΔE) for control increased steeply over the storage time in comparison to coated samples. Furthermore, chroma decreased while as hue angle increased over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of essential oils of oregano and nutmeg on growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes in barbecued chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, R; Shekarforoush, S S; Nazer, A H K; Borumand, Z; Jooyandeh, A R

    2007-11-01

    The in vitro effects of plant essential oils (EOs) against pathogenic bacteria are well known, yet few studies have addressed the effects of these compounds against pathogens associated with ready-to-cook foods. Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of oregano and nutmeg EOs on the growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth culture and in Iranian barbecued chicken. Ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken was prepared according to the common practice with 1, 2, and 3 microl/g of oregano and nutmeg EOs. The test and control (without EOs) samples were inoculated with Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes to a final concentration of 6 to 7 log CFU/g and stored at 3, 8, and 20 degrees C. Microorganisms were counted just before and at 24, 48, and 72 h after storage based on growth on Yersinia selective agar supplemented with cefsulodine, igrasan, and novobiocin and on Listeria selective agar supplemented with nalidixic acid and acriflavin. In the broth culture system, the nutmeg EO had a greater effect on L. monocytogenes (MIC = 0.20 nicrol/ml) than did the oregano EO (MIC = 0.26 microl/ml). However, the oregano EO had a greater effect on Y. enterocolitica (MIC = 0.16 microl/ml) than did the nutmeg EO (MIC = 0.25 microl/ml). In ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken, the log CFU per gram of both bacteria after up to 72 h of incubation was not decreased significantly by various combinations of oregano and nutmeg EOs (1, 2, and 3 microl/g) and storage temperatures (3, 8, and 20 degrees C) when compared with control samples (without EOs). Although examination of spices in culture media can yield accurate microbiological data, without complementary tests in foods these data are of limited value for assessing food safety.

  4. Effectiveness of Indonesian Essential Oil Mixture of Lemongrass, Cananga, and Patchouli in Relaxation through Inhalation: A Clinical Test on Healthy Woman with High Potential for Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Siahaan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is one of many mechanisms for coping with stress. One of the most widely used methods for relaxation is aromatherapy with the application of essential oils. Known for their therapeutic benefits, essential oils can be extracted from various Indonesian native herbs such as lemongrass (sereh wangi or Cymbopogon winterianus, cananga or ylang-ylang (kenanga or Canarium odoratum, and patchouli (nilam or Pogostemon cabin. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a mixture of Indonesian essential oil made of lemongrass, cananga, and patchouli extracts. Experiment was conducted by asking a number of subjects to inhale the oil mixture and assessing its effectiveness in terms of psychological relaxation by using Visual Analog Scale or VAS and of physical relaxation by examining the subjects’ blood pressure (MAP, pulse frequency, and breathing frequency. The result was then compared with that of lavender oil and with the control group. The study was conducted on 60 healthy women through single-blind clinical trials (before and after using the “intent to treat” approach, followed by a startle test. Participants were divided into three groups: (1 20 participants who were treated with Indonesian essential oil mixture, (2 20 participants who were treated with lavender oil, and (3 20 participants who served as the control group. Psychological relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced the same degree of effectiveness as lavender oil and the control groups did, although both treatments tended to produce better results than the control group did. However, physical relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced a higher degree of effectiveness than lavender oil and tended to produce a better result than the control group did, especially in terms of blood pressure based on MAP scores.

  5. Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and geraniol, but not citral, promote gastric healing activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzon, Larissa; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Boeing, Thaise; de Souza, Priscila; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni de; Nesello, Luciane Angela Nottar; da Silva, Luísa Mota

    2018-02-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, popularly known as lemongrass, is used for the treatment of gastric, nervous and hypertensive disorders, in addition to its use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This study evaluated the gastroprotective and gastric healing effect of essential oil of C. citratus (EOCC), citral and geraniol at doses of 1-100 mg/kg (p.o) on acute ethanol-induced ulcer and chronic acetic acid-induced ulcer. Histological and histochemical evaluation was also performed, as well as the in vitro evaluation of the effects of these phytochemicals on H + /K + -ATPase activity. In the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, the minimum effective oral dose of EOCC, citral and geraniol were 10, 100 and 3 mg/kg, reducing the ulcer area by 51.67%, 96.57% and 55.74%, respectively, compared to vehicle group (25.82 ± 3.59 mm 2 ). Moreover, EOCC (10 mg/kg, p.o) and geraniol (3 mg/kg), but not citral (100 mg/kg), accelerated the gastric healing process by 34.52 and 80.57%, compared to acetic-acid ulcerated group treated with vehicle (36.04 ± 1.03 mm 2 ). These healing effects were confirmed histologically by the contraction of the ulcer base and by the enhancement on mucin staining in slices of ulcer site from mice treated with EOCC or geraniol. Interestingly, EOCC and citral at 100 μg/ml inhibited the H + / K + -ATPase activity by 28.26% and 44.36%, whereas geraniol did not change this parameter. Together, these findings confirm the gastroprotective and healing gastric ulcer effects of essential oil from aerial parts of C. citratus and added the information that geraniol, but not citral, promotes healing effects on installed ulcers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of direct adding oregano essential oil (Origanum syriacum L. on quality and stability of chicken meat patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan AL-HIJAZEEN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluate of Origanum syriacum L. essential oil grown in Jordan, and other comparable antioxidant on TBARS, total carbonyl, color values, and sensory attributes of raw chicken meat was investigated. Six treatments were prepared: (1 control (no additive; (2 100 ppm oregano essential oil (OE; (3 150 ppm OE; (4 300 ppm L-ascorbic acid (E-300; (5 5 and 14 ppm butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA/E-320 for both breast and thigh meat respectively, and 6 150 ppm Sodium nitrite (E-250, were prepared using ground chicken meat. Generally, OE at level of 150 ppm was the most effective decreasing TBARS, and total carbonyl values compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, it showed better color values (L* and a* in term of meat color stability. However, OE and E-250 also showed the highest significant values among the other treatments. Sensory evaluation results showed that adding OE at level of 150 ppm and 100 ppm were the best values maintaining meat storage stability. Therefore, it can be recommended that OE at level of 150 ppm could be an excellent replacement to the synthetic antioxidant in the future of uncured, natural fresh meat products, and raw meat prepared for processing.

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Origanum vulgaris (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Cymbopogon nardus (citronella, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass, and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus against Escherichia coli (n=22 strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1, thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1, and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1 showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  9. Effect of Nanoemulsified and Microencapsulated Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) Essential Oil Coatings on Quality of Fresh Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Lira-Moreno, César Y; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; Wild-Padua, Graciela; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable food. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) incorporated into active coatings (ACs) spread on fresh pork meat as free (FEO), nanoemulsified (NEO), and microencapsulated (MEO) essential oil (EO), on its microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties during 15 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Thymol and γ-terpinene were identified in the EO. In vitro effect of 2.85 mg EO/cm 2 was tested against Brochothrix thermosphacta, Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fragi, and Salmonella Infantis. FEO antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) was significantly higher than that of thymol, NEO and MEO (93.53%, 89.92%, 77.79%, and 78.50% inhibition, respectively), and similar to BHA (96.03%) and gallic acid (95.57%). FEO, NEO, and MEO ACs on meat caused growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria (5 log population reduction) and Pseudomonas spp. (4 log reduction), whereas ≤1.5 log population reduction was observed for B. thermosphacta and Salmonella Infantis. Meat microbiota was more efficiently controlled by MEO than by FEO or NEO. ACs delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation of fresh pork meat. After 15 d of cold storage meat added with EO coatings was desirable for panelists, whereas untreated (UT) samples were undesirable. Active coatings are a significant alternative method for fresh meat preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Characterization of Active Packaging Films Made from Poly(Lactic Acid/Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate Incorporated with Oregano Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicromial and antioxidant bioactive films based on poly(lactic acid/poly(trimenthylene carbonate films incorporated with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (OEO were prepared by solvent casting. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, physical, thermal, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were examined. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the cross-section of films became rougher when OEO was incorporated into PLA/PTMC blends. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that crystallinity of PLA phase decreased by the addition of OEO, but this did not affect the thermal stability of the films. Water vapor permeability of films slightly increased with increasing concentration of OEO. However, active PLA/PTMC/OEO composite films showed adequate barrier properties for food packaging application. The antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities were significantly improved with the incorporation of OEO (p < 0.05. The results demonstrated that an optimal balance between the mechanical, barrier, thermal, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of the films was achieved by the incorporation of 9 wt % OEO into PLA/PTMC blends.

  11. Effect of Lemongrass Essential Oil Vapors on Microbial Dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes Survival on Rocket and Melon Stored under Different Packaging Conditions and Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Hadjilouka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lemongrass essential oil vapors on the dynamics of surface microbiota and L. monocytogenes growth on rocket and melon under different packaging conditions and storage temperature. For that purpose, rocket and melon were placed on Expanded Polystyrene (EPS trays, sprayed with L. monocytogenes to a population of 4.5–5.0 log CFU·g−1, packaged using microperforated Oriented Polypropylene (OPP film in either air or Microperforated Active Modified Atmosphere (MAMA (initial atmosphere 5% O2, 10% CO2 including a Whatman paper containing the essential oil, without contact with the product, and stored at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. Application of lemongrass exhibited a bactericidal effect on enterococci and a fungistatic effect on yeast-mould populations but only during air storage of rocket. The former took place at all temperatures and the latter only at 10 and 15 °C. No effect on shelf life of both products was recorded. However, an important effect on the sensorial properties was observed; during the first 4–5 days of storage both products were organoleptically unacceptable. Regarding MAMA packaging, it affected only Pseudomonas spp. population resulting in a reduction of 1–2 log CFU·g−1 in both products.

  12. Effect of Lemongrass Essential Oil Vapors on Microbial Dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes Survival on Rocket and Melon Stored under Different Packaging Conditions and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjilouka, Agni; Polychronopoulou, Melissanthi; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Tzamalis, Periklis; Drosinos, Eleftherios H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lemongrass essential oil vapors on the dynamics of surface microbiota and L. monocytogenes growth on rocket and melon under different packaging conditions and storage temperature. For that purpose, rocket and melon were placed on Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) trays, sprayed with L. monocytogenes to a population of 4.5–5.0 log CFU·g−1, packaged using microperforated Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) film in either air or Microperforated Active Modified Atmosphere (MAMA) (initial atmosphere 5% O2, 10% CO2) including a Whatman paper containing the essential oil, without contact with the product, and stored at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. Application of lemongrass exhibited a bactericidal effect on enterococci and a fungistatic effect on yeast-mould populations but only during air storage of rocket. The former took place at all temperatures and the latter only at 10 and 15 °C. No effect on shelf life of both products was recorded. However, an important effect on the sensorial properties was observed; during the first 4–5 days of storage both products were organoleptically unacceptable. Regarding MAMA packaging, it affected only Pseudomonas spp. population resulting in a reduction of 1–2 log CFU·g−1 in both products. PMID:27682104

  13. Modifying effects of lemongrass essential oil on specific tissue response to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosurea in female BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidinotto, Lucas T; Costa, Celso A R A; Costa, Mirtes; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luís F

    2012-02-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) essential oil has been used worldwide because of its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Regarding its medicinal usefulness, the present study evaluated the beneficial effects of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) oral treatment on cell proliferation and apoptosis events and on early development of hyperplastic lesions in the mammary gland, colon, and urinary bladder induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in female BALB/c mice. The animals were allocated into three groups: G1, treated with LGEO vehicle for 5 weeks (five times per week); G2, treated with LGEO vehicle as for G1 and MNU (two injections each of 30 mg/kg of body weight at weeks 3 and 5); and G3, treated with LGEO (five times each with 500 mg/kg of body weight per week) and MNU as for G2. Twenty-four hours after the last MNU application, all animals were euthanized, and mammary glands, colon, and urinary bladder were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. LGEO oral treatment significantly changed the indexes of apoptosis and/or cellular proliferation for the tissues analyzed. In particular, the treatment reduced the incidence of hyperplastic lesions and increased apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells. This increment in the apoptosis response may be related to a favorable balance in Bcl-2/Bax immunoreactivity in mammary epithelial cells. These findings indicate that LGEO presented a protective role against early MNU-induced mammary gland alterations in BALB/c mice.

  14. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined effect of vacuum-packaging and oregano essential oil on the shelf-life of Mediterranean octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Aegean Sea stored at 4 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrea, I; Papavergou, A; Amvrosiadis, I; Savvaidis, I N

    2009-04-01

    The present study evaluated the use of vacuum packaging (alone) or with addition of oregano essential oil (EO), as an antimicrobial treatment for shelf-life extension of fresh Mediterranean octopus stored under refrigeration for a period of 23 days. Four different treatments were tested: A, control sample; under aerobic storage in the absence of oregano essential oil; VP, under vacuum packaging in the absence of oregano essential oil; and VO1, VO2, treated samples with oregano essential oil 0.2 and 0.4% (v/w), respectively, under VP. Of all the microorganisms enumerated, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the groups that prevailed in octopus samples, irrespective of antimicrobial treatment. With regard to the chemical freshness indices determined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were low in all octopus samples, as could have been expected from the low fat content of the product. Both trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of oregano treated under VP octopus samples were significantly lower compared to control samples during the entire refrigerated storage period. Based primarily on sensory evaluation (odor), the use of VP, VO1 and VO2 extended the shelf-life of fresh Mediterranean octopus by ca. 3, 11 and 20 days, respectively.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare, sage (Salvia officinalis, and thyme (Thymus vulgaris against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fournomiti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oregano (Origanum vulgare, sage (Salvia officinalis, and thyme (Thymus vulgaris are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods: Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27, Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16 strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results: Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for

  17. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8-28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage. Most efficient were the EOs

  18. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage

  19. Antimicrobial property of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against pathogenic bacteria isolated from pet turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, B C J; Jung, Won-Gi; Hossain, Sabrina; Wimalasena, S H M P; Pathirana, H N K S; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-06-01

    The usage of essential oils as antimicrobial agents is gaining attention. Besides, pet turtles were known to harbor a range of pathogenic bacteria while the turtle keeping is a growing trend worldwide.The current study examined the antimicrobial activity of lemon grass oil (LGO) against seven species of Gram negative bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila , A. caviae , Citrobacter freundii , Salmonella enterica , Edwardsiella tarda , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Proteus mirabilis isolated from three popular species of pet turtles. Along with the results of disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) tests, LGO was detected as effective against 6 species of bacteria excluding P. aeruginosa . MIC of LGO for the strains except P. aeruginosa ranged from 0.016 to 0.5% (V/V). The lowest MIC recorded in the E. tarda strain followed by A. hydrophilla , C. freundii , P. mirabilis , and S. enterica . Interestingly, all the bacterial species except E. tarda were showing high multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index values ranging from 0.36 to 0.91 upon the 11 antibiotics tested although they were sensitive to LGO.

  20. Synergistic and additive effect of oregano essential oil and biological silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eScandorieiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare essential oil (OEO and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP, produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all seventeen strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 µM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min, while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two, which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds

  1. Synergistic and Additive Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Biological Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandorieiro, Sara; de Camargo, Larissa C; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F; Nakamura, Celso V; de Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Célia G T J; Duran, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K T

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP), produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all 17 strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 μM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min), while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA) cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two), which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds showed very low

  2. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert E

    2004-09-22

    We evaluated 17 plant essential oils and nine oil compounds for antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juices in a bactericidal assay in terms of % of the sample that resulted in a 50% decrease in the number of bacteria (BA(50)). The 10 compounds most active against E. coli (60 min BA(50) range in clear juice, 0.018-0.093%) were carvacrol, oregano oil, geraniol, eugenol, cinnamon leaf oil, citral, clove bud oil, lemongrass oil, cinnamon bark oil, and lemon oil. The corresponding compounds against S. enterica (BA(50) range, 0.0044-0.011%) were Melissa oil, carvacrol, oregano oil, terpeineol, geraniol, lemon oil, citral, lemongrass oil, cinnamon leaf oil, and linalool. The activity (i) was greater for S. enterica than for E. coli, (ii) increased with incubation temperature and storage time, and (iii) was not affected by the acidity of the juices. The antibacterial agents could be divided into two classes: fast-acting and slow-acting. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the bactericidal results are related to the composition of the oils. These studies provide information about new ways to protect apple juice and other foods against human pathogens.

  3. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent.

  4. Alginate edible films containing microencapsulated lemongrass oil or citral: effect of encapsulating agent and storage time on physical and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Moyano, Jessica K; Bustos, Rubén O; Herrera, María Lidia; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2017-08-01

    Active edible films have been proposed as an alternative to extend shelf life of fresh foods. Most essential oils have antimicrobial properties; however, storage conditions could reduce their activity. To avoid this effect the essential oil (EO) can be microencapsulated prior to film casting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of encapsulating agent (EA), type of EO and storage time on physical properties and antimicrobial activity of alginate-based films against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Trehalose (TH), Capsul ® (CAP) and Tween 20 (Tw20) were used as EA. Lemongrass essential oil (LMO) and citral were used as active agents. The results showed that the type of EA affected the stability of the film forming-emulsions as well as the changes in opacity and colour of the films during storage but not the antimicrobial activity of them. Both microencapsulated EOs showed a prolonged release from the alginate films during the 28 days of storage. Trehalose was selected to encapsulate both active compounds because the films made with this microencapsulated EA showed the greatest physical stability and the lowest color variation among all the films studied.

  5. Influence of metals on essential oil content and composition of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in sewage sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Meenu; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-05-01

    Lemongrass is a commercially important perennial herb with medicinal value and ability to tolerate high alkaline and saline conditions. Essential oil bearing plants can grow safely in soil contaminated with heavy metals without severe effects on morphology and oil yield. The present study was aimed to assess the essential oil content and composition in lemongrass in response to elevated metals in above-ground plant parts. Pot experiment was conducted for six months using sewage sludge as soil amendment (soil: sludge: 2:1 w/w) followed by red mud treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w). Garden soil without sludge and red mud was control and there were ten replicates of each treatment. Oil content in leaves was differently affected due to presence of metals in soil under different treatments. Oil content under S RM5 (5% red mud) treatment was raised by 42.9 and 11.5% compared to the control and S RM0 treatment, respectively. Among identified compounds in oil under red mud treatments, 17 compounds contributed more than 90% of total volatiles (citral contributing approximately 70%). Under S RM10 treatment, essential oil showed maximum citral content (75.3%). Contents of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb in above-ground plant parts exceeded, whereas Mn was detected within WHO permissible limits for medicinal plants. However, metal contents in essential oil were well within FSSAI limits for food. The study suggests utilization of 5 and 10% red mud in sludge amended soil for lemongrass cultivation to have better oil yield and quality, without metal contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

    2012-05-01

    Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites.

  7. Antifungal activity of lemon, eucalyptus, thyme, oregano, sage and lavender essential oils against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is very important to find out the protection of products of natural origin as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. The promising alternative is the use of the essential oils (EOs. Essential oils from plants have great potential as a new source of fungicide to control the pathogenic fungi.The main objective of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus LABILL., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. sage (Salvia officinalis L. and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia MILLER. EOs against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes and their ability to affect the growth. It was tested by using the vapor contact with them. At first both tested isolates were identified by using PCR method. Sequence data of 18S rRNA supported the assignment of these isolates to the genus Aspergillus and species A. niger (ITS region: KT824061; RPB2: KT824060 and A. tubingensis (ITS region: KT824062; RPB2: KT824059. Second, EO antifungal activity was evaluated. The effect of the EO volatile phase was confirmed to inhibit growth of A. niger and A tubingensis. EOs were diluted in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide final volume of 100 μL. Only 50 μL this solution was distributed on a round sterile filter paper (1 x 1 cm by micropipette, and the paper was placed in the center of the lid of Petri dishes. Dishes were kept in an inverted position. The essential oils with the most significant activity were determined by method of graded concentration of oils - minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs. The most effective tested EOs were oregano and thyme oils, which totally inhibited growth of tested isolates for all days of incubation at 0.625 μL.cm-3 (in air with MFDs 0.125 μL.cm-3 (in air. Lavender EO was less active aginst tested strains (MIDs 0.313 μL.cm-3. The results showed that the tested EOs had antifungal activity, except lemon and eucalyptus. Sage EO was the only

  8. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  9. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-08-10

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

  10. Isolation, screening, and identification of potential cellulolytic and xylanolytic producers for biodegradation of untreated oil palm trunk and its application in saccharification of lemongrass leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, S K; Yahya, Adibah; Abd Aziz, Suraini; Md Salleh, Madihah

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the isolation and screening of fungi with excellent ability to degrade untreated oil palm trunk (OPT) in a solid-state fermentation system (SSF). Qualitative assay of cellulases and xylanase indicates notable secretion of both enzymes by 12 fungal strains from a laboratory collection and 5 strains isolated from a contaminated wooden board. High production of these enzymes was subsequently quantified in OPT in SSF. Aspergillus fumigates SK1 isolated from cow dung gives the highest xylanolytic activity (648.448 U g(-1)), generally high cellulolytic activities (CMCase: 48.006, FPase: 6.860, beta-glucosidase: 16.328 U g(-1)) and moderate lignin peroxidase activity (4.820 U/g), and highest xylanolytic activity. The xylanase encoding gene of Aspergillus fumigates SK1 was screened using polymerase chain reaction by a pair of degenerate primers. Through multiple alignment of the SK1 strain's xylanase nucleotide sequences with other published xylanases, it was confirmed that the gene belonged to the xylanase glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) with a protein size of 24.49 kD. Saccharification of lemongrass leaves using crude cellulases and xylanase gives the maximum reducing sugars production of 6.84 g/L with glucose as the major end product and traces of phenylpropanic compounds (vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid).

  11. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-Listeria activities of essential oils obtained from some Egyptian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; El Gendy, Abd El-Nasser G S; Sendra, Esther; Fernández-López, Juana; Abd El Razik, K A; Omer, Elsayed A; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose A

    2010-08-25

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of six spices widely cultivated in Egypt (Origanum syriacum, Majorana hortensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris, and Artemisia annua); (ii) determine the antioxidant activity of the Egyptian essential oils by means of five different antioxidant tests; and (iii) determine the effectiveness of these essential oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the six Egyptian aromatic plants. Overall, thyme (highest percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical: 89.40%) and oregano (highest percentage of inhibition of TBARS: 85.79) essential oils presented the best antioxidant profiles, whereas marjoram, lemongrass, and artemisia were highly effective in metal chelating but had a pro-oxidative behavior by Rancimat induction test. Lemongrass essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua with an inhibition zone of 49.00 mm, followed in effectiveness by thyme, marjoram, and oregano.

  13. Effects of Zataria, Mentha Pulegium, Oregano spp Essential Oil and Hydroalcholic Extract of Hypericum perforatum on Cyst of Acanthamoeba spp In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arjmand Shabestary

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance of Acanthamoeba cysts causes recurrence of the disease; so, the patient should be monitored regularly ،The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a few herbal materials on Acanthamoeba cysts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Essential oils (EOs of Zataria, Mint, and Oregano were prepared by steam distillation. The EOs and Hypericum perforatum extract were prepared in three concentrations (0.6%, 1% and 10%، Acanthamoeba cysts in various time intervals (30, 60, 120, 180 and 1440 minutes were exposed with plant extracts. Then, the viability of parasite was investigated by eosin 0.1%. Results: Comparison of the parasite mortality rate between control and case groups showed that the mortality of Acanthamoeba cysts was higher in the case groups that exposed to herbal materials. At the equal concentration (10% and time (24 h, the Zataria and mint EOs produced the highest (22% and lowest (4% mortality, respectively. The results showed the mortality rate of Acanthamoeba was time-dependent. Conclusion: Zataria showed the most fatality effect against Acanthamoeba cysts. In this respect, clinical trial studies are suggested.

  14. Oregano essential oil-based natural antimicrobial packaging film to inactivate Salmonella enterica and yeasts/molds in the atmosphere surrounding cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sang-Jo; Chang, Yoonjee; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film containing the natural antimicrobial oregano essential oil (OEO) as an active packaging application for decreasing the microbial growth. The film exerted an antimicrobial effect via the atmosphere surrounding the food rather than direct contact, thereby preserving the quality of cherry tomatoes. A packaging film containing microencapsulated OEO was developed. The loading content increased gradually (104.29-234.29 μg OEO/mg film) with the amount of OEO incorporated (1%, 2%, and 3%), where the PVA films containing 2% OEO had the highest loading efficiency (91.64%), followed by 1% OEO (90.96%) and 3% OEO (88.38%). The antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated by applying it to fresh cherry tomatoes at 4 °C and 22 °C for 7 days. The large 2% OEO film as well as both the small and large 3% OEO films had strong antimicrobial effects against Salmonella enterica, molds and yeasts, and mesophilic aerobic bacteria. The changes in the hardness, weight, and color of the cherry tomatoes during storage did not differ significantly. The films could be utilized as a packaging material for fresh produce with antimicrobial effects because of the controlled atmosphere surrounding the food rather than by direct contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oregano (Lippia graveolens) essential oil added within pectin edible coatings prevents fungal decay and increases the antioxidant capacity of treated tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Moctezuma, Edgar; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M Melissa; Tapia-Rodriguez, Melvin R; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Tomato is a fruit widely consumed due to its flavor and nutritional value; however, it is susceptible to fungi contamination. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is a fungicide whose constituents are volatile; therefore, their incorporation within edible coatings can protect them and maintain their efficacy. In this context, this study evaluated the effect of OEO applied within pectin coatings on the inhibition of Alternaria alternata growth, antioxidant content and sensorial acceptability of tomatoes. The major volatile compounds of OEO were carvacrol (47.41%), p-cymene (26.44%) and thymol (3.02%). All the applied OEO concentrations (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 g L(-1) ) inhibited the in vitro growth of A. alternata, whereas the in vivo effective concentrations were 25.9 and 36.1 g L(-1) . Additionally, there was an increment of total phenols and antioxidant activity in coated tomatoes compared to controls. Aroma acceptability of tomatoes was not affected by the pectin-OEO coating; additionally, the pectin, pectin-OEO 15.7 g L(-1) treatments and control tomatoes showed higher flavor acceptability than those coated with pectin-OEO 25.9 and 36.1 g L(-1) . Pectin-OEO coatings showed antifungal effect and increased the antioxidant activity without negative effects on the sensorial acceptability of tomatoes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Inhibitory effects of selected Turkish spices and oregano components on some foodborne fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, A; Kivanç, M

    1988-05-01

    The inhibitory effects of 10 selected Turkish spices, oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol towards growth of 9 foodborne fungi were investigated in culture media with pH 3.5 and 5.5. The antifungal effects of sodium chloride, sorbic acid and sodium benzoate and the combined use of oregano with sodium chloride were also tested under the same conditions for comparison. Of the spices tested, only sodium chloride were also tested under the same conditions for comparison. Of the spices tested, only oregano at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% (w/v) levels showed effect on all fungi. 8% (w/v) sodium chloride was less effective than oregano. Oregano essential oil, thymol or carvacrol at concentrations of 0.025% and 0.05% completely inhibited the growth of all fungi, showing greater inhibition than sorbic acid at the same concentrations. The combined use of oregano and sodium chloride exhibited a synergistic antifungal effect.

  17. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Egyptian lemongrass Cymbopogon proximus Stapf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from a unique, Egyptian endemic plant, Cymbopogon proximus STAPF. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. proximus was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system. A total of 19 constituents representing 95.47% of the oil were identified: piperitone (72.44%), elemol (9.43%), a - eudesmol (4.34%), limonene (2.45%) and a - eudesmol. (Author).

