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Sample records for lemon creek streamflow

  1. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  2. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  3. Effects of forest management on streamflow, sediment yield, and erosion, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth T. Keppeler; Jack Lewis; Thomas E. Lisle

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds were established in 1962 to research the effects of forest management on streamflow, sedimentation, and erosion in the rainfall-dominated, forested watersheds of north coastal California. Currently, 21 stream sites are gaged in the North Fork (473 ha) and South Fork (424 ha) of Caspar Creek. From 1971 to 1973, 65% of...

  4. Simulation of streamflow and estimation of recharge to the Edwards aquifer in the Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, 1951-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, constructed three watershed models using the Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN (HSPF) to simulate streamflow and estimate recharge to the Edwards aquifer in the Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds in south-central Texas. The three models were calibrated and tested with available data collected during 1992–2003. Simulations of streamflow and recharge were done for 1951–2003. The approach to construct the models was to first calibrate the Hondo Creek model (with an hourly time step) using 1992–99 data and test the model using 2000–2003 data. The Hondo Creek model parameters then were applied to the Verde Creek and San Geronimo Creek watersheds to construct the Verde Creek and San Geronimo Creek models. The simulated streamflows for Hondo Creek are considered acceptable. Annual, monthly, and daily simulated streamflows adequately match measured values, but simulated hourly streamflows do not. The accuracy of streamflow simulations for Verde Creek is uncertain. For San Geronimo Creek, the match of measured and simulated annual and monthly streamflows is acceptable (or nearly so); but for daily and hourly streamflows, the calibration is relatively poor. Simulated average annual total streamflow for 1951–2003 to Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek is 45,400; 32,400; and 11,100 acre-feet, respectively. Simulated average annual streamflow at the respective watershed outlets is 13,000; 16,200; and 6,920 acre-feet. The difference between total streamflow and streamflow at the watershed outlet is streamflow lost to channel infiltration. Estimated average annual Edwards aquifer recharge for Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds for 1951–2003 is 37,900 acrefeet (5.04 inches), 26,000 acre-feet (3.36 inches), and 5,940 acre-feet (1.97 inches), respectively. Most of the recharge (about 77 percent for the three watersheds

  5. Spatio-temporal evolution of efficient subglacial water discharge at Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Labedz, C. R.; Amundson, J. M.; Gimbert, F.; Tsai, V. C.; Vore, M. E.; Karplus, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of subglacial hydrology on glacier motion, glacier erosion and sediment transport, and submarine melt is well established. However, despite its importance, critical gaps in our understanding of subglacial hydrology and its seasonal evolution remain, in large part due to the challenge of making observations of glacier beds. Thus far, no spatially extensive, temporally continuous observations of subglacial water discharge exist. Seismic signals produced by subglacial water flow, and which correlate with subglacial water discharge, can meet this need. Here, we present the first observations from a 2017 summer seismic, geodetic, and hydrologic experiment. Our experiment seeks to better understand the evolution of efficient subglacial drainage and water storage through data collection and analysis at Lemon Creek Glacier, a 5.7 km-long glacier with a gauged outlet in Southeast Alaska. Data with nested spatial resolutions create an unparalleled perspective of subglacial discharge and its seasonal evolution. Six broadband seismometers and two GPS receivers installed for 80 days provide a long-term view of subglacial discharge and its impact on glacier dynamics. More than 100 nodes, installed approximately every 250 m over the glacier surface ( 13 nodes per 1 km^2) and deployed for up to 25 days, reveal the detailed spatial pattern of glaciohydraulic tremor amplitudes. These nodes enable us to more precisely infer the locations of subglacial discharge and its change, as well as better interpret long-term patterns of glaciohydraulic tremor observed by the broadband seismometers. We infer the subglacial response to hydraulic transients over the duration of the deployment through examination of intermittent melt and rain events, and the abrupt drainage of a glacier-dammed lake. These observations demonstrate the promise of seismology to significantly advance our understanding of glacier hydrology and associated glaciological processes.

  6. Seismic observations of subglacial water discharge from glacier-dammed lake drainage at Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labedz, C. R.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Gimbert, F.; Amundson, J. M.; Vore, M. E.; Karplus, M. S.; Tsai, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    Subglacial water flow affects the dynamics of glaciers, influencing basal sliding, sediment transport, fracturing, and terminus dynamics. However, the difficulty of directly observing glacial hydrologic systems creates significant challenges in understanding such glacier behavior. Recently-developed descriptions of ground motion generated by subglacial water flow provide a promising basis for new and unique characterization of glacial hydrologic systems. Particularly, high-frequency ( 1.5-20 Hz) seismic tremor observed near glaciers has been shown to correlate with subglacial runoff. In addition, specific properties of subglacial water flow like water pressure, conduit size, sediment flux, and grain size can be inferred by examining hysteretic behavior over time between different parts of these signals. In this study, we observe the seismic signals generated by subglacial water flow using a high-density array of more than 100 nodes deployed for 10-25 days, and six broadband seismometers deployed for 80 days at Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska. Specifically, we examine the 36-hour drainage of a glacier-dammed lake into subglacial conduits, comparing hydrologic metrics such as lake level, precipitation, and outlet stream flow rate to the power of seismic signals. Our node array captures this annually-significant hydraulic transient with sensors spaced approximately every 250 m over the majority of the 5.7 km long glacier. This and other lake drainage events provide natural experiments for exploring glaciohydraulic tremor, because the increased water flux through the glacier increases the power of the tremor and hosts the hysteretic behaviors described previously. Analysis of the tremor from events such as this can be extended to further understand subglacial runoff at Lemon Creek glacier and for glacier hydrology in general.

  7. Streamflow predictions under climate scenarios in the Boulder Creek Watershed at Orodell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Williams, M. W.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Mountainous areas have complex geological features and climatic variability, which limit our ability to simulate and predict hydrologic processes, especially in face to a changing climate. Hydrologic models can improve our understanding of land surface water and energy budgets in these regions. In this study, a distributed physically-based hydrologic model is applied to the Boulder Creek Watershed, USA to study streamflow conditions under future climatic scenarios. Model parameters were adjusted using observed streamflow data at 1/16th degree resolution, with a NSE value of 0.69. The results from CMIP5 models can give a general range of streamflow conditions under different climatic scenarios. Two scenarios are being applied, including the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. RCP 8.5 has higher emission concentrations than RCP 4.5, but not very significant in the period of study. Using pair t-test and Mann-Whitney test at specific grid cells to compare modeled and observed climate data, four CMIP5 models were chosen to predict streamflow from 2010 to 2025. Of the four models, two models predicted increased precipitation, while the other two models predicted decreased precipitation, and the four models predicted increased minimum and maximum temperature in RCP 4.5. Average streamflow decreased by 2% 14%, while maximum SWE varies from -7% to +210% from 2010 to 2025, relative to 2006 to 2010. In RCP 8.5, three models predicted increased precipitation, while the other one model predicted decreased precipitation, and the four models predicted increased maximum and minimum temperature. Besides one model, the other three models predicted increased average streamflow by 3.5% 32%, which results from the higher increasing magnitude in precipitation. Maximum SWE varies by 6% 55% higher than that from 2006 to 2010. This study shows that average daily maximum and minimum temperature will increase toward 2025 from different climate models, while average streamflow will decrease in RCP 4

  8. Streamflow investigations on a reach of Hobble Creek near Springville, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.

    2017-07-27

    The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is proposing to deliver supplemental flow to Hobble Creek from Strawberry Reservoir through the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline. A substantial portion of the supplemental water is intended to benefit June Sucker recovery and other fish and wildlife along Hobble Creek. The objective of this study was to determine gains or losses of water in a section of Hobble Creek between the Island Dam and the Swenson Dam (the primary study reach) during different seasons and flow conditions.Paired measurements of flow in Hobble Creek were made during June to November 2016, at sites bracketing the primary study reach from site HC3 to HC6. These measurements showed increased streamflow in this reach that ranged from 6.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to 9.3 ft3/s. During August and November, two sets of measurements were made at several locations along the study reach to document baseline conditions, and then an additional amount of water (a pulse of about 9–10 ft3/s) from Strawberry Reservoir through the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline, was added to the reach. During the August 23 measurements, the average change at the upstream site (HC3) relative to the pulse was 9.3 ft3/s, and the average change at the downstream site (HC6) was about 8.4 ft3/s, leaving about 0.9 ft3/s of the additional water unaccounted for at site HC6. However, there was no significant difference between the net streamflow volume at sites HC3 and HC6 associated with the pulse that would indicate water was being lost. During the November 7–9 streamflow measurements, the average change in discharge at site HC3 relative to an increase in flow from the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline (the pulse) was 9.6 ft3/s, and the average change at site HC6 was about 9.8 ft3/s. On the basis of these measurements it appears that the entire amount of the pulse added to the stream at site HC3 was accounted for at site HC6. Additionally, there was no

  9. Ten years of real-time streamflow gaging of turkey creek - where we have been and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Conrads; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    The Turkey Creek watershed is a third-order coastal plain stream system draining an area of approximately 5,240 hectares of the Francis Marion National Forest and located about 37 miles northwest of Charleston near Huger, South Carolina. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service maintained a streamflow gaging station on Turkey Creek from 1964 to 1981....

  10. Trends in precipitation and streamflow and changes in stream morphology in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 1939-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    The Fountain Creek watershed, located in and along the eastern slope of the Front Range section of the southern Rocky Mountains, drains approximately 930 square miles of parts of Teller, El Paso, and Pueblo Counties in eastern Colorado. Streamflow in the watershed is dominated by spring snowmelt runoff and storm runoff during the summer monsoon season. Flooding during the 1990?s has resulted in increased streambank erosion. Property loss and damage associated with flooding and bank erosion has cost area residents, businesses, utilities, municipalities, and State and Federal agencies millions of dollars. Precipitation (4 stations) and streamflow (6 stations) data, aerial photographs, and channel reconnaissance were used to evaluate trends in precipitation and streamflow and changes in channel morphology. Trends were evaluated for pre-1977, post-1976, and period-of-record time periods. Analysis revealed the lack of trend in total annual and seasonal precipitation during the pre-1977 time period. In general, the analysis also revealed the lack of trend in seasonal precipitation for all except the spring season during the post-1976 time period. Trend analysis revealed a significant upward trend in long-term (period of record) total annual and spring precipitation data, apparently due to a change in total annual precipitation throughout the Fountain Creek watershed. During the pre-1977 time period, precipitation was generally below average; during the post- 1976 time period, total annual precipitation was generally above average. During the post- 1976 time period, an upward trend in total annual and spring precipitation was indicated at two stations. Because two of four stations evaluated had upward trends for the post-1976 period and storms that produce the most precipitation are isolated convection storms, it is plausible that other parts of the watershed had upward precipitation trends that could affect trends in streamflow. Also, because of the isolated nature of

  11. Spatiotemporal variability of inorganic nutrients during wastewater effluent dominated streamflow conditions in Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2012–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Williams, Thomas J.; King, Lindsey R.

    2016-10-31

    Nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, are a leading cause of water-quality impairment in Kansas and the Nation. Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereinafter Middle Basin) wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) is the largest point-source discharge on Indian Creek. A second facility, the Tomahawk Creek WWTF, discharges into Indian Creek approximately 11.6 kilometers downstream from the Middle Basin WWTF. To better characterize the spatiotemporal variability of nutrients in Indian Creek, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment and Johnson County Wastewater, collected high-resolution spatial and temporal (a large number of samples collected over the entire reach or at single locations over a long period of time) inorganic nutrient (nitrate plus nitrite and orthophosphorus) data using a combination of discrete samples and sensor-measured data during 2012 through 2015.Nutrient patterns observed in Indian Creek along the upstream-downstream gradient during wastewater effluent dominated streamflow conditions were largely affected by the WWTFs and by travel time of the parcels of water. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations in the Middle Basin WWTF effluent and at downstream sites varied by as much as 6 milligrams per liter over a 24-hour period. The cyclical variability in the Middle Basin WWTF effluent generated a nitrate plus nitrite pulse that could be tracked for approximately 11.5 kilometers downstream in Indian Creek, until the effect was masked by the Tomahawk Creek WWTF effluent discharge. All longitudinal surveys showed the same general patterns along the upstream-downstream gradient, though streamflows, wastewater effluent contributions to streamflow, and nutrient concentrations spanned a wide

  12. Microbial communities of the Lemon Creek Glacier show subtle structural variation yet stable phylogenetic composition over space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Springer Sheik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are geologically important yet transient ecosystems that support diverse, biogeochemically significant microbial communities. During the melt season glaciers undergo dramatic physical, geochemical and biological changes that exert great influence on downstream biogeochemical cycles. Thus, we sought to understand the temporal melt-season dynamics of microbial communities and associated geochemistry at the terminus of Lemon Creek Glacier (LCG in coastal southern Alaska. Due to late season snowfall, sampling of LCG occurred in three interconnected areas: proglacial Lake Thomas, the lower glacial outflow stream and the glacier’s terminus. LCG associated microbial communities were phylogenetically diverse and varied by sampling location. However, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated communities at all sampling locations. Strict anaerobic groups such as methanogens, SR1, and OP11 were also recovered from glacier outflows, indicating anoxic conditions in at least some portions of the LCG subglacial environment. Microbial community structure was significantly correlated with sampling location and sodium concentrations. Microbial communities sampled from terminus outflow waters exhibited day-to-day fluctuation in taxonomy and phylogenetic similarity. However, these communities were not significantly different from randomly constructed communities from all three sites. These results indicate that glacial outflows share a large proportion of phylogenetic overlap with downstream environments and that the observed significant shifts in community structure are driven by changes in relative abundance of different taxa, and not complete restructuring of communities. We conclude that LCG glacial discharge hosts a diverse and relatively stable microbiome that shifts at fine taxonomic scales in response to geochemistry and likely water residence time.

  13. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Leon Creek watershed, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the San Antonio River Authority, configured, calibrated, and tested a Hydrological Simulation Program ? FORTRAN watershed model for the approximately 238-square-mile Leon Creek watershed in Bexar County, Texas, and used the model to simulate streamflow and water quality (focusing on loads and yields of selected constituents). Streamflow in the model was calibrated and tested with available data from five U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations for 1997-2004. Simulated streamflow volumes closely matched measured streamflow volumes at all streamflow-gaging stations. Total simulated streamflow volumes were within 10 percent of measured values. Streamflow volumes are greatly influenced by large storms. Two months that included major floods accounted for about 50 percent of all the streamflow measured at the most downstream gaging station during 1997-2004. Water-quality properties and constituents (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, suspended sediment, dissolved ammonia nitrogen, dissolved nitrate nitrogen, and dissolved and total lead and zinc) in the model were calibrated using available data from 13 sites in and near the Leon Creek watershed for varying periods of record during 1992-2005. Average simulated daily mean water temperature and dissolved oxygen at the most downstream gaging station during 1997-2000 were within 1 percent of average measured daily mean water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Simulated suspended-sediment load at the most downstream gaging station during 2001-04 (excluding July 2002 because of major storms) was 77,700 tons compared with 74,600 tons estimated from a streamflow-load regression relation (coefficient of determination = .869). Simulated concentrations of dissolved ammonia nitrogen and dissolved nitrate nitrogen closely matched measured concentrations after calibration. At the most downstream gaging station, average simulated monthly

  14. Tracking seasonal subglacial drainage evolution of alpine glaciers using radiogenic Nd and Sr isotope systematics: Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinger, A. E.; Aciego, S.; Stevenson, E. I.; Arendt, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The transport pathways of water beneath a glacier are subject to change as melt seasons progress due to variability in the balance between basal water pressure and water flux. Subglacial hydrology has been well studied, but the understanding of spatial distribution is less well constrained. Whereas radiogenic isotopic tracers have been traditionally used as proxies to track spatial variability and weathering rates in fluvial and riverine systems, these techniques have yet to be applied extensively to the subglacial environment and may help resolve ambiguity in subglacial hydrology. Research has shown the 143Nd/144Nd values can reflect variation in source provenance processes due to variations in the age of the continental crust. Correlating the 143Nd/144Nd with other radiogenic isotope systematics such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) provides important constraints on the role of congruent and incongruent weathering processes. Our study presents the application of Nd and Sr systematics using isotopic ratios to the suspended load of subglacial meltwater collected over a single melt season at Lemon Creek Glacier, USA (LCG). The time-series data show an average ɛNd ~ -6.83, indicating a young bedrock (~60 MYA). Isotopic variation helps track the seasonal expansion of the subglacial meltwater channels and subsequent return to early season conditions due to the parabolic trend towards less radiogenic Nd in June and towards more radiogenic Nd beginning in mid-August. However, the high variability in July and early August may reflect a mixture of source as the channels diverge and derive sediment from differently aged lithologies. We find a poor correlation between 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr (R2= 0.38) along with a slight trend towards more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values with time ((R2= 0.49). This may indicate that, even as the residence time decreases over the melt season, the LCG subglacial system is relatively stable and that the bedrock is congruently weathered. Our study

  15. Changes in biological communities of the Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2003–2016, in relation to antecedent streamflow, water quality, and habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Bruce, James F.; Zuellig, Robert E.

    2018-01-08

    The analysis described in this report is part of a longterm project monitoring the biological communities, habitat, and water quality of the Fountain Creek Basin. Biology, habitat, and water-quality data have been collected at 10 sites since 2003. These data include annual samples of aquatic invertebrate communities, fish communities, water quality, and quantitative riverine habitat. This report examines trends in biological communities from 2003 to 2016 and explores relationships between biological communities and abiotic variables (antecedent streamflow, physical habitat, and water quality). Six biological metrics (three invertebrate and three fish) and four individual fish species were used to examine trends in these data and how streamflow, habitat, and (or) water quality may explain these trends. The analysis of 79 trends shows that the majority of significant trends decreased over the trend period. Overall, 19 trends before adjustments for streamflow in the fish (12) and invertebrate (7) metrics were all decreasing except for the metric Invertebrate Species Richness at the most upstream site in Monument Creek. Seven of these trends were explained by streamflow and four trends were revealed that were originally masked by variability in antecedent streamflow. Only two sites (Jimmy Camp Creek at Fountain, CO and Fountain Creek near Pinon, CO) had no trends in the fish or invertebrate metrics. Ten of the streamflow-adjusted trends were explained by habitat, one was explained by water quality, and five were not explained by any of the variables that were tested. Overall, from 2003 to 2016, all the fish metric trends were decreasing with an average decline of 40 percent, and invertebrate metrics decreased on average by 9.5 percent. A potential peak streamflow threshold was identified above which there is severely limited production of age-0 flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis).

  16. Streamflow, groundwater hydrology, and water quality in the upper Coleto Creek watershed in southeast Texas, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Goliad County Groundwater Conservation District, Victoria County Groundwater Conservation District, Pecan Valley Groundwater Conservation District, Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, and San Antonio River Authority, did a study to examine the hydrology and stream-aquifer interactions in the upper Coleto Creek watershed. Findings of the study will enhance the scientific understanding of the study-area hydrology and be used to support water-management decisions to help ensure protection of the Evangeline aquifer and surface-water resources in the study area. This report describes the results of streamflow measurements, groundwater-level measurements, and water quality (from both surface-water and groundwater sites) collected from three sampling events (July–August 2009, January 2010, and June 2010) designed to characterize groundwater (from the Evangeline aquifer) and surface water, and the interaction between them, in the upper Coleto Creek watershed upstream from Coleto Creek Reservoir in southeast Texas. This report also provides a baseline level of water quality for the upper Coleto Creek watershed. Three surface-water gain-loss surveys—July 29–30, 2009, January 11–13, 2010, and June 21–22, 2010—were done under differing hydrologic conditions to determine the locations and amounts of streamflow recharging or discharging from the Evangeline aquifer. During periods when flow in the reaches of the upper Coleto Creek watershed was common (such as June 2010, when 12 of 25 reaches were flowing) or probable (such as January 2010, when 22 of 25 reaches were flowing), most of the reaches appeared to be gaining (86 percent in January 2010 and 92 percent in June 2010); however, during drought conditions (July 2009), streamflow was negligible in the entire upper Coleto Creek watershed; streamflow was observed in only two reaches during this period, one that receives inflow directly from Audilet Spring and

  17. Water quality and streamflow in the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed, central Alaska, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry W. Hilgert; Charles W. Slaughter

    1983-01-01

    Baseline data from 1978 are presented on precipitation, streamflow, and chemical and biological water quality in a subarctic, taiga watershed. First-, second-, and third-order streams that drain undisturbed catchments embracing permafrost-underlain and permafrost-free landscapes were monitored; results are being used in analysis of the natural, undisturbed condition of...

  18. Analysis of infrequent hydrologic events with regard to existing streamflow monitoring capabilities in White Oak Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, D.E.

    1978-10-01

    The quantity and concentration of radionuclides released to the environment by ORNL must be monitored continuously and accurately in order to ensure compliance with legal requirements established by Federal and state guidelines. Of the five streamflow monitoring stations located within White Oak Creek watershed, stations 3, 4, and 5 are of primary importance in quantifying the flux of water, sediment, and radionuclides through the drainage basin. Currently, the maximum measurable discharge at these three stations is 1.42 m 3 /sec (50 cfs), 0.54 m 3 /sec (19 cfs), and 4.25 m 3 /sec (150 cfs), respectively. Estimates of flood magnitude and frequency indicate that even small floods which are expected to recur often are significantly larger than the existing monitoring system can measure. Several independent studies have shown that most of the sediment transported from a watershed is carried by larger, less frequent streamflows which occur only a small percentage of the time. It also has been shown that certain radionuclides are transported in association with fluvial sediment. Thus, the flux of radionuclides, both in solution and associated with sediment, increases significantly during flood conditions. Estimates of peak discharges resulting from recent storms indicate that the drainage system has experienced variable flood conditions during the past few years for which no accurate and reliable records exist

  19. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed.

  20. Simulated effects of existing and proposed surface-water impoundments and gas-well pads on streamflow and suspended sediment in the Cypress Creek watershed, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rheannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Cypress Creek is located in central Arkansas and is the main tributary to Brewer Lake, which serves as the primary water supply for Conway, Arkansas, and the surrounding areas. A model of the Cypress Creek watershed was developed and calibrated in cooperation with Southwestern Energy Company using detailed precipitation, streamflow, and discrete suspended-sediment data collected from 2009 through 2012. These data were used with a Hydrologic Simulation Program—FORTRAN model to address different potential gas-extraction activities within the watershed.

  1. Effects of Timber Harvest on Fog Drip and Streamflow, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Keppeler

    2007-01-01

    Within the second-growth redwood forest of the Caspar Creek watershed, fog drip was measured in 1998 at 12 sites where heavy fog drip was expected. The following year, two one-ha plots were each instrumented with six randomly sited 1.35 m2 fog-drip collectors and one additional collector in a nearby clearcut. Fog-drip totals were highly variable...

  2. Streamflow and water-quality data for Little Scrubgrass Creek basin, Venango and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open File Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Durlin, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Little Scrubgrass Creek basin, Venango and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania, from December 1987 to November 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water throughout the basin. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal mine permit applications. A water-quality station on Little Scrubgrass Creek near Lisbon, provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions, and suspended sediment concentrations. Fourteen partial-record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the period of study. Streamflow and water-quality data obtained at these sites during various base flow periods are also presented

  3. Streamflow and water-quality data for Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open File Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Durlin, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, from December 1987 through November 1988, to determine the existing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Little Clearfield Creek provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations, and suspended-sediment concentrations. Seventeen partial-record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the study. Streamflow and water-quality data obtained at these sites during a winter base flow, a spring storm event, a low summer base flow, and a more moderate summer base flow also are presented

  4. Trends in Streamflow Characteristics of Selected Sites in the Elkhorn River, Salt Creek, and Lower Platte River Basins, Eastern Nebraska, 1928-2004, and Evaluation of Streamflows in Relation to Instream-Flow Criteria, 1953-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Godberson, Julie A.; Steele, Gregory V.

    2009-01-01

    The Nebraska Department of Natural Resources approved instream-flow appropriations on the Platte River to maintain fish communities, whooping crane roost habitat, and wet meadows used by several wild bird species. In the lower Platte River region, the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission owns an appropriation filed to maintain streamflow for fish communities between the Platte River confluence with the Elkhorn River and the mouth of the Platte River. Because Elkhorn River flow is an integral part of the flow in the reach addressed by this appropriation, the Upper Elkhorn and Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources Districts are involved in overall management of anthropogenic effects on the availability of surface water for instream requirements. The Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) and other estimation methodologies were used previously to determine instream requirements for Platte River biota, which led to the filing of five water appropriations applications with the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources in 1993 by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. One of these requested instream-flow appropriations of 3,700 cubic feet per second was for the reach from the Elkhorn River to the mouth of the Platte River. Four appropriations were granted with modifications in 1998, by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources. Daily streamflow data for the periods of record were summarized for 17 streamflow-gaging stations in Nebraska to evaluate streamflow characteristics, including low-flow intervals for consecutive durations of 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 183 days. Temporal trends in selected streamflow statistics were not adjusted for variability in precipitation. Results indicated significant positive temporal trends in annual flow for the period of record at eight streamflow-gaging stations - Platte River near Duncan (06774000), Platte River at North Bend (06796000), Elkhorn River at Neligh (06798500), Logan Creek near Uehling (06799500), Maple Creek near Nickerson

  5. Simulation of streamflow and estimation of ground-water recharge in the Upper Cibolo Creek Watershed, south-central Texas, 1992-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2007-01-01

    A watershed model (Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN) was developed, calibrated, and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio Water System, and Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, to simulate streamflow and estimate ground-water recharge in the upper Cibolo Creek watershed in south-central Texas. Rainfall, evapotranspiration, and streamflow data were collected during 1992?2004 for model calibrations and simulations. Estimates of average ground-water recharge during 1992?2004 from simulation were 79,800 acre-feet (5.47 inches) per year or about 15 percent of rainfall. Most of the recharge (about 74 percent) occurred as infiltration of streamflow in Cibolo Creek. The remaining recharge occurred as diffuse infiltration of rainfall through the soil and rock layers and karst features. Most recharge (about 77 percent) occurred in the Trinity aquifer outcrop. The remaining 23 percent occurred in the downstream part of the watershed that includes the Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop). Streamflow and recharge in the study area are greatly influenced by large storms. Storms during June 1997, October 1998, and July 2002 accounted for about 11 percent of study-area rainfall, 61 percent of streamflow, and 16 percent of the total ground-water recharge during 1992?2004. Annual streamflow and recharge also were highly variable. During 1999, a dry year with about 16 inches of rain and no measurable runoff at the watershed outlet, recharge in the watershed amounted to only 0.99 inch compared with 13.43 inches during 1992, a relatively wet year with about 54 inches of rainfall. Simulation of flood-control/recharge-enhancement structures showed that certain structures might reduce flood peaks and increase recharge. Simulation of individual structures on tributaries showed relatively little effect. Larger structures on the main stem of Cibolo Creek were more effective than structures

  6. Basin characteristics, history of stream gaging, and statistical summary of selected streamflow records for the Rapid Creek basin, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Zogorski, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a summary of basin characteristics affecting streamflow, a history of the U.S. Geological Survey 's stream-gaging program, and a compilation of discharge records and statistical summaries for selected sites within the Rapid Creek basin. It is the first in a series which will investigate surface-water/groundwater relations along Rapid Creek. The summary of basin characteristics includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeology, physiography and climate, land use and vegetation, reservoirs, and water use within the basin. A recounting of the U.S. Geological Survey 's stream-gaging program and a tabulation of historic stream-gaging stations within the basin are furnished. A compilation of monthly and annual mean discharge values for nine currently operated, long-term, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations on Rapid Creek is presented. The statistical summary for each site includes summary statistics on monthly and annual mean values, correlation matrix for monthly values, serial correlation for 1 year lag for monthly values, percentile rankings for monthly and annual mean values, low and high value tables, duration curves, and peak-discharge tables. Records of monthend contents for two reservoirs within the basin also are presented. (USGS)

  7. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the White Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, White Clay Creek, and Red Clay Creek. The White Clay Creek is the second largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 108 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in non point-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the three major subbasins and for the Christina River, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program—Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base- flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the White Clay Creek subbasin and at nine sites in the other subbasins.The HSPF model for the White Clay Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 17 reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.37 to 13 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the White Clay Creek Basin are agricultural, forested

  8. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Red Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, Brandywine Creek, and Christina River. The Red Clay Creek is the smallest of the subbasins and drains an area of 54 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency, waterquality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpointsource contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpointsource evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at 1 site in the Red Clay Creek subbasin and at 10 sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Red Clay Creek subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.7 to 10 mi2. One of the reaches contains a regulated reservoir. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Red Clay Creek

  9. Effects of historical coal mining and drainage from abandoned mines on streamflow and water quality in Bear Creek, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania-March 1999-December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 years of anthracite coal mining has changed surface- and ground-water hydrology and contaminated streams draining the Southern Anthracite Coal Field in east-central Pennsylvania. Bear Creek drains the western prong of the Southern Anthracite Coal Field and is affected by metals in drainage from abandoned mines and streamwater losses. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) developed for dissolved iron of about 5 lb/d (pounds per day) commonly are exceeded in the reach downstream of mine discharges. Restoration of Bear Creek using aerobic ponds to passively remove iron in abandoned mine drainage is under consideration (2004) by the Dauphin County Conservation District. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Dauphin County Conservation District, evaluates chemical and hydrologic data collected in Bear Creek and its receiving waters prior to implementation of mine-drainage treatment. The data collected represent the type of baseline information needed for documentation of water-quality changes following passive treatment of mine drainage in Pennsylvania and in other similar hydrogeologic settings. Seven surface-water sites on Bear Creek and two mine discharges were monitored for nearly three years to characterize the chemistry and hydrology of the following: (1) Bear Creek upstream of the mine discharges (BC-UMD), (2) water draining from the Lykens-Williamstown Mine Pool at the Lykens Water-Level Tunnel (LWLT) and Lykens Drift (LD) discharges, (3) Bear Creek after mixing with the mine discharges (BC-DMD), and (4) Bear Creek prior to mixing with Wiconisco Creek (BCM). Two sites on Wiconisco Creek, upstream and downstream of Bear Creek (WC-UBC and WC-DBC, respectively), were selected to evaluate changes in streamflow and water quality upon mixing with Bear Creek. During periods of below-normal precipitation, streamwater loss was commonly 100 percent upstream of site BC-UMD (streamflow range = 0 to 9.7 ft3/s (cubic feet per second)) but no loss was detected

  10. Effects of Historical Coal Mining and Drainage from Abandoned Mines on Streamflow and Water Quality in Newport and Nanticoke Creeks, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Cravotta,, Charles A.; Weitzel, Jeffrey B.; Klemow, Kenneth M.

    2007-01-01

    This report characterizes the effects of historical mining and abandoned mine drainage (AMD) on streamflow and water quality and evaluates potential strategies for AMD abatement in the 14-square-mile Newport Creek Basin and 7.6-square-mile Nanticoke Creek Basin. Both basins are mostly within the Northern Anthracite Coal Field and drain to the Susquehanna River in central Luzerne County, Pa. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Earth Conservancy, conducted an assessment from April 1999 to September 2000 that included (1) continuous stage measurement at 7 sites; (2) synoptic water-quality and flow sampling at 21 sites on June 2-4, 1999, and at 24 sites on October 7-8, 1999; and (3) periodic measurement of flow and water quality at 26 additional sites not included in the synoptic sampling effort. Stream water and surface runoff from the unmined uplands drain northward to the valley, where most of the water is intercepted and diverted into abandoned underground mines. Water that infiltrates into the mine workings becomes loaded with acidity, metals, and sulfate and later discharges as AMD at topographically low points along lower reaches of Newport Creek, Nanticoke Creek, and their tributaries. Differences among streamflows in unmined and mined areas of the watersheds indicated that (1) intermediate stream reaches within the mined area but upgradient of AMD sites generally were either dry or losing reaches, (2) ground water flowing to AMD sites could cross beneath surface-drainage divides, and (3) AMD discharging to the lower stream reaches restored volumes lost in the upstream reaches. The synoptic data for June and October 1999, along with continuous stage data during the study period, indicated flows during synoptic surveys were comparable to average values. The headwaters upstream of the mined area generally were oxygenated (dissolved oxygen range was 4.7 to 11.0 mg/L [milligrams per liter]), near-neutral (pH range was 5.8 to 7.6), and net

  11. Caspar Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2001-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection have gauged streamflow, and suspended sediment and precipitation since 1962 in the 473 ha North Fork and the 424 ha South Fork of the 2167 ha Caspar Creek in the Jackson Demonstation State Forest in northwestern California. Within the two Caspar...

  12. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Kirby, Carl S.

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the upper Shamokin Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The upper Shamokin Creek Basin encompasses an area of 54 square miles (140 square kilometers) within the Western Middle Anthracite Field, including and upstream of the city of Shamokin. Elevated concentrations of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground anthracite coal mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) piles degrade the aquatic ecosystem and water quality of Shamokin Creek to its mouth and along many of its tributaries within the upper basin. Despite dilution by unpolluted streams that more than doubles the streamflow of Shamokin Creek in the lower basin, AMD contamination and ecological impairment persist to its mouth on the Susquehanna River at Sunbury, 20 miles (32 kilometers) downstream from the mined area. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Bucknell University (BU) and the Northumberland County Conservation District (NCCD) at six stream sites in October 1999 and repeated in 2000 and 2001 on Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury. In 1999, fish were absent from Quaker Run and Shamokin Creek upstream of its confluence with Carbon Run; however, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were present within three sampled reaches of Carbon Run. During 1999, 2000, and 2001, six or more species of fish were identified in Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury despite elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and ironencrusted streambeds at these sites. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 46 AMD sources and 22 stream sites throughout the upper basin plus 1 stream site at Sunbury were collected by the USGS with assistance from BU and the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance (SCRA) during low base-flow conditions in August 1999 and high baseflow

  13. Simulation of climate change effects on streamflow, groundwater, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP in the Black Earth Creek Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Regan, R. Steven; Leaf, Andrew T.; Saad, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A groundwater/surface-water model was constructed and calibrated for the Black Earth Creek watershed in south-central Wisconsin. The model was then run to simulate scenarios representing common societal concerns in the basin, focusing on maintaining a cold-water resource in an urbanizing fringe near its upper stream reaches and minimizing downstream flooding. Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, many hydrologic models simplistically simulate feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system; however, computer models can now routinely and iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems—albeit with longer model run times. In this study, preliminary calibrations of uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to form the starting point for final calibration of one transient computer simulation that iteratively couples groundwater and surface water. The computer code GSFLOW (Groundwater/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and streams. The coupled GSFLOW model was run on a daily time step during water years 1985–2007. Early simulation times (1985–2000) were used for spin-up to make the simulation results less sensitive to initial conditions specified; the spin-up period was not included in the model calibration. Model calibration used observed heads, streamflows, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements from 2000 to 2007 for history matching. Calibration was performed by using the PEST parameter estimation software suite.

  14. Streamflow, specific-conductance, and temperature data for Bayou and Little Bayou Creeks near Paducah, Kentucky, August 15 and 16, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaldi, R.D.; McClain, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Discharge, temperature, and specific conductance measurements were made August 15 and 16, 1989, at 74 main channel sites and seven flowing tributaries on Bayou and Little Bayou Creeks, Kentucky in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These measurements were made during base flow conditions to provide data for analysis of the interaction of surface and groundwater. The discharge of Bayou Creek was 0.30 cfs at the most upstream site, and 5.8 cfs at the most downstream site. Total measured tributary inflow of Bayou Creek was 5.7 cfs. Specific conductance values in the Bayou Creek watershed ranged from 208 to 489 microsiemens/cm, and water temperature ranged from 20.0 to 32.6 C. The discharge of Little Bayou Creek was 0.65 cfs at the most upstream site, and 1.8 cfs at the most downstream site. Total measured tributary inflow of Little Bayou Creek was 0.38 cfs. Specific conductance values in the Little Bayou Creek watershed ranged from 211 to 272 microsiemens/cm, and water temperature ranged from 14.5 to 24.9 C. (USGS)

  15. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  16. Streamflow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of streamflow data to the world’s economy, environmental health, and public safety continues to grow as the population increases. The collection of streamflow data is often an involved and complicated process. The quality of streamflow data hinges on such things as site selection, instrumentation selection, streamgage maintenance and quality assurance, proper discharge measurement techniques, and the development and continued verification of the streamflow rating. This chapter serves only as an overview of the streamflow data collection process as proper treatment of considerations, techniques, and quality assurance cannot be addressed adequately in the space limitations of this chapter. Readers with the need for the detailed information on the streamflow data collection process are referred to the many references noted in this chapter. 

  17. Why has streamflow in a northern Idaho creek increased while flows from many other watersheds in the US Pacific Northwest have decreased over the past sixty years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Hudak, A. T.; Link, T. E.; Marshall, J. D.; Kavanagh, K.; Zhou, H.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Pangle, R. E.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Denner, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    As global warming proceeds, evapotranspiration demand will increase, the precipitation regime may change, and water cycling in many ecosystems may be affected. Streamflow in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the USA decreased in the last ~60 year possibly due to decreasing precipitation at high elevations and/or increasing evapotranspiration. However, an increasing trend of streamflow was observed at a 4km2 watershed in the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho. We used the process-based soil-vegetation-atmosphere Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, to simulate the changes in the water cycle at PREF. Independent measurements were used to parameterize the model, including forest transpiration, stomatal responses to vapor pressure, forest properties (height, leaf area index, and biomass), soil properties, soil moisture, snow depth, and snow water equivalent. The model reasonably simulated the streamflow dynamics during the evaluation period from 2003 to 2010, which verified the ability of SHAW to simulate the water cycle at PREF. We then ran the model using historical vegetation cover and climate data to reveal the drivers of the changes in water budget of PREF over the past 60 years. Historical vegetation cover was obtained from a 1939 digitized historical vegetation map. The biggest change was the decline of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), a fast growing and deep rooted species with high transpiration rates, which was once a predominant species in PREF in the early 20th century. This was followed by a subsequent increase and decrease in fir species, followed by the emergence of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as the current dominant tree species. The tree species shifts under this successional trajectory would have produced continually decreasing transpiration rates, which may explain the steady increase in observed runoff over the last ~60 years, which was likewise simulated with the SHAW model.

  18. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... juice (lemon juice from which part of the water has been removed). (ii) Water and/or lemon juice to... “reconstituted lemon juice” (1) if the food is prepared from concentrated lemon juice and water and/or lemon... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and...

  19. Disentangling the response of streamflow to forest management and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, S.; Miniat, C.; Bladon, K. D.; Keppeler, E.; Caldwell, P. V.

    2016-12-01

    Paired watershed studies have showcased the relationships between forests, management, and streamflow. However, classical analyses of paired-watershed studies have done little to disentangle the effects of management from overarching climatic signals, potentially masking the interaction between management and climate. Such approaches may confound our understanding of how forest management impacts streamflow. Here we use a 50-year record of streamflow and climate data from the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds (CCEW), California, USA to separate the effects of forest management and climate on streamflow. CCEW has two treatment watersheds that have been harvested in the past 50 years. We used a nonlinear mixed model to combine the pre-treatment relationship between streamflow and climate and the post-treatment relationship via an interaction between climate and management into one equation. Our results show that precipitation and potential evapotranspiration alone can account for >95% of the variability in pre-treatment streamflow. Including management scenarios into the model explained most of the variability in streamflow (R2 > 0.98). While forest harvesting altered streamflow in both of our modeled watersheds, removing 66% of the vegetation via selection logging using a tractor yarding system over the entire watershed had a more substantial impact on streamflow than clearcutting small portions of a watershed using cable-yarding. These results suggest that forest harvesting may result in differing impacts on streamflow and highlights the need to incorporate climate into streamflow analyses of paired-watershed studies.

  20. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  1. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  2. Is Monstar topologically the same as lemon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2015-03-01

    Topological structure of monstar in π-symmetric fields with index Ic = +1/2 and three radial lines ending at C-point is an intermediate structure having properties of lemon and star. We experimentally realized monstar pattern in polarization ellipse orientation via three different routes, from lemon pattern using topologically-invariant squeezing and / or rotation transformations. Our results suggest that lemon and monstar can smoothly transform into each other under any or combination of these transformations leading to one interpretation that monstar is an anisotropic lemon.

  3. Diverse multi-decadal changes in streamflow within a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Jeremy E.; Hill, T. Chee; Milligan, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on streamflow depends on a variety of factors (e.g., climate, initial land cover, inter-basin transfers, water withdrawals, wastewater effluent, etc.). The purpose of this study is to examine trends in streamflow from 1986 to 2015 in a range of watersheds within the rapidly urbanizing Atlanta, GA metropolitan area. This study compares eight watersheds over three decades, while minimizing the influence of inter-annual precipitation variability. Population and land-cover data were used to analyze changes over approximately twenty years within the watersheds. Precipitation totals for the watersheds were estimated using precipitation totals at nearby weather stations. Multiple streamflow variables, such as annual streamflow, frequencies of high-flow days (HFDs), flashiness, and precipitation-adjusted streamflow, for the eight streams were calculated using daily streamflow data. Variables were tested for significant trends from 1986 to 2015 and significant differences between 1986-2000 and 2001-2015. Flashiness increased for all streams without municipal water withdrawals, and the four watersheds with the largest increase in developed land had significant increases in flashiness. Significant positive trends in precipitation-adjusted mean annual streamflow and HFDs occurred for the two watersheds (Big Creek and Suwanee Creek) that experienced the largest increases in development, and these were the only watersheds that went from majority forest land in 1986 to majority developed land in 2015. With a disproportionate increase in HFD occurrence during summer, Big Creek and Suwannee Creek also had a reduction in intra-annual variability of HFD occurrence. Watersheds that were already substantially developed at the beginning of the period and did not have wastewater discharge had declining streamflow. The most urbanized watershed (Peachtree Creek) had a significant decrease in streamflow, and a possible cause of the decrease was increasing

  4. Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

  5. Efficacy of Aqueous Extract of Lemon Grass ( Andropogon citratus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to determine the effects of lemon grass, Andropogon citratus L. extract on the rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) of okra was conducted. Phytochemical analyses of the bioactive ingredients in lemon grass were carried out to determine the chemical compounds with nematicidal activities present in lemon ...

  6. Ergodicity of the generalized lemon billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingyu [Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801-2302 (United States); Mohr, Luke; Zhang, Hong-Kun, E-mail: hongkun@math.umass.edu; Zhang, Pengfei [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, UMass Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we study a two-parameter family of convex billiard tables, by taking the intersection of two round disks (with different radii) in the plane. These tables give a generalization of the one-parameter family of lemon-shaped billiards. Initially, there is only one ergodic table among all lemon tables. In our generalized family, we observe numerically the prevalence of ergodicity among the some perturbations of that table. Moreover, numerical estimates of the mixing rate of the billiard dynamics on some ergodic tables are also provided.

  7. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  8. Concentration of lemon pectin extract by ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Stechina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Current annual lemon production in Argentina is about 900 thousand t. 75% is used industrially to obtain pasteurized juice concentrate. Since 40 - 45 % of citrus fruit content is peel and seeds, the annual lemon residue yield is 360 thousand t. Lemon peel contains about 30% (B.S. of peptic substances with an important commercial value due to its gelling and thickening properties for food, chemical, pharmacological and cosmetic products. Membrane processes have many applications in food manufacture. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ultrafiltration operating variables on instant permeate flow (Fp and on the energy requirement for pectin extract concentration from lemon peel. A DDS lab module was used, lab 20-772 model with synthetic material membranes, 9 kDa, shear force, the intrinsic membrane resistance (Rm being 3*1013 m -1 . Results show that Fp decrease caused by polarization induced resistance occurrence and the influence of operating variables on Fp offer relevant data to estimate the energy requirement in relation to feeding flow at constant temperature, which may be compared to pectin concentration increase in the retained flow in relation to initial extract concentration.

  9. Daily Streamflow Predictions in an Ungauged Watershed in Northern California Using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS): Calibration Challenges when nearby Gauged Watersheds are Hydrologically Dissimilar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, A. S.; Adera, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate daily streamflow prediction in ungauged watersheds with sparse information is challenging. The ability of a hydrologic model calibrated using nearby gauged watersheds to predict streamflow accurately depends on hydrologic similarities between the gauged and ungauged watersheds. This study examines daily streamflow predictions using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) for the largely ungauged San Antonio Creek watershed, a 96 km2 sub-watershed of the Alameda Creek watershed in Northern California. The process-based PRMS model is being used to improve the accuracy of recent San Antonio Creek streamflow predictions generated by two empirical methods. Although San Antonio Creek watershed is largely ungauged, daily streamflow data exists for hydrologic years (HY) 1913 - 1930. PRMS was calibrated for HY 1913 - 1930 using streamflow data, modern-day land use and PRISM precipitation distribution, and gauged precipitation and temperature data from a nearby watershed. The PRMS model was then used to generate daily streamflows for HY 1996-2013, during which the watershed was ungauged, and hydrologic responses were compared to two nearby gauged sub-watersheds of Alameda Creek. Finally, the PRMS-predicted daily flows between HY 1996-2013 were compared to the two empirically-predicted streamflow time series: (1) the reservoir mass balance method and (2) correlation of historical streamflows from 80 - 100 years ago between San Antonio Creek and a nearby sub-watershed located in Alameda Creek. While the mass balance approach using reservoir storage and transfers is helpful for estimating inflows to the reservoir, large discrepancies in daily streamflow estimation can arise. Similarly, correlation-based predicted daily flows which rely on a relationship from flows collected 80-100 years ago may not represent current watershed hydrologic conditions. This study aims to develop a method of streamflow prediction in the San Antonio Creek watershed by examining PRMS

  10. Orderly Marketing for Lemons: Who Benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy F. Carman; Daniel H. Pick

    1990-01-01

    The orderly marketing goal of federal marketing orders may deal with price stability or uniform flow of product to market, a choice which can have important economic implications. This study examines the impact of four fresh lemon marketing strategies on returns at the producer, FOB, and retail levels, together with marketing margins and consumer surplus. Producers, as a group, and consumers should favor a constant price strategy. Some individual producers and middlemen, however, enjoyed high...

  11. Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    1999-01-01

    A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effects of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant.The purpose of the model was to simulate conditions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site. To represent the unsteady streamflows and the dynamic water-quality conditions, a transport modeling system was used that included both a model to route streamflow and a model to transport dissolved conservative constituents with linkage to reaction kinetics similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to simulate nonconservative constituents. These model codes are the Diffusion Analogy Streamflow Routing Model (DAFLOW) and the branched Lagrangian transport model (BLTM) and BLTM/QUAL2E that, collectively, as calibrated models, are referred to as the Ardmore Water-Quality Model.The Ardmore DAFLOW model was calibrated with three sets of streamflows that collectively ranged from 16 to 3,456 cubic feet per second. The model uses only one set of calibrated coefficients and exponents to simulate streamflow over this range. The Ardmore BLTM was calibrated for transport by simulating dye concentrations collected during a tracer study when streamflows ranged from 16 to 23 cubic feet per second. Therefore, the model is expected to

  12. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Goncu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and yeast counts of kefirs were determined at 1st, 10th and 20th days of storage. The addition of apple and lemon fiber enhanced rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of kefirs (p<0.01. Apple and lemon fiber could be used for kefir production at a rate of 0.25 or 0.5 %.

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of lemon balm Kombucha

    OpenAIRE

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.; Cvetković Dragoljub D.; Markov Siniša L.; Tumbas Vesna T.; Savatović Slađana M.

    2007-01-01

    Kombucha is a beverage traditionally produced by metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of lemon balm kombucha as well as of particular control samples was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals of lemon balm kombucha and lemon balm tea was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Acetic acid, Kombucha samples and heat-denaturated kombucha showed significant antimicro...

  14. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Busra Goncu; Asli Celikel; Mutlu B. Guler-Akin; M. Serdar Akin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively) and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus ...

  15. Interdonato lemon from Nizza di Sicilia (Italy): chemical composition of hexane extract of lemon peel and histochemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Andrea; Bruno, Maurizio; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Vadalà, Rossella; Mottese, Antonio Francesco; Saija, Emanuele; Mangano, Valentina; Casale, Katia Ermina; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-07-01

    Considering that the determination of authenticity and of the geographical origin of food is a very challenging issue, in this study we studied by means of histological and histochemical analyses the famous Sicilian lemon known as 'Interdonato Lemon of Messina PGI'. Since the protected geographical indication Interdonato lemon of Messina possesses high organoleptic properties, the composition of the hexane extract of lemon peel was determined by HRGC and HRGC-MS analyses and compared with that of lemon of different cultivars. The results obtained are informative of the oil's quality and explain the variation of the lemon essential oil composition. Given the fundamental economic implications of any fraud, the aim of this study was to determine a fingerprint able to evaluate the authentication of the geographic origin in such way to prevent frauds in national and international markets.