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essentials oils: anti-inflammatory properties based on cytokine response on THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Fuentes, A; Arranz-Gutiérrez, E; Señorans, F J; Reglero, G

    2010-06-01

    Two fractions (S1 and S2) of an oregano (Origanum vulgare) extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction have been used to test anti-inflammatory effects on activated human THP-1 cells. The main compounds present in the supercritical extract fractions of oregano were trans-sabinene hydrate, thymol and carvacrol. Fractions toxicity was assessed using the mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction method for several concentrations during 24 and 48 h of incubation. Concentrations higher than 30 microg/mL of both supercritical S1 and S2 oregano fractions caused a reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidized-LDLs (oxLDLs) activated THP-1 macrophages were used as cellular model of atherogenesis and the release/secretion of cytokines (TNT-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10) and their respective mRNA expressions were quantified both in presence or absence of supercritical oregano extracts. The results showed a decrease in pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 cytokines synthesis, as well as an increase in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results may suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of oregano extracts and their compounds in a cellular model of atherosclerosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential of oregano essential oil and MAP to extend the shelf life of fresh swordfish: a comparative study with ice storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatrakou, V; Kykkidou, S; Papavergou, A; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2008-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 5% O(2)/50% CO(2)/45% N(2); treatment M), the addition of oregano oil (0.1%, v/w; treatment AO) as a natural preservative, as well as their combination (treatment MO) on the quality and shelf life extension of fresh Mediterranean swordfish fillets during a refrigerated storage (4 degrees C) period of 18 d. Simultaneously, swordfish fillets were stored under aerobic conditions (control treatment A, 4 degrees C) and on ice (usual commercial method of preservation, treatment I, 0 degrees C). Among the 5 treatments examined in the present study, the most effective one to inhibit the microbial and sensory spoilage proved to be the MO treatment, achieving a shelf life extension of 8 to 9 d. The dominant bacteria in the microflora of swordfish, irrespective of treatment, were the Pseudomonads and the H(2)S-producing bacteria, while both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the Enterobacteriaceae produced the lowest populations in swordfish samples kept on ice. Among the chemical indices examined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values showed no specific trend of lipid oxidation for swordfish, irrespective of treatment. Final trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values for treatments, A, AO, M, and MO ranged between 1.33 and 14.29 mg N/100 g and 14.11 to 55.52 mg N/100 g, respectively, whereas for I samples they remained almost unchanged during storage. Sensory analysis (taste attribute) correlated well with microbiological analysis, indicating a shelf life of approximately 5 to 6 d for control, 10 to 11 d for AO, 12 d for I, 13 d for M, and 14 d for MO samples.

  20. Comparative evaluation of dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide and oregano essential oil in forced molted and fully fed laying hens between 82 and 106 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, M; Bintaş, E; Kırkan, Ş; Akşit, H; Küçükyılmaz, K; Erbaş, G; Çabuk, M; Akşit, D; Parın, U; Ege, G; Koçer, B; Seyrek, K; Tüzün, A E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of feed-grade preparations of mannan oligosaccharides ( MOS: ) and oregano essential oil ( OEO: ) in forced molted or fully fed 82-week-old, laying hens. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment investigated the influence of molting vs. full feeding and dietary supplements [i.e., unsupplemented control, MOS (1 g/kg) diet, and OEO (24 mg/kg) diet] on production parameters, egg quality, serum stress indicators, blood constituents, tibial characteristics, liver antioxidant status, and cecal microflora composition. A total of 864 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each with 6 replicates of 24 hens each, and studied for 25 wk. Hens were fed a molt diet containing of 50% alfalfa and 50% wheat bran ( AA+WB: ) for 12 d, then returned to the laying ration. Results indicate that molt vs. full feed impacted more on most variables measured than supplementation or supplement type. Significant (P feed conversion ratio ( FCR: ). In fully fed hens, MOS supplementation improved (P hens. Molting improved egg quality despite the significant regression in ovary and oviduct weight (P hens were significantly lower than those of fully fed counterparts; however, poor mineralization was not reflected in the bones' mechanical properties. No significant differences were observed among treatments for hematological characteristics. Both the MOS and particularly the OEO supplementation improved (P feeding with an aa+wb diet is an effective non-feed-removal method for molted hens, the benefit of which can be improved with MOS and OEO supplementation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Toxicity of Anethole and the Essential Oils of Lemongrass and Sweet Marigold to the Parasitic Mite Varroa destructor and Their Selectivity for Honey Bee (Apis mellifera Workers and Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratollah Sabahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the toxicity of anethole and that of the essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus and sweet marigold (Tagetes lucida to the mite Varroa destructor and to honey bee workers and larvae. Anethole was the most toxic compound to V. destructor (LC50: 304.9 μg/ml, whereas Tagetes oil was the least toxic (LC50: 1256.27 μg/ml. The most and least toxic compounds to worker bees were anethole and Tagetes oil with LD50s of 35942 and 85381 μg/ml, respectively. For larvae, Tagetes oil was the most toxic compound (LD50: 9580.7 μg/ml and anethole the least toxic (LD50: 14518.0 μg/ml. Anethole and Cymbopogon oil had the highest selectivity ratios. The expression of AChE, a gene that regulates the production of acetyl cholinesterase, a detoxifying enzyme, was not altered in bees treated with the plant compounds at 48 h post-treatment. This study showed that anethole and Cymbopogon oil have potential for controlling Varroa mites and seem to be relatively safe for larvae and adult honey bees.

  2. Sugarcane Molasse and Whey as Additives in the Silage of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf) Leaves Melaza de Caña de Azúcar y Suero de Leche como Aditivos en el Ensilaje de Hojas de Zacate de Limón (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía María Cristina Ventura-Canseco; José Alfredo Mendoza Nunez; Miguel Abud-Archila; Maria Ángela Oliva-Llaven; Luc Dendooven; Federico A. Gutiérrez-Miceli

    2012-01-01

    After extraction of essential oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf) leaves by steam distillation (heat treatment), large amounts of organic wastes are obtained. This by-product could easily be used as animal feed. The potential of sugarcane molasse and whey as additives to ensile lemongrass leaves was investigated. The vegetative material was obtained after essential oils were extracted from lemongrass leaves with steam distillation. Lemongrass leaves were chopped, mixed with ...

  3. The GABAergic system contributes to the anxiolytic-like effect of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Celso A Rodrigues de Almeida; Kohn, Daniele Oliveira; de Lima, Valéria Martins; Gargano, André Costa; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    The essential oil (EO) from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is reported to have a wide range of biological activities and is widely used in traditional medicine as an infusion or decoction. However, despite this widely use, there are few controlled studies confirming its biological activity in central nervous system. The anxiolytic-like activity of the EO was investigated in light/dark box (LDB) and marble-burying test (MBT) and the antidepressant activity was investigated in forced-swimming test (FST) in mice. Flumazenil, a competitive antagonist of benzodiazepine binding and the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635 was used in experimental procedures to determine the action mechanism of EO. To exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures, mice were submitted to the rota-rod test. We also quantified some neurotransmitters at specific brain regions after EO oral acute treatment. The present work found anxiolytic-like activity of the EO at the dose of 10mg/kg in a LDB. Flumazenil, but not WAY100635, was able to reverse the effect of the EO in the LDB, indicating that the EO activity occurs via the GABA(A) receptor-benzodiazepine complex. Only at higher doses did the EO potentiate diethyl-ether-induced sleeping time in mice. In the FST and MBT, EO showed no effect. Finally, the increase in time spent in the light chamber, demonstrated by concomitant treatment with ineffective doses of diazepam (DZP) and the EO, revealed a synergistic effect of the two compounds. The lack of activity after long-term treatment in the LDB test might be related to tolerance induction, even in the DZP-treated group. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between groups after either acute or repeated treatments with the EO in the rota-rod test. Neurochemical evaluation showed no amendments in neurotransmitter levels evaluated in cortex, striatum, pons, and hypothalamus. The results corroborate the use of Cymbopogon citratus in folk medicine and

  4. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective.

  5. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  6. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  7. Lemongrass effects on IL-1beta and IL-6 production by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforcin, J M; Amaral, J T; Fernandes, A; Sousa, J P B; Bastos, J K

    2009-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been widely recognised for its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Its insecticidal, antimicrobial and therapeutic properties have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system. This work aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of a water extract of lemongrass on pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and IL-6) production by macrophages of BALB/c mice. The action of lemongrass essential oil on cytokine production by macrophages was also analysed in vitro. The chemical composition of the extract and the oil was also investigated. Treatment of mice with water extract of lemongrass inhibited macrophages to produce IL-1beta but induced IL-6 production by these cells. Lemongrass essential oil inhibited the cytokine production in vitro. Linalool oxide and epoxy-linalool oxide were found to be the major components of lemongrass water extract, and neral and geranial were the major compounds of its essential oil. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory action of this natural product.

  8. Allelopathic action essential oils of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass in germination of lettuce achenesAção alelopática de óleos essenciais de alecrim-pimenta e capimsanto na germinação de aquênios de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélida Mara Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The alecrim-pimenta and the lemongrass produce secondary compounds that can be used in alternative management of weed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of the essential oils of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass in germination of lettuce achenes. It was used mature leaves of both species, and extracted the essential oil by distillation method of drag by water vapor. The bioassay was performed using achenes of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer and arranged in factorial scheme 5 x 2, being five concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% and two species of medicinal plants. It was used four replicates of 50 achenes. The oil of lemongrass was more detrimental to the germination of lettuce achenes when compared with the oil of alecrim-pimenta, being this effect dependent of the concentration. Germination of lettuce achenes treated with lemongrass oil declined by 34%, 12% and 75% for concentrations of 0.25%, 0.75% and 1.0%, respectively when compared with alecrim-pimenta oil. The germination speed index, the length and dry weight of hypocotyl and radicle of lettuce seedlings was compromised by the contact of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass oils. Although there were lettuce achenes germination treated with alecrim-pimenta oil, the percentage of abnormal seedlings was high, which compromises their survival in field.O alecrim-pimenta e o capim-santo produzem compostos secundários que podem ser utilizados no manejo alternativo de plantas daninhas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar o efeito alelopático dos óleos essenciais de alecrim-pimenta e capim-santo na geminação de aquênios de alface. Foram utilizadas folhas maduras de ambas as espécies, e extraído o óleo essencial pelo método de destilação de arraste por vapor de água. O bioensaio foi realizado utilizando aquênios de alface da cultivar crespa de verão e arranjado em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 sendo cinco concentrações 0, 0,25, 0,5, 0,75 e 1,0 % e duas

  9. Atividades antioxidante e fungitóxica do óleo essencial de capim-limão e do citral Antioxidant and fungitoxic activities of the lemongrass essential oil and citral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de Lima Guimarães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a importância dos óleos essenciais, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos fungitóxicos do óleo essencial de capim-limão e do seu constituinte majoritário citral sobre a inibição micelial dos fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum cubense, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Bipolaris sp. e Alternaria alternata. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada, empregando os métodos de redução do radical livre DPPH e o ensaio de oxidação do sistema b-caroteno/ácido linoléico. Para cada metodologia, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial de 4 x 5, sendo quatro compostos (óleo essencial, citral, timol e α-tocoferol e cinco concentrações (5; 10; 25; 50 e 100 µg L-1, com três repetições Os ensaios para verificação das atividades fungitóxicas foram realizados aplicando o teste de fumigação in vitro sobre a inibição micelial dos fungos fitopatogênicos estudados. Os tratamentos foram dispostos de forma inteiramente casualizada, com três repetições e em esquema fatorial com arranjo variável entre os fitopatógenos. O óleo essencial e o citral apresentaram pequena atividade antioxidante perante a metodologia que avalia a redução do radical estável DPPH, no entanto, perante a metodologia que emprega o sistema emulsificado β-caroteno/ácido linoléico estes compostos apresentaram atividades antioxidantes significativas. Nas atividades fungitóxicas, o óleo essencial e o citral apresentaram uma maior atividade sobre o fitopatógeno Alternaria alternata. Em relação aos valores de IC50 os menores valores apresentados pelo óleo essencial (75,83 µg mL-1 e pelo citral (58,24 µg mL-1 foram sobre o Bipolaris sp. O citral causou as maiores inibições miceliais, para todos os fitopatógenos.Given the importance of essential oils, this study evaluated the antioxidant activity and fungitoxic effects of lemongrass essential oil and its main constituent

  10. Allspice, garlic and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactivate the foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:h7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible films containing plant essential oils arc gaining importance as potential antibacterial formulations to extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. An evaluation of both antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of edible films is important for applicatio...

  11. Allspice, garlic, and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactive the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible films containing plant essential oils are gaining importance as potential antibacterial formulations to extend product shelf-life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. An evaluation of both antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of edible films is important for applicati...

  12. Intestinal mucosa structure of broiler chickens infected experimentally with Eimeria tenella and treated with essential oil of oregano Morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com Eimeria tenella e tratados com óleo essencial de orégano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first trial a total of 250 day-old male chicks were distributed into five treatments and given the following diets: a diet with growth promoter; a diet without added growth promoter; a diet added with avilamycin only; diet supplemented with 0.5g of oregano oil kg diet-1; 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. In other trial a total of 288 day-old chicks was used and distributed into four treatments, which were given the following diets: a diet with anticoccidial agent; a diet without anticoccidial agent; a diet supplemented with 0.5g of oregano oil kg diet-1; a 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. In the first trial the nonmedicated group had the highest crypt depth which differs from chickens fed with growth promoter or with 0.5 and 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. The broilers fed with positive control (antibiotic and anticoccidial had the highest villous: crypt ratio compared with the negative control that had the lowest villous:crypt ratio and the highest oocyst excretion in litter (PInicialmente, foram utilizados, neste estudo, 250 pintos de um dia de idade distribuídos em cinco tratamentos: dieta com promotor de crescimento; dieta sem promotor de crescimento; dieta contendo somente antibiótico; dieta com 0,5g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1 ou com 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. No outro ensaio, foram utilizados 288 pintos de um dia de idade distribuídos em quatro grupos: dieta com anticoccidiano; dieta sem anticoccidiano; dieta com 0,5g de orégano óleo kg dieta-1 ou 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. No primeiro ensaio, o grupo tratado sem promotor de crescimento apresentou a maior profundidade de cripta quando comparada com os animais tratados com promotor de crescimento ou com 0,5 e 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. Os frangos que receberam a dieta com promotor de crescimento (antibiótico+anticoccidiano apresentaram uma maior relação vilo:cripta em comparação com os frangos do controle negativo, os quais tiveram a

  13. Inhibitory effect of formulated lemongrass shampoo on Malassezia furfur: a yeast associated with dandruff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthi-Udomlert, Mansuang; Chotipatoomwan, Ployphand; Panyadee, Sasikan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2011-03-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) has been used in cooking and in many traditional medicines; the essential oil contains citral as a major constituent. This study evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil against Malassezia furfur, an opportunistic yeast associated with dandruff, by using a broth dilution assay. From the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) obtained, the oil was then incorporated at different percentages into shampoo formulations. The formulated shampoos were kept at room temperature (28 degrees-30 degrees C) and under accelerated condition (45 degrees C). At the end of the first and sixth weeks, after preparation, all formulations were tested again and the appearance was recorded. Selection of an appropriate formula was based on antifungal activity against M. furfur, the physical appearance, the chemical properties and stability of the formula. Two percent lemongrass oil shampoo provided the required qualities necessary for commercial use. After being kept for 6 weeks at 28 degrees-30 degrees C and 45 degrees C, this formulated shampoo gave MFCs against M. furfur of 75 microl/ml and 18.75 microl/ml, respectively.

  14. In vitro combined effect of oregano essential oil and caprylic acid against Salmonella serovars, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Hulánková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro inhibition of foodborne pathogens via action of natural antimicrobials – caprylic acid (CA and essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OEO with high carvacrol content (72% was evaluated. For 15 Salmonella strains the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determined by broth microdilution method ranged between 3.67–4.33 μl·ml-1 for CA and between 0.48–0.57 μl·ml-1 for OEO. For 7 Listeria monocytogenes strains the MIC ranged between 2.17–2.83 μl·ml-1 for CA and between 0.52–0.58 μl·ml-1 for OEO. Type strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus were tested, too, with MIC of CA 3.60 μl·ml-1 and 3.20 μl·ml-1 and MIC of OEO 0.51 μl·ml-1 and 0.48 μl·ml-1, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that the MIC of CA can be decreased by even low addition (0.05% of citric or acetic acid and to a lesser extent by lactic acid, whereas the MICs of OEO did not notably decrease. Combined application of CA and OEO determined by FIC index led only to an additive effect (0.5 ≤ FIC ≤ 1. Combination of natural additives OEO, CA and eventually acetic or citric acid seems to have the potential to be an effective mixture for inhibition of foodborne pathogens, predominantly Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes, even in only slightly acidic food.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, garlic, clove and lemon against pathogenic bacteria isolated from Anomalocardia brasilianaAtividade antimicrobiana in vitro dos óleos essenciais de orégano, alho, cravo e limão sobre bactérias patogênicas isoladas de vôngole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Fraga Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural preservative substances are an efficient and economic alternative, because the aromatical plants and rich spices in essential oils characterized by a notable are gotten from antimicrobial activity, and for this reason, its derived products can be used to delay or to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils of clove, limon, oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum and garlic several species of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated of vongole (Anomalocardia Brasiliana and bacteria standard ATCC (American Type Culture Collection: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella cholerasuis, through diffusion test and after it was determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study it was observed that the garlic essential oil presented antibacterial activity front the S. aureus and the S. cholerasuis.; already the oils of clove and oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum had presented activity front to all the analyzed bacteria, however the oregano oil presented the bigger bacterial inhibition, 26.7mm e 29,3mm for E. coli e S. aureus respectively. The essential oil of lemon did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. In such a way the oregano and clove essential oils that they had presented antibacterial activity appeared to be the most preferable agent for future research.Antimicrobianos de origem natural são alternativas eficazes e econômicas, pois são obtidos a partir das plantas aromáticas e especiarias ricas em óleos essenciais caracterizados por uma notável atividade antimicrobiana, e por esta razão, seus produtos derivados podem ser usados para retardar ou inibir a multiplicação microbiana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de cravo, limão, orégano e alho sobre as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isolados do v

  16. Effects of oregano on performance and immunmodulating factors in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Katrin; Frahm, Jana; Paulsen, Jana; Berk, Andreas; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Many health effects can be attributed to the Mediterranean herb oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and several studies demonstrated the improving effect on performance, changes in blood count, antibacterial, antifungal and immunmodulating abilities. The majority of these investigations were carried out with processed essential oil, while whole plant material was only used in a few studies. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to test the effect of increasing proportions of dried oregano in piglet feed on health and performance, with a special focus on immune modulation. A total of 80 male castrated weaned piglets (body weight [BW] 7.9 kg ± 1.0 kg) were used in a feeding experiment lasting 5 weeks. They were assigned to 4 experimental groups: a control diet, and three diets with an oregano supplementation at 2 g, 4 g and 8 g per kg feed, respectively, corresponding to 23.5 mg, 46.9 mg and 93.9 mg carvacrol/kg DM. After 3 weeks, half of each group was challenged with 5 µg lipopolysaccharides (LPS) per kg BW. Blood samples were collected 2 h after LPS stimulation and analysed for T-cell phenotypes, granulocyte activity, clinical-chemistry as well as white and red blood count. The results indicate no effects of oregano on performance. In contrast, oregano altered the lymphocyte proportion and the ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the triglyceride concentration in the serum of non-stimulated and in LPS-stimulated piglets. In conclusion, whole plant supplementation of oregano to piglet feed altered immune-related parameters, but did not modulate the acute inflammatory response induced by LPS stimulation.

  17. Productive mutants in lemongrass induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1980-01-01

    Seeds of the lemongrass variety O.D. 19 were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose range of 5 to 30 krad. M 1 plants with one or a few tillers differing from the standard plants of O.D. 19 were selected, split into single slips and planted as clonal progenies. Mutants were isolated in M 1 V 1 and carried forward. Forty two M 1 V 2 mutant clones differing from O.D. 19 in morphological characters such as vigour, plant height, growth habit, pigmentation and number of tillers have been established. These were evaluated for tiller number, grass yield and oil content. Six clones gave higher grass yield, the highest being 556 gm per plant per cutting as against 360 gm in the standard. Five clones gave higher oil yield, the highest being 0.42% as against 0.23% in the standard. Isolation of viable mutants with high grass yield and essential oil content indicate the scope for evolving productive mutant varieties in this perennial aromatic grass. The eleven M 1 V 2 mutant clones are being critically evaluated by estimating oil yield per hectare per year. (author)

  18. Photosynthetic Rates of Citronella and Lemongrass 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H. M. Walter; Ormrod, Douglas P.

    1979-01-01

    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter2 per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod. PMID:16660737

  19. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... essential oils from organs of Annona senegalensis ..... rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils, J. Essent. Oil Res. 10 : 618-27. Bouquet A ... antibacterial activity of plant volatile oil, J. Appl. Microbiol. 88: 308-. 316.

  20. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  1. Determinação de óleos essenciais de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L., orégano (Origanum vulgare L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. Determination of essential oils of basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., oregano (Ocimum gratissimum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Borges

    2012-01-01

    apresentam potencial para o enriquecimento dos alimentos ou para a obtenção dos óleos essenciais.This study aimed to characterize commercial fresh and dry medicinal plants (basil, oregano and thyme, to obtain essential oil by the steam distillation method and to quantify chemical compounds by means of GC/MS. The fresh and dry plants were subjected to the following analyses moisture, ether extract, protein, crude fiber, ash, non-nitrogenous extract, caloric value, essential oil content and identification of major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Considering the obtained characterization, the following results on dry basis proved promising: protein and ash content in commercial dry basil with 17.34 g 100 g-1 and 8.12 g 100 g-1, respectively; crude fiber in commercial dry oregano with 15.65 g 100 g-1; ether extract, non-nitrogenous extract and caloric value in commercial dry thyme with 9.30 g 100 g-1, 52.72 g 100 g-1 and 356.74 Kcal 100 g-1, respectively. The highest essential oil yield was obtained for commercial dry basil with 1.02% and the lowest yield was obtained for fresh basil with only 0.13%. Chromatography indicated 87.38% eugenol and 6.27% thymol in fresh basil. For commercial dry basil, the chromatogram showed a reduction in eugenol (71.12% and an increase in thymol (13.28%. Four peaks were quantified for fresh oregano the γ-terpinene (33.45%, 4-terpineol (25.59%, thymol (14.21% and carvacrol (2.30%. For the essential oil of commercial dry oregano, there was a decrease in γ-terpinene (28.73% and an increase in 4-terpineol (27.58%, thymol (19.71% and carvacrol (3.67%. In the chromatogram of the essential oil of fresh thyme, three peaks were quantified: borneol (66.66%, thymol (13.41% and linalool (3.24%. On the other hand, in the chromatogram of the essential oil of commercial dry thyme, there was a decrease in borneol (37.90% and an increase in thymol (20.61% and linalool (10.34%. It can be concluded that commercial dry leaves of basil, oregano

  2. Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium, B. thuringiensis, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis, B. coagulans, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. polymyxa, B. macerans, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. cereus and B. lichiniformis. The infusion exhibited maximum activity against B. laterosporus (17.5 mm mean zone of inhibition+/-1.5 Standard deviation) followed by B. polymyxa (17.0 mm+/-2.0 SD) and essential oil of oregano exhibited maximum activity against S. saprophyticus (16.8 mm+/-1.8 SD) followed by B. circulans (14.5 mm+/-0.5 SD). While all these tested isolates were found resistant to decoction of oregano.

  3. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil—Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs, with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  4. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano, tomilho e canela frente a sorovares de Salmonella enterica de origem avícola Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, thyme and cinnamon against Salmonella enterica sorovars from avian source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janio Morais Santurio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano (Origanum vulgare, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris e canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum frente a 60 amostras de Salmonella enterica distribuídas entre 20 sorovares, todos isolados de carcaças de aves. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado, utilizando-se a técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de orégano evidenciou forte atividade antibacteriana (CIM média = 529mig ml-1 e CBM média= 661mig ml-1, seguido do tomilho (CIM média=961mig ml-1 e CBM média= 1074mig ml-1, com atividade moderada, enquanto que a menor atividade foi observada com o óleo essencial de canela (CIM média= 1335mig ml-1 e CBM média = 1979mig ml-1. Apesar deste claro padrão de atividade, os sorovares de Salmonella enterica evidenciaram significativas variações de suscetibilidade, embora nenhuma, em particular, pudesse ser classificada como totalmente sensível ou resistente aos três óleos essenciais avaliados. Assim, no momento em que os antibacterianos utilizados como promotores de crescimento estão sendo substituídos. E os óleos essenciais de temperos e condimentos se constituem numa alternativa importante, os resultados aqui apresentados sinalizam dois pontos: os óleos essenciais de orégano e tomilho são efetivos contra Salmonella, mas as variações de suscetibilidade entre os sorovares deverão também ser consideradas.Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and cinnamom (Cinnamomum zeylanicum were tested for their inhibitory activity against sixty Salmonella sp. isolates. These microorganisms were distributed in 20 serovars, all of them isolated from broiler chickens. Based on microdilution technique, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was obtained for oregano

  5. Secagem e fragmentação da matéria seca no rendimento e composição do óleo essencial de capim-limão Yield and composition of essential oil of lemongrass in different drying and fragmentation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa C. do B. Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com objetivo de determinar o tipo de secagem e a fragmentação das folhas de capim-limão para otimizar o rendimento extrativo do óleo essencial. Foram estabelecidos 6 tratamentos com 2 tipos de secagem (estufa de ventilação forçada a 40ºC e sala com desumidificador e 3 tamanhos de fragmentos das folhas secas (pulverização em moinho, fragmentos com 1 e com 20 cm de comprimento, com 4 repetições. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação durante 2 horas. O maior rendimento de óleo essencial foi obtido com o material seco na sala com desumidificador, não havendo diferenças significativas para os tamanhos da folha. O componente mais abundante no óleo essencial foi o citral que também apresentou as maiores concentrações nas folhas secas em desumidificador.In this study the drying and fragmentation conditions of lemongrass leaves were determined, to increase the essential oil yield. Four replications of six treatments were studied with 2 drying methodologies (oven-drying at 40ºC and room temperature using moisture dryer and 3 fragmentation sizes (powder obtained in mill, 1 cm and 20 cm fragments. The essential oil was extracted in Clevenger's modified apparatus during 2 hours. The higher essential oil yield and citral content was obtained with the leaves dried under room temperature using moisture dryer, with no significant differences in the fragmentation sizes.

  6. Antioxidant activity of rosemary and oregano ethanol extracts in soybean oil under thermal oxidation Ação antioxidante de extratos etanólicos de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. e orégano (Origanum vulgare L. em óleo de soja submetido à termoxidação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. ALMEIDA-DORIA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were conducted to measure the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of rosemary and oregano compared with synthetic antioxidants such as TBHQ and BHA/BHT. The antioxidant activity was determined and results differed from those of the Oven test at 63º C. Peroxide values and absorptivities at 232 nm of soybean oil under Oven test were lower in treatments with 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg.Kg-1 TBHQ than in treatments with 1000 mg.Kg-1 oregano extract (O, 500 mg.Kg-1 rosemary extract (R and their mixture R+O. All the treatments were effective in controlling the thermal oxidation of oils; the natural extracts were as effective as BHA+BHT and less effective than TBHQ. The natural extracts were mixed with 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg.Kg-1 TBHQ and then added to the oil. No improvement in antioxidative properties was observed. The best antioxidant concentration could be determined from polynomial regression and quadratic equation from the experimental data.Foram realizados quatro ensaios para verificação da atividade antioxidante de extratos etanólicos de alecrim (A e orégano (O comparados com os antioxidantes sintéticos TBHQ e BHA+BHT. Os resultados de atividade antioxidante do teste usando sistema modelo diferiram das respostas do teste acelerado em estufa. Nos ensaios em estufa os valores de peróxido e absortividade em 232nm dos óleos de soja, adicionados de 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200mg TBHQ. Kg-1, foram menores do que os dos óleos adicionados dos extratos de orégano (O (1000mg.Kg-1, de alecrim (A (500mg.Kg-1 ou da mistura deles (A + O. Todos os tratamentos retardaram a oxidação do óleo, entretanto os extratos naturais não atingiram a eficiência do TBHQ, mas foram tão efetivos quanto a mistura BHA+BHT. A adição dos extratos naturais a doses reduzidas de TBHQ não melhorou a eficiência em retardar a oxidação.

  7. Antibacterial activity of essential oils: potential applications in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its antibacterial activity, oregano oil has lately become interesting as a potential 'natural' food preservative. Oregano oil was found to be a fast acting and effective inhibitor of a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the causative agent of a serious gastro-enteritis, and was lethal to

  8. Effect of Using the Lemongrass (Cimbopogon Citratus) to Smoked Eel (Monopterus Albus) Processing Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Satria, Viki Buana; Buchari, Dewita; ', Sumarto

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of using the lemongrass on organoleptic quality of smoked eel. 4 kg of fresh eel and lemongrass obtained from one of market in Pekanbaru processed into smoked eel. The treatment of this study was using the different concentration of lemongrass (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) from fresh eel to determine the quality of smoked eel. The result showed that the lemongrass with concentration 30% was the best treatment and most favorable by consumer with appearance...

  9. Thermoluminescent characteristics of oregano and paprika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Teuffer Z, C. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    The poly minerals from oregano and paprika were selected according to different sizes, i.e 10, 53, 74, 149 {mu}m, and they were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation in the range of doses 0.5-45 kGy. The glow curves from these spices show an abroad TL band, centered around 150 C and by XRD analysis shows a mono mineral composition mainly quartz and feldspar, including albite, ortose and clay. The fading behavior was related to the quartz, feldspar and calcite TL properties and shown the stability of the traps associated to the defects generated by irradiation in the samples. The tendency of the TL integrated was increased with the grain size for oregano and can be related to the different energy values associated to the activation energy of the traps in the monominerals. The glow curve TL from poly minerals was analyzed and it is possible to use the dosimetric property of the poly minerals from spices for detect irradiated foodstuffs. (Author)

  10. Thermoluminescent characteristics of oregano and paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Teuffer Z, C.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M.; Kitis, G.

    2005-01-01

    The poly minerals from oregano and paprika were selected according to different sizes, i.e 10, 53, 74, 149 μm, and they were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation in the range of doses 0.5-45 kGy. The glow curves from these spices show an abroad TL band, centered around 150 C and by XRD analysis shows a mono mineral composition mainly quartz and feldspar, including albite, ortose and clay. The fading behavior was related to the quartz, feldspar and calcite TL properties and shown the stability of the traps associated to the defects generated by irradiation in the samples. The tendency of the TL integrated was increased with the grain size for oregano and can be related to the different energy values associated to the activation energy of the traps in the monominerals. The glow curve TL from poly minerals was analyzed and it is possible to use the dosimetric property of the poly minerals from spices for detect irradiated foodstuffs. (Author)

  11. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Compensation Values in Citronella and Lemongrass 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H. M. Walter; Ormrod, Douglas P.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon dioxide compensation values of mature leaves from 10 selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) grown at 32/27 or 27/21 C day/night temperatures and three strains of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf. and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf.) grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C. All leaves had low compensation values but citronella varied from 1.3 to 9.7 μl/liter and lemongrass from 0.7 to 3.5 μl/liter. Lower growing temperature generally resulted in lower compensation values for citronella but there was no consistent photoperiod effect on lemongrass. PMID:16659935

  13. Antifungal and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Essential Oil Active Components against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus laurentii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Kumari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is an emerging and recalcitrant systemic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. This invasive fungal infection is difficult to treat due to the ability of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus laurentii to form biofilms resistant to standard antifungal treatment. The toxicity concern of these drugs has stimulated the search for natural therapeutic alternatives. Essential oil and their active components (EO-ACs have shown to possess the variety of biological and pharmacological properties. In the present investigation the effect of six (EO-ACs sourced from Oregano oil (Carvacrol, Cinnamon oil (Cinnamaldehyde, Lemongrass oil (Citral, Clove oil (Eugenol, Peppermint oil (Menthol and Thyme oil (thymol against three infectious forms; planktonic cells, biofilm formation and preformed biofilm of C. neoformans and C. laurentii were evaluated as compared to standard drugs. Data showed that antibiofilm activity of the tested EO-ACs were in the order: thymol>carvacrol>citral>eugenol=cinnamaldehyde>menthol respectively. The three most potent EO-ACs, thymol, carvacrol, and citral showed excellent antibiofilm activity at a much lower concentration against C. laurentii in comparison to C. neoformans indicating the resistant nature of the latter. Effect of the potent EO-ACs on the biofilm morphology was visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, which revealed the absence of extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM, reduction in cellular density and alteration in the surface morphology of biofilm cells. Further, to realize the efficacy of the EO-ACs in terms of human safety, cytotoxicity assays and co-culture model were evaluated. Thymol and carvacrol as compared to citral were the most efficient in terms of human safety in keratinocyte- Cryptococcus sp. co-culture infection model suggesting that these two can be further exploited as cost-effective and non-toxic anti

  14. Assessment of endocrine disruption potential of essential oils of culinary herbs and spices involving glucocorticoid, androgen and vitamin D receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-04-25

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are consumed on a daily basis. They are multicomponent mixtures of compounds with already demonstrated biological activities. Taking into account regular dietary intake and the chemical composition of EOs, they may be considered as candidates for endocrine-disrupting entities. Therefore, we examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on transcriptional activities of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), androgen receptor (AR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Using reporter gene assays in stably transfected cell lines, weak anti-androgen and anti-glucocorticoid activity was observed for EO of vanilla and nutmeg, respectively. Moderate augmentation of calcitriol-dependent VDR activity was caused by EOs of ginger, thyme, coriander and lemongrass. Mixed anti-glucocorticoid and VDR-stimulatory activities were displayed by EOs of turmeric, oregano, dill, caraway, verveine and spearmint. The remaining 19 EOs were inactive against all receptors under investigation. Analyses of GR, AR and VDR target genes by means of RT-PCR confirmed the VDR-stimulatory effects, but could not confirm the anti-glucocorticoid and anti-androgen effects of EOs. In conclusion, although we observed minor effects of several EOs on transcriptional activities of GR, AR and VDR, the toxicological significance of these effects is very low. Hence, 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices may be considered safe, in terms of endocrine disruption involving receptors GR, AR and VDR.

  15. Efficacy of some essential oils in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , but CRs did not differ from BZ. ... Conclusion: The results indicate that the essential oils tested, especially S. aromaticum, exhibited anti- ... (Syzygium aromaticum) EO inhibited the growth .... lemongrass EO presented in its composition 46.8.

  16. In vitro effect of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants on mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanović Brankica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lavender, anise, chamomile, fennel, geranium, oregano, parsley, and sage essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp. Isolates were exposed to the volatile phase of the oils and then ventilated in order to determine if the effect of the oil was lethal to the pathogen. Oregano and geranium oils were the most toxic, having a fungicidal effect at 0.02-0.08 μl/ml of air, depending on the pathogen. Oregano oil was characterized by high content of carvacrol and thymol, while citranelol and geraniol were the main components of geranium oil.

  17. Ekstraktion af æteriske olier fra oregano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellitsgaard Jakobsen, Jens; Ankerfeldt, Dorte; Jensen, Morten Busch

    2010-01-01

    med keratin - Ammoniakforurening reduceres med ny teknologi - Genvinding og genanvendelse af ammoniak fra spildevand og husdyrgødning - Ginseng - en virkningsfuld medicinplante - Ekstraktion af æteriske olier fra oregano "Biotek" er udviklet med udgangspunkt i originalartikler udarbejdet af forskere...

  18. Process for dehydration of oregano using propane gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Velásquez-Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two important issues, the first is the process to design, implement and validate a mechanical dryer of oregano, using propane gas as fuel, and the second is the cost of the process of dehydrated, taking into account the cost of electric energy consumption by the fan and the cost of propane gas consumption by the heat exchanger. To achieve this, it was necessary review the state of the art and the study of the raw material (oregano, were established as premises of design the necessary technical specifications and the variables involved in the process, using conceptual methods and simulation to ensure that it complies with the ISO standard 7925:1999, which defines the requirements for the marketing of dried oregano and processed. Emphasis was made on the percentage of moisture that is 10%, the moisture of the product was found by the azeotropic distillation method, subsequently was validated the functionality and efficiency, comparing the results from an experimental design, then it was obtained the drying curve of oregano with the prototype of drying and it was checked if it meets ISO 7925:1999 standard and the NTC 4423 standard in order to obtain a final product dehydrated with the percentage of humidity appropriate.

  19. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Manuel A. Picos-Salas; Nayely Leyva-López; Marilyn S. Criollo-Mendoza; Gabriela Vazquez-Olivo; J. Basilio Heredia

    2017-01-01

    Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL) and phenolic acids (PA). Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in...

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from selected herbs cultivated in the South of Brazil against food spoilage and foodborne pathogens Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas selecionadas cultivadas no Sul do Brasil contra micro-organismos patogênicos e deteriorantes de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mello da Silveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of 10 selected plant essential oils obtained by steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was screened against 12 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. MIC and MBC were determined for the essential oils that presented the highest activity in the agar disc-diffusion test. The most active essential oils against the tested bacteria were, in descending order, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus, basil (Ocimum basilicum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and laurel (Laurus nobilis. Except for S. Typhimurium, the tested bateria were inhibited at MIC values lower or equal to 0.62mg mL-1 by lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil. Yersinia enterocolitica presented the highest sensitivity to all essential oils tested (CMI≤0.62mg mL-1. There was a significant correlation (PA composição química de 10 óleos essenciais obtidos por destilação a vapor foi determinada por CG/DIC e CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais foi detectada através do método de difusão em ágar frente a 12 espécies de bactérias de importância em alimentos. As CMI e CMB foram determinadas para os óleos essenciais que na difusão em ágar evidenciaram maior atividade. Os óleos essenciais que apresentaram maior atividade contra as bactérias testadas foram, em ordem decrescente, os de capim-limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, orégano (Origanum vulgare, folha de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e louro (Laurus nobilis. Com exceção de S. Typhimurium, o óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus apresentou valores de CMI e CMB iguais ou inferiores a 0,62mg mL-1 contra os micro-organismos testados. Yersinia enterocolitica foi o patógeno mais sensível frente a todos os óleos essenciais avaliados (CMI≤0,62mg mL-1. Foi detectada correlação significativa (P<0,05 entre os n

  1. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  2. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  3. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived volatile essential oils against fungal pathogens of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus paraciticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifung...

  4. Effects of dietary Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) supplementation on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevakis, N

    2017-10-14

    This study was conducted to examine in vivo long-term effects of dietary dried oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) whole plant on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities. For this purpose, eight healthy, adult, non-lactating Alpine goats were kept in tie stalls equipped for individual feeding and randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: one fed 0.6 kg of a concentrate mixture and 0.6 kg of wheat straw without any supplementation and served as control group (CON) while the other group (OR) fed the same diet of CON but supplemented with 20 g of dried oregano plants (OPs) to provide daily dosage of 1 ml of essential oil (EO) per animal. The experimental period lasted 69 days and individual rumen fluid samples were obtained every 2 weeks at 0 and 4 hr after feeding. The results showed that dietary supplementation with OPs increased the protease activity (p < .001) and ammonia concentration (p < .05) in the rumen. Among the studied microbial populations, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (p = .028) and Clostridium sticklandii (p < .001) were found to be the most sensitive to oregano at the current dosage. Furthermore, the total methanogen population significantly decreased (p < .05). It is concluded that a long-term dietary administration of OPs can suppress specific rumen micro-organisms and modify rumen fermentation favourably at least by means of suppressing methanogens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Identification of geranic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Toshiya; Odaka, Yuka; Ogawa, Natsuko; Nakamoto, Katsuo; Kuninaga, Hideki

    2008-01-23

    Lemongrass is a popular Asian herb having a lemon-like flavor. Very recently, potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity has been found in lemongrass in addition to various biological activities reported in the literature. The aim of the present study is to identify the active compounds in the lemongrass. An assay-guided purification revealed that one of the active substances was geranic acid. Geranic acid has two stereoisomers, which are responsible for the trans and cis geometry on the conjugated double bond. Both isomers are present in the active ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the lemongrass, and their IC50 values were calculated to be 0.14 and 2.3 mM, respectively. The structure requirement of geranic acid for the potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity was investigated using geranic acid-related compounds.

  6. Allelopathic effect of melissa, lemongrass, lavender and rosemary on germination and vigor of lettuce seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of four herbal plants on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds, using aqueous preparations and teas of Melissa oficinalis L. (melissa, Rosmarinus oficinalis L. (rosemary, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender and Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. (lemongrass. A randomized complete block design was used with 9 treatments and 4 repetitions. The treatments were: Melissa tea, melissa aqueous preparation, rosemary tea, rosemary aqueous preparation, lavender tea, lavender aqueous preparation, lemongrass tea, lemongrass aqueous preparation and control. The variables evaluated were: germination speed index, percentage of abnormal plants, percentage of germinated plants, fresh matter, dry matter, shoot length and radicle length. Lemongrass showed negative allelopathic effects on germination and vigor of L. sativa L. Melissa tea had a stimulatory effect.

  7. Allelopathic effect of melissa, lemongrass, lavender and rosemary on germination and vigor of lettuce seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Teixeira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p37 The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of four herbal plants on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds, using aqueous preparations and teas of Melissa officinalis L. (melissa, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender and Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. (lemongrass. A randomized complete block design was used with 9 treatments and 4 repetitions. The treatments were: melissa tea, melissa aqueous preparation, rosemary tea, rosemary aqueous preparation, lavender tea, lavender aqueous preparation, lemongrass tea, lemongrass aqueous preparation and control. The variables evaluated were: germination speed index, percentage of abnormal plants, percentage of germinated plants, fresh matter, dry matter, shoot length and radicle length. Lemongrass showed negative allelopathic effects on germination and vigor of L. sativa L. Melissa tea had a stimulatory effect.

  8. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangkamon Sritabutra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: On a volunteer’s forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm伊10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results: Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions: The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  9. Antibacterial activity of nisin, oregano essential oil, EDTA, and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis for application in mayonnaise | Avaliação de atividade antibacteriana de nisina, óleo essencial de orégano, EDTA e sua combinação contra Salmonella Enteritidis para aplicação na maionese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Passos Lima da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE is one of the most important serovars associated with Salmonella gastroenteritis outbreaks in Brazil. The use of natural antimicrobials can be an alternative method of SE control. The antimicrobial effect of two oregano essential oils (OEO1 and OEO2 at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0%; nisin (Nisaplin® at 0, 6.25, 12.5, or 25 ppm; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA at 0.0037%, 0.0056%, 0.0075%, 0.0110%, or 0.0150%; and their combination against SE in vitro was studied to be applied in mayonnaise and Russian salad made with the same mayonnaise during storage at 8º or 30ºC for 24 hours. OEO was very efficient against SE at all tested concentrations, while nisin and EDTA showed no effect against SE. Ten volatile components were identified in the two OEOs using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization, with carvacrol being the major component of both samples. OEO2, containing p-cymene (15.95% and y-terpinene (6.90%, besides carvacrol (61.66%, resulted in larger inhibition zone than the other OEO (OEO1 don’t contains p-cymene or y-terpinene. Nisin in combination with OEO1 or OEO2 had an antagonistic effect at all concentrations. The presence of nisin caused a reduction in essential oil antimicrobial activity (p≤0.05. Sensory evaluation showed that consumers prefer 0.2% OEO in mayonnaise instead of 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations. Thus, OEO only, at a concentration of 0.2%, was applied in mayonnaise against SE. The Russian salad prepared with mayonnaise plus OEO at 0.2% (wt/wt caused a reduction of SE when compared with the salad prepared with mayonnaise without OEO. These results indicate that the use of OEO as a biopreservative (natural antimicrobial can enhance food safety, serving as an additional barrier in helping the Good Manufacturing Practices and the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point program, fundamental to food safety

  10. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations.

  11. Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to model the length of the steam distillation time (DT) on essential oil yield and oil composition of peppermint, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. The DTs tested were 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min for peppermint, and 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40...

  12. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  13. Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

    2014-02-01

    From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  14. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL and phenolic acids (PA. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo experiments have related long-term consumption of dietary FL and PA with a decreased risk of incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the latest studies on the identification and distribution of flavonoids and phenolic compounds from oregano species and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer health benefits.

  15. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Erick P; Picos-Salas, Manuel A; Leyva-López, Nayely; Criollo-Mendoza, Marilyn S; Vazquez-Olivo, Gabriela; Heredia, J Basilio

    2017-12-26

    Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL) and phenolic acids (PA). Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo experiments have related long-term consumption of dietary FL and PA with a decreased risk of incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the latest studies on the identification and distribution of flavonoids and phenolic compounds from oregano species and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer health benefits.

  16. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerdinger, Arli; Olivo, Clair J; Molento, Marcelo B; Agnolin, Carlos A; Ziech, Magnos F; Scaravelli, Luciene Fernanda B; Skonieski, Fernando R; Both, José F; Charão, Pablo S

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.

  17. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... and rosemary oils had very limited effects. Mustard and lemongrass were the most effective oils by the volatile method, and orange, sage and one rosemary showed some effects. Oil compositions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrography.Conclusions: Antifungal effects of the essential oils depended...

  18. OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL RENDIMIENTO Y CONTENIDO DE TIMOL DE ACEITE ESENCIAL DE ORÉGANO SILVESTRE OBTENIDO POR ARRASTRE CON VAPOR OPTIMIZAÇÃO DO RENDIMENTO E CONTEÚDO DE TIMOL DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DO ORÉGANO SELVAGEM OBTIDO POR ARRASTRE À VAPOR OPTIMIZATION OF YIELD AND THYMOL CONTENT OF WILD OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL OBTAINED BY STEAM DISTILLATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR ARANGO B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el proceso de extracción por arrastre con vapor a escala de planta piloto del aceite esencial de orégano silvestre (Lippia origanoides H.B.K de la región del Alto Patía (Colombia utilizando la metodología de superficie de respuesta. Los factores estudiados fueron el tiempo de extracción (1-3 horas, la densidad del lecho (60-100 g/L y la presión de extracción (1-3 psi. Las variables de respuesta fueron el rendimiento de extracción y el contenido de timol del aceite esencial. La composición de los aceites esenciales fue determinada mediante cromatografía de gases. Con respecto al rendimiento se obtuvo que solamente la densidad del lecho presentó un efecto estadísticamente significativo (PO processo de extração do óleo essencial de orégano silvestre (Lippia origanoides H.B.K por arraste a vapor foi estudado a escala piloto na região do Alto Patía (Colômbia, utilizando a metodologia de superfície resposta. Os fatores estudados foram o tempo de extração (1-3 horas, a densidade do leito (60-100 g/L e a pressão de extração (1-3 psi. As variáveis de resposta foram: o rendimento da extração e o conteúdo de timol do óleo essencial. A composição dos óleos essenciais foi determinada mediante cromatografia de gases. Com respeito ao rendimento, foi obtido que somente a densidade do leito apresentou um efeito estatisticamente significativo (PThe extraction process by steam distillation on pilot plant of essential oil from wild oregano (Lippia origanoides H.B.K from Alto Patía region (Colombia was studied using surface response methodology. Factors studied were the extraction time (1-3 hours, the density of the bed (60-100 g/L and the extraction pressure (1-3 psi. The response variables were the extraction yield and the content of thymol in the essential oil. The composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography. Regarding yield only the bed density presented a statistically significant effect (P

  19. Physical and mechanical testing of essential oil-embedded cellulose ester films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer films made from cellulose esters are useful for embedding plant essential oils, either for food packaging or air freshener applications. Studies and testing were done on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose ester-based films incorporating essential oils (EO) from lemongrass (C...

  20. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawsari, Hibah M; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Labib, Gihan S; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (LGO) is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 μL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%). Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate have significant effects on particle size and percentage released after 6 hours; however, the effect of the stirring rate was more prominent on both responses. The selected hydrogel formulation, F9, was subjected to surface morphological investigations, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where results showed that the nanosponges possess a spherical uniform shape with a spongy structure, the integrity

  1. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... disinfectant for hatching egg obtained from broiler breeder flock. Oregano essential ... contamination rate, hatchability of fertile egg, body weight at 21 and 42 days, body weight gain and total feed ... successful healthy hatchlings. Several ...... Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito.

  2. Influência da luz e da temperatura sobre a oxidação do óleo essencial de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf) Influence of light and temperature on the oxidation of the essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus (D.C.) Stapf)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo de L. Guimarães; Maria das Graças Cardoso; Lidiany M. Zacaroni; Rafaela K. de Lima; Flávio A. Pimentel; Augusto R. de Morais

    2008-01-01

    The identification of the chemical compounds of the essential oil was performed with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The oil was left in the presence and absence of light and submitted to different temperatures to evaluate its stability. The yields of the major compounds were evaluated every fifteen days. Citral and myrcene, the major compounds of the essential oil, were degraded over time in both the presence and absence of light, but temperature only influenced the degra...

  3. Lemongrass and citral effect on cytokines production by murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (Poaceae-Gramineae), an herb commonly known as lemongrass (LG), is an important source of ethnomedicines as well as citral, the major constituent of Cymbopogon citratus, used in perfumery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for controlling pathogens. Thus, the goal of this work was to analyze the effect of LG and citral on cytokines production (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in vitro, as well as before or after LPS incubation. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were treated with LG or citral in different concentrations for 24h. The concentrations that inhibited cytokines production were tested before or after macrophages challenge with LPS, in order to evaluate a possible anti-inflammatory action. Supernatants of cell cultures were used for cytokines determination by ELISA. As to IL-1β, only citral inhibited its release, exerting an efficient action before LPS challenge. LG and citral inhibited IL-6 release. Cymbopogon citratus showed inhibitory effects only after LPS challenge, whereas citral prevented efficiently LPS effects before and after LPS addition. Citral inhibited IL-10 production and although LG did not inhibit its production, the concentration of 100 μg/well was tested in the LPS-challenge protocol, because it inhibited IL-6 production. LG inhibited LPS action after macrophages incubation with LPS, while citral counteracted LPS action when added before or after LPS incubation. LG exerted an anti-inflammatory action and citral may be involved in its inhibitory effects on cytokines production. We suggest that a possible mechanism involved in such results could be the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-κB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Broiler Pre-Slaughter Water Diet with Grass Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The pre-slaughter management is one of the predisposing factors to the reduction in the quality of the carcass and broiler meat, mainly for being a stressful condition. This study evaluates the inclusion of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf in the water used in the diet of pre-slaughter broilers for the first time. The carcass and meat quality parameters were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in the poultry production of an experimental sector of the Federal University of Grande Dourados - UFGD. A total of 2,594 broilers were distributed in an entirely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 3x2x2, with three different lemongrass concentrations in the form of infusion (0. 1 and 5 g/L, two sexes and two genetic strains (Ross 308® and Cobb 500®, and with four replications. After 42 days, 144 broilers were slaughtered, and the quality parameters of carcass and meat were evaluated. A higher incidence of scratches and higher water retention capacity were found in Ross 308® male (p<0.05. Less exudate of breast fillets loss was observed in broiler Ross 308® males 72 h post-mortem (p<0.05. There was an interaction between sex and lemongrass levels in the drinking water of the broilers in the sensory analysis of meat (p<0.05, more preferably of chewiness and juiciness for males undergoing free diet for juiciness and lemongrass in the female diet with 5g/L. The use of lemongrass infusions in pre-slaughter did not bring considerable benefits to the quality of carcass and meat of broiler.

  6. Combined Toxicity of Three Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Doll, Kenneth M; Bowman, Michael J

    2017-11-07

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty-one essential oils were initially screened for their toxicity against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae and three out of the seven most toxic essential oils (Manuka, oregano, and clove bud essential oils) were examined for their chemical composition and combined toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with oregano essential oil and antagonistically with clove bud essential oil. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 21 components in Manuka essential oil and three components each in oregano and clove bud essential oils. Eugenol (84.9%) and eugenol acetate (9.6%) were the principal constituents in clove bud essential oil while carvacrol (75.8%) and m-isopropyltoluene (15.5%) were the major constituents in oregano essential oil. The major constituents in Manuka essential oil were calamenene (20%) and 3-dodecyl-furandione (11.4%). Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with eugenol acetate and antagonistically with eugenol, suggesting that eugenol was a major contributor to the antagonistic interaction between Manuka and clove bud essential oils. In addition, Manuka interacted synergistically with carvacrol suggesting its contribution to the synergistic interaction between Manuka and oregano essential oils. These findings provide novel insights that can be used to develop new and safer alternatives to synthetic insecticides. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Essential oils from Origanum vulgare and Salvia officinalis exhibit antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesundara, Niluni M; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy. The oregano and sage EOs showed the lowest MIC as well as MBC of 0.25-0.5 mg/mL. Time kill assay results showed that oregano and sage EOs exhibited bactericidal effects within 5 min and 4 h, respectively. Both oregano and sage extracts acts as a potent anti-biofilm agent with dual actions, preventing and eradicating the biofilm. The microscopic visualization of biofilms treated with EOs have shown morphological and density changes compared to the untreated control. Oregano EO was constituted predominantly carvacrol (91.6%) and in sage EO, higher levels of α-thujone (28.5%) and camphor (16.6%) were revealed. EOs of oregano and sage inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. pyogenes. Effective concentrations of oregano and sage EOs and their phytochemicals can be used in developing potential plant-derived antimicrobial agents in the management of streptococcal pharyngitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influência da luz e da temperatura sobre a oxidação do óleo essencial de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Influence of light and temperature on the oxidation of the essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus (D.C. Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de L. Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the chemical compounds of the essential oil was performed with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The oil was left in the presence and absence of light and submitted to different temperatures to evaluate its stability. The yields of the major compounds were evaluated every fifteen days. Citral and myrcene, the major compounds of the essential oil, were degraded over time in both the presence and absence of light, but temperature only influenced the degradation of myrcene.

  9. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  10. Antibacterial activity of oregano and sage plant extracts against decarboxylase-positive enterococci isolated from rabbit meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Chrastinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant extracts (sage, oregano against decarboxylase-positive enterococci from rabbit back limb meat  was reported in this study. Oregano plant extract inhibited the growth of all 34 tested enterococci (the inhibitory zones: 12 to 45 mm. The growth of the majority of strains  (n=23 was inhibited by oregano plant extract (the high size inhibitory zones (higher than 25 mm. The growth of 11 strains  was inhibited by oregano extract reaching medium size inhibitory zones (10 to 25mm. The most sensitive strain to oregano extract was E. faecium M7bA (45 mm. Sage extract was less active against tested enterococci (n=16  reaching lower inhibitory zones (up to 10 mm. doi:10.5219/239 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  11. Physical and sensory properties of corn flakes with added dry residue of wild oregano distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košutić Milenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern nutritionist opinions, cereal products such as flakes and snacks are the most common foods in the daily diet. Extrusion technology makes it possible to apply different sources of ingredients for the enrichment of cereal-based flakes or snack products. Substances with strong antioxidant properties such as wild oregano have a positive impact on human health. Therefore, they attract the attention of scientists, consumers and food industry experts. This paper investigates the effects of the simultaneous addition of dry residue from wild oregano distillation (0.5 g / 100g of sample and 1 g / 100g of sample, on the physical-textural and color properties of corn flakes in order to create a new product with improved nutritional properties. The addition of dry residue of wild oregano positively influenced physical characteristics (decreased bulk density 30.2 %, increased expansion rate 44.9 %, as well as texture hardness and the work of compression, 38.1 % and 40.3 %, respectively. Also, oregano significantly changed the color of flakes. Tukey’s HSD test showed statistically significant differences between most of the mean values of physical-textural, color and sensory attributes in the oregano-added corn flakes compared to the control sample. Principal component analysis has been applied to classify the samples according to differences in the studied parameters. The data pointed out that investigated corn flakes with the addition of wild oregano are new food products with good physical-textural and sensory properties due to a higher level of antioxidant activity. Moreover, it may contribute to the valorization of edible industrial waste in food production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46005 i br. TR 31027

  12. Aromatic plant oils of the Peruvian Amazon. Part 2: Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf., Renealmia sp., Hyptis recurvata Poit. and Tynanthus panurensis (Bur.) Sandw.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Delgado, H.S.; Garcia, J.; Hidalgo, J.E.; Cerrutti, T.; Mestanza, M.; Rios, F.; Nina, E.; Nonato, L.; Alvarado, R.; Menendez, R.