  16. Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and Streamflow Response to Spatially Distributed Precipitation in Two Large Watersheds in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, A. S.; Adera, S.; Niswonger, R. G.; Gardner, M.

    2016-12-01

    The ability of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to predict peak intensity, peak timing, base flow, and volume of streamflow was examined in Arroyo Hondo (180 km2) and Upper Alameda Creek (85 km2), two sub-watersheds of the Alameda Creek watershed in Northern California. Rainfall-runoff volume ratios vary widely, and can exceed 0.85 during mid-winter flashy rainstorm events. Due to dry antecedent soil moisture conditions, the first storms of the hydrologic year often produce smaller rainfall-runoff volume ratios. Runoff response in this watershed is highly hysteretic; large precipitation events are required to generate runoff following a 4-week period without precipitation. After about 150 mm of cumulative rainfall, streamflow responds quickly to subsequent storms, with variations depending on rainstorm intensity. Inputs to PRMS included precipitation, temperature, topography, vegetation, soils, and land cover data. The data was prepared for input into PRMS using a suite of data processing Python scripts written by the Desert Research Institute and U.S. Geological Survey. PRMS was calibrated by comparing simulated streamflow to measured streamflow at a daily time step during the period 1995 - 2014. The PRMS model is being used to better understand the different patterns of streamflow observed in the Alameda Creek watershed. Although Arroyo Hondo receives more rainfall than Upper Alameda Creek, it is not clear whether the differences in streamflow patterns are a result of differences in rainfall or other variables, such as geology, slope and aspect. We investigate the ability of PRMS to simulate daily streamflow in the two sub-watersheds for a variety of antecedent soil moisture conditions and rainfall intensities. After successful simulation of watershed runoff processes, the model will be expanded using GSFLOW to simulate integrated surface water and groundwater to support water resources planning and management in the Alameda Creek watershed.

  17. Hydrological and geophysical investigation of streamflow losses and restoration strategies in an abandoned mine lands setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Sherrod, Laura; Galeone, Daniel G.; Lehman, Wayne G.; Ackman, Terry E.; Kramer, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal discharge and water-quality campaigns (seepage runs) were combined with surface-geophysical surveys, hyporheic-temperature profiling, and watershed-scale hydrological monitoring to evaluate the locations, magnitude, and impact of streamwater losses from the West Creek subbasin of the West West Branch Schuylkill River into the underground Oak Hill Mine complex that extends beneath the watershed divide. Abandoned mine drainage (AMD), containing iron and other contaminants, from the Oak Hill Boreholes to the West Branch Schuylkill River was sustained during low-flow conditions and correlated to streamflow lost through the West Creek streambed. During high-flow conditions, streamflow was transmitted throughout West Creek; however, during low-flow conditions, all streamflow from the perennial headwaters was lost within the 300-to-600-m "upper reach" where an 1889 mine map indicated steeply dipping coalbeds underlie the channel. During low-flow conditions, the channel within the "intermediate reach" 700-to-1650-m downstream gained groundwater seepage with higher pH and specific conductance than upstream; however, all streamflow 1650-to-2050-m downstream was lost to underlying mines. Electrical resistivity and electromagnetic conductivity surveys indicated conductive zones beneath the upper reach, where flow loss occurred, and through the intermediate reach, where gains and losses occurred. Temperature probes at 0.06-to-0.10-m depth within the hyporheic zone of the intermediate reach indicated potential downward fluxes as high as 2.1x10-5 m/s. Cumulative streamflow lost from West Creek during seepage runs averaged 53.4 L/s, which equates to 19.3 percent of the daily average discharge of AMD from the Oak Hill Boreholes and a downward flux of 1.70x10-5 m/s across the 2.1-km-by-1.5-m West Creek stream-channel area.

  18. Juan's Dilemma: A New Twist on the Old Lemon Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Vanessa; Sorey, Timothy; Balandova, Evguenia; Palmquist, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    When life hands you lemons, make a battery! In this article, the authors describe an activity they refer to as "Juan's Dilemma," an extension of the familiar lemon-battery activity (Goodisman 2001). Juan's Dilemma integrates oxidation and reduction chemistry with circuit theory in a fun, real-world exercise. The authors designed this activity for…

  19. All Things Considered: Still Life with Glass and Lemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article presents describes Pablo Picasso's oil on canvas painting, "Still Life with Glass and Lemon, 1910." Composed of abstract, monochromatic shapes, this painting's original subject is surprisingly a glass and lemon. The artist, Pablo Picasso, developed this unique system of breaking down objects into their basic geometric parts with…

  20. Endophthalmitis related to lemon allergy in a heroin addict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Pineda, F; Martin-Armentia, B; Ramos, C; Gil Martin, F J; Palacios, R

    2016-01-01

    Heroin and its contaminants may be an important source of allergens in young people. We present a case of severe endophthalmitis in a patient that also suffered from anaphylactoid symptoms (hypotension, urticaria, glottic oedema) whenever he ingested lemon. Prick tests with a battery of 42 aeroallergens including fruits and citrus fruits (orange, mandarin, grapefruit and lemon) and specific IgE to these allergens were carried out. Immunodetection was performed using the patient's serum and the following allergens: lemon, Candida, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Alternaria recombinant Alt 1 (Laboratories Diater). Skin tests were negative for Candida, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium (ALK-Spain) as were specific IgE antibodies for CAP (Thermofisher, Sweden) and positive only for lemon and, doubtfully, to Candida. Specific IgE tests to pollen, arthropods, fungi, dander and foods were positive only for lemon (0.49kU/L). Serological study of fungi ruled out fungal infection at that time. The immunodetection showed that the patient's serum recognised a protein of approximately 25kDa of lemon peel, one of approximately 12-13kDa of Penicillium, and perfectly recognised Alt a 1. Lemon surface can be contaminated by Candida and other fungi. In heroin addicts with positive skin tests for lemon, the possibility of these serious complications should be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron deficiency enhances bioactive phenolics in lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellisho, Carmen D; González-Barrio, Rocío; Ferreres, Federico; Ortuño, María F; Conejero, Wenceslao; Torrecillas, Arturo; García-Mina, José M; Medina, Sonia; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to describe the phenolic status of lemon juice obtained from fruits of lemon trees differing in iron (Fe) nutritional status. Three types of Fe(III) compound were used in the experiment, namely a synthetic chelate and two complexes derived from natural polymers of humic and lignine nature. All three Fe(III) compounds were able to improve the Fe nutritional status of lemon trees, though to different degrees. This Fe(III) compound effect led to changes in the polyphenol content of lemon juice. Total phenolics were decreased (∼33% average decrease) and, in particular, flavanones, flavones and flavonols were affected similarly. Iron-deficient trees showed higher phenolic contents than Fe(III) compound-treated trees, though Fe deficiency had negative effects on the yield and visual quality of fruits. However, from a human nutritional point of view and owing to the health-beneficial properties of their bioavailable phenolic compounds, the nutritional quality of fruits of Fe-deficient lemon trees in terms of phenolics was higher than that of fruits of Fe(III) compound-treated lemon trees. Moreover, diosmetin-6,8-di-C-glucoside in lemon juice can be used as a marker for correction of Fe deficiency in lemon trees. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  3. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  4. Streamflow and Water-Quality Characteristics for Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heakin, Allen J.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-year study of streamflow and water-quality characteristics in Wind Cave National Park was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service. During this study, streamflow and water-quality data were collected for three of the park's perennial streams (Cold Spring, Beaver, and Highland Creeks) from January 2002 through November 2003. The potential influence of parking lot runoff on cave drip within Wind Cave also was investigated by collecting and analyzing several time-dependent samples from a drainage culvert downstream from the parking lot and from Upper Minnehaha Falls inside the cave following a series of simulated runoff events. The primary focus of the report is on data collected during the 2-year study from January 2002 to November 2003; however, data collected previously also are summarized. Losing reaches occur on both Beaver and Highland Creeks as these streams flow across outcrops of bedrock aquifers within the park. No streamflow losses occur along Cold Spring Creek because its confluence with Beaver Creek is located upstream from the outcrop of the Madison aquifer, where most streamflow losses occur. Physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, benthic macroinvertebrates, organic (wastewater) compounds, bottom sediment, and suspended sediment are summarized for samples collected from 2 sites on Cold Spring Creek, 2 sites on Beaver Creek, and 1 site on Highland Creek. None of the constituent concentrations for any of the samples collected during 2002-03 exceeded any of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards, with the exception of the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for pH, which was exceeded in numerous samples from Beaver Creek and Highland Creek. Additionally, the pH values in several of these same samples also exceeded beneficial-use criteria for coldwater permanent fisheries and coldwater marginal fisheries. Water temperature exceeded the coldwater

  5. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    , less than 10 milligrams per liter, in median suspended-sediment concentration for either basin. During low-flow conditions in 2004 and 2005, previously mined areas investigated on Harrison Creek and on Frying Pan Creek did not contribute substantial suspended sediments to sample sites downstream from the mined areas. No substantial mining-related water- or sediment-quality problems were detected at any of the sites investigated in the upper Birch Creek watershed during low-flow conditions. Average annual streamflow and precipitation were near normal in 2002 and 2003. Drought conditions, extreme forest fire impact, and low annual streamflow set apart the 2004 and 2005 summer seasons. Daily mean streamflow for upper Birch Creek varied throughout the period of record-from maximums of about 1,000 cubic feet per second to minimums of about 20 cubic feet per second. Streamflow increased and decreased rapidly in response to rainfall and rapid snowmelt events because the steep slopes, thin soil cover, and permafrost areas in the watershed have little capacity to retain runoff. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for the 115 paired samples from Frying Pan Creek and 101 paired samples from Harrison Creek were less than the 20 milligrams per liter total maximum daily load. The total maximum daily load was set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the upper Birch Creek basin in 1996. Suspended-sediment paired-sample data were collected using automated samplers in 2004 and 2005, primarily during low-flow conditions. Suspended-sediment concentrations in grab samples from miscellaneous sites ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter during low-flow conditions to 1,386 milligrams per liter during a high-flow event on upper Birch Creek. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at six sites on Harrison Creek, two sites on Frying Pan Creek, and one site on upper Birch Creek. Trace-element concentrations of mercury, lead, and zinc in streambed sedimen

  6. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  7. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of lemon balm Kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage traditionally produced by metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of lemon balm kombucha as well as of particular control samples was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals of lemon balm kombucha and lemon balm tea was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Acetic acid, Kombucha samples and heat-denaturated kombucha showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria. However, there was no activity against yeasts and moulds. Kombucha showed higher antioxidant activity than tea sample for all applied sample volumes.

  9. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out...

  10. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner; Tumen, Fikret

    2009-01-01

    Sorption of Cd 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Pb 2+ and Zn 2+ onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni 2+ > Cd 2+ > Cu 2+ > Pb 2+ > Zn 2+ > Cr 3+ . The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Ni 2+ > Cd 2+ > Zn 2+ > Cr 3+ . The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol -1 for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The ΔG o and ΔH o values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low ΔH o values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  11. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner; Tumen, Fikret

    2009-05-30

    Sorption of Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni(2+)>Cd(2+)>Cu(2+)>Pb(2+)>Zn(2+)>Cr(3+). The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb(2+)>Cu(2+)>Ni(2+)>Cd(2+)>Zn(2+)>Cr(3+). The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol(-1) for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The DeltaG degrees and DeltaH degrees values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low DeltaH degrees values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  12. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Tumen, Fikret, E-mail: ftumen@firat.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    Sorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol{sup -1} for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}H{sup o} values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low {Delta}H{sup o} values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  13. Treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients with lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and gentian violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S C; Maree, J E; Sibanyoni, M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) in the treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients when compared with the control group using gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5%. Oral thrush is a frequent complication of HIV infection. In the Moretele Hospice, due to financial constraints, the treatment routinely given to patients with oral thrush is either lemon juice directly into the mouth or a lemon grass infusion made from lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown and dried at the hospice. These two remedies have been found to be very efficacious therefore are used extensively. Gentian violet, the first line medication for oral thrush in South Africa, is not preferred by the primary health clinic patients due to the visible purple stain which leads them to being stigmatized as HIV-positive. Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus limon have known antifungal properties. The study design was a randomised controlled trial. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: gentian violet, lemon juice or lemon grass. Inclusion criteria included being HIV-positive with a diagnosis of oral thrush. The study period was 11 days and patients were followed up every second day. International ethical principles were adhered to during the study. Of the 90 patients, 83 completed the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, none of the p-values were significant therefore the null hypothesis could not be rejected. In the analysis of the participants who actually completed the trial, the lemon juice showed better results than the gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5% in the treatment of oral thrush in an HIV-positive population (plemon grass and gentian violet could also be rejected on the basis of the Chi-square test and the likelihood ratio test (plemon juice and lemon grass for the treatment of oral candidiasis in an HIV population was validated by the randomised controlled trial.

  14. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  15. The Use of Alginate in Lemon Extract Effervescent Powder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdinah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on the use of alginate in lemon (Citrus medica var lemon extract effervescent powder production has conducted. The aims of the research are to determine the optimum concentration of alginate used in lemon extract effervescent powder to produced best product and acceptance consumen.The lemon extract effervescent powder formula consisted of lemon extract powder, sucrose, aspartame, salt and effervescent mix (citric acid-tartrat acid-sodium bicarbonat. The alginate used in this study was extracted from Sargassum filipendula sea weed. The concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production was varied from 1; 2; 3 and 4%. The parameters observed to see the quality of the product were moisture content, ash content, pH, viscosity and organoleptic value (flavor, taste, viscosity, effec effervescent, effect sparkle and acceptance. Analysis of dietary fiber, sugar content, vitamin C content, total titratable acids, TPC and E.Coli to the best product. The result showed that the higher the concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production, the higher viscousness and the lower the organoleptic value. The optimum concentration of alginate used in the lemon extract effervescent powder processing was 1%. The characteristic this product 7.60% moisture content, 0.86% insoluble dietary fiber , 7.92% soluble dietary fiber, 3.74% sugar content, 55,26 mg/100 g vitamin C, 134.15 mL 0.1 NaOH/100 mL total titratable acids, 20 cPs viscosity, <2.5x102 coloni/mL TPC and E.Coli negative.

  16. Semi-automatic Citation Correction with Lemon8-XML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Suhonos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lemon8-XML software application, developed by the Public Knowledge Project (PKP, provides an open-source, computer-assisted interface for reliable citation structuring and validation. Lemon8-XML combines citation parsing algorithms with freely-available online indexes such as PubMed, WorldCat, and OAIster. Fully-automated markup of entire bibliographies may be a genuine possibility using this approach. Automated markup of citations would increase bibliographic accuracy while reducing copyediting demands.

  17. Extraction, characterisation, and enzymatic degradation of lemon peel pectins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J.M.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    The albedo of Spanish lemons (16.0% w/w of lemon fresh weight) was extracted to obtain a chelating agent soluble pectin fraction, a diluted sodium hydroxide soluble pectin fraction and a residue (4.2, 1.8, and 5.0% w/w of fresh albedo, respectively). These fractions represented 61.3, 12.4, and 10.4%

  18. Measuring real-time streamflow using emerging technologies: Radar, hydroacoustics, and the probability concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.; Ostrowski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasting streamflow during extreme hydrologic events such as floods can be problematic. This is particularly true when flow is unsteady, and river forecasts rely on models that require uniform-flow rating curves to route water from one forecast point to another. As a result, alternative methods for measuring streamflow are needed to properly route flood waves and account for inertial and pressure forces in natural channels dominated by nonuniform-flow conditions such as mild water surface slopes, backwater, tributary inflows, and reservoir operations. The objective of the demonstration was to use emerging technologies to measure instantaneous streamflow in open channels at two existing US Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. Surface-water and instream-point velocities were measured using hand-held radar and hydroacoustics. Streamflow was computed using the probability concept, which requires velocity data from a single vertical containing the maximum instream velocity. The percent difference in streamflow at the Susquehanna River at Bloomsburg, PA ranged from 0% to 8% with an average difference of 4% and standard deviation of 8.81 m3/s. The percent difference in streamflow at Chartiers Creek at Carnegie, PA ranged from 0% to 11% with an average difference of 5% and standard deviation of 0.28 m3/s. New generation equipment is being tested and developed to advance the use of radar-derived surface-water velocity and instantaneous streamflow to facilitate the collection and transmission of real-time streamflow that can be used to parameterize hydraulic routing models.

  19. From sea lemons to c-waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, M F

    1983-12-01

    This review of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) physiology pays tribute to Anthony L. F. Gorman, who introduced the author to the giant neuron of Anisodoris nobilis (the sea lemon) and cellular neurobiology. The RPE is an epithelial monolayer with tight junctions, which controls the environment of the photoreceptor outer segments. The apical and basal membranes have different electrical properties and generate a standing potential across the eye. The RPE helps maintain adhesion between the retina and the wall of the eye. Adhesion is weakened by cyanide, low pH or low calcium, but enhanced by ouabain or acetazolamide. The RPE transports water from the subretinal space toward the choroid. This water movement is inhibited by hypoxia or cyanide but enhanced by ouabain or acetazolamide. The c-wave of the electroretinogram is a composite of a cornea-positive wave produced by hyperpolarization of the apical RPE membrane and a cornea-negative wave produced by the Muller cells, both in response to the fall in extracellular potassium that follows illumination of the photoreceptors. The "light response" of the standing potential is produced by depolarization of the basal membrane of the RPE. These examples illustrate how principles of cellular neurophysiology can be applied to questions of clinical relevance.

  20. Biodiesel from lemon and lemon grass oil and its effect on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivagar, R.; Sundararaj, S.; Vignesh, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    In the present scenario many developing countries are depending on oil producing nations for their fuel resources. Due to demand and scarcity of the fuel, there has been a huge increase in fuel prices. The vehicular population is also continuously increasing and becoming a great menace to peoples. This paper aims to provide an alternate solution for petroleum based fuels. It suggests that biodiesel produced from lemon and lemon grass oil can be used as an alternative fuel. This work investigates the thermal performance of four stroke diesel engine using blends of biodiesel and diesel as a fuel. Performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were measured at different loads for diesel and various combination of biofuel (L10, L20, and L30). The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained is about 26.12%for L20 which is slightly higher than that of diesel (24.91%). Engine experimental results showed that exhaust emissions including CO2 and HC were reduced by 6% and 5% for L20 mixture of biodiesel whereas CO emission was as same as diesel. However, there was increase in NOxby 26% to the diesel fuel.

  1. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm and lemon essential oil (0.08- 0.12- 0.16% completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  2. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  3. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  4. Water resources of Monroe County, New York, water years 2003-08: Streamflow, constituent loads, and trends in water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett A.; Coon, William F.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2010-01-01

    This report, the sixth in a series published since 1994, presents analyses of hydrologic data in Monroe County for the period October 2002 through September 2008. Streamflows and water quality were monitored at nine sites by the Monroe County Department of Health and the U.S. Geological Survey. Streamflow yields (flow per unit area) were highest in Northrup Creek, which had sustained flows from year-round inflow from the village of Spencerport wastewater-treatment plant and seasonal releases from the New York State Erie (Barge) Canal. Genesee River streamflow yields also were high, at least in part, as a result of higher rainfall and lower evapotranspiration rates in the upper part of the Genesee River Basin than in the other study basins. The lowest streamflow yields were measured in Honeoye Creek, which reflected a decrease in flows due to the withdrawals from Hemlock and Canadice Lakes for the city of Rochester water supply. Water samples collected at nine monitoring sites were analyzed for nutrients, chloride, sulfate, and total suspended solids. The loads of constituents, which were computed from the concentration data and the daily flows recorded at each of the monitoring sites, are estimates of the mass of the constituents that was transported in the streamflow. Annual yields (loads per unit area) also were computed to assess differences in constituent transport among the study basins. All urban sites - Allen Creek and the two downstream sites on Irondequoit Creek - had seasonally high concentrations and annual yields of chloride. Chloride loads are attributed to the application of road-deicing salts to the county's roadways and are related to population and road densities. The less-urbanized sites in the study - Genesee River, Honeoye Creek, and Oatka Creek - had relatively low concentrations and yields of chloride. The highest concentrations and yields of sulfate were measured in Black Creek, Oatka Creek, and Irondequoit Creek at Railroad Mills and are

  5. Games in the classroom: the market of lemons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Palacio García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Classroom games are a pedagogical tool for the appropriation of concepts and enrich traditional microeconomic classes with the methodology of experimental economics. This article presents an example of participatory research that seeks to collaboratively change the learning process. We propose the lemons-market game: an experimental protocol, programed for laboratory sessions, that motivates students to debate about adverse selection due to information asymmetries, that is, about the extent to which good-quality goods are expelled from the market by inferior-quality goods (lemons.

  6. Uncertainties in Forecasting Streamflow using Entropy Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow forecasting is essential in river restoration, reservoir operation, power generation, irrigation, navigation, and water management. However, there is always uncertainties accompanied in forecast, which may affect the forecasting results and lead to large variations. Therefore, uncertainties must be considered and be assessed properly when forecasting streamflow for water management. The aim of our work is to quantify the uncertainties involved in forecasting streamflow and provide reliable streamflow forecast. Despite that streamflow time series are stochastic, they exhibit seasonal and periodic patterns. Therefore, streamflow forecasting entails modeling seasonality, periodicity, and its correlation structure, and assessing uncertainties. This study applies entropy theory to forecast streamflow and measure uncertainties during the forecasting process. To apply entropy theory for streamflow forecasting, spectral analysis is combined to time series analysis, as spectral analysis can be employed to characterize patterns of streamflow variation and identify the periodicity of streamflow. That is, it permits to extract significant information for understanding the streamflow process and prediction thereof. Application of entropy theory for streamflow forecasting involves determination of spectral density, determination of parameters, and extension of autocorrelation function. The uncertainties brought by precipitation input, forecasting model and forecasted results are measured separately using entropy. With information theory, how these uncertainties transported and aggregated during these processes will be described.

  7. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  8. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies. Keywords: lemon grass; essential oil; antifungal activity; anti-inflammatory effect; citral; aromatherapy ...

  9. Distribution of culturable endophytic bacteria in lemon grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic bacteria are currently being harnessed as potential sources of bioactive compounds, potential biofertilizers, and as tools for bioremediation. This therefore stresses the importance of searching for these noble bacteria in various plants. In the present study, fresh and apparently healthy leaves and roots of lemon ...

  10. Developing flood-inundation maps for Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam J.; Beal, Benjamin A.

    2017-04-14

    Digital flood-inundation maps were created for a 12.9‑mile reach of Johnson Creek by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The flood-inundation maps depict estimates of water depth and areal extent of flooding from the mouth of Johnson Creek to just upstream of Southeast 174th Avenue in Portland, Oregon. Each flood-inundation map is based on a specific water level and associated streamflow at the USGS streamgage, Johnson Creek at Sycamore, Oregon (14211500), which is located near the upstream boundary of the maps. The maps produced by the USGS, and the forecasted flood hydrographs produced by National Weather Service River Forecast Center can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapper Web site (http://wimcloud.usgs.gov/apps/FIM/FloodInundationMapper.html).Water-surface elevations were computed for Johnson Creek using a combined one-dimensional and two‑dimensional unsteady hydraulic flow model. The model was calibrated using data collected from the flood of December 2015 (including the calculated streamflows at two USGS streamgages on Johnson Creek) and validated with data from the flood of January 2009. Results were typically within 0.6 foot (ft) of recorded or measured water-surface elevations from the December 2015 flood, and within 0.8 ft from the January 2009 flood. Output from the hydraulic model was used to create eight flood inundation maps ranging in stage from 9 to 16 ft. Boundary condition hydrographs were identical in shape to those from the December 2015 flood event, but were scaled up or down to produce the amount of streamflow corresponding to a specific water-surface elevation at the Sycamore streamgage (14211500). Sensitivity analyses using other hydrograph shapes, and a version of the model in which the peak flow is maintained for an extended period of time, showed minimal variation, except for overbank areas near the Foster Floodplain Natural Area.Simulated water-surface profiles were combined with light detection and ranging (lidar

  11. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  12. The relationships among lemons, limes and citron: a chromosomal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R; Soares Filho, W S; Brasileiro-Vidal, A C; Guerra, M

    2005-01-01

    Lemons, limes and citron constitute a group of closely related Citrus species, whose species delimitations and taxonomic relationships are unclear. In order to identify karyotypic similarities and species relationships within this group, the CMA+/DAPI- banding pattern and the distribution of the 5S and 45S rDNA sites of 10 accessions of lime, lemon, and citron were investigated. The four cultivars of C. limon analyzed showed the same pattern of CMA+ bands and rDNA sites, suggesting that they originated from a single germplasm, later differentiated by distinct somatic mutations. The lemons C. jambhiri, C. limonia and C. volkameriana displayed karyotypes very similar to each other, but they differed from C. limon by the absence of a single chromosome with one band in each telomere. The limes, C. aurantifolia and C. limettioides, seemed less related to each other and exhibited different heteromorphic chromosome pairs. In C. aurantifolia, the presence of a chromosome type unknown in all other Citrus species cytologically known so far supports the assumption that this accession may be derived from a hybrid with a species from the subgenus Papeda or from another genus. Citrus medica was the only homozygous accession of this group and all of its chromosome types were clearly represented in limes and lemons, some of them forming heteromorphic pairs. The analysis of the distribution of rDNA sites allowed a further refinement of the comparison among accessions. The lemons and limes were heterozygous for all rDNA sites, whereas C. medica was entirely homozygous. These data support the hypothesis that C. medica is a true species while the other nine accessions are hybrids. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  14. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  15. Analysis of ground-water flow in the Madison aquifer using fluorescent dyes injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  16. Water chemistry, seepage investigation, streamflow, reservoir storage, and annual availability of water for the San Juan-Chama Project, northern New Mexico, 1942-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    The Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority supplements the municipal water supply for the Albuquerque metropolitan area, in central New Mexico, with surface water diverted from the Rio Grande. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, undertook this study in which water-chemistry data and historical streamflow were compiled and new water-chemistry data were collected to characterize the water chemistry and streamflow of the San Juan-Chama Project (SJCP). Characterization of streamflow included analysis of the variability of annual streamflow and comparison of the theoretical amount of water that could have been diverted into the SJCP to the actual amount of water that was diverted for the SJCP. Additionally, a seepage investigation was conducted along the channel between Azotea Tunnel Outlet and the streamflow-gaging station at Willow Creek above Heron Reservoir to estimate the magnitude of the gain or loss in streamflow resulting from groundwater interaction over the approximately 10-mile reach. Generally, surface-water chemistry varied with streamflow throughout the year. Streamflow ranged from high flow to low flow on the basis of the quantity of water diverted from the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, and Navajo River for the SJCP. Vertical profiles of the water temperature over the depth of the water column at Heron Reservoir indicated that the reservoir is seasonally stratified. The results from the seepage investigations indicated a small amount of loss of streamflow along the channel. Annual variability in streamflow for the SJCP was an indication of the variation in the climate parameters that interact to contribute to streamflow in the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, Navajo River, and Willow Creek watersheds. For most years, streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet started in March and continued for approximately 3 months until the middle of July. The majority of annual streamflow

  17. Hydrostratigraphic and structural controls on streamflow generation in the Chuska Mountains, Navajo Nation, AZ/NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    A conceptual model of hydrostratigraphic and structural influences on 3D streamflow generation processes is tested in the Whiskey Creek watershed located in the Chuska Mountains of the Navajo Nation along the northern NM/AZ border. The role of hydrostratigraphy and structure in groundwater processes has been well studied. However, influences of heterogeneity due to geologic structure and stratigraphy of mountain blocks on 3D streamflow generation has received less attention. Three-dimensional flow in mountainous watersheds, such as Saguache Creek (CO) and Rio Hondo (NM), contributes significant amounts of groundwater from deep circulation to streamflow. This fully 3D conceptual model is fundamentally different than watersheds characterized as 2D, those dominated by surface and shallow subsurface runoff, because 3D watersheds can have much longer flowpaths and mean residence times (up to 1000s of years). In contrast to Saguache Creek (volcanic bedrock) and Rio Hondo (crystalline metamorphic), the bedrock geology of the watersheds draining the Chuska Mountains is primarily comprised of sedimentary bedrock capped by extrusive volcanics. We test this conceptual model using a combination of stream gauging, tritium analyses, and endmember mixing analysis (EMMA) on the general ion chemistry and stable isotope composition of water samples collected in 2013-2016. Springs that emerge from the Chuska Sandstone are tritium dead indicative of a large component of pre-bomb pulse water in discharge and deeper 3D flow. EMMA indicates that most streamflow is generated from groundwater emerging from the Chuska Sandstone. Gaining/losing conditions in Whiskey Creek are strongly related to hydrostratigraphy as evidenced by a transition from gaining conditions largely found in the Chuska Sandstone to losing conditions where the underlying Chinle Formation outcrops. Although tritium in Whiskey Creek suggests 3D interactions are present, hydrostratigraphic and structural controls may

  18. Lemon peel oil – A novel renewable alternative energy source for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, B.; Thundil Karuppa Raj, R.; Nanthagopal, K.; Krishnan, Rahul; Subbarao, Rayapati

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biofuel is extracted from lemon peels through steam distillation process. • Lemon peel oil is found to be a potential, renewable alternate eco-friendly fuel. • Significant vibration is observed with 100% lemon peel oil. • Reduction of CO, HC and smoke emission are observed with lemon peel oil blends. • Lemon peel oil blends are showed higher brake thermal efficiency than diesel fuel. - Abstract: The present research work has embarked on to exploit the novel renewable and biodegradable source of energy from lemon fruit rinds. A systematic approach has been made in this study to find the suitability of lemon peel oil for internal combustion engines and gensets applications. Extracted lemon peel oil is found to exhibit comparatively very low viscosity, flash point and boiling point than that of conventional diesel. Various blends of lemon peel oil have been prepared with conventional diesel with volumetric concentration of 20%, 40%, 50% and 100% and their physical and chemical properties are evaluated for its suitability in direct injection diesel engine. Lower cetane index of lemon peel oil significantly influences the ignition delay period and peak heat release rate that lead to the penalty in NOx emissions. Interestingly, the diesel engine performance characteristics have been improved to a remarkable level with higher proportions of lemon peel oil in the blends. In addition, the reduction of BSCO, BSHC and smoke emission is proportional to the lemon oil concentration in the blends. Overall diesel engine characteristics indicated that lemon peel oil can partially or completely replace the petroleum diesel usage to a great extent in developing countries like India.

  19. Henretta Creek reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Teck Coal Ltd. operates 6 open-pit coal mines, of which 5 are located in the Elk Valley in southeastern British Columbia. The Fording River Operations (FRO) began in 1971 in mining areas in Eagle Mountain, Turnbull Mountain and Henretta Valley. The recovery of approximately 5 million tons of coal from the Henretta Creek Valley posed significant challenges to mine planners, hydrologists and environmental experts because the coal had to be recovered from the valley flanks and also from under the main valley floor, on which the fish-bearing Henretta Creek runs. The Henretta Dragline Mining project was described along with the water control structures and fisheries management efforts for the cutthroat trout. A detailed Environmental Impact Assessment and Stage 1 mining report for the Henretta Valley area was completed in December 1990. FRO was granted a mining and reclamation permit in 1991. A temporary relocation of 1,270 metres was required in in April 1997 in order to enable mining on both sides and below the creek bed. Among the innovative construction techniques was a diversion of Henretta Creek through large diameter steel culverts and a specialized crossing of the creek to allow fish passage. The first water flowed through the reclaimed Henretta Creek channel in late 1998 and the first high flow occurred in the spring of 2000. Teck coal FRO then launched an annual fish and fish habitat monitoring program which focused on the Henretta Creek Reclaimed Channel and Henretta Lake. This document presented the results from the final year, 2006, and a summary of the 7 year aquatic monitoring program. It was concluded that from mining through to reclamation, the Henretta project shows the commitment and success of mining and reclamation practices at Teck Coal. Indicators of the project's success include riparian zone vegetation, fisheries re-establishment, aquatic communities and habitat utilization by terrestrial and avian species. 33 refs., 1 fig.

  20. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 9690-109] Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application...: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e...

  1. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  2. The metabolic profile of lemon juice by proton HR-MAS NMR: the case of the PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Nicola; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Vasi, Sebastiano; Giofré, Salvatore V; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Di Stefano, Vita; Mallamace, Domenico; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-MAS NMR) the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian lemon known as 'Interdonato Lemon of Messina PGI'. The PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina possesses high organoleptic and healthy properties and is recognised as one of the most nutrient fruits. In particular, some of its constituents are actively studied for their chemo-preventive and therapeutic properties. In this paper, we have determined by means of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy the molar concentration of the main metabolites constituent the juice of PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina in comparison with that of the not-PGI Interdonato Lemon of Turkey. Our aim is to develop an analytical technique, in order to determine a metabolic fingerprint able to reveal commercial frauds in national and international markets.

  3. Streamflow characteristics for the Black Hills of South Dakota, through water year 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.D.; Driscoll, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    loss-zone basins have springs located upstream of the gaging stations, but downstream of the loss zones. Flow at several of the loss-zone stations is dominated by large and consistent springflow; however, flow at other loss-zone stations is dominated by streamflow losses or by tributary inflows between the loss zones and the gaging stations, which results in extremely variable streamflow characteristics. It is demonstrated that springflow in Battle, Spring, Elk, and Bear Butte Creeks is much more variable than in Cascade Springs, Fall River, Beaver Creek, and Redwater River. Interior crystalline basins and exterior basins are shown to be much more responsive to climatic conditions than the springflow-dominated basins. Zero-flow months have been recorded for all of the exterior basins and most of the interior crystalline basins; however, zero-flow months have not been recorded for any of the interior sedimentary basins. Zero-flow months have not been recorded for the loss-zone stations with large, consistent springflow; however, zero-flow months are common for loss-zone stations with smaller, less consistent springs. Direct surface runoff is demonstrated to be uncommon for outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation. Examination of streamflow records for two basins with large outcrops of these formations indicates that direct surface runoff seldom occurs. Annual streamflow is shown to increase from south to north, which is consistent with climatic patterns for the area. Annual yield generally is larger for all of the interior categories than for the exterior basins; however, this is consistent with larger precipitation and smaller evapotranspiration rates at higher elevations. Annual yields generally are largest for the interior sedimentary basins; however, all of these basins are located in the northern Black Hills. Interior crystalline basins located in the northern Black Hills have annual yields that are comparable with interior sedimen

  4. Hydrologic data for the Cache Creek-Bear Thrust environmental impact statement near Jackson, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, G.S.; Ringen, B.H.; Cox, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the quantity and quality of surface and ground water in an area of concern for the Cache Creek-Bear Thrust Environmental Impact Statement in northwestern Wyoming is presented without interpretation. The environmental impact statement is being prepared jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Forest Service and concerns proposed exploration and development of oil and gas on leased Federal land near Jackson, Wyoming. Information includes data from a gaging station on Cache Creek and from wells, springs, and miscellaneous sites on streams. Data include streamflow, chemical and suspended-sediment quality of streams, and the occurrence and chemical quality of ground water. (USGS)

  5. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    OpenAIRE

    Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered n...

  6. Estimation of tile drainage contribution to streamflow and nutrient loads at the watershed scale based on continuously monitored data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Amado, A; Schilling, K E; Jones, C S; Thomas, N; Weber, L J

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen losses from artificially drained watersheds degrade water quality at local and regional scales. In this study, we used an end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) together with high temporal resolution water quality and streamflow data collected in the 122 km 2 Otter Creek watershed located in northeast Iowa. We estimated the contribution of three end-members (groundwater, tile drainage, and quick flow) to streamflow and nitrogen loads and tested several combinations of possible nitrate concentrations for the end-members. Results indicated that subsurface tile drainage is responsible for at least 50% of the watershed nitrogen load between April 15 and November 1, 2015. Tiles delivered up to 80% of the stream N load while providing only 15-43% of the streamflow, whereas quick flows only marginally contributed to N loading. Data collected offer guidance about areas of the watershed that should be targeted for nitrogen export mitigation strategies.

  7. Anti-Stress Effects of Lemon Balm-Containing Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scholey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis has been used historically and contemporarily as a modulator of mood and cognitive function, with anxiolytic effects following administration of capsules, coated tablets and topical application. Following a pilot study with lemon balm extract administered as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised M. officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults’ self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral “costs” at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix.

  8. Mtwapa Creek, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: trophic ecology, fish, Mtwapa, Kenya. Abstract—~The trophic status of common fish species in Mtwapa creek on the Kenyan coast was studied. Both the ..... indices. Species that did not include detritus in their diet had much lower fullness indices than those that took detritus, planktonic and benthic organisms.

  9. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  10. Skilful seasonal forecasts of streamflow over Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Louise; Cloke, Hannah L.; Stephens, Elisabeth; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Prudhomme, Christel; Neumann, Jessica; Krzeminski, Blazej; Pappenberger, Florian

    2018-04-01

    This paper considers whether there is any added value in using seasonal climate forecasts instead of historical meteorological observations for forecasting streamflow on seasonal timescales over Europe. A Europe-wide analysis of the skill of the newly operational EFAS (European Flood Awareness System) seasonal streamflow forecasts (produced by forcing the Lisflood model with the ECMWF System 4 seasonal climate forecasts), benchmarked against the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) forecasting approach (produced by forcing the Lisflood model with historical meteorological observations), is undertaken. The results suggest that, on average, the System 4 seasonal climate forecasts improve the streamflow predictability over historical meteorological observations for the first month of lead time only (in terms of hindcast accuracy, sharpness and overall performance). However, the predictability varies in space and time and is greater in winter and autumn. Parts of Europe additionally exhibit a longer predictability, up to 7 months of lead time, for certain months within a season. In terms of hindcast reliability, the EFAS seasonal streamflow hindcasts are on average less skilful than the ESP for all lead times. The results also highlight the potential usefulness of the EFAS seasonal streamflow forecasts for decision-making (measured in terms of the hindcast discrimination for the lower and upper terciles of the simulated streamflow). Although the ESP is the most potentially useful forecasting approach in Europe, the EFAS seasonal streamflow forecasts appear more potentially useful than the ESP in some regions and for certain seasons, especially in winter for almost 40 % of Europe. Patterns in the EFAS seasonal streamflow hindcast skill are however not mirrored in the System 4 seasonal climate hindcasts, hinting at the need for a better understanding of the link between hydrological and meteorological variables on seasonal timescales, with the aim of improving climate

  11. Processing of next generation weather radar-multisensor precipitation estimates and quantitative precipitation forecast data for the DuPage County streamflow simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Maitreyee; Ortel, Terry W.

    2018-01-12

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with DuPage County Stormwater Management Department, is testing a near real-time streamflow simulation system that assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek and West Branch DuPage River drainage basins in DuPage County, Illinois. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey maintains a database of hourly meteorological and hydrologic data for use in this near real-time streamflow simulation system. Among these data are next generation weather radar-multisensor precipitation estimates and quantitative precipitation forecast data, which are retrieved from the North Central River Forecasting Center of the National Weather Service. The DuPage County streamflow simulation system uses these quantitative precipitation forecast data to create streamflow predictions for the two simulated drainage basins. This report discusses in detail how these data are processed for inclusion in the Watershed Data Management files used in the streamflow simulation system for the Salt Creek and West Branch DuPage River drainage basins.

  12. Study on Food Safety Based on “Lemons Market†Theory

    OpenAIRE

    QIE, Haituo

    2014-01-01

    In view of frequent occurrence of “lemons market†in food safety, based on past researches of scholars on lemons market and food safety, it provided some recommendations for solving problem of food safety, in the hope of providing certain reference for cleaning up food market.

  13. Effects of lemon juice on the reproductive hormones of female wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lemon juice has been used by Mediterranean women as their main method of contraception. In the Nigerian traditional society, women of child bearing age are advised against the intake of lemon if they want to conceive because it is believed to have contraceptive effect. This necessitated the investigation of the effect of ...

  14. Growth of Lemon ( Citrus Limon L. Buru) in response to Water Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of young leaves and whole plant. Since total dry matter accumulation is a very important growth index, the effects of water stress and shade on the vegetative growth of lemon are considered interactive. Keywords: Citrus, 'Eureka', lemon, shade, water stress, vegetative growth. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol.

  15. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  16. In vitro plant regeneration in rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri Lush) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed to optimize the organogenesis in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush), an important citrus rootstock of India. Organogenesis was induced in epicotyl segments of rough lemon seedlings. Three important factors influencing organogenesis in vitro viz. hormone combination, cut modes and photoperiod ...

  17. The natural channel of Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, M.G.

    1955-01-01

    relationships hold for all flows up to the bankfull stage. Analysis of the streamflow records indicates that the annual maximum discharge equals or exceeds the bankfull stage roughly once every 2 years. The regularity in the behavior of the variables with changing discharges both at-a-station and in the downstream direction and the similar rates of change of the variables on Brandywine Creek and in stable irrigation canals suggest the existence of a quasi-equilibrium in the channel of the creek. Part three of this study is concerned with this concept of equilibrium in streams. By analogy with canals and with several rivers in diverse regions of the United States it may be concluded that this quasi-equilibrium is closely related to the discharge, and to the concentration of the suspended load. The shape and longitudinal profile of the channel are determined by these two independent factors which operate within the limits set by the local geology. The latter determines the initial size, shape, and resistance of the material provided to the channel. The existence of a quasi-equilibrium among the variables studied suggests that most reaches on Brandywine Creek are at grade. This is true if the term "grade," when applied to natural rivers, is synonymous with quasi-equilibrium. The adjustability of the variables in the channel rather than the stability of any particular shape or longitudinal profile of the channel is emphasized when t

  18. Toward Improving Streamflow Forecasts Using SNODAS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C.; Boyle, D. P.; Lamorey, G. W.; Bassett, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the Water 2025 initiative, researchers at the Desert Research Institute in collaboration with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation are developing and improving water decision support system (DSS) tools to make seasonal streamflow forecasts for management and operations of water resources in the mountainous western United States. Streamflow forecasts in these areas may have errors that are directly related to uncertainties resulting from the lack of direct high resolution snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of improving the accuracy of streamflow forecasts through the use of Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) products, which are high-resolution daily estimates of snow cover and associated hydrologic variables such as SWE and snowmelt runoff that are available for the coterminous United States. To evaluate the benefit of incorporating the SNODAS product into streamflow forecasts, a variety of Ensemble Streamflow Predictions (ESP) are generated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). A series of manual and automatic calibrations of PRMS to different combinations of measured (streamflow) and estimated (SNODAS SWE) hydrologic variables is performed for several watersheds at various scales of spatial resolution. This study, which is embedded in the constant effort to improve streamflow forecasts and hence water operations DSS, shows the potential of using a product such as SNODAS SWE estimates to decrease parameter uncertainty related to snow variables and enhance forecast skills early in the forecast season.

  19. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  20. Social learning in juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttridge, Tristan L; van Dijk, Sander; Stamhuis, Eize J; Krause, Jens; Gruber, Samuel H; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Social learning is taxonomically widespread and can provide distinct behavioural advantages, such as in finding food or avoiding predators more efficiently. Although extensively studied in bony fishes, no such empirical evidence exists for cartilaginous fishes. Our aim in this study was to experimentally investigate the social learning capabilities of juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris. We designed a novel food task, where sharks were required to enter a start zone and subsequently make physical contact with a target in order to receive a food reward. Naive sharks were then able to interact with and observe (a) pre-trained sharks, that is, 'demonstrators', or (b) sharks with no previous experience, that is, 'sham demonstrators'. On completion, observer sharks were then isolated and tested individually in a similar task. During the exposure phase observers paired with 'demonstrator' sharks performed a greater number of task-related behaviours and made significantly more transitions from the start zone to the target, than observers paired with 'sham demonstrators'. When tested in isolation, observers previously paired with 'demonstrator' sharks completed a greater number of trials and made contact with the target significantly more often than observers previously paired with 'sham demonstrators'. Such experience also tended to result in faster overall task performance. These results indicate that juvenile lemon sharks, like numerous other animals, are capable of using socially derived information to learn about novel features in their environment. The results likely have important implications for behavioural processes, ecotourism and fisheries.

  1. Seedless induced mutant in highly seeded lemon (Citrus limon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.; Vardi, Aliza; Elhanati, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: We have reported earlier on the induction of a seedless mutant in ''Eureka'' lemon. Further irradiation work with gamma rays was performed with another lemon cultivar, ''Israeli Villafranca''. This highly prolific cultivar has usually up to 25 seeds per fruit. Budwood of ''Villafranca'' was exposed to 50 Gy gamma rays from a Co source at the Nuclear Soreq Centre (by courtesy of Mr. R. Padova). Buds from M 1 V 1 plants (usually buds 3 to 15) were individually budded in the nursery on sour orange, as well as buds from non-irradiated material. Out of 120 M 1 V 2 plants grown in the field at 3x2 m spacing one tree bore completely seedless fruit. Fruit on adjacent trees had 22 seeds on the average. The selected tree has been observed for two seasons and found to bear normal seedless fruit. M 1 V 3 trees from budwood of the selected original tree have been raised. Some of these have started bearing. Nearly all fruits are completely seedless, with a maximum number of 1 seed per fruit. (author)

  2. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine th...

  3. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probabil...

  4. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Precipitation, Streamflow, Suspended-Sediment Loads and Yields, and Land-Condition Trend Analysis at the U.S. Army Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado, 1983 through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M.R.; Dupree, J.; Kuzmiak, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, began an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in precipitation, streamflow, suspended-sediment loads and yields, changes in land condition, effects of the tributaries on the Purgatoire River and the possible relation of effects from military training to hydrology and land conditions that have occurred at Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS) from 1983 through 2007. Data were collected for precipitation (19 stations) and streamflow and sediment load (5 tributary and 2 main-stem Purgatoire River stations) during 1983 through 2007 for various time periods. The five tributary stations were Van Bremer Arroyo near Model, Taylor Arroyo below Rock Crossing, Lockwood Canyon Creek near Thatcher, Red Rock Canyon Creek at the mouth, and Bent Canyon Creek at the mouth. In addition, data were collected at two Purgatoire River stations: Purgatoire River near Thatcher and Purgatoire River at Rock Crossing.

  5. The Beaver Creek story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  6. Water quality, sources of nitrate, and chemical loadings in the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, April 2015–March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2017-12-22

    sources) of nitrate. Nitrate sources in the Geronimo Creek watershed include a predominance of nitrate from fertilizer applications, as well as a contribution from septic systems. Additional nitrate loading from these sources is ongoing. Chemical loadings of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate varied little among sampling events and were low at most sites because of low streamflow.In contrast to the Geronimo Creek watershed, nitrate sources in the Plum Creek watershed are dominated by effluent discharge from the major WWTPs in the upper and central parts of the watershed. Results indicate that discharge from these WWTPs accounts for the majority of base flow in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations in Plum Creek were dependent on flow conditions, with the highest concentrations measured at lower flows, when flow is dominated by WWTP effluent discharge. In addition to WWTP effluent discharge, the Plum Creek watershed, similar to the Geronimo Creek watershed, also is affected by historical and current loading of nitrate from fertilizer applications and from septic systems in the watershed. Chemical loadings of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate in Plum Creek at lower flow conditions are highest at the upstream sites and decrease downstream as distance from the WWTPs increases, which is consistent with WWTP effluent as an important control on water quality. Under higher flow conditions, however, nitrate loads to Plum Creek increased by about a factor of three. These higher nitrate loads cannot be accounted for by WWTP effluent discharge from the five major WWTPs in the watershed. This additional loading indicates that nitrate is exported from the northeastern part of the watershed. In the lower part of the Plum Creek watershed, higher concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate occur, which might be affected by produced water associated with oil and gas exploration, or mixing with saline groundwater.