    2000-01-01

    The leaf oils of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Renealmia sp., and Hyptts recuroata, and the cortex oil of 1jmanthus panurensisfrom Peruvian Amazon have been isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Twelve, sixteen, and sixteen components have been identified

  13. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fish and Meat Systems by Use of Oregano and Cranberry Phytochemical Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. T.; Labbe, R. G.; Shetty, Kalidas

    2004-01-01

    Optimized phenolics from oregano and cranberry extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes in laboratory media and in beef and fish. The antimicrobial activity increased when oregano and cranberry extracts were mixed at a ratio of 75% oregano and 25% cranberry (wt/wt) with 0.1 mg of phenolic per disk or ml, and the efficacy was further enhanced by lactic acid. The inhibition by phytochemical and lactic acid synergies was most effective when beef and fish slices were stored at 4°C. PMID:15345457

  14. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  15. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Amornrat Intorasoot; Piyaorn Chornchoem; Siriwoot Sookkhee; Sorasak Intorasoot

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antibacterial activity of ten volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, E...

  16. Comparative study of the antifungal activity of some essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimould activity of oregano, thyme, rosemary and clove essential oils and some of their main constituents: eugenol, carvacrol and thymol against Aspergillus niger. This antifungal activity was assessed using broth dilution, disc diffusion and micro atmosphere methods. In both agar diffusion ...

  17. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldawsari HM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibah M Aldawsari,1 Shaimaa M Badr-Eldin,1,2 Gihan S Labib,1,3 Amal H El-Kamel3 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Lemongrass oil (LGO is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 µL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%. Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and

  18. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses of Hyssop, Sweet Basil and Oregano to Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad MIJANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this survey were to determine the effect of temperature on germination and seedling growth of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae family as well as comparing species regarding germination behavior and growth characteristics. Seeds were germinated on a temperature-gradient bar varying between 5 and 40 °C (with 5 °C intervals. Results indicated that the highest germination percentage of hyssop (92-98%, sweet basil (86-90% and oregano (74-77% occurred at 20-30 °C, 25-30 °C and 20-30 °C, respectively; therefore, moderate and warm temperatures are proper for germination of all species. In all species the maximum germination rate obtained at 30 °C. Among all species, Day 10 % of Sweet basil Germination had the lowest value, which indicates faster germination. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling or maximum were estimated by the segmented model. Base temperature (Tb was calculated for hyssop, sweet basil and oregano as 3.42, 5.70 and 5.46 °C, respectively. Optimal temperature (To calculated for all species was approximately 30°C, So warmer temperatures are much more proper for them. The species showed different maximum temperatures (Tm from 42.91 (Oregano to 48.05 °C (Hyssop. In Hyssop and Sweet basil optimum growth of seedlings were observed at 30°C while Oregano reached its best growth at 25°C. The difference between maximum and minimum temperatures of germination knowing as temperature range (TR index could show adaptation capability to broad sites for planting and domestication. Regarding this index Hyssop stood in the first place.

  19. The effect of essential oils on microbial composition and quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhan; Liu, Xiaochang; Jia, Shiliang; Zhang, Longteng; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-02-02

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oils (oregano, thyme, and star anise) on microbial composition and quality of grass carp fillets were investigated. Essential oils treatment was found to be effective in inhibiting microbial growth, delaying lipid oxidation, and retarding the increase of TVB-N, putrescine, hypoxanthine, and K-value. Based on sensory analysis, shelf-life of grass carp fillets was 6days for control and 8days for treatment groups. Among the essential oils, oregano essential oil exhibited the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of essential oils components revealed that carvacrol (88.64%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, Aeromonas, Glutamicibacter, and Aequorivita were the predominant microbiota in fresh control samples. However, oregano essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Aeromonas, while thyme and star anise essential oils decreased the relative abundance of Glutamicibacter and Aequorivita in fresh treated samples. The microbial composition of both control and treatment groups became less diverse as storage time increased. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were dominant in spoiled samples and contributed to fish spoilage. Compared to the control, essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Shewanella in grass carp fillets during chilled storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads and the influence of different vegetables in shrimp and tuna salads were evaluated. Moreover, the lipid oxidation in the presence of 1% oregano, rosemary, or thyme in fish oil-enriched tuna salad was assessed. The results obtain......-oxidative effect of shrimp. The effect of ingredients in tuna salads was inconclusive, possibly due to a high content of volatiles in the vegetables themselves. However, the addition of spices increased the oxidative stability of tuna salad (oregano>rosemary>thyme)....

  1. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S A; Reinders, R D

    2003-01-01

    To quantify the antibacterial properties of five essential oils (EO) on a non-toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence and absence of a stabilizer and an emulsifier and at three different temperatures. Five EOs known to exhibit antibacterial properties were screened by disc diffusion assay and the most active were selected for further study in microdilution colorimetric assays. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris; light and red varieties) EO had the strongest bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, followed by bay (Pimenta racemosa) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata synonym: Syzygium aromaticum) EO. Oregano oil was colicidal at 625 microl l(-1) at 10, 20 and 37 degrees C. The addition of 0.05% (w/v) agar as stabilizer reinforced the antibacterial properties, particularly at 10 degrees C, whereas 0.25% (w/v) lecithin reduced antibacterial activity. Scanning electron micrographs showed extensive morphological changes to treated cells. Oregano and thyme EO possess significant in vitro colicidal and colistatic properties, which are exhibited in a broad temperature range and substantially improved by the addition of agar as stabilizer. Bay and clove bud EO are less active. Lecithin diminished antibacterial properties. The bactericidal concentration of oregano EO irreversibly damaged E. coli O157:H7 cells within 1 min. Oregano and light thyme EO, particularly when enhanced by agar stabilizer, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in foods.

  2. Essential oils and their compositions as spatial repellents for pestiferous social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R

    2013-04-01

    The study objectives were: (1) to field test potential repellency of common essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), using attractant-baited traps; (2) to identify vespid antennally active compounds from the repellent essential oils; (3) to determine potential repellency of these electroantennographic detection (EAD) active compounds in the field. Of the 21 essential oils tested, 17 showed significant repellency on yellowjackets [mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] and paper wasps [mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)]: clove, pennyroyal, lemongrass, ylang ylang, spearmint, wintergreen, sage, rosemary, lavender, geranium, patchouli, citronella, Roman chamomile, thyme, fennel seed, anise and peppermint. Two essential oil mixtures - 3EO-mix (clove, geranium and lemongrass) and 4EO-mix (clove, geranium, lemongrass and rosemary) - totally blocked the attraction of vespid workers. Twenty-nine vespid antennally active compounds were identified from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samples of 11 strongly repellent essential oils by GC-EAD/MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds field tested, eugenol, P/I-menthone, pulegone, α/β-thujone, l-carvone, E/Z-citral, citronellal, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate and 3-octanol showed a significant repellency on vespid workers. These compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. These repellent essential oils and their active compositions have great potential for efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM of pestiferous vespid wasps. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Protection Ability Comparison of Several Mosquito Repellent Lotion Incorporated with Essential Oils of Mosquito Repellent Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most mosquito repellent lotions available on the market today contain the active ingredient diethyltoluamide (DEET which is very harmful to the skin. Natural mosquito repellent research using various essential oils (geranium oil, lemon oil, citronella oil and lavender oil as the active ingredient and the addition of aloe vera gel as a moisturizer has been done on a laboratory scale. The purpose of this study was to compare the protection ability of the mosquito repellent plants in Indonesia. The results showed that geranium oil, lemongrass oil, lavender oil and lemon oil could act as mosquito repellent. Best lotion formula all containing 15% essential oils have the effectiveness above 50% until the sixth hour were geranium oil, citronella oil and lavender oil while lemon oil only giving effectiveness above 50% until the second hour.

  4. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 ºC, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm-2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05. The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm-2 at 25 ºC. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm-2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 ºC. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm.

  5. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millezi, Alessandra Farias; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 °C, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm−2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05). The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm−2 at 25 °C. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm−2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 °C. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm. PMID:24159286

  6. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  7. Changes in blood pressure indices in normotensive adults after the consumption of lemongrass tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ekpenyong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To accurately evaluate the effect of lemongrasses tea (LGT on blood pressure (BP indices in normal humans. Methods: A total of 105 participants were sub-divided into 3 groups with 35 in each group and they were administered with LGT prepared from 2, 4 or 8 g of the lemongrass leaf powder (LP for 30 days, respectively. They were evaluated for various BP indices and other clinical and biochemical parameters at days 0, 10 and 30 after the administration of LGT using standard methods. Results: At day 10, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were lower than baseline levels. The mean arterial pressure was slightly reduced, while pulse pressure and heart rate (HR significantly increased in subjects administered with LGT prepared from 4 or 8 g of the LP. At day 30, systolic blood pressure and DBP remained decreased in participants administered with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. DBP normalized in participants administered with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. The mean arterial pressure and HR decreased further in participants administered with LGT prepared from 8 g of the LP, but HR normalized in subjects treated with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. Pulse pressure almost returned to baseline level. Conclusions: Ingestion of LGT may be associated with decreased BP indices in normotensive humans due to its varied bioactive constituents and their activities.

  8. The influence of gamma-irradiation on the formation of free radicals and antioxidant status of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horváthov Á, J.; Suhaj, M.; Polovka, M.; Šimko, P. [Food Research Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia); Brezov á, V. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-05-15

    The influence of various gamma-radiation dose absorptions on oregano samples was monitored by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Further, the antioxidant activity of oregano methanol/water extracts was characterised using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and total content of phenolic compounds (TPC) assays. EPR spectroscopy was used for the investigation of the influence of the absorbed dose on the character of the paramagnetic structures formed, as well as for their thermal stability and life-time characterisation. Paramagnetic structures of different origin (mostly of cellulose and carbohydrate), possessing diverse thermal stability and life-time, were identified in the gamma-irradiated samples. Immediately after irradiation, a statistically significant increase of the TBARS values and the total content of phenolic compounds in methanol/water oregano extract was observed. The alterations of the antioxidant properties of oregano extracts with the time after the radiation treatment were also monitored. A substantial time-dependent decrease of antioxidant activity was observed, probably as a result of storage, with both irradiated and non-irradiated oregano samples, as obvious from the ferric reducing power test and the content of total phenolic substances. The influence of irradiation and subsequent storage on the DPPH radical-scavenging ability was negligible.

  9. Total phenolic content, radical scavenging properties, and essential oil composition of Origanum species from different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambolena, José S; Zunino, María P; Lucini, Enrique I; Olmedo, Rubén; Banchio, Erika; Bima, Paula J; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2010-01-27

    The aim of this work was to compare the antiradical activity, total phenol content (TPC), and essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare spp. virens, Origanum x applii, Origanum x majoricum, and O. vulgare spp. vulgare cultivated in Argentina in different localities. The experiment was conducted in the research station of La Consulta (INTA-Mendoza), the research station of Santa Lucia (INTA-San Juan), and Agronomy Faculty of National University of La Pampa, from 2007 to 2008. The composition of the essential oils of oregano populations was independent of cultivation conditions. In total, 39 compounds were identified in essential oils of oregano from Argentina by means of GC-MS. Thymol and trans-sabinene hydrate were the most prominent compounds, followed by gamma-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpinene. O. vulgare vulgare is the only Origanum studied which is rich in gamma-terpinene. Among tested oregano, O. x majoricum showed the highest essential oil content, 3.9 mg g(-1) dry matter. The plant extract of O. x majoricum had greater total phenol content values, 19.36 mg/g dry weight, than the rest of oregano studied. To find relationships among TPC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and climate variables, canonical correlations were calculated. The results obtained allow us to conclude that 70% of the TPC and FRSA variability can be explained by the climate variables (R(2) = 0.70; p = 8.3 x 10(-6)), the temperature being the most important climatic variable.

  10. Sub-inhibitory stress with essential oil affects enterotoxins production and essential oil susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Pistelli, Luisa; Najar, Basma; Cerri, Domenico; Fratini, Filippo

    2018-03-01

    Fourteen wild strains of Staphylococcus aureus positive for gene sea were tested for enterotoxins production and the minimum inhibitory concentration of Leptospermum scoparium, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana and Thymus vulgaris essential oils (EOs) were determined. After this trial, bacteria stressed with sub-inhibitory concentration of each EO were tested for enterotoxins production by an immunoenzymatic assay and resistance to the same EO. Oregano oil exhibited the highest antibacterial activity followed by manuka and thyme oils. After the exposure to a sub-inhibitory concentration of EOs, strains displayed an increased sensitivity in more than 95% of the cases. After treatment with oregano and marjoram EOs, few strains showed a modified enterotoxins production, while 43% of the strains were no longer able to produce enterotoxins after treatment with manuka EO. The results obtained in this study highlight that exposure to sub-inhibitory concentration of EO modifies strains enterotoxins production and EOs susceptibility profile.

  11. [Field efficacy of repellent formulation containing para-menthane-3,8-diol and lemongrass against Culicoides pachymerus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucía; Zipa, Yaneth; Pardo, Raúl Hernando

    2012-09-01

    Culicoides pachymerus is a major pest species for the inhabitants of the western Boyacá province of Colombia. The effect of a repellent lotion based on p-menthane-3,8-diol (16%) and lemongrass oil (2%) was evaluated against the bites of C. pachymerus. The repellent lotion was compared simultaneously with a control (no treatment) by human landing catches of C. pachymerus on the forearms of paired volunteers situated near human dwellings. Protection percentage and protection time for 3 to 6 h after repellent application was calculated. The test was repeated ten times. Only two females of C. pachymerus were collected on arms with the repellent treatment. In contrast, the mean biting rate in the untreated control was 47.7 midges/person/10 min. Mean protection percentage of the repellent was 100% up to 4 h and 99.5% up to 5 h. Protection time was 332.2 and 338.2 min in the two replicates where bites of C. pachymerus were confirmed. In the remaining eight replicates protection time exceeded the test duration. The repellent showed high efficacy against C. pachymerus, up to 5 h post-application.

  12. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare essential oils on virulence factors of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carezzano, M E; Sotelo, J P; Primo, E; Reinoso, E B; Paletti Rovey, M F; Demo, M S; Giordano, W F; Oliva, M de Las M

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in leaves during the colonisation process. The damage is associated with production of many virulence factors, such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have been demonstrated to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on production of virulence factors of phytopathogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities. The broth microdilution method was used for determination of MIC and biofilm inhibition assays. Coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were pheno- and genotypically evaluated. Both oils showed good inhibitory activity against P. syringae, with MIC values from 1.43 to 11.5 mg·ml -1 for thyme and 5.8 to 11.6 mg·ml -1 for oregano. Biofilm formation, production of coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were inhibited by thyme and oregano essential oil in most strains. The results presented here are promising, demonstrating the bactericidal activity and reduction of virulence factor production after treatment with thyme and oregano oil, providing insight into how they exert their antibacterial activity. These natural products could be considered in the future for the control of diseases caused by P. syringae. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. The effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare) extract on prevention of S. ineae experimental infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Fakharzade, S.M.E.; Hghighi, M.; Sharif Rohani, M.; Sharifpoor, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed in order to determine the effect of Oregano (Origanum vulgare) extract on Streptococcus ineae infection in rainbow trout. 063 rainbow trout weighing 15±1 gr were randomly allocated into three treatment groups with three repetition, including: 1) Control group, 2) Oregano extract treated group (1% of diet), 3) Felorfenicol treated group (10mg/kg fish), all feed one time a day for two weeks. At the end of the second week, 5 fish of each repetition collected and sampled ...

  14. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Individual and Combined Essential Oils against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jurado, Fatima; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), mustard (Brassica nigra), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated alone and in binary combinations against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or Salmonella Enteritidis. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The MICs of the evaluated essential oils ranged from 0.05 to 0.50% (vol/vol). Mustard essential oil was the most effective, likely due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate, identified as its major component. Furthermore, mustard essential oil exhibited synergistic effects when combined with either Mexican oregano or thyme essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.75); an additive effect was obtained by combining thyme and Mexican oregano essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 1.00). These results suggest the potential of studied essential oil mixtures to inhibit microbial growth and preserve foods; however, their effect on sensory quality in selected foods compatible with their flavor needs to be assessed.

  16. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, J.; Løkke, M.M.; Larsen, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial...... properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were...

  17. Antibacterial activity of essential oils on Xanthomonas vesicatoria and control of bacterial spot in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvaine Ciavareli Lucas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of plant essential oils (EOs on the growth of Xanthomonas vesicatoria, on bacterial morphology and ultrastructure, and on the severity of tomato bacterial spot. EOs from citronella, clove, cinnamon, lemongrass, eucalyptus, thyme, and tea tree were evaluated in vitro at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100% in 1.0% powdered milk. The effect of EOs, at 0.1%, on the severity of tomato bacterial spot was evaluated in tomato seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The effects of citronella, lemongrass, clove, and tea tree EOs, at 0.1%, on X. vesicatoria cells were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. All EOs showed direct toxic effect on the bacteria at a 10%-concentration in vitro. Under greenhouse conditions, the EOs of clove, citronella, tea tree, and lemongrass reduced disease severity. EOs of clove and tea tree, and streptomycin sulfate promoted loss of electron-dense material and alterations in the cytoplasm, whereas EO of tea tree promoted cytoplasm vacuolation, and those of citronella, lemongrass, clove, and tea tree caused damage to the bacterial cell wall. The EOs at a concentration of 0.1% reduce the severity of the disease.

  18. Influence of essential oils on the growth of aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Foltinová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was focused on the determination of the inhibitory effect of selected essential oils on growth of ten isolates of Aspergillus flavus and their potential ability to produce mycotoxins in vitro by TLC method. The isolates were obtained from moldy bread of domestic origin. We followed the impact of five essential oils at 100% concentration - lemon, eucalyptus, oregano, sage and thyme. The effect of the essential oils we tested the gaseous diffusion method. We isolates grown on CYA (Czapek yeast extract agar, in the dark at 25 ±1 °C, 14 days. The diameter of colonies grown we continuously measured on the 3rd, 7th, 11th, and 14th day of cultivation. The results of the paper suggest that oregano and thyme essential oil had 100% inhibited the growth of all tested isolates of Aspergillus flavus. Lemon, eucalyptus and sage essential oil had not significant inhibitory effects on tested isolates Aspergillus flavus, but affected the growth of colonies throughout the cultivation. In addition to the inhibitory effect we witnessed the stimulative effect of lemon, eucalyptus and sage essential oil to some isolates. Together with the antifungal effect of essential oils, we monitored the ability of Aspergillus flavus isolates to produce mycotoxins - aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA in the presence of essential oils. Production mycotoxins we have seen in the last (14th day of cultivation. Lemon and eucalyptus essential oil did not affect the production of mycotoxins. In the case of sage essential oil we were recorded cyclopiazonic acid production in three of the ten isolates from the all three repetitions, while neither isolate did not produced aflatoxin B1. The production of secondary metabolites was detected in all control samples. From the results we can say that oregano and thyme essential oil could be used as a natural preservative useful in the food industry.

  19. Repellency of the Origanum onites L. Essential Oil and Constituents to the Lone Star Tick and Yellow Fever Mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oregano, Origanum onites L., essential oil (EO) was tested in laboratory behavioral bioassays for repellent activity against Amblyomma americanum (L.) and Aedes aegypti (L.). The O. onites EO was characterized using GC-FID and GC-MS. Carvacrol (75.70 %), linalool (9.0 %), p-cymene (4.33 %) and t...

  20. Mixtures of wine, essential oils, and plant polyphenolics do not act synergistically against Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella enterica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red wine or fortified red wine formulations containing some various essential oils from oregano or thyme or their pure active components, and a mixture of plant extract powders from apple skin, green tea, and olive, were evaluated for inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia c...

  1. Effects of various levels of rosemary and oregano volatile oil mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION. During leukocytes and mitochondrial respiration chain, ... radicals are singlet oxygen, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals ... 246.9 g/kg crude protein; 12.26 MJ/kg metabolisable energy (ME)], formulated to ...

  2. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  3. Geranyl acetate esterase controls and regulates the level of geraniol in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Nees ex Steud.) mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Essential oil isolated from lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves is mainly composed of geraniol (G) and geranyl acetate (GA). The proportion of G and GA markedly fluctuates during leaf development. The proportions of GA and G in the essential oil recorded at day 10 after leaf emergence were approximately 59% and approximately 33% respectively. However, the level of GA went down from approximately 59 to approximately 3% whereas the level of G rose from approximately 33 to approximately 91% during the leaf growth period from day 10 to day 50. However, the decline in the level of GA was most pronounced in the early (day 10 to day 30) stage of leaf growth. The trend of changes in the proportion of GA and G has clearly indicated the role of an esterase that must be involved in the conversion of GA to G during leaf development. We isolated an esterase from leaves of different ages that converts GA into G and has been given the name geranyl acetate esterase (GAE). The GAE activity markedly varied during the leaf development cycle; it was closely correlated with the monoterpene (GA and G) composition throughout leaf development. GAE appeared as several isoenzymes but only three (GAE-I, GAE-II, and GAE-III) of them had significant GA cleaving activity. The GAE isoenzymes pattern was greatly influenced by the leaf developmental stages and so their GA cleaving activities. Like the GAE activity, GAE isoenzyme patterns were also found to be consistent with the monoterpene (GA and G) composition. GAE had an optimum pH at 8.5 and temperature at 30 degrees C. Besides GAE, a compound with phosphatase activity capable of hydrolyzing geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to produce geraniol has also been isolated.

  4. Formulation and characterization of Turkish oregano microcapsules prepared by spray-drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskaite, Juste; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Masteikova, Ruta; Kopustinskiene, Dalia; Baranauskas, Algirdas; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was optimization of spray-drying process conditions for microencapsulation of Turkish oregano extract. Different concentrations of maltodextrin and gum arabic as encapsulating agents (wall material) as well as influence of selected processing variables were evaluated. The optimal conditions were maintained on the basis of the load of main bioactive compounds - ursolic, rosmarinic acids and carvacrol - in prepared microparticles after comparison of all significant response variables using desirability function. Physicomechanical properties of powders such as flowability, wettability, solubility, moisture content as well as product yield, encapsulation efficiency (EE), density, morphology and size distribution of prepared microparticles have been determined. The results demonstrated that the optimal conditions for spray-drying mixture consisted of two parts of wall material solution and one part of ethanolic oregano extract when the feed flow rate was 40 mL/min and air inlet temperature -170 °C. Optimal concentration of wall materials in solution was 20% while the ratio of maltodextrin and gum arabic was 8.74:1.26.

  5. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Associated Urease by Oregano and Cranberry Phytochemical Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. T.; Kwon, Y. I.; Labbe, R. G.; Shetty, K.

    2005-01-01

    Ulcer-associated dyspepsia is caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers. Antibiotic treatment does not always inhibit or kill H. pylori with potential for antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for using phenolic phytochemical extracts to inhibit H. pylori in a laboratory medium. Our approach involved the development of a specific phenolic profile with optimization of different ratios of extract mixtures from oregano and cranberry. Subsequently, antimicrobial activity and antimicrobial-linked urease inhibition ability were evaluated. The results indicated that the antimicrobial activity was greater in extract mixtures than in individual extracts of each species. The results also indicate that the synergistic contribution of oregano and cranberry phenolics may be more important for inhibition than any species-specific phenolic concentration. Further, based on plate assay, the likely mode of action may be through urease inhibition and disruption of energy production by inhibition of proline dehydrogenase at the plasma membrane. PMID:16332847

  6. Evaluation of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon citratus extracted in different solvents for antioxidant and antibacterial activity against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Balakrishnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the lemongrass plant Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus leaves extracted serially by the solvents (chloroform, methanol and water. Methods: The plant leaves extracts were used for antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Nocardia sp., Serratia sp., and Enterobacter aeruginosa microorganisms by the Kirby Bauer agar disc diffusion method. This study was carried out on lemongrass plant leaf extracts in different concentration of all solvents. The leaf extracts from different solvents were tested for their scavenging activity against the stable free radical DPPH in quantization using a spectrophotometric assay. Oxidative damage was induced in vitro by treating blood DNA and analyzing the effects of the leaf extracts. Results: The results showed that C. citratus extracts exhibited maximum zones of inhibition in chloroform, methanol and water extracts. It was Observed that the C. citratus extracts exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Analyzed data in the present work suggested that antibacterial activity of C. citratus plant leaf extracts showed good results for Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. DPPH scavenging activity was highly elicited by the extract of C. citratus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of C. citratus leaves effectively decreased the extent of DNA damage. Conclusions: The present study suggested that the lemongrass plant extracts could offer various health benefits.

  7. Sensitivity of spoiling and pathogen food-related bacteria to Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Evandro Leite de; Stamford,Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Lima,Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, has been known as plant specie with prominent biological properties for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative spoiling and/or pathogen food-related bacteria, as well as to observe its antimicrobial effectiveness in a food conservation micromodel. The results showed a strong antibacterial activity of the assayed essential oil noted by large growt...

  8. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of ...

  9. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  10. The chemistry and beneficial bioactivities of carvacrol (4-isopropyl-2-methylphenol), a component of essential oils produced by aromatic plants and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatic plants produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of plants against phytopathogenic insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. One of these compounds called carvacrol that is found in high concentrations in essential oils such as oregano has been reported to exhibit numerous...

  11. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  12. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  13. Sugarcane Molasse and Whey as Additives in the Silage of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf Leaves Melaza de Caña de Azúcar y Suero de Leche como Aditivos en el Ensilaje de Hojas de Zacate de Limón (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía María Cristina Ventura-Canseco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After extraction of essential oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf leaves by steam distillation (heat treatment, large amounts of organic wastes are obtained. This by-product could easily be used as animal feed. The potential of sugarcane molasse and whey as additives to ensile lemongrass leaves was investigated. The vegetative material was obtained after essential oils were extracted from lemongrass leaves with steam distillation. Lemongrass leaves were chopped, mixed with sugarcane molasse and whey, placed in cylindrical plastic containers, hermetically closed. The experimental design for pH optimization was a response surface 3-level factorial design 3² with three replicates. Sugarcane molasse at 5, 10 and 15% (w/w and whey at 20, 25 and 30% (w/w were used. The pH of the silage decreased significantly in each treatment, but it was faster when sugarcane molasse was added. The lactic acid concentration was 2.8 g kg-1 DM in silage amended with 15% molasse plus 25% whey and was higher than in silage supplemented with commercial additive after 15 d. In conclusion, it was shown that lemongrass leaves obtained as by product after extracting essential oils can be effectively ensiled with whey and sugarcane molasse as additives inducing a faster production of lactic acid.Después de la extracción del aceite esencial de zacate limón (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf por destilación con vapor (tratamiento térmico se obtiene un residuo. Este residuo podría ser utilizado para alimentación animal. El potencial de la melaza de caña y suero de leche como aditivos para ensilar hojas de zacate limón fue investigado. El material vegetal se obtuvo después que los aceites esenciales se extrajeron de las hojas de zacate limón usando destilación con vapor. Las hojas de zacate limón se picaron, mezclaron con melaza de caña y suero de leche y se colocaron en recipientes cilíndricos de plástico y se cerraron herméticamente. El dise

  14. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  15. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased, and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition. Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in order to obtain active packaging. Oregano oil was more effective in terms of biological activity. Endothermal peak, above 200°C, represents total thermal degradation of edible films. Diffraction pattern of control film showed significant destruction of A-type crystal structure. Addition of essential oils resulted in peak shape change: diffraction peaks became narrower. Principal Component Analysis has been used to assess the effect of essential oils addition on final starch-based edible films characteristics with the aim to reveal directions for the film characteristics improvement, since the next phase will be optimal film application for food packaging.

  16. ANTIOXIDATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEVERAGES MADE FROM A MIXTURE OF LEMONGRASS EXTRACT AND GREEN TEA [Studi Karakteristik Antioksidan Minuman Campuran Ekstrak Serai dan Teh Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia Manuel Halim*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of lemongrass extract and green tea infusion is expected to produce functional beverage that has potential antioxidant activity as compared to individual materials. This research was aimed to investigate the appropriate solvent type and extraction methods to produce lemongrass extract with highest antioxidant activity and also to investigate the antioxidant characteristic of beverages prepared from a mixture of lemongrass extract and green tea. Lemongrass were subjected to extraction under reflux and maceration using three type of solvents (distilled water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. The resulting extracts were assessed for their total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. Extraction under reflux and using ethanol as solvent resulted in extract with best antioxidant activity (IC50=158.70±47.88 mg/L for reflux method and 103.73±8.03 mg/L for ethanol. This extract was combined with green tea with several ratios (lemongrass extract to green tea [w/w] = 1:3; 1:2; 1:1; 2:1; 3:1. Four level of stevia were used in the beverages (0, 200, 400, 600 ppm. Beverages made with lomogass: tea ratio of 1:3 and 1:1 (w/w and 600 ppm stevia turned out to be beverages with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=271.83±44.48 mg/L and 287.15±36.25 mg/L for ratio 1:3 and 1:1 [w/w] consecutively, 301.59±80.89 mg/L for stevia level 600 ppm. Hedonic testing on beverages revealed that beverage made from lemongrass: tea ratio 1:1 [w/w] ratio with addition of stevia at 600 ppm is the most preferred based on colour, aroma, and overall acceptance.

  17. Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooussef Mina M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.

  18. Manipulation of rumen ecology by dietary lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) powder supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Pakdee, P; Wanapat, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.

  19. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  20. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  1. Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Scollard, Johann

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a ...

  2. Efficacy of different essential oils in modulating rumen fermentation in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Roy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was conducted to examine the modulatory effect of different essential oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using wheat straw based diet (concentrate: wheat straw 50:50. Materials and Methods: Four essential oils i.e. cinnamon, garlic, oregano and rosemary oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/litre (ppm of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique. Total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor. Results: Results indicated that all four essential oils decreased gas production significantly (P<0.05 at 600ppm concentration. However, in case of garlic oil, 300 ppm concentration was also found to be effective in decreasing total gas production. Reduction in methane production was found maximum (P<0.05 at higher doses in most of the oils. Maximum reduction in methane was noticed with garlic oil at 600ppm dose. Ammonia-N concentration was also decreased significantly (P<0.05 with essential oils and was found minimum with oregano oil at 600 ppm dose. Partition factor was found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher in 600 ppm concentration of garlic and oregano oil. The degradability of dry matter decreased significantly with higher concentration of essential oil in most of treatment combinations. Conclusion: Supplementation with different essential oils on wheat straw based diet modulates rumen fermentation and reduced methane and ammonia- N production and improved utilization of nutrients.

  3. The Effectiveness of Lemongrass, Garlic, and Tree Marigold as Botanical Insecticides in Controlling of Cocoa Mirid,Helopeltis antonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Control of cocoa mirid, Helopeltis antoniiso far uses chemicalinsecticides as the main alternative. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the environment friendly control techniques. Lemongrass, garlic, and tree marigold have been known as an efectiveness botanical insecticides for horticulture. A research with aim to study the effectiveness of lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus, garlic (Allium sativum and tree marigold (Tithonia diversifoliafor controlling H. antoniihave been carried out in cocoa plantation at Kaliwining experimental garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in split plot design in three replication, with the main plot infestation time of H. antoniiand sub-plot kind of botanical insecticides. Concentration of botanical insecticides used in this study was 5% and applied on 12 cm cocoa pod in length by using knapsack sprayer. Infestation of H. antonii nymphes were conducted before and after insecticide applications. Observation was conducted on the mortality and the lesion of H. antonii. The results of orthogonal contrast test on feeding activity based on the number of lesion and percentage of mortality of H. antoniishowed that there were significantly different between insecticide treatment and control, between chemical insecticide and botanical insecticides, but there was no significant different on kind of botanical insecticides. The lowest number of lesion due to H. antonii was shown by chemical insecticide with an average 34.0, followed by garlic and lemongrass botanical insecticide with number of lesion were 51.2 and 64.7 respectively, whereas the number of lesion in the control reached 84.2. The highest percentage mortality of H. antoniiwas shown by chemical insecticide with active ingredient teta-cypermethrin at 84.3%, followed by garlic, lemon grass and tree marigold botanical insecticide were 65.8%; 65.0%; and 63.8% respectively and significantly different with control by 8

  4. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC 50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of 3 Species of Oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, Lippia palmeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Erick Paul; Angulo-Escalante, Miguel Angel; León-Félix, Josefina; Heredia, J Basilio

    2017-12-01

    Oregano phenolic compounds have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, after ingestion, the gastrointestinal environment can affect their antioxidant stability and thus their bioactive properties. To evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion on the phenolic compounds of 3 species of oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia palmeri), the total reducing capacity, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated before and after in vitro GI digestion. In addition, the phenolic compounds of the 3 oregano species were identified and quantified by UPLC-PDA before and after in vitro GI digestion. It was shown that the reducing capacity, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were affected by the GI digestion process. Moreover, the phenolic compounds identified were apigenin-7-glucoside, scutellarein, luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, and their levels were affected by the in vitro GI process. Our results showed that the phenolic compounds from these 3 species of oregano are affected by the in vitro digestion process, and this effect is largely attributable to pH changes. These changes can modify the bioavailability and further anti-inflammatory activity of oregano phenolics, and thus, further research is needed. Oregano is a rich source of polyphenols that have shown bioactive properties like anti-inflammatory potential. However, little is known of the gastrointestinal fate of oregano polyphenols which is imperative to fully understand its bioaccessibility. Our results are important to develop new administration strategies which could help protect the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and bioaccessibility of such compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Proline accumulation in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) due to heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handique, G K; Handique, A K

    2009-03-01

    Toxic heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and cadmium induced differential accumulation of proline in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) grown in soil amended with 50, 100, 200, 350 and 500 mg kg(-1) of the metals have been studied. Proline accumulation was found to be metal specific, organ specific and linear dose dependant. Further, proline accumulation following short term exposure (two months after transplantation) was higher than long term exposure (nine months after transplantation). Proline accumulation following short term exposure was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for cadmium (50-200 mg kg(-1)); the corresponding range for mercury was 1.968 to 5.670 micro moles g(-1) and 0.830 to 4.567 micro moles g(-1) for lead (50-500 mg kg(-1) for mercury and lead). Proline accumulation was consistently higher in young tender leaf than old leaf, irrespective of the metal or duration of exposure. For cadmium treatment proline level was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for young leaves while the corresponding value for old leaf was 1.728 to 2.396 micro moles g(-1) following short term exposure. The same trend was observed for the other two metals and duration of exposure. For control set proline accumulation in root was 0.425 micro moles g(-1) as against 0.805 and 0.533 micro moles g(-1) in young and old leaves respectively indicating that proline accumulation in root are lower than leaves, under both normal and stressed condition.

  7. In vitro Effects of Lemongrass Extract on Candida albicans Biofilms, Human Cells Viability, and Denture Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Petrus L B; Carvalho, Letícia T; Paschoal, Marco A B; de Sousa, Eduardo M; Moffa, Eduardo B; da Silva, Marcos A Dos Santos; Tavarez, Rudys de Jesus Rodolfo; Gonçalves, Letícia M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether immersion of a denture surface in lemongrass extract (LGE) has effects on C. albicans biofilms, human cell viability and denture surface. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were performed for LGE against C. albicans. For biofilm analysis, discs were fabricated using a denture acrylic resin with surface roughness standardization. C. albicans biofilms were developed on saliva-coated discs, and the effects of LGE at MIC, 5XMIC, and 10XMIC were investigated during biofilm formation and after biofilm maturation. Biofilms were investigated for cell counting, metabolic activity, and microscopic analysis. The cytotoxicity of different concentrations of LGE to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed using MTT. The effects of LGE on acrylic resin were verified by measuring changes in roughness, color and flexural strength after 28 days of immersion. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by a Tukey test at a 5% significance level. The minimal concentration of LGE required to inhibit C. albicans growth was 0.625 mg/mL, while MFC was 2.5 mg/mL. The presence of LGE during biofilm development resulted in a reduction of cell counting (p 0.05). There were no verified differences in color perception, roughness, or flexural strength after immersion in LGE at MIC compared to the control (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that immersion of the denture surface in LGE was effective in reducing C. albicans biofilms with no deleterious effects on acrylic properties at MIC. MIC was also an effective and safe concentration for use.

  8. The effect of surfactant on headspace single drop microextraction for the determination of some volatile aroma compounds in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves by gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for the determination of some volatile aromatic compounds (VACs), including citronellal, citronellol, neral, geranial, geraniol, and eugenol in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves, was developed using surfactant as a surface tension modifier while performing headspace single drop m...

  9. Phytoremediation of metals using lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in soil amended with biowastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Meenu; Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-06-03

    Due to hostile condition of red mud (RM), its utilization for vegetation is restricted. Therefore, RM with biowastes as soil amendment may offer suitable combination to support plant growth with reduced risk of metal toxicity. To evaluate the effects of RM on soil properties, plant growth performance, and metal accumulation in lemongrass, a study was conducted using different RM concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w) in soil amended with biowastes [cow dung manure (CD) or sewage-sludge (SS)]. Application of RM in soil with biowastes improved organic matter and nutrient contents and caused reduction in phytoavailable metal contents. Total plant biomass was increased under all treatments, maximally at 5% RM in soil with SS (91.4%) and CD (51.7%) compared to that in control (no RM and biowastes). Lemongrass acted as a potential metal-tolerant plant as its metal tolerance index is >100%. Based on translocation and bioconcentration factors, lemongrass acted as a potential phytostabilizer of Fe, Mn, and Cu in roots and was found efficient in translocation of Al, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, and Ni from roots to shoot. The study suggests that 5% RM with biowastes preferably SS may be used to enhance phytoremediation potential of lemongrass.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Simin, Natasa; Anackov, Goran

    2006-03-08

    The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.

  12. Effect of Ginger or Oregano addition to diet of growing male Zraibi goats on growth rate and some physiological body functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at Experimental Farm Project (Goats Farm), Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, at Inshas during 2011 on twenty four male Zaraibi goats (zaraibi kids) after weaning. The animals were healthy and clinically free of external and internal parasites and divided to three equal groups. Animals in the 1st group were fed the basal ration without additives (Control), while those in the 2nd and 3rd groups were fed the same basal ration with additive 1 gram daily from Ginger (Zingiber officinal) or Oregano(Origanum vulgare) /10 kg live body weight / kid, respectively. Changes of live body weight and dry matter feed intake of each animal were recorded individually every month. Blood samples were withdrawn in the end of experiment to determine blood components as well as immunity, kidney and liver functions, energy metabolites, heart healthy factor and some minerals. The results showed that the addition of Ginger or Oregano to diet of Zaraibi goats improved significantly live body weight, daily body weight gain and dry matter intake. The improvement in Ginger was better than with Oregano. In addition, significant increase of Hg values, RBC'S count as well as total protein and globulin levels was recorded in animals treated with Ginger or Oregano. In the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected by supplementation either with Ginger or Oregano. Moreover, supplementation decreased the factor related to heart disease (glucose, total cholesterol and total lipids) and improved the animal immunity, especially in Ginger supplement.

  13. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  14. Effect of lemongrass tea consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate and creatinine clearance rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Antai, Atim B

    2015-01-01

    The existing research findings regarding the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) tea on renal function indices are conflicting and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of infusions prepared from C citratus leaves on creatinine clearance rate (CCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in humans. One hundred five subjects (55 men and 50 women) aged 18 to 35 years were randomly assigned to groups set to orally receive infusions prepared from 2, 4, or 8 g of C citratus leaf powder once daily, for 30 days. Serum and urinary levels of urea, creatinine, pH, specific gravity, uric acid, electrolytes, diuretic indices, and eGFR were assessed at days 0, 10, and 30 after the initiation of treatment. Results obtained on days10 and 30 were compared with baseline values. CCr and eGFR decreased significantly at day 30 in both male and female subjects in all the groups and in females treated with infusion prepared from 8 g of C citratus leaf powder for 10 days. At day 10, CCr and eGFR were unchanged in those treated with infusions prepared from 2 or 4 g of the leaf powder, whereas diuretic indices (urine volume, urination frequency, diuretic action, and saliuretic indices) increased above the baseline levels. Serum and urinary creatinine levels significantly increased (P < .05) in both male and female subjects in all the groups. Serum urea significantly increased in the groups treated with infusions prepared from 4 or 8 g of the leaf powder (P < .05) for 30 days. Serum electrolytes remained unchanged, but their urinary levels increased. We observed dose- and time-dependent adverse effects of C citratus on CCr and eGFR. At a high dose or with prolonged treatment with a low dose, eGFR decrease may be followed by a decline in the other renal function indices. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Essential oils and whole milk in the control of soybean powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano José Perina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils (EOs and cow's whole milk (CWM in order to control soybean powdery mildew and to estimate the most effective concentrations of these natural products in reducing the disease severity on soybean plants. Three experiments were carried out: The first experiment evaluated and selected the most effective treatments to reduce the severity of soybean powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions; the second experiment evaluated the effect of CWM and EOs of citronella, lemongrass, eucalyptus, cinnamon and tea tree on the pathogen through the ultrastructure analysis of soybean leaflets infected by Erysiphe diffusa using the scanning electron microscope (SEM and light microscope (LM technology. In the third experiment, the most effective products were tested at several concentrations in order to define the most effective concentrations to reduce disease severity under greenhouse conditions. The treatments CWM (100mL L-1 and EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus (1.0mL L-1, reduced the disease severity from 67 to 74%. Direct effects from all natural products tested on the structures of E. diffusa were demonstrated through the SEM and LM analysis. Concentrations at 1.5mL L-1 for EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus and also at 180mL L-1 for the treatment CWM were the most effective against E. diffusa on soybean.

  16. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Busatta; Altemir José Mossi; Maria Regina Alves Rodrigues; Rogério Luis Cansian; José Vladimir de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and ...

  17. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner; Kurt, Sener

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of devastating oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, causal agent of late blight disease of tomato. Antifungal activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of aromatic plants such as oregano (Origanum syriacum var. bevanii), thyme (Thymbra spicata subsp. spicata), lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and laurel (Laurus nobilis), were investigated against P. infestans. Both contact and volatile phase effects of different concentrations of the essential oils used were determined by using two in vitro methods. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also determined by GC-MS analysis. Major compounds found in essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, lavender, fennel and laurel were carvacrol (37.9%), carvacrol (79.8), borneol (20.4%), camphor (20.2%), anethole (82.8%) and 1,8-cineole (35.5%), respectively. All essential oils were found to inhibit the growth of P. infestans in a dose-dependent manner. Volatile phase effect of oregano and thyme oils at 0.3 microg/ml air was found to completely inhibit the growth of P. infestans. Complete growth inhibition of pathogen by essential oil of fennel, rosemary, lavender and laurel was, however, observed at 0.4-2.0 microg/ml air concentrations. For the determination of the contact phase effects of the tested essential oils, oregano, thyme and fennel oils at 6.4 microg/ml were found to inhibit the growth of P. infestans completely. Essential oils of rosemary, lavender and laurel were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations (12.8, 25.6, 51.2 microg/ml respectively). Volatile phase effects of essential oils were consistently found to be more effective on fungal growth than contact phase effect. Sporangial production was also inhibited by the essential oil tested. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation on

  18. Identification and quantification of a major anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic compound found in basil, lemon, thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, lemon thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme are in the mint family of plants that are used as culinary herbs world-wide. These herbs contain phenolic compounds that are believed to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the major phenolic compounds fr...

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Mitigation on Methane and Ammonia Production by Using Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oils on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Cobellis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of increasing concentrations of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essentials oil (EO on ruminal gas emissions were tested in vitro using 50 mL serum bottles. Each bottle contained a 200 mg substrate (alfalfa hay and corn meal 1:1 and a 20 mL solution composed of a buffered medium and rumen fluid (1:2. The percentage of ruminal fermentation products was quantified by an infrared analyzer. The reduction of total gas production was 6% and 9% respectively when using the 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO measurements. The reduction of methane production was 55%, 72% and 71% respectively with regard to the 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO doses, while rosemary EO (2.0 g/L reduced the methane production by 9%. The production of ammonia was significantly reduced (59%–78% by all treatments with the exception of rosemary EO at the lowest dose. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability was reduced by most of the treatments (respectively 4%–9% and 8%–24%. The total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration was markedly decreased by oregano EO and was not affected by rosemary EO. Both EOs mitigated rumen fermentations, but oregano EO gave rise to the highest reduction in methane and ammonia production. However, further research is needed to evaluate the use of these essential oils as dietary supplements by taking into account the negative effects on feed degradability.

  20. Antibacterial Effect of Carvacrol and Coconut Oil on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božik M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils play a prominent role as flavouring agents and fragrances in the food and perfume industries. Carvacrol is a major component of various essential oils, such as oregano and thyme oils, and is responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA with a high antibacterial potential. Both carvacrol and MCFAs have been used empirically as antimicrobial agents. Here, we tested the inhibitory properties of carvacrol and coconut (Cocos nucifera L. oil containing a high percentage of MCFAs against 5 harmful bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus cecorum. Gas chromatography (GC-FID analysis of coconut oil showed a high concentration of lauric acid (41%. Microdilution antimicrobial assays showed that the combination of carvacrol and coconut oil had a stronger antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria than both agents separately. We conclude that carvacrol could significantly improve the antibacterial effect of coconut oil.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens.

  2. Growth and physiological response of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) under different levels of fly ash-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Debabrata; Panda, Dibyajyoti; Padhan, Bandana; Biswas, Meghali

    2018-05-12

    Revegetation with metal tolerant plants for management of fly ash deposits is an important environmental perspective nowadays. Growth performance, photosynthesis, and antioxidant defense of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) were evaluated under various combination of fly ash amended with garden soil in order to assess its fly ash tolerance potential. Under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil, the plant growth parameters such as shoot, root, and total plant biomass as well as metal tolerance index were increased compared to the control plants grown on garden soil, followed by decline under higher concentration of fly ash (50%, 75% and 100%). In addition, leaf photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photosystem (PS) II activity were not significantly changed under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil compared to the garden soil but these parameters were significantly decreased further with increase of fly ash concentrations. Furthermore, increase of activities of some antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase over control were noticed in lemongrass under all fly ash treatments. Taken together, the study suggests that lemongrass can be used for phytoremediation of fly ash at 25% amended soil.

  3. Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Setó, L; Purroy, P; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the volatile fractions of 16 essential oils for activity against the more common fungi causing spoilage of bakery products, Eurotium amstelodami, E. herbariorum, E. repens, E. rubrum, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium corylophilum. The study applied 50 microl of pure essential oils in a sterilized filter paper, were carried out at pH 6 and at different water activity levels (0.80-0.90). First, a wheat flour based agar medium was used, where cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils where found to totally inhibit all microorganisms tested. These five essential oils were then tested in sponge cake analogues, but the antifungal activity detected was much more limited. Five essential oils showed potential antifungal capacity against all species tested, over a wide range of water availability. Their activity, however, seems to be substrate-dependent. More research is needed to make them work in real bakery products, as in the preliminary study limited effectiveness was found. The potential of the cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils against species belonging to Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genus has been demonstrated.

  4. ESSENTIAL OILS OF CYMBOPOGON SP. IN THE CONTROL OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Florisvaldo BRUGNERA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the agar well diffusion technique was used to determine the antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass essential oils, which were applied at different concentrations. The bacterial species used were the foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both essential oils presented antibacterial activity in most concentrations tested. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs founded were: 7.81μL/mL (S. aureus and 3.90μL/mL (E. coli and P. aeruginosa, for C. nardus essential oil; and 3.90μL/mL (S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, for C. citratus essential oil. The essential oils used were shown as promising natural antibacterials for pathogenic bacteria control in the food industry.

  5. Comparative Phenolic Fingerprint and LC-ESI+QTOF-MS Composition of Oregano and Rosemary Hydrophilic Extracts in Relation to their Antibacterial Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Bunghez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and oregano (Origanum vulgare are known aromatic plants used as spice, with good flavoring, preservative, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Beside their known terpenoid content responsible for the antibacterial activity, the water-soluble compounds (phenolic derivatives are of high interest not only for their antioxidant activity but as a good alternative or as a hydrophilic new antibacterial solution. Two hydrophilic extracts from each plant were obtained (15% plant in hot water and the phytochemicals were fingerprinted by UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry and quantified. The total phenolic content was higher in case of oregano (54.2 mg GAE/g DW comparing to rosemary (54.25 vs 15.35 mg GAE/g dry matter. By LC-ESI+QTOF-MS analysis there were identified mainly, in both extracts, flavonoid and diterpene derivatives, mainly carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, kaempferol 3-O-glucuronide. Other flavonoid glucuronides were more specific to one or the other plant, e.g. Luteolin 3'-(4''-acetylglucuronide for rosemary and Apigenin 7-O-glucuronide for oregano. Water favorized increased extraction of flavonoid derivatives and soluble diterpenes, but not non-soluble  terpenes. The antibacterial activity of both extracts was tested against B.cereus, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, S. aureus and E.coli. Both oregano and rosemary extracts showed a slight antibacterial activity, which can be related to the low concentration of terpenoids, known to have the most important antibacterial activity in these plants. Nevertheless, the antibacterial activity seems to be strain dependent, Bacillus cereus being the most sensitive bacterial strain comparing with the other four bacteria, the oregano extract having a slightly superior activity comparing to the rosemary extract.

  6. Bacterial radiosensitization by using radiation processing in combination with essential oil: Mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, Monique [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531, Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, H7V 1B7 (Canada)], E-mail: monique.lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca; Caillet, Stephane [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531, Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, H7V 1B7 (Canada); Shareck, Francois [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531, Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157H7 in culture media. The two pathogens were treated by gamma-irradiation alone or in combination with oregano essential oil to evaluate their mechanism of action. The membrane murein composition, and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of ATP was determined. The bacterial strains were treated with two irradiation doses: 1.2 kGy to induce cell damage and 3.5 kGy to cause cell death for L. monocytogenes. A dose of 0.4 kGy to induce cell damages, 1.1 kGy to obtain viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and 1.3 kGy to obtain a lethal dose was also applied on E. coli O157H7. Oregano essential oil was used at 0.020% and 0.025% (w/v), which is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for L. monocytogenes. For E. coli O157H7, a concentration of 0.006% and 0.025% (w/v) which is the minimum inhibitory concentration was applied. The use of essential oils in combination with irradiation has permitted an increase of the bacterial radiosensitization by more than 3.1 times. All treatments had also a significant effect (p{<=}0.05) on the murein composition, although some muropeptides did not seem to be affected by the treatment. Each treatment influenced differently the relative percentage and number of muropeptides. There was a significant (p{<=}0.05) correlation between the reduction of intracellular ATP and increase in extracellular ATP following treatment of the cells with oregano oil. The reduction of intracellular ATP was even more important when essential oil was combined with irradiation, but irradiation of L. monocytogenes alone induced a significant decrease (p{<=}0.05) of the internal ATP without affecting the external ATP.

  7. Bacterial radiosensitization by using radiation processing in combination with essential oil: Mechanism of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Monique; Caillet, Stéphane; Shareck, Francois

    2009-07-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157H7 in culture media. The two pathogens were treated by gamma-irradiation alone or in combination with oregano essential oil to evaluate their mechanism of action. The membrane murein composition, and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of ATP was determined. The bacterial strains were treated with two irradiation doses: 1.2 kGy to induce cell damage and 3.5 kGy to cause cell death for L. monocytogenes. A dose of 0.4 kGy to induce cell damages, 1.1 kGy to obtain viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and 1.3 kGy to obtain a lethal dose was also applied on E. coli O157H7. Oregano essential oil was used at 0.020% and 0.025% (w/v), which is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for L. monocytogenes. For E. coli O157H7, a concentration of 0.006% and 0.025% (w/v) which is the minimum inhibitory concentration was applied. The use of essential oils in combination with irradiation has permitted an increase of the bacterial radiosensitization by more than 3.1 times. All treatments had also a significant effect ( p⩽0.05) on the murein composition, although some muropeptides did not seem to be affected by the treatment. Each treatment influenced differently the relative percentage and number of muropeptides. There was a significant ( p⩽0.05) correlation between the reduction of intracellular ATP and increase in extracellular ATP following treatment of the cells with oregano oil. The reduction of intracellular ATP was even more important when essential oil was combined with irradiation, but irradiation of L. monocytogenes alone induced a significant decrease ( p⩽0.05) of the internal ATP without affecting the external ATP.

  8. Bacterial radiosensitization by using radiation processing in combination with essential oil: Mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Monique; Caillet, Stephane; Shareck, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157H7 in culture media. The two pathogens were treated by gamma-irradiation alone or in combination with oregano essential oil to evaluate their mechanism of action. The membrane murein composition, and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of ATP was determined. The bacterial strains were treated with two irradiation doses: 1.2 kGy to induce cell damage and 3.5 kGy to cause cell death for L. monocytogenes. A dose of 0.4 kGy to induce cell damages, 1.1 kGy to obtain viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and 1.3 kGy to obtain a lethal dose was also applied on E. coli O157H7. Oregano essential oil was used at 0.020% and 0.025% (w/v), which is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for L. monocytogenes. For E. coli O157H7, a concentration of 0.006% and 0.025% (w/v) which is the minimum inhibitory concentration was applied. The use of essential oils in combination with irradiation has permitted an increase of the bacterial radiosensitization by more than 3.1 times. All treatments had also a significant effect (p≤0.05) on the murein composition, although some muropeptides did not seem to be affected by the treatment. Each treatment influenced differently the relative percentage and number of muropeptides. There was a significant (p≤0.05) correlation between the reduction of intracellular ATP and increase in extracellular ATP following treatment of the cells with oregano oil. The reduction of intracellular ATP was even more important when essential oil was combined with irradiation, but irradiation of L. monocytogenes alone induced a significant decrease (p≤0.05) of the internal ATP without affecting the external ATP.

  9. Effect of oregano and marjoram essential oils on the physical and antimicrobial properties of chitosan based systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlaříková, J.; Doležalová, M.; Egner, P.; Pavlačková, J.; Krejčí, J.; Rudolf, O.; Peer, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 2593863. ISSN 1687-9422 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : antioxidant * Structural properties * carvacrol * thyme Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.077, year: 2016 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2017/2593863/

  10. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  11. Antibacterial activity of essential oils on Xanthomonas vesicatoria and control of bacterial spot in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas,Gilvaine Ciavareli; Alves,Eduardo; Pereira,Ricardo Borges; Perina,Fabiano José; Souza,Ricardo Magela de

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of plant essential oils (EOs) on the growth of Xanthomonas vesicatoria, on bacterial morphology and ultrastructure, and on the severity of tomato bacterial spot. EOs from citronella, clove, cinnamon, lemongrass, eucalyptus, thyme, and tea tree were evaluated in vitro at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100% in 1.0% powdered milk. The effect of EOs, at 0.1%, on the severity of tomato bacterial spot was evaluated in tomato seedlings unde...

  12. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Subarnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L. leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L. herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L. bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb. rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%, 0.1 (55.72%, 0.5 (60.75%, and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%, respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  13. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchtaridi; Diantini, Adjeng; Subarnas, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L.) leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L.) bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb.) rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s) that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%), 0.1 (55.72%), 0.5 (60.75%), and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%), respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  14. A novel interpretation of the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index: The case Origanum vulgare L. and Leptospermum scoparium J. R. et G. Forst essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Filippo; Mancini, Simone; Turchi, Barbara; Friscia, Elisabetta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giusti, Giulia; Cerri, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Origanum vulgare (oregano) and Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) were traditionally employed as natural remedies for infected wounds and skin injuries where Staphylococcus aureus is mainly involved. The first aim of this study was to investigate oregano and manuka essential oils (EOs) chemical compositions and evaluate their antibacterial activity (MIC, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) against fourteen S. aureus wild strains. The second aim was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of oregano and manuka EOs mixed in different combination (FIC, Fractional Inhibitory Concentration) with an improved chequerboard technique. This allowed to avoid the usual uncertainty in the determination of MIC and FIC values and to obtain a more precise interpretation of FIC indexes (FICIs). Moreover, FICIs were discussed on the basis of a novel interpretation method to evaluate the synergistic/antagonistic effect of EOs mixtures. The most representative compounds in oregano EO were Carvacrol (65.93%), p-Cymene (9.33%) and γ-Terpinene (5.25%), while in manuka EO were Leptospermone (31.65%), cis-Calamenene (15.93%) and Flavesone (6.92%). EOs presented MIC values ranging from 1:2048 to 1:4096 v/v and FIC values ranging from 0.125 to 1. According to our interpretation, a synergistic effect (34.68%), a commutative effect (15.32%) and an indifferent effect (50.00%) and no antagonistic effect were observed. Conversely, according to two previously proposed FICI interpretation models, 1.80% synergistic effect could be observed and, respectively, 98.20% indifferent effect or 48.20% additive effect and 50.00% indifferent effect. As practical results, oregano and manuka EOs may be an effective alternative to chemotherapic drugs in staphylococcal infections and useful tools to enhance food security. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioactive natural constituents from lemongrass tea and erythropoiesis boosting effects: potential use in prevention and treatment of anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Antai, Atim B

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) tea on hematologic indices in human volunteers. One hundred five subjects (55 men and 50 women), aged 18 to 35 years, were randomly assigned to groups set to orally receive infusion prepared from 2, 4, or 8 g of C. citratus leaves once daily for 30 days. Assessment of hematologic indices (hemoglobin concentration [Hb], packed cell volume [PCV], red blood cell [RBC] count, mean cell Hb [MCH], mean cell volume [MCV], mean cell Hb concentration [MCHC], total white blood cell [WBC-total] and differentials, and platelets) were performed 1 day before (baseline), and at 10 (acute) and 30 days (subchronic phase) after the initiation of treatment. Results obtained on days 10 and 30 were compared with baseline values. Infusions prepared from C. citratus leaf powder, which tested positive for tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, macro- and micronutrients, significantly increased PCV, Hb, and RBC (P<.05) in all subjects, particularly in the subchronic phase of the study. MCH, MCV, and MCHC were not significantly different from baseline values in both the sexes. WBCs and differentials significantly decreased (P<.05) with the exception of neutrophils and lymphocytes, which significantly increased in some or all groups (P<.05), respectively. C. citratus leaf infusion appears to exert an erythropoiesis boosting effect, likely due to some nutritional constituents and its antioxidant and pharmacologic properties.