  7. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Water quality, streamflow conditions, and annual flow-duration curves for streams of the San Juan–Chama Project, southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, 1935-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Hafich, Katya A.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque–Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority supplements the municipal water supply for the Albuquerque metropolitan area, in central New Mexico, with water diverted from the Rio Grande. Water diverted from the Rio Grande for municipal use is derived from the San Juan–Chama Project, which delivers water from streams in the southern San Juan Mountains in the Colorado River Basin in southern Colorado to the Rio Chama watershed and the Rio Grande Basin in northern New Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Albuquerque–Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, has compiled historical streamflow and water-quality data and collected new water-quality data to characterize the water quality and streamflow conditions and annual flow variability, as characterized by annual flow-duration curves, of streams of the San Juan–Chama Project. Nonparametric statistical methods were applied to calculate annual and monthly summary statistics of streamflow, trends in streamflow conditions were evaluated with the Mann–Kendall trend test, and annual variation in streamflow conditions was evaluated with annual flow-duration curves. The study area is located in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado and includes the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, and Navajo River, tributaries of the San Juan River in the Colorado River Basin located in the southern San Juan Mountains, and Willow Creek and Horse Lake Creek, tributaries of the Rio Chama in the Rio Grande Basin. The quality of water in the streams in the study area generally varied by watershed on the basis of the underlying geology and the volume and source of the streamflow. Water from the Rio Blanco and Little Navajo River watersheds, primarily underlain by volcanic deposits, volcaniclastic sediments and landslide deposits derived from these materials, was compositionally similar and had low specific-conductance values relative to the other streams in the study area. Water from the Navajo River

  9. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  10. Characterization of hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-12-07

    Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey identified Alkali Flat as an area of groundwater upwelling, with increases in concentrations of total dissolved solids, and streamflow loss, but additional study was needed to better characterize these observations. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, White River Field Office, conducted a study to characterize the hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area of Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

  11. Characterizing the spatial correlation of streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betterle, Andrea; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    The spatial variability of streamflow dynamics is the byproduct of complex interactions between heterogeneous climatic, morphological, geological and ecological conditions across the landscape. The spatial correlation or streamflows represents a synthetic statistical indicator of similarity between flow dynamics at two arbitrary river sites. Streamflow correlation can therefore be used to track changes in flow dynamics along river networks, with implications for studies where spatial patterns of flow regimes are critical. In this work we develop an analytical model to quantify the seasonal linear correlation between daily streamflow timeseries at the outlet of two arbitrary unregulated catchment. The framework is based on a parsimonious and physically based stochastic description of the main geomorphoclimatic drivers of flow dynamics, ultimately leading to analytical expressions for the flow correlation. Streamflow correlation between two rivers sites results as a function of the main physical drivers characterizing flow dynamics at the relevant sites, namely the frequency and intensity of runoff-generating rainfall, and the catchment recession rates. The performances of the model are assessed on a set of catchment in the Eastern United States providing satisfactory performances. Different parameter estimation techniques are also developed, including a method which enables the estimate of the streamflow correlation in absence of discharge data. The role played by the spatial heterogeneities of the hydrological processes considered in the model on the resulting streamflow correlation are analytically assessed and evaluated in the study sites. The analysis shows how seasonal spatial correlation of flow dynamics is mainly controlled by the frequency and intensity of runoff-generating rainfall events, whereas heterogeneous recession rates have a limited influence in the study area. Additionally, the framework accounts for the topological arrangement or river networks

  12. Effects of best-management practices in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks in the Waumandee Creek Priority Watershed, Wisconsin, 1990-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Walker, John F.; Bannerman, Roger T.; Rutter, Troy D.

    2012-01-01

    In many watersheds, nonpoint-source contamination is a major contributor to water-quality problems. In response to the recognition of the importance of nonpoint sources, the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program (Nonpoint Program) was enacted in 1978. This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of watershed-management practices for controlling nonpoint-source contamination for the Eagle Creek and Joos Valley Creek Watersheds. Streamflow-gaging stations equipped for automated sample collection and continuous recording of stream stage were installed in July 1990 at Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were operated through September 2007. In October 1990, three rain gages were installed in each watershed and were operated through September 2007. Best-Management Practices (BMPs) were installed during 1993 to 2000 in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were tracked throughout the study period. By the year 2000, a majority of the BMPs were implemented in the two watersheds and goals set by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the local Land Conservation Department had been achieved for the two study watersheds (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 1990). The distributions of the rainstorms that produced surface runoff and storm loads were similar in the pre-BMP (1990-93) and post-BMP implementation (2000-07) periods for both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks. The highest annual streamflow occurred at both sites in water year 1993, which corresponded to the greatest above normal nonfrozen precipitation measured at two nearby NOAA weather stations. The minimum streamflow occurred in water year 2007 at both sites. Base-flow and stormwater samples were collected and analyzed for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen. For both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks the median concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus in base flow were lower during the post-BMP period compared to the pre

  13. Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolz, C.; de Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; de Cabrera, S.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berkeleyi; it increased the in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility to 22 and 24% for lemon grass and citronella, respectively. The increases were correlated with weight loss and lignin loss. All fungi decreased lignin contents: 36% of the original value for lemon grass and 28% for citronella. Practically all fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose over cellulose. PMID:16347155

  14. As (V) biosorption in an aqueous solution using chemically treated lemon (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Rangel, Vania Marilyn; Cortés-Martínez, Raúl; Villanueva, Ruth Alfaro Cuevas; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of biosorbents to remove metals and metalloids from contaminated water systems has gained great usage in various parts of the world. The objective of the current study was to test lemon peels as biosorbents for As (V). Lemon peels were chemically characterized and arsenic contact experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of the peels using different empirical models. The model that fit the experimental data was the Lagergren empirical model with a correlation coefficient of R= 0.8841. The results show that lemon peels were able to retain 474.8 μg of As (V)/g of biosorbent. Lemon agro-industrial waste can be useful in the removal of heavy metals, such as arsenic, from aqueous media. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Effects of Different Enzymes and Concentrations in the Production of Clarified Lemon Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Uçan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon juice obtained from Interdonato variety was treated with different enzymes at specific concentrations as depectinization processes to produce clear lemon juice and its concentrates. In addition, the best condition obtained from laboratory treatments was carried out in the local fruit juice plant. Effects of the processing steps on some quality parameters were investigated during the lemon juice production and the obtained concentrates were stored at −25°C for 180 days. The results showed that Novozym 33095 had the best depectinization effectiveness. Total pectin content of lemon juices decreased rapidly following the enzyme treatment and could not be detected following the filtration. Viscosity values decreased after pulp separation and the largest reduction was observed with the filtration. At the end of filtration in 40 μL/100 mL concentrations of each of the three enzymes, values of residual pectinmethylesterase (PME activity were found to be in the lowest amounts.

  16. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek...-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry, South Holston, Watauga, and.... Watauga and Wilbur reservoirs are along the Watauga River. Beaver Creek and Clear Creek reservoirs are on...

  17. Forecasting contaminant concentrations: Spills in the White Oak Creek Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, D.M.; Hyndman, D.W.; Huff, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) model has been installed and sufficiently calibrated for use in managing accidental release of contaminants in surface waters of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed at ORNL. The model employs existing watershed conditions, hydrologic parameters representing basin response to precipitation, and a Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) to predict variable flow conditions throughout the basin. Natural runoff from each of the hydrologically distinct subbasins is simulated and added to specified plant and process water discharges. The resulting flows are then routed through stream reaches and eventually to White Oak Lake (WOL), which is the outlet from the WOC drainage basin. In addition, the SSARR model is being used to simulate change in storage volumes and pool levels in WOL, and most recently, routing characteristics of contaminant spills through WOC and WOL. 10 figs

  18. An exploratory investigation of coffee and lemon scents and odor identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosofsky, Alexis; Haupert, Margaret L; Versteeg, Schyler W

    2011-04-01

    Fragrance sellers often provide coffee beans to their customers as a "nasal palate cleanser," to reduce the effects of olfactory adaptation and habituation. To test this idea, college students smelled three fragrances multiple times, rating odors each time. After completing nine trials, participants sniffed coffee beans, lemon slices, or plain air. Participants then indicated which of four presented fragrances had not been previously smelled; Coffee beans did not yield better performance than lemon slices or air.

  19. Antibacterial activity and stability of microencapsulated lemon grass essential oil in feeds for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, Yhago Patrycky Antunes Souza; Almeida, Anna Christina de; Nogueira, Wedson Carlos Lima; Souza, Cintya Neves de; Gonçalves, Samuel Ferreira; Silva, Flavio Emanuel Gomes; Santos, Vanessa Kelly Ferreira do Rosário; Martins, Ernane Ronie

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The antibacterial effect of microencapsulated lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil on strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC8739), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (ATCC 6017), and the stability of this oil in feeds for broiler chickens were evaluated. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined by the macrodilution method, using the microencapsulated lemon grass essential oil at...

  20. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, O. P.; Archana, B. S.; Singh, Asha; Raju, P. S.; Bawa, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 expe...

  1. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon flavoured black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, ...

  2. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  3. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  4. New beverages of lemon juice with elderberry and grape concentrates as a source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Elena; Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Mena, Pedro; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-06-01

    Considering the health potential of lemon and berry fruits, different functional beverages rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, which demonstrated beneficial effects, were developed. To fulfill this objective, lemon juice was combined with 2 different concentrates, elderberry and grape, in a proportion of 5% (w/v). Bioactive composition (flavonoids and vitamin C) and color stability, as well as the antioxidant capacity of mixtures, during a period of 56 d of storage, were studied. A protective role of anthocyanins on ascorbic acid preservation was noted for both lemon-berry blends, keeping vitamin C stable until the end of the storage. In addition, the new drink combining lemon and elderberry performed better than the grape-lemon mixture in terms of health-promoting phytochemicals content, just as in vitro antioxidant capacity and color characteristics. Beverages made from lemon juice and berries could contribute to develop new drinks with a prolonged preservation of bioactive compounds throughout storage, keeping an attractive color and a high antioxidant activity during long periods of time. The information obtained in the present work is in agreement to the rules of health and safety for juices established by the Directive of European Commission Dir2001/112/CE incorporated to the Spanish law through the RD1050/2003 regulation. Consequently, an improved performance of industrial products would be achieved. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Temporal change in biological community structure in the Fountain Creek basin, Colorado, 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to better understand the relations between environmental characteristics and biological communities in the Fountain Creek basin in order to aide water-resource management and guide future monitoring activities. To accomplish this task, environmental (streamflow, habitat, and water chemistry) and biological (fish and macroinvertebrate) data were collected annually at 24 sites over a 6- or 8-year period (fish, 2003 to 2008; macroinvertebrates, 2001 to 2008). For this report, these data were first analyzed to determine the presence of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure among years using nonparametric multivariate statistics. Where temporal change in the biological communities was found, these data were further analyzed using additional nonparametric multivariate techniques to determine which subset of selected streamflow, habitat, or water-chemistry variables best described site-specific changes in community structure relative to a gradient of urbanization. This study identified significant directional patterns of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure at 15 of 24 sites in the Fountain Creek basin. At four of these sites, changes in environmental variables were significantly correlated with the concurrent temporal change identified in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure (Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Monument Creek at Bijou Street at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Bear Creek near Colorado Springs, Colo.; Fountain Creek at Security, Colo.). Combinations of environmental variables describing directional temporal change in the biota appeared to be site specific as no single variable dominated the results; however, substrate composition variables (percent substrate composition composed of sand, gravel, or cobble) collectively were present in 80 percent of the environmental

  6. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek, North Dakota: an isotopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. R.; Mushet, D. M.; Alexander, L. C.; Christensen, J.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Neff, B. P.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Rugh, W.; Vanderhoof, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, which is dominated by prairie potholes. During a wetter-than-normal decade, Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated water signal that had approximately half the isotopic enrichment signal found in most evaporatively-enriched pothole wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from upstream towards downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporative enrichment. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha of open water contributing to streamflow over time, and varied primarily with the amount of discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This indicated that prairie pothole wetlands were important sources of stream flow in Pipestem Creek throughout the summer, as well as during snowmelt. This also demonstrated that at the lowest flows, the stream itself became disconnected from headwater stream reaches. We believe that this dynamic connectivity between pothole wetlands and Pipestem Creek occurred primarily when evaporatively-enriched water stored in pothole wetlands spilled to the stream during precipitation events.

  7. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  8. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The origin of limes and lemons has been a source of conflicting taxonomic opinions. Biochemical studies, numerical taxonomy and recent molecular studies suggested that cultivated Citrus species result from interspecific hybridization between four basic taxa (C. reticulata,C. maxima,C. medica and C. micrantha). However, the origin of most lemons and limes remains controversial or unknown. The aim of this study was to perform extended analyses of the diversity, genetic structure and origin of limes and lemons. The study was based on 133 Citrus accessions. It combined maternal phylogeny studies based on mitochondrial and chloroplastic markers, and nuclear structure analysis based on the evaluation of ploidy level and the use of 123 markers, including 73 basic taxa diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel markers. The lime and lemon horticultural group appears to be highly polymorphic, with diploid, triploid and tetraploid varieties, and to result from many independent reticulation events which defined the sub-groups. Maternal phylogeny involves four cytoplasmic types out of the six encountered in the Citrus genus. All lime and lemon accessions were highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three and even the four ancestral taxa genomes. Molecular polymorphism between varieties of the same sub-group was very low. Citrus medica contributed to all limes and lemons and was the direct male parent for the main sub-groups in combination with C. micrantha or close papeda species (for C. aurata, C. excelsa, C. macrophylla and C. aurantifolia--'Mexican' lime types of Tanaka's taxa), C. reticulata(for C. limonia, C. karna and C. jambhiri varieties of Tanaka's taxa, including popular citrus rootstocks such as 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' and 'Rough' lemons), C. aurantium (for C. limetta and C. limon--yellow lemon types--varieties of Tanaka's taxa) or the C. maxima × C. reticulate hybrid (for C. limettioides--'Palestine sweet' lime types--and C

  9. New data visualization of the LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Fedorko; Veronique, Lefebure; Daniel, Lenkes; Omar, Pera Mira

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, new requirements have been received for visualization of monitoring data: advanced graphics, flexibility in configuration and decoupling of the presentation layer from the monitoring repository. Lemonweb is the data visualization component of the LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system. Lemonweb consists of two subcomponents: a data collector and a web visualization interface. The data collector is a daemon, implemented in Python, responsible for data gathering from the central monitoring repository and storing into time series data structures. Data is stored on disk in Round Robin Database (RRD) files: one file per monitored entity, with set of entity related metrics. Entities may be grouped into a hierarchical structure, called “clusters” and supporting mathematical operations over entities and clusters (e.g. cluster A + cluster B /clusters C - entity XY). Using the configuration information, a cluster definition is evaluated in the collector engine and, at runtime, a sequence of data selects is built, to optimize access to the central monitoring repository. In this article, an overview of the design and architecture as well as highlights of some implemented features will be presented.

  10. Effects of Lemon Balm on the Oxidative Stability and the Quality Properties of Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, You-Jung; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on various quality and antioxidant activity of hamburger patties. Lemon balm extract (LBE) showed the highest amount of total polyphenol (801.00 mg TAE/g DW) and flavonoids (65.05 mg RA/g DW). The IC50 value of DPPH hydroxyl scavenging of LBE was 132 ?g/mL. The hamburger patties were prepared by 0% (N), 0.1% (L1), 0.5% (L2), and 1.0% (L3) of the lemon balm powder. The addition of lemon balm powder incre...

  11. Effect of lemon waste on soil ph and availability of micronutrient in calcareous soils of fars province, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gharaie, Hossienali

    2008-01-01

    Most of soils of Iran are calcareous in nature. The orchard trees are widespread in south of Iran. Sour lemon is one product of the area and is processed for lemon juice. To evaluate the effect of lemon waste on soil pH and availability of micronutrients, composite soil samples were collected from 0-40 Cm of the area and analyzed for physico- chemical properties. Lemon waste was gathered from processing factory, dried at 70 c and crushed to 1-2 mm size. A statistical complete r...

  12. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  13. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  14. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  15. Streamflow depletion by wells--Understanding and managing the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2012-11-02

    Groundwater is an important source of water for many human needs, including public supply, agriculture, and industry. With the development of any natural resource, however, adverse consequences may be associated with its use. One of the primary concerns related to the development of groundwater resources is the effect of groundwater pumping on streamflow. Groundwater and surface-water systems are connected, and groundwater discharge is often a substantial component of the total flow of a stream. Groundwater pumping reduces the amount of groundwater that flows to streams and, in some cases, can draw streamflow into the underlying groundwater system. Streamflow reductions (or depletions) caused by pumping have become an important water-resource management issue because of the negative impacts that reduced flows can have on aquatic ecosystems, the availability of surface water, and the quality and aesthetic value of streams and rivers. Scientific research over the past seven decades has made important contributions to the basic understanding of the processes and factors that affect streamflow depletion by wells. Moreover, advances in methods for simulating groundwater systems with computer models provide powerful tools for estimating the rates, locations, and timing of streamflow depletion in response to groundwater pumping and for evaluating alternative approaches for managing streamflow depletion. The primary objective of this report is to summarize these scientific insights and to describe the various field methods and modeling approaches that can be used to understand and manage streamflow depletion. A secondary objective is to highlight several misconceptions concerning streamflow depletion and to explain why these misconceptions are incorrect.

  16. Effects of urbanization on streamflow in the Atlanta area (Georgia, USA): A comparative hydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S.; Peters, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    For the period from 1958 to 1996, streamflow characteristics of a highly urbanized watershed were compared with less-urbanized and non-urbanized watersheds within a 20 000 km2 region in the vicinity of Atlanta, Georgia: In the Piedmont and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces of the southeastern USA. Water levels in several wells completed in surficial and crystalline-rock aquifers were also evaluated. Data were analysed for seven US Geological Survey (USGS) stream gauges, 17 National Weather Service rain gauges, and five USGS monitoring wells. Annual runoff coefficients (RCs; runoff as a fractional percentage of precipitation) for the urban stream (Peachtree Creek) were not significantly greater than for the less-urbanized watersheds. The RCs for some streams were similar to others and the similar streams were grouped according to location. The RCs decreased from the higher elevation and higher relief watersheds to the lower elevation and lower relief watersheds: Values were 0.54 for the two Blue Ridge streams. 0.37 for the four middle Piedmont streams (near Atlanta), and 0.28 for a southern Piedmont stream. For the 25 largest stormflows, the peak flows for Peachtree Creek were 30% to 100% greater then peak flows for the other stream. The storm recession period for the urban stream was 1-2 days less than that for the other streams and the recession was characterized by a 2-day storm recession constant that was, on average, 40 to 100% greater, i.e. streamflow decreased more rapidly than for the other streams. Baseflow recession constants ranged from 35 to 40% lower for Peachtree Creek than for the other streams; this is attributed to lower evapotranspiration losses, which result in a smaller change in groundwater storage than in the less-urbanized watersheds. Low flow of Peachtree Creek ranged from 25 to 35% less than the other streams, possibly the result of decreased infiltration caused by the more efficient routing of stormwater and the paving of groundwater

  17. Sources of Increased Spring and Streamflow Caused by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Holzer, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonally dry springs and creeks began flowing over a broad region in the hills around Napa following the M6.0 South Napa earthquake on August 24, 2014. Flows in hillside creek beds, which were dry before the earthquake, were reported from 19 km west, to 6 km east, and 18 km north of Napa and the epicenter, an area that shook at MMI≥VI. The exact timing of the increased flow is unknown because the earthquake occurred at 3:20 AM PDT. A gaging station on the Napa River, which is downstream from several tributaries that began flowing after the earthquake, showed a sudden increase of flow rate within 45 minutes following the earthquake. The sudden increase at the gaging station suggests flows initiated either contemporaneously with or very soon after the strong shaking. This timing is consistent with eyewitness accounts of other streams and springs at daylight, a few hours after the earthquake. One of the largest increases of streamflow was in Green Valley, where a streamflow rate of about 100 cubic hectometers per day was measured in Wild Horse Creek. Two types of waters are being discharged in the Wild Horse Creek drainage: 1) water with low iron concentration that has exchanged with rhyolitic flows and tuffs in the upper part of the drainage; and 2) high iron concentration water that has exchanged with basaltic andesite in the middle part of drainage (vertical interval of about 75 meters). The high iron waters are depositing FeOOH other iron phases. Mixing of the two water types results in water with pH 6.9 and conductivity of 0.197 mS. This water is used by the Vallejo Water District for domestic purposes after it is mixed with recent surface water runoff stored in Lake Frey reservoir in order to improve its quality. Other drainages that have increased flow since the earthquake have water chemistry consistent with exchange with rhyolitic flows and tuffs that are the dominant rock type in these drainages.

  18. Hydrology and hydrochemistry for the Rice Creek watershed of the Whiteshell Research Area, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, G.A.; Laporte, J.M.; Clarke, D.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents data and results of a hydrometeorological study carried out in the Rice Creek Watershed of the Whiteshell Research Area during 1986-90. Major water budget components, such as precipitation, runoff, groundwater, storage and evaporation, are evaluated and discussed. men annual precipitation was 544 mm, mean runoff was 101 mm, with evapo-transpiration as the residual being 443 mm. The steady-state groundwater component of the runoff is estimated to be less than 2 mm/unit area, or less than 2% of men annual basin yield. Water chemistry data for precipitation,l surface waters, and groundwaters are presented and the relative concentrations compared to provide information about sources of streamflow. Data on a major storm event that provided precipitation with an estimated return period of over 100 a are presented. Also discussed are the effects of beaver dams on the hydrology of a major tributary of the Rice Creek watershed. (auth)

  19. Modeling multisite streamflow dependence with maximum entropy copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-10-01

    Synthetic streamflows at different sites in a river basin are needed for planning, operation, and management of water resources projects. Modeling the temporal and spatial dependence structure of monthly streamflow at different sites is generally required. In this study, the maximum entropy copula method is proposed for multisite monthly streamflow simulation, in which the temporal and spatial dependence structure is imposed as constraints to derive the maximum entropy copula. The monthly streamflows at different sites are then generated by sampling from the conditional distribution. A case study for the generation of monthly streamflow at three sites in the Colorado River basin illustrates the application of the proposed method. Simulated streamflow from the maximum entropy copula is in satisfactory agreement with observed streamflow.

  20. [Study on Kinetic of Hg2+ from Wastewater Absorbed by Lemon Residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wang-qing; Wang, Miao; Yang, Ting

    2016-03-01

    With low price and its superior adsorption performance after modification, currently agricultural waste is used as adsorbent of heavy metals in wastewater, which has become a hot research topic. To study on Hg2+ from wastewater absorbed by lemon residues that has been modified by 15% concentration of sulphuric acid. The pore volume, pore size and other properties of the adsorbent were test. The samples were characterized by differential thermal analysis, IR, electron microscopy and spectroscopy. The result showed that the adsorption rate was controlled by membrane diffusion kinetics that was viewed as the first order kinetics equation of the Lagergren, which was physically absorbed. The adsorption properties of modified lemon residues were improved greatly, and the pore size distribution mainly was medium. There were three losses-weight process. There was a endothermic peak around 66 degrees C and two exotherm near 316 degrees C and 494 degrees C. Basic framework of Lemon residues was not changed and structure of Lemon residues was amorphous; the surface of modified lemon residues loosen and many pores formed, and Hg2+ have been adsorbed effectively.

  1. LEMONS - A Tool for the Identification of Splice Junctions in Transcriptomes of Organisms Lacking Reference Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Levin

    Full Text Available RNA-seq is becoming a preferred tool for genomics studies of model and non-model organisms. However, DNA-based analysis of organisms lacking sequenced genomes cannot rely on RNA-seq data alone to isolate most genes of interest, as DNA codes both exons and introns. With this in mind, we designed a novel tool, LEMONS, that exploits the evolutionary conservation of both exon/intron boundary positions and splice junction recognition signals to produce high throughput splice-junction predictions in the absence of a reference genome. When tested on multiple annotated vertebrate mRNA data, LEMONS accurately identified 87% (average of the splice-junctions. LEMONS was then applied to our updated Mediterranean chameleon transcriptome, which lacks a reference genome, and predicted a total of 90,820 exon-exon junctions. We experimentally verified these splice-junction predictions by amplifying and sequencing twenty randomly selected genes from chameleon DNA templates. Exons and introns were detected in 19 of 20 of the positions predicted by LEMONS. To the best of our knowledge, LEMONS is currently the only experimentally verified tool that can accurately predict splice-junctions in organisms that lack a reference genome.

  2. Antimicrobial Effect of Ginger, Garlic, Honey, and Lemon Extracts on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Kiran; Anand, Swathy; Aravind, A; Dinatius, Praveen; Krishnan, Anandhu V; Mathai, Meera

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lemon, ginger, garlic, and honey extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Commercially obtained honey, ginger, garlic, and lemon were included in the study to evaluate its efficacy in isolation and in combination against S. mutans. The efficacies of extracts were tested using well diffusion method, and its effect was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition around the well. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out individually and compared considering triplicates of all the extracts. When individual comparison of the extracts was made, garlic showed greatest antimicrobial activity with a mean zone of inhibition (34.9 ± 0.58 mm) and honey showed least antimicrobial activity (0.5 ± 0.6 mm). When combinations of extracts were tested against S. mutans, lemon and garlic combination showed the greatest zone of inhibition (27.6 ± 0.43 mm) compared with other combinations, and ginger + lemon combinations showed the least zone of inhibition (12.6 ± 0.43 mm). This study concluded that garlic showed a greatest antimicrobial effect against S. mutans when compared with other preparations individually and garlic and lemon showed greatest zone of inhibition in combination than other preparations. Antibiotics and other chemical agents are mainly used to treat the common dental infections. However, due to the excessive use, it can result in antibiotic resistance. Hence, herbal medicines with medicinal values should be replaced with conventional methods.

  3. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  4. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project...

  5. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  6. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  7. PENGARUH AROMATERAPI INHALASI LEMON TERHADAP PENURUNAN NYERI PERSALINAN KALA I FASE AKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Cholifah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research to describe the effects of lemon aromatherapy inhalation on the reduction of first stage  labor pain in the active phase. The study was a quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test non equivalent control group design. Mann-Whitney bivariable analysis and linear regression for multivariable analysis. The result of this study was average of labor pain in aromatherapy group was  4.74 + 1.327 wich is lower  than  control group 5.79 + 1.316. Result of Mann-Whitney test is  P 0.001 < 0.05. External variables which influence the labor pain was anxiety  with  the value of P < 0.05. There is inhaled lemon aromatherapy effect on reducing first stage labor pain  in active phase. Keywords: lemon aromatherapy inhalation, labor pain, first stage, active phase

  8. Pectic oligosacharides from lemon peel wastes: production, purification, and chemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, Jose L

    2013-10-23

    Lemon peel wastes were extracted with water to remove free sugars and other soluble compounds, and the insoluble solid was employed as a substrate for the manufacture of pectin-derived oligosaccharides by processing with hot, compressed water. When water-extracted lemon peel wastes were treated with water at 160 °C, the oligomer concentration reached the maximum value (31 g/L). Autohydrolysis liquors were subjected to two membrane filtration stages (diafiltration followed by concentration), yielding a refined product containing about 98 wt % of oligomers at a global yield of 14 kg/100 kg oven-dry lemon peel. The concentrate contained oligogalacturonides (with DP in the range of 2-18) and arabinooligosaccharides (with DP in the range of 2-8).

  9. Effects of different pollination combinations on fruit set in some lemon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay DEMİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some new lemon varieties and some standart lemon varieties were used as plant material in the planned project. The effects of selfing, crossing and reciprocal crossing methods on fruit set were investigated. The study was carried out in Batı Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute’s fruit department station in 2011-2012 years. In the study, it was determined the effects of self-pollination, naturel open pollination and reciprocal pollination on fruit set of limon varieties (BATEM Pınarı, BATEM Sarısı, Interdonato, Kütdiken, Italyan Memeli, Meyer, Lamas. According to results, İtalyan Memeli lemon with 35.17% was determined the highest rate on account of percentage of fruits at harvest time.

  10. [Autooxidation of a mixture of lemon essential oils, methyl linolenoate, and methyl oleinate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

    2010-01-01

    Stability of components of a mixture of methyl linolenoate and methyl oleinate with two lemon (Citrus limon L.) essential oils in hexane during their autooxidation in light was studied by gas chromatography. The essential oils differed by their quantitative ratio of components: the single-fold (1x) oil contained approximately 90% monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1.47% citral, whereas the proportions of hydrocarbons and citral in the tenfold (10x) oil were approximately 60 and 18.32%, respectively. The concentration and composition of essential oils influence the rates of fatty-acid oxidation and fatty-acid peroxide cleavage. The 1x lemon oil inhibited the oxidation of methyl linolenoate and methyl oleinate, whereas the 10x oil accelerated these processes. The distinctions in the resistance of the major components of lemon essential oil to oxidation, which are determined by their composition and antioxidant properties of unsaturated fatty acids, were revealed.

  11. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  12. A modified simple dynamic model: Derived from the information embedded in observed streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Nieber, John L.

    2017-09-01

    A zero-dimension hydrological model has been developed to simulate the discharge (Q) from watershed groundwater storage(S). The model is a modified version of the original model developed by Kirchner in 2009 which uses a unique sensitivity function, g (Q) to represent the relation between rate of flow recession and the instantaneous flow rate. The modified dynamic model instead uses a normalized sensitivity function g (Qnorm) which provides the model the flexibility to encompass the hysteretic effect of initial water storage on flow during recession periods. The sensitivity function is normalized based on a correlation function F (Q) which implicitly quantifies the influence of initial storage conditions on recession flow dynamics. For periods of either positive or negative net recharge to groundwater the model applies a term similar in form to an analytical solution based on solution to the linearized Boussinesq equation. The combination of these two streamflow components, the recession component and the net recharge response, provides the model with the flexibility to realistically mimic the hysteresis in the Q vs. S relations for a watershed. The model is applied to the Sagehen Creek watershed, a hilly watershed located in the Sierra Mountains of California. The results show that the modified model has an improved performance to simulate the discharge dynamic encompassing a wide range of water storage (degree of wetness) representing an almost ten-fold variation in annual streamflow.

  13. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  14. Understanding uncertainties in future Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie A. Vano,; Bradley Udall,; Cayan, Daniel; Jonathan T Overpeck,; Brekke, Levi D.; Das, Tapash; Hartmann, Holly C.; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Hoerling, Martin P; McCabe, Gregory J.; Morino, Kiyomi; Webb, Robert S.; Werner, Kevin; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado River is the primary water source for more than 30 million people in the United States and Mexico. Recent studies that project streamf low changes in the Colorado River all project annual declines, but the magnitude of the projected decreases range from less than 10% to 45% by the mid-twenty-first century. To understand these differences, we address the questions the management community has raised: Why is there such a wide range of projections of impacts of future climate change on Colorado River streamflow, and how should this uncertainty be interpreted? We identify four major sources of disparities among studies that arise from both methodological and model differences. In order of importance, these are differences in 1) the global climate models (GCMs) and emission scenarios used; 2) the ability of land surface and atmospheric models to simulate properly the high-elevation runoff source areas; 3) the sensitivities of land surface hydrology models to precipitation and temperature changes; and 4) the methods used to statistically downscale GCM scenarios. In accounting for these differences, there is substantial evidence across studies that future Colorado River streamflow will be reduced under the current trajectories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions because of a combination of strong temperature-induced runoff curtailment and reduced annual precipitation. Reconstructions of preinstrumental streamflows provide additional insights; the greatest risk to Colorado River streamf lows is a multidecadal drought, like that observed in paleoreconstructions, exacerbated by a steady reduction in flows due to climate change. This could result in decades of sustained streamflows much lower than have been observed in the ~100 years of instrumental record.

  15. The HEPEX Seasonal Streamflow Forecast Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. W.; Schepen, A.; Bennett, J.; Mendoza, P. A.; Ramos, M. H.; Wetterhall, F.; Pechlivanidis, I.

    2016-12-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX; www.hepex.org) has launched an international seasonal streamflow forecasting intercomparison project (SSFIP) with the goal of broadening community knowledge about the strengths and weaknesses of various operational approaches being developed around the world. While some of these approaches have existed for decades (e.g. Ensemble Streamflow Prediction - ESP - in the United States and elsewhere), recent years have seen the proliferation of new operational and experimental streamflow forecasting approaches. These have largely been developed independently in each country, thus it is difficult to assess whether the approaches employed in some centers offer more promise for development than others. This motivates us to establish a forecasting testbed to facilitate a diagnostic evaluation of a range of different streamflow forecasting approaches and their components over a common set of catchments, using a common set of validation methods. Rather than prescribing a set of scientific questions from the outset, we are letting the hindcast results and notable differences in methodologies on a watershed-specific basis motivate more targeted analyses and sub-experiments that may provide useful insights. The initial pilot of the testbed involved two approaches - CSIRO's Bayesian joint probability (BJP) and NCAR's sequential regression - for two catchments, each designated by one of the teams (the Murray River, Australia, and Hungry Horse reservoir drainage area, USA). Additional catchments/approaches are in the process of being added to the testbed. To support this CSIRO and NCAR have developed data and analysis tools, data standards and protocols to formalize the experiment. These include requirements for cross-validation, verification, reference climatologies, and common predictands. This presentation describes the SSFIP experiments, pilot basin results and scientific findings to date.

  16. An unusual kind of diurnal streamflow variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas Jaime G.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During hydrological research in a Chilean swamp forest, we noted a pattern of higher streamflows close to midday and lower ones close to midnight, the opposite of an evapotranspiration (Et-driven cycle. We analyzed this diurnal streamflow signal (DSS, which appeared mid-spring (in the growing season. The end of this DSS coincided with a sustained rain event in autumn, which deeply affected stream and meteorological variables. A survey along the stream revealed that the DSS maximum and minimum values appeared 6 and 4 hours earlier, respectively, at headwaters located in the mountain forests/ plantations than at the control point in the swamp forest. Et in the swamp forest was higher in the morning and in the late afternoon, but this process could not influence the groundwater stage. Trees in the mountain headwaters reached their maximum Ets in the early morning and/or close to midday. Our results suggest that the DSS is a wave that moves from forests high in the mountains towards lowland areas, where Et is decoupled from the DSS. This signal delay seems to convert the link between streamflow and Et in an apparent, but spurious positive relationship. It also highlights the role of landscape heterogeneity in shaping hydrological processes.

  17. Ground water-surface water relations in the Flathead River valley near the proposed Cabin Creek coal mine, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, J.A.; Liebscher, Hugh; Van Voast, W. A.; Feltis, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The area of the proposed Cabin Creek coal mine was studied to obtain information needed to respond to questions posed by the International Joint Commission advisers concerning water resources near the international border. Specific interest focused on determining the extent and character of surficial material in the Flathead River valley, identifying gaining and losing reaches of the river and major tributaries, and documenting ambient water quality at selected sites. Thickness of the alluvial deposits depends on depth to underlaying Quaternary glacial deposits or Tertiary bedrock. The alluvial deposits in the Flathead River valley thin to a veneer of cobbles near the mouth of Couldrey Creek. Measurements of streamflow at 20 sites in the Flathead River valley indicate that water discharges from the alluvial deposits to most of the tributaries and to the river near the proposed mine. The Flathead River gains 0.87 cu m/sec (31 cu ft/sec) of flow near Howell Creek. The Flathead River and Couldrey Creek gained about 0.81 cu m/sec (28.5 cu ft/sec) of flow near the mouth of Couldrey Creek where bedrock crops out in the streambeds. Bedrock outcrops effectively interrupt the alluvial aquifer system between the proposed mine site and the international border. The Flathead River lost 0.87 cu m/sec (31 cu ft/sec) of flow between the bedrock outcrops and the international border; this streamflow loss enters alluvial deposits and flows across the international border as subsurface flow. Analysis of samples from 18 stream sites and 1 spring site indicates general trends in water quality. In Howell Creek, concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sulfates increased slightly downstream. Conversely, samples from Sage and Couldrey Creeks indicate downstream increases in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and alkalinity, but decreases in concentrations of sulfate. Water quality of Cabin Creek was relatively stable through the sampled reach. Decreased concentrations of calcium and

  18. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice; II,b. uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ore and suggested flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking Safaga phosphate and Qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (UO 3 ). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  19. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice I,b-uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ores and suggested flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sayed, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking safaga phosphate and qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (U o 3 ). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  20. Operational Streamflow Forecasts Development Using GCM Predicted Precipitation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Lall, U.

    2004-12-01

    Monthly updates of streamflow forecasts are required for deriving reservoir operation strategies as well as for quantifying surplus and shortfall for the allocated water contracts. In this study, an operational streamflow forecasts are developed using Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCM) predicted precipitation for managing the Angat Reservoir System, Philippines. The methodology employs principal components regression (PCR) for downscaling the AGCM predicted precipitation fields to monthly streamflow forecasts. The performance of this downscaling approach is analyzed with AGCM being forced using the observed sea surface temperature (SST) conditions as well under persisted SST conditions. The ability of downscaled streamflow forecasts in explaining the intraseasonal variability is also explored. Conditional distribution of streamflows obtained from the PCR downscaling approach is also compared with a simple, semi-parametric resampling algorithm that obtains ensembles of streamflow forecasts by identifying similar conditions in that season's climatic predictors state space.

  1. Mississippi River streamflow measurement techniques at St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastson, Chester C.; Holmes, Robert R.; Biedenham, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow measurement techniques of the Mississippi River at St. Louis have changed through time (1866–present). In addition to different methods used for discrete streamflow measurements, the density and range of discrete measurements used to define the rating curve (stage versus streamflow) have also changed. Several authors have utilized published water surface elevation (stage) and streamflow data to assess changes in the rating curve, which may be attributed to be caused by flood control and/or navigation structures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the available flow measurement data and techniques and to assess how a strict awareness of the limitations of the data may affect previous analyses. It is concluded that the pre-1930s discrete streamflow measurement data are not of sufficient accuracy to be compared with modern streamflow values in establishing long-term trends of river behavior.

  2. Human influences on streamflow drought characteristics in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tijdeman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human influences can affect streamflow drought characteristics and propagation. The question is where, when and why? To answer these questions, the impact of different human influences on streamflow droughts were assessed in England and Wales, across a broad range of climate and catchments conditions. We used a dataset consisting of catchments with near-natural flow as well as catchments for which different human influences have been indicated in the metadata (Factors Affecting Runoff of the UK National River Flow Archive (NRFA. A screening approach was applied on the streamflow records to identify human-influenced records with drought characteristics that deviated from those found for catchments with near-natural flow. Three different deviations were considered, specifically deviations in (1 the relationship between streamflow drought duration and the base flow index, BFI (specifically, BFIHOST, the BFI predicted from the hydrological properties of soils, (2 the correlation between streamflow and precipitation and (3 the temporal occurrence of streamflow droughts compared to precipitation droughts, i.e. an increase or decrease in streamflow drought months relative to precipitation drought months over the period of record. The identified deviations were then related to the indicated human influences. Results showed that the majority of catchments for which human influences were indicated did not show streamflow drought characteristics that deviated from those expected under near-natural conditions. For the catchments that did show deviating streamflow drought characteristics, prolonged streamflow drought durations were found in some of the catchments affected by groundwater abstractions. Weaker correlations between streamflow and precipitation were found for some of the catchments with reservoirs, water transfers or groundwater augmentation schemes. An increase in streamflow drought occurrence towards the end of their records was found for

  3. Drivers influencing streamflow changes in the Upper Turia basin, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoral, Gloria; Willaarts, Bárbara A; Troch, Peter A; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-15

    Many rivers across the world have experienced a significant streamflow reduction over the last decades. Drivers of the observed streamflow changes are multiple, including climate change (CC), land use and land cover changes (LULCC), water transfers and river impoundment. Many of these drivers inter-act simultaneously, making it difficult to discern the impact of each driver individually. In this study we isolate the effects of LULCC on the observed streamflow reduction in the Upper Turia basin (east Spain) during the period 1973-2008. Regression models of annual streamflow are fitted with climatic variables and also additional time variant drivers like LULCC. The ecohydrological model SWAT is used to study the magnitude and sign of streamflow change when LULCC occurs. Our results show that LULCC does play a significant role on the water balance, but it is not the main driver underpinning the observed reduction on Turia's streamflow. Increasing mean temperature is the main factor supporting increasing evapotranspiration and streamflow reduction. In fact, LULCC and CC have had an offsetting effect on the streamflow generation during the study period. While streamflow has been negatively affected by increasing temperature, ongoing LULCC have positively compensated with reduced evapotranspiration rates, thanks to mainly shrubland clearing and forest degradation processes. These findings are valuable for the management of the Turia river basin, as well as a useful approach for the determination of the weight of LULCC on the hydrological response in other regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human influences on streamflow drought characteristics in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdeman, Erik; Hannaford, Jamie; Stahl, Kerstin

    2018-02-01

    Human influences can affect streamflow drought characteristics and propagation. The question is where, when and why? To answer these questions, the impact of different human influences on streamflow droughts were assessed in England and Wales, across a broad range of climate and catchments conditions. We used a dataset consisting of catchments with near-natural flow as well as catchments for which different human influences have been indicated in the metadata (Factors Affecting Runoff) of the UK National River Flow Archive (NRFA). A screening approach was applied on the streamflow records to identify human-influenced records with drought characteristics that deviated from those found for catchments with near-natural flow. Three different deviations were considered, specifically deviations in (1) the relationship between streamflow drought duration and the base flow index, BFI (specifically, BFIHOST, the BFI predicted from the hydrological properties of soils), (2) the correlation between streamflow and precipitation and (3) the temporal occurrence of streamflow droughts compared to precipitation droughts, i.e. an increase or decrease in streamflow drought months relative to precipitation drought months over the period of record. The identified deviations were then related to the indicated human influences. Results showed that the majority of catchments for which human influences were indicated did not show streamflow drought characteristics that deviated from those expected under near-natural conditions. For the catchments that did show deviating streamflow drought characteristics, prolonged streamflow drought durations were found in some of the catchments affected by groundwater abstractions. Weaker correlations between streamflow and precipitation were found for some of the catchments with reservoirs, water transfers or groundwater augmentation schemes. An increase in streamflow drought occurrence towards the end of their records was found for some of the

  5. Increases in arterial blood oxygen during exercise in the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BUSHNELL, PG; LUTZ, PL; STEFFENSEN, JF

    1982-01-01

    Polyethylene cannulae were implanted in pre- and post-branchial blood vessels allowing nonstressful blood sampling over a variety of activity ranges in an active tropical elasmobranch, the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris). TheP 50 was found to be 11.8 Torr at 24°C and pH of 7.7. A Bohr shift...

  6. Assessment of Mesophilic Co-Digestion of Cow Dung with Lemon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scarcity of energy (fossil) and its attendant pollution menace have provided the avenue to consider alternative sources of energy. A study was carried out on the design and construction of an Anaerobic Digester system using 1mm galvanized steel for the production of biogas from co-digestion of Cow dung and Lemon ...

  7. Lake Garda lemon houses (Italy: Opportunities of a sensitive, marginal area in urban planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiani Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lemon houses of Lake Garda provide Ecosystem Services, due to their history and their deep rooting in the landscape. Unfortunately, Urban Planning hasn’t ever taken into account these possible benefits. In fact, it has always allowed their reuse as residences and it has sustained the conservation of the buildings only. The lack of interest in reintroducing lemon growing or other agricultural activities has produced a noticeable impoverishment of the local landscape. To overcome these limits, Urban Planning should be oriented to implement practices, which take root in and bring out the variety of local landscapes. In order to reach this result, Urban Planning may help to bring some lemon houses, especially the abandoned or the most vulnerable ones, back to their original agricultural vocation, reintroducing autopoietic agricultural techniques, which are in balance with the environment. An interdisciplinary approach may be adopted in a profitable way, to strengthen the efficiency of the Urban Planning. Aiming at this interdisciplinary approach the paper reports our first investigations concerning the contribution of different disciplines, which will help Urban Planning to consider, in case of the reuse of Lake Garda lemon houses, immaterial benefits and to reintroduce activities linked to their original vocation.

  8. Chemical guide parameters for Spanish lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, José; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Ibarz, Albert; Coll, Luís; Hernández, Julio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2014-11-01

    To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice extracted from the Spanish lemon varieties, chemical composition of 92 direct and 92 reconstituted samples were investigated. In direct lemon juice, titratable acidity was 52.4 g/L, being the citric acid the main component. Glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were 7.9, 7.3 and 4.5 g/L, respectively. Predominant mineral was potassium (1264.2mg/L), followed by phosphorous (306 mg/L), calcium (112 mg/L) and magnesium (92.6 mg/L). Hesperidin ranged from 257 to 484.8 mg/L, while water soluble pectins varied between 164.8 and 550 mg/L. Similar values were obtained in reconstituted lemon juice. There are different parameters that did not reach or exceeded the limits proposed by the European Association of the Industry of Juices and Nectars. These levels should be taken into account to modify the present reference guideline and that Spanish lemon juices are not discarded for to have lower or bigger values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro plant regeneration in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Seeds were extracted from ripe fruits of rough lemon. Fruits were collected from a citrus germplasm collection of Punjab Agricultural. University, Ludhiana. Seed integuments were removed and disinfestation was done with 1% Mercuric Chloride for 5 min. Three washes in distilled and sterilized water were ...

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of lemon mucilage: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Enza Maria; Cavallaro, Antonia; Ainis, Tommaso; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Contartese, Giuseppe; Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Fimiani, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The mucilage extracted from a lemon juice centrifugation pulp was studied for its anti-inflammatory effect in rat. In vivo the lemon mucilage significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw from 59% to 73.5% showing the highest effect at the third hour. In vitro, at the doses of 10(-8), 10(-6), 10(-4) or 10(-2) mg/mL the lemon mucilage stimulated the superoxide anion production in rat testing neutrophils in whole blood but inhibited it in FMLP stimulated cells at the dose of 10(-2) mg/mL. The neutrophils of rats receiving p.o. the lemon mucilage for 21 days showed a significant decrease of 45.5% in O2- generation after FMLP stimulation, and a not-significant increase after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or zymosan stimulation. Since the activity on zymosan- and PMA-induced O2- production was not significant, the inhibition exerted by FMLP in rat neutrophils occurred mainly through the blockade of phospholipase D.

  11. Prebiotic potential of pectins and pectic oligosaccharides derived from lemon peel wastes and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Schols, Henk; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and lemon peel wastes (LPW) were used to obtain two mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides (denoted as SBPOS and LPOS, respectively). Oligogalacturonides in LPOS showed a larger molecular weight, higher degree of methylation and lower degree of acetylation than the ones in

  12. Lemon : An MPI parallel I/O library for data encapsulation using LIME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuzeman, Albert; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten

    We introduce Lemon, an MPI parallel I/O library that provides efficient parallel I/O of both binary and metadata on massively parallel architectures. Motivated by the demands of the lattice Quantum Chromodynamics community, the data is stored in the SciDAC Lattice QCD Interchange Message

  13. A Better Lemon Squeezer? Maximum-Likelihood Regression with Beta-Distributed Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael; Verkuilen, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Uncorrectable skew and heteroscedasticity are among the "lemons" of psychological data, yet many important variables naturally exhibit these properties. For scales with a lower and upper bound, a suitable candidate for models is the beta distribution, which is very flexible and models skew quite well. The authors present…

  14. Evaluation of seed storage conditions on the growth of rough lemon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the effect of four seed storage conditions (Refrigeration, River sand, Brown envelope and Baft bag) on the performance of rough lemon seeds (variety C. jambhiri) stored for 12 weeks, in the laboratory and later planted out in the field for 24 weeks, revealed that plants developed from refrigerated stored seeds ...

  15. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Level of heavy metals in soils and lemon grass in Jos, Bukuru and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Level of heavy metals in soils and lemon grass in Jos, Bukuru and environs, Nigeria. SJ Salami, EA Akande, DM Zachariah. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 13 (2) 2007: pp. 193-196. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  17. Effect of marinating chicken meat with lemon, green tea, and turmeric against foodborne bacterial pathogenss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...

  18. Postharvest imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence from lemons can be used to predict fruit quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbal, Ladislav; Soukupová, Julie; Writmarsh, J.; Trtílek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2000), s. 571-579 ISSN 0300-3604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Citrus lemon * mould * Penicillium digitatum Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.482, year: 2000

  19. Increased and altered fragrance of tobacco plants after metabolic engineering using three monoterpene synthases from lemon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Schwab, W.; Hautum, van B.; Blaas, J.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants emit low levels of terpenoids, particularly from the flowers. By genetic modification of tobacco cv Petit Havana SR1 using three different monoterpene synthases from lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm. f.) and the subsequent combination of these three into one

  20. Studies on the Etiology of a Leaf Spot Disease of Rough Lemon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... similar foliar lesions when artificially inoculated on healthy citrus leaves. The fungus was also re-isolated. A. niger did not elicite any disease under the conditions of this study. Rhizoctonia sp. is therefore, the causal organism of the disease under study. Keywords: Etiology, Leaf spot disease, Rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri, ...