  16. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  17. Whey protein isolate edible films with essential oils incorporated to improve the microbial quality of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Mendoza, Mauricio; Maté, Juan I

    2013-09-01

    Whey protein isolate edible films with oregano or clove essential oils (EOs) incorporated as natural antimicrobials have been developed, with the aim of enhancing the microbial quality of poultry. The effectiveness of the films was determined against both the whole and selected microbiota developed during different periods of cold storage on the surface of skinless chicken breast. Tests were conducted by using both turbidimetric and agar disc diffusion methods. The antimicrobial edible films developed showed high effectiveness against the main spoilers developed on the surface of skinless chicken breasts cold-stored for 8 days. The films based on oregano EO showed greater effectiveness than those based on clove EO. Still, clove EO could be part of an effective antimicrobial edible film. Enterobacteriaceae was the most susceptible to the effect of the films when lower concentrations of EO were incorporated. The largest inhibition surfaces obtained were provoked by films with the highest concentration of oregano EO incorporated against lactic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial edible films developed in this study inhibited the growth of the microbial populations that developed through storage of the chicken breast and caused its spoilage. The results of this research have direct application in the food industry to enhance the control of the development of spoilers such as Pseudomonas spp. or lactic acid bacteria. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effects of mycorrhiza on growth and essential oil production in selected aromatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waed Tarraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis is widely investigated in aromatic herbs. Several studies have shown different effects on secondary metabolites, biomass production, as well as oil quantitative and qualitative aspects. The seeking to increase the yield of plants and their oils is an interesting topic in the world of medicinal and aromatic plant production. In tune with that, this study evaluated the effectiveness of two mycorrhiza fungi, Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae and Septoglomus viscosum (syn. Glomus viscosum, on three species from Lamiaceae family: Salvia officinalis L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. besides untreated control. It was found that the effect of symbiosis on growth was more favourable with S. viscosum than other AM fungus. The S. viscosum inoculation raised the yield of essential oil in oregano. Analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that manool obtained the highest abundance in leaf essential oil of inoculated sage; thymol was the major component whatever the treatment in thyme and lower relative content of carvacrol was reported with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation in oregano. The results suggest the mycorrhizal inoculation as a promising technology in sustainable agricultural system to improve the plant productivity performance. Specific inocula are strategic to enhance the chemical profile of essential oils.

  19. Comparative Phenolic Fingerprint and LC-ESI+QTOF-MS Composition of Oregano and Rosemary Hydrophilic Extracts in Relation to their Antibacterial Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Bunghez; Mihaela Ancuţa Morar; Raluca Maria Pop; Florina Romanciuc; Florina Csernatoni; Florinela Fetea; Zoriţa Diaconeasa; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) are known aromatic plants used as spice, with good flavoring, preservative, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Beside their known terpenoid content responsible for the antibacterial activity, the water-soluble compounds (phenolic derivatives) are of high interest not only for their antioxidant activity but as a good alternative or as a hydrophilic new antibacterial solution. Two hydrophilic extracts from each plant were obt...

  20. Chemical Composition of Herbal Macerates and Corresponding Commercial Essential Oils and Their Effect on Bacteria Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Białoń

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial essential oils (clove, juniper, oregano, and marjoram oils, as well as appropriate herbal extracts obtained in the process of cold maceration and their biological activity against selected Escherichia coli strains: E. coli ATTC 25922, E. coli ATTC 10536, and E. coli 127 isolated from poultry waste. On the basis of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS analysis, it was found that the commercial essential oils revealed considerable differences in terms of the composition and diversity of terpenes, terpenoids and sesquiterpenes as compared with the extracts obtained from plant material. The commercial clove, oregano, and marjoram oils showed antibacterial properties against all the tested strains of E. coli. However, these strains were not sensitive to essential oils obtained from the plant material in the process of maceration. The tested strains of E. coli show a high sensitivity, mainly against monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, α,β,γ-terpinene, limonene and some terpenoids (thymol, carvacrol. The commercial juniper oil contained mainly monoterpenes and monoterpenoids, while the extracts contained lower amounts of monoterpenes and high amounts of sesquiterpenes—the anti-microbiotic properties of the juniper herbal extract seem to be caused by the synergistic activity of mono- and sesquiterpenes.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  2. Primeira ocorrência de ferrugem em capim-limão causada por Puccinia cymbopogonis no Brasil First report of the lemongrass rust fungi caused by Puccinia cymbopogonis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Vida

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available È registrada a primeira ocorrência de ferrugem em capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, causada por Puccinia cymbopogonis Mass., no Brasil, Estado do Paraná.It is reported the first occurrence of the lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf rust fungi caused by Puccinia cymbopogonis Mass. in Brazil, State of Paraná.

  3. Use of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in food preservation: Recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2017-08-13

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of the use of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  4. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  5. Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin of oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Banat, Fawzi; Rababah, Anfal; Ereifej, Khalil; Yang, Wade

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic extracts and antioxidant activity and anthocyanins of varieties of the investigated plants. These plants include oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate. The optimum extraction conditions including temperature and solvent of the extraction process itself were investigated. Total phenolic and anthocyanin extracts were examined according to Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Rabino and Mancinelli method, respectively. The effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on extracts of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins were studied. Plant samples were evaluated for their antioxidant chemical activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl assay, to determine their potential as a source of natural antioxidant. Results showed that all tested plants exhibited appreciable amounts of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract (60 °C) of sour pomegranate peel contained the highest phenolic extract (4952.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Terebinth green seed had the lowest phenolic extract (599.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Anthocyanins ranged between 3.5 (terebinth red seed) and 0.2 mg/100 g of dry material (thyme). Significant effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on total phenolics and anthocyanin extracts were found. The methanol and 60 °C of extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting phenolic compounds. The distilled water and 60 °C extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting anthocyanin.

  6. A novel ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative as a stabilizer of nanoemulsions: Improvement of antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina; Rossi, Silvia; Usai, Donatella; Liakos, Ioannis; Garzoni, Alice; Fiamma, Maura; Zanetti, Stefania; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2017-04-01

    Amphiphilic chitosans have been recently proposed to improve delivery of poorly soluble drugs. In the present paper a derivative obtained by ionic interaction between chitosan and oleic acid was for the first time studied to physically stabilize o/w nanoemulsions of an antimicrobial essential oil, Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass), in a low energy and mild conditions emulsification process. The novel combination of spontaneous emulsification process with chitosan oleate amphiphilic properties resulted in a stable dispersion of a few hundred nanometer droplets. Positive zeta potential confirmed the presence of a chitosan shell around the oil droplets, which is responsible for the nanoemulsion physical stabilization and for the maintenance of chitosan bioactive properties, such as mucoadhesion. Cytotoxicity test was performed on four different cell lines (HEp-2, Caco-2, WKD and McCoy cells) showing biocompatibility of the system. The maintenance and in some cases even a clear improvement in the essential oil antimicrobial activity towards nine bacterial and ten fungal strains, all of clinical relevance was verified for Lemongrass nanoemulsion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  8. Chemical characterization of the Allium sativum and Origanum vulgare essential oils and their inhibition effect on the growth of some food pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.T. Mallet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the chemical composition of the Allium sativum and Origanum vulgare essential oils and their effect on the growth inhibition of microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa, S. Choleraesuis, A. flavus, A. niger and P. simplicissimum, important food contaminants. The main constituents of the oregano essential oil were 4-terpineol (27.03%, γ-terpinene (20.04%, and β-cymene (6.34%, and the main constituents of the garlic essential oil were diallyl trisulfide (38, 81%, diallyl disulfide (25.23%, and methyl allyl trisulfide (12.52%. Inhibition zones were formed in in vitro tests on the bacteria S. Choleraesuis and P. aeruginosa, except for A. sativum against P. aeruginosa. The inhibition of mycelial growth caused by the oregano essential oil occurred with the concentrations of 0.10, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL-1 for the A. flavus, A. niger and P. simplicissimum fungi, respectively. The CMI for the garlic oil began at the 0.03 mg mL-1 concentration for all species of fungi. The oils presented an inhibitory effect against the microorganisms studied and constitute an alternative for microbiological control in food.

  9. Dosimetry of irradiated foods and extraction of polyminerals from herbs and seasonings (Guajillo chili, oregano, jamaica, arnica, and camomile); Dosimetria de alimentos irradiados y extraccion de poliminerales de hierbas y condimentos (Chile guajillo, oregano, jamaica, arnica y manzanilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda C, S.; Gomez B, C. [Estudiante de la Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico); Calderon, T.; Cruz Z, E. [Depto. de Quimica Agricola-Geologia-Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries the irradiation technology is a process used in food treatments for sterilization and diminishing of the microbiological charge, as well as to extend the storage life. In Mexico, the food irradiation, spices and seasonings has been officially approved since 1995, recognizing as an adequate technological process for foods. Taking advantage of knowledge about solids and due to the natural growth of the spices, herbs, etc. these contain minerals which can providing important information of its radiological history, moreover these type of materials do not degrade them preserving by long time periods. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of poly minerals in foods, such as oregano, guajillo chili, jamaica, arnica and camomile is presented. For obtaining the poly mineral, the samples were treated with an ethanol-water solution, in constant stirring during 12 hours at room temperature depending on the sample under treatment. It was used oxygenated water and distilled for washing and acetone for achieving a good drying. The minerals were processed by gamma radiation in the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the UNAM. The brilliance curves of spices and herbs, using a Tl reader of Harshaw 3500 were obtained, the emissions are located between 60 and 350 Centigrade. Previously the extraction of poly mineral was realized and they were divided in same parts for doses between 2 and 10 KGy, this last value according to the Mexican Official Standard considering a fraction without irradiating as reference. The identification of the mineral fraction by diffraction will complement the composition information. We are grateful to the donation of seasonings samples provided by the Tres Villas Natural Seasonings enterprise, Toluca plant, State of Mexico and the Academic Exchange Office at UNAM. (Author)

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICALS ACTIVITY OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. AND THYMUS VULGARIS ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study were antioxidant properties of oregano and thyme essential oil by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities and antibacterial activities against one Gram-positive strain (Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960; Escherichia coli CCM 3988 was also performed. The thyme EOs showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli CCM 3988 in 0.75 and 0.375 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. Very strong antibacterial activity was found in thyme and oregano EOs against Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 in 0.75, 0.375, 0.188 and 0.094 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. In comparison to BHT (5.60 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.82 µg.ml-1 after 60 min and ascorbic acid (7.48 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 4.79 µg.ml-1 after 60 min, O. vulgare oil shows significantly higher DPPH activity (2.99 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.02 µl.ml-1 after 60 min. From the other side, T. vulgaris essential (9.69 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 5.84 µl.ml-1 after 60 min oil shows lower antiradical activity in comparison to BHT, and higher activity in comparison to ascorbic acid.

  11. Dosimetry of irradiated foods and extraction of polyminerals from herbs and seasonings (Guajillo chili, oregano, jamaica, arnica, and camomile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda C, S.; Gomez B, C.; Calderon, T.; Cruz Z, E.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries the irradiation technology is a process used in food treatments for sterilization and diminishing of the microbiological charge, as well as to extend the storage life. In Mexico, the food irradiation, spices and seasonings has been officially approved since 1995, recognizing as an adequate technological process for foods. Taking advantage of knowledge about solids and due to the natural growth of the spices, herbs, etc. these contain minerals which can providing important information of its radiological history, moreover these type of materials do not degrade them preserving by long time periods. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of poly minerals in foods, such as oregano, guajillo chili, jamaica, arnica and camomile is presented. For obtaining the poly mineral, the samples were treated with an ethanol-water solution, in constant stirring during 12 hours at room temperature depending on the sample under treatment. It was used oxygenated water and distilled for washing and acetone for achieving a good drying. The minerals were processed by gamma radiation in the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the UNAM. The brilliance curves of spices and herbs, using a Tl reader of Harshaw 3500 were obtained, the emissions are located between 60 and 350 Centigrade. Previously the extraction of poly mineral was realized and they were divided in same parts for doses between 2 and 10 KGy, this last value according to the Mexican Official Standard considering a fraction without irradiating as reference. The identification of the mineral fraction by diffraction will complement the composition information. We are grateful to the donation of seasonings samples provided by the Tres Villas Natural Seasonings enterprise, Toluca plant, State of Mexico and the Academic Exchange Office at UNAM. (Author)

  12. Inhibition and inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium biofilms from polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces by essential oils and phenolic constituent carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kamlesh A; Oladunjoye, Ademola; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, M Wes; Silva, Juan L; Mikel, Benjy; Bailey, R Hartford

    2013-02-01

    Persistence of Salmonella biofilms within food processing environments is an important source of Salmonella contamination in the food chain. In this study, essential oils of thyme and oregano and their antimicrobial phenolic constituent carvacrol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation and inactivate preformed Salmonella biofilms. A crystal violet staining assay and CFU measurements were utilized to quantify biofilm cell mass, with evaluating factors such as strain variation, essential oil type, their concentrations, exposure time, as well as biofilm formation surface. Of the three Salmonella strains, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 23564 and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 19585 produced stronger biofilms than Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028. Biofilm formation by different Salmonella strains was 1.5- to 2-fold higher at 22°C than at 30 or 37°C. The presence of nonbiocidal concentrations of thyme oil, oregano oil, and phenolic carvacrol at 0.006 to 0.012% suppressed Salmonella spp. biofilm formation 2- to 4-fold, but could not completely eliminate biofilm formation. There was high correlation in terms of biofilm inactivation, as determined by the crystal violet-stained optical density (at a 562-nm wavelength) readings and the viable CFU counts. Reduction of biofilm cell mass was dependent on antimicrobial concentration. A minimum concentration of 0.05 to 0.1% of these antimicrobial agents was needed to reduce a 7-log CFU biofilm mass to a nondetectable level on both polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces within 1 h of exposure time.

  13. Attractiveness of essential oils of three Cymbopogon species to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior bioassays were conducted in the laboratory (23 ± 1°C and 50 ± 5% r.h. using the olfactometer to determine the effects of essential oils of three plant species in the Cymbopogon genus (Lemongrass, Cymbopogon nervatus, C. proximus and C. schoenanthus, on adults of Tribolium castaneum. The effect of essential oils was compared to a commercial biopesticide based on azadirachtin at three concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01%. The results showed that all essential oils and the azadirachtin-based biopesticide had significant (p <0.05 repellent effects on T. castaneum adults at all tested concentrations, except C. proximus essential oil which showed a neutral effect at the lowest concentration. The highest concentrations of the essential oils of C. nervatus and C. proximus had significantly stronger repellent effects (p <0.05 than the lowest concentration. At the concentrations of 0.0001 and 0.001% all tested essential oils and azadirachtin showed a similar repellent effect without statistically significant difference, whereas the oil of C. nervatus had the highest repellent effect on adults of T. castaneum at the 0.01% concentration. Considering all tested variations, the essential oils of plants of the genus Cymbopogon showed similar or stronger repellent effects on T. castaneum adults than the biopesticide based on azadirachtin.

  14. Research regarding the antimicrobial activity of essential oils against food borne bacteria and toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA A. DOBRE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against four different bacterial and five fungal strains that are involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus brasiliensis, using two methods: agar disc diffusion method and disc volatilization method. The majority of the selected essential oils presented inhibitory activity against all the microorganisms tested but essential oils of oregano, thyme and clove proved to develop the best antibacterial and antifungal activity both in direct contact and volatilization method and could be used for further investigation in active packaging of food.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and fruits supplement in reduced nitrite salts condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujadinović Dragan P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the growing negative perception of consumers related to the use of meat products produced by conventional curing methods, organic and natural products are increasingly accepted by consumers. Such products contain a large number of natural products derived from plants, spices, as well as their derivatives in form of essential oils, extracts, concentrates, and so on. These derivatives contain large number of active substances which are known to inhibit the metabolic processes of bacteria, yeasts and molds. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the synergistic antimicrobial activity of the models with a reduced presence of nitrite salt in aqueous solution, emulsions of essential oils in varying concentrations in vivo via antibiogram tests on pathogenic microorganisms. The effect of the six model groups was analyzed. Two groups were fruit powder solutions in concentrations of 0.2% to 1.2% (Acerola powder and fruit powder mix, while the other four groups were models of aqueous emulsion of essential oil in concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 1.2% (tea tree, clove, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils. In all models reduced amount of the sodium salt of 1.80%, 0.0075% nitrite salt and the liquid derivative as a natural source of the nitrate salt of 3% were used. Antibiogram tests were performed on five pathogenic bacteria (C. perfringens, E. coli, S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus. All antibiogram tests were performed according to Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion protocol. Results of antibiograms showed that without the presence of additional antimicrobial agents, in model systems with reduced content of salts, inhibition zones were not detected. Additionally, models with essential oils of tea tree oil and oregano had the widest inhibition zone diameters, ranging from 17.76±0.48mm for E. coli up to 42.50±0.13mm for S. aureus.

  16. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage.

  17. Testing of inhibition activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae – the causative agent of American foulbrood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kuzyšinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available American foulbrood is a dangerous world-wide spread disease of honey bees caused by the Paenibacillus larvae bacterium. Antibiotic treatments are less effective and leave residues in bee products. It is therefore necessary to find an alternative, especially using natural ingredients such as plant essential oils, probiotics, fatty or organic acids. Two strains of P. larvae were used for this study: CCM 4488, a strain from the Czech collection of micro-organisms and a Slovak field strain which was isolated from infected bee combs and characterized on the basis of biochemical properties. Plant essential oils of sage (Salvia officinalis, anise (Pimpinella anisum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, caraway (Carum carvi, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinum officinalis, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, camomile (Chamomilla recutita and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare were used for the testing of the inhibitory activity against P. larvae. Essential oils at amounts of 5 µl and 10 µl were applied to sterile discs on MYPGP agar; inhibition zone diameters were measured after 24-h incubation at 37 °C. The strongest inhibitory activity against both P. larvae strains was noted in case of the essential oils from oregano, thyme and clove; essential oils from camomile, rosemary and fennel showed no or weak antibacterial activity. Medium strong inhibition activity was recorded in case of previously untested essential oil from Carum carvi. There was a difference in sensitivity of both tested strains to essential oils. Our study confirmed that some essential oils can be used in the prevention of American foulbrood but further experiments aimed at their influence on physiological intestinal microflora of honey bees must be performed.

  18. Antifungal activity of plant essential oils and selected Pseudomonas strains against Phomopsis theicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starović Mira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of natural plant protection products as an alternative to synthetic fungicides is of significant importance regarding the environment. This study was carried out with an objective to investigate in vitro antifungal activities of several essential oils extracted from oregano, basil, myrtle and Turkish pickling herb, and the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in the genus Pseudomonas, against the phytopathogenic fungus Phomopsis theicola. Microdilution methods were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of selected antimicrobial essential oils (EOs. All EOs exhibited significant levels of antifungal activity against the tested fungal isolates. The oregano EO was found the most potent one (MIC - 5.5 µg/mL, followed by basil (MIC - 75.0µg/mL, myrtle (MIC - 775 µg/mL and Turkish pickling herb (MIC - 7750 µg/mL. Inhibition of Ph. theicola mycelial growth was observed for all tested Pseudomonas spp. strains. K113 and L1 strains were highly effective and achieved more than 60% of fungal growth inhibition using the overnight culture and more than 57% inhibition by applying cell-free supernatants of both strains. A future field trial with K113 and L1 cultures and cell-free supernatants, containing extracellular metabolites toward Ph. theicola, will estimate their effectiveness and applicability as an alternative to chemical protection of apple trees.

  19. Essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus as the potential inhibitor for HSP90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Roopa; Shiralgi, Yallappa; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya B; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2018-01-01

    The essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus or lemongrass oil (LO) is reported to have antibacterial, antifungal and anticancerous effects. HSP90 is one of the major chaperones responsible for the proper folding of cancer proteins. In this paper we show that the essential oil of C. flexuosus significantly suppresses the HSP90 gene expression. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by MTT assay and the gene expression studies were carried out using HEK-293 and MCF-7 cells. Also we tested the efficacy of the major component of this essential oil viz. citral and geraniol in inhibiting the HSP90 expression. The oil was found to be more cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells with different IC 50 values for the oil (69.33 μg/mL), citral (140.7 μg/mL) and geraniol (117 μg/mL). The fold change of expression was calculated by RT-qPCR using ΔΔCt (2 ^-ΔΔCt ) method and it was 0.1 and 0.03 in MCF-7 cells at 80 μg/mL and 160 μg/mL of LO. Western blot results showed suppression of HSP90 protein expression and HSP90 - ATPase activity inhibition was also observed using LO. This study shows the anticancer mechanism exhibited by the essential oil of C. flexuosus is by the inhibition of the important chaperone protein HSP90.

  20. Sensitivity of Candida albicans to essential oils: are they an alternative to antifungal agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, E; Cantamessa, S; Pavan, M; Novello, G; Massa, N; Rocchetti, A; Berta, G; Gamalero, E

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for the majority of yeast infections in humans. Essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, are well-known antimicrobial agents, characterized by a broad spectrum of activities, including antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to assess the sensitivity of 30 different vaginal isolated strains of C. albicans to 12 essential oils, compared to the three main used drugs (clotrimazole, fluconazole and itraconazole). Thirty strains of C. albicans were isolated from vaginal swab on CHROMagar ™ Candida. The agar disc diffusion method was employed to determine the sensitivity to the essential oils. The antifungal activity of the essential oils and antifungal drugs (clotrimazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) were investigated using a microdilution method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to get a deep inside on cellular damages. Mint, basil, lavender, tea tree oil, winter savory and oregano essential oils inhibited both the growth and the activity of C. albicans more efficiently than clotrimazole. Damages induced by essential oils at the cellular level were stronger than those caused by clotrimazole. Candida albicans is more sensitive to different essential oils compared to the main used drugs. Moreover, the essential oil affected mainly the cell wall and the membranes of the yeast. The results of this work support the research for new alternatives or complementary therapies against vaginal candidiasis. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Oregano production under various water depths estimated by means of the class A pan evaporation Produção de orégano com diferentes lâminas de irrigação estimadas a partir da evaporação do tanque classe A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Angélica A Marques

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to analyze the effect of five irrigation water depths on oregano production. Oregano is a plant rich in essential oil, commonly used as seasoning in food preparation. The water depths were estimated based on the class A pan evaporation (CPE: 0 CPE (without water replacement; 25 CPE, 50 CPE, 75 CPE, and 100% CPE. The analyzed variables were fresh and dry weight of leaves and roots, yield, net return, and water use efficiency. The experiment was carried out in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to May 2006. The best results for all the studied variables were found when 100% CPE was used. A linear positive relation was observed between water increments and fresh and dry weight of both the aboveground part and roots. The use of a water depth corresponding to 100% CPE resulted in the maximum productivity (8,089.7 kg ha-1, and in the highest net annual return (R$ 57,637.87 ha-1.Foi analisado o efeito de cinco lâminas de irrigação na produção do orégano, planta rica em óleo essencial, muito usada como tempero na preparação de alimentos. As lâminas de água foram baseadas na evaporação do tanque classe A (ECA sendo: 0 ECA (sem reposição de água; 25 ECA; 50 ECA; 75 ECA e 100% ECA. As variáveis analisadas foram matéria fresca e seca de folhas e raízes, produtividade, receita líquida e eficiência do uso da água. O experimento foi instalado em Presidente Prudente (SP, de fevereiro a maio de 2006. Os melhores resultados para todas as variáveis estudadas foram encontrados com a reposição de 100% ECA. Observou-se uma relação linear positiva entre o incremento das lâminas de irrigação e as massas fresca e seca tanto da parte aérea, quanto das raízes. A aplicação da lâmina de irrigação equivalente a 100% ECA resultou na máxima produtividade observada (8.089,7 kg ha-1 e na receita líquida anual mais alta (R$ 57.637,87 ha-1.

  2. Antioxidant capacity and larvicidal activity of essential oil and extracts from Lippia grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Ivana T. Damasceno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves and thin branches of Lippia grandis Schauer, Verbenaceae, are used for flavoring of food in the Brazilian Amazon, as substitute for oregano. In this study the constituents of the essential oil were identified and the antioxidant capacity and larvicidal activity of the oil and methanol extract and its sub-fractions were evaluated. A sensory evaluation was determined in view of absence of toxicity. The oil showed a yield of 2.1% and its main constituents were thymol (45.8%, p-cymene (14.3%, γ-terpinene (10.5%, carvacrol (9.9% and thymol methyl ether (4.8%, totalizing 85%. The DPPH radical scavenging activity showed values for the EC50 between 9.0 and 130.5 µg mL-1 and the TEAC/ABTS values varied from 131.1 to 336.0 mg TE/g, indicating significant antioxidant activity for the plant. The total phenolic content ranged from 223.0 to 761.4 mg GAE/g, contributing to the antioxidant activity observed. The crude extracts inhibited the bleaching of β-carotene and the oil showed the greatest inhibition (42.5%. The oil (LgO, 7.6±2.4 µg mL-1 showed strong larvicidal activity against the brine shrimp bioassay. The sensory evaluation was highly satisfactory in comparison to oregano. The results are very promising for the use of L. grandis in seasoning and antioxidant products.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  4. [Inhibition of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Vorobjeva, A K; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from 16 various spice plants were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids methyl esters isolated from linseed oil. The content of methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenoate after 1, 2, and 4 months of autooxidation were used as criteria to estimate the antioxidant efficiencies of essential oils. In 4 months, 92% of the methyl linolenoate and 79% of the methyl linoleate were oxidized in a control sample of a model system. It was found that the most effective antioxidants were essential oils from clove bud, cinnamon leaves, and oregano. They inhibited autooxidation of methyl linolenoate by 76–85%. The antioxidant properties of these essential oils were due to phenols— eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol. Essential oil from coriander did not contain phenols, but it inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 38%. Essential oils from thyme, savory, mace, lemon, and tea tree inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 17–24%. The other essential oils had no antioxidant properties.

  5. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Intorasoot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim:\tTo investigate the antibacterial activity of ten volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn., ginger (Zingiber officinale, plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb., lime (Citrus aurantifolia, kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn., tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC., clove (Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and thirty clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii. Methods:\tAgar diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were employed for determination of bactericidal activity of water distillated medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia was used as positive control in this study. Results:\tThe results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 218-222

  6. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal ( Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), plai ( Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ), kaffir lime ( Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil ( Ocimum gratissimum ), lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum ) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR- A. baumannii ). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil ( Melaleuca alternifolia ) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus , E. coli , P. aeruginosa , and A. baumannii . Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa . In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR- A. baumannii with MBC 90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR- A. baumannii infections.

  7. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  8. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  9. Sustained release formulations of citronella oil nanoemulsion using cavitational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Naveen; Maddikeri, Ganesh L; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2017-05-01

    Nanoemulsion synthesis has proven to be an effective way for transportation of immobile, insoluble bioactive compounds. Citronella Oil (lemongrass oil), a natural plant extract, can be used as a mosquito repellent and has less harmful effects compared to its available market counterpart DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Nanoemulsion of citronella oil in water was prepared using cavitation-assisted techniques while investigating the effect of system parameters like HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance), surfactant concentration, input energy density and mode of power input on emulsion quality. The present work also examines the effect of emulsification on release rate to understand the relationship between droplet size and the release rate. Minimum droplet size (60nm) of the emulsion was obtained at HLB of 14, S/O 1 ratio of 1.0, ultrasound amplitude of 50% and irradiation time of 5min. This study revealed that hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted emulsification is more energy efficient compared to ultrasonic emulsification. It was also found that the release rate of nanoemulsion enhanced as the droplet size of emulsion reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  12. Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Deweer, Caroline; Sahmer, Karin; Halama, Patrice

    2017-11-02

    The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC 50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC 50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC 50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0-6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC 50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1-17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC 50 were not different with respectively 9.4-13.0 and 12.2-17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC 50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.

  13. Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthai, Saksit; Prachakoll, Sujitra; Ruangviriyachai, Chalerm; Luthria, Devanand L

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the systematic comparison of extraction of major volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) of citronella grass and lemongrass by classical microhydrodistillation (MHD), as well as modern accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Sixteen VACs were identified by GC/MS. GC-flame ionization detection was used for the quantification of five VACs (citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, citral, and eugenol) to compare the extraction efficiency of the two different methods. Linear range, LOD, and LOQ were calculated for the five VACs. Intraday and interday precisions for the analysis of VACs were determined for each sample. The extraction recovery, as calculated by a spiking experiment with known standards of VACs, by ASE and MHD ranged from 64.9 to 91.2% and 74.3 to 95.2%, respectively. The extraction efficiency of the VACs was compared for three solvents of varying polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol), seven different temperatures (ranging from 40 to 160 degrees C, with a gradual increment of 20 degrees C), five time periods (from 1 to 10 min), and three cycles (1, 2, and 3 repeated extractions). Optimum extraction yields of VACs were obtained when extractions were carried out for 7 min with dichloromethane and two extraction cycles at 120 degrees C. The results showed that the ASE technique is more efficient than MHD, as it results in improved yields and significant reduction in extraction time with automated extraction capabilities.

  14. Laboratory Study of The Effect of Lemongrass Leaves Cymbopogon citratus on An Onion Thrips Insect Thrips tabaci (Thripidae: Thysanoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather A. Mohsin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study was carried out to test the effect of the extracts of ethanol, chloroform, volatile oil and emulsifier of Cymbopogon citratus in killing the adults of the thrips tabaci. The concentrations 250, 500 and 1000 ppm. The results showed that the highest percentage of killed in Volatile oil with a concentration of 1000 ppm at 60.00, 63.33, 66.66, 70 and 76.66% for the first, second, third, fifth and seventh days of control and the lowest percentage was for the emulsifier at 30.00, 36.66, 46.66, 53.33 and 63.33% for the first and second, third, fifth and seventh days of the control, respectively, and we noticed that the higher the concentrations, the higher the percentage of killings and the increase in the percentage of killings cumulatively, as it was the highest percentage of killing on the seventh day.

  15. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Leandro Coutinho de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. essential oils (EOs against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p < 0.05 after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  16. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  17. COMPOSITION AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BENEFICIAL AND PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OILS FROM FOUR CHEMOTYPES OF Origanum AND Lippia GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Betancourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios demuestran la actividad antibacterial de distintos quimiotipos de aceites esenciales de orégano (OEO, carvacrol y timol, contra bacterias patógenas Gram positivas y Gram negativas, pero muy poca información está disponible sobre el efecto de los OEO en bacterias benéficas. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la composición y concentración mínima bactericida (CMB de OEO de quimiotipos del género Origanum: O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH, O. majorana (OM y O. vulgare L. (OL cultivados en Colombia, frente Lippia origanoides Kunth (LO nativo del Alto Pa-tía en Colombia y O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum cultivado en Grecia (OG. Los OEO se ob-tuvieron por arrastre de vapor, la composición se determinó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas y la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de dilución en caldo y cultivo en agar. Se evaluaron tres quimiotipos de OEO: OH y OG tipo-carvacrol, LO y OL tipo-timol y OM rico en compuestos sabinilo. Las variedades de orégano producidas bajo condiciones de invernadero a alta altitud mostraron un alto contenido de precursores. Un valor similar de concentración mínima bactericida contra Salmonella enteritidis (0.098 mg/mL fue observada para carvacrol, OH y LO. La más baja actividad bactericida contra las bacterias benéficas Lactobacillusacidophilusy Bifidobacterium breve fue observada para OM (6.25 mg/mL y LO (50 mg/mL, respectivamente. Estos resultados mostraron que LO, nativo de Colombia presentó un efecto antibacteriano comparable a OH y carvacrol contra enterobacterias patógenas y una baja actividad bactericida contra las bacterias benéficas. Estos resultados mostraron un efecto bactericida selectivo contra bacterias benéficas y patógenas de los quimiotiposOriganum ssp. y L. origanoides. Se comprobó un buen potencial de L. origanoides para uso como aditivo antimicrobiano para la salud humana y animal.

  18. Effect of thyme oil-alginate-based coating on quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarengaowa; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Xiu, Zhilong; Feng, Ke

    2018-04-01

    Food preservation is critical for keeping fresh-cut products fresh, nutritious, safe, attractive and available for consumers. To improve the safety and quality of fresh-cut fruits, 15 essential oils (EOs) were screened to test the antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC O157:H7). The effect of alginate-based edible coating (EC) incorporating different concentrations thyme oil on fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples was investigated. Results showed that thyme oil, cinnamon oil and oregano oil were more effective in inhibiting the microbes than other EOs. The result showed that the combined usage of 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil incorporated with alginate-based EC could significantly inhibit the microbial growth, respiration, weight loss, firmness and browning of fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples. The edible coating and natural additives like thyme oil could be used to preserve the quality of fresh-cut fruits. It revealed that EC incorporated with 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil can be a safe preservative for fresh-cut apples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  20. An in situ study of growth of Lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson on varying concentration of Chromium (Cr+6) on soil and its bioaccumulation: Perspectives on phytoremediation potential and phytostabilisation of chromium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Deepak Kumar; Pradhan, Chinmay; Patra, Hemanta Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agricultural production and food safety. Remediation of Cr from contaminated soils is a challenging task which may not only help in sustaining agriculture but also in minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Pot culture experiments were performed with the application of varied concentration of Cr +6 to assess the Chromium accumulation potential of Lemongrass and to study the impact of toxic concentration of Cr +6 on morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of the plant. The results showed an increasing accumulation trend of Chromium with increasing Chromium concentrations in both root and shoot of 60 days old Lemongrass plants, while the protein and chlorophyll contents decreased. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of proline and antioxidant enzymes indicating the enhanced damage control activity. The potentiality of the plant with the capacity to accumulate and stabilize Cr compound in Cr contaminated soil by phytoremediation process has been explored in the present investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Efficacy of disinfection treatments using essential oils and ultrasound on tomato fruits inoculated with Escherichia coli and impact on antioxidant activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Guevara, María L; Luna Guevara, Juan J; Ruiz Espinosa, Héctor; Leyva Abascal, Lucero; Díaz González, Carolina B

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce often harbors a great number of microorganisms; hence, its growing demand may constitute a risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of several disinfection procedures against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) inoculated on tomato fruits and the conservation of the antioxidant properties of these disinfected fruits. Fruits were immersed for 5 or 10min in oregano or thyme essential oil dispersions (5, 10ppm), with or without ultrasound treatment. Antioxidant activity of disinfected fruits was determined as the ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and was reported as percentage of inhibition (%I). The most efficient disinfectant treatments showing significant differences (p≤.05) between the reductions log10 CFU/g (S) of ETEC were those using 10ppm oregano for 10min, with S=3.05 in individual treatments and S=4.03 in mixed treatments. The highest %I was obtained with individual sonication treatments (69.52 and 72.48), while in combined treatments the %I values increased with thyme oil 5ppm and ultrasound for 5min (51.27%) and 10min (53.31%). Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kompatibilitas Cendawan Entomopatogen Beauveria Bassiana (Bals) Vuill (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) dengan Minyak Serai Wangi

    OpenAIRE

    Trizelia,; Rusli, Rusdi

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are important natural control agents of many insects and can be potentially used as a bioinsecticide against several pests. Other potential source of bioinsecticide is certain plants such as fragrant lemongrass oil. The in vitro compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana and fragrant lemongrass oil was evaluated. Fragrant lemongrass oil was tested in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%). Fragrant lemongrass oi...

  5. Effect of essential oils of medicinal plants on leaf blotch in Tanzania grass Efeito de óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais sobre a helmintosporiose do capim Tanzânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rodrigues dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spots caused by phyto-pathogenic fungi, can reduce the production of forage plants. The essential oils of medicinal plants have antimicrobial potential. The objective here was to evaluate the fungotoxicity in vitro of the essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, lemon balm (Lippia alba (Mill. NE Br ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae and peppermint (Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae on the fungus Helminthosporium sp. and the in vivo effect of these oils and of commercial neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae on leaf blotch in Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1. The mycelial growth of the fungus was evaluated over five periods (2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 days from incubation and with five concentrations of essential oils (C1 = 250 ppm; C2 = 500 ppm; C3 = 750 ppm; C4 = 1,000 ppm e C5 = 1,250 ppm. As an alternative control, the preventative and curative effect on leaf blotch of five oil-based treatments were evaluated: lemongrass, citronella, lemon balm, peppermint and neem in four concentrations (2,500; 5,000; 7,500 and 10,000 ppm. The essential oils of lemongrass and citronella were the most effective in reducing mycelial growth of Helminthosporium sp. With the essential oil of lemongrass, the pathogen presented the highest growth concentration (1.250 ppm. The results obtained showed that all the essential oils and concentrations tested presented a preventive and curative effect, reducing the severity of leaf blotch.Manchas foliares, causadas por fungos fitopatogênicos, podem reduzir a produção de forrageiras. Óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais apresentam potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade in vitro dos óleos essenciais de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e hortel

  6. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  7. Micropropagation effect on the anti-carcinogenic activitiy of polyphenolics from Mexican oregano (Poliomintha glabrescens Gray) in human colon cancer cells HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Enrique; Noratto, Giuliana D; García-Lara, Silverio; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2013-06-01

    Phenolic extracts obtained from spices are known to have anti-carcinogenic activities but little is known about the effect of micropropagation on these beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of flavonoid-enriched extracts (FEE) from the leaves of wild (WT), in vitro (IN), and ex vitro (EX) grown oregano plants in colon cancer cells HT-29 and the non-cancer cells CCD-18Co. Cell proliferation of HT-29 cells was reduced to 50 % by WT, IN, and EX at concentrations of 4.01, 1.32, and 4.84 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/L, respectively. In contrast, in CCD-18Co cells, higher concentrations were required for the same cytotoxic effect. At 6 mg GAE/L, WT and IN reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated control cells to 59.89 and 59.43 %, respectively, and EX to 73.89 %. The mRNA of Caspase-3 was increased 1.53-fold when cells were treated with 4 mg GAE/L of IN extract, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6 (FAS), and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) mRNA increased 2.55 and 1.53 fold, respectively. Results on protein expression corroborated the apoptotic effects with a significant decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression for all treatments but more remarkable for EX that also showed the most intense signal of BAX. Overall, FEE extracts derived from micropropagation had increased pro-apoptotic effects, however extracts from the in vitro plants produced more efficacy at the transcriptional level while extracts from the ex vitro plant were superior at the traductional level.

  8. Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sige; Carey, James R; Liedo, Pablo; Ingram, Donald K; Yu, Binbing

    2012-04-01

    Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet supplemented with or without 2% OC. Lifespan and daily egg production of individual flies were recorded. The effect of short-term OC supplementation was evaluated by implementing the supplementation at three age intervals-young, middle, and old age. We found that OC increased lifespan of Mexflies on the full or DR diet when compared to their respective controls. OC increased reproduction of females on the full diet and, to a lesser extent, on the DR diet. Short-term OC supplementation was not sufficient to extend lifespan for males at all three age intervals nor for females at young and old age intervals. However, OC supplementation at the middle age interval was sufficient to extend lifespan in females, while only OC supplementation at the young age interval increased reproduction in females. Our findings suggest that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.

  9. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  10. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  11. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  12. Comparative studies of antifugal potentialities for some natural plant oils against different fungi isolated from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. H.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of eight natural oils on ten pathogenic fungi isolated from the digestive and respiratory tracts of dead chickens in Kena Governorate showed that crude peppermint oil only has a highest effect against some isolated fungi and a low response against others. While its 10% and 2% oil concentrations failed to give any effect against all the tested fungi. Crude chamomile and pelargonium oils showed moderate effect against all isolated fungi. The effect of different dilutions of chamomile, cumin and celery oils appeared that the 10% concentration showed more effective than the crude oil. Lemongrass and basil oils have almost the same behaviour towards the isolated fungi as the crude oils and the 10% concentration affected them greatly. On the other hand 2% basil oil gave no effect at all. Critical concentrations of the efficient oils against isolated fungi were calculated. The most efficient oils were lemongrass against Aspergillus flavipes, chamomile against A. fumigatus and cumin against A. nidulans, while cumin against A. glaucus, clove against A. flavus were chamomile against A. flavus and clove against A. flavipes were the lowest efficient oils.

    El efecto inhibidor de ocho aceites naturales sobre diez aislados de hongos patógenos de los tractos digestivo y respiratorio de pollos muertos en "Kena Governorate" mostró que el aceite de menta crudo tiene un mayor efecto frente a algunos aislados y una repuesta menor frente a otros. Aunque sus concentraciones en aceite al 10% y 2% consiguieron dar algún efecto frente a todos los hongos ensayados. Aceites de geranio y manzanilla crudo mostraron efecto moderado frente a todos los aislados de hongos. El efecto de disoluciones diferentes de aceites de manzanilla, comino y apio dieron como resultado que la concentración al 10% era más efectiva que el aceite crudo. Aceites de lemongras y albahaca tienen casi el mismo

  13. Melaza de Caña de Azúcar y Suero de Leche como Aditivos en el Ensilaje de Hojas de Zacate de Limón (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf)

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura-Canseco, Lucía María Cristina; Mendoza Nunez, José Alfredo; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva-Llaven, Maria Ángela; Dendooven, Luc; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A.

    2012-01-01

    After extraction of essential oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [DC.] Stapf) leaves by steam distillation (heat treatment), large amounts of organic wastes are obtained. This by-product could easily be used as animal feed. The potential of sugarcane molasse and whey as additives to ensile lemongrass leaves was investigated. The vegetative material was obtained after essential oils were extracted from lemongrass leaves with steam distillation. Lemongrass leaves were chopped, mixed with ...

  14. Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oil prevented biofilm formation and showed antibacterial activity against planktonic and sessile bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Domenico; Napoli, Edoardo Marco; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Vitale, Maria; Ruberto, Andgiuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils from six different populations of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were compared for their antibiofilm properties. The six essential oils (A to F) were characterized by a combination of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector analyses. All oils showed weak activity against the planktonic form of a group of Staphylococcus aureus strains and against a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 reference strain. The ability to inhibit biofilm formation was investigated at sub-MIC levels of 200, 100, and 50 m g/ml by staining sessile cells with safranin. Sample E showed the highest average effectiveness against all tested strains at 50 m g/ml and had inhibition percentages ranging from 30 to 52%. In the screening that used preformed biofilm from the reference strain P. aeruginosa, essential oils A through E were inactive at 200 m g/ml; F was active with a percentage of inhibition equal to 53.2%. Oregano essential oil can inhibit the formation of biofilms of various food pathogens and food spoilage organisms.

  15. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  16. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  17. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  18. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  19. Efficiency of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogum flexuosus in the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ D. LIMMA NETTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum (EOOB and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus (EOCF in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135.2 and 199.1 seconds, respectively and 600 μL L-1 for EOCF (327.1 and 374.8 seconds, respectively. In conclusion, we recommend the use of EOOB and EOCF for the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia at concentrations of 10-25 (for both, 400 and 600 μL L-1, respectively.

  20. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  1. Use of Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), and Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) essential oils and their main components to enhance itraconazole activity against azole susceptible/not-susceptible Cryptococcus neoformans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalas, Daniela; Mandras, Narcisa; Roana, Janira; Tardugno, Roberta; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Ghisetti, Valeria; Benvenuti, Stefania; Tullio, Vivian

    2018-05-03

    Cryptococcal infections, besides being a problem for immunocompromised patients, are occasionally being a problem for immunocompetent patients. In addition, the lower susceptibility of this yeast to azoles is a growing problem in health care. To date, there are very few molecules with any activity towards Cryptococcus neoformans, leading to heightened interest in finding new alternatives or adjuvants to conventional drugs for the treatment of mycosis caused by this yeast. Since the essential oils (EOs) are considered as a potential rich source of bioactive antimicrobial compounds, we evaluated the antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare (oregano), Pinus sylvestris (pine), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme red) EOs, and their components (α-pinene, carvacrol, thymol) compared with fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole, against C.neoformans clinical strains. Then, we investigated the effect of EOs and components in combination with itraconazole. EO composition was analysed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the susceptibility of C.neoformans to azoles, EOs and components. Checkerboard tests, isobolograms and time-kill assays were carried out for combination studies. Six C.neoformans isolates were susceptible to azoles, while one C.neoformans exhibited a reduced susceptibility to all tested azole drugs. All EOs exerted a good inhibitory activity against all C.neoformans strains. Pine EO was the most effective. Among components, thymol exerted the most remarkable activity. By checkerboard testing and isobolographic analysis, combinations of itraconazole with oregano, pine, or thyme EOs, and carvacrol were found to be synergistic (FICI≤0.5) against azole susceptible C.neoformans. Regarding the azole not susceptible C.neoformans strain, the synergistic effect with itraconazole was observed with thyme EO (chemotype: thymol 26.52%; carvacrol 7.85%), and carvacrol. Time-kill assays confirmed the synergistic

  2. Calagem e adubação fosfatada favorecem o crescimento do capim-limão, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf Liming and phosphate fertilization promote lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf., growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V.T. Amarante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O capim-limão, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf., é uma planta utilizada para fins medicinais e aromáticos, porém pouco se conhece sobre as exigências nutricionais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da elevação do pH do solo e da adubação com fósforo (P na disponibilidade de nutrientes e no crescimento inicial do capim-limão. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, de abril a dezembro de 2008, em casa de vegetação. Foi utilizado um esquema fatorial, incluindo quatro níveis de pH (4,1; 5,5; 6,0 e 6,5 e três doses de P (0, 50 e 100 mg kg-1 de solo, com quatro repetições (correspondendo a um vaso com duas plantas. A correção do pH aumentou o Ca e Mg e diminuiu o Al, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn no solo. A aplicação de 100 mg kg-1 de P elevou em mais de 250% a concentração deste nutriente no solo, independente do pH. A aplicação de P e, principalmente, a elevação do pH do solo incrementaram todos os atributos avaliados nas plantas de capim limão (massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, número de folhas e altura de plantas, sendo que a interação entre pH e dose de P somente foi significativa para o número de folhas. O maior crescimento das plantas ocorreu no tratamento com pH 6,5, associado à adição de 100 mg kg-1 de P.Lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf., is a plant with medicinal and aromatic uses. However, little is known about its nutrition requirements. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of pH and phosphorus levels on nutrients availability and the initial growth of lemongrass. The experiment was carried out in Lages (SC, Brazil from April tol December 2008, in greenhouse conditions. The experiment followed a factorial design, with four levels of pH (4.1, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.5, three doses of phosphorus (0, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 of soil, and four replicates (each replicate corresponding to a pot with two plants. The correction of pH increased Ca and Mg, and reduced Al, Mn, Fe

  3. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  4. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  5. Dietary effects of oregano (Origanum vulgaris L. plant or sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood extracts on microbiological, chemical-physical characteristics and lipid oxidation of cooked ham during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ranucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill. or oregano (Origanum vulgaris L. extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL, with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW, respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20 and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C. Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days. At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORACFL assay and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: Total Microbial Count (TMC, Lactic Acid Bacteria count (LAB, Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes, pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*, total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN and thio-barbituric reactive substances (TBARs determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORACFL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORACFL, a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW.

  6. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  7. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, R.S.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Sileem, Th.M.

    2013-01-01

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de aves e bovinos Antimicrobial activity of spice essential oils against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Flores Santurio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A discutida questão da substituição do uso de antibacterianos em rações (promotores de crescimento requer urgentes alternativas. Face às necessidades de inibidores microbianos nesses alimentos, os óleos essenciais (OES se constituem em alternativa, sob avaliação. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos OES de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela, Lippia graveolens (orégano mexicano, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de fezes de aves (n=43 e de bovinos (n=36. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, a partir da máxima concentração de 6400µg mL-1 de cada OE testado. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OES de orégano, orégano mexicano, tomilho, canela. Para todas as amostras testadas, independente de sua origem, os OES mais e menos efetivos quanto à atividade antimicrobiana foram o orégano e a canela, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmaram o potencial antibacteriano de alguns OES, os quais merecem novas investigações abordando sua adição na alimentação de aves e bovinos.The discussed issue about replacing the use of antibiotics in animal feed (growth promoters requires emerging alternatives. To meet the needs of microbial inhibitors in these foods, the essentials oils (EOS constitute potential alternatives under evaluation. In this study it was evaluated the antimicrobial activities of EOs from Oreganum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry (n

  9. Method for the validation and uncertainty estimation of tocopherol analysis applied to soybean oil with addition of spices and TBHQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva, M. G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tocopherol contents of refined soybean oil with the addition of rosemary, oregano, garlic, annatto seeds and TBHQ was evaluated during storage at 25 °C and 35 °C for twelve months, in comparison with a control soybean oil without the antioxidant addition. The method proposed to assess the tocopherol content was validated and the uncertainty estimation was determined. The method presented adequate linearity and precision, accuracy between 93% and 103% and expanded uncertainty of 2%. The contents of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols of all the tested soybean oils remained constant during the storage at 25 °C and 35 °C regardless of antioxidant addition, while β-tocopherol content decreased. The addition of a mixture of rosemary, oregano, garlic and annatto seeds increased the concentration of γ- and δ-tocopherol. The oil with spices presented a similar behavior to that of the oil with the addition of TBHQ.La concentración de tocoferoles en aceite de soja refinado (muestra control, aceite de soja adicionado de romero, orégano, ajo, semilla de achiote y TBHQ fueron cuantificados durante el almacenamiento durante 12 meses a 25°C y 35°C. El método propuesto para medir tocoferoles fue validado y determinada la incertidumbre. Este método presentó linealidad y precisión adecuadas, exactitud entre 93% y 103% además de una incertidumbre expandida de 2%. Las cantidades de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol en el aceite de soja refinado, aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos y aceite de soja adicionado con TBHQ se mantuvieron constantes durante el almacenamiento a 25°C y 35°C con excepción del β-tocoferol el cual disminuyó. El aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos (romero, orégano, ajo, y semilla de achiote presentó mayores concentraciones de γ- y δ-tocoferol en comparación con el aceite de soja refinado utilizado como control. El aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos presentó un comportamiento semejante al aceite de soja adicionado

  10. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  11. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  12. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  13. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minu; Khan, M Masroor A; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud.), grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC), 80% FC and 60% FC)], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA). Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol) of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC), irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO) content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP), respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW) spray treatment (80% FC+ DW). Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment).

  14. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud., grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC, 80% FC and 60% FC], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA. Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC, irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP, respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW spray treatment (80% FC+ DW. Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment.

  15. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  16. Sensory and chemical stability in coated peanuts with the addition of essential oils and synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedo, R. H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of essential oils on the oxidative stability of coated peanuts. Untreated coated peanuts (CP and treated coated peanuts with the addition of rosemary (CP-R, oregano (CP-O and laurel (CP-L essential oils and BHT (CPBHT were prepared. Peroxide values (PV and p-anisidine values (AV and the intensity ratings of sensory attributes by descriptive analysis were measured during 112 days of storage at room temperature (23°C. CP-BHT exhibited the lowest PV and AV increase. CP-R, CP-O and CP-L showed lower rates of increase in PV and AV than CP. The oxidized and cardboard flavor intensity ratings increased much more in CP during storage than the other studied products. CPBHT also showed the lowest increase in the intensity ratings of these sensory attributes. Three essential oils, namely, laurel, oregano and rosemary showed antioxidant activity and increased the shelf life of coated peanuts.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto antioxidante de aceites esenciales sobre la estabilidad oxidativa en maní recubiertos. Se prepararon maníes recubiertos sin agregados (CP, y con el agregado de aceites esenciales de romero (CP-R, orégano (CP-O y laurel (CP-L y BHT (CPBHT. Se midieron, durante 112 días de almacenamiento, los valores de peróxidos (PV y p-anisidina (AV, y las intensidades de atributos sensoriales mediante análisis descriptivo. CP-BHT presentó el menor valor de PV y AV. CP-R, CP-O y CP-L tuvieron mayor PV y AV respecto a CP. Los valores de intensidad del sabor oxidado y cartón tuvieron un mayor incremento en CP durante el almacenamiento con respecto a los otros productos estudiados. La muestra CP-BHT también mostró los menores valores de intensidad de estos atributos sensoriales. Los aceites esenciales de laurel, orégano y romero presentaron actividad antioxidante e incrementaron la vida útil del maní recubierto.

  17. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  18. Seed treatments with essential oils protect radish seedlings against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Klein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seedlings of economic crops is often reduced if there is not a steady supply of water. Essential oils (EO from plants are increasingly used instead of synthetic chemicals to protect plant and animal products against biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated priming radish seeds by soaking or by matriconditioning with synthetic or natural compounds as a means of inducing resistance to drought stress, thus maintaining crop yield. Priming radish seeds for two hours in solutions of essential oils (EO thymol and carvacrol derived from Origanum syriacum, with “oregano natural product” (ONP; a solution of the residue remaining after EO extraction, or with the gibberellin synthesis inhibitor trinexapac ethyl (TE, was much more effective in inducing drought resistance than was matriconditioning with the same compounds in sawdust for two days. The latter treatment induced considerable fungal and bacterial infection in treated seeds if the substrate-matrix was not heat-treated beforehand. The increase in specific leaf area in plants from treated seeds was mostly consistent with an increase in leaf water content. Seed treatments with EO, ONP, and especially TE led to a three-fold increase in radish seedling survival compared with water-treated controls, when 21 day-old seedlings were irrigated after 6 days of drought. Under drought conditions, seedlings from treated seeds had a 2–3-fold increase in relative water content increased 2–3-fold, while membrane permeability decreased 20–50-fold as a result of the treatments. However, the physical benefits of the treatments often did not correlate with treatment-induced increases in physiological parameters such as pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, pigment ratios (chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid/chlorophyll, or antioxidant activity. Seed treatments with biostimulants can be as effective as treatments with synthetic compounds in inducing drought resistance in seedlings.