  1. Lemon peels mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antidermatophytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimu Nisha, S; Aysha, O S; Syed Nasar Rahaman, J; Vinoth Kumar, P; Valli, S; Nirmala, P; Reena, A

    2014-04-24

    There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, The extract of lemon peel was prepared and mixed with 1 mM AgNO3 solution .The bioreduction of Ag(+) ion in solution was monitored using UV-visible spectrometer, FESEM and EDAX analysis. Skin scales were collected from patients with suspected dermatophytosis and the dermatophytes were isolated and identified. The AgNPs produced from lemon peels showed good activity against the isolated dermatophytes. The present research work emphasizes the use of lemon peels for the effective synthesize of AgNPs and could be used against the dermatophytes which are found to develop drug resistant towards broad-spectrum antibiotics. The biosynthesis of AgNPs using lemon peel extract is very simple and economic. The use of environmentally benign and renewable plant material offers enormous benefits of eco-friendliness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using lemon leaves extract and its application for antimicrobial finish on fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankar, Padma S.; Shukla, Dhara

    2012-06-01

    Preparation of silver nanoparticles have been carried out using aqueous extract of lemon leaves ( Citrus limon) which acts as reducing agent and encapsulating cage for the silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles have been used for durable textile finish on cotton and silk fabrics. Remarkable antifungal activity has been observed in the treated fabrics. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles derived from lemon leaves showed enhancement in activity due to synergistic effect of silver and essential oil components of lemon leaves. The present investigation shows the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles by biotransformation using the extract of lemon leaves by controlled reduction of the Ag+ ion to Ag0. Further the silver nanoparticles were used for antifungal treatment of fabrics which was tested by antifungal activity assessment of textile material by Agar diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola. Formation of the metallic nanoparticles was established by FT-IR, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy.

  3. Does lemon candy decrease salivary gland damage after radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Kunihiro; Ishibashi, Tetsuya; Takei, Toshiki; Hirata, Kenji; Shinohara, Katsura; Katoh, Seiichi; Zhao, Sonji; Tamaki, Nagara; Noguchi, Yasushi; Noguchi, Shiro

    2005-02-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the common side effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an early start of sucking lemon candy decreases salivary gland injury after radioiodine therapy. The incidence of the side effects of radioiodine therapy on the salivary glands was prospectively and longitudinally investigated in 2 groups of patients with postsurgical differentiated thyroid cancer with varying regimens for sucking lemon candy. From August 1999 to October 2000, 116 consecutive patients were asked to suck 1 or 2 lemon candies every 2-3 h in the daytime of the first 5 d after radioiodine therapy (group A). Lemon candy sucking was started within 1 h after radioiodine ingestion. From November 2000 to June 2002, 139 consecutive patients (group B) were asked to suck lemon candies in a manner similar to that of group A. In the group B, lemon candies were withheld until 24 h after the ingestion of radioiodine. Patients with salivary gland disorders, diabetes, collagen tissue diseases, or a previous history of radioiodine therapy or external irradiation to the neck were excluded. Thus, 105 patients in group A and 125 patients in group B were available for analysis. There were no statistical differences in the mean age (55.2 y vs. 58.5 y), average levels of serum free thyroxine (l-3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine) (0.40 ng/dL vs. 0.47 ng/dL), and the mean dose of (131)I administered (3.96 GBq vs. 3.87 GBq) between the 2 groups. The onset of salivary side effects was monitored during hospital admission and regular follow-up on the basis of interviews with patients, a visual analog scale, and salivary gland scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate. When a patient showed a persistent (>4 mo) dry mouth associated with a nonfunctioning pattern on salivary gland scintigraphy, a diagnosis of xerostomia was established. The incidences of sialoadenitis, hypogeusia or taste loss, and dry mouth with or without

  4. Effects of Lemon Balm on the Oxidative Stability and the Quality Properties of Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, You-Jung; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on various quality and antioxidant activity of hamburger patties. Lemon balm extract (LBE) showed the highest amount of total polyphenol (801.00 mg TAE/g DW) and flavonoids (65.05 mg RA/g DW). The IC50 value of DPPH hydroxyl scavenging of LBE was 132 μg/mL. The hamburger patties were prepared by 0% (N), 0.1% (L1), 0.5% (L2), and 1.0% (L3) of the lemon balm powder. The addition of lemon balm powder increased the chewiness value, but did not affect the hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness values. Lemon balm powder had positive effects on sensory evaluation of patties. The pH of all patties decreased with longer storage period. 2-Thiobarbituric acid value, volatile basic nitrogen content, and the total microbial counts of hamburger patties in the L3 group were lower, compared to those of the normal (N group). In conclusion, the L3 group had significantly delayed lipid peroxidation compared to other treatment groups. However, the addition of lemon balm powder into patties showed no significantly influence on proximate composition, calorie contents, water holding capacity and cooking loss of patties. Therefore, lemon balm might be a useful natural antioxidant additive in meat products.

  5. Phytochemical profile of a blend of black chokeberry and lemon juice with cholinesterase inhibitory effect and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-10-15

    In this study, black chokeberry concentrate was added (5% w/v) to lemon juice, since previous reports suggested potential health benefits of this blend. The phytochemical composition, antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and hypochlorous acid), and inhibitory activity against cholinesterase of the new blend were determined and compared with those of lemon juice and chokeberry in citric acid (5%). The chokeberry concentrate, rich in cyanidin-glycosides, quercetin derivatives, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and lemon juice, possessing flavones, flavanones, quercetin derivates, and hydroxycinnamic acids, were characterised. The new drink showed a higher antioxidant effect than the chokeberry or lemon controls for all the tested methods, except for hypochlorous acid, in which lemon juice displayed higher activity. Both the lemon juice and chokeberry controls inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and this effect was increased in the new mixtures. The results of the different radical scavenging assays indicate that the lemon-black chokeberry (5% w/v) mixture was more antioxidative than the respective controls separately. Moreover, their inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest regarding neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or senile dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrologic and water-quality data, Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, August 2001-September 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Richard N.; Furlow, Allen L.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and rainfall and stormflow water-quality data from seven sites in two adjacent watersheds in the Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, during August 2001–September 2003, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the San Antonio Water System. Data collected during this period represent baseline hydrologic and water-quality conditions before proposed removal of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) from one of the two watersheds. Juniper removal is intended as a best-management practice to increase water quantity (aquifer recharge and streamflow) and to protect water quality. Continuous (5-minute interval) rainfall data are collected at four sites; continuous (5-minute interval) streamflow data are collected at three sites. Fifteen-minute averages of meteorological and solar-energy-related data recorded at two sites are used to compute moving 30-minute evapotranspiration values on the basis of the energy-balance Bowen ratio method. Periodic rainfall water-quality data are collected at one site and stormflow water-quality data at three sites. Daily rainfall, streamflow, and evapotranspiration totals are presented in tables; detailed data are listed in an appendix. Results of analyses of the periodic rainfall and stormflow water-quality samples collected during runoff events are summarized in the appendix; not all data types were collected at all sites nor were all data types collected during the entire 26-month period.

  7. Flood-inundation and flood-mitigation modeling of the West Branch Wapsinonoc Creek Watershed in West Branch, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigrand, Charles V.

    2018-03-26

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the city of West Branch and the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site of the National Park Service assessed flood-mitigation scenarios within the West Branch Wapsinonoc Creek watershed. The scenarios are intended to demonstrate several means of decreasing peak streamflows and improving the conveyance of overbank flows from the West Branch Wapsinonoc Creek and its tributary Hoover Creek where they flow through the city and the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site located within the city.Hydrologic and hydraulic models of the watershed were constructed to assess the flood-mitigation scenarios. To accomplish this, the models used the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) version 4.2 to simulate the amount of runoff and streamflow produced from single rain events. The Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) version 5.0 was then used to construct an unsteady-state model that may be used for routing streamflows, mapping areas that may be inundated during floods, and simulating the effects of different measures taken to decrease the effects of floods on people and infrastructure.Both models were calibrated to three historic rainfall events that produced peak streamflows ranging between the 2-year and 10-year flood-frequency recurrence intervals at the USGS streamgage (05464942) on Hoover Creek. The historic rainfall events were calibrated by using data from two USGS streamgages along with surveyed high-water marks from one of the events. The calibrated HEC–HMS model was then used to simulate streamflows from design rainfall events of 24-hour duration ranging from a 20-percent to a 1-percent annual exceedance probability. These simulated streamflows were incorporated into the HEC–RAS model.The unsteady-state HEC–RAS model was calibrated to represent existing conditions within the watershed. HEC–RAS model simulations with the

  8. Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989 : with Listings of Historical Streamflow, Summation of Storage Change and Adjusted Streamflow : Columbia River and Coastal Basins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    The development of irrigation projects since the 1830's and the construction of major dams and reservoirs since the early 1900's have altered substantially the natural streamflow regimen of the Columbia River and its tributaries. As development expanded a multipurpose approach to streamflow regulation evolved to provide flood control, irrigation, hydropower generation, navigation, recreation, water quality enhancement, fish and wildlife, and instream flow maintenance. The responsible agencies use computer programs to determine the effects of various alternative system regulations. This report describes the development of the streamflow data that these computer programs use.

  9. ECONOMIC SITUATION OF MEXICAN LEMON (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) PRODUCTION UN THE STATES OF OAXACA AND GUERRERO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Abarca, Orsohe; Gonzalez Razo, Felipe de Jesus; Omana Silvestre, Jose Miguel; Matus Gardea, Jaime Arturo; Rebollar Rebollar, Samuel; Kido Cruz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is a part of a broader study titled: “Competitiveness of Mexican lemon(Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)in Mexican Republic†. It is especifically related to the “Profitability of Mexican Lemon (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) in México section†where levels of private profitability of the production systems of Mexican lemon were calculated with the purpose of determining income and cost structure of the production units. The anylisis was established for the State of Oaxaca an...

  10. Quality of water in an inactive uranium mine and its effects on the quality of water in Blue Creek, Stevens County, Washington, 1984-85. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumioka, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to present the results of a study done to determine (1) the monthly and annual water budgets and probable variation in runoff for the drainage basin in which the mine is located; (2) if precipitation is the source of low pH water found in pit 3 and the retention pond; (3) the quality of water in pits 3 and 4, the retention pond, streamflow from the basin, Blue Creek upstream and downstream of the point the drainage enters, and near the mouth of Blue Creek; (4) the quality of ground water discharged from the basin into Blue Creek; and (5) the daily mean values of discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, and pH for mine drainage from the basin, Blue Creek upstream and downstream of the mine drainage, and near the mouth of Blue Creek. The report also describes a potential water-quality monitoring program that would allow the determination of annual loads of selected chemical constituents entering Blue Creek from the mine basin and information about the type of ground-water tracers and procedures needed to examine flow paths near the retention pond

  11. Streamflow response to increasing precipitation extremes altered by forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlene N. Kelly; Kevin J. McGuire; Chelcy Ford Miniat; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    Increases in extreme precipitation events of floods and droughts are expected to occur worldwide. The increase in extreme events will result in changes in streamflow that are expected to affect water availability for human consumption and aquatic ecosystem function. We present an analysis that may greatly improve current streamflow models by quantifying the...

  12. Prediction of Missing Streamflow Data using Principle of Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosa, B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete (missing of streamflow data often occurs. This can be caused by a not continous data recording or poor storage. In this study, missing consecutive streamflow data are predicted using the principle of information entropy. Predictions are performed ​​using the complete monthly streamflow information from the nearby river. Data on average monthly streamflow used as a simulation sample are taken from observation stations Katulampa, Batubeulah, and Genteng, which are the Ciliwung Cisadane river areas upstream. The simulated prediction of missing streamflow data in 2002 and 2003 at Katulampa Station are based on information from Genteng Station, and Batubeulah Station. The mean absolute error (MAE average obtained was 0,20 and 0,21 in 2002 and the MAE average in 2003 was 0,12 and 0,16. Based on the value of the error and pattern of filled gaps, this method has the potential to be developed further.

  13. Hydrology of the Chicod Creek basin, North Carolina, prior to channel improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Clyde E.; Aldridge, Mary C.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive modification and excavation of stream channels in the 6-square mile Chicod Creek basin began in mid-1979 to reduce flooding and improve stream runoff conditions. The effects of channel improvements on this Coastal Pain basin 's hydrology will be determined from data collected prior to, during, and for several years following channel alternations. This report summarizes the findings of data collected prior to these improvements. During the 3-year study period, flow data collected from four stream gaging stations in the basin show that streams are dry approximately 10 percent of the time. Chemical analyses of water samples from the streams and from eight shallow groundwater observation wells indicate that water discharge from the surficial aquifer is the primary source of streamflow during rainless periods. Concentrations of Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were often 5 to 10 times greater at Chicod Creek sites than those at nearby baseline sites. It is probable that runoff from farming and livestock operations contributes significantly to these elevated concentrations in Chicod Creek. The only pesticides detected in stream water were low levels of DDT and dieldrin, which occurred during storm runoff. A much wider range of pesticides, however, are found associated with streambed materials. The ratio of fecal coliform counts to those of fecal streptococcus indicate that the streams receive fecal wastes from livestock and poultry operations.

  14. Transport and Sources of Suspended Sediment in the Mill Creek Watershed, Johnson County, Northeast Kansas, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, evaluated suspended-sediment transport and sources in the urbanizing, 57.4 mi2 Mill Creek watershed from February 2006 through June 2007. Sediment transport and sources were assessed spatially by continuous monitoring of streamflow and turbidity as well as sampling of suspended sediment at nine sites in the watershed. Within Mill Creek subwatersheds (2.8-16.9 mi2), sediment loads at sites downstream from increased construction activity were substantially larger (per unit area) than those at sites downstream from mature urban areas or less-developed watersheds. Sediment transport downstream from construction sites primarily was limited by transport capacity (streamflow), whereas availability of sediment supplies primarily influenced transport downstream from mature urban areas. Downstream sampling sites typically had smaller sediment loads (per unit area) than headwater sites, likely because of sediment deposition in larger, less sloping stream channels. Among similarly sized storms, those with increased precipitation intensity transported more sediment at eight of the nine monitoring sites. Storms following periods of increased sediment loading transported less sediment at two of the nine monitoring sites. In addition to monitoring performed in the Mill Creek watershed, sediment loads were computed for the four other largest watersheds (48.6-65.7 mi2) in Johnson County (Blue River, Cedar, Indian, and Kill Creeks) during the study period. In contrast with results from smaller watersheds in Mill Creek, sediment load (per unit area) from the most urbanized watershed in Johnson County (Indian Creek) was more than double that of other large watersheds. Potential sources of this sediment include legacy sediment from earlier urban construction, accelerated stream-channel erosion, or erosion from specific construction sites, such as stream-channel disturbance during bridge

  15. Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Indianapolis Department of Public Works began a study to evaluate the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff discharging to Fall Geek on the White River. This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality during base flow with that during storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the combined-sewer overflows. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 combined-sewer overflows on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply.

  16. Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River basin, northeastern California, and streamflow predictability, water years 1971-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Jeton, Anne E.; McGurk, Bruce; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    -shadowed basins of the northeastern Sierra Nevada than the uplands of most western Sierra Nevada river basins. The climate is mediterranean, with most of the annual precipitation occurring in winter. Because the basin includes large areas that are near the average snowline, rainfall and rain-snow mixtures are common during winter storms. Consequently, the overall timing and rates of runoff from the basin are highly sensitive to winter temperature fluctuations. The models were developed to simulate runoff-generating processes in eight drainages of the Feather River Basin. Together, these models simulate streamflow from 98 percent of the basin above Lake Oroville. The models simulate daily water and heat balances, snowpack evolution and snowmelt, evaporation and transpiration, subsurface water storage and outflows, and streamflow to key streamflow gage sites. The drainages are modeled as 324 hydrologic-response units, each of which is assumed homogeneous in physical characteristics and response to precipitation and runoff. The models were calibrated with emphasis on reproducing monthly streamflow rates, and model simulations were compared to the total natural inflows into Lake Oroville as reconstructed by the California Department of Water Resources for April-July snowmelt seasons from 1971 to 1997. The models are most sensitive to input values and patterns of precipitation and soil characteristics. The input precipitation values were allowed to vary on a daily basis to reflect available observations by making daily transformations to an existing map of long-term mean monthly precipitation rates that account for altitude and rain-shadow effects. The models effectively simulate streamflow into Lake Oroville during water years (October through September) 1971-97, which is demonstrated in hydrographs and statistical results presented in this report. The Butt Creek model yields the most accurate historical April-July simulations, whereas the West Branch

  17. Genotype and harvest time influence the phytochemical quality of Fino lemon juice (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.) for industrial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Elena; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2008-03-12

    Two clonal selections of lemon tree (Citrus limon Burm. f. cv. Fino), named Fino-49-5 and Fino-95, were studied to ascertain the influence of genetic (clone) and environmental (season) factors on the human-health bioactive compounds of lemon juice (vitamin C and flavonoids) and the possible relationship between composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power) of the juice. The cultivar Fino-49-5 performed better in terms of flavonoid and vitamin C contents. Variability in the weather conditions determined, at least in part, differences in the content of lemon juice bioactives more importantly than the genetic background did. Therefore, the food industry would have phytochemically rich and nutritive lemons with practically complete independence of the harvest time and the selected cultivar.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF SODA PULPING PROCESS OF LIGNO-CELLULOSIC RESIDUES OF LEMON AND SOFIA GRASSES PRODUCED AFTER STEAM DISTILLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Harjeet Kaur; Dharm Dutt; C. H. Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    Sofia (Cymbopogon martini), and lemon (Cymbopogon flexuosus) grasses, are exclusively cultivated for extraction of important lemongrass and palma rosa oils. Lignocellulosic residue (LCR) of sofia and lemon grasses left after steam distillation can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp. Steam distillation mitigates the problem of mass transfer, and facilitates the faster penetration of cooking liquor by leaching out a part of extraneous components. Sofia grass produces...

  19. Comparative assessment of antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extract of commercially available black, green, and lemon tea: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, S. Dodamani; Minal, M. Kshirsagar; Karibasappa, G. N.; Prashanth, V. K.; Girija, A. Dodamani; Harish, C. Jadhav

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine and compare antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts of black, green, and lemon tea of a commercially available brand. Materials and Methods: The well-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of commercially available black tea, green tea, and lemon tea at three different concentrations (1.5 g, 5 g, and 7.5 g) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. After incubation in appropriate culture med...

  20. A past discharge assimilation system for ensemble streamflow forecasts over France – Part 2: Impact on the ensemble streamflow forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thirel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of ensemble streamflow forecasts is developing in the international flood forecasting services. Ensemble streamflow forecast systems can provide more accurate forecasts and useful information about the uncertainty of the forecasts, thus improving the assessment of risks. Nevertheless, these systems, like all hydrological forecasts, suffer from errors on initialization or on meteorological data, which lead to hydrological prediction errors. This article, which is the second part of a 2-part article, concerns the impacts of initial states, improved by a streamflow assimilation system, on an ensemble streamflow prediction system over France. An assimilation system was implemented to improve the streamflow analysis of the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM hydro-meteorological suite, which initializes the ensemble streamflow forecasts at Météo-France. This assimilation system, using the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE and modifying the initial soil moisture states, showed an improvement of the streamflow analysis with low soil moisture increments. The final states of this suite were used to initialize the ensemble streamflow forecasts of Météo-France, which are based on the SIM model and use the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF 10-day Ensemble Prediction System (EPS. Two different configurations of the assimilation system were used in this study: the first with the classical SIM model and the second using improved soil physics in ISBA. The effects of the assimilation system on the ensemble streamflow forecasts were assessed for these two configurations, and a comparison was made with the original (i.e. without data assimilation and without the improved physics ensemble streamflow forecasts. It is shown that the assimilation system improved most of the statistical scores usually computed for the validation of ensemble predictions (RMSE, Brier Skill Score and its decomposition, Ranked Probability Skill Score, False Alarm

  1. Vermont Marble Company, Proctor, Vermont: Otter Creek hydroelectric feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    Vermont Marble Company (VMCO) owns and operates four hydroelectric projects in a 50-mile reach of Otter Creek in west central Vermont. This study concerns three of the installations - Center Rutland, Beldens, and Huntington Falls. The fourth site is known as Proctor and will be studied separately. All four plants operate as run-of-river stations, and the limited reservoir storage capacity places severe limitations on any other type of operation. The plants are presently operating at much lower outputs than can be obtained, because they do not use the available discharge and head. The results show that, under the assumptions made in this study, Beldens and Huntington Falls can be economically improved. The rehabilitation of the Center Rutland plant did not look economically attractive. However, the improvement of Center Rutland should not be eliminated from further consideration, because it could become economically attractive if the cost of energy starts escalating at a rate of around 10% per year. The study included a brief appraisal of the existing generating facilities and condition of existing concrete structures, a geological reconnaissance of the sites, analysis of the power potential, flood studies, technical and economic investigations and comparative evaluations of the alternatives for developing the streamflow for power generation, selection of the most suitable alternative, financial analysis, preparation of drawings, and preparation of detailed quantity and cost estimates.

  2. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, which tend to be intolerant of water-quality degradation, decreased from April/May to August; the same time period saw a corresponding increase in Diptera and noninsects, particularly Oligochaeta (worms) that are more tolerant. Seasonal changes in macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups were significantly different. The relative abundance of gatherer-collector and scraper feeding groups decreased from April/May to August, accompanied by an increase in filterer-collector and shredders feeding groups. Seasonal changes in feeding groups might be due to the seasonal shift in aquatic plant communities, as indicated by comparison with other streams in the area that had fewer aquatic macrophytes than Fish Creek. Statistical tests of macroinvertebrate metrics indicated few differences between years or biological sampling sites on Fish Creek, although the site farthest upstream sometimes was different not only in terms of macroinvertebrates but also in streamflow, water quality, and aquatic plants. Potential effects of contributions of additional nutrients to the Fish Creek ecosystem beyond the conditions sampled during the study period are not known. However, because virtually all of the detectable dissolved nitrate commonly was consumed by aquatic plants in August (leaving dissolved nitrate less than the reporting level in water samples), it is possible that increased nutrient contributions could cause increased growth of aquatic plants. Additional long-term monitoring of the stream, with concurrent data analysis and interpretation would be needed to determine the effects of additional nutrients on the aquatic plant community and on higher levels of the food chain.

  3. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p lemon pulp (p lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Lemon Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Guolin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from lemon peels by using ionic liquid as alternative solvent was investigated. The extracted pectin was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectra. The extraction conditions were optimized through the different experiments in conjunction with the response surface methodology. A pectin yield of 24.68 % was obtained under the optimal parameters: the extraction temperature of 88°C, the extraction time of 9.6 min, and a liquid-solid ratio of 22.7 ml⋅g-1. The structure of the pretreated lemon peel samples and the samples after microwave-assisted extraction were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope.

  5. The traditional irrigation technique of Lake Garda lemon--houses (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Vitale, Nicola; Fausti, Federico; Bettoni, Barbara; Bonati, Sara; Peli, Marco; Pietta, Antonella; Tononi, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Between 16th and 19th centuries the North-Western side of Lake Garda was seat of an important district which, at the time of its maximum splendour between 18th and 19th centuries, produced and exported lemons and citrus even toward the Northern Europe and the Russia. The limonaie del Garda (Lake-Garda lemon-houses), the local name of the citrus orchards, were settled on terraces built on steep slopes, with landfill taken from the Eastern side of the lake, and closed by greenhouses during late autumn and winter in order to protect the cultivations. The terraces were built nearby streams, they were South-Eastern exposed and protected by walls from the cold winds. Thanks in fact to the Lake Garda microclimate, lemon trees were not cultivated in pots, as in the typical orangeries of mid-latitudes Europe, but directly in the soil. Here the citrus cultivation technique reached a remarkably high degree of standardisation, with local cultivar as the Madernino or lemon from Maderno, and it involved, as in modern industrial districts, all the surrounding land in order to satisfy the needing of required materials to build the terraces, the walls, the greenhouses and the wooden frames to hold the branches laden with fruits. Due to the great water requirement of lemon trees during summer, which is estimated to range from 150 to 300 ℓ every ten days, the water management played a key role in the cultivation technique. The traditional irrigation technique was standardized as well. During our surveys, we observed that most of the lemon-houses still conserve little stone flumes along the walls upslope to the terraces, with spillways every adult tree, i.e. about every 4 m. The flumes were filled with water taken from an upstream reservoir, built nearby a stream. The spillways were activated with a backwater obtained by means of a sand bag placed within the flume, just downstream to the spillway itself. In order to avoid any excavation, spilled water was driven to the base of each

  6. Chaotic behavior in lemon-shaped billiards with elliptical and hyperbolic boundary arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopac, V.; Mrkonjić, I.; Radić, D.

    2001-07-01

    Chaotic properties of a new family, ellipse hyperbola billiards (EHB), of lemon-shaped two-dimensional billiards, interpolating between the square and the circle, whose boundaries consist of hyperbolic, parabolic, or elliptical segments, depending on the shape parameter δ, are investigated classically and quantally. Classical chaotic fraction is calculated and compared with the quantal level density fluctuation measures obtained by fitting the calculated level spacing sequences with the Brody, Berry-Robnik, and Berry-Robnik-Brody distributions. Stability of selected classical orbits is investigated, and for some special hyperbolic points in the Poincaré sections, the ``blinking island'' phenomenon is observed. Results for the EHB billiards are compared with the properties of the family of generalized power-law lemon-shaped billiards.

  7. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils from lemon, grapefruit, coriander, clove, and their mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Samusenko, A L

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of individual essential oils from lemon (Citrus limon L.), pink grapefruit (Citrus paradise L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) buds and their mixtures were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was assessed by oxidation of the aliphatic aldehyde hexanal to the carboxylic acid. The lowest and highest antioxidant activities were exhibited by grapefruit and clove bud essential oils, respectively. Mixtures containing clove bud essential oil also strongly inhibited oxidation of hexanal. Changes in the composition of essential oils and their mixtures in the course of long-term storage in the light were studied. The stability of components of lemon and coriander essential oils in mixtures increased compared to individual essential oils.

  8. The relationship between contrasting ages of groundwater and streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Wouter R.; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-09-01

    Tracer data demonstrate that waters in aquifers are often much older than the stream waters that drain them. This contrast in water ages has lacked a general quantitative explanation. Here we show that under stationary conditions, the age distribution of water stored in a catchment can be directly estimated from the age distribution of its outflows, and vice versa. This in turn implies that the storage selection function, expressing the catchment's preference for the release or retention of waters of different ages, can be estimated directly from the age distribution of outflow under stationary conditions. Using gamma distributions of streamflow ages, we show that the mean age of stored water can range from half as old as the mean age of streamflow (for plug flow conditions) to almost infinitely older (for strongly preferential flow). Many streamflow age distributions have long upper tails, consistent with preferential flow and implying that storage ages are substantially older than streamflow ages. Mean streamflow ages reported in the literature imply that most streamflow originates from a thin veneer of total groundwater storage. This preferential release of young streamflow implies that most groundwater is exchanged only slowly with the surface and consequently is relatively old.

  9. Multi-decadal Decline of Southeast United States Streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootle, G. A.; Lakshmi, V.; Therrell, M.; Huffaker, R.; Elliott, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Unprecedented population growth combined with environmental and energy demands have led to water conflict in the Southeastern United States. The states of Florida, Georgia and Alabama have recently engaged in litigation on minimum in-stream flows to maintain ecosystems, fisheries and energy demands while satisfying a growing thirst in metropolitan Atlanta. A study of Southeastern United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee) streamflow identified a declining pattern of flow over the past 25 years with increased dry periods being observed in the last decade. When evaluating calendar year streamflow for (56) unimpaired streamflow stations, a robust period of streamflow in the 1970's was followed by a consistent decline in streamflow from 1990 to present. In evaluating 20-year, 10-year and 5-year time periods of annual streamflow volume, the past decade reveals historic lows for each of these periods. When evaluating the influence of high frequency (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation - ENSO) and low frequency (e.g., Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation - AMO) climatic phenomenon, the shift of the AMO from a cold phase to a warm phase in the 1990's combined with multiple La Nina events may be associated with the streamflow decline.

  10. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição

    2015-01-01

    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations.

  11. Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Hiramitsu, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-β-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsola...

  12. Lemon: An MPI parallel I/O library for data encapsulation using LIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuzeman, Albert; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten; ETM Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    We introduce Lemon, an MPI parallel I/O library that provides efficient parallel I/O of both binary and metadata on massively parallel architectures. Motivated by the demands of the Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics community, the data is stored in the SciDAC Lattice QCD Interchange Message Encapsulation format. This format allows for storing large blocks of binary data and corresponding metadata in the same file. Even if designed for LQCD needs, this format might be useful for any application with this type of data profile. The design, implementation and application of Lemon are described. We conclude with presenting the excellent scaling properties of Lemon on state-of-the-art high performance computers. Program summaryProgram title: Lemon Catalogue identifier: AELP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 32 860 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 223 762 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MPI and C Computer: Any which supports MPI I/O Operating system: Any Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes. Includes MPI directives. RAM: Depending on input used Classification: 11.5 External routines: MPI Nature of problem: Distributed file I/O with metadata Solution method: MPI parallel I/O based implementation of LIME format Running time: Varies depending on file and architecture size, in the order of seconds

  13. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Abreu Almeida

    Full Text Available The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%, starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30% and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L, including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations.

  14. Effects of Lemon and Seville Orange Juices on the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Sildenafil in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkawy, Khaled S; Donia, Ahmed M; Turner, R Brigg; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2016-09-01

    Several severe drug interactions have been reported when sildenafil, a potent drug for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, is co-administered with drugs or herbal remedies that inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. This study evaluates the effects of two citrus fruit juices, lemon and Seville orange, on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in male healthy subjects following a single oral dose. We conducted an open-label, three-way crossover study in nine healthy male volunteers. Participants received a single oral dose of sildenafil (50 mg) after pretreatment with 250 mL of either water (control), undiluted lemon juice, or Seville orange juice for 3 consecutive days. All subjects were monitored for adverse effects during the study period. Plasma samples were collected for 12 h after dosing and analyzed for sildenafil concentration. Compared with pretreatment with water, Seville orange juice significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity and the peak plasma concentration of sildenafil by 44 % (90 % confidence interval [CI] 30-60) and 18 % (90 % CI 108-129), respectively, without affecting the time to reach peak plasma concentration. Additionally, Seville orange juice significantly reduced the apparent oral clearance of sildenafil by 30 % (90 % CI 63-75) without affecting its elimination half-life. In contrast, lemon juice did not cause any significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. There was no significant treatment-related adverse effects reported during the study. Although it is considered as a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, Seville orange only caused a mild increase in exposure to sildenafil after a single oral dose, without manifestation of any adverse effects. The enhanced bioavailability of sildenafil by Seville orange may be attributed to inhibition of its intestinal first-pass effect (CYP3A4 and or p-glycoprotein). Lemon juice, in contrast, had no effects on the pharmacokinetics of

  15. The effect of long term administration of lemon juice on rat (rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the ad libitum access to food and water, 5g/kg of saline was orally administered, to the group, every other day, for the period of 4 weeks. On the other hand, the test group comprised 14 male and 10 female albino wistar rats. In addition to the ad libitum access to food and water, 5g/kg of lemon juice was orally ...

  16. A conservative treatment approach using direct composite resins for anterior teeth eroded by lemon sucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Vanara Florencio; de Souza, Andre Mattos Brito; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Bombonatti, Juliana Campos Fraga Soares; Santiago, Sergio Lima

    2013-08-01

    An excessively acidic diet results in the progressive deterioration of dental health, with functional, esthetic, and biological consequences. Previously, rehabilitation required placing numerous full crowns and root canal treatments; however, with improved adhesive techniques, a more conservative approach may be utilized to preserve tooth structure. This article describes 2 cases that utilized conservative dental treatments (involving direct composite resins with minimal preparation of the tooth structure) to treat eroded dentition induced by lemon sucking.

  17. Helminth parasites of the lemon-yellow tree frog, Hyla savignyi (Hylidae), from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIMHAN, Hikmet Sami; SÜMER, Nurhan; İNCEDOĞAN, Sezen; BURSEY, Charles Robert

    2012-01-01

    Forty lemon-yellow tree frogs, Hyla savignyi, collected from Kırıkhan, Turkey (25 in April 2009, 15 in April 2010), were examined for helminths, and 21 frogs were found to be infected. One species of Monogenea (Polystoma integerrimum), 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Halipegus kessleri, and Pleurogenoides medians), 1 species of Cestoda (Nematotaenia dispar), and 2 species of Nematoda (Aplectana brumpti and Cosmocerca commutata) were found. Hyla savignyi represents a new host ...

  18. Monogenoid infection of neonatal and older juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae), in a shark nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joy M; Frasca, Salvatore; Gruber, Samuel H; Benz, George W

    2013-12-01

    Fifty lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris , were captured in a shallow, mangrove-fringed shark nursery at Bimini, Bahamas and examined for the presence of skin-dwelling ectoparasitic monogenoids (Monogenoidea). Sixteen sharks were infected by Dermophthirius nigrellii (Microbothriidae); the youngest host was estimated to be 3- to 4-wk-old. Infection prevalence, mean intensity, and median intensity (0.32, 2.63, and 2.0, respectively, for all sharks) were not significantly different between neonates (estimated ages 3- to 10-wk-old) and non-neonatal juveniles (estimated ages 1- to 4-yr-old), suggesting that soon after parturition lemon sharks acquire infection levels of D. nigrellii matching those of juvenile conspecifics. Monogenoids were only found on the trailing portion of the first and second dorsal fins and upper lobe of the caudal fin. The prevalence of D. nigrellii was highest on the first dorsal fin; however, the mean and median intensities of D. nigrellii were similar between fins in all but 1 case. These results raise important husbandry implications regarding the practice of preferentially seeking neonatal and other small lemon sharks for captivity.

  19. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Orellana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil. cv. Fino were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment and 1.35 (T2 treatment, which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Yleaf and stem (Ystem water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Yleaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Ystem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Yleaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Ystem - Yleaf  = DY was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees.

  20. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFB Royer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.

  1. Cold pressed versus solvent extracted lemon (Citrus limon L.) seed oils: yield and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Emin; Güneşer, Buket Aydeniz

    2017-06-01

    During the processing of lemon fruit, a large quantity of seeds is produced as a by-product. These seeds contain valuable components; therefore, required to be evaluated. This study aimed to compare the cold pressed with hexane-extracted lemon seed oils and determine their physicochemical and thermal properties. Cold pressing yielded significantly lower oil (36.84%) than hexane extraction (71.29%). In addition, the concentrations of free fatty acids, peroxides, and p -anisidine were lower in the cold pressed oil. Cold pressed oil showed higher total phenolics, α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity. The major fatty acids found in the cold pressed oil were linoleic and palmitic acids, whereas β-sitosterol and campesterol were the dominant sterols. The crystallization and melting temperatures and enthalpies were also elucidated. In conclusion, this study proved that high quality of lemon seed oils can be produced by the cold pressing technique; this oil can be used in industries such as the food, cosmetic or chemical industries.

  2. Spermicidal effects of lemon juice and juices from other natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Suthutvoravut

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of spermicidal effects of lemon juice and juices from other natural products consisting of pineapple juice, apple juice and aloe vera juice, was carried out to develop methods of contraception using natural products. Semen was donated by 20 men from infertile couples who came to an infertility clinic at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand from 1 November 2007 to 31 March 2010. Spermicidal effects were measured by observing changes in sperm viability, morphology and motility after the semen was mixed with lemon juice and the juices from the other natural products (pineapple juice, apple juice and aloe vera juice. Changes in sperm characteristics were compared with pure semen left at room temperature. After the semen was mixed with lemon juice, sperm were instantaneously immobilized and irreversibly deformed. A reduced spermicidal effect was observed when the semen was mixed with the other juices. A second, profound spermicidal effect was observed when semen was mixed with pineapple juice. The least effects were observed when the semen was mixed with aloe vera juice. This information can be used for the further development of natural barrier methods of contraception.

  3. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. The National Streamflow Statistics Program: A Computer Program for Estimating Streamflow Statistics for Ungaged Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries(compiler), Kernell G.; With sections by Atkins, J. B.; Hummel, P.R.; Gray, Matthew J.; Dusenbury, R.; Jennings, M.E.; Kirby, W.H.; Riggs, H.C.; Sauer, V.B.; Thomas, W.O.

    2007-01-01

    The National Streamflow Statistics (NSS) Program is a computer program that should be useful to engineers, hydrologists, and others for planning, management, and design applications. NSS compiles all current U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional regression equations for estimating streamflow statistics at ungaged sites in an easy-to-use interface that operates on computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems. NSS expands on the functionality of the USGS National Flood Frequency Program, and replaces it. The regression equations included in NSS are used to transfer streamflow statistics from gaged to ungaged sites through the use of watershed and climatic characteristics as explanatory or predictor variables. Generally, the equations were developed on a statewide or metropolitan-area basis as part of cooperative study programs. Equations are available for estimating rural and urban flood-frequency statistics, such as the 1 00-year flood, for every state, for Puerto Rico, and for the island of Tutuila, American Samoa. Equations are available for estimating other statistics, such as the mean annual flow, monthly mean flows, flow-duration percentiles, and low-flow frequencies (such as the 7-day, 0-year low flow) for less than half of the states. All equations available for estimating streamflow statistics other than flood-frequency statistics assume rural (non-regulated, non-urbanized) conditions. The NSS output provides indicators of the accuracy of the estimated streamflow statistics. The indicators may include any combination of the standard error of estimate, the standard error of prediction, the equivalent years of record, or 90 percent prediction intervals, depending on what was provided by the authors of the equations. The program includes several other features that can be used only for flood-frequency estimation. These include the ability to generate flood-frequency plots, and plots of typical flood hydrographs for selected recurrence intervals

  5. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  7. Currents and siltation at Dharamtar creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Kolhatkar, V.M.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Hydrographic data collected in Dharamtar Creek during 1976-77 have been analysed. This showed that the waters in the Creek are well mixed and the salinity varied with the tide. The tidal currents are found to be generally strong. The distribution...

  8. 33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sonoma Creek. 117.197 Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek. The draw of the Northwestern...

  9. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

    2009-04-01

    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  10. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    achieved at the Middle Basin WWTF. At the Tomahawk Creek WWTF, after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment in 2009, effluent discharges also had total phosphorus concentrations below 1.5 mg/L. After the addition of biological nutrient removal, annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the Middle Basin WWTF decreased by 42 and 54 percent, respectively, even though effluent volume increased by 11 percent. Annual total phosphorus loads from the Tomahawk Creek WWTF after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment decreased by 54 percent despite a 33-percent increase in effluent volume. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the WWTFs contributed between 30 and nearly 100 percent to annual nutrient loads in Indian Creek depending on streamflow conditions. In-stream total nitrogen primarily came from wastewater effluent except during years with the highest streamflows. Most of the in-stream total phosphorus typically came from effluent during dry years and from other urban sources during wet years. During 2010 through 2013, annual mean discharge from the Middle Basin WWTF was about 75 percent of permitted design capacity. Annual nutrient loads likely will increase when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity; however, estimated maximum annual nutrient loads from the Middle Basin WWTF were 27 to 38 percent lower than before capacity upgrades and the addition of biological nutrient removal to treatment processes. Thus, the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin wastewater treatment process should reduce overall nutrient loads from the facility even when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water quality of Indian Creek were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time) when wastewater effluent represented about 24 percent or more of total streamflow. Wastewater effluent had the most substantial effect on nutrient

  11. Anomalous Streamflow and Groundwater-Level Changes Before the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan: Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chi-Yu; Chia, Yeeping

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow recorded by a stream gauge located 4 km from the epicenter of the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan showed a large and rapid anomalous increase of 124 m3/s starting 4 days before the earthquake. This increase was followed by a comparable co-seismic drop to below the background level for 8 months. In addition, groundwater-levels recorded at a well 1.5 km east of the seismogenic fault showed an anomalous rise 2 days before the earthquake, and then a unique 4-cm drop beginning 3 h before the earthquake. The anomalous streamflow increase is attributed to gravity-driven groundwater discharge into the creek through the openings of existing fractures in the steep creek banks crossed by the upstream Shueilikun fault zone, as a result of pre-earthquake crustal buckling. The continued tectonic movement and buckling, together with the downward flow of water in the crust, may have triggered the occurrence of some shallow slow-slip events in the Shueilikun and other nearby fault zones. When these events propagate down-dip to decollement, where the faults merges with the seismogenic Chelungpu fault, they may have triggered other slow-slip events propagating toward the asperity at the hypocenter and the Chelungpu fault. These events may then have caused the observed groundwater-level anomaly and helped to trigger the earthquake.

  12. Water-budgets and recharge-area simulations for the Spring Creek and Nittany Creek Basins and parts of the Spruce Creek Basin, Centre and Huntingdon Counties, Pennsylvania, Water Years 2000–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Risser, Dennis W.; Regan, R. Steve; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Markstrom, Steven

    2015-08-17

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with ClearWater Conservancy and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection to develop a hydrologic model to simulate a water budget and identify areas of greater than average recharge for the Spring Creek Basin in central Pennsylvania. The model was developed to help policy makers, natural resource managers, and the public better understand and manage the water resources in the region. The Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model (GSFLOW), which is an integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW-NWT), was used to simulate surface water and groundwater in the Spring Creek Basin for water years 2000–06. Because the groundwater and surface-water divides for the Spring Creek Basin do not coincide, the study area includes the Nittany Creek Basin and headwaters of the Spruce Creek Basin. The hydrologic model was developed by the use of a stepwise process: (1) develop and calibrate a PRMS model and steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model; (2) re-calibrate the steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model using potential recharge estimates simulated from the PRMS model, and (3) integrate the PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models into GSFLOW. The individually calibrated PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models were used as a starting point for the calibration of the fully coupled GSFLOW model. The GSFLOW model calibration was done by comparing observations and corresponding simulated values of streamflow from 11 streamgages and groundwater levels from 16 wells. The cumulative water budget and individual water budgets for water years 2000–06 were simulated by using GSFLOW. The largest source and sink terms are represented by precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. For the period simulated, a net surplus in the water budget was computed where inflows exceeded outflows by about 1.7 billion cubic feet (0.47 inches per year over the basin area

  13. Climate, streamflow, and legacy effects on growth of riparian Populus angustifolia in the arid San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the factors affecting the vigor of desert riparian trees is important for their conservation and management. I used multiple regression to assess effects of streamflow and climate (12–14 years of data) or climate alone (up to 60 years of data) on radial growth of clonal narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), a foundation species in the arid, Closed Basin portion of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. I collected increment cores from trees (14–90 cm DBH) at four sites along each of Sand and Deadman creeks (total N = 85), including both perennial and ephemeral reaches. Analyses on trees Drought Severity Index) coincided with dramatically reduced radial growth. Each shift was presumably associated with branch dieback that produced a legacy effect apparent in many SGI series: uncharacteristically low SGI in the year following the shift. My results suggest trees in locations distant from the active channel rely on the regional shallow unconfined aquifer, summer rainfall, or both to meet water demands. The landscape-level differences in the water supplies sustaining these trees imply variable effects from shifts in winter-versus monsoon-related precipitation, and from climate change versus streamflow or groundwater management.

  14. Influence of technological processes on phenolic compounds, organic acids, furanic derivatives, and antioxidant activity of whole-lemon powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salas, Patricia; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; García-Villanova, Belén; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-11-15

    The healthy properties of citrus fruits have been attributed to ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, mainly to flavonoids. Flavonoids are important phytonutrients because they have a wide range of biological effects that provide health-related properties. In this context, this study seeks to characterise the phenolic compounds in lemon and their stability in different drying processes (freeze-drying and vacuum-drying) and storage conditions (-18 and 50°C for 1 and 3months). A powerful high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) method has been applied for the separation, identification, and quantification of 19 phenolic compounds and 4 organic acids. To our knowledge, two hydroxycinnamic acids have been identified for the first time in lemon. Folin-Ciocalteu was applied to determine total phenolic compounds and TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were applied to determine the antioxidant capacity of lemon. Total phenolic content significantly differed in the samples analysed, vacuum-dried lemon showing the highest phenolic content, followed by freeze-dried lemon and, finally, vacuum-dried lemon stored at 50°C for 1 and 3months. The content in furanic compounds was determined to evaluate the heat damage in lemon and it was showed an increase with the thermal treatment because of the triggering of Maillard reaction. As exception of ORAC, antioxidant-capacity assays were not correlated to phenolic content by HPLC due to the formation of antioxidant compounds during Maillard reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing and modelling autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity of streamflow processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional streamflow models operate under the assumption of constant variance or season-dependent variances (e.g. ARMA (AutoRegressive Moving Average models for deseasonalized streamflow series and PARMA (Periodic AutoRegressive Moving Average models for seasonal streamflow series. However, with McLeod-Li test and Engle's Lagrange Multiplier test, clear evidences are found for the existence of autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (i.e. the ARCH (AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity effect, a nonlinear phenomenon of the variance behaviour, in the residual series from linear models fitted to daily and monthly streamflow processes of the upper Yellow River, China. It is shown that the major cause of the ARCH effect is the seasonal variation in variance of the residual series. However, while the seasonal variation in variance can fully explain the ARCH effect for monthly streamflow, it is only a partial explanation for daily flow. It is also shown that while the periodic autoregressive moving average model is adequate in modelling monthly flows, no model is adequate in modelling daily streamflow processes because none of the conventional time series models takes the seasonal variation in variance, as well as the ARCH effect in the residuals, into account. Therefore, an ARMA-GARCH (Generalized AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity error model is proposed to capture the ARCH effect present in daily streamflow series, as well as to preserve seasonal variation in variance in the residuals. The ARMA-GARCH error model combines an ARMA model for modelling the mean behaviour and a GARCH model for modelling the variance behaviour of the residuals from the ARMA model. Since the GARCH model is not followed widely in statistical hydrology, the work can be a useful addition in terms of statistical modelling of daily streamflow processes for the hydrological community.

  16. Generalized martingale model of the uncertainty evolution of streamflow forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtiegang; Zhao, Jianshi; Yang, Dawen; Wang, Hao

    2013-07-01

    Streamflow forecasts are dynamically updated in real-time, thus facilitating a process of forecast uncertainty evolution. Forecast uncertainty generally decreases over time and as more hydrologic information becomes available. The process of forecasting and uncertainty updating can be described by the martingale model of forecast evolution (MMFE), which formulates the total forecast uncertainty of a streamflow in one future period as the sum of forecast improvements in the intermediate periods. This study tests the assumptions, i.e., unbiasedness, Gaussianity, temporal independence, and stationarity, of MMFE using real-world streamflow forecast data. The results show that (1) real-world forecasts can be biased and tend to underestimate the actual streamflow, and (2) real-world forecast uncertainty is non-Gaussian and heavy-tailed. Based on these statistical tests, this study proposes a generalized martingale model GMMFE for the simulation of biased and non-Gaussian forecast uncertainties. The new model combines the normal quantile transform (NQT) with MMFE to formulate the uncertainty evolution of real-world streamflow forecasts. Reservoir operations based on a synthetic forecast by GMMFE illustrates that applications of streamflow forecasting facilitate utility improvements and that special attention should be focused on the statistical distribution of forecast uncertainty.

  17. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek... schedule of Snake Creek Bridge in Islamorada, Florida. This deviation will result in the bridge opening...

  18. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    conditions at some time or in some location(s) in most aquifers. Frequent detections of zinc in the alluvium aquifer may represent anthropogenic influences such as mining. Along the mesas in the upper San Mateo Creek Basin, springs that form various creeks, including El Rito and San Mateo Creeks, discharge from the basalt-cap layer and the upper Cretaceous sedimentary layers. Streamflow in El Rito and San Mateo Creeks flows down steep gradients near the mesas sustained by groundwater discharges, and this streamflow transitions to shallow groundwater contained within the valley alluvium through infiltration where the subsequent groundwater is restricted from downward migration by the shaly Menefee Formation. This shallow groundwater reemerges at seeps where the land surface has been eroded below the groundwater level. Spring- and creek-water samples contained small amounts of dissolved solutes, and seep water contained substantially larger amounts of dissolved solutes. The pH of water within the creeks was neutral to alkaline, and all locations exhibited well-oxygenated conditions, although typically at substantially less than saturated levels. Changes in the stable-isotope ratios of water between spring and summer samples indicate differences in source-water inputs that likely pertain to seasonal recharge sources. Results of the water-isotope analysis and geochemical modeling indicate little evaporation and chemical weathering at the spring and creek sites but stronger evaporation and chemical weathering by the time the water reaches the seep locations in the center of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin.

  19. Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts for African Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Valdes, J. B.; Wi, S.; Roy, T.; Roberts, J. B.; Robertson, F. R.; Demaria, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Using high resolution downscaled seasonal meteorological forecasts we present the development and evaluation of seasonal hydrologic forecasts with Stakeholder Agencies for selected African basins. The meteorological forecasts are produced using the Bias Correction and Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD) methodology applied to NMME hindcasts (North American Multi-Model Ensemble prediction system) to generate a bootstrap resampling of plausible weather forecasts from historical observational data. This set of downscaled forecasts is then used to drive hydrologic models to produce a range of forecasts with uncertainty estimates suitable for water resources planning in African pilot basins (i.e. Upper Zambezi, Mara Basin). In an effort to characterize the utility of these forecasts, we will present an evaluation of these forecast ensembles over the pilot basins, and discuss insights as to their operational applicability by regional actors. Further, these forecasts will be contrasted with those from a standard Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach to seasonal forecasting. The case studies presented here have been developed in the setting of the NASA SERVIR Applied Sciences Team and within the broader context of operational seasonal forecasting in Africa. These efforts are part of a dialogue with relevant planning and management agencies and institutions in Africa, which are in turn exploring how to best use uncertain forecasts for decision making.

  20. Calibration of Deterministic Streamflow Models in Ungaged Basins Using Statistically-Derived At-Site Streamflow Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, William; Hay, Lauren; Kiang, Julie

    2017-04-01

    The continental-scale streamflow network provides vital information for quantifying water resources in the U.S., however, large portions of the U.S. remain ungaged and require streamflow to be estimated. Validation of streamflow models in ungaged basins is difficult due to the lack of observed daily streamflow data for model calibration. This difficulty often leads researchers to rely on regional statistical models (regionalizations) that are limited to the time series of the streamflow variable of interest and offer limited additional hydrologic outputs beyond the variable of interest compared to deterministic streamflow models, which are capable of modeling multiple elements of the water budget simultaneously. This work combines statistically-derived streamflows at ungaged locations to calibrate a popular hydrologic model, PRMS (Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System). Combining this statistically-derived, at-site information with observations of other hydrologic variables, including evapotranspiration and snow covered area, produced simulations as reasonable as alternative approaches to ungaged calibration. Improvements from calibrating to statistical time series are limited by maximum performance of an idealized at-site calibration, i.e., if observed streamflows were known for calibration. The degree of performance when calibrated with observed data is correlated with the degree of performance when calibrated with statistically-derived alternatives. Regionally-varying hydrologic processes limit the applicability of deterministic models, statistical models and the combination thereof; coupled calibration may improve identification of these underlying processes. The advantages and disadvantages of statistically-informed calibration of deterministic models are discussed with emphasis on continental application across the conterminous United States.

  1. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  2. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park II...

  3. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  4. Gain-loss study of lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, May-October 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May–October 1999. All of the measurements were made during dry periods, when stormwater runoff was not occurring and effects of possible bank storage were minimized. San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River were divided into six subreaches, and streamflow measurements were made simultaneously at the boundaries of these subreaches so that streamflow gains or losses and estimates of inflow from or outflow to shallow ground water could be quantified for each subreach. There are two possible sources of ground-water inflow to lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River east of Kelly Air Force Base. One source is direct inflow of shallow ground water into the streams. The other source is ground water that enters tributaries that flow into the San Antonio River. The estimated mean direct inflow of ground water to the combined San Pedro Creek and San Antonio River study reach was 3.0 cubic feet per second or 1.9 million gallons per day. The mean tributary inflow of ground water was estimated to be 1.9 cubic feet per second or 1.2 million gallons per day. The total estimated inflow of shallow ground water was 4.9 cubic feet per second or 3.2 million gallons per day. The amount of inflow from springs and seeps (estimated by observation) is much less than the amount of direct ground-water inflow estimated from the gain-loss measurements. Therefore, the presence of springs and seeps might not be a reliable indicator of the source of shallow ground water entering the river. Most of the shallow ground water that enters the San Antonio River from tributary inflow enters from the west side, through Concepcion Creek, inflows near Riverside Golf Course, and Six-Mile Creek

  5. Antifungal activity of essential oils of lemon balm, manuka and tansy to the causative agents of otomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Đorđe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Otomycosis is a superficial fungal infection of the external ear canal. One of the therapeutic approaches that became topical in treatment of otomycosis is the application of essential oils, which is shown to have different biological properties, including the antimicrobial effect. Aim: The objective of the research is to examine antimycotic effects of essential oils of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, manuka (Leptospermum scoparium and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare on the causative agents of otomycosis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of 20 randomly selected strains of Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. isolated from swabs taken from the external ear canal of patients with signs and symptoms of otitis externa. Antifungal activity of essential oils of lemon balm, manuka and tansy was tested by using the microdilution method by determining the value of the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. Results: MIC values of lemon balm were in the range of 0.39- 50 μl/ml, manuka of 0.39-50 μL/mL and tansy of 1.56-50 μL/mL. The MFC values were 2-4 times higher than the MIC values, except in the case of a strain of Aspergillus niger, which was tolerant of the lemon balm essential oil. Conclusion: The investigation has shown that essential oil activities of lemon balm, manuka and tansy to the strains of Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp, using the microdilution method, have antifungal effect.

  6. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  7. SCREENING FITOKIMIA, AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN ANTIMIKROBA PADA BUAH JERUK LEMON(Citrus limon DAN JERUK NIPIS (Citrus aurantiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Nirmala Permata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The desire to live healthy by eating natural foods and drinks into the lifestyle of the community. Orange becomes one of the fruits that become functional food to maintain and maintain health. The purpose of this research is to know the difference of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity on Citrus limon and Citrus aurantiifolia. The research method is laboratory experimental research with descriptive analysis. This research was conducted in February-April 2017 at the Laboratory of Plant Biological Microbiology and Plant Chemistry Department of Biology State University of Malang. Phytochemical screening by color reaction method, total phenol with Folin Ciocalteu method, antioxidant activity with DPPH method and antimicrobial activity with disc method. Screening results show the presence of saponins and alkaloids but there are no flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Total phenol test showed total phenol content in Lemon (Citrus limon of 110,25 mg GAE / 100ml while in Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia 116,5 mg GAE / 100ml. The antioxidant activity of Lemon Citrus (Citrus limon 49.593 g / ml and Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia 49.589g / ml. Antimicrobial activity test obtained the highest zone of resistance at 100% concentration of each citrus fruit. The conclusion of this study is that there is a difference of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in both oranges, where the lemon fruits (C.limon antioxidant activity is higher than and Lime (C. aurantiifolia, while the antimicrobial activity of lemon (C. aurantiifolia is higher Rather than lemon (C.limon.

  8. Seasonal Prediction of Taiwan's Streamflow Using Teleconnection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Jeng; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal streamflow as an integrated response to complex hydro-climatic processes can be subject to activity of prevailing weather systems potentially modulated by large-scale climate oscillations (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO). To develop a seamless seasonal forecasting system in Taiwan, this study assesses how significant Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow in different seasons correlate with selected teleconnection patterns. Long-term precipitation and streamflow data in three major precipitation seasons, namely the spring rains (February to April), Mei-Yu (May and June), and typhoon (July to September) seasons, are derived at 28 upstream and 13 downstream catchments in Taiwan. The three seasons depict a complete wet period of Taiwan as well as many regions bearing similar climatic conditions in East Asia. Lagged correlation analysis is then performed to investigate how the precipitation and streamflow data correlate with predominant teleconnection indices at varied lead times. Teleconnection indices are selected only if they show certain linkage with weather systems and activity in the three seasons based on previous literature. For instance, the ENSO and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, proven to influence East Asian climate across seasons and summer typhoon activity, respectively, are included in the list of climate indices for correlation analysis. Significant correlations found between Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow and teleconnection indices are further examined by a climate regime shift (CRS) test to identify any abrupt changes in the correlations. The understanding of existing CRS is useful for informing the forecasting system of the changes in the predictor-predictand relationship. To evaluate prediction skill in the three seasons and skill differences between precipitation and streamflow, hindcasting experiments of precipitation and streamflow are conducted using stepwise linear regression models. Discussion and suggestions for coping

  9. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sami; Anex, Robert P; Anderson, Christopher J; Herzmann, Daryl E

    2014-01-01

    Likely changes in precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  10. Streamflow impacts of biofuel policy-driven landscape change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khanal

    Full Text Available Likely changes in precipitation (P and potential evapotranspiration (PET resulting from policy-driven expansion of bioenergy crops in the United States are shown to create significant changes in streamflow volumes and increase water stress in the High Plains. Regional climate simulations for current and biofuel cropping system scenarios are evaluated using the same atmospheric forcing data over the period 1979-2004 using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF model coupled to the NOAH land surface model. PET is projected to increase under the biofuel crop production scenario. The magnitude of the mean annual increase in PET is larger than the inter-annual variability of change in PET, indicating that PET increase is a forced response to the biofuel cropping system land use. Across the conterminous U.S., the change in mean streamflow volume under the biofuel scenario is estimated to range from negative 56% to positive 20% relative to a business-as-usual baseline scenario. In Kansas and Oklahoma, annual streamflow volume is reduced by an average of 20%, and this reduction in streamflow volume is due primarily to increased PET. Predicted increase in mean annual P under the biofuel crop production scenario is lower than its inter-annual variability, indicating that additional simulations would be necessary to determine conclusively whether predicted change in P is a response to biofuel crop production. Although estimated changes in streamflow volume include the influence of P change, sensitivity results show that PET change is the significantly dominant factor causing streamflow change. Higher PET and lower streamflow due to biofuel feedstock production are likely to increase water stress in the High Plains. When pursuing sustainable biofuels policy, decision-makers should consider the impacts of feedstock production on water scarcity.

  11. Sensitivity of streamflow to climate change in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, T.; Carlisle, D.; Wolock, D.; McCabe, G. J.; Wieczorek, M.; Howard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Trends of decreasing snowpack and increasing risk of drought are looming challenges for California water resource management. Increasing vulnerability of the state's natural water supplies threatens California's social-economic vitality and the health of its freshwater ecosystems. Despite growing awareness of potential climate change impacts, robust management adaptation has been hindered by substantial uncertainty in future climate predictions for the region. Down-scaled global climate model (GCM) projections uniformly suggest future warming of the region, but projections are highly variable with respect to the direction and magnitude of change in regional precipitation. Here we examine the sensitivity of California surface water supplies to climate variation independently of GCMs. We use a statistical approach to construct predictive models of monthly streamflow based on historical climate and river basin features. We then propagate an ensemble of synthetic climate simulations through the models to assess potential streamflow responses to changes in temperature and precipitation in different months and regions of the state. We also consider the range of streamflow change predicted by bias-corrected downscaled GCMs. Our results indicate that the streamflow in the xeric and coastal mountain regions of California is more sensitive to changes in precipitation than temperature, whereas streamflow in the interior mountain region responds strongly to changes in both temperature and precipitation. Mean climate projections for 2025-2075 from GCM ensembles are highly variable, indicating streamflow changes of -50% to +150% relative to baseline (1980-2010) for most months and regions. By quantifying the sensitivity of streamflow to climate change, rather than attempting to predict future hydrologic conditions based on uncertain GCM projections, these results should be more informative to water managers seeking to assess, and potentially reduce, the vulnerability of surface

  12. Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.; Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing

  13. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  14. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  15. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Orellana, Y.; Ortuno, M. F.; Conejero, W.; Ruiz-Sanchez, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. cv. Fino) were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS) threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment) and 1.35 (T2 treatment), which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Y{sub l}eaf) and stem (Y{sub s}tem) water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF) and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Y{sub l}eaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Y{sub s}tem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Y{sub l}eaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Y{sub s}tem - Y{sub l}eaf {Delta}{Psi}) was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC) was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Decay control of "Femminello Santa Teresa" lemon fruits by prestorage high temperature conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Piga, Antonio; Agabbio, Mario Carlo Salvatore; Molinu, Maria Giovanna

    1998-01-01

    Marketing quality and juice chemical parameters of late harvested "Femminello Santa Teresa" lemon fruits (Citrus limon Burm), wrapped with a 15 mm heat shrinkable film or left unwrapped, and then either conditioned at 36°C for 72 hours in a 85-90%, relative humidity (RH) atmosphere or not conditioned, were determined over 3 months storage at 6°C and 95% RH or after 1 week at 20°C and 75% RH following each month of storage. Conditioning significantly reduced the incidence of decay caused by...

  17. A Simple and Rapid Extraction for Gas Chromatographic Determination of Thiabendazole and Imazalil Residues in Lemons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navickiene Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and efficient method is described for the determination of thiabendazole and imazalil residues in lemons (peel and pulp. The procedure is based on the extraction with an hexane:ethyl acetate mixture (1:1, v/v and gas chromatographic analysis using thermionic specific detection (TSD. The possibility of matrix effect was also studied. Mean recoveries from 8 replicates of fortified samples ranged from 79% to 109%, with relative standard deviation values between 2.4% to 12.8%. The detection and quantification limits of the method were 0.2 mg kg-1 and 0.5 mg kg-1, respectively.

  18. Lemon: an MPI parallel I/O library for data encapsulation using LIME

    OpenAIRE

    Deuzeman, Albert; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten; Collaboration, for the ETM

    2011-01-01

    We introduce Lemon, an MPI parallel I/O library that is intended to allow for efficient parallel I/O of both binary and metadata on massively parallel architectures. Motivated by the demands of the Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics community, the data is stored in the SciDAC Lattice QCD Interchange Message Encapsulation format. This format allows for storing large blocks of binary data and corresponding metadata in the same file. Even if designed for LQCD needs, this format might be useful for a...

  19. Effect of Chemical Composition of Honey on Cream Formation in Honey Lemon Tea

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hategekimana; J.G. Ma, Y. Li, E. Karangwa, W. Tang and F. Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chemical composition of honey and environmental factors such as pH, storage temperature and ionic strength on cream formation in honey lemon tea drink. The results showed that minerals, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were involved in cream formation while Fe2+ participated in changing color to tar black at pH 4.12 and above. Honey rich in polyphenols and proteins increased the cream to 2.51%. High proline content (0.506 mg/g) induced creaming in GH (Germany Ho...

  20. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Neises, G.J.; Howard, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project

  1. Simulation of streamflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge in the lower San Antonio River Watershed, South-Central Texas, 2000-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Joy S.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2010-01-01

    watershed was 34.3 inches. Using the HSPF model it was estimated that for 2000-2007, less than 10 percent of the annual mean rainfall on the study watershed exited the watershed as streamflow, whereas about 82 percent, or an average of 28.2 inches per year, exited the watershed as ET. Estimated annual mean groundwater recharge for the entire study area was 3.0 inches, or about 9 percent of annual mean rainfall. Estimated annual mean recharge was largest in water-budget zone 3, the zone where the Carrizo Sand outcrops. In water-budget zone 3, the estimated annual mean recharge was 5.1 inches or about 15 percent of annual mean rainfall. Estimated annual mean recharge was smallest in water-budget zone 6, about 1.1 inches or about 3 percent of annual mean rainfall. The Cibolo Creek subwatershed and the subwatershed of the San Antonio River upstream from Cibolo Creek had the largest and smallest basin yields, about 4.8 inches and 1.2 inches, respectively. Estimated annual ET and annual recharge generally increased with increasing annual rainfall. Also, ET was larger in zones 8 and 9, the most downstream zones in the watershed. Model limitations include possible errors related to model conceptualization and parameter variability, lack of data to quantify certain model inputs, and measurement errors. Uncertainty regarding the degree to which available rainfall data represent actual rainfall is potentially the most serious source of measurement error.

  2. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  3. Efficacy Assessment of Lemon Peel Aromatherpy Againts Airborne Bacteria Experimental Study in ICU Room of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merin Awu Sari

    2012-06-01

    Design and Method: This experimental study used post test only control groups design. The number of airborne bacteria colonies obtained from ICU room of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang treated with lemon peel aromatherapy at the concentration of 100 % and the control group (-.The data were analyzed for normality using Shapiro Wilk followed by independent T-test Result: independent inT-test Independent showed a significant differences in the number of bacterial colonies between the treated groups receiving 100% concentration of lemon peel aromatherapy and control group (- (p < 0.045. Conclusion: Aromatherapy extracts of lemon peel has effect on reducing the number of airborne bacteria in the ICU of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang (Sains Medika, 4(1:71-77.

  4. The effect of cold aqueous extract of lemon peel against types of bacteria isolated from the cooling devices Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of citrus peel lemon against the bacterial strains obtained from the filters of air conditioners have been selected based on the presence most in these filters such as Streptococcus, Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas, E coli. agar well diffusion method used to evaluate antibacterial activity of citrus peels water extract. through the results became clear to us that the cold aqueous extract of lemon peel showed a significant effect on the growth of bacterial species through the diameters of inhibition zone that appeared in all concentrations of the extract (125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/ml. Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus spp were the most affected Where the diameters of inhibition zone (18, 15, 12, 0, 0 mm respectively, while The Gram-negative bacteria E coli least affected. The results obtained in this study indicate that citrus lemon peel can be used in the treatment of diseases caused by organisms for the purposes of the pharmaceutical.

  5. A global evaluation of streamflow drought characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Fleig

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available How drought is characterised depends on the purpose and region of the study and the available data. In case of regional applications or global comparison a standardisation of the methodology to characterise drought is preferable. In this study the threshold level method in combination with three common pooling procedures is applied to daily streamflow series from a wide range of hydrological regimes. Drought deficit characteristics, such as drought duration and deficit volume, are derived, and the methods are evaluated for their applicability for regional studies. Three different pooling procedures are evaluated: the moving-average procedure (MA-procedure, the inter-event time method (IT-method, and the sequent peak algorithm (SPA. The MA-procedure proved to be a flexible approach for the different series, and its parameter, the averaging interval, can easily be optimised for each stream. However, it modifies the discharge series and might introduce dependency between drought events. For the IT-method it is more difficult to find an optimal value for its parameter, the length of the excess period, in particular for flashy streams. The SPA can only be recommended as pooling procedure for the selection of annual maximum series of deficit characteristics and for very low threshold levels to ensure that events occurring shortly after major events are recognized. Furthermore, a frequency analysis of deficit volume and duration is conducted based on partial duration series of drought events. According to extreme value theory, excesses over a certain limit are Generalized Pareto (GP distributed. It was found that this model indeed performed better than or equally to other distribution models. In general, the GP-model could be used for streams of all regime types. However, for intermittent streams, zero-flow periods should be treated as censored data. For catchments with frost during the winter season, summer and winter droughts have to be analysed

  6. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-04

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases.

  7. Streamflow of 2016—Water year summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xiaodong; Wolock, David M.; Lins, Harry F.; Brady, Steven J.

    2017-09-26

    The maps and graphs in this summary describe national streamflow conditions for water year 2016 (October 1, 2015, to September 30, 2016) in the context of streamflow ranks relative to the 87-year period of 1930–2016, unless otherwise noted. The illustrations are based on observed data from the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Streamflow Network. The period of 1930–2016 was used because the number of streamgages before 1930 was too small to provide representative data for computing statistics for most regions of the country.In the summary, reference is made to the term “runoff,” which is the depth to which a river basin, State, or other geographic area would be covered with water if all the streamflow within the area during a specified period was uniformly distributed on it. Runoff quantifies the magnitude of water flowing through the Nation’s rivers and streams in measurement units that can be compared from one area to another.In all the graphics, a rank of 1 indicates the highest flow of all years analyzed and 87 indicates the lowest flow of all years. Rankings of streamflow are grouped into much below normal, below normal, normal, above normal, and much above normal based on percentiles of flow (less than 10 percent, 10–24 percent, 25–75 percent, 76–90 percent, and greater than 90 percent, respectively). Some of the data used to produce the maps and graphs are provisional and subject to change.

  8. Pectin extraction from lemon by-product with acidified date juice: rheological properties and microstructure of pure and mixed pectin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, M; Besbes, S; Ben Thabet, I; Blecker, C; Attia, H

    2010-04-01

    The microstructure and the rheological properties of lemon-pectin mixtures were studied and compared to those of pure lemon (high methoxyl: HM) and date (low methoxyl: LM) pectins. Rheological properties were carried out in the presence of 30%, 45% and 60% sucrose, and increasing calcium concentrations (0-0.1%). The presence of date with lemon pectin led to a gel formation at 45% sucrose and in the presence of calcium, which was not the case for lemon pectin alone under the same conditions. It is suggested that lemon and date pectins interacted, leading to gel formations at different gelling temperatures, which were strongly dependent on degree of methylation. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed inhomogeneous gels where dense aggregated network and loose, open network areas were present. Addition of calcium to pectin mixture gels led to stronger and faster gel formation.

  9. Contribution to the improvement of a porridge made with fermented maize: effect of selected foods and lemon on energy density, pH, viscosity and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejigui, Jeanne; Desrosiers, Therese

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to use lemon and selected foods to improve the nutritional characteristics, quality and the nutrient content of a traditional complementary porridge made of lactic acid fermented yellow maize. Boiled egg yolk, roasted peanut paste, dry crayfish flour, roasted soybean flour and lemon juice were used as food additions. Amounts of food added were calculated on the basis of World Health Organization estimated energy needs from complementary foods of well-nourished children in developing countries, aged 9-11 months, at four servings per day and a low amount of breast milk energy. The pH and viscosity increased in porridges with food addition, but lemon juice contributed to lowering them. Energy and nutrient densities/100 g porridge improved with food addition regardless of the use of lemon juice. An increase in iron, zinc and calcium in vitro availability was observed (P lemon juice.

  10. Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackston, J.W.; Mangarella, P.A.; Preslo, L.M.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies

  11. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Velocity Deficits in the Wake of Model Lemon Shark Dorsal Fins Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, K. N.; Turner, V.; Hackett, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic animals' morphology provides inspiration for human technological developments, as their bodies have evolved and become adapted for efficient swimming. Lemon sharks exhibit a uniquely large second dorsal fin that is nearly the same size as the first fin, the hydrodynamic role of which is unknown. This experimental study looks at the drag forces on a scale model of the Lemon shark's unique two-fin configuration in comparison to drag forces on a more typical one-fin configuration. The experiments were performed in a recirculating water flume, where the wakes behind the scale models are measured using particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed at three different flow speeds for both fin configurations. The measured instantaneous 2D distributions of the streamwise and wall-normal velocity components are ensemble averaged to generate streamwise velocity vertical profiles. In addition, velocity deficit profiles are computed from the difference between these mean streamwise velocity profiles and the free stream velocity, which is computed based on measured flow rates during the experiments. Results show that the mean velocities behind the fin and near the fin tip are smallest and increase as the streamwise distance from the fin tip increases. The magnitude of velocity deficits increases with increasing flow speed for both fin configurations, but at all flow speeds, the two-fin configurations generate larger velocity deficits than the one-fin configurations. Because the velocity deficit is directly proportional to the drag force, these results suggest that the two-fin configuration produces more drag.

  13. Apoptosis-mediated inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation by lemon citrus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Shafi, Gowhar; Hasan, Tarique N; Al-Hazzani, Amal A; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Alfawaz, Mohammed A; Lei, K Y; Munshi, Anjana

    2011-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals have a variety of antitumor properties. In the present study, the antitumor activity of methanolic extract of lemon fruit (lemon extract; LE) (LE) on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was investigated in vitro. Apoptotic cell death was analyzed using the TUNEL assay. In addition, the apoptosis mediated by LE extract in the MCF-7 cells was associated with the increased expression of the tumor suppressor p53 and caspase-3. Additionally, the expression of a pro-apoptotic gene, bax, was increased, and the expression of an anti-apoptotic gene, bcl-2, was decreased by LE extract treatment, resulting in a shift in the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio to one that favored apoptosis. The expression of a major apoptotic gene, caspase-3, was increased by LE extract treatment. In light of the above results, we concluded that LE extract can induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells via Bax-related caspase-3 activation. This study provides experimental data that are relevant to the possible future clinical use of LE to treat breast cancer.

  14. Significant reduction in chloroquine bioavailability following coadministration with the Sudanese beverages Aradaib, Karkadi and Lemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, B M; Ali, H M; Homeida, M M; Bennett, J L

    1994-05-01

    Chloroquine bioavailability in healthy males was examined following oral coadministration of 600 mg with three common Sudanese beverages, Aradaib (Tamarindus indica), Karkadi (Hibiscus sabdarifa) and Lemon (Citrus limetta) and drinking water. The tablets and beverages were taken on an empty stomach after an overnight fast. The plasma chloroquine concentrations were measured by HPLC. The extent and rate of chloroquine bioavailability were described by the area under the plasma concentrations versus time curve (AUC), the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and with the time to reach Cmax (Tmax), respectively. The mean (+/- S.E.) AUC values after administration with water (control) and Aradaib, Karkadi and Lemon, respectively, were 7.52 +/- 0.87, 2.60 +/- 0.24, 2.16 +/- 0.30 and 2.41 +/- 0.29 mg.h/L. The corresponding mean Cmax values were 553 +/- 17.8, 184 +/- 21.3, 148 +/- 14.1 and 210 +/- 17.4 mg/L and the corresponding Tmax values were 3.0 +/- 1.0, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.6 +/- 0.8 and 2.5 +/- 1.0 h. The results indicate a statistically significant reduction in the AUC and Cmax of chloroquine as a result of a coadministration with each of the three beverages. A parallel reduction in the drugs antimalarial efficacy might be expected.

  15. Molecular markers associated with the agronomic traits in the medicinal plant lemon balm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Safaei-Chaeikar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Finding association between molecular markers and agronomic traits provide an excellent tool for indirect selection of a trait of interest in the population. In this study, stepwise regression analysis was used to estimate associations between ISSR and RAPD markers with some agronomic traits in lemon balm ecotypes. The analysis of results revealed significant associations between the traits and some of the studied loci. For all the traits, more than one informative marker was detected. Totally,90informative markers, including 48 ISSR loci and 42 RAPD loci, were identified. The SA-R-10, UBC826-1, UBC812-9, UBC813-10, UBC825-4, OPA-01-15, OPC-04-7 and CS-56-8 markers or fragment showed a significant correlation with Essential oil percentage and controlled 99.8% of the phenotypic variation. These markers are relatively more reliable. Among the RAPD primers, special attention should be drawn to primer SA-R, which had the highest associated fragments with the traits including days for 50% flowering, number of branches per plant, fresh weight and dry weight. Some of ISSR and RAPD markers were associated with more than one trait in multiple regression analysis that may be due to pleiotropic effect of the linked quantitative trait locus on different traits or its linkage to different genes. These primers have been found useful for improved lemon balm.

  16. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are indirect genetic benefits associated with polyandry? Testing predictions in a natural population of lemon sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Feldheim, Kevin A; Gruber, Samuel H; Hendry, Andrew P

    2008-02-01

    Multiple mating has clear fitness benefits for males, but uncertain benefits and costs for females. We tested for indirect genetic benefits of polyandry in a natural population, by using data from a long-term genetic and demographic study of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) at Bimini, Bahamas. To do so, we followed the fates of individuals from six cohorts (450 age-0 and 254 age-1 fish) in relation to their individual level of genetic variation, and whether they were from polyandrous or monoandrous litters. We find that offspring from polyandrous litters did not have a greater genetic diversity or greater survival than did the offspring of monoandrous litters. We also find no evidence of positive associations between individual offspring genetic diversity metrics and our surrogate measure of fitness (i.e. survival). In fact, age-1 individuals with fewer heterozygous microsatellite loci and more genetically similar parents were more likely to survive to age-2. Thus, polyandry in female lemon sharks does not appear to be adaptive from the perspective of indirect genetic benefits to offspring. It may instead be the result of convenience polyandry, whereby females mate multiply to avoid harassment by males. Our inability to find indirect genetic benefits of polyandry despite detailed pedigree and survival information suggests the need for similar assessments in other natural populations.

  18. Streamflow-Characteristic Estimation Methods for Unregulated Streams of Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, George S.; Tasker, Gary D.; Ladd, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow-characteristic estimation methods for unregulated rivers and streams of Tennessee were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Streamflow estimates are provided for 1,224 stream sites. Streamflow characteristics include the 7-consecutive-day, 10-year recurrence-interval low flow, the 30-consecutive-day, 5-year recurrence-interval low flow, the mean annual and mean summer flows, and the 99.5-, 99-, 98-, 95-, 90-, 80-, 70-, 60-, 50-, 40-, 30-, 20-, and 10-percent flow durations. Estimation methods include regional regression (RRE) equations and the region-of-influence (ROI) method. Both methods use zero-flow probability screening to estimate zero-flow quantiles. A low flow and flow duration (LFFD) computer program (TDECv301) performs zero-flow screening and calculation of nonzero-streamflow characteristics using the RRE equations and ROI method and provides quality measures including the 90-percent prediction interval and equivalent years of record. The U.S. Geological Survey StreamStats geographic information system automates the calculation of basin characteristics and streamflow characteristics. In addition, basin characteristics can be manually input to the stand-alone version of the computer program (TDECv301) to calculate streamflow characteristics in Tennessee. The RRE equations were computed using multivariable regression analysis. The two regions used for this study, the western part of the State (West) and the central and eastern part of the State (Central+East), are separated by the Tennessee River as it flows south to north from Hardin County to Stewart County. The West region uses data from 124 of the 1,224 streamflow sites, and the Central+East region uses data from 893 of the 1,224 streamflow sites. The study area also includes parts of the adjacent States of Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, Alabama, Kentucky, and Mississippi. Total drainage area, a geology

  19. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group, initiated a study of groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and loading of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium to Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, to improve understanding of sources and processes affecting loading of these constituents to streams in the Arkansas River Basin. Fourteen monitoring wells were installed in a series of three transects across Fountain Creek near Pueblo, and temporary streamgages were established at each transect to facilitate data collection for the study. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was characterized by using hydrogeologic mapping, groundwater and stream-surface levels, groundwater and stream temperatures, vertical hydraulic-head gradients and ratios of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hyporheic zone, and streamflow mass-balance measurements. Water quality was characterized by collecting periodic samples from groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone for analysis of dissolved solids, selenium, uranium, and other selected constituents and by evaluating the oxidation-reduction condition for each groundwater sample under different hydrologic conditions throughout the study period. Groundwater loads to Fountain Creek and in-stream loads were computed for the study area, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium were evaluated on the basis of geology, geochemical conditions, land and water use, and evapoconcentration.During the study period, the groundwater-flow system generally contributed flow to Fountain Creek and its hyporheic zone (as a single system) except for the reach between the north and middle transects. However, the direction of flow between the stream, the hyporheic zone, and the near-stream aquifer was variable in response to streamflow and stage. During periods of low streamflow, Fountain Creek generally gained flow from

  20. Consistent and efficient processing of ADCP streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.; Constantinescu, George; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Hanes, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The use of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) from a moving boat is a commonly used method for measuring streamflow. Currently, the algorithms used to compute the average depth, compute edge discharge, identify invalid data, and estimate velocity and discharge for invalid data vary among manufacturers. These differences could result in different discharges being computed from identical data. Consistent computational algorithm, automated filtering, and quality assessment of ADCP streamflow measurements that are independent of the ADCP manufacturer are being developed in a software program that can process ADCP moving-boat discharge measurements independent of the ADCP used to collect the data.

  1. Simulation of streamflow and estimation of streamflow constituent loads in the San Antonio River watershed, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; McNamara, Kenna C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed watershed models (Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN) to simulate streamflow and estimate streamflow constituent loads from five basins that compose the San Antonio River watershed in Bexar County, Texas. Rainfall and streamflow data collected during 1997–2001 were used to calibrate and test the model. The model was configured so that runoff from various land uses and discharges from other sources (such as wastewater recycling facilities) could be accounted for to indicate sources of streamflow. Simulated streamflow volumes were used with land-use-specific, water-quality data to compute streamflow loads of selected constituents from the various streamflow sources.Model simulations for 1997–2001 indicate that inflow from the upper Medina River (originating outside Bexar County) represents about 22 percent of total streamflow. Recycled wastewater discharges account for about 20 percent and base flow (ground-water inflow to streams) about 18 percent. Storm runoff from various land uses represents about 33 percent. Estimates of sources of streamflow constituent loads indicate recycled wastewater as the largest source of dissolved solids and nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen (about 38 and 66 percent, respectively, of the total loads) during 1997–2001. Stormwater runoff from urban land produced about 49 percent of the 1997–2001 total suspended solids load. Stormwater runoff from residential and commercial land (about 23 percent of the land area) produced about 70 percent of the total lead streamflow load during 1997–2001.

  2. Hydrologic disturbance and response of aquatic biota in Big Darby Creek basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrook, J.A.; Koltun, G.F.; Palcsak, B.B.; Tertuliani, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Washout and recolonization of macroinvertebrates and algae associated with a spring and summer storm were measured at three sites in Ohio's Big Darby Creek Basin. Related factors, such as streamflow magnitude, shear stress, and streamed disturbance were considered when interpreting observed changes in densities and community structure of macroinvertebrates and algae. During the study, 184 macroinvertebrate taxa and 202 algal taxa were identified. The major taxonomic groups for macroinvertebrates were midges and other true flies (Diptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and stoneflies (Plecoptera). Diatoms were the dominant algae (in terms of percentage of total taxa found) followed by green algae, blue-green algae, euglenoids, golden flagellates, and freshwater red algae. Streamflows associated with the storm events that occurred during April 6-16 and June 23-July 5, 1994, probably had little effect on streambed elevations, but streambed disturbance was documented in the form of shifts in the median particle-size diameters of the subsurface bed materials. The streamflow magnitudes did not correlate well with the magnitude of observed changes in macroinvertebrate and algal-cell densities, but reductions in macroinvertebrate and algal-cell densities generally did occur. Local minima of macroinvertebrate density did not generally correspond to the first sample after the storms, but instead lagged by about 1 to 3 weeks. Other biotic factors, such as emergence of Diptera, probably affected the observed mid-July depression in macroinvertebrate densities. Evaluation of pre-event macroinvertebrate community structure in terms of functional feeding groups and flow-exposure groups showed that, on the basis of percentage of total taxa found, gatherers were the dominant feeding group and flow-facultative taxa were the dominant flow-exposure group. Densities of gatherers decreased from pre-event levels following all the storm events

  3. Hydrologic Data for Deep Creek Lake and Selected Tributaries, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Davies, William J.; Gellis, Allen C.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; McPherson, Wendy S.; Soeder, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Deep Creek Lake, a bathymetric survey of the lake bottom was conducted in 2007. The data collected were used to generate a bathymetric map depicting depth to the lake bottom from a full pool elevation of 2,462 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929). Data were collected along about 90 linear miles across the lake using a fathometer and a differentially corrected global positioning system. As part of a long-term monitoring plan for all surface-water inputs to the lake, streamflow data were collected continuously at two stations constructed on Poland Run and Cherry Creek. The sites were selected to represent areas of the watershed under active development and areas that are relatively stable with respect to development. Twelve months of discharge data are provided for both streams. In addition, five water-quality parameters were collected continuously at the Poland Run station including pH, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Water samples collected at Poland Run were analyzed for sediment concentration, and the results of this analysis were used to estimate the annual sediment load into Deep Creek Lake from Poland Run. To determine sedimentation rates, cores of lake-bottom sediments were collected at 23 locations. Five of the cores were analyzed using a radiometric-dating method, allowing average rates of sedimentation to be estimated for the time periods 1925 to 2008, 1925 to 1963, and 1963 to 2008. Particle-size data from seven cores collected at locations throughout the study area were analyzed to provide information on the amount of fine material in lake-bed sediments. Groundwater levels were monitored continuously in four wells and weekly in nine additional wells during October, November, and December of 2008. Water levels were compared to recorded lake levels and precipitation during the same period to determine the effect of lake-level drawdown and recovery on the adjacent aquifer systems. Water use in the Deep Creek Lake

  4. Peak discharge, flood frequency, and peak stage of floods on Big Cottonwood Creek at U.S. Highway 50 near Coaldale, Colorado, and Fountain Creek below U.S. Highway 24 in Colorado Springs, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Stevens, Michael R.; Mommandi, Amanullah; Khan, Aziz R.

    2017-12-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Transportation, determined the peak discharge, annual exceedance probability (flood frequency), and peak stage of two floods that took place on Big Cottonwood Creek at U.S. Highway 50 near Coaldale, Colorado (hereafter referred to as “Big Cottonwood Creek site”), on August 23, 2016, and on Fountain Creek below U.S. Highway 24 in Colorado Springs, Colorado (hereafter referred to as “Fountain Creek site”), on August 29, 2016. A one-dimensional hydraulic model was used to estimate the peak discharge. To define the flood frequency of each flood, peak-streamflow regional-regression equations or statistical analyses of USGS streamgage records were used to estimate annual exceedance probability of the peak discharge. A survey of the high-water mark profile was used to determine the peak stage, and the limitations and accuracy of each component also are presented in this report. Collection and computation of flood data, such as peak discharge, annual exceedance probability, and peak stage at structures critical to Colorado’s infrastructure are an important addition to the flood data collected annually by the USGS.The peak discharge of the August 23, 2016, flood at the Big Cottonwood Creek site was 917 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) with a measurement quality of poor (uncertainty plus or minus 25 percent or greater). The peak discharge of the August 29, 2016, flood at the Fountain Creek site was 5,970 ft3/s with a measurement quality of poor (uncertainty plus or minus 25 percent or greater).The August 23, 2016, flood at the Big Cottonwood Creek site had an annual exceedance probability of less than 0.01 (return period greater than the 100-year flood) and had an annual exceedance probability of greater than 0.005 (return period less than the 200-year flood). The August 23, 2016, flood event was caused by a precipitation event having an annual exceedance probability of 1.0 (return

  5. Simulation of specific conductance and chloride concentration in Abercorn Creek, Georgia, 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Roehl, Edwin A.; Davie, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Savannah operates an industrial and domestic water-supply intake on Abercorn Creek approximately 2 miles from the confluence with the Savannah River upstream from the Interstate 95 bridge. Chloride concentrations are a major concern for the city because industrial customers require water with low chloride concentrations, and elevated chloride concentrations require additional water treatment in order to meet those needs. The proposed deepening of Savannah Harbor could increase chloride concentrations (the major ion in seawater) in the upper reaches of the lower Savannah River estuary, including Abercorn Creek. To address this concern, mechanistic and empirical modeling approaches were used to simulate chloride concentrations at the city's intake to evaluate potential effects from deepening the Savannah Harbor. The first approach modified the mechanistic Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model developed by Tetra Tech and used for evaluating proposed harbor deepening effects for the Environmental Impact Statement. Chloride concentrations were modeled directly with the EFDC model as a conservative tracer. This effort was done by Tetra Tech under a separate funding agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and documented in a separate report. The second approach, described in this report, was to simulate chloride concentrations by developing empirical models from the available data using artificial neural network (ANN) and linear regression models. The empirical models used daily streamflow, specific conductance (field measurement for salinity), water temperature, and water color time series for inputs. Because there are only a few data points that describe the relation between high specific conductance values at the Savannah River at Interstate 95 and the water plant intake, there was a concern that these few data points would determine the extrapolation of the empirical model and potentially underestimate the effect of deepening the harbor on

  6. Use of a precipitation-runoff model for simulating effects of forest management on streamflow in 11 small drainage basins, Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the U.S. Geological Survey was used to simulate the hydrologic effects of timber management in 11 small, upland drainage basins of the Coast Range in Oregon. The coefficients of determination for observed and simulated daily flow during the calibration periods ranged from 0.92 for the Flynn Creek Basin to 0.68 for the Priorli Creek Basin; percent error ranged from -0.25 for the Deer Creek Basin to -4.49 for the Nestucca River Basin. The coefficients of determination during the validation periods ranged from 0.90 for the Flynn Creek Basin to 0.66 for the Wind River Basin; percent error during the validation periods ranged from -0.91 for the Flynn Creek Basin to 22.3 for the Priorli Creek Basin. In addition to daily simulations, 42 storms were selected from the time-series periods in which the 11 basins were studied and used in hourly storm-mode simulations. Sources of simulation error included the quality of the input data, deficiencies in the PRMS model-algorithms, and the quality of parameter estimation. Times-series data from the Flynn Creek and Needle Branch Basins, collected during an earlier U.S. Geological Survey paired-watershed study, were used to evaluate the PRMS as a tool for predicting the hydrologic effects of timber-management practices. The Flynn Creek Basin remained forested and undisturbed during the data-collection period, while the Needle Branch Basin had been clearcut 82 percent at a midpoint during the period of data collection. Using the PRMS, streamflow at the Needle Branch Basin was simulated during the postlogging period using prelogging parameter values. Comparison of postlogging observed streamflow with the simulated data showed an increase in annual discharge volume of approximately 8 percent and a small increase in peak flows of from 1 to 2 percent. The simulated flows from the basins studied were generally insensitive to the number of hydrologic-response units used to replicate

  7. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, North Dakota, with a watershed dominated by prairie potholes. During a decadal period of wet conditions, Pipestem Creek contained evaporated water that had approximately half the isotopic evaporative enrichment signal found in most evaporated permanent wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from the headwaters with distance downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporation. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha and varying primarily with discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This estimate of contributing area indicated that Prairie Pothole wetlands were important sources of stream fl

  8. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, William G.; Peters, J.G.; Ayers, M.A.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Floods of June 17, 1990, and July 9, 1993, along Squaw Creek and the South Skunk River in Ames, Iowa, and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhellig, R.F.; Eash, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Water-surface-elevation profiles and peak discharges for the floods of June 17, 1990, and July 9, 1993, along Squaw Creek and the South Skunk River, in Ames, Iowa, are presented in this report. The maximum flood-peak discharge of 24,300 cubic feet per second for the streamflow-gaging station on Squaw Creek at Ames, Iowa (station number 05470500) occurred on July 9, 1993. This discharge was 80 percent larger than the 100-year recurrence-interval discharge and exceeded the previous record flood-peak discharge of June 17, 1990, by 94 percent. The July 9, 1993, flood-peak discharge of 26,500 cubic feet per second on the South Skunk River below Squaw Creek (station number 05471000) was also a peak of record, exceeding the previous record flood-peak discharge of June 27, 1975, by 80 percent, and the 100-year recurrence-interval discharge by 60 percent. A flood history describes rainfall conditions for floods that occurred during 1990 and 1993. The report also includes information on flood stages and discharges and floodflow frequencies for the active gaging stations in the vicinity of Ames, Iowa, and on temporary bench marks and reference points in the Squaw Creek and South Skunk River Basins near Ames, Iowa.

  10. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Clear Creek, Monroe County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, J.G.; Girardi, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Clear Creek, Monroe County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility is the only point-source waste load affecting the modeled reach of Clear Creek. A new waste-water-treatment facility under construction at Dillman Road (river mile 13.78) will replace the Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility (river mile 16.96) in 1980. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The model indicates that ammonia-nitrogen toxicity is the most significant factor affecting the stream water quality during summer and winter low flows. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration of the wastewater effluent exceeds the maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 milligrams per liter for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 milligrams per liter for winter months (November through March) required for Indiana streams. Nitrification, benthic-oxygen demand, and algal respiration were the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during the model calibration. Nitrification should not significantly affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during summer low flows when the ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards are met. (USGS)

  11. Water- and Bed-Sediment Quality of Seguchie Creek and Selected Wetlands Tributary to Mille Lacs Lake in Crow Wing County, Minnesota, October 2003 to October 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, James D.; Yaeger, Christine S.

    2009-01-01

    Mille Lacs Lake and its tributaries, located in east-central Minnesota, are important resources to the public. In addition, many wetlands and lakes that feed Mille Lacs Lake are of high resource quality and vulnerable to degradation. Construction of a new four-lane expansion of U.S. Highway 169 has been planned along the western part of the drainage area of Mille Lacs Lake in Crow Wing County. Concerns exist that the proposed highway could affect the resource quality of surface waters tributary to Mille Lacs Lake. Baseline water- and bed-sediment quality characteristics of surface waters tributary to Mille Lacs Lake were needed prior to the proposed highway construction. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Transportation, characterized the water- and bed-sediment quality at selected locations that the proposed route intersects from October 2003 to October 2006. Locations included Seguchie Creek upstream and downstream from the proposed route and three wetlands draining to Mille Lacs Lake. The mean streamflow of Seguchie Creek increased between the two sites: flow at the downstream streamflow-gaging station of 0.22 cubic meter per second was 5.6 percent greater than the mean streamflow at the upstream streamflow-gaging station of 0.21 cubic meter per second. Because of the large amount of storage immediately upstream from both gaging stations, increases in flow were gradual even during intense precipitation. The ranges of most constituent concentrations in water were nearly identical between the two sampling sites on Seguchie Creek. No concentrations exceeded applicable water-quality standards set by the State of Minnesota. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations at the downstream gaging station were less than the daily minimum standard of 4.0 milligrams per liter for 6 of 26 measurements. Constituent loads in Seguchie Creek were greater at the downstream site than the upstream site for all measured, including dissolved chloride (1

  12. A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager. At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

  13. A hydrogeologic framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to climate warming in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Safeeq; G.E. Grant; S.L. Lewis; M.G. Kramer; B. Staab

    2014-01-01

    Summer streamflows in the Pacific Northwest are largely derived from melting snow and groundwater discharge. As the climate warms, diminishing snowpack and earlier snowmelt will cause reductions in summer streamflow. Most regional-scale assessments of climate change impacts on streamflow use downscaled temperature and precipitation projections from general circulation...

  14. Marginal economic value of streamflow: A case study for the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Benjamin L. Harding; Elizabeth A. Payton

    1990-01-01

    The marginal economic value of streamflow leaving forested areas in the Colorado River Basin was estimated by determining the impact on water use of a small change in streamflow and then applying economic value estimates to the water use changes. The effect on water use of a change in streamflow was estimated with a network flow model that simulated salinity levels and...

  15. The experimental vibrational infrared spectrum of lemon peel and simulation of spectral properties of the plant cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, K. V.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Novoselova, A. V.; Dvoretskii, K. N.; Likhter, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The experimental vibrational IR spectra of the outer part of lemon peel are recorded in the range of 3800-650 cm-1. The effect of artificial and natural dehydration of the peel on its vibrational spectrum is studied. It is shown that the colored outer layer of lemon peel does not have a noticeable effect on the vibrational spectrum. Upon 28-day storage of a lemon under natural laboratory conditions, only sequential dehydration processes are reflected in the vibrational spectrum of the peel. Within the framework of the theoretical DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) method, a model of a plant cell wall is developed consisting of a number of polymeric molecules of dietary fibers like cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, some polyphenolic compounds (hesperetin glycoside-flavonoid), and a free water cluster. Using a supermolecular approach, the spectral properties of the wall of a lemon peel cell was simulated, and a detailed theoretical interpretation of the recorded vibrational spectrum is given.

  16. Fractionation of lemon essential oil by solvent extraction: Phase equilibrium for model systems at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshima, Cristina C.; Capellini, Maria C.; Geremias, Ivana M.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deterpenation of lemon oil by solvent extraction using hydrous ethanol. ► Limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral were used to simulate the oil. ► Citral shows a higher distribution coefficient than the hydrocarbons. ► Terpenic hydrocarbons exhibit very similar phase separation behaviour. ► NRTL and UNIQUAC models provided a good description of the phase equilibrium. - Abstract: The fractioning of lemon essential oil can be performed by liquid–liquid extraction using hydrous ethanol as a solvent. A quaternary mixture composed of limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral was used to simulate lemon essential oil. In this paper, we present (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data that were experimentally determined for systems containing essential oil compounds, ethanol, and water at T = 298.2 K. The experimental data were correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models, and the mean deviations between calculated and experimental data were less than 0.0053 in all systems, indicating the accuracy of these molecular models in describing our systems. The results show that as the water content in the solvent phase increased, the values of the distribution coefficients decreased, regardless of the type of compound studied. However, the oxygenated compound always showed the highest distribution coefficient among the components of the essential oil, thus making deterpenation of the lemon essential oil a feasible process.