  19. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  20. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  1. Antifungal activity of essential oils extract from Origanum floribundum Munby, Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus ciliatus Desf. against Candida albicans isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, S; Djebir, S; Bentorki, A A; Gouri, A; Hadef, Y; Benakhla, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to limit the antibiotic use in mastitis treatment and to find other alternatives. The antifungal activity of the essential oils from Origanum floribundum Munby., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus ciliatus Desf. is studied in the present work against a Candida albicans reference strain and ten C. albicans isolated strains from bovine clinical mastitis. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. Their chromatographic analysis was performed with a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). Antifungal activities of essential oils were investigated by macrobroth method of dilution in tubes to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC 80%). Analysis of the essential oil showed chemical profile dominated by thymol (50.47 and 62.41%) and P-cymene (24.22 and 15.51%) in the oregano and the thyme respectively, 1, 8-cineol (31.50%) and α-pinene (18.33%) in Rosemary. The three essential oils revealed highly effective anticandidal activity, with an MIC of 80% values ranged from 15.02 to 31.08μg/mL. These results suggest that essential oils studied can be real alternatives in the control of mastitis fungi but deserving studies more in-depth and detailed on their application in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  3. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  4. Determination of the Efficiency of Some Essential Oil Compounds on the Development of Jonsongrass [(Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe YAZLIK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jonsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. (SORHA is one of the most troublesome perennial weeds caused important yield reductions in the agricultural and environmental problems in the non-agricultural fields. Using a combination of several control strategies is required because Sorha cannot be effectively controlled by a single control method. One of the methods that can be used for the control of Sorha is the usage of allelopathic chemicals. The efficiency of the plants [oregano (Origanum vulgare L., lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.] that have allelochemicals on the SORHA were examined with this study. Using rosemary oil at the high rate (16 μl 38.465 cm2 gave the best results and reduced dry weight at 41.0% when it was applied as pre-emergence. The same essential oil rate obtained from rosemary was the highest adversely effects on the Sorha growth (48.0% when it was used as post-emergence. Post-emergence application of all three volatile oils has provided more influence on the Sorha growth compared to the pre-emergence application.

  5. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  6. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Nancy Sayuri; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.

  7. Development and validation of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography for citral analysis from essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Roopa; Yallappa, S; Dhananjaya, B L; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2016-11-15

    Citral is a widely used monoterpene aldehyde in aromatherapy, food and pesticide industries. A new validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP - HPLC) procedure for the detection and quantification of cis-trans isomers of citral was developed. The RP-HPLC analysis was carried out using Enable C - 18G column (250×4.6mm, 5μ), with acetonitrile and water (70: 30) mobile phase in isocratic mode at 1mL/min flow. A photodiode array (PDA) detector was set at 233nm for the detection of citral. The method showed linearity, selectivity and accuracy for citral in the range of 3-100μg/mL. In order to compare the new RP-HPLC method with the available methods, one of the commercially available essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus was analyzed using new RP-HPLC method and the same was analyzed using GC-MS for the comparison of the method for the detection of citral. The GC-MS analysis was done using mass selective detector (MSD) showed citral content to be of 72.76%; wherein the new method showed to contain that same at 74.98%. To prove the application of the new method, essential oils were extracted from lemongrass, lemon leaves and mosambi peels by steam distillation. The citral content present in the essential and also in the condensate was analyzed. The method was found to be suitable for the analysis of citral in essential oils and water based citral formulations with a very good resolution of its components geranial and neral. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  9. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  10. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  11. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  12. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus in fresh sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Amatiste

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of specific plants, well known especially for their aromatic and antibacterial properties. Nowadays, EOs are exploited in the food sector mainly for their aromatic properties. Thanks to their antimicrobial activity, however, they could also be used as additives to increase the safety and the shelf-life of food products. Aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris L. oil and of Origanum vulgare L. oil against Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and on fresh cheese, and to determine whether the use of EOs can modify the microbiological and/or chemical-physical properties of the products. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in vitro was assessed by preparation of the aromatogram (diffusion in agar test, minimum inhibitory concentration test and minimum bactericidal concentration assessment. Raw sheep milk was experimentally contaminated with a strain of S. aureus ATCC 25922 and was used to produce three types of fresh cheese: without EOs, with thyme and oregano EOs (both EOs at a concentration of 1:1000. The samples were analysed on the day of production, after three and seven days. The results obtained from the tests showed that the concentration of S. aureus and the counts of lactic flora remained unchanged for all types of cheese. Even the chemical-physical parameters were constant. The results of inhibition tests on the cheese disagree with those relating to the in vitro tests. Most likely this is due to the ability of EOs to disperse in the lipids the food: the higher the fat content is, the lower the oil fraction will be able to exert the antimicrobial activity.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Against Staphylococcus aureus in Fresh Sheep Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatiste, Simonetta; Sagrafoli, Daniele; Giacinti, Giuseppina; Rosa, Giulia; Carfora, Virginia; Marri, Nicla; Tammaro, Andreana; Bovi, Emanuela; Rosati, Remo

    2014-08-28

    Essential oils (EOs) are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of specific plants, well known especially for their aromatic and antibacterial properties. Nowadays, EOs are exploited in the food sector mainly for their aromatic properties. Thanks to their antimicrobial activity, however, they could also be used as additives to increase the safety and the shelf-life of food products. Aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris L. oil and of Origanum vulgare L. oil against Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and on fresh cheese, and to determine whether the use of EOs can modify the microbiological and/or chemical-physical properties of the products. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in vitro was assessed by preparation of the aromatogram (diffusion in agar test), minimum inhibitory concentration test and minimum bactericidal concentration assessment. Raw sheep milk was experimentally contaminated with a strain of S. aureus ATCC 25922 and was used to produce three types of fresh cheese: without EOs, with thyme and oregano EOs (both EOs at a concentration of 1:1000). The samples were analysed on the day of production, after three and seven days. The results obtained from the tests showed that the concentration of S. aureus and the counts of lactic flora remained unchanged for all types of cheese. Even the chemical-physical parameters were constant. The results of inhibition tests on the cheese disagree with those relating to the in vitro tests. Most likely this is due to the ability of EOs to disperse in the lipids the food: the higher the fat content is, the lower the oil fraction will be able to exert the antimicrobial activity.

  15. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  16. The effect of edible coating based on Arabic gum, sodium caseinate and essential oil of cinnamon and lemon grass on guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Sanchita Biswas; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2018-04-15

    The effect of five coating formulations viz.: (A) 5% Arabic gum (AG)+1% sodium caseinate (SC)+1% cinnamon oil (CE); (B) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% CE; (C) 5% AG + 1% SC + 1% lemongrass oil (LG); (D) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% LG; and (E) 5% AG + 1% SC + 2% CE + 2% LG on guava during 35 days storage at 4-7 °C was investigated. Thereafter samples were allowed to ripen for five days at 25 ± 2 °C. The quality of guava was analyzed at an interval of 7, 21, 35 and 40 days. The coating applications resulted in lower activity of PPO & POD, higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, higher retention of ascorbic acid, phenol & flavonoid content, exhibited slower rise of reducing and total sugar in guava pulp. Samples in treatment B and D were the best formulations for extending shelf-life of guava up to 40 days versus seven days of uncoated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  18. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  19. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  20. Converting heavy oils into light oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1915-12-22

    A process is described for transforming heavy oils obtained by the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, shales into light oils, and also the heavy oils of mineral and vegetable origin, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid substances or liquids suitably chosen to cause the distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature; solid and liquid substances which favor the production of light products under the influence of heat being added preferably to the oil to be treated before putting it in the retort and before heating, so that light oils are obtained by treatment of the heavy oils in a single operation.

  1. Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi and its Main Essential Oil Constituent Pulegone: Biological Activities and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božović, Mijat; Ragno, Rino

    2017-02-14

    Medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, even if their chemical constituents are not always completely recognized. Observations on their use and efficacy significantly contribute to the disclosure of their therapeutic properties. Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi is an aromatic herb with a mint-oregano flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-ulcer and insecticidal properties. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, pulegone, the major chemical constituent of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested.

  2. Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi and its Main Essential Oil Constituent Pulegone: Biological Activities and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijat Božović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, even if their chemical constituents are not always completely recognized. Observations on their use and efficacy significantly contribute to the disclosure of their therapeutic properties. Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi is an aromatic herb with a mint-oregano flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-ulcer and insecticidal properties. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, pulegone, the major chemical constituent of Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested

  3. Essential Oils Modulate Gene Expression and Ochratoxin A Production in Aspergillus carbonarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; El Khoury, R.; Verheecke, C; Mathieu, F.; Maroun, R.; El Khoury, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin, mainly produced on grapes by Aspergillus carbonarius, that causes massive health problems for humans. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of OTA by using the ten following essential oils (E.Os): fennel, cardamom, anise, chamomile, celery, cinnamon, thyme, taramira, oregano and rosemary at μL/mL and 5 μL/mL for each E.O. As a matter of fact, their effects on the OTA production and the growth of A. carbonarius S402 cultures were evaluated, after four days at 28 °C on a Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM). Results showed that A. carbonarius growth was reduced up to 100%, when cultured with the E.Os of cinnamon, taramira, and oregano at both concentrations and the thyme at 5 μL/mL. As for the other six E.Os, their effect on A. carbonarius growth was insignificant, but highly important on the OTA production. Interestingly, the fennel E.O at 5 _L/mL reduced the OTA production up to 88.9% compared to the control, with only 13.8% of fungal growth reduction. We further investigated the effect of these E.Os on the expression levels of the genes responsible for the OTA biosynthesis (acOTApks and acOTAnrps along with the acpks gene) as well as the two regulatory genes laeA and vea, using the quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The results revealed that these six E.Os reduced the expression of the five studied genes, where the ackps was downregulated by 99.2% (the highest downregulation in this study) with 5 μL/mL of fennel E.O. As for the acOTApks, acOTAnrps, veA and laeA, their reduction levels ranged between 10% and 96% depending on the nature of the E.O and its concentration in the medium. (author)

  4. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  7. Bioatividade de óleos essenciais no controle de Botrytis cinerea isolado de morangueiro Essential oils bioactivity in strawberry grey mould control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Lorenzetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o uso de óleos essenciais sobre isolados de Botrytis cinerea, causador do mofo cinzento em morangueiro. Foram testados óleos essenciais de capim-limão, palmarosa, citronela, cravo, canela, menta, lavanda, tangerina, eucalipto, melaleuca, alecrim e laranja, todos estes analisados em cromatógrafo a gás acoplado a detector de massas, para identificação dos principais componentes dos óleos. Foram avaliados o crescimento micelial, produção e germinação de conídios de B. cinerea, com a incorporação do óleo no meio de cultura. Realizou-se ainda uma avaliação de voláteis e a eficiência de óleos em isolado resistente a fungicida. Para cada teste, diferentes óleos apresentaram eficiência, contudo capim limão, palmarosa, canela e menta demonstraram os melhores efeitos em todos os testes realizados. Todos os tratamentos a base de óleos demonstraram efeito semelhante a um fungicida recomendado para a cultura, a base de tiofanato metílico. Dois tratamentos mostraram-se efetivos no caso de isolado resistente (óleo de capim limão e de canela. Óleos essenciais mostram-se como opção promissora para o desenvolvimento de possíveis produtos fitossanitários para o manejo de doenças em plantas.This study aimed evaluates essential oils in Botrytis cinerea isolates growth, which causes gray mould on strawberry. Were tested essential oils of lemon grass, palmrose, citronella, clove, cinnamon, mint, lavender, tangerine, eucalyptus, tea tree, rosemary and orange. The oils were analyzed in gas chromatograph attached to mass detector for identifying the mainly oils components. Were evaluated mycelial growth, conidia production and conidia germination of B. cinerea, with oil incorporation in culture medium. Were conducted an evaluation of oils volatile components and the efficiency of oils in fungicide-resistant isolate. For each test, different oils showed efficiency, however lemongrass, palmarosa, cinnamon and mint

  8. Effects of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. and Origanum vulgare Linn. from different origins on Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Waller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano are known to have antimicrobial properties, but studies on sporotrichosis are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix spp. activity of essential oils from commercial products and oils extracted from aerial parts of these plants and analyze their chemical constituents. S. schenckii complex and S. brasiliensis (n: 25 isolated from humans, cats, dogs, and environmental soil were tested through M27-A3 guidelines of CLSI with modification for phytotherapics. The essential oils of R. officinalis L. were similar for MIC50 and MFC50 ≤2.25mg/mL for extracted oil; and 4.5mg/mL and 9mg/mL, respectively, for commercial oil. Both products showed MIC90 of 18mg/mL and MFC90 of 36mg/mL. In O. vulgare L., the extracted oil had better activity with MIC50 and MFC50 ≤2.25mg/mL, and MIC90 and MFC90 of 4.5mg/mL, whereas the commercial oil showed MIC50 and MFC50 of 9mg/mL and MIC90 18mg/mL, respectively, and MFC90 of 36mg/mL. Through gas chromatography (CG/FID, thymol and α-terpinene were majority for extracted oil of O. vulgare L., and carvacrol and γ-terpinene made up the majority of the commercial oil. Both essential oils of R. officinalis L. showed 1,8-cineole and α-pinene as major. The fungal isolates were susceptible to all tested essential oils, including in itraconazole-resistant S. brasiliensis isolates. The extracted and commercial oils of the plants presented in vitro anti-Sporothrix spp. activity, and they are promising for treatment of sporotrichosis, including in cases refractory to itraconazole. More studies should be performed about toxicity and in vivo efficacy for its safe use.

  9. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  10. Oil and influence: the oil weapon examined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maull, H

    1975-01-01

    The term ''oil weapon'' as used here signifies any manipulation of the price and/or supply of oil by exporting nations with the intention of changing the political behavior of the consumer nations. The political potential of the oil price is fairly restricted so, in effect, the supply interruptions are of prime concern. Manipulating price does, in principle, offer the possibilities of both conferring rewards and inflicting sanctions. Oil could be sold on preferential prices and terms. A precondition for using the oil weapon successfully would be the ability to cause real and serious damage to the consumer countries. Four damaging potentials for using the oil weapon could include its application by: (1) one producer against one consumer; (2) one producer against all consumers; (3) a group of producers against one consumer; and (4) by a group of producers against all consumers. It is concluded that the oil weapon will continue to be a force in the international system. (MCW)

  11. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  12. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  13. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  14. Isolasi Minyak Atsiri dari Sereh Merah (Andropogon citratus DC.) Segar dan Kering Serta Analisis Komponen Secara GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Betty Meilya

    2013-01-01

    Essential oil is a term used for volatile oil and obtained from part of plant such as leaves, flowers, fruit, bark and roots. Lemongrass oil is a major export commodities among the various types of essential oil. The main content of lemongrass oil are sitronellal and geraniol, and content oil of lemongrass is 0.5 to 1.2%. Andropogon citratus DC. of the family Poaceae is one of plant that contains essential oil and is widely used as a liniment. The objective of this research is to determine th...

  15. In-vitro antimicrobial activity and identification of bioactive components using GC-MS of commercially available essential oils in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Syed Amir; Al-Shammari, Eyad; Hussain, Talib; Tajuddin, Shaikh; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of four different plant essential oils i.e. Ginger oil (GiO), Black seed oil (BSO), Oregano oil (OO) and Rose oil (RO) against different bacterial and fungal strains. Anti-microbial activities of selected essential oils were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion assay. After in vitro study, most of the essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against all the selected pathogens. Among all the tested oils, GiO showed strong antimicrobial activity. GiO showed highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella (119.79%), Enteococcus hirae (110.61%) and Escherichia coli (106.02%), when compared with the tetracycline (50 µg/mL) activity. However, Antifungal activity of GiO was found to be present against Candida albicans and Aspergilluas flavus , when compared with clotrimazole (50 µg/mL) activity. Among all the selected bacteria, BSO showed maximum antimicrobial activity against the E. coli followed by Citrobacter freundii. Moreover, BSO had highest zone of inhibition against the C. ablicans (33.58%). OO indicated that, Shigella had the highest sensitivity (12.6 ± 0.58, 131.25%), followed by E. hirae (19.1 ± 0.61, 96.46%) and Salmonella typhi (15.2 ± 0.27, 83.06%) when compared with tetracycline activity. OO showed poor sensitivity against all the selected fungal strains. Furthermore, Gas Chromatography analysis revealed that, Gingerol (10.86%) was the chief chemical constituents found in GiO followed by α -Sesquiphellandrene (6.29%), Zingiberene (5.88%). While, BSO, OO and RO had higher percentage of p-Cymene (6.90%), Carvacrol (15.87%) and Citronellol (8.07%) respectively. The results exhibited that the essential oils used for this study was the richest source for antimicrobial activity which indicates the presence of broad spectrum antimicrobial compounds in these essential oils. Hence, essential oils and their components can be

  16. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  17. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  18. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  19. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  20. Inibição do desenvolvimento fúngico através da utilização de óleos essenciais de condimentos Inhibition fungi growth through of utilization essential oils of spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cláudio Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos inibitórios, "in vitro", de óleos essenciais dos condimentos, alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L., cebola (Allium cepa L., manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L., menta (Mentha piperita L. e orégano (Origanum vulgare L., sobre o desenvolvimento de fungos. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL-1. Como culturas de teste foram utilizados os fungos Fusarium sp.; Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm.; Aspergillus flavus Link e Aspergillus niger van Tieghem obtidos da micoteca do EcoCentro/EPAMIG em Lavras, MG. O óleo essencial do orégano inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados em todas as concentrações exceto o fungo A. niger que teve o seu desenvolvimento micelial inibido a partir da concentração de 1000 mg/mL-1,. Os óleos de alecrim, menta, cebola e manjericão tiveram um efeito pronunciado a partir da concentração de 1500 mg/mL-1.The objective of this research was to evaluate "in vitro" effect of essential oils of the condiments, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. , onion (Allium cepa L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L., mint (Mentha piperita L. and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. about fungi development. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL-1. The fungi Fusarium sp; Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm; Aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus niger van Tieghemwere obtained from the Fungal Culture Collection, EcoCentro/EPAMIG in Lavras, MG. The essential oil oregano inhibited completely the tested fungi development except the fungus A. niger that had its development inhibited starting from the concentrations of 1000 mg/mL-1. The rosemary, mint, onion and basil oils presented a pronounced effect starting from the concentration of 1500 mg/mL-1.

  1. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  2. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  3. Biodegradation of lubricant oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of ..... amount after biodegradation showed no difference in the .... products polluted sites in Elele, Rivers State, Ngeria.

  4. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  5. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

  6. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    from ruminant livestock using antibiotic feed additives has proved to be useful strategy to .... The antimicrobial activity of ... cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil. In a ... Essential oils have antimicrobial properties,.

  7. Table 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mcabuk

    Effect of a dietary essential oil mixture on performance of laying hens ... Keywords: Essential oils, mannan oligosaccharide, antibiotic, egg production, laying hen, .... essential oils derived from selected herbs: Oregano oil (Origanum sp.), laurel ...

  8. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils against Pathogens Responsible for Otitis Externa in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina V; Nardoni, Simona; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Najar, Basma; Pistelli, Luisa; Mancianti, Francesca

    2017-04-21

    Background: Essential oils (EOs) are recommended by some veterinarians to treat otitis externa in pets, but data about their efficacy in scientific literature are very scant. Methods: Nine commercial EOs, from roman chamomile ( Anthemis nobilis L.), star anise ( Illicium verum ), lavender ( Lavandula hybrida ), litsea ( Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.), basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.), oregano ( Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirticum ), rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.), clary sage ( Salvia sclarea L.), and thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) were tested against bacterial and fungal pathogens previously isolated from dogs and cats with otitis externa. In particular, the analyses were carried out against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudointermedius , Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Trichosporon sp., and Rhodotorula sp. Results: O. vulgare and S. sclarea showed superior antibacterial activity, even if not against all the strains. Trichosporon sp., C. albicans , and A. terreus were insensitive to most Eos, while other yeasts and molds showed different degrees of sensitivity. In particular, most fungi were inhibited by O. vulgare and R. officinalis . Conclusions: The obtained results suggest that some EOs could be included in treatment as an alternative therapeutic option in bacterial otitis complicated by fungi, in association with conventional drugs.

  9. A new oil crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, R.C.G.; Van Herpt, I.R.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in the oil market are discussed, focusing on the causes of recent price increase, expectations for the near future, why previous oil crises resulted into a recession, and the expected consequences of the oil price increase for the economic growth and inflation. The negative consequences of the high oil price for the European economy can be limited under the condition that claims for higher wages are moderate. 2 refs

  10. Oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, Philip

    1997-01-01

    The role of the International Energy Agency's (IEA) ''OiMarket Report'' is described in terms of its response to and support for oil companies seeking to monitor short-term global oil market developments. The document is increasingly used for reference both by industry and governments. Data is compiled from oil companies, consultants, and government, and OECD countries provide supply/demand oil balance data by product grade on a monthly basic. (UK)

  11. The oil distribution file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A series of articles addresses the recent evolutions of the French domestic fuel oil market, the development of the Argos oil company (a Dutch group) on this market, the situation and the recent evolution of the German oil product market in 2007 and 2008, the problem faced by the mandatory introduction of biofuels in Belgium and in Spain, the evolution of the Italian oil product market, and the mandatory introduction of biofuels in the United Kingdom in 2008

  12. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  13. Sassafras oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than the ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  14. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  15. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  16. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  17. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  18. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  19. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  20. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  1. New round for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamarche, Myrtille

    2018-01-01

    After three years of crisis, oil companies are now strongly reinvesting, while oil prices are stabilizing at a reasonable long-term level, notably due to a rising demand from developing countries. Examples of new investments made by majors such as Total, Shell or Exxon but also by national companies and junior companies, are given. Oil price evolution as well as cost reductions (thanks notably to the digitalisation of the sector, leading to a decrease in exploration costs) are analyzed. The importance of the US oil production, and particularly shale oil production, is pinpointed

  2. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  3. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  4. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  5. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  6. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  7. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  8. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  9. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  10. Seasonal and diurnal variability of essential oil and its components in Origanum onites L. grown in the ecological conditions of Çukurova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpik, Muzaffer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Oregano ( Origanum onites L. is one of the most commonly collected from nature as well as cultivated Origanum species in Turkey . In addition, Turkish Oregano is the most exported Origanum species from Turkey to the entire World. In this study, the seasonal and diurnal variability of the essential oil content in Origanum onites L. grown in the ecological conditions of Çukurova was studied from September 2000-August 2001. Monthly variability of the essential oil composition was also studied. The plant cuttings collected from the region were rooted in the greenhouse and transferred to the field in a split plot design with three replications. One year later from transplanting, fresh leaves from the top shoots were collected every week three times a day on Monday (at 08.00, 12.00 and 16.00 o'clock throughout the year. The content and composition of the essential oil were analysed in fresh leaf samples by hydrodistillation. The essential oil content changed according to the seasons and the hour of day. The highest essential oil content (% 1.92 was found in the post-flowering -at the beginning of the seed formation period in the afternoon harvests during the second half of June (40th week. The essential oil composition varied monthly and the highest value (% 73.65 of carvacrol, the main component of the essential oil, was obtained from the flowering period in MayEl orégano turco ( Origanum onites L. es uno de los más recolectados de la naturaleza así como la especie de orégano más cultivada en Turquía. Además es la especie de orégano más exportada desde Turquía a todo el mundo. En este trabajo se estudió la variabilidad estacional y diurna del contenido de aceite esencial de Origanum onites L. cultivado en las condiciones ecológicas de Çukurova desde Septiembre de 2000 a Agosto de 2001. Se estudió también la variabilidad mensual de la composición del aceite esencial. Los plantones recogidos en la región fueron plantados en un

  11. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  12. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Eshita [The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, New Delhi 110 003 (India)

    2008-03-15

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  13. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  14. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  15. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol...

  16. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  17. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  18. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  19. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  20. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Transformer oil maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. [A.F. White Ltd., Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Proactive treatment is required in the case of transformer oil, since the oil degrades over time, which could result in the potential failure of the transformer or costly repairs. A mineral-based oil is used for transformers because of its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Water and particulate are the main contaminants found in transformer oil, affecting the quality of the oil through reduced insulation. Acid that forms in the oil when reacting with oxygen is called oxidization. It reduces the heat dissipation of the transformer as the acid forms sludge which settles on the windings of the transformer. The first step in the preventive maintenance program associated with transformer oil is the testing of the oil. The base line is established through initial testing, and subsequent annual testing identifies any changes. The minimal requirements are: (1) dielectric breakdown, a measure of the voltage conducted by the oil; (2) neutralization/acid number, which detects the level of acid present in the oil; (3) interfacial tension, which identifies the presence of polar compounds; (4) colour, which displays quality, aging and the presence of contaminants; and (5) water, which decreases the dielectric breakdown voltage. The analysis of the gases present in the oil is another useful tool in a maintenance program for the determination of a possible fault such as arcing, corona or overheated connections and is accomplished through Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). Remediation treatment includes upgrading the oil. Ideally, reclamation should be performed in the early stages of the acid buildup before sludging occurs. Onsite reclamation includes Fuller's earth processing and degasification, a process briefly described by the author.

  2. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscom, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  3. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  4. Treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbear, S H

    1921-01-04

    Oil shale is treated for the separation of the valuable organic compounds, with a view to economy in subsequent destructive distillation, by grinding to powder, mixing with water to form a pulp, adding a small quantity of an oil liquid and aerating the mixture to form a froth containing the organic compounds. If the powdered shale contains sufficient free oil, the addition of oil to the pulp may be dispensed with. In some cases an electrolyte such as sulfuric acid may be added to the pulp.

  5. Determinação da qualidade microbiológica e físico-química de chás de Cymbopogon citratus (D.C Stapf (capim-limão = Evaluation of the microbiological and physical-chemical qualities of lemongrass tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Carneiro Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em função do grande volume de produção e comercialização do capim-limão, estima-se que uma contaminação microbiológica deste produto possa representar importante risco para a saúde pública. Esta pesquisa visou avaliar marcas de chá de capimlimão, em relação às qualidades microbiológica e físico-química, tendo como base alegislação brasileira do Ministério da Saúde. Nenhuma das amostras apresentou Salmonella sp., porém em 50% delas, houve presença de coliformes a 35ºC. Em três amostras, evidenciaram-se coliformes a 45ºC, com presença de Escherichia coli em uma destas. 81,25%das amostras apresentaram bolores e leveduras, porém sem relação direta com os teores de umidade observados. Dentre os fungos presentes, identificou-se Aspergillus niger, no entanto sem produção de aflatoxinas. Todos infusos analisados negativaram a contaminação evidenciada nos testes com o produto seco. Os resultados indicaram possíveis falhas nos procedimentos pós-colheita e de comercialização. A implementação do Sistema APPCC (HACCP poderia substancialmente minimizar esta contaminação.Considering the great volume of lemongrass production andcommercialization, it is estimated that a potential microbiological contamination of this product could represent an important hazard to public health. This study was performed to evaluate different brands of lemongrass tea, regarding their microbiological and physicalchemical quality, based on the legislation of the Brazilian Health Ministry. No traces of Salmonella sp. were found, but in 50% of samples, the presence of coliforms was detected at 35ºC. Three samples presented coliforms at 45ºC, with Escherichia coli found in one of them. 81.25% of samples presented molds and yeasts. Among the fungi present, Aspergillus niger was identified, but aflatoxins were absent. None of the infusions analyzed presented the contamination evidenced in the dry product. The results obtained may be

  6. Regeneration from embryogenic callus and suspension cultures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ehab

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... cultures of the wild medicinal plant Cymbopogon schoenanthus ... nardus, C. martini, C. citratus and C. flexuosus are the source of palmerosa, citronella, lemon-grass and oil of. Malabar ...... marketing of essential oils. J. Med.

  7. 40 CFR 152.25 - Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solids Rosemary and rosemary oil Sesame (includes ground sesame plant) and sesame oil Sodium chloride (common salt) Sodium lauryl sulfate Soybean oil Thyme and thyme oil White pepper Zinc metal strips... Geraniol Geranium oil Lauryl sulfate Lemongrass oil Linseed oil Malic acid Mint and mint oil Peppermint and...

  8. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  9. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kernel oil, or both oils. 172.861 Section 172.861 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  10. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  11. Process for extracting oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil (byproduct of woodspirit rectification), if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot.

  12. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  13. Oil shale technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail

  14. Manitoba oil activity review, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  15. Manitoba oil activity review, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  16. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  17. Purifying oils, cracking oils, catalysts. [British Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-05

    Hydrocarbon oils are refined by treating while substantially in the liquid phase between 200/sup 0/ and 400/sup 0/C with a phosphoric acid catalyst deposited on metallurgical coke, a suitable blast furnace slag, silica gel or other carrier with similar properties, until the objectionable components are converted into innocuous substances by polymerization cracking, isomerization and/or alkylation. By this treatment the bromine number is reduced, the end-point of the A.S.T.M. distillation is increased, the octane number is raised, mercaptans are converted to hydrogen sulphide and olefines, thioethers and thiophenes are converted to mereaptans, and the initial boiling point is lower