  17. Effect of water supply on growth and polyphenols of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh-Zámbori, Éva; Pluhár, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Krisztina; Malekzadeh, Mahmoud; Radácsi, Péter; Inotai, Katalin; Komáromi, Bonifác; Seidler-Lozykowska, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    A pot experiment was carried out with lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Different water supply was applied: 25%, 40% and 70% saturation of soil water capacity (SWC). Morphological traits, biomass and phenolic type active ingredients were investigated. Among the two species, main differences were registered in biomass and TPC. Lower SWC resulted in reduced biomass production of lemon balm, while the applied stress treatments did not effect the biomass of thyme. In lemon balm, highest TPC contents were measured in control plants both in shoots and roots but in thyme, the shoots showed a significantly increased TPC at the 25% SWC conditions. Neither the content of total flavonoids nor that of the rosmarinic acid was affected by the treatments. The antioxidant capacity proved to be in tight connection with the TPC in both species (r = 0.766-0.883). The rosmarinic acid content of lemon balm plants contributed to the antioxidant capacity, as well (r = 0.679-0.869).

  18. The impact of lemon pectin characteristics on TLR activation and T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Leonie M.; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M.; Ramasamy, Uttara; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke M.; Venema, Koen; Schols, Henk A.; Vos, de Paul

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient dietary fibre intake reduces the risk of several diseases, but the mechanisms linking fibre structure and health effects remain unclear. To analyse the influence of the amount of methyl groups esterified to the backbone, lemon pectins of different degrees of methyl esterification (30,

  19. 77 FR 67833 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105 and 1106 (Review)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United.... For further information concerning the conduct of these reviews and rules of general application...

  20. Viburnum opulus: Could it be a new alternative, such as lemon juice, to pharmacological therapy in hypocitraturic stone patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Tuglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Citrate, potassium, and calcium levels in Viburnum opulus (V. opulus and lemon juice were compared to evaluate the usability of V. opulus in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic stone disease. Materials and Methods: V. opulus and lemon fruits were squeezed in a blender and 10 samples of each of 100 ml were prepared. Citrate, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and pH levels in these samples were examined. Results: Potassium was found to be statistically significantly higher in V. opulus than that in lemon juice (p = 0.006 whereas sodium (p = 0.004 and calcium (p = 0.008 were found to be lower. There was no difference between them in terms of the amount of magnesium and citrate. Concusions: Because V. opulus contains citrate as high as lemon juice does and it is a potassium-rich and calciumand sodium-poor fluid, it can be an alternative to pharmaceutical treatment in mild-to-moderate degree hypocitraturic stone patients. These findings should be supported with clinical studies.

  1. Low-methoxyl lemon pectin attenuates inflammatory responses and improves intestinal barrier integrity in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Yajun; He, Yue; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hao; de Vos, Paul; Sun, Jia

    Scope: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical acute abdominal disease. The intestinal injury associated with AP will aggravate the condition retroactively. This study investigates whether the low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) isolated from lemon could attenuate AP and associated intestinal injury.

  2. The impact of lemon pectin characteristics on TLR activation and T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Leonie M.; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M.; Ramasamy, Uttara; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke M.; Venema, Koen; Schols, Henk A.; de Vos, Paul

    Sufficient dietary fibre intake reduces the risk of several diseases, but the mechanisms linking fibre structure and health effects remain unclear. To analyse the influence of the amount of methyl groups esterified to the backbone, lemon pectins of different degrees of methyl esterification (30, 56,

  3. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  4. Geology of the Quartz Creek Pegmatite District, Gunnison County Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer H.; Trites, A.F.

    1952-01-01

    The Quartz Creek pegmatite district includes an area about 29 square miles in the vicinity of Quartz Creek in Gunnison County,. Colo. This area contains 1,803 pegmatites that are intruded into pre-Cambrian rocks.

  5. Plankton biodiversity of Dharamtar creek adjoining Mumbai harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    rich plankton community. However, recent industrial development along the banks of creek may pose the problem due to waste disposal into this creek system. Losses of marine life diversity are largely the results of conflicting uses, in particular...

  6. Plankton of the Narmada estuary and adjacent creeks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; JiyalalRam, M.J.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    Phytoplankton pigments and abundance of zooplankton in the Narmada Estuary, Bukki Creek and Dahej Creek were studied from March to September, 1979. The river sustained an appreciable quantity of phytoplankton pigments with relatively higher values...

  7. Green tea, red wine and lemon extracts reduce experimental tumor growth and cancer drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletok, S P; Gulua, L; Wicker, L; Shlyakhovenko, V A; Gogol, S; Orlovsky, O; Karnaushenko, O V; Verbinenko, A; Milinevska, V; Samoylenko, O; Todor, I; Turmanidze, T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combination with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin-resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6-1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per mouse per day and 4.0-6.3 mg per rat per day). Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cisplatin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25-28% TGI vs. 55-68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81-88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or NanoGTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE

  8. Global separation of plant transpiration from groundwater and streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaivime Evaristo; Scott Jasechko; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2015-01-01

    Current land surface models assume that groundwater, streamflow and plant transpiration are all sourced and mediated by the same well mixed water reservoir—the soil. However, recent work in Oregon and Mexico has shown evidence of ecohydrological separation, whereby different subsurface compartmentalized pools of water supply either plant transpiration fluxes or the...

  9. Response of streamflow to projected climate change scenarios in an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snowmelt run-off model (SRM) based on degree-day approach has been employed to evaluate the change in snow-cover depletion and corresponding streamflow under different projected climatic scenarios for an eastern Himalayan catchment in India. Nuranang catchment located at Tawang district of Arunachal. Pradesh ...

  10. Response of streamflow to projected climate change scenarios in an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-09

    Feb 9, 2017 ... Response of streamflow to projected climate change scenarios in an eastern Himalayan catchment of India. K T Senzeba, S Rajkumari, A Bhadra and A Bandyopadhyay. ∗. Department of Agricultural Engineering, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology,. Nirjuli (Itanagar), Arunachal ...

  11. Application of ANN and fuzzy logic algorithms for streamflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Soil and Water Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap ... evaporation, mean daily temperature and lag streamflow used. .... Evaporation, E, mm. 2383. 16.0. 0.2. 3.36. 1.25. 0.106. 0.016. 0.02. Table 2. Input parameters and ANN structure of different model for Savitri Basin.

  12. Response of streamflow to projected climate change scenarios in an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snowmelt run-off model (SRM) based on degree-day approach has been employed to evaluate the change in snow-cover depletion and corresponding streamflow under different projected climatic scenarios foran eastern Himalayan catchment in India. Nuranang catchment located at Tawang district of ArunachalPradesh ...

  13. A spatial assessment of stream-flow characteristics and hydrologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global hydrologic regime has been intensively altered through activities such as dam construction, water abstraction, and inter-basin transfers. This paper uses the Range of Variability Approach (RVA) and daily stream flow records from nine gauging stations to characterize stream-flow post dam construction in the ...

  14. Application of the geological streamflow and Muskingum Cunge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to mitigate potential flood hazard risk exposed to the downstream inhabitants. Historical hydro]metric datasets of 1975] 2005 were used for calibration, verification and streamflow routing based on a split record analysis. For the runoff generation, rainfall and evaporation datasets were provided by the Kenya Meteorological ...

  15. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  16. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The proposed change would... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in...

  17. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... operation of the Baltimore County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  18. 76 FR 7131 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mantua Creek, Paulsboro, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mantua Creek, Paulsboro, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Bridge, at mile 1.7, across Mantua Creek at Paulsboro, NJ. The requested change would have allowed the...; Mantua Creek, Paulsboro, NJ'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 18665-18667). The rulemaking would have...

  19. 78 FR 64189 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... governs the U.S. Route 130 lift Bridge over Raccoon Creek at mile marker 1.8 in Bridgeport, NJ. Bridge....8, across Raccoon Creek in Bridgeport, NJ. NJDOT provided the Coast Guard with the bridge tender...

  20. Bedload and nearbed detritus transport in a tidal saltmarsh creek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Cattrijsse, A.; Wielemaker, A.

    1996-01-01

    Bedload and nearbed transport of coarse (>1 mm) detritus particles were investigated in a tidal creek of a salt marsh in the Westerschelde estuary (south-west Netherlands). Using a fyke net positioned on the creek bottom, hourly transport through the creek was measured during 14 flood-ebb cycles in

  1. Using Ensemble Streamflows for Power Marketing at Bonneville Power Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, S. B.; Koski, P.

    2014-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is a federal non-profit agency within the Pacific Northwest responsible for marketing the power generated from 31 federal hydro projects throughout the Columbia River Basin. The basin encompasses parts of five states and portions of British Columbia, Canada. BPA works with provincial entities, federal and state agencies, and tribal members to manage the water resources for a variety of purposes including flood risk management, power generation, fisheries, irrigation, recreation, and navigation. This basin is subject to significant hydrologic variability in terms of seasonal volume and runoff shape from year to year which presents new water management challenges each year. The power generation planning group at BPA includes a team of meteorologists and hydrologists responsible for preparing both short-term (up to three weeks) and mid-term (up to 18 months) weather and streamflow forecasts including ensemble streamflow data. Analysts within the mid-term planning group are responsible for running several different hydrologic models used for planning studies. These models rely on these streamflow ensembles as a primary input. The planning studies are run bi-weekly to help determine the amount of energy available, or energy inventory, for forward marketing (selling or purchasing energy up to a year in advance). These studies are run with the objective of meeting the numerous multi-purpose objectives of the basin under the various streamflow conditions within the ensemble set. In addition to ensemble streamflows, an ensemble of seasonal volume forecasts is also provided for the various water conditions in order to set numerous constraints on the system. After meeting all the various requirements of the system, a probabilistic energy inventory is calculated and used for marketing purposes.

  2. Trends and shifts in streamflow in Hawaii, 1913-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouni, Maoya; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a need to document changes in streamflow and base flow (groundwater discharge to streams) in Hawai'i during the past century. Statistically significant long-term (1913-2008) downward trends were detected (using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test) in low-streamflow and base-flow records. These long-term downward trends are likely related to a statistically significant downward shift around 1943 detected (using the nonparametric Pettitt test) in index records of streamflow and base flow. The downward shift corresponds to a decrease of 22% in median streamflow and a decrease of 23% in median base flow between the periods 1913-1943 and 1943-2008. The shift coincides with other local and regional factors, including a change from a positive to a negative phase in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, shifts in the direction of the trade winds over Hawai'i, and a reforestation programme. The detected shift and long-term trends reflect region-wide changes in climatic and land-cover factors. A weak pattern of downward trends in base flows during the period 1943-2008 may indicate a continued decrease in base flows after the 1943 shift. Downward trends were detected more commonly in base-flow records than in high-streamflow, peak-flow, and rainfall records. The decrease in base flow is likely related to a decrease in groundwater storage and recharge and therefore is a valuable indicator of decreasing water availability and watershed vulnerability to hydrologic changes. Whether the downward trends will continue is largely uncertain given the uncertainty in climate-change projections and watershed responses to changes.

  3. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Composition of essential oil of lemon thyme (Thymus × citriodorus) at different hydrodistillation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurevičiūtė, Rūta; Ložienė, Kristina; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio

    2018-02-02

    Distillation time can both to optimise the production and to engineer the composition of essential oil in essential oil bearing plants. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of duration of hydrodistillation on composition of essential oil of Thymus × citriodorus, the natural source of commercially important geraniol and citral, a component with valuable biological properties. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation at different distillation times and analysed by GC/MS analytical methods. Increase in percentage of essential oil during all hydrodistillation time gradient was uneven. Elongation of hydrodistillation time decreased percentages of monoterpenes but increased percentages of sesquiterpenes in essential oil. Results showed that the hydrodistillation of essential oil from lemon thyme longer than 60 min is useless.

  5. Economic and Financial Comparison between Organic and Conventional Farming in Sicilian Lemon Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sicily has a long tradition in citrus fruit cultivations that with vineyard and olive tree represent the main Mediterranean tree crops. In this paper we have evaluated the economic and financial sustainability of lemon production, both in organic farming and in conventional farming; the two systems differing just for inputs utilized in production process. Economic analysis has been carried out in a representative case study located in the Sicilian northwestern coast, considering an orchard economic life equal to 50 years. Results, which referred to one hectare area, showed both a higher economic and financial sustainability of organic farming respect to conventional farming. The higher profitability of organic farming was due to minor labor requirement and to greater market appreciation for organic products that granted a premium price respect to conventional prices. Moreover, greater profitability of organic farming and use of environmentally friendly inputs in production process make farms competitive and eco-friendly.

  6. Quantum-classical correspondences of the Berry-Robnik parameter through bifurcations in lemon billiard systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, H.; Harayama, T.; Aizawa, Y.

    2001-05-01

    The quantum level statistics affected by bifurcations in classical dynamics is studied by using a one-parameter family of lemon billiard systems. The classical phase space of our system consists of regular and irregular regions. We determine an analytic solution of the phase volume for these regions as a function of the system parameter and show that the function reveals a cusp singularity at the bifurcation point. The function is compared with its quantum mechanical counterpart, the Berry-Robnik parameter. By estimating the semiclassical regime from the effective Planck constant that validates the quantum-classical correspondence of the Berry-Robnik parameter, we determine a region of the system parameter where the cusp can be reproduced by the statistical properties of the eigenenergy levels.

  7. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral a, Citral b, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2′-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects.

  9. Effects of Nano Additives in engine emission Characteristics using Blends of Lemon Balm oil with Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil kumar, J.; Ganesan, S.; Sivasaravanan, S.; Padmanabhan, S.; Krishnan, L.; Aniruthan, V. C.

    2017-05-01

    Economic growth in developing countries has led to enormous increase in energy demand. In India the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% every year. The crude oil demand of country is meet by bring in of about 70%. Thus the energy safety measures have become key issue for our country. Bio diesel an eco-friendly and renewable fuel alternate for diesel has been getting the consideration of researcher’s entire world. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the engine parameters using blend of pure lemon balm oil with diesel. Also nano Additives is used as a catalyst with blends of bio fuel to enhance the Emission Characteristics of various effective gases like CO2, NOx, CO and UHC with various levels of engine process parameters.

  10. Pectins from the albedo of immature lemon fruitlets have high water binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Roswitha; Clark, Christopher J; Sharrock, Keith; Hallett, Ian C; MacRae, Elspeth A

    2004-04-01

    The white part of citrus peel, the albedo, has a special role in water relations of both fruit and leaves from early on in fruit development. In times of drought, this tissue acts as a water reservoir for juice sacs, seeds and leaves. When water was injected into the albedo, free water was undetectable using magnetic resonance imaging. Microscopy showed tightly packed cells with little intercellular space, and thick cell walls. Cell wall material comprised 21% of the fresh albedo weight, and contained 26.1% galacturonic acid, the main constituent of pectin. From this, we postulated that pectin of the cell wall was responsible for the high water-binding capacity of the immature lemon albedo. Cell wall material was extracted using mild procedures that keep polymers intact, and four pectic fractions were recovered. Of these fractions, the SDS and chelator-soluble fractions showed viscosities ten and twenty times higher than laboratory-grade citrus pectin or the other albedo-derived pectins. The yield of these two pectins represented 28% of the cell walls and 62% of the galacturonic acid content of immature lemon albedo. We concluded that, from viscosity and abundance, these types of pectin account for the high water-binding capacity of this tissue. Compositional analyses showed that the two highly viscous pectic fractions differ in galacturonic acid content, degree of branching and length of side chains from the less viscous albedo-derived pectins. The most striking feature of these highly viscous pectins, however, was their high molecular weight distribution compared to the other pectic fractions.

  11. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  12. Sedimentation Study and Flume Investigation, Mission Creek, Santa Barbara, California; Corte Madera Creek, Marin County, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    .... An existing concrete-lined flood control channel on Corte Madera Creek in Marin County, California lacks a debris basin at its upstream terminus and carries significant bed load through a supercritical flow reach...

  13. Prediction of snowmelt derived streamflow in a wetland dominated prairie basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM was used to create a prairie hydrological model for Smith Creek Research Basin (~400 km2, east-central Saskatchewan, Canada. Physically based modules were sequentially linked in CRHM to simulate snow processes, frozen soils, variable contributing area and wetland storage and runoff generation. Five "representative basins" (RBs were defined and each was divided into seven hydrological response units (HRUs: fallow, stubble, grassland, river channel, open water, woodland, and wetland. Model parameters were estimated using field survey data, LiDAR digital elevation model (DEM, SPOT 5 satellite imageries, stream network and wetland inventory GIS data. Model simulations were conducted for 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. No calibration was performed. The model performance in predicting snowpack, soil moisture and streamflow was evaluated against field observations. Root mean square differences (RMSD between simulation and observations ranged from 1.7 to 25.2 mm and from 4.3 to 22.4 mm for the simulated snow accumulation in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively, with higher RMSD in grassland, river channel, and open water HRUs. Spring volumetric soil moisture was reasonably predicted compared to a point observation in a grassland area, with RMSD of 0.011 and 0.009 for 2008 and 2009 simulations, respectively. The model was able to capture the timing and magnitude of peak spring basin discharge, but it underestimated the cumulative volume of basin discharge by 32% and 56% in spring 2008 and 2009, respectively. The results suggest prediction of Canadian Prairie basin snow hydrology is possible with no calibration if physically based models are used with physically meaningful model parameters that are derived from high resolution geospatial data.

  14. Surface-water quality assessment of the Clover Creek basin, Pierce County, Washington, 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing urbanization in the 67-square-mile Clover Creek Basin has generated interest in the effects of land-use changes on local water quality. To investigate these effects, water-quality and streamflow data were collected from 19 surface-water sites in the basin over a 16-month period from January 1991 through April 1992. These data were used to understand the effects of surficial geology, land-use practices, and wastewater disposal practices on surface-water quality within the basin. The basin was divided into four drainage subbasins with dissimilar hydrogeologic, land-use, and water-quality characteristics. In the Upper Clover Creek subbasin, the high permeability of surficial geologic materials promotes infiltration of precipitation to ground water and thus attenuates the response of streams to rainfall. Significant interaction occurs between surface and ground water in this subbasin, and nitrate concentrations and specific conductance values, similar to those found historically in local ground water, indicate that sources such as subsurface waste-disposal systems and fertilizers are affecting surface- water quality in this area. In the Spanaway subbasin, the presence of Spanaway and Tule Lakes affects water quality, primarily because of the reduced velocity and long residence time of water in the lakes. Reduced water velocity and long residence times (1) cause settling of suspended materials, thereby reducing concentrations of suspended sediment and constituents that are bound to the sediment; (2) promote biological activity, which tends to trap nutrients in the lakes; and (3) allow dispersion to attenuate peaks in discharge and water-quality constituent concentrations. In the North Fork subbasin, the low permeability of surficial geologic materials and areas of intensive land development inhibit infiltration of precipitation and thus promote surface runoff to streams. Surface pathways provide little attenuation of storm runoff and result in rapid increases

  15. Regional regression equations for estimation of natural streamflow statistics in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Stephens, Verlin C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Colorado Department of Transportation, developed regional regression equations for estimation of various streamflow statistics that are representative of natural streamflow conditions at ungaged sites in Colorado. The equations define the statistical relations between streamflow statistics (response variables) and basin and climatic characteristics (predictor variables). The equations were developed using generalized least-squares and weighted least-squares multilinear regression reliant on logarithmic variable transformation. Streamflow statistics were derived from at least 10 years of streamflow data through about 2007 from selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in the study area that are representative of natural-flow conditions. Basin and climatic characteristics used for equation development are drainage area, mean watershed elevation, mean watershed slope, percentage of drainage area above 7,500 feet of elevation, mean annual precipitation, and 6-hour, 100-year precipitation. For each of five hydrologic regions in Colorado, peak-streamflow equations that are based on peak-streamflow data from selected stations are presented for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year instantaneous-peak streamflows. For four of the five hydrologic regions, equations based on daily-mean streamflow data from selected stations are presented for 7-day minimum 2-, 10-, and 50-year streamflows and for 7-day maximum 2-, 10-, and 50-year streamflows. Other equations presented for the same four hydrologic regions include those for estimation of annual- and monthly-mean streamflow and streamflow-duration statistics for exceedances of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90 percent. All equations are reported along with salient diagnostic statistics, ranges of basin and climatic characteristics on which each equation is based, and commentary of potential bias, which is not otherwise removed

  16. Spatial patterns of March and September streamflow trends in Pacific Northwest Streams, 1958-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Steele, Madeline; Gannett, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Summer streamflow is a vital water resource for municipal and domestic water supplies, irrigation, salmonid habitat, recreation, and water-related ecosystem services in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the United States. This study detects significant negative trends in September absolute streamflow in a majority of 68 stream-gauging stations located on unregulated streams in the PNW from 1958 to 2008. The proportion of March streamflow to annual streamflow increases in most stations over 1,000 m elevation, with a baseflow index of less than 50, while absolute March streamflow does not increase in most stations. The declining trends of September absolute streamflow are strongly associated with seven-day low flow, January–March maximum temperature trends, and the size of the basin (19–7,260 km2), while the increasing trends of the fraction of March streamflow are associated with elevation, April 1 snow water equivalent, March precipitation, center timing of streamflow, and October–December minimum temperature trends. Compared with ordinary least squares (OLS) estimated regression models, spatial error regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models effectively remove spatial autocorrelation in residuals. The GWR model results show spatial gradients of local R 2 values with consistently higher local R 2 values in the northern Cascades. This finding illustrates that different hydrologic landscape factors, such as geology and seasonal distribution of precipitation, also influence streamflow trends in the PNW. In addition, our spatial analysis model results show that considering various geographic factors help clarify the dynamics of streamflow trends over a large geographical area, supporting a spatial analysis approach over aspatial OLS-estimated regression models for predicting streamflow trends. Results indicate that transitional rain–snow surface water-dominated basins are likely to have reduced summer streamflow under warming scenarios

  17. How Fern Creek Is Beating Goliath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Margaret; Galatowitsch, Patrick; Hefferin, Keri; Highland, Shanita

    2013-01-01

    The "David" is Fern Creek Elementary, a small urban school in Orlando, Florida, that serves an overwhelmingly disadvantaged student population. The "Goliaths" are the mountains of problems that many inner-city students face--poverty, homelessness, mobility, instability, limited parent involvement, and violent neighborhood…

  18. Chelsea Sandwich, LLC (MA0003280) | Chelsea Creek ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    EPA and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP) have developed final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for seven bulk petroleum storage facilities located along Chelsea River (Creek) in Chelsea and Revere, Massachusetts to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act.

  19. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  20. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  1. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Mercury content of the water column estimated along Thana Creek/Bombay Harbour gave a standing stock of about 77 kg in excess of the expected background. Mercury concentration in sediment from 23 locations which varied from 0.17 to 8.21 ppm (dry...

  2. Investigation of the Carrs Creek geofoam project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The I88 culvert crossing of Carrs Creek in Sidney, NY collapsed during the record setting Mid : Atlantic States Flood of June 2006. Rapid construction with geofoam as lightweight fill enabled : partial reopening of I88 by Labor Day 2006. Shortly a...

  3. Geochemical Data for Upper Mineral Creek, Colorado, Under Existing Ambient Conditions and During an Experimental pH Modification, August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Steiger, Judy I.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Mineral Creek, an acid mine drainage stream in south-western Colorado, was the subject of a water-quality study that employed a paired synoptic approach. Under the paired synoptic approach, two synoptic sampling campaigns were conducted on the same study reach. The initial synoptic campaign, conducted August 22, 2005, documented stream-water quality under existing ambient conditions. A second synoptic campaign, conducted August 24, 2005, documented stream-water quality during a pH-modification experiment that elevated the pH of Mineral Creek. The experimental pH modification was designed to determine the potential reductions in dissolved constituent concentrations that would result from the implementation of an active treatment system for acid mine drainage. During both synoptic sampling campaigns, a solution containing lithium bromide was injected continuously to allow for the calculation of streamflow using the tracer-dilution method. Synoptic water-quality samples were collected from 30 stream sites and 11 inflow locations along the 2-kilometer study reach. Data from the study provide spatial profiles of pH, concentration, and streamflow under both existing and experimentally-altered conditions. This report presents the data obtained August 21-24, 2005, as well as the methods used for sample collection and data analysis.

  4. Hydrologic characterization for Spring Creek and hydrologic budget and model scenarios for Sheridan Lake, South Dakota, 1962-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Norton, Parker A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks to characterize hydrologic information relevant to management of water resources associated with Sheridan Lake, which is formed by a dam on Spring Creek. This effort consisted primarily of characterization of hydrologic data for a base period of 1962 through 2006, development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake for this timeframe, and development of an associated model for simulation of storage deficits and drawdown in Sheridan Lake for hypothetical release scenarios from the lake. Historically, the dam has been operated primarily as a 'pass-through' system, in which unregulated outflows pass over the spillway; however, the dam recently was retrofitted with an improved control valve system that would allow controlled releases of about 7 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or less from a fixed depth of about 60 feet (ft). Development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake involved compilation, estimation, and characterization of data sets for streamflow, precipitation, and evaporation. The most critical data need was for extrapolation of available short-term streamflow records for Spring Creek to be used as the long-term inflow to Sheridan Lake. Available short-term records for water years (WY) 1991-2004 for a gaging station upstream from Sheridan Lake were extrapolated to WY 1962-2006 on the basis of correlations with streamflow records for a downstream station and for stations located along two adjacent streams. Comparisons of data for the two streamflow-gaging stations along Spring Creek indicated that tributary inflow is approximately proportional to the intervening drainage area, which was used as a means of estimating tributary inflow for the hydrologic budget. Analysis of evaporation data shows that sustained daily rates may exceed maximum monthly rates by a factor of about two. A long-term (1962-2006) hydrologic budget was developed for computation of reservoir outflow from

  5. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Leaf Yield, Essential Oil Content and Composition of Lemon Verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ebadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic fertilizers with beneficial effects on soil structure and nutrient availability help maintain yield and quality, and they are less costly than synthetic fertilizers. Vermicompost and vermiwash are two organic fertilizers that they contain a biologically active mixture of bacteria, enzymes and phytohormones, also these organic fertilizers can supply the nutritional needs of plants. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth, Verbenaceae is an evergreen perennial aromatic plant. The lemon-scented essential oil from the lemon verbena has been widely used for its digestive, relaxing, antimalarial and lemony flavor properties. In order to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers for reduction of environmental pollution, this research was undertaken to determine effects of vermicompost and vermiwash in comparison with chemical fertilizer on leaf yield, essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment based on a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications on Lemon verbena was carried out in the experimental greenhouse of the Department of Horticulture Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 2012. Treatments consisted of 10, 20 and 30 % by volume of vermicompost and vermiwash (with an addition to irrigation in three steps, including: two weeks after the establishment of plants in pots, the appearing of branches and three weeks before harvest, complete fertilizer and control without any fertilizer. Each replication contained six pots and each pot contained one plant of Lemon verbena provided from Institute of Medicinal Plants, Karaj, therefore 108 pots were used in this experiment. The pots were filled up by a mixture contained 3/5 soil and 2/5 sand (v/v. After three months, plant aerial parts were harvested concomitantly at starting of the flowering stage. Aerial parts were dried at room temperature for 72 hours and dry weights of dried branches and leaves were

  6. Influence of curing times on the effectiveness of treatments with acetic acid on the control of P. digitatum on lemons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Molinu, M G

    2011-01-01

    The restricted number of postharvest fungicides used in packing houses is leading to the selection of resistant strains of Penicillium digitatum (citrus green mould), one of the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing of lemons. Furthermore a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. Among the alternatives to synthetic postharvest fungicides, the use of acetic acid (classified as GRAS) together with a physical method such as curing, have led to encouraging results. In the present study is reported the combined use of curing, performed at reduced times compared to those reported to be effective, followed by acetic acid (AAC) treatments. Lemons of the variety "Limone di Massa" artificially inoculated with P. digitatum at a concentration of 10(4) spores/mL were cured for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours and then treated with three different concentrations of AAC (25, 50 and 75 microL/L) for 15 min. Fruit was then stored at 20 degrees C and 80% relative humidity (RH) for 9 days, when the number of decayed fruits was monitored. The same combined treatments were also carried out on naturally infected lemons, stored for 6 or 8 weeks at 5 degrees C and 90% RH. After 9 days of storage the lowest percentage of infected wounds, in artificially inoculated fruit, was 0% after 6 hours of curing followed by AAC fumigation performed at 50 microL/L, while lemons untreated or cured for three hours showed the worst results with 71.4 and 61.9% of rotted fruit respectively. In naturally infected lemons the best results were achieved with curing performed for 24 hours followed by AAC fumigation at 50 microL/L. In these cases the combined treatment reduced decay by the 91.0 and 66.5% after 6 or 8 weeks of storage respectively, if compared to untreated fruit. The weight loss was not affected by any of the treatments. These results show that a good control of green mould

  7. Effects of lemon verbena extract (Recoverben®) supplementation on muscle strength and recovery after exhaustive exercise: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Buchwald-Werner, Sybille; Naka, Ioanna; Wilhelm, Manfred; Schütz, Elivra; Schoen, Christiane; Reule, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Background Exhaustive exercise causes muscle damage accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation leading to muscle fatigue and muscle soreness. Lemon verbena leaves, commonly used as tea and refreshing beverage, demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a proprietary lemon verbena extract (Recoverben®) on muscle strength and recovery after exhaustive exercise in comparison to a placebo product. Methods The study was ...

  8. Suitability of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) extract rich in rosmarinic acid as a potential enhancer of functional properties in cupcakes

    OpenAIRE

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C.M.; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and its extracts have been frequently reported as possessing bioactive properties, offering the potential for use in development/enrichment of food products with additional functional capabilities, providing health benefits to consumers. The antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity of lemon balm extract, as well as its potential hepatotoxicity were thoroughly evaluated. The extracts were then incorporated into cupcakes and their preserving effect, ch...

  9. Transient calibration of a groundwater-flow model of Chimacum Creek Basin and vicinity, Jefferson County, Washington: a supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5160

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph L.; Johnson, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    A steady-state groundwater-flow model described in Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5160, ”Numerical Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System in Chimacum Creek Basin and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Washington” was developed to evaluate potential future impacts of growth and of water-management strategies on water resources in the Chimacum Creek Basin. This supplement to that report describes the unsuccessful attempt to perform a calibration to transient conditions on the model. The modeled area is about 64 square miles on the Olympic Peninsula in northeastern Jefferson County, Washington. The geologic setting for the model area is that of unconsolidated deposits of glacial and interglacial origin typical of the Puget Sound Lowlands. The hydrogeologic units representing aquifers are Upper Aquifer (UA, roughly corresponding to recessional outwash) and Lower Aquifer (LA, roughly corresponding to advance outwash). Recharge from precipitation is the dominant source of water to the aquifer system; discharge is primarily to marine waters below sea level and to Chimacum Creek and its tributaries. The model is comprised of a grid of 245 columns and 313 rows; cells are a uniform 200 feet per side. There are six model layers, each representing one hydrogeologic unit: (1) Upper Confining unit (UC); (2) Upper Aquifer unit (UA); (3) Middle Confining unit (MC); (4) Lower Aquifer unit (LA); (5) Lower Confining unit (LC); and (6) Bedrock unit (OE). The transient simulation period (October 1994–September 2009) was divided into 180 monthly stress periods to represent temporal variations in recharge, discharge, and storage. An attempt to calibrate the model to transient conditions was unsuccessful due to instabilities stemming from oscillations in groundwater discharge to and recharge from streamflow in Chimacum Creek. The model as calibrated to transient conditions has mean residuals and standard errors of 0.06 ft ±0.45 feet for groundwater levels and 0.48 ± 0.06 cubic

  10. Simulated water budgets and ground-water/surface-water interactions in Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds, Northampton County, Pennsylvania: A preliminary study with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2006-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Mineral Resources Management, provides a preliminary analysis of water budgets and generalized ground-water/surface-water interactions for Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds in Northampton County, Pa., by use of a ground-water flow model. Bushkill Creek watershed was selected for study because it has areas of rapid growth, ground-water withdrawals from a quarry, and proposed stream-channel modifications, all of which have the potential for altering ground-water budgets and the interaction between ground water and streams. Preliminary 2-dimensional, steady-state simulations of ground-water flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to show the status of work through September 2005 and help guide ongoing data collection in Bushkill Creek watershed. Simulations were conducted for (1) predevelopment conditions, (2) a water table lowered for quarry operations, and (3) anthropogenic changes in hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and aquifer. Preliminary results indicated under predevelopment conditions, the divide between the Bushkill and Monocacy Creek ground-water basins may not have been coincident with the topographic divide and as much as 14 percent of the ground-water discharge to Bushkill Creek may have originated from recharge in the Monocacy Creek watershed. For simulated predevelopment conditions, Schoeneck Creek and parts of Monocacy Creek were dry, but Bushkill Creek was gaining throughout all reaches. Simulated lowering of the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 147 feet for quarry operations caused ground-water recharge and streamflow leakage to be diverted to the quarry throughout about 14 square miles and caused reaches of Bushkill and Little Bushkill Creeks to change from gaining to losing streams. Lowering the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 100 feet caused simulated ground-water discharge to the quarry to increase about 4 cubic feet

  11. Ensemble streamflow predictions: from climate scenarios to probabilistic weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, V.; Evora, N.; Perreault, L.; Trinh, N.; Favre, A.; Benoit, H.

    2004-05-01

    Ensemble streamflow predictions (ESP) are obtained by processing an ensemble of meteorological scenarios through a rainfall-runoff hydrological model to obtain hydrological scenarios. Until recently, these scenarios were typically taken from the climatology. Now that more accurate medium- and long-term numerical weather predictions (NWP) are available, it is tempting to replace climatology by numerical weather forecasts. At least two approaches are possible to take into account the uncerta1000 inty on the meteorological forecast: (1) let a meteorologist propose a subjective probabilistic forecast based on one or more deterministic NWPs, or (2) take advantage of ensemble meteorological forecasts, which are built precisely to assess the level of uncertainty on the deterministic forecast. Practical solutions to problems encountered with both types of meteorological forecasts are discussed, and the methodology used by Hydro-Québec to score the resulting streamflow forecasts is presented.

  12. Controls on streamflow intermittence in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, S. K.; Puntenney, K.; Martin, C.; Weber, R.; Gerlich, J.; Hammond, J. C.; Lefsky, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent streams comprise more than 60% of the channel length in semiarid northern Colorado, yet little is known about their flow magnitude and timing. We used field surveys, stream sensors, and remote sensing to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of streamflow intermittence in the Cache la Poudre basin in 2016-2017. To evaluate potential controls on streamflow intermittence, we delineated the drainage area to each monitored point and quantified the catchment's mean precipitation, temperature, snow persistence, slope, aspect, vegetation type, soil type, and bedrock geology. During the period of study, most streams below 2500 m elevation and 1 km2 had perennial flow, whereas nearly all streams with drainage areas GIS data products. Initial analyses have identified no clearly quantifiable controls on flow duration of high elevation streams, but field observations indicate subsurface flow paths are important contributors to surface streams.

  13. Downscaling of GCM forecasts to streamflow over Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P.; Uvo, C.B.; Landman, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    A seasonal forecasting technique to produce probabilistic and deterministic streamflow forecasts for 23 basins in Norway and northern Sweden is developed in this work. Large scale circulation and moisture fields, forecasted by the ECHAM4.5 model 4 months in advance, are used to forecast spring...... flows. The technique includes model output statistics (MOS) based on a non-linear Neural Network (NN) approach. Results show that streamflow forecasts from Global Circulation Model (GCM) predictions, for the Scandinavia region are viable and highest skill values were found for basins located in south......-western Norway. The physical interpretation of the forecasting skill is that stations close to the Norwegian coast are directly exposed to prevailing winds from the Atlantic ocean, which constitute the principal source of predictive information from the atmosphere on the seasonal timescale....

  14. Streamflow Characteristics of Two Forested Catchments in the Sopron Hills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBOVSZKI, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the central issues in hydrology is today to establish a relationship between thehydrological and biological processes in ecosystems. One question of this theme is the vegetationimpact on the water budget of the catchment. Water use by vegetation can closely be linked tostreamflow patterns on a variety of time scales. At present many details of these connections arepoorly understood.Investigation on small catchments is the best way of studying hydrological processes in headwater,forested watersheds. In this paper drainage basin morphology and streamflow characteristics (baseflow and quick flow have been analysed under conditions of forest management in two neighbouringsmall forested catchments (the Farkas Valley and Vadkan Valley located in the prealpine hillsbordering to Austria on the basis of streamflow data collected during 2001.

  15. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  16. The impact of black carbon deposition on snowpack and streamflow in the Wasatch mountains in Utah: A study using MODIS albedo data, statistical modeling and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthail, Jai Kanth

    Salt Lake City, located at the base of the Wasatch mountain range in Utah, receives a majority of its potable water from a system of mountain creeks. Snowmelt runoff from mountain watersheds provides the city a clean and relatively inexpensive water supply, and has been a key driver in the city's growth and prosperity. There has been keen interest recently on the possible impact of the deposition of darkening matter, such as dust and black carbon (BC) on the snow, which might lead to a decrease in its 'albedo' or reflective capacity. Such a decrease is expected to result in faster melting of the snow, shifting springtime streamflows to winter. This study aimed to develop a modeling framework to estimate the impact on snowmelt-driven runoff due to various BC deposition scenarios. An albedo simulation model, Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model, was used to understand the evolution of albedo under different BC loadings. An Albedo-Snow Water Equivalent (A-SWE) model was developed using a machine learning technique, 'Random Forests', to quantify the effect on the state of snowpack under various albedo-change scenarios. An Albedo-Snow Water Equivalent-Streamflow (A-SWE-S) model was designed using an advanced statistical modeling technique, 'Generalized Additive Models (GAMs)', to extend the analysis to streamflow variations. All models were tested and validated using robust k-fold cross-validation. Albedo data were obtained from NASA's MODIS satellite platform. The key results found the snowpack to be depleted 2-3 weeks later with an albedo increase between 5-10% above current conditions, and 1-2 weeks earlier under albedo decrease of 5-10% below current conditions. Future work will involve improving the A-SWE-S model by better accounting for lagged effects, and the use of results from both models in a city-wide systems model to understand water supply reliability under combined deposition and climate change scenarios.

  17. Seasonal Patterns of Gastrointestinal Illness and Streamflow along the Ohio River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Naumova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne gastrointestinal (GI illnesses demonstrate seasonal increases associated with water quality and meteorological characteristics. However, few studies have been conducted on the association of hydrological parameters, such as streamflow, and seasonality of GI illnesses. Streamflow is correlated with biological contamination and can be used as proxy for drinking water contamination. We compare seasonal patterns of GI illnesses in the elderly (65 years and older along the Ohio River for a 14-year period (1991–2004 to seasonal patterns of streamflow. Focusing on six counties in close proximity to the river, we compiled weekly time series of hospitalizations for GI illnesses and streamflow data. Seasonal patterns were explored using Poisson annual harmonic regression with and without adjustment for streamflow. GI illnesses demonstrated significant seasonal patterns with peak timing preceding peak timing of streamflow for all six counties. Seasonal patterns of illness remain consistent after adjusting for streamflow. This study found that the time of peak GI illness precedes the peak of streamflow, suggesting either an indirect relationship or a more direct path whereby pathogens enter water supplies prior to the peak in streamflow. Such findings call for interdisciplinary research to better understand associations among streamflow, pathogen loading, and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses.

  18. Shifts in historical streamflow extremes in the Colorado River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt C. Solander; Katrina E. Bennett; Richard S. Middleton

    2017-01-01

    The global phenomenon of climate change-induced shifts in precipitation leading to “wet regions getting wetter” and “dry regions getting drier” has been widely studied. However, the propagation of these changes in atmospheric moisture within stream channels is not a direct relationship due to differences in the timing of how changing precipitation patterns interact with various land surfaces. Streamflow is of particular interest in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) due to the region’s rapidly gr...

  19. Partitioning uncertainty in streamflow projections under nonstationary model conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, P. P.

    2018-02-01

    Assessing the impacts of Land Use (LU) and climate change on future streamflow projections is necessary for efficient management of water resources. However, model projections are burdened with significant uncertainty arising from various sources. Most of the previous studies have considered climate models and scenarios as major sources of uncertainty, but uncertainties introduced by land use change and hydrologic model assumptions are rarely investigated. In this paper an attempt is made to segregate the contribution from (i) general circulation models (GCMs), (ii) emission scenarios, (iii) land use scenarios, (iv) stationarity assumption of the hydrologic model, and (v) internal variability of the processes, to overall uncertainty in streamflow projections using analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach. Generally, most of the impact assessment studies are carried out with unchanging hydrologic model parameters in future. It is, however, necessary to address the nonstationarity in model parameters with changing land use and climate. In this paper, a regression based methodology is presented to obtain the hydrologic model parameters with changing land use and climate scenarios in future. The Upper Ganga Basin (UGB) in India is used as a case study to demonstrate the methodology. The semi-distributed Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is set-up over the basin, under nonstationary conditions. Results indicate that model parameters vary with time, thereby invalidating the often-used assumption of model stationarity. The streamflow in UGB under the nonstationary model condition is found to reduce in future. The flows are also found to be sensitive to changes in land use. Segregation results suggest that model stationarity assumption and GCMs along with their interactions with emission scenarios, act as dominant sources of uncertainty. This paper provides a generalized framework for hydrologists to examine stationarity assumption of models before considering them

  20. On the sensitivity of annual streamflow to air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Kam, Jonghun; Dunne, Krista A.

    2018-01-01

    Although interannual streamflow variability is primarily a result of precipitation variability, temperature also plays a role. The relative weakness of the temperature effect at the annual time scale hinders understanding, but may belie substantial importance on climatic time scales. Here we develop and evaluate a simple theory relating variations of streamflow and evapotranspiration (E) to those of precipitation (P) and temperature. The theory is based on extensions of the Budyko water‐balance hypothesis, the Priestley‐Taylor theory for potential evapotranspiration ( ), and a linear model of interannual basin storage. The theory implies that the temperature affects streamflow by modifying evapotranspiration through a Clausius‐Clapeyron‐like relation and through the sensitivity of net radiation to temperature. We apply and test (1) a previously introduced “strong” extension of the Budyko hypothesis, which requires that the function linking temporal variations of the evapotranspiration ratio (E/P) and the index of dryness ( /P) at an annual time scale is identical to that linking interbasin variations of the corresponding long‐term means, and (2) a “weak” extension, which requires only that the annual evapotranspiration ratio depends uniquely on the annual index of dryness, and that the form of that dependence need not be known a priori nor be identical across basins. In application of the weak extension, the readily observed sensitivity of streamflow to precipitation contains crucial information about the sensitivity to potential evapotranspiration and, thence, to temperature. Implementation of the strong extension is problematic, whereas the weak extension appears to capture essential controls of the temperature effect efficiently.

  1. Using SST, PDO and SOI for Streamflow Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recurring droughts in southwestern U.S. particularly California, have strained the existing water reserves of the region. Frequency, severity and duration of these recurring drought events may not be captured by the available instrumental records. Thus streamflow reconstruction becomes imperative to identify the historic hydroclimatic extremes of a region and assists in developing better water management strategies, vital for sustainability of water reserves. Tree ring chronologies (TRC) are conventionally used to reconstruct streamflows, since tree rings are representative of climatic information. Studies have shown that sea surface temperature (SST) and climate indices of southern oscillation index (SOI) and pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) influence U.S. streamflow volumes. The purpose of this study was to improve the traditional reconstruction methodology by incorporating the oceanic-atmospheric variables of PDO, SOI, and Pacific Ocean SST, alongwith TRC as predictors in a step-wise linear regression model. The methodology of singular value decomposition was used to identify teleconnected regions of streamflow and SST. The approach was tested on eleven gage stations in Sacramento River Basin (SRB) and San Joaquin River Basin (JRB). The reconstructions were successfully generated from 1800-1980, having an overlap period of 1932-1980. Improved results were exhibited when using the predictor variable of SST along with TRC (calibration r2=0.6-0.91) compared to when using TRC in combination with SOI and PDO (calibration r2=0.51-0.78) or when using TRC by itself (calibration r2=0.51-0.86). For future work, this approach can be replicated for other watersheds by using the oceanic-atmospheric climate variables influencing that region.

  2. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Silver Creek, Clark and Floyd counties, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Silver Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Effluents from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are the only point-source waste loads that significantly affect the water quality in the modeled segment of Silver Creek. Model simulations indicate that nitrification is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Silver Creek during summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow in Silver Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Present ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved-oxygen concentrations of effluent from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities will violate current Indiana water-quality standards for ammonia toxicity and dissolved oxygen during summer and winter low flows. The current biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are not sufficient to maintain an average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that Silver Creek cannot assimilate additional waste loadings and meet current Indiana water-quality standards. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect.

  4. Estimated Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Upper Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch in Kansas City, Missouri, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site (http://mo.water.usgs.gov/indep/kelly/blueriver) was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5068). Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71

  5. Analytical flow duration curves for summer streamflow in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea; Schaefli, Bettina

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a systematic assessment of the performance of an analytical modeling framework for streamflow probability distributions for a set of 25 Swiss catchments. These catchments show a wide range of hydroclimatic regimes, including namely snow-influenced streamflows. The model parameters are calculated from a spatially averaged gridded daily precipitation data set and from observed daily discharge time series, both in a forward estimation mode (direct parameter calculation from observed data) and in an inverse estimation mode (maximum likelihood estimation). The performance of the linear and the nonlinear model versions is assessed in terms of reproducing observed flow duration curves and their natural variability. Overall, the nonlinear model version outperforms the linear model for all regimes, but the linear model shows a notable performance increase with catchment elevation. More importantly, the obtained results demonstrate that the analytical model performs well for summer discharge for all analyzed streamflow regimes, ranging from rainfall-driven regimes with summer low flow to snow and glacier regimes with summer high flow. These results suggest that the model's encoding of discharge-generating events based on stochastic soil moisture dynamics is more flexible than previously thought. As shown in this paper, the presence of snowmelt or ice melt is accommodated by a relative increase in the discharge-generating frequency, a key parameter of the model. Explicit quantification of this frequency increase as a function of mean catchment meteorological conditions is left for future research.

  6. Application of acoustic doppler velocimeters for streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) principally has used Price AA and Price pygmy mechanical current meters for measurement of discharge. New technologies have resulted in the introduction of alternatives to the Price meters. One alternative, the FlowTracker acoustic Doppler velocimeter, was designed by SonTek/YSI to make streamflow measurements in wadeable conditions. The device measures a point velocity and can be used with standard midsection method algorithms to compute streamflow. The USGS collected 55 quality-assurance measurements with the FlowTracker at 43 different USGS streamflow-gaging stations across the United States, with mean depths from 0.05to0.67m, mean velocities from 13 to 60 cm/s, and discharges from 0.02 to 12.4m3/s. These measurements were compared with Price mechanical current meter measurements. Analysis of the comparisons shows that the FlowTracker discharges were not statistically different from the Price meter discharges at a 95% confidence level. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  7. Systematic Change in Global Patterns of Streamflow Following Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, C. E.; Hegerl, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation decreases over much of the globe following large explosive volcanic eruptions, particularly in climatologically wet regions. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, reducing evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has until now been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse the response of 50 major world rivers using observational records, averaging across multiple eruptions to reduce noise. We find statistically significant reductions in flow for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. Results are clearer when neighbouring rivers are combined into regions based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions. We detect a significant streamflow decrease (privers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This significant change in global scale streamflow following volcanic eruptions has implications for predicting and mitigating the effects of future eruptions.

  8. Assimilating uncertain, dynamic and intermittent streamflow observations in hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Alfonso, Leonardo; Chacon-Hurtado, Juan; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-09-01

    Catastrophic floods cause significant socio-economical losses. Non-structural measures, such as real-time flood forecasting, can potentially reduce flood risk. To this end, data assimilation methods have been used to improve flood forecasts by integrating static ground observations, and in some cases also remote sensing observations, within water models. Current hydrologic and hydraulic research works consider assimilation of observations coming from traditional, static sensors. At the same time, low-cost, mobile sensors and mobile communication devices are becoming also increasingly available. The main goal and innovation of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of assimilating uncertain streamflow observations that are dynamic in space and intermittent in time in the context of two different semi-distributed hydrological model structures. The developed method is applied to the Brue basin, where the dynamic observations are imitated by the synthetic observations of discharge. The results of this study show how model structures and sensors locations affect in different ways the assimilation of streamflow observations. In addition, it proves how assimilation of such uncertain observations from dynamic sensors can provide model improvements similar to those of streamflow observations coming from a non-optimal network of static physical sensors. This can be a potential application of recent efforts to build citizen observatories of water, which can make the citizens an active part in information capturing, evaluation and communication, helping simultaneously to improvement of model-based flood forecasting.

  9. Monthly streamflow forecasting with auto-regressive integrated moving average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Najah; Samsudin, Ruhaidah; Shabri, Ani

    2017-09-01

    Forecasting of streamflow is one of the many ways that can contribute to better decision making for water resource management. The auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was selected in this research for monthly streamflow forecasting with enhancement made by pre-processing the data using singular spectrum analysis (SSA). This study also proposed an extension of the SSA technique to include a step where clustering was performed on the eigenvector pairs before reconstruction of the time series. The monthly streamflow data of Sungai Muda at Jeniang, Sungai Muda at Jambatan Syed Omar and Sungai Ketil at Kuala Pegang was gathered from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia. A ratio of 9:1 was used to divide the data into training and testing sets. The ARIMA, SSA-ARIMA and Clustered SSA-ARIMA models were all developed in R software. Results from the proposed model are then compared to a conventional auto-regressive integrated moving average model using the root-mean-square error and mean absolute error values. It was found that the proposed model can outperform the conventional model.

  10. Efficacy Assessment of Lemon Peel Aromatherpy Againts Airborne Bacteria Experimental Study in ICU Room of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Merin Awu Sari; Masfiyah Masfiyah; Chodidjah Chodidjah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are infections acquired in health care centers such as hospital, clinic or other health care sites due to microorganisms. Research conducted by WHO showed 3-10% of all patients treated in hospitals were victims of HAI and 90% were mainly caused by bacteria, the rest by viruses, fungi or protozoa. Lemon peel aromatherapy is one of the essential oils from plants having antimicrobial activity and are beneficial to health reducing bacterial growt...

  11. Potential anti-inflammatory effect of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend M. Tag

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis and related disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA, are common diseases affecting millions of people. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA in mice. Arthritis was induced by injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA subcutaneously at the planter surface of hind paw, the lemon and hot pepper extracts were administered subcutaneously at the same site twice weekly (100 mg/kg, for 2 weeks starting 2 days after CFA injection. Arthritic scores, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C reactive protein (CRP, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and paw histopathology were assessed at the end of the experiment. The extract treatments reduced the severity of arthritic scores in the following order: lemon fruit peel (LFP > lemon leaf (LL > hot pepper leaf (HL during the experimental period as compared with positive control (RA. LFP, LL and HL extracts significantly suppressed ESR, ANA, CRP and TNF-α as compared with RA group. HL, LFP and LL reduced the IL-1β by 63.02%, 47.22%, 44.92%, while IL-6 cytokine production significantly decreased by 29.74%, 28.96%, and 23.93% for IL 6 as compared with RA. Hot pepper fruit (HF extract treated-group showed a significant decrease for ESR on the other hand there was non-significant difference for TNF-α, IL-6, IL1β, CRP and ANA as compared with RA. Histopathological examination indicated that LFP, LL and HL extracts alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells and synovial hyperplasia as well as protected joint destruction. The data showed that all extracts except HF have significant anti-arthritic and anti-inflammation effects and suggest that these effects may be mediated via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Effect of Interstocks In Photosynthesis and Growth Rates for ‘Navelina’ Orange And ‘Kütdiken’ Lemon

    OpenAIRE

    KAMILOGLU, Muge U.; YESILOGLU, Turgut

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of interstocks in dwarfing properties and photosynthesis ratio during the growth period. Combinations were set up by grafting ‘Navelina’ orange (N) and ‘Kütdiken’ lemon (K) cultivars grafted on sour orange; and, Flying Dragon trifoliate (FD), Citrumelo 1452 (C), Star Ruby grapefruit (SR), Rubidoux trifoliate (R) were used as interstock. Experimental plants were grown in controlled greenhouses. Rootstock, interstock and scion stem diameters and sprout growth were measure...

  13. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into α-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments.

  14. Effect of Fruit Lemon Juice Addition to The Content of Protein, Fat, Lactose and Probiotic on Soy Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, F. M. T.; Zackiyah; Azizah, N.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to determine the effect of lemon juice to the content of protein, fat, lactose and probiotics, in beverages soy yogurt. Soy yogurt which produced was a multifunction yogurt drink high levels of antioxidants, contains probiotics and can be used by people with lactose intolerance. The research method includes the production of fortified soy yogurt with lemon juice, were made with the ratio between the lemon juice and soy yogurt were 0:10 (L0); 1:9 (L1); 2:8 (L2); and 3:7 (L3). Analysis of the results include the content of protein by Kjeldahl method, the content of fat by Soxhletasi method, lactose test by Luff Schoorls method and content of probiotics with total plate count enumeration techniques. The results showed fortified yogurt had a protein content greater than before fortification (L3 > L2 > L1 > L0); The fat content L0 > L1 > L2 > L3. Fortified yogurt lactose content is smaller than before fortification (L0 > L1 > L2 > L3). The content of probiotic yogurt fortified L1 > L3 > L2. From this research can be concluded that the yoghurt fortified (L3) is the best, with the highest protein content, low fat, low lactose than L1 and L2, and had probiotics content. It is advised to conduct further research on the expired time of fortified soy yogurt products

  15. Effects of ascorbic acid, salt, lemon juice, and honey on drying kinetics and sensory characteristic of dried mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Abano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ascorbic acid, salt solution, lemon juice, and honey pretreatment on the drying kinetics and sensory characteristics were studied. Pretreatments used affected the effective moisture diffusivity and rehydration properties of the dried mangoes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were 2.22 × 10-10 m2/s for ascorbic acid, 1.80 × 10-10 m2/s for salt solution, 2.01 × 10-10 m2/s for lemon juice, 1.93 × 10-10 m2/s for honey pretreated mangoes, and 2.31 × 10-10 m2/s for the control slices. Pretreatments enhanced the drying rate potential of mangoes. Among the thin-layer drying models fitted to the experimental data, the Middil model gave the best fit. The ascorbic acid pretreated samples were the best while the salt solution ones were the poorest with respect to reconstitution capacity. Consumer studies for overall preference for taste, colour, texture, flavour and chewiness of the dried products revealed that there was a higher preference for honey pretreated dried samples followed by the ascorbic acid, control, lemon juice, and salt solution pretreated samples. The results demonstrate that these pretreatments can be applied to enhance the moisture transport during drying and the quality of the dried products.

  16. Determination of citric acid of lemon vinegar using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and least squares-support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Li; He, Yong

    2008-11-01

    The determination of citric acid of lemon vinegar was processed using visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Five concentration levels (100%, 80%, 60%, 40% and 20%) of lemon vinegar were studied. The calibration set was consisted of 225 samples (45 samples for each level) and the remaining 75 samples for the validation set. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was employed for the calibration models as well as extraction of certain latent variables (LVs) and effective wavelengths (EWs). Different preprocessing methods were compared in PLS models including smoothing, standard normal variate (SNV), the first and second derivative. The selected LVs and EWs were employed as the inputs to develop least square-support vector machine (LSSVM) models. The optimal prediction results were achieved by LV-LS-SVM model, and the correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias for validation set were 0.9990, 0.1972 and -0.0334, respectively. Moreover, the EW-LS-SVM model was also acceptable and slightly better than all PLS models. The results indicated that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be utilized as a parsimonious and efficient way for the determination of citric acid of lemon vinegar based on LS-SVM method.

  17. The immobilization of all spermatozoa in vitro by bitter lemon drink and the effect of alkaline pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoha, P U

    1992-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of increase in temperature and in pH of Coca-Cola, Afri-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and Krest bitter lemon drinks ("soft drinks") produced in Nigeria on the in vitro motility of spermatozoa. Semen was collected from 7 men, average age 28 years, of proven fertility, after 5 days' abstinence from sexual intercourse. The temperature and pH of the drinks were adjusted from 22 degrees C (room) to 37 degrees C, and pH 2.4 (acid) to 7.5 (alkaline), respectively. The mean % motility of spermatozoa in the adjusted and in the unadjusted drinks was compared for significant differences at the 1% level using the student's t-test. The results showed no significant differences in mean % motility in the drinks at 22 degrees C and at 37 degrees C. The mean % motility in all the drinks, except Coca-Cola, was significantly greater at alkaline than at acid pH; for Coca-Cola, motility was significantly greater at acid than alkaline pH. Of the drinks, Krest bitter lemon (unadjusted) immobilized all spermatozoa within 1 minute of addition. i) alkalinity decreases the spermicidal action of all drinks except Coca-Cola, and ii) Krest bitter lemon may achieve very high efficacy if used as post-coital douche, especially in the impoverished, densely populated Third World.

  18. Volatile fraction composition and physicochemical parameters as tools for the differentiation of lemon blossom honey and orange blossom honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Carot, Jose M; Domenech, Eva; Escriche, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Volatile fraction profile and physicochemical parameters were studied with the aim of evaluating their effectiveness for the differentiation between lemon blossom honey (Citrus limon L.) and orange blossom honey (Citrus spp.). They would be useful complementary tools to the traditional analysis based on the percentage of pollen. A stepwise discriminant analysis constructed using 37 volatile compounds (extracted by purge and trap and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and physicochemical and colour parameters (diastase, conductivity, Pfund colour and CIE L a b) together provided a model that permitted the correct classification of 98.3% of the original and 96.6% of the cross-validated cases, indicating its efficiency and robustness. This model proved its effectiveness in the differentiation of both types of honey with another set of batches from the following year. This model, developed from the volatile compounds, physicochemical and colour parameters, has been useful for the differentiation of lemon and orange blossom honeys. Furthermore, it may be of particular interest for the attainment of a suitable classification of orange honey in which the pollen count is very low. These capabilities imply an evident marketing advantage for the beekeeping sector, since lemon blossom honey could be commercialized as unifloral honey and not as generic citrus honey and orange blossom honey could be correctly characterized. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWolfe, V.G.; Santi, P.M.; Ey, J.; Gartner, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire, erosion control measures such as construction of check dams, installation of log erosion barriers (LEBs), and spreading of straw mulch and seed are common practice. After the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire in southwest Colorado, these measures were implemented at Knight Canyon above Lemon Dam to protect the intake structures of the dam from being filled with sediment. Hillslope erosion protection measures included LEBs at concentrations of 220-620/ha (200-600% of typical densities), straw mulch was hand spread at concentrations up to 5.6??metric tons/hectare (125% of typical densities), and seeds were hand spread at 67-84??kg/ha (150% of typical values). The mulch was carefully crimped into the soil to keep it in place. In addition, 13 check dams and 3 debris racks were installed in the main drainage channel of the basin. The technical literature shows that each mitigation method working alone, or improperly constructed or applied, was inconsistent in its ability to reduce erosion and sedimentation. At Lemon Dam, however, these methods were effective in virtually eliminating sedimentation into the reservoir, which can be attributed to a number of factors: the density of application of each mitigation method, the enhancement of methods working in concert, the quality of installation, and rehabilitation of mitigation features to extend their useful life. The check dams effectively trapped the sediment mobilized during rainstorms, and only a few cubic meters of debris traveled downchannel, where it was intercepted by debris racks. Using a debris volume-prediction model developed for use in burned basins in the Western U.S., recorded rainfall events following the Missionary Ridge Fire should have produced a debris flow of approximately 10,000??m3 at Knight Canyon. The mitigation measures, therefore, reduced the debris volume by several orders of magnitude. For comparison, rainstorm

  20. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods: The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%, and neral (31.5%. The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results: LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs (35–90 mm. IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg, which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for

  1. Effect of reforestation on streamflow in central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joseph; Ayer, Gordon Roundy

    1961-01-01

    Hydrologic data have been collected since 1932 in central New York State to determine the effect of reforestation on streamflow. Data are available for three small partly reforested areas and for one nonreforested control area. From 35 to 58 percent of the 3 areas were reforested, mostly with species of pine and spruce. The trees were allowed to grow without thinning or cutting, and by 1958 these reforested areas had developed into dense coniferous woodlots. Intensive statistical analyses of the data from the four study areas were made in 1958. Analyses were made for three hydrologic periods: the dormant season represented by the 6-month period ending April 30, the growing season represented by the 6-month period ending October 31, and the year represented by the 12-month period ending April 30. Analyses of the hydrologic data using multiple correlation with time as a variable and analyses of covariance between early and late periods of record indicated that several significant changes had occurred in the streamflow from the partly reforested study areas. Based on correlation with precipitation, total runoff for the dormant season from the 3 study areas was reduced by annual rates of 0.17 to 0.29 inches per year. Based on correlations with streamflow from a control area, total runoff from the partly reforested Shackham Brook area was reduced by average rates of 0.14 inches per growing season, 0.23 inches per dormant season, and 0.36 inches per hydrologic year. Peak discharges on Shackham Brook during the dormant season were reduced by 1958 by an average of 41 percent for the season, with reductions ranging from an average of 66 percent for November to an average of 16 percent for April. No significant changes were found in the peak discharges for the growing season, rates of base-flow recession, volumes of direct runoff, or annual low flows of streams in the three partly reforested areas. The significant reductions in total runoff are attributed to increases in

  2. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  3. Mathematical modelling of flooding at Magela Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardavas, I.

    1989-01-01

    The extent and frequency of the flooding at Magela Creek can be predicted from a mathematical/computer model describing the hydrological phases of surface runoff. Surface runoff involves complex water transfer processes over very inhomogeneous terrain. A simple mathematical model of these has been developed which includes the interception of rainfall by the plant canopy, evapotranspiration, infiltration of surface water into the soil, the storage of water in surface depressions, and overland and subsurface water flow. The rainfall-runoff model has then been incorporated into a more complex computer model to predict the amount of water that enters and leaves the Magela Creek flood plain, downstream of the mine. 2 figs., ills

  4. The macroinvertebrates of Magela Creek, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, R.

    1982-04-01

    The littoral zones of five permanent billabongs in Magela Creek were sampled monthly for macroinvertebrates. Greatest numbers of taxa and individuals were caught in the late wet season and early dry season in the shallow billabongs; in the deep billabongs, seasonal variations were not so marked. These changes appeared to be associated with the development of macrophytes, which offered food and shelter to the invertebrate fauna. The dominant groups were the Chironomidae, Oligochaetae and Ephemeroptera. The seasonal patterns of the catches were sufficiently consistent for future samples to be able to be compared with these initial ones with some confidence that any changes are real. This work is part of a larger study into the biota and water quality of Magela Creek designed to provide data on aquatic communities before mining of the Ranger uranium deposit starts

  5. Water resources of the Satus Creek Basin, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff, Maurice John; MacNish, Robert D.; Cline, Denzel R.

    1976-01-01

    The Satus Creek basin lies on the east flank of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. The basin is entirely within the Yakima Indian Reservation and is bordered and drained on the east by the Yakima River. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 35 inches in the western upland to less than 10 inches in the eastern lowland. This amounts to a yearly total of about 562,000 acre-feet, most of which falls in the upland. Much of the precipitation falls as snow, and the streamflow from the upland reflects this fact, having a high sustained runoff during the snowmelt months of April, May, and June. In 1973 about 176 ,000 acre-feet of water was carried by canals for irrigation of about 19,000 acres in the lowland; of this quantity, about 173 ,000 acre-feet was imported from the adjoining Toppenish Creek basin. This high application rate of about 9.25 acre-feet of water per acre is largely responsible for severe waterlogging problems in many parts of the lowland. Relieving artesian heads by pumping, combined with reduced application and improved drainage, could alleviate the waterlogging, and free water for use in the irrigation of presently nonirrigated parts of the basin. Young volcanic rocks (basalt) in the southwestern, upland part of the basin receive nearly 70,000 acre-feet a year in recharge from precipitation and, although much of this water is what sustains the high base flows of the streams draining the rocks, the remaining water offers potential for development as a high-altitude source for irrigation water. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Trail Creek II: Modeling Flow and E. Coli Concentrations in a Small Urban Stream using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, D. E.; Saintil, T.

    2017-12-01

    Pathogens are one of the leading causes of stream and river impairment in the State of Georgia. The common presence of fecal bacteria is driven by several factors including rapid population growth stressing pre-existing and ageing infrastructure, urbanization and poor planning, increase percent imperviousness, urban runoff, municipal discharges, sewage, pet/wildlife waste and leaky septic tanks. The Trail Creek watershed, located in Athens-Clarke County, Georgia covers about 33 km2. Stream segments within Trail Creek violate the GA standard due to high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling software was used to predict E. coli bacteria concentrations during baseflow and stormflow. Census data from the county was used for human and animal population estimates and the Fecal Indicator Tool to generate the number of colony forming units of E. Coli for each source. The model was calibrated at a daily time step with one year of monitored streamflow and E. coli bacteria data using SWAT-CUP and the SUFI2 algorithm. To simulate leaking sewer lines, we added point sources in the five subbasins in the SWAT model with the greatest length of sewer line within 50 m of the stream. The flow in the point sources were set to 5% of the stream flow and the bacteria count set to that of raw sewage (30,000 cfu/100 mL). The calibrated model showed that the average load during 2003-2013 at the watershed outlet was 13 million cfu per month. Using the calibrated model, we simulated scenarios that assumed leaking sewers were repaired in one of the five subbasins with point sources. The reduction ranged from 10 to 46%, with the largest reduction in subbasin in the downtown area. Future modeling work will focus on the use of green infrastructure to address sources of bacteria.

  7. Quantity and quality of urban storm runoff from the Chester Creek basin Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Urbanization has affected both the flow characteristics and water quality of streams in the Chester Creek basin, of Anchorage, Alaska. Peak flows are higher in the urban rather than rural parts of the basin, and the percent of effective impervious area has a significant effect on storm runoff volumes and peaks. Water quality in the Chester Creek basin varies according to season and flow conditions. During low or base-flow conditions, concentrations of most water quality constituents measured are within State of Alaska drinking water standards, except for fecal coliform bacteria. During periods of high flow due to snowmelt or rainfall, concentrations of trace metal lead usually exceed recommended maximum levels. The primary sources of trace metal lead and suspended sediments are commercial areas , while the primary source of nutrients and fecal coliform bacteria is residential areas. Streamflow and water quality data collected at five sites representing different land-use categories were used to calibrate and verify three U.S. Geological Survey computer-based models: the Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model-Version II (DR3M-II), the Multi-Event Urban Runoff Quality Model (DR3M-QUAL), and the Precipitation Runoff Modeling Systems (PRMS). The PRMS can be used to simulate the effects of increased urbanization on daily flows. The DR3M-II can be used to simulate storm effects on small basins of < 40 acres. The DR3M-QUAL can be used to estimate seasonal loads of suspended sediment from basins of < 40 acres. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Nonstationarity on Seasonal Streamflow Predictability in the U.S. Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Flavio; Wood, Andrew W.; Llewellyn, Dagmar; Blatchford, Douglas B.; Goodbody, Angus G.; Pappenberger, Florian

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal streamflow predictions provide a critical management tool for water managers in the American Southwest. In recent decades, persistent prediction errors for spring and summer runoff volumes have been observed in a number of watersheds in the American Southwest. While mostly driven by decadal precipitation trends, these errors also relate to the influence of increasing temperature on streamflow in these basins. Here we show that incorporating seasonal temperature forecasts from operational global climate prediction models into streamflow forecasting models adds prediction skill for watersheds in the headwaters of the Colorado and Rio Grande River basins. Current dynamical seasonal temperature forecasts now show sufficient skill to reduce streamflow forecast errors in snowmelt-driven regions. Such predictions can increase the resilience of streamflow forecasting and water management systems in the face of continuing warming as well as decadal-scale temperature variability and thus help to mitigate the impacts of climate nonstationarity on streamflow predictability.

  9. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years' data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143

  10. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  11. Arsenic Concentration in the Surface Water of a Former Mining Area: The La Junta Creek, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Lamadrid, Miguel; Acosta Vargas, Baudilio

    2018-01-01

    The mining activity in the San Antonio-El Triunfo district, located in a mountainous region at 60 km southeast of La Paz, occured for more than 250 years and left behind severe contamination of soils and riverbed sediments which led to elevated concentrations of arsenic and other trace elements in the surface- and groundwater of the region. Although the main mining activity ended around 1911, contamination is still beeing distributed, especially from left behind tailings and mine waste piles. The contamination levels in the groundwater have been reported in several studies, but there is little information available on the surface water quality, and especially the temporal variation. In this study, we analyzed the surface water of the La Junta creek, in the southern part of the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district. The working hypothesis was that by means of a spatial analysis of surface water and shallow groundwater, in combination with the temporal observation of the concentrations in runoff water, the effects of different sources of arsenic (natural geogene anomalies, due to historic mining activity, and hydrothermal related impact) in the La Junta creek can be recognized. This present study revealed that historic mining activity caused a mojor impact of arsenic but less contamination was observed than in the northern part of the district and elevated arsenic concentrations in stream water generally occurred during times of low streamflow. PMID:29498700

  12. Trend, abrupt change, and periodicity of streamflow in the mainstream of Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Miao, Chiyuan; Shi, Wen

    2013-07-01

    The Yellow River is the second largest river in China. The annual runoff of which is only about 2% of China's total, but contributes to 9% of China's GDP and directly supports 12% of the population. Today, the water shortage in the Yellow River basin has been aggravated due to rapid population growth and global warming. In order to best maximize water resources management, the natural and observed streamflow series from six hydrologic gauging stations (Guide, Lanzhou, Hekou, Sanmenxia, Huayuankou, and Lijin) are obtained, and the linear regression, Mann-Kendall test, and wavelet transform methods were used to detect the characteristic of streamflow variation from 1956 to 2007. The results show that: (1) both the natural streamflow and observed streamflow present a downward trend over the past 52 years, and the trends are intensified downstream; the decreasing rate of observed streamflow is more rapid than that of the natural streamflow; (2) most of the abrupt changes in natural streamflow and observed streamflow appear in the late 1980s to early 1990s through the result of the Mann-Kendall test; and (3) other than the Guide station, the streamflows at the rest of the stations appear to have strongest periodicity of 19-21 years with a 52-year scale. The results of this study imply that less precipitation and warmer climate in the basin are the primary factors that cause this decreasing trend of natural streamflow. Additionally, the rapid ascent of water consumption by human being results in the reduction of observed streamflow further. Furthermore, human activities like reservoir construction, soil and water conservation measures, etc. influence the streamflow as well. It is recommended that the society takes some effective countermeasures to cope with the water shortage.

  13. Contribution of multiple climatic variables and human activities to streamflow changes across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianyu; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-02-01

    Using monthly streamflow data from the 1960-2000 period and annual streamflow data from the 2001-2014 period, and also meteorological data from the 1960 to 2014 period from 815 meteorological stations across China, the Budyko-based hydrothermal balance model was used to quantitatively evaluate the fractional contributions of climate change and human activities to streamflow changes in ten river basins across China. Particular importance was attached to human activities, such as population density and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and also water reservoirs in terms of their relationship with streamflow changes. Results indicated that: (1) streamflow changes of river basins in northern China were more sensitive to climate change than those of river basins in southern China. Based on the degree of sensitivity, the influencing factors to which streamflow changes are sensitive included: precipitation > human activities > relative humidity > solar radiation > maximum temperature > wind speed > minimum temperature. Hence, it can be argued that hydrological systems in northern China are more fragile and more sensitive to changing environment than those in southern China and hence water resources management in northern China is more challenging; (2) during 1980-2000, climate change tended to increase streamflow changes across China and have a dominant role in streamflow variation. However, climate change tends to decrease streamflow in river basins of northern China. Generally, human activities cause a decrease of streamflow across China; (3) In recent years such as a period of 2001-2014, human activities tend to have increasing or enhancing impacts on instream flow changes, and fractional contributions of climate change and human activities to streamflow changes are, respectively, 53.5% and 46.5%. Increasing human-induced impacts on streamflow changes have the potential to add more uncertainty in the management of water resources at different spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Bias correcting precipitation forecasts for extended-range skilful seasonal streamflow predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Crochemore, L.; Ramos, M.H.; Pappenberger, F.

    2016-01-01

    Meteorological centres make sustained efforts to provide seasonal forecasts that are increasingly skilful, which has the potential to also benefit streamflow forecasting. Seasonal streamflow forecasts can help to take anticipatory measures for a range of applications, such as water supply or hydropower reservoir operation and drought risk management. This study assesses the skill of seasonal precipitation and streamflow forecasts in France in order to provide insights into the way bias correc...

  15. Hydrogeologic setting and hydrologic data of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, Washoe County, Nevada, and Lassen County, California, water years 1988-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Smoke Creek Desert is a potential source of water for urban development in Washoe County, Nevada. Hydrogeologic data were collected from 1988 to 1990 to learn more about surface- and ground-water flow in the basin. Impermeable rocks form a boundary to ground-water flow on the east side of the basin and at unknown depths at the base of the flow system. Permeable volcanic rocks on the west and north sides of the basin represent a previously unrecognized aquifer and provide potential avenues for interbasin flow. Geophysical data indicate that basin-fill sediments are about 2,000 feet thick near the center of the basin. The geometry of the aquifers, however, remains largely unknown. Measurements of water levels, pressure head, flow rate, water temperature, and specific conductance at 19 wells show little change from 1988 to 1990. Chemically, ground water begins as a dilute sodium and calcium bicarbonate water in the mountain blocks, changes to a slightly saline sodium bicarbonate solution beneath the alluvial fans, and becomes a briny sodium chloride water near the playa. Concentrations of several inorganic constituents in the briny water near the playa commonly exceed Nevada drinking-water standards. Ground water in the Honey Lake basin and Smoke Creek Desert basin has similar stable-isotope composition, except near Sand Pass. If interbasin flow takes place, it likely occurs at depths greater than 400-600 feet beneath Sand Pass or through volcanic rocks to the north of Sand Pass. Measure- ments of streamflow indicate that about 2,800 acre-feet/year discharged from volcanic rocks to streamflow and a minimum of 7.300 acre-feet/year infiltrated and recharged unconsolidated sediments near Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks during the period of study. Also about 1,500 acre-feet per year was lost to evapotranspiration along the channel of Smoke Creek, and about 1,680 acre-feet per year of runoff from Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks was probably lost to evaporation from the

  16. The energetic, physiological, and behavioral response of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to simulated longline capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyoucos, Ian A; Suski, Cory D; Mandelman, John W; Brooks, Edward J

    2017-05-01

    Commercial fisheries bycatch is a considerable threat to elasmobranch population recovery, and techniques to mitigate sub-lethal consequences can be improved with data on the energetic, physiological, and behavioral response of individuals to capture. This study sought to estimate the effects of simulated longline capture on the behavior, energy use, and physiological stress of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris). Captive sharks equipped with acceleration biologgers were subjected to 1h of simulated longline capture. Swimming behaviors were identified from acceleration data using a machine-learning algorithm, energetic costs were estimated using accelerometer-calibrated relationships and respirometry, and physiological stress was quantified with point-of-care blood analyzers. During capture, sharks exhibited nine-fold increases in the frequency of burst swimming, 98% reductions in resting, and swam as often as unrestrained sharks. Aerobic metabolic rates during capture were 8% higher than for unrestrained sharks, and accounted for a 57.7% increase in activity costs when excess post-exercise oxygen consumption was included. Lastly, sharks exhibited significant increases in blood lactate and glucose, but no change in blood pH after 1h of capture. Therefore, these results provide preliminary insight into the behavioral and energetic responses of sharks to capture, and have implications for mitigating sub-lethal consequences of capture for sharks as commercial longline bycatch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae should form part of an integrated control programme to combat Africanhorse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the presentstudy the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combinationof citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The numberof midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white lighttubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, wascompared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial thefour traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Althoughmore midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaitedtraps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either thespecies composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The highermean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that thismosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  18. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-08-08

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  19. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  20. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  1. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  2. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Furlan, Marcos R.

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  3. A combined process to treat lemon industry wastewater and produce biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, A.R.; Rubio, M.C.; Maldonado, M.C. [Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Bioquimica, Ayacucho, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    We studied a process employed for treating lemon industry effluents, using the macrophyte Eishhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) in a phytoremediation tank with a 6000-L workload. The diluted effluents BOD and COD were reduced to 70 and 61%, respectively, working with a 1.5-h hydraulic residence time (HRT). We investigated the effect of adding every 12 h an inoculum consisting of a consortium of microorganisms isolated from the macrophyte roots and recirculating 30% of the outflow. In this way, we achieved a volumetric removal rate (VRR) of BOD = 354 g/m{sup 3} day. Plants were daily harvested from the tank to maintain growth rate and the density originally planted. We studied their use for biogas production in an anaerobic digester working with 12 and 16 days of hydraulic residence time. The yield obtained was 0.87 L/g and productivity 0.87 L/L day with a loading rate of 5 g/L day. Integrating both processes on an industrial scale would solve the effluent pollution problem and generate an energy source that could be used by the industry itself to lower its production costs. (orig.)

  4. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  5. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  6. Assessment of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L. Hydrogels: Quality and Bioactivity in Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ramanauskienė

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to design gels with lemon balm extract, assess their quality, and investigate the effect of rosmarinic acid on skin cells in normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Methods. The quantities of rosmarinic acid (RA released from gels were evaluated by applying the HPLC technique. HaCaT cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. ROS generation was measured using DCFH-DA dye. The results showed that the gelling material affected the release of RA content from gels. Lower and slower RA content release was determined in carbomer-based gels. After 6 hours of biopharmaceutical research in vitro, at least 4% of RA was released from the gel. The results of the biological studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that, in the oxidative stress conditions, RA reduced intracellular ROS amounts to 28%; 0.25–0.5 mg/mL of RA increased cell viability by 10–24% and protected cells from the damage caused by H2O2. Conclusions. According to research results, it is appropriate to use a carbomer as the main gelling material, and its concentration should not exceed 1.0%. RA, depending on the concentration, reduces the amount of intracellular ROS and enhances cell viability in human keratinocytes in oxidative stress conditions.

  7. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin counties, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Little Laughery Creek triutary and Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin Counties, Ind., was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero. Headwater flow upstream from the wastewater-treatment facilities consists solely of process cooling water from an industrial discharger. This flow is usually less than 0.5 cubic foot per second. Consequently, benefits from dilution are minimal. As a result, current and projected ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the municipal discharges will result in in-stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the Indiana ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (maximum stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 2.5 and 4.0 milligrams per liter during summer and winter low flows, respectively). Benthic-oxygen demand is probably the most significant factor affecting Little Laughery Creek and is probably responsible for the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration being less than the Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) during two water-quality surveys. After municipal dischargers complete advanced waste-treatment facilities, benthic-oxygen demand should be less significant in the stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. (USGS)

  8. Reconstructing pre-instrumental streamflow in Eastern Australia using a water balance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, C. R.; Kiem, A. S.; Vance, T. R.; Roberts, J. L.; Curran, M. A. J.; Moy, A. D.

    2018-03-01

    Streamflow reconstructions based on paleoclimate proxies provide much longer records than the short instrumental period records on which water resource management plans are currently based. In Australia there is a lack of in-situ high resolution paleoclimate proxy records, but remote proxies with teleconnections to Australian climate have utility in producing streamflow reconstructions. Here we investigate, via a case study for a catchment in eastern Australia, the novel use of an Antarctic ice-core based rainfall reconstruction within a Budyko-framework to reconstruct ∼1000 years of annual streamflow. The resulting streamflow reconstruction captures interannual to decadal variability in the instrumental streamflow, validating both the use of the ice core rainfall proxy record and the Budyko-framework method. In the preinstrumental era the streamflow reconstruction shows longer wet and dry epochs and periods of streamflow variability that are higher than observed in the instrumental era. Importantly, for both the instrumental record and preinstrumental reconstructions, the wet (dry) epochs in the rainfall record are shorter (longer) in the streamflow record and this non-linearity must be considered when inferring hydroclimatic risk or historical water availability directly from rainfall proxy records alone. These insights provide a better understanding of present infrastructure vulnerability in the context of past climate variability for eastern Australia. The streamflow reconstruction presented here also provides a better understanding of the range of hydroclimatic variability possible, and therefore represents a more realistic baseline on which to quantify the potential impacts of anthropogenic climate change on water security.

  9. Causes of interannual to decadal variability of Gila River streamflow over the past century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pascolini-Campbell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The Gila River, New Mexico, is characterized by two peaks in streamflow: one in the winter–spring (December–May, and summer (August–September. The region is influenced both by Pacific SST variability as well as the North American Monsoon. Study focus: The mechanisms responsible for the variability of the winter–spring and summer streamflow peaks are investigated by correlation of streamflow with precipitation and sea surface temperature for 1928–2012. Decadal variability in the flow record is examined for a longer term perspective on Gila River streamflow using tree ring-based reconstructions of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. New hydrological insights for the region: Results indicate a strong influence of winter–spring precipitation and Pacific SST anomalies on the winter–spring streamflow, with El Niño conditions in the Pacific causing increased precipitation and streamflow. Decadal Pacific variability helps explain the transition from high winter flow in the late 20th century to lower flows in the most recent decade. The summer streamflow has a somewhat weaker correlation with precipitation and Pacific SST than the winter–spring streamflow. Its variability is more likely influenced by local North American Monsoon precipitation variability. PDSI and SPI reconstructions indicate much more severe and extended periods of droughts and pluvials in past centuries as well as periods of concurrent winter and summer drought. Keywords: Streamflow decadal variability, Drought, Pluvials, Treering, Teleconnections, North American Monsoon

  10. IOD and ENSO impacts on the extreme stream-flows of Citarum river in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Netrananda; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Takara, Kaoru [Kyoto University, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Innovative Disaster Prevention Technology and Policy Research Laboratory, Gokasho, Uji City, Kyoto (Japan); Behera, Swadhin K. [JAMSTEC, Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); JAMSTEC, Application Laboratory, Yokohama (Japan); Yamagata, Toshio [University of Tokyo, School of Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); JAMSTEC, Application Laboratory, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Extreme stream-flow events of Citarum River are derived from the daily stream-flows at the Nanjung gauge station. Those events are identified based on their persistently extreme flows for 6 or more days during boreal fall when the seasonal mean stream-flow starts peaking-up from the lowest seasonal flows of June-August. Most of the extreme events of high-streamflows were related to La Nina conditions of tropical Pacific. A few of them were also associated with the negative phases of IOD and the newly identified El Nino Modoki. Unlike the cases of extreme high streamflows, extreme low streamflow events are seen to be associated with the positive IODs. Nevertheless, it was also found that the low-stream-flow events related to positive IOD events were also associated with El Nino events except for one independent event of 1977. Because the occurrence season coincides the peak season of IOD, not only the picked extreme events are seen to fall under the IOD seasons but also there exists a statistically significant correlation of 0.51 between the seasonal IOD index and the seasonal streamflows. There also exists a significant lag correlation when IOD of June-August season leads the streamflows of September-November. A significant but lower correlation coefficient (0.39) is also found between the seasonal streamflow and El Nino for September-November season only. (orig.)

  11. Field manual for the collection of Navajo Nation streamflow-gage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Fisk, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    The Field Manual for the Collection of Navajo Nation Streamflow-Gage Data (Navajo Field Manual) is based on established (standard) U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging methods and provides guidelines specifically designed for the Navajo Department of Water Resources personnel who establish and maintain streamflow gages. The Navajo Field Manual addresses field visits, including essential field equipment and the selection of and routine visits to streamflow-gaging stations, examines surveying methods for determining peak flows (indirect measurements), discusses safety considerations, and defines basic terms.

  12. Evaluation of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations for Colorado, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Stevens, Michael R.; Bock, Andrew R.; Char, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, evaluated the predictive uncertainty of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations representative of natural streamflow conditions in Colorado. This study evaluates the predictive uncertainty of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations developed in a 2009 U.S. Geological Survey study using streamflow data collected over the entire period of record at each streamgage through calendar year 2013. The study area for this report is limited to the Mountain, Northwest, Rio Grande, and Southwest hydrologic regions of Colorado.

  13. Geohydrology and Water Quality of the Valley-Fill Aquifer System in the Upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek Valleys in the Town of Caroline, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    , a school, and several farms and small businesses. Most groundwater that is withdrawn from pumped wells is returned to the groundwater system via septic systems. Groundwater in the upper and basal confined aquifers in the upper Sixmile Creek valley is under artesian conditions everywhere except where the water discharges to springs along bluffs in the western end of the Sixmile Creek valley. Principal sources of recharge to the confined aquifers are (1) the sides of the valley where the confined aquifers may extend up along the flank of the bedrock valley wall and crop out at land surface or are overlain and in contact with surficial coarse-grained deltaic and fluvial sediments that provide a pathway through which direct precipitation and seepage losses from tributary streams can reach the buried aquifers, or (2) where the buried aquifers are isolated and receive recharge only from adjacent fine-grained sediment and bedrock. The base-flow and runoff components of total streamflow at two streamgages, Sixmile Creek at Brooktondale and Sixmile Creek at Bethel Grove, were calculated using hydrograph-separation techniques from 2003 to 2007 discharge records. Base flow constituted 64 and 56 percent of the total annual flow at the Brooktondale and Bethel Grove streamgages, respectively. Water-quality samples were collected from 2003 to 2005, with 10 surface-water samples collected seasonally during base-flow conditions at the Sixmile Creek at Brooktondale streamgage, and 12 samples were collected during base-flow conditions at several selected tributaries from 2004 to 2005. The predominant cation detected in the surface-water samples was calcium, but moderate amounts of magnesium, silica, and sodium were also detected; the major anions were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Sodium and chloride concentrations were relatively low in all samples but increased downstream from the Sixmile Creek sampling site at Six Hundred Road near Slaterville Springs, NY, to B

  14. The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, K.; Zafran, A.; Moore, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through the former Patroon Lake, which was located on the main site property and was used as a landfill for radiological and chemical wastes. The objective of the investigation was to determine the absence/presence of radioactive contamination within the three Areas of Concern (AOC). In order to accomplish this objective, Shaw assembled a team to produce a Technical Memorandum that provided an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions related to the Patroon Creek. Upon completion and analysis of the Technical Memorandum, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was constructed and a Technical Planning Program (TPP) was held to develop a Sediment Investigation Work Plan and Sediment Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan. A total of 32 sample locations were analyzed using on-site direct gamma scans with a Pancake Geiger-Mueller (PGM) instrument for screening purposes and samples were analyzed at on-site and off-site laboratories. The highest interval from each core scan was selected for on-site analysis utilizing a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Eight of these samples were sent off-site for gamma/alpha spectroscopy confirmation. The data collected during the SI indicated that the U-238 cleanup criterion was exceeded in sediment samples collected from two locations within the Unnamed Tributary but not in downstream sections of Patroon Creek or Three Mile Reservoir. Future actions for impacted sediment in the Unnamed Tributary will be further evaluated. Concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 in all other off-site sediment samples collected from the Unnamed Tributary, Patroon Creek, and

  15. Hydrologic conditions and water-quality conditions following underground coal mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek drainage basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed.During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus–Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001.Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999–2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by

  16. [Effect of variation of lemon intake and walking in daily life on various indicators of muscle mass and blood biochemistry in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimiko; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Kato, Yoji; Miyake, Yukiko; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsushi; Harada, Toshihide; Aoi, Satomi; Ikeda, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the factors considered to change body composition and blood biochemistry indicators in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women. These changes result from exercise by walking as part of their daily activities and lemon consumption by women who live on the small islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan's largest citrus fruit (lemon)-producing region. Between September 2011 and March 2012, we recorded the daily lemon consumption and the number of steps taken by 101 middle-aged and elderly female lemon farmers. We also measured their body dimensions, body compositions, and blood pressure pulse wave velocity and conducted blood tests before and after the survey period. The results before and after the survey period were compared by the t-test and associations were determined on the basis of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Covariance structural analysis was carried out to determine causal associations. From the results of covariance structure analysis, lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item examined. The third item, i.e., "the factors related to arteriosclerosis," was affected indirectly via citric acid and fatigue, and anticoagulation was shown. The fourth item, i.e., "the factors related to maintenance of muscle mass," which is affected by menopausal years and the change in walking speed, was shown to be associated with the second item, i.e., "the factors related to lipid metabolism." Menopausal years affected the first, third and fourth items. Lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item. Lemon has been shown to indirectly affect the third item through citric acid. Walking affected the second item, the level of total cholesterol, such as HDL cholesterol, through the fourth item. The importance of providing services that lead to sustained physical activity and a well-balanced metabolism between lipids and carbohydrates has been shown.

  17. Compilation of streamflow statistics calculated from daily mean streamflow data collected during water years 1901–2015 for selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Ries, Kernell G.; Steeves, Peter A.

    2017-10-16

    Streamflow statistics are needed by decision makers for many planning, management, and design activities. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) StreamStats Web application provides convenient access to streamflow statistics for many streamgages by accessing the underlying StreamStatsDB database. In 2016, non-interpretive streamflow statistics were compiled for streamgages located throughout the Nation and stored in StreamStatsDB for use with StreamStats and other applications. Two previously published USGS computer programs that were designed to help calculate streamflow statistics were updated to better support StreamStats as part of this effort. These programs are named “GNWISQ” (Get National Water Information System Streamflow (Q) files), updated to version 1.1.1, and “QSTATS” (Streamflow (Q) Statistics), updated to version 1.1.2.Statistics for 20,438 streamgages that had 1 or more complete years of record during water years 1901 through 2015 were calculated from daily mean streamflow data; 19,415 of these streamgages were within the conterminous United States. About 89 percent of the 20,438 streamgages had 3 or more years of record, and about 65 percent had 10 or more years of record. Drainage areas of the 20,438 streamgages ranged from 0.01 to 1,144,500 square miles. The magnitude of annual average streamflow yields (streamflow per square mile) for these streamgages varied by almost six orders of magnitude, from 0.000029 to 34 cubic feet per second per square mile. About 64 percent of these streamgages did not have any zero-flow days during their available period of record. The 18,122 streamgages with 3 or more years of record were included in the StreamStatsDB compilation so they would be available via the StreamStats interface for user-selected streamgages. All the statistics are available in a USGS ScienceBase data release.

  18. Potential Effects of a Warming Climate on Water Resources within the Lehman and Baker Creek Drainages, Great Basin National Park, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, John M.

    Warming trends in near-surface air temperature across the Southwestern U.S. have been observed over the last century and are projected to continue over the 21st century. This warming trend will result in decreased snowpack and earlier snowmelt in mountainous basins throughout the West; however, predictions of future precipitation in the Southwest are much more uncertain among global climate models (GCMs). In this study, the objective was to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of projected warming on streamflow in the Lehman and Baker Creek drainages. The drainages are located in Great Basin National Park that encompasses the highest elevations in the southern part of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to evaluate impacts of warming on streamflow. Calibration and validation periods had total errors between 0.6 and 12 percent in simulated streamflow. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures for a future 90-year period were used in the model to evaluate how warming temperatures may affect streamflow. Daily temperatures were statistically downscaled and bias corrected using daily projections from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 4.0 for four representative greenhouse gas concentration trajectories. A 30-year record of historical precipitation was repeated three times over the 90-year simulation. Results from the 90-year simulation were divided into three 30-year periods (water years 2009--2038, 2039--2068, and 2069--2098) and were compared among the four greenhouse gas concentration trajectories such that volumes and variations in precipitation were identical and changes could be directly related to different projected warming temperatures. The study area was sensitive to small increases in temperature; results include shifts to earlier snowmelt timing for most warming trajectories from May to April with an increase in winter streamflow. For a temperature rise of 5.5°F by

  19. Water quality and quantity and simulated surface-water and groundwater flow in the Laurel Hill Creek Basin, southwestern Pennsylvania, 1991–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Risser, Dennis W.; Eicholtz, Lee W.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2017-07-10

    Laurel Hill Creek is considered one of the most pristine waterways in southwestern Pennsylvania and has high recreational value as a high-quality cold-water fishery; however, the upper parts of the basin have documented water-quality impairments. Groundwater and surface water are withdrawn for public water supply and the basin has been identified as a Critical Water Planning Area (CWPA) under the State Water Plan. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Somerset County Conservation District, collected data and developed modeling tools to support the assessment of water-quality and water-quantity issues for a basin designated as a CWPA. Streams, springs, and groundwater wells were sampled for water quality in 2007. Streamflows were measured concurrent with water-quality sampling at main-stem sites on Laurel Hill Creek and tributaries in 2007. Stream temperatures were monitored continuously at five main-stem sites from 2007 to 2010. Water usage in the basin was summarized for 2003 and 2009 and a Water-Analysis Screening Tool (WAST) developed for the Pennsylvania State Water Plan was implemented to determine whether the water use in the basin exceeded the “safe yield” or “the amount of water that can be withdrawn from a water resource over a period of time without impairing the long-term utility of a water resource.” A groundwater and surface-water flow (GSFLOW) model was developed for Laurel Hill Creek and calibrated to the measured daily streamflow from 1991 to 2007 for the streamflow-gaging station near the outlet of the basin at Ursina, Pa. The CWPA designation requires an assessment of current and future water use. The calibrated GSFLOW model can be used to assess the hydrologic effects of future changes in water use and land use in the basin.Analyses of samples collected for surface-water quality during base-flow conditions indicate that the highest nutrient concentrations in the main stem of Laurel Hill Creek were at sites in the

  20. Surface-water quality in Pequea Creek basin, Pennsylvania, 1977-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the Pequea Creek basin was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the EPA from February 1977 through March 1979. Pequea Creek drains an intensive agricultural area of 154 sq mi in southeastern Pennsylvania, and enters the Susquehanna River 30 mi north of the Chesapeake Bay. The study included measurement of streamflow and collection of water and bottom material samples from seven sites in the basin during selected base flows and storms. Water samples were collected daily at a site near the mouth of Pequea Creek, and analyzed for suspended sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus species, organic carbon, and pesticides. Some groundwater samples also were collected and analyzed for nitrate. Annual yields measured from the basin during the study period were 1,950 ton/sq mi for suspended sediment, 13.8 ton/sq mi for total nitrogen, and 1.8 ton/sq mi for phosphorus. These yields are five times higher than any previously measured in the Susquehanna River basin. The discharges of all constituents monitored increased with increasing flow, indicated that a large amount of material in the basin is available for transport to streams during storms. The large yields of nitrogen and phosphorus are probably caused by the intensive agriculture in the basin coupled with large applications of fertilizer and manure to farm fields. Chemical analyses of rainfall samples indicate that precipitation was not a significant source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Excluding nitrate, all constituents measured were transported mainly during storms. Nitrate concentrations during base flow were as high as 10 mg/L as N--the Environmental Protection Agency standard for domestic water supplies. Groundwater sampled from farm wells had nitrate concentrations up to 28 mg/L as N. The largest concentrations of herbicides detected in Pequea basin were for 2,4-D, atrazine, and simazine. The maximum concentrations observed during storms were 1

  1. Variations in the correlation between teleconnections and Taiwan's streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Jeng; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Interannual variations in catchment streamflow represent an integrated response to anomalies in regional moisture transport and atmospheric circulations and are ultimately linked to large-scale climate oscillations. This study conducts correlation analysis to calculate how summertime (July-September, JAS) streamflow data derived at 28 upstream and 13 downstream gauges in Taiwan correlate with 14 teleconnection indices in the current or preceding seasons. We find that the western Pacific (WP) and Pacific-Japan (PJ) patterns, both of which play a critical role in determining cyclonic activity in the western North Pacific basin, exhibit the highest concurrent correlations (most significant r = 0. 50) with the JAS flows in Taiwan. Alternatively, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) averaged over the period from the previous October to June of the current year is significantly correlated with the JAS flows (most significant r = -0. 66), indicating some forecasting utility. By further examining the correlation results using a 20-year moving window, peculiar temporal variations and possible climate regime shifts (CRSs) can be revealed. A CRS test is employed to identify suspicious and abrupt changes in the correlation. The late 1970s and 1990s are identified as two significant change points. During the intermediate period, Taiwan's streamflow and the PJ index exhibit a marked in-phase relationship (r > 0. 8). It is verified that the two shifts are in concordance with the alteration of large-scale circulations in the Pacific basin by investigating the changes in pattern correlation and composite maps before and after the change point. Our results suggest that empirical forecasting techniques should take into account the effect of CRSs on predictor screening.

  2. Use and availability of continuous streamflow records in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents a survey that identifies local, State, and Federal uses of data from 139 continuous-record, surface-water stations, presently (1984) operated by the Wyoming District of the U. S. Geological Survey; identifies sources of funding pertaining to collections of streamflow data; and presents frequency of data availability. Uses of data from the 139 stations are categorized into seven classes: Regional Hydrology, Hydrology Systems, Legal Obligations, Planning and Design, Project Operation, Hydrologic Forecasts, and Water Quality Monitoring. Sufficient use of surface water data collected from the stations justifies the continued operation of all stations. (USGS)

  3. An intercomparison of approaches for improving operational seasonal streamflow forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Mendoza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For much of the last century, forecasting centers around the world have offered seasonal streamflow predictions to support water management. Recent work suggests that the two major avenues to advance seasonal predictability are improvements in the estimation of initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs and the incorporation of climate information. This study investigates the marginal benefits of a variety of methods using IHCs and/or climate information, focusing on seasonal water supply forecasts (WSFs in five case study watersheds located in the US Pacific Northwest region. We specify two benchmark methods that mimic standard operational approaches – statistical regression against IHCs and model-based ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP – and then systematically intercompare WSFs across a range of lead times. Additional methods include (i statistical techniques using climate information either from standard indices or from climate reanalysis variables and (ii several hybrid/hierarchical approaches harnessing both land surface and climate predictability. In basins where atmospheric teleconnection signals are strong, and when watershed predictability is low, climate information alone provides considerable improvements. For those basins showing weak teleconnections, custom predictors from reanalysis fields were more effective in forecast skill than standard climate indices. ESP predictions tended to have high correlation skill but greater bias compared to other methods, and climate predictors failed to substantially improve these deficiencies within a trace weighting framework. Lower complexity techniques were competitive with more complex methods, and the hierarchical expert regression approach introduced here (hierarchical ensemble streamflow prediction – HESP provided a robust alternative for skillful and reliable water supply forecasts at all initialization times. Three key findings from this effort are (1 objective approaches supporting

  4. Towards reliable seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasts for ephemeral rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James; Wang, Qj; Li, Ming; Robertson, David

    2016-04-01

    Despite their inherently variable nature, ephemeral rivers are an important water resource in many dry regions. Water managers are likely benefit considerably from even mildly skilful ensemble forecasts of streamflow in ephemeral rivers. As with any ensemble forecast, forecast uncertainty - i.e., the spread of the ensemble - must be reliably quantified to allow users of the forecasts to make well-founded decisions. Correctly quantifying uncertainty in ephemeral rivers is particularly challenging because of the high incidence of zero flows, which are difficult to handle with conventional statistical techniques. Here we apply a seasonal streamflow forecasting system, the model for generating Forecast Guided Stochastic Scenarios (FoGSS), to 26 Australian ephemeral rivers. FoGSS uses post-processed ensemble rainfall forecasts from a coupled ocean-atmosphere prediction system to force an initialised monthly rainfall runoff model, and then applies a staged hydrological error model to describe and propagate hydrological uncertainty in the forecast. FoGSS produces 12-month streamflow forecasts; as forecast skill declines with lead time, the forecasts are designed to transit seamlessly to stochastic scenarios. The ensemble rainfall forecasts used in FoGSS are known to be unbiased and reliable, and we concentrate here on the hydrological error model. The FoGSS error model has several features that make it well suited to forecasting ephemeral rivers. First, FoGSS models the error after data is transformed with a log-sinh transformation. The log-sinh transformation is able to normalise even highly skewed data and homogenise its variance, allowing us to assume that errors are Gaussian. Second, FoGSS handles zero values using data censoring. Data censoring allows streamflow in ephemeral rivers to be treated as a continuous variable, rather than having to model the occurrence of non-zero values and the distribution of non-zero values separately. This greatly simplifies parameter

  5. Estimating daily flow duration curves from monthly streamflow data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smakhtin, VU

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available 000 km2 in arid regions. It may be concluded that monthly streamflow data are available at the level of spatial resolution which would satisfy most of the large and medium water projects. However, an increased attention to environmental con... or any part thereof, for any of the 12 months of the year or for the whole year. The 17 fixed percentage points on the curve (0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 95, 99, 99.9 and 99.99% time of exceedance) with corresponding flow rates...

  6. An intercomparison of approaches for improving operational seasonal streamflow forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pablo A.; Wood, Andrew W.; Clark, Elizabeth; Rothwell, Eric; Clark, Martyn P.; Nijssen, Bart; Brekke, Levi D.; Arnold, Jeffrey R.

    2017-07-01

    For much of the last century, forecasting centers around the world have offered seasonal streamflow predictions to support water management. Recent work suggests that the two major avenues to advance seasonal predictability are improvements in the estimation of initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs) and the incorporation of climate information. This study investigates the marginal benefits of a variety of methods using IHCs and/or climate information, focusing on seasonal water supply forecasts (WSFs) in five case study watersheds located in the US Pacific Northwest region. We specify two benchmark methods that mimic standard operational approaches - statistical regression against IHCs and model-based ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) - and then systematically intercompare WSFs across a range of lead times. Additional methods include (i) statistical techniques using climate information either from standard indices or from climate reanalysis variables and (ii) several hybrid/hierarchical approaches harnessing both land surface and climate predictability. In basins where atmospheric teleconnection signals are strong, and when watershed predictability is low, climate information alone provides considerable improvements. For those basins showing weak teleconnections, custom predictors from reanalysis fields were more effective in forecast skill than standard climate indices. ESP predictions tended to have high correlation skill but greater bias compared to other methods, and climate predictors failed to substantially improve these deficiencies within a trace weighting framework. Lower complexity techniques were competitive with more complex methods, and the hierarchical expert regression approach introduced here (hierarchical ensemble streamflow prediction - HESP) provided a robust alternative for skillful and reliable water supply forecasts at all initialization times. Three key findings from this effort are (1) objective approaches supporting methodologically

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation inferred from streamflow observations across the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Brian; Clark, Martyn P.; Kavetski, Dmitri; Newman, Andrew J.; Hughes, Mimi; McGurk, Bruce; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2018-01-01

    Given uncertainty in precipitation gauge-based gridded datasets over complex terrain, we use multiple streamflow observations as an additional source of information about precipitation, in order to identify spatial and temporal differences between a gridded precipitation dataset and precipitation inferred from streamflow. We test whether gridded datasets capture across-crest and regional spatial patterns of variability, as well as year-to-year variability and trends in precipitation, in comparison to precipitation inferred from streamflow. We use a Bayesian model calibration routine with multiple lumped hydrologic model structures to infer the most likely basin-mean, water-year total precipitation for 56 basins with long-term (>30 year) streamflow records in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California. We compare basin-mean precipitation derived from this approach with basin-mean precipitation from a precipitation gauge-based, 1/16° gridded dataset that has been used to simulate and evaluate trends in Western United States streamflow and snowpack over the 20th century. We find that the long-term average spatial patterns differ: in particular, there is less precipitation in the gridded dataset in higher-elevation basins whose aspect faces prevailing cool-season winds, as compared to precipitation inferred from streamflow. In a few years and basins, there is less gridded precipitation than there is observed streamflow. Lower-elevation, southern, and east-of-crest basins show better agreement between gridded and inferred precipitation. Implied actual evapotranspiration (calculated as precipitation minus streamflow) then also varies between the streamflow-based estimates and the gridded dataset. Absolute uncertainty in precipitation inferred from streamflow is substantial, but the signal of basin-to-basin and year-to-year differences are likely more robust. The findings suggest that considering streamflow when spatially distributing precipitation in complex terrain

  8. Trends and variability in streamflow and snowmelt runoff timing in the southern Tianshan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan-Jun; Shen, Yanjun; Fink, Manfred; Kralisch, Sven; Chen, Yaning; Brenning, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Streamflow and snowmelt runoff timing of mountain rivers are susceptible to climate change. Trends and variability in streamflow and snowmelt runoff timing in four mountain basins in the southern Tianshan were analyzed in this study. Streamflow trends were detected by Mann-Kendall tests and changes in snowmelt runoff timing were analyzed based on the winter/spring snowmelt runoff center time (WSCT). Pearson's correlation coefficient was further calculated to analyze the relationships between climate variables, streamflow and WSCT. Annual streamflow increased significantly in past decades in the southern Tianshan, especially in spring and winter months. However, the relations between streamflow and temperature/precipitation depend on the different streamflow generation processes. Annual precipitation plays a vital role in controlling recharge in the Toxkon basin, while the Kaidu and Huangshuigou basins are governed by both precipitation and temperature. Seasonally, temperature has a strong effect on streamflow in autumn and winter, while summer streamflow appears more sensitive to changes in precipitation. However, temperature is the dominant factor for streamflow in the glacierized Kunmalik basin at annual and seasonal scales. An uptrend in streamflow begins in the 1990s at both annual and seasonal scales, which is generally consistent with temperature and precipitation fluctuations. Average WSCT dates in the Kaidu and Huangshuigou basins are earlier than in the Toxkon and Kunmalik basins, and shifted towards earlier dates since the mid-1980s in all the basins. It is plausible that WSCT dates are more sensitive to warmer temperature in spring period compared to precipitation, except for the Huangshuigou basin. Taken together, these findings are useful for applications in flood risk regulation, future hydropower projects and integrated water resources management.

  9. Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waichler, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    Runoff from Cold and Dry Creeks may provide an important source of groundwater recharge on the Hanford Site. This report presents estimates of total volume and distribution of such recharge from extreme precipitation events. Estimates were derived using a simple approach that combined the Soil Conservation Service curve number runoff method and an exponential-decay channel infiltration model. Fifteen-minute streamflow data from four gaging stations, and hourly precipitation data from one climate station, were used to compute curve numbers and calibrate the infiltration model. All data were from several storms occurring during January 1995. Design storm precipitation depths ranging from 1.6 to 2.7 inches were applied with computed curve numbers to produce total runoff/recharge of 7,700 to 15,900 ac-ft, or approximately 10 times the average annual rate from this recharge source as determined in a previous study. Approximately two-thirds of the simulated recharge occurred in the lower stream reaches contained in the broad alluvial valley that parallels State Highway 240 near the Hanford 200 Area

  10. Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.

    2005-12-13

    Runoff from Cold and Dry Creeks may provide an important source of groundwater recharge on the Hanford Site. This report presents estimates of total volume and distribution of such recharge from extreme precipitation events. Estimates were derived using a simple approach that combined the Soil Conservation Service curve number runoff method and an exponential-decay channel infiltration model. Fifteen-minute streamflow data from four gaging stations, and hourly precipitation data from one climate station, were used to compute curve numbers and calibrate the infiltration model. All data were from several storms occurring during January 1995. Design storm precipitation depths ranging from 1.6 to 2.7 inches were applied with computed curve numbers to produce total runoff/recharge of 7,700 to 15,900 ac-ft, or approximately 10 times the average annual rate from this recharge source as determined in a previous study. Approximately two-thirds of the simulated recharge occurred in the lower stream reaches contained in the broad alluvial valley that parallels State Highway 240 near the Hanford 200 Area.

  11. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Landslides Along the Florida River Downstream from Lemon Reservoir, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, William L.; Kibler, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly two-dozen shallow landslides were active during spring 2005 on a hillside located along the east side of the Florida River about one kilometer downstream from Lemon Reservoir in La Plata County, southwestern Colorado. Landslides on the hillside directly threaten human safety, residential structures, a county roadway, utilities, and the Florida River, and indirectly threaten downstream areas and Lemon Dam. Most of the area where the landslides occurred was burned during the 2002 Missionary Ridge wildfire. We performed geologic mapping, subsurface exploration and sampling, radiocarbon dating, and shallow ground-water and ground-displacement monitoring to assess landslide activity. Active landslides during spring 2005 were as large as 35,000 m3 and confined to colluvium. Debris flows were mobilized from most of the landslides, were as large as 1,500 m3, and traveled as far as 250 m. Landslide activity was triggered by elevated ground-water pressures within the colluvium caused by infiltration of snowmelt. Landslide activity ceased as ground-water pressures dropped during the summer. Shallow landslides on the hillside appear to be much more likely following the Missionary Ridge fire because of the loss of tree root strength and evapotranspiration. We used monitoring data and observations to develop preliminary, approximate rainfall/snowmelt thresholds above which shallow landslide activity can be expected. Landslides triggered during spring 2005 occurred within a 1.97 x 107 m3 older landslide that extends, on average, about 40 m into bedrock. The south end of this older landslide appears to have experienced deep secondary landsliding. Radiocarbon dating of sediments at the head of the older landslide suggests that the landslide was active about 1,424-1,696 years ago. A relatively widespread wildfire may have preceded the older landslide, and the landslide may have occurred during a wetter time. The wetter climate and effects of the wildfire would likely have

  13. Productive performance of hair lambs, fed with fresh lemon pulp as an energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigna Faustino-Lázaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of fresh lemon pulp (FLP was determined as a substitute of sorghum grain in the feeding of hair sheep in parameters of daily weight gain (DWG, daily food consumption (DFC, and feed conversion (FC, the nutritional composition of the ration was also determined. Materials and methods. The study was carried out using 20 hair ewes individually fed on a period of 75 days. The treatments were as follows: T1=0% FLP; T2=10% FLP; T3=20% FLP; and T4=30% FLP based on DM. A totally randomized design was used with five replicates per treatment. Concentrate and FLP were offered ad libitum as a mixture, registering the amounts of feed offered and rejected daily. Body weight was registered every 21 days for the DWG and analysis of nutritional composition of rations was performed. And for an analysis of daily food consumption. The data were evaluated through ANOVA in an entirely randomized design. Results. There was no meaningful difference (p>0.05 for the DWG that scored 97, 108, 103 and 103 g or for the FC that scored 9.62, 8.68, 9.31 and 10.23, respectively. For each treatment and for each DFC based on DM, a meaningful difference was observed (p<0.05 for T4 by replacing sorghum to 30%. Conclusions. FLP is an alternative to replace partially or completely the grains for hair ewes without lessening the evaluated parameters.

  14. Streamflow responses to afforestation with Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus patula and to felling in the Mokobulaan experimental catchments, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    1997-12-10

    Full Text Available The reductions in streamflow following the afforestation of grassland with Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus patula in the Mokobulaan research catchments on the Mpumalanga escarpment, and the subsequent response in streamflow to clearfelling...

  15. Global analysis of seasonal streamflow predictability using an ensemble prediction system and observations from 6192 small catchments worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Peña-Arancibia, J.L.; Wood, E.F.; Sheffield, J.; Beck, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key Points Global bimonthly streamflow forecasts show potentially valuable skill Initial catchment conditions are responsible for most skill Skill can be estimated from model performance and theoretical skill Ideally, a seasonal streamflow forecasting system would ingest skilful climate forecasts

  16. Bear Creek Project. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from nine known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. Environmental impacts and adverse effects are summarized

  17. The forest-streamflow relationship in China: a 40-year retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohua Wei; Ge Sun; Shirong Liu; Hong Jiang; Guoyi Zhou; Limin Dai

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between forests and streamflows has long been an important research interest in China. The purpose of this paper is to summarize progress and lessons learned from the forest-streamflow studies over the past four decades in China. To better measure the research gaps between China and other parts of the world, a brief global review on the findings from...

  18. Contribution of human and climate change impacts to changes in streamflow of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuezhi; Gan, Thian Yew

    2015-12-04

    Climate change exerts great influence on streamflow by changing precipitation, temperature, snowpack and potential evapotranspiration (PET), while human activities in a watershed can directly alter the runoff production and indirectly through affecting climatic variables. However, to separate contribution of anthropogenic and natural drivers to observed changes in streamflow is non-trivial. Here we estimated the direct influence of human activities and climate change effect to changes of the mean annual streamflow (MAS) of 96 Canadian watersheds based on the elasticity of streamflow in relation to precipitation, PET and human impacts such as land use and cover change. Elasticities of streamflow for each watershed are analytically derived using the Budyko Framework. We found that climate change generally caused an increase in MAS, while human impacts generally a decrease in MAS and such impact tends to become more severe with time, even though there are exceptions. Higher proportions of human contribution, compared to that of climate change contribution, resulted in generally decreased streamflow of Canada observed in recent decades. Furthermore, if without contributions from retreating glaciers to streamflow, human impact would have resulted in a more severe decrease in Canadian streamflow.

  19. The effects of changing land cover on streamflow simulation in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Van Beusekom; L.E. Hay; R.J. Viger; W.A. Gould; J.A. Collazo; A. Henareh Khalyani

    2014-01-01

    This study quantitatively explores whether land cover changes have a substantive impact on simulated streamflow within the tropical island setting of Puerto Rico. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to compare streamflow simulations based on five static parameterizations of land cover with those based on dynamically varying parameters derived from...

  20. Deforestation effects on soil moisture, streamflow, and water balance in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Patric; James H. Patric

    1973-01-01

    Soil moisture, precipitation, and streamflow were measured on three watersheds in West Virginia, two deforested and one forested. Water content of barren soil always exceeded that of forest soil throughout the growing season and especially in dry weather. Streamflow increased 10 inches annually on the watersheds that were cleared, most of the increase occurring between...

  1. Technical note: Combining quantile forecasts and predictive distributions of streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Liechti, Katharina; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2017-11-01

    The enhanced availability of many different hydro-meteorological modelling and forecasting systems raises the issue of how to optimally combine this great deal of information. Especially the usage of deterministic and probabilistic forecasts with sometimes widely divergent predicted future streamflow values makes it even more complicated for decision makers to sift out the relevant information. In this study multiple streamflow forecast information will be aggregated based on several different predictive distributions, and quantile forecasts. For this combination the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) approach, the non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR), also known as the ensemble model output statistic (EMOS) techniques, and a novel method called Beta-transformed linear pooling (BLP) will be applied. By the help of the quantile score (QS) and the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), the combination results for the Sihl River in Switzerland with about 5 years of forecast data will be compared and the differences between the raw and optimally combined forecasts will be highlighted. The results demonstrate the importance of applying proper forecast combination methods for decision makers in the field of flood and water resource management.

  2. Relating ocean-atmospheric climate indices with Australian river streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Md Shamim; Faisal Anwar, A. H. M.; Lamb, Kenneth W.; Bari, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between climate indices with Australian river streamflow (ASF) may provide valuable information for long-lead streamflow forecasting for Australian rivers. The current study examines the correlations between three climate indices (SST, 500 mb meridional wind -U500 and 500 mb geopotential height-Z500) and 135 unimpaired ASF gauges for 1971-2011 using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. First, SVD method was applied to check the SST-ASF correlated regions of influence and then extended SST-ASF variabilities were used to determine the correlated regions within Z500 and U500 fields. Based on the teleconnection, the most correlated region (150°E to 105°W and 35°S to 5°N) was identified and its persistency was checked by lag analysis up to 2 years from seasonal to yearly time-scale. The results displayed positive correlation for the south and south-eastern part of Australia while negative correlation prevails in the north-eastern region (at 95% significance level). The most correlated region was found situated along the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) axis which may be considered as a probable climate driver for ASF. The persistency of this region was checked by a separate climate indicator (mean vertical velocity-500 mb) and found prominent in dry period than the wet period. This persistent teleconnected region may be potentially useful for long-lead forecasting of ASF.

  3. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  4. Total Hydrocarbon (THC) of the Lower Kolo Creek in Otuogidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic wild life and habitats are affected by pollution through physical contact, absorption and inhalation. This study was carried out to investigate the THC values of lower Kolo creek in Otuogidi Bayelsa State – Nigeria for 12 months. THC of sediment and water covering wet and dry season obtained from the creek were ...

  5. Concentration of heavy metals in a Niger Delta Mangrove Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of some heavy metals, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, and total hydrocarbon content (THC) were assessed in the surface waters of a Niger Delta mangrove creek (Buguma Creek). Samples were collected between November 2004 and October 2006 from five stations. The minimum and maximum ...

  6. Preliminary Chemical and Biological Assessment of Ogbe Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    comprising 15 species and 106 zooplankton made up of 14 species were collected from the creek, mostly pollution tolerant species. Toxic plankton such as ... provides economically valuable food resources. Creeks are .... 1134 pp. Carmichael W. W. (1995) Cyanobacterial toxins In Manual on Harmful Marine Micro algae.

  7. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest... Rangeland Project area. The analysis will determine if a change in management direction for livestock grazing is needed to move existing resource conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area...

  8. 75 FR 52463 - Safety Zone; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule..., NJ. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life and property on navigable waters while... support the Route 130 Bridge spanning the Raccoon Creek in Bridgeport, NJ. A barge will be used to...

  9. Utilizing Creeks for Integrated Rural Coastal Development of Ilaje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural communities in the country are blessed with resources which need to be exploited to achieve rural development. This study examines the Utilization of Creeks for Integrated Coastal Development of Ilaje Area of Nigeria. The primary goal of the study is to carry out inventory on creek resources and how best it could be ...

  10. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  11. Lemon Odor Reduces Stress-induced Neuronal Activation in the Emotion Expression System: An Animal Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Kazue; Sugimoto, Koji; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Hisano, Setsuji

    Perception of particular sensory stimuli from the surroundings can influence emotion in individuals. In an uncomfortable situation, humans protect themselves from some aversive stimulus by acutely evoking a stress response. Animal model studies have contributed to an understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying the stress response in humans. To study a possible anti-stressful effect of lemon odor, an excitation of neurons secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) as a primary factor of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed in animal model experiments, in which rats are restrained in the presence or absence of the odor. The effect was evaluated by measuring expression of c-Fos (an excited neuron marker) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key structure of the HPA in the brain. We prepared 3 animal groups: Groups S, L and I. Groups S and L were restrained for 30 minutes while being blown by air and being exposed to the lemon odor, respectively. Group I was intact without any treatment. Two hours later of the onset of experiments, brains of all groups were sampled and processed for microscopic examination. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunostaining and/or in situ hybridization for CRH. In Group S but not in Group I, c-Fos expression was found in the PVN. A combined in situ hybridization-immunohistochemical dual labeling revealed that CRH mRNA-expressing neurons express c-Fos. In computer-assisted automatic counting, the incidence of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the entire PVN was statistically lower in Group L than in Group S. Detailed analysis of PVN subregions demonstrated that c-Fos-expressing neurons are fewer in Group L than in Group S in the dorsal part of the medial parvocellular subregion. These results may suggest that lemon odor attenuates the restraint stress-induced neuronal activation including CRH neurons, presumably mimicking an aspect of stress responses in humans.

  12. Regional-scale migrations and habitat use of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in the US South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyier, Eric A; Franks, Bryan R; Chapman, Demian D; Scheidt, Douglas M; Stolen, Eric D; Gruber, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    Resolving the geographic extent and timing of coastal shark migrations, as well as their environmental cues, is essential for refining shark management strategies in anticipation of increasing anthropogenic stressors to coastal ecosystems. We employed a regional-scale passive acoustic telemetry array encompassing 300 km of the east Florida coast to assess what factors influence site fidelity of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to an exposed coastal nursery at Cape Canaveral, and to document the timing and rate of their seasonal migrations. Movements of 54 juvenile lemon sharks were monitored for three years with individuals tracked for up to 751 days. While most sharks demonstrated site fidelity to the Cape Canaveral region December through February under typical winter water temperatures, historically extreme declines in ocean temperature were accompanied by rapid and often temporary, southward displacements of up to 190 km along the Florida east coast. From late February through April each year, most sharks initiated a northward migration at speeds of up to 64 km day(-1) with several individuals then detected in compatible estuarine telemetry arrays in Georgia and South Carolina up to 472 km from release locations. Nineteen sharks returned for a second or even third consecutive winter, thus demonstrating strong seasonal philopatry to the Cape Canaveral region. The long distance movements and habitat associations of immature lemon sharks along the US southeast coast contrast sharply with the natal site fidelity observed in this species at other sites in the western Atlantic Ocean. These findings validate the existing multi-state management strategies now in place. Results also affirm the value of collaborative passive arrays for resolving seasonal movements and habitat preferences of migratory coastal shark species not easily studied with other tagging techniques.

  13. Phytochemical profiling and antiviral activity of Ajuga bracteosa, Ajuga parviflora, Berberis lycium and Citrus lemon against Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Tahir; Rafique, Shazia; Wahid, Fazli; Rehman, Sidra; Nazir, Abdul; Rafique, Javeria; Aslam, Kashif; Shabir, Ghulam; Shah, Shahid Masood

    2018-03-20

    Hepatitis C is a serious health issue and cause liver disorders in millions of people. Available therapeutic agents require long term administration with numerous side effects. Therefore, there is a dire need to find alternative treatment options for this disease. Since ancient times, medicinal plants are widely used to cure various diseases with no or less harmful effects. Therefore, this study was designed to find out phytochemicals and investigate antiviral activity of methanol extract of Ajuga bracteosa, Ajuga parviflora, Berberis lycium and Citrus lemon against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection). Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract was performed using various chemical tests. Toxicity of the plant extract was determined against using trypan blue exclusion method. Antiviral activity of the selected plant extract was find out against HCV infected HepG2 cells. For this purpose, HepG2 cells were seeded with HCV positive and negative serum and nontoxic doses of plant extract for 24 and 48 h. After this RNA was extracted and viral load was determined using Real-time PCR. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids and phenols in all plant extracts while amino acids, alkaloids and tannins were present in B. lycium and saponins were detected in C. lemon. Toxicity assay showed that all plant extracts were nontoxic at maximum concentration of 200 μg/ml except B. lycium, which showed mild toxicity at 40 μg/ml and were extremely toxic at 60 μg/ml and above doses. Real-time PCR quantitation result revealed that after 24 h treatments A. parviflora showed highest antiviral activity, followed by A. bracteosa, while B. lycium extract had low (35%) and C. lemon has no antiviral effects. The 48 h treatments showed an increase antiviral activity by A. bracteosa followed by A. parviflora and B. lycium while C. lemon showed negative effect. Our results depicted that mentioned plants might be used as an alternative therapeutic regime or in

  14. Drying of sicilian lemon residue: influence of process variables on the evaluation of the dietary fiber produced

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Vanessa Martins; Viotto,Luiz Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the process variables of the air-drying of Sicilian lemon residues on some technological properties of the fibers produced was studied. The determination and modeling of desorption isotherms were used to establish the equilibrium moisture content at 60, 75, and 90 °C using the static method with 8 saturated salt solutions. The best fit was obtained with BET and GAB models. The drying process was conducted in a vertical tray dryer and delineated according to a cent...

  15. PERTUMBUHAN MATA TUNAS JERUK KEPROK (CITRUS NOBILIS HASIL OKULASI PADA BERBAGAI MEDIA TANAM DAN UMUR BATANG BAWAH ROUGH LEMON (C. JAMBHIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiek Kartika Suharsi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate keprok (Citrus nobilis budding seed development on various growing media and age of C. jambhiri rootstock. The design of experiment was complete randomized groups with 2 factors and 3 replications. The growing media consisted of soil, charcoal husk, sheep’s manure, compost, and vermi-compost. Rough lemon citrus rootstock’s age were 8, 11, and 14 months. The results showed that the growing media of soil:charcoal husk:compost or vermicompost mixture of [1:1:1] (v:v:v was the best media for increasing keprok bud growing. Rough lemon rootstock of 8 and 11 months age were the best rootstock for keprok. Rough lemon rootstock of 14 month age stimulated growth of keprok bud faster than that of 8 and 11 month age of rootstock.

  16. Assessment of an in-channel redistribution technique for large woody debris management in Locust Creek, Linn County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation and Missouri Department of Natural Resources, completed a study to assess a mechanical redistribution technique used for the management of large woody debris (LWD) jams in Locust Creek within Pershing State Park and Fountain Grove Conservation Area, Linn County, Missouri. Extensive LWD jams were treated from 1996 to 2009 using a low-impact technique in which LWD from the jams was redistributed to reopen the channel and to mimic the natural geomorphic process of channel migration and adjustment to an obstruction. The scope of the study included the comparison of selected channel geometry characteristics and bed material particle-size distribution in seven LWD treatment reaches with that of adjacent untreated reaches (unaffected by LWD accumulations) of Locust Creek. A comparison of 1996 and 2015 survey cross sections in treated and untreated reaches and photograph documentation were used to assess channel geomorphic change and the stability of redistributed LWD. The physical characteristics of LWD within jams present in the study reach during 2015–16 also were documented.Based on the general lack of differences in channel metrics between treated and untreated reaches, it can be concluded that the mechanical redistribution technique has been an effective treatment of extensive LWD jams in Locust Creek. Channel alterations, including aggradation, streamflow piracy, and diversions, have resulted in temporal and spatial changes in the Locust Creek channel that may affect future applications of the redistribution technique in Pershing State Park. The redistribution technique was used to effectively manage LWD in Locust Creek at a potentially lower financial cost and reduced environmental disturbance than the complete removal of LWD.A comparison of four channel metrics (bankfull cross-sectional area, channel width, streamflow capacity, and width-depth ratio) for individual treatment

  17. Monthly hydrometeorological ensemble prediction of streamflow droughts and corresponding drought indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundel, F.; Jörg-Hess, S.; Zappa, M.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow droughts, characterized by low runoff as consequence of a drought event, affect numerous aspects of life. Economic sectors that are impacted by low streamflow are, e.g., power production, agriculture, tourism, water quality management and shipping. Those sectors could potentially benefit from forecasts of streamflow drought events, even of short events on the monthly time scales or below. Numerical hydrometeorological models have increasingly been used to forecast low streamflow and have become the focus of recent research. Here, we consider daily ensemble runoff forecasts for the river Thur, which has its source in the Swiss Alps. We focus on the evaluation of low streamflow and of the derived indices as duration, severity and magnitude, characterizing streamflow droughts up to a lead time of one month. The ECMWF VarEPS 5-member ensemble reforecast, which covers 18 yr, is used as forcing for the hydrological model PREVAH. A thorough verification reveals that, compared to probabilistic peak-flow forecasts, which show skill up to a lead time of two weeks, forecasts of streamflow droughts are skilful over the entire forecast range of one month. For forecasts at the lower end of the runoff regime, the quality of the initial state seems to be crucial to achieve a good forecast quality in the longer range. It is shown that the states used in this study to initialize forecasts satisfy this requirement. The produced forecasts of streamflow drought indices, derived from the ensemble forecasts, could be beneficially included in a decision-making process. This is valid for probabilistic forecasts of streamflow drought events falling below a daily varying threshold, based on a quantile derived from a runoff climatology. Although the forecasts have a tendency to overpredict streamflow droughts, it is shown that the relative economic value of the ensemble forecasts reaches up to 60%, in case a forecast user is able to take preventive action based on the forecast.

  18. Monthly hydrometeorological ensemble prediction of streamflow droughts and corresponding drought indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fundel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streamflow droughts, characterized by low runoff as consequence of a drought event, affect numerous aspects of life. Economic sectors that are impacted by low streamflow are, e.g., power production, agriculture, tourism, water quality management and shipping. Those sectors could potentially benefit from forecasts of streamflow drought events, even of short events on the monthly time scales or below. Numerical hydrometeorological models have increasingly been used to forecast low streamflow and have become the focus of recent research. Here, we consider daily ensemble runoff forecasts for the river Thur, which has its source in the Swiss Alps. We focus on the evaluation of low streamflow and of the derived indices as duration, severity and magnitude, characterizing streamflow droughts up to a lead time of one month.

    The ECMWF VarEPS 5-member ensemble reforecast, which covers 18 yr, is used as forcing for the hydrological model PREVAH. A thorough verification reveals that, compared to probabilistic peak-flow forecasts, which show skill up to a lead time of two weeks, forecasts of streamflow droughts are skilful over the entire forecast range of one month. For forecasts at the lower end of the runoff regime, the quality of the initial state seems to be crucial to achieve a good forecast quality in the longer range. It is shown that the states used in this study to initialize forecasts satisfy this requirement. The produced forecasts of streamflow drought indices, derived from the ensemble forecasts, could be beneficially included in a decision-making process. This is valid for probabilistic forecasts of streamflow drought events falling below a daily varying threshold, based on a quantile derived from a runoff climatology. Although the forecasts have a tendency to overpredict streamflow droughts, it is shown that the relative economic value of the ensemble forecasts reaches up to 60%, in case a forecast user is able to take preventive

  19. Comparing large-scale hydrological model predictions with observed streamflow in the Pacific Northwest: effects of climate and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Guillaume S. Mauger; Gordon E. Grant; Ivan Arismendi; Alan F. Hamlet; Se-Yeun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Assessing uncertainties in hydrologic models can improve accuracy in predicting future streamflow. Here, simulated streamflows using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model at coarse (1/16°) and fine (1/120°) spatial resolutions were evaluated against observed streamflows from 217 watersheds. In...

  20. Wolf Creek quality trend analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, W.J. II; Lindsay, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Wolf Creek quality trend analysis program has been designed with three primary objectives in mind: (1) to provide a statistically relevant diagnostic and trend identification tool to improve plant availability and reliability; (2) to communicate clearly and concisely need-to-know information to management personnel; and (3) to provide an additional method of obtaining corrective actions to significant quality issues. The analysis methodology uses a relatively sophisticated computer program to continuously evaluate a large data base of current, significant problems. The evaluation process groups similar problems according to their alphanumeric codes and highlights these problems whenever they exceed an established statistical control limit. A root cause analysis is performed by quality department personnel who then combine the various computer-generated graphical summaries into a short, concise trend analysis report. Other essential features of the program include measures for following identified adverse trends and implementing formal corrective actions when necessary. The results of diagnostic and trend analysis graphical summaries are considered important additions to the corrective action program at Wolf Creek. The report provides all levels of management with concise and easily interpreted information concerning quality indicators and trends

  1. Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crader, S.E.; Huntington, G.S.

    1991-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.

  2. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. Tea with Symbiotic Consortium of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L. with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY. In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of fi nished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L, the value which is confi rmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. offi cinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  3. Effects of lemon verbena extract (Recoverben®) supplementation on muscle strength and recovery after exhaustive exercise: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald-Werner, Sybille; Naka, Ioanna; Wilhelm, Manfred; Schütz, Elivra; Schoen, Christiane; Reule, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise causes muscle damage accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation leading to muscle fatigue and muscle soreness. Lemon verbena leaves, commonly used as tea and refreshing beverage, demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a proprietary lemon verbena extract (Recoverben®) on muscle strength and recovery after exhaustive exercise in comparison to a placebo product. The study was performed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with parallel design. Forty-four healthy males and females, which were 22-50 years old and active in sports, were randomized to 400 mg lemon verbena extract once daily or placebo. The 15 days intervention was divided into 10 days supplementation prior to the exhaustive exercise day (intensive jump-protocol), one day during the test and four days after. Muscle strength (MVC), muscle damage (CK), oxidative stress (GPx), inflammation (IL6) and volunteer-reported muscle soreness intensity were assessed pre and post exercise. Participants in the lemon verbena group benefited from less muscle damage as well as faster and full recovery. Compared to placebo, lemon verbena extract receiving participants had significantly less exercise-related loss of muscle strength ( p  = 0.0311) over all timepoints, improved glutathione peroxidase activity by trend ( p  = 0.0681) and less movement induced pain ( p  = 0.0788) by trend. Creatine kinase and IL-6 didn't show significant discrimmination between groups. Lemon verbena extract (Recoverben®) has been shown to be a safe and well-tolerated natural sports ingredient, by reducing muscle damage after exhaustive exercise. The trial was registered in the clinical trials registry (clinical trial.gov NCT02923102). Registered 28 September 2016.

  4. Simulation of Streamflow in a Discontinuous Permafrost Environment Using a Modified First-order, Nonlinear Rainfall-runoff Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, W. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    . The storage-discharge relationship is developed for each month of the summer thaw period (June-September). The monthly relationships are then combined to form a single storage-discharge relationship that changes smoothly throughout the summer period. By allowing the monthly storage-discharge equations to vary through time, the variation in runoff due to changes in the active layer thaw are represented. This simple, nonlinear equation describing the storage-discharge relationship is used to simulate streamflow from evapotranspiration and precipitation data. The simulation area is located in the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Basin, located about 50 km north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska. The three sub-basins are underlain with approximately 3, 19, and 53% permafrost. Simulation results from each of the head-water basins are presented.

  5. Enhancing the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidants of Lemon Pomace Aqueous Extracts by Applying UV-C Irradiation to the Dried Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V.; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m−2, while untreated pow...

  6. Water Quality of Peralta and Courtland Creek Oakland, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A.; Zhen, K. L.; Ponce, X.; Johnson, A.; Varela, N.; Quintero, D.; Hernandez, G.; Oghogho, E.

    2014-12-01

    Authors: Allan Ahumada, Aminah Butler, Mellany Davis, Yarely Guzman, Micah Johnson, Xochitl Ponce, Kim Zhen Abstract: Beginning in the summer of 2012 and continuing to the present time our group has been assessing the water quality of Courtland Creek, which flows from Northeast to Southwest in East Oakland, California. During the summer of 2014 we began assessing the water quality at nearby Peralta Creek to compare the health of Courtland Creek with another one within the same watershed. In making our assessment we have analyzed samples collected from three different sites along both creeks for Nitrate, Phosphate, and Ammonia concentration levels. Additionally, we conducted benthic macroinvertebrate surveys at one site along each creek. Preliminary results indicate that nitrate levels in Courtland Creek waters are very high, which we believe is the result of human and animal waste entering into the creek. There were also unusually high levels of Phosphate and Ammonia detected in creek waters. Such high concentrations were noted in a past study and in an attempt to address this problem we initiated a native plant restoration project at one particular site located at the intersection of Courtland and Thompson avenues. This effort has resulted in a reduction in levels of Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia. The average levels of these compounds in waters collected near the restoration site were lower than those found in samples collected at other sites. However, they are still well above levels that are harmful to invertebrates and fish. Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia concentration levels in samples collected from Peralta Creek were significantly lower than those collected from Courtland Creek. For example, the maximum level of nitrate detected in Courtland Creek waters was 50 PPM while the maximum found in Peralta Creek waters was 15 PPM. We have concluded that the observed high levels of various compounds are the result of animal waste and human feces spilling directly

  7. Regional Frequency Analysis of Annual Maximum Streamflow in Gipuzkoa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, J.; López, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme streamflow events have been an important cause of recent flooding in Gipuzkoa, and any change in the magnitude of such events may have severe impacts upon urban structures such as dams, urban drainage systems and flood defences, and cause failures to occur. So a regional frequency analysis of annual maximum streamflow was developed for Gipuzkoa, using the well known L-moments approach together with the index-flood procedure, and following the four steps that characterize it: initial screening of the data, identification of homogeneous regions, choice of the appropriate frequency distribution and estimation of quantiles for different return periods. The preliminary study, completed in 2009, was based on the observations recorded at 22 stations distributed throughout the area. A primary filtering of the data revealed the absence of jumps, inconsistencies and changes in trends within the series, and the discordancy measures showed that none of the sites used in the analysis had to be considered discordant with the others. Regionalization was performed by cluster analysis, grouping the stations according to eight physical site characteristics: latitude, longitude, drainage basin area, elevation, main channel length of the basin, slope, annual mean rainfall and annual maximum rainfall. It resulted in two groups - one cluster with the 18 sites of small-medium basin area, and a second cluster with the 4 remaining sites of major basin area - in which the homogeneity criteria were tested and satisfied. However, the short lenght of the series together with the introduction of the observations of 2010 and the inclusion of a historic extreme streamflow event occurred in northern Spain in November 2011, completely changed the results. With this consideration and adjustment, all Gipuzkoa could be treated as a homogeneus region. The goodness-of-fit measures indicated that Generalized Logistic (GLO) is the only suitable distribution to characterize Gipuzkoa. Using the

  8. Benchmarking ensemble streamflow prediction skill in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Shaun; Prudhomme, Christel; Parry, Simon; Smith, Katie; Tanguy, Maliko

    2018-03-01

    Skilful hydrological forecasts at sub-seasonal to seasonal lead times would be extremely beneficial for decision-making in water resources management, hydropower operations, and agriculture, especially during drought conditions. Ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) is a well-established method for generating an ensemble of streamflow forecasts in the absence of skilful future meteorological predictions, instead using initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs), such as soil moisture, groundwater, and snow, as the source of skill. We benchmark when and where the ESP method is skilful across a diverse sample of 314 catchments in the UK and explore the relationship between catchment storage and ESP skill. The GR4J hydrological model was forced with historic climate sequences to produce a 51-member ensemble of streamflow hindcasts. We evaluated forecast skill seamlessly from lead times of 1 day to 12 months initialized at the first of each month over a 50-year hindcast period from 1965 to 2015. Results showed ESP was skilful against a climatology benchmark forecast in the majority of catchments across all lead times up to a year ahead, but the degree of skill was strongly conditional on lead time, forecast initialization month, and individual catchment location and storage properties. UK-wide mean ESP skill decayed exponentially as a function of lead time with continuous ranked probability skill scores across the year of 0.75, 0.20, and 0.11 for 1-day, 1-month, and 3-month lead times, respectively. However, skill was not uniform across all initialization months. For lead times up to 1 month, ESP skill was higher than average when initialized in summer and lower in winter months, whereas for longer seasonal and annual lead times skill was higher when initialized in autumn and winter months and lowest in spring. ESP was most skilful in the south and east of the UK, where slower responding catchments with higher soil moisture and groundwater storage are mainly located

  9. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF. Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, free FM (FFM, and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

  10. Aerial Survey as a Tool to Estimate Abundance and Describe Distribution of a Carcharhinid Species, the Lemon Shark, Negaprion brevirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Kessel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerial survey provides an important tool to assess the abundance of both terrestrial and marine vertebrates. To date, limited work has tested the effectiveness of this technique to estimate the abundance of smaller shark species. In Bimini, Bahamas, the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris shows high site fidelity to a shallow sandy lagoon, providing an ideal test species to determine the effectiveness of localised aerial survey techniques for a Carcharhinid species in shallow subtropical waters. Between September 2007 and September 2008, visual surveys were conducted from light aircraft following defined transects ranging in length between 8.8 and 4.4 km. Count results were corrected for “availability”, “perception”, and “survey intensity” to provide unbiased abundance estimates. The abundance of lemon sharks was greatest in the central area of the lagoon during high tide, with a change in abundance distribution to the east and western regions of the lagoon with low tide. Mean abundance of sharks was estimated at 49 (±8.6 individuals, and monthly abundance was significantly positively correlated with mean water temperature. The successful implementation of the aerial survey technique highlighted the potential of further employment for shark abundance assessments in shallow coastal marine environments.

  11. Effect of Elevated CO2 in Different Fertilizer Conditions on Physiological Traits in Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis at Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrients supply are generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of crops as a result considerably increase yields. The present study aims to investigate effects of elevated CO2 and different fertilizer conditions on physiological traits in Lemon balm. A factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications and nine treatments at the greenhouse in 2010. The experiment factors were included three CO2 concentrations (380, 700 and 1050 ppm and three kinds of conditions fertilizer (no fertilizer, manure fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that increasing of CO2 from 380 to 1050 ppm led to improve in leaf area, plant height, relative growth ratio, total dry matter and final yield of individual plant. The highest and the lowest amount of measured traits related to with and without nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Impact of elevated CO2 in conjunction with nitrogen and manure fertilizers increased. These effects were more on total dry matter and final yield than other growth indices. Therefore, it can be concluded that, whereas increase of temperature caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not any limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will be improved lemon balm production.

  12. Simultaneous reduction and nitrogen functionalization of graphene oxide using lemon for metal-free oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Halima; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Cho, Sung; Jeon, Seungwon

    2017-12-01

    Inspire by the vision of finding a simple and green method for simultaneous reduction and nitrogen (N)-functionalization of graphene oxide (GO), a N-rich reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been synthesized through a facile and ecofriendly hydrothermal strategy while most of the existing methods are involving with multiple steps and highly toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and environment. In this paper, the simultaneous reduction and N-functionalization of GO using as available lemon juice (denoted as Lem-rGO) for metal-free electrocatalysis towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is described. The proposed method is based on the reduction of GO using of the reducing and the N-precursor capability of ascorbic acid and citric acid as well as the nitrogenous compounds, respectively, that containing in lemon juice. The resultant Lem-rGO has higher reduction degree, higher specific surface area and better crystalline nature with N-incorporation than that of well investigated ascorbic acid and citric acid treated rGO. As a result, it shows better ORR electrocatalytic activity in respect to the improved onset potential, electron transfer rate and kinetics than those typical rGO catalysts. Moreover, it shows a significant tolerance to the anodic fuels and durability than the Pt/C during ORR.

  13. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Prashanth; Mooventhan, A; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2016-03-01

    Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF). Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), free FM (FFM), and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs) with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fatty acids profile and alteration of lemon seeds extract (Citrus limon) added to soybean oil under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2013-10-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating fatty acids profile and the total alteration of lemon seeds extract added to soybean oil under thermoxidation, verifying the isolated and synergistic effect of these antioxidants. Therefore, Control treatments, LSE (2,400 mg/kg Lemon Seeds Extract), TBHQ (mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180°C for 20 h. Samples were taken at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analyzed as for fatty acid profile and total polar compounds. Results were subjected to variance analyses and Tukey tests at a 5% significance level. An increase in the percentage of saturated fatty acids and mono-unsaturated, and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed, regardless of the treatments studied. For total polar compounds, it was verified that Mixtures 1 and 2 presented values lower than 25% with 20 h of heating, not surpassing the limits established in many countries for disposal of oils and fats under high temperatures, thus proving the synergistic effect of antioxidants.

  15. Streamflow estimation in ungauged basins using remote sensed hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Nicolas; Vargas, Ximena

    2017-04-01

    In several parts of the world the scarcity of streamflow gauging stations produces an important deficit of information, and calibrating these basins remains a challenge for hydrologists. Improvements in remote sensing have provided significant information about hydrological cycle, which can be used to calibrate a hydrological model when streamflow information is not available. Several satellite products related to snow, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, among other variables provide essential information about hydrological processes, and can be used to calibrate physically based hydrological models. Despite this useful information, other aspects are unknown like aquifers dimensions or precipitation heterogeneity. We calibrated three snow driven basins in the Coquimbo Region in Northern Chile, using fSCA from MODIS (MOD10 and MYD10) and NDSI from Landsat. We also considered the MOD16 product to estimate evapotranspiration. Soil Moisture from AMSR-E was considered but it was not useful due to the spatial resolution of the product and the high heterogeneity of the terrain. The Cold Regional Hydrological Modal (CHRM) was selected to represent the hydrological processes due to the importance of snow processes which are, by far, the most important in this area, where precipitation falls as snow principally in winter (June to August) and the melting period begins in spring (September) and ends in the beginning of summer (December and January). The inputs used in the model are precipitation, temperature, short wave radiation, wind speed and relative humidity. The meteorological information was obtained from stations available in the area, and distributed spatially using orographic gradients for wind and precipitation and lapse rates for air temperature and dew point temperature. Short wave radiation was computed and corrected by cloud cover data from MODIS. Streamflow data was available but it was not used in the calibration process. The three basins are Cochiguaz river

  16. Numerical model for learning concepts of streamflow simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, L.L.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Numerical models are useful for demonstrating principles of open-channel flow. Such models can allow experimentation with cause-and-effect relations, testing concepts of physics and numerical techniques. Four PT is a numerical model written primarily as a teaching supplement for a course in one-dimensional stream-flow modeling. Four PT options particularly useful in training include selection of governing equations, boundary-value perturbation, and user-programmable constraint equations. The model can simulate non-trivial concepts such as flow in complex interconnected channel networks, meandering channels with variable effective flow lengths, hydraulic structures defined by unique three-parameter relations, and density-driven flow.The model is coded in FORTRAN 77, and data encapsulation is used extensively to simplify maintenance and modification and to enhance the use of Four PT modules by other programs and programmers.

  17. Sherman Creek Hatchery, annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the

  18. Sherman Creek Hatchery, annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year

  19. Assessing streamflow characteristics as limiting factors on benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C.P.; Brasher, A.M.D.; May, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    1. Human use of land and water resources modifies many streamflow characteristics, which can have significant ecological consequences. Streamflow and invertebrate data collected at 111 sites in the western U.S.A. were analysed to identify streamflow characteristics (magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and variation) that are probably to limit characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages (abundance, richness, diversity and evenness, functional feeding groups and individual taxa) and, thus, would be important for freshwater conservation and restoration. Our analysis investigated multiple metrics for each biological and hydrological characteristic, but focuses on 14 invertebrate metrics and 13 streamflow metrics representing the key associations between streamflow and invertebrates.

  20. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches