Sample records for lemna minor electronic

  1. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage

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    Begović, Lidija, E-mail: [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Mlinarić, Selma, E-mail: [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Antunović Dunić, Jasenka, E-mail: [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Katanić, Zorana, E-mail: [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Lončarić, Zdenko, E-mail: [Faculty of Agriculture, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Ulica kralja Petra Svačića 1d, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Lepeduš, Hrvoje, E-mail: [Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Lorenza Jägera 9, HR-31000 Osijek (Croatia); Cesar, Vera, E-mail: [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia)


    Highlights: • Cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) impaired the function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in L. minor L. • Electron transport through PSII components varied depending on Co{sup 2+} concentration. • K-band was proven to be suitable parameter for investigation of Co{sup 2+} toxicity. • Increased lipid peroxidation level showed early oxidative damage induced by Co{sup 2+}. - Abstract: The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1 mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01 mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co{sup 2+} especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A}{sup −} and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co{sup 2+} concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals.

  2. Remediation of eutrophic water using Lemna minor in a controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth response of common duckweed Lemna minor was studied at various temperature and pH levels for its possible application for remediating eutrophic waters. The dry weight, chlorophyll a, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined.

  3. Production and characterization of Lemna minor bio-char and its catalytic application for biogas reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C.; Garceau, Nathaniel; T-Raissi, Ali


    Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass - Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on production, characterization and catalytic application of bio-char is reported in this paper. The yield of bio-char was determined as a function of L. minor pyrolysis temperature and sweep gas flow rate. It was found that the pore development during L. minor pyrolysis was not significant and the changes in the reaction conditions (temperature and sweep gas flow rate) did not alter markedly the textural characteristics and BET surface area of the bio-char produced. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of L. minor and different bio-char samples in inert (helium) and oxidative (air) media showed substantial differences in their TG/DTG patterns. A comparison of scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of L. minor, bio-char and ash indicated that the basic structural features of L. minor remained intact and were not affected by thermolysis. The inorganic ash content of L. minor derived bio-char is significantly higher than that of typical terrestrial (plant) biomass. The energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of L. minor ash showed that it mostly consisted of silica, and small quantities of Na, K and Ca compounds. The treatment of bio-char with CO 2 at 800 °C increased its BET surface area. It was found that CO 2 -treated bio-char exhibited appreciable initial catalytic activity in biogas reforming. -- Highlights: ► New data on characterization of bio-chars derived from Lemna minor are presented. ► Effect of pyrolysis operational parameters on bio-char properties is determined. ► Basic skeletal structure of Lemna minor leaflets does not change during pyrolysis. ► Bio-chars show an appreciable initial catalytic activity for biogas reforming.

  4. Possible ecological risk of two pharmaceuticals diclofenac andparacetamol demonstrated on a model plant Lemna minor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kummerová, M.; Zezulka, Š.; Babula, P.; Tříska, Jan


    Roč. 302, jan (2016), s. 351-361 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Antioxidant mechanism * Diclofenac * Lemna minor * Oxidative stress * Paracetamol Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016


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    Erma Musbita Tyastuti


    Full Text Available Limbah cair batik di Solo sebagian besar dibuang langsung ke perairan tanpa diolah terlebih dahulu dan menyebabkan pencemaran air. Kandungan logam berat di dalam limbah cair batik dapat memicu efek genotoksik seperti pembentukan mikronukleus. Lemna minor berpotensi sebagai antimutagen dan mencegah pembentukan mikronukleus karena mengandung senyawa aktif seperti karoten dan asam amino. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ekogenotoksisitas limbah cair batik dan efek antimutagenik Lemna minor terhadap eritrosit ikan nila. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Biologi UMS dengan pemaparan limbah cair batik 0ppm/L, 2500 ppm/L, 5000 ppm/L dan 7500 ppm/L terhadap 2 kelompok ikan nila dengan diet pelet dan Lemna minor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa paparan limbah cair batik memicu pembentukan mikronukleus dengan frekwensi tertinggi pada konsentrasi paparan 7500 ppm/L. Lemna minor juga terbukti memiliki potensi antimutagenik karena mampu menekan frekwensi mikronukleus lebih rendah dibandingkan diet pelet.

  6. Phenolic compounds of ethanol extracts of Lemna minor L., Lemna trisulca L. and Lemna polyrrhiza L. Schleid and their immunomodulating activity

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    Sergazy M. Adekenov


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the composition of the phenolic compounds of ethanol extracts isolated from three species of duckweed: Lemna minor L., Lemna trisulca L. and Lemna polyrrhiza L. (the synonym is Spirodella polyrrhiza Schleid. and to study its effect on immune system activation.Materials and methods. The objects of the study are: air-dried grass samples of Lemna minor L., Lemna trisuica L. and Lemna polyrrhiza L. collected during their growing season in 2010–2011 in low-flow and stagnant ponds of Kozhevnikovsky and Tomsk districts of Tomsk region. Isolation of polyphenolic complexes (PFC was carried out by extraction of air-dried raw material with ethyl alcohol. In qualitative and quantitative analysis of the samples studied the method of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on an Agilent 1100 Series instrument (USA was used in isocratic mode. In the experiments, 200 male C57BL / 6 and BALB / C mice aged 8–12 weeks were used to determine immunomodulatory activity. Cell proliferation was assessed by a colorimetric method. The absorption of the obtained solutions was measured with a multi-channel spectrophotometer at the wavelength of 540 nm. The determination of antibody-forming cells in the spleen was performed by local hemolysis. The titer of antibodies in serum was evaluated in the hemagglutination reaction. The local hypersensitivity reaction of immediate type was assessed by the author’s modification.Results. For the first time the study of the qualitative composition and quantitative content of PFC of Lemna minor L. (LM , Lemna trisulca L. (LT trisulkas, and Lemna polyrrhiza L. (LP : (4,7 ± 0,4%, (3,3 ± 0,3%, (12,8 ± 0,7% was carried out. The highest content of phenolic acids (10,76% and the sum of flavonoids, isoflavonoids and coumarins (14,7% were found in the LP sample. The content of chlorogenic and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids was 2–9 times higher in LP than in other species of duckweed

  7. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on Lemna minor. (United States)

    Song, Guanling; Hou, Wenhua; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Zhiwei; Niu, Qiang; Ma, Rulin; Mu, Lati; Wang, Haixia


    Copper dioxide nanoparticles (NPs), which is a kind of important and widely used metal oxide NP, eventually reaches a water body through wastewater and urban runoff. Ecotoxicological studies of this kind of NPs effects on hydrophyte are very limited at present. Lemna minor was exposed to media with different concentrations of CuO NPs, bulk CuO, and two times concentration of Cu 2+ released from CuO NPs in culture media. The changes in plant growth, chlorophyll content, antioxidant defense enzyme activities [i.e., peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities], and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured in the present study. The particle size of CuO NPs and the zeta potential of CuO NPs and bulk CuO in the culture media were also analyzed to complementally evaluate their toxicity on duckweed. Results showed that CuO NPs inhibited the plant growth at lower concentration than bulk CuO. L. minor roots were easily broken in CuO NPs media under the experimental condition, and the inhibition occurred only partly because CuO NPs released Cu 2+ in the culture media. The POD, SOD, and CAT activities of L. minor increased when the plants were exposed to CuO NPs, bulk CuO NPs and two times the concentration of Cu 2+ released from CuO NPs in culture media, but the increase of these enzymes were the highest in CuO NPs media among the three kinds of materials. The MDA content was significantly increased compared with that of the control from 50 mg L -1 CuO NP concentration in culture media. CuO NPs has more toxicity on L. minor compared with that of bulk CuO, and the inhibition occurred only partly because released Cu 2+ in the culture media. The plant accumulated more reactive oxygen species in the CuO NP media than in the same concentration of bulk CuO. The plant cell encountered serious damage when the CuO NP concentration reached 50 mg L -1 in culture media. The toxicology of CuO NP on hydrophytes must be considered because that hydrophytes

  8. Toxicological evaluation of bacterial decolourised anaerobically treated distillery effluent with common duckweed (Lemna minor). (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Srivastava, Archana


    Duckweed (Lemna minor) a small vascular plant, grows rapidly, is sensitive to a wide variety of toxicants and is easy to culture. A method is described that measures duckweed frond growth, chlorophyll, protein and biomass content as indicator of growth inhibition. The physico-chemical analysis of anaerobically treated distillery effluent revealed high BOD (28,000 mg/l), COD (52,400 mg/l) and dark brown colour (180,000 Co. Pt.). This effluent showed high toxicity to Lemna minor after 96 h of exposure in laboratory condition. EC50 of the fronds for chlorophyll, protein and biomass was found to be 25%, however, the bacterial decolourised effluent showed reduction of BOD (87.50%), COD (84.50%) and colour (76%). Further the toxicity evaluation with Lemna minor showed toxicity reduction up to 63% for all tested parameters. The EC50 noted for chlorophyll, protein and biomass was 100% concentration of decolourised effluent.

  9. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron. (United States)

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R


    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment.


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    Adolfo D. Arenas


    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad biorremediadora de Lemna minor en función del tiempo en aguas contaminadas con mercurio mediante un diseño experimental de 3 bloques al azar con cinco réplicas: un grupo experimental con 100 g de Lemna, 7,5 L de agua contaminada con Hg (0,13 mgL-1 y solución nutritiva; un grupo Testigo con 100 g de Lemna, 7,5 L de agua y solución nutritiva y un grupo control con mercurio al nivel de 0,13 mgL-1 en agua destilada sin plantas. La eficiencia de remoción de mercurio de la Lemna minor, en 22 días, fue de 30%. Las variables peso fresco, peso seco, y nitrógeno y fósforo foliares no presentaron diferencias significativas entre los dos tratamientos. La absorción de potasio, fue afectada por los niveles de mercurio. La planta Lemna minor representa una alternativa para la remoción de mercurio en aguas contaminadas hasta un nivel de 0,13 mg/L.

  11. Effects of light and phytochrome in heterotrophic growth of Lemna minor L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, J.


    Axenic cultures of Lemna minor L. were grown on a medium containing sugars and amino acids. In continuous darkness the growth rate was one-tenth of the maximum in continuous light. In darkness early death revealed a thiamine deficiency; this

  12. Trophic transfer of cadmium from duckweed (Lemna Minor L.) to Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Yan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Huang, Jin; Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan


    The transfer of the toxic heavy metal Cd from duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to the freshwater fish tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was investigated. Concentrations of Cd in different chemical forms in duckweed and in different tissues (gut, edible muscle, and remnants) of tilapia, i.e.,

  13. Removal mechanisms of benzotriazoles in duckweed Lemna minor wastewater treatment systems. (United States)

    Gatidou, Georgia; Oursouzidou, Maria; Stefanatou, Aimilia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S


    The fate of five benzotriazoles (1H-benzotriazole, BTR; 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, 4TTR; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, 5TTR; xylytriazole, XTR and 5-chlorobenzotriazole, CBTR) was studied in batch and continuous-flow Lemna minor systems and the role of different mechanisms on their removal was evaluated. Single and joint toxicity experiments were initially conducted using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) protocol 221 and no inhibition on specific growth rate of Lemna minor was observed for concentrations up to 200μgL -1 . All tested substances were significantly removed in batch experiments with Lemna minor. Excepting 4TTR, full elimination of CBTR, XTR, 5TTR and BTR was observed up to the end of these experiments (36d), while the half-life values ranged between 1.6±0.3d (CBTR) and 25±3.6d (4-TTR). Calculation of kinetic constants for hydrolysis, photodegradation, and plant uptake revealed that for all BTRs the kinetic constants of plant uptake were by far higher comparing to those of the other mechanisms, reaching 0.394±0.161d -1 for CBTR. The operation of a continuous-flow Lemna minor system consisted of three mini ponds and a total hydraulic residence time of 8.3d showed sufficient removal for most target substances, ranging between 26% (4TTR) and 72% (CBTR). Application of a model for describing micropollutants removal in the examined system showed that plant uptake was the major mechanism governing BTRs removal in Lemna minor systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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    N. Khellaf ، M. Zerdaoui


    Full Text Available To assess the tolerance and effect of heavy metals pollution on the duckweed Lemna minor, the aquatic plants were exposed to different concentrations of copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn in a quarter Coïc and Lessaint solution at pH = 6.1 (± 0.1 and under a daily regime of 16 h light (101 μmol/m2.s1. Copper at 0.2 mg/L and nickel at 0.5 mg/L promoted the growth of Lemna fronds. At higher concentrations, Cu and Ni inhibited the growth of duckweed; the EC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition were 0.47 mg/L for Cu and 1.29 mg/L for Ni. Cadmium and zinc decreased by 50% the growth of fronds when the medium contained respectively 0.64 and 5.64 mg/L (EC50. Duckweed tolerated Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn at concentrations of 0.4, 3.0, 0.4 and 15.0 mg/L respectively without showing any visible signs of toxicity (chlorosis, frond disconnection and necrosis. On the basis of visible symptoms and the EC50 values, the toxicity of the metals on Lemna. minor was in decreasing order of damage: Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn. It was concluded that the duckweed Lemna. minor is very sensitive to copper and cadmium pollution.

  15. The enzymatic and antioxidative stress response of Lemna minor to copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide. (United States)

    Obermeier, Michael; Schröder, Christian A; Helmreich, Brigitte; Schröder, Peter


    Lemna minor L., a widely used model plant for toxicity tests has raised interest for its application to phytoremediation due to its rapid growth and ubiquitous occurrence. In rural areas, the pollution of water bodies with heavy metals and agrochemicals poses a problem to surface water quality. Among problematic compounds, heavy metals (copper) and pesticides are frequently found in water bodies. To establish duckweed as a potential plant for phytoremediation, enzymatic and antioxidative stress responses of Lemna minor during exposure to copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide were investigated in laboratory studies. The present study aimed at evaluating growth and the antioxidative and glutathione-dependent enzyme activity of Lemna plants and its performance in a scenario for phytoremediation of copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide. Lemna minor was grown in Steinberg medium under controlled conditions. Plants were treated with CuSO4 (ion conc. 50 and 100 μg/L) and pethoxamide (1.25 and 2.5 μg/L). Measurements following published methods focused on plant growth, oxidative stress, and basic detoxification enzymes. Duckweed proved to survive treatment with the respective concentrations of both pollutants very well. Its growth was inhibited scarcely, and no visible symptoms occurred. On the cellular basis, accumulation of O2(-) and H2O2 were detected, as well as stress reactions of antioxidative enzymes. Duckweed detoxification potential for organic pollutants was high and increased significantly with incubation. Pethoxamide was found to be conjugated with glutathione. Copper was accumulated in the fronds at high levels, and transient oxidative defense reactions were triggered. This work confirms the significance of L. minor for the removal of copper from water and the conjugation of the selective herbicide pethoxamide. Both organic and inorganic xenobiotics induced different trends of enzymatic and antioxidative stress response. The strong increase of stress

  16. Ecotoxicological assessments show sucralose and fluoxetine affect the aquatic plant, Lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy-Sagers, Cherisse; Reinhardt, Keith; Larson, Danelle M.


    Highlights: • Sucralose increased leaf area and photosynthetic capacity of Lemna minor. • Sucralose increased δ 13 C of Lemna, indicating substantial uptake and assimilation. • 100 μg/L-fluoxetine decreased Lemna minor growth and asexual reproduction. - Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are prevalent in aquatic systems, yet the fate and impacts on aquatic plants needs quantification for many compounds. We measured and detected sucralose (an artificial sweetener), fluoxetine (an antidepressant), and other PPCP in the Portneuf River in Idaho, USA, where Lemna minor (an aquatic plant in the environment and used in ecotoxicology studies) naturally occurs. Sucralose was hypothesized to negatively affect photosynthesis and growth of L. minor because sucralose is a chlorinated molecule that may be toxic or unusable for plant metabolism. A priori hypotheses were not created for fluoxetine due to lack of previous studies examining its impacts on plants. We conducted laboratory ecotoxicological assessments for a large range of concentrations of sucralose and fluoxetine on L. minor physiology and photosynthetic function. Frond green leaf area, root length, growth rate, photosynthetic capacity, and plant carbon isotopic composition (discrimination relative to a standard; δ 13 C) were measured among treatments ranging from 0 to 15000 nmol/L-sucralose and 0–323 nmol/L-fluoxetine. Contrary to our predictions, sucralose significantly increased green leaf area, photosynthetic capacity, and δ 13 C of L. minor at environmentally relevant concentrations. The increase of δ 13 C from sucralose amendments and an isotope-mixing model indicated substantial sucralose uptake and assimilation within the plant. Unlike humans who cannot break down and utilize sucralose, we documented that L. minor—a mixotrophic plant—can use sucralose as a sugar substitute to increase its green leaf area and photosynthetic capacity. Fluoxetine significantly decreased L

  17. Ecotoxicological assessments show sucralose and fluoxetine affect the aquatic plant, Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy-Sagers, Cherisse; Reinhardt, Keith; Larson, Danelle M., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Sucralose increased leaf area and photosynthetic capacity of Lemna minor. • Sucralose increased δ {sup 13}C of Lemna, indicating substantial uptake and assimilation. • 100 μg/L-fluoxetine decreased Lemna minor growth and asexual reproduction. - Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are prevalent in aquatic systems, yet the fate and impacts on aquatic plants needs quantification for many compounds. We measured and detected sucralose (an artificial sweetener), fluoxetine (an antidepressant), and other PPCP in the Portneuf River in Idaho, USA, where Lemna minor (an aquatic plant in the environment and used in ecotoxicology studies) naturally occurs. Sucralose was hypothesized to negatively affect photosynthesis and growth of L. minor because sucralose is a chlorinated molecule that may be toxic or unusable for plant metabolism. A priori hypotheses were not created for fluoxetine due to lack of previous studies examining its impacts on plants. We conducted laboratory ecotoxicological assessments for a large range of concentrations of sucralose and fluoxetine on L. minor physiology and photosynthetic function. Frond green leaf area, root length, growth rate, photosynthetic capacity, and plant carbon isotopic composition (discrimination relative to a standard; δ{sup 13}C) were measured among treatments ranging from 0 to 15000 nmol/L-sucralose and 0–323 nmol/L-fluoxetine. Contrary to our predictions, sucralose significantly increased green leaf area, photosynthetic capacity, and δ {sup 13}C of L. minor at environmentally relevant concentrations. The increase of δ {sup 13}C from sucralose amendments and an isotope-mixing model indicated substantial sucralose uptake and assimilation within the plant. Unlike humans who cannot break down and utilize sucralose, we documented that L. minor—a mixotrophic plant—can use sucralose as a sugar substitute to increase its green leaf area and photosynthetic capacity. Fluoxetine


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    María del Pilar Arroyave

    Full Text Available Se describen las principales características morfológicas y ecológicas de la planta acuática Lemna minor L., al igual que la utilización que tiene como complemento alimenticio para animales domésticos y en labores de fitorremediación, por su capacidad de absorber nutrientes y contaminantes de los ecosistemas acuáticos. Asimismo se discute su potencial como una especie adecuada para realizar ensayos de fitotoxicidad.

  19. Comparative sensitivity of Selenastrum capricornutum and Lemna minor to sixteen herbicides (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Ruessler, D.S.; Haverland, P.S.; Carlson, A.R.


    Aquatic plant toxicity tests are frequently conducted in environmental risk assessments to determine the potential impacts of contaminants on primary producers. An examination of published plant toxicity data demonstrates that wide differences in sensitivity can occur across phylogenetic groups of plants. Yet relatively few studies have been conducted with the specific intent to compare the relative sensitivity of various aquatic plant species to contaminants. We compared the relative sensitivity of the algae Selenestrum capricornutum and the floating vascular plant Lemna minor to 16 herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, cyanazine, alachlor, metolachlor, chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, triallate, EPTC, trifluralin, diquat, paraquat, dicamba, bromoxynil, and 2,4-D). The herbicides studied represented nine chemical classes and several modes of action and were chosen to represent major current uses in the United States. Both plant species were generally sensitive to the triazines (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, and cyanazine), sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron), pyridines (diquat and paraquat), dinitroaniline (trifluralin), and acetanilide (alachlor and metolachlor) herbicides. Neither plant species was uniformly more sensitive than the other across the broad range of herbicides tested. Lemna was more sensitive to the sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron) and the pyridines (diquat and parequat) than Selenastrum. However Selenastrum was more sensitive than Lemna to one of two thiocarbamates (triallate) and one of the triazines (cyanazine). Neither species was sensitive to selective broadleaf herbicides including bromoxynil, EPTC, dicamba, or 2,4-D. Results were not always predictable in spite of obvious differences in herbicide modes of action and plant phylogeny. Major departures in sensitivity of Selenastrum occurred between chemicals within individual classes of the triazine, acetanilide, and thiocarbamate herbicides. Results indicate that neither

  20. Temperature-dependent toxicity of artemisinin toward the macrophyte Lemna minor and the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessing, Karina Knudsmark; Andresen, Marianne; Cedergreen, Nina


    - and groundwater. To make better risk assessments of A. annua which is cultivated under varying climatic conditions, the temperature-dependent toxicity of artemisinin toward the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the macrophyte Lemna minor was evaluated at temperatures ranging from 10 to 30°C....... To include a possible effect of temperature on the degradation rate of artemisinin, artemisinin concentrations were measured during the experiment and toxicity was related to the time-weighted averages of exposure concentrations. The toxicity of artemisinin toward the macrophyte L. minor and the algae P......Artemisinin, an antimalarial compound derivated from the cultivated plant Artemisia annua L., is produced in situ through cultivation of A. annua under different climatic conditions. The bioactive compound artemisinin has been observed to spread to the surroundings as well as to leach to surface...

  1. Wastewater pollution remediation: an experimental investigation with aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor. (United States)

    Kuraishi, M A; Sharma, Sunil


    The freshwater resources are shrinking rapidly due to rise in population and discharge of untreated wastewater into fresh water bodies making them unfit for public use in many developing countries. Effective and affordable wastewater treatment has become a challenge, hence various alternatives are being investigated by researchers to tackle the problem. In this study, laboratory scale experiments on duckweed covered domestic sewage were carried out to evaluate the removal efficiency of duckweed species Lemna minor as a domestic wastewater stripper. The outdoor experiments were conducted in 4 mini ponds at Jodhpur, popularly known as Sun City of India. The physico-chemical properties of domestic wastewater were evaluated before and after inoculation of culture for wastewater quality improvement. Various parameters, namely pH, DO, TSS, TDS, Turbidity, BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus were analysed for varying detention periods. The result indicated that the treated effluent can be used for irrigation.

  2. Uptake of Cadmium by Lemna minor, a (hyper?- accumulator plant involved in phytoremediation applications

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    Bianconi D.


    Full Text Available Metal pollution in waters and soils is a major environmental and human health problem. Cadmium (Cd2+ is a heavy metal displaying toxic effects in plants. In this work we studied the potentiality of Lemna minor, a monocotyledonous aquatic macrophyte, to phytoremediate cadmium-polluted waters. The plants were exposed to different cadmium concentrations 0, 13, 22 and 46μM CdSO4 for a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Relative growth rates (RGR, bioconcentration factor (BCF, tolerance index (Ti, cadmium uptake in whole plant and maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm were measured under controlled climate conditions. RGR, Ti and Fv/Fm declined with increasing exposure time and cadmium concentrations, while the BCF and cadmium uptake showed an opposite behavior. Data analysis of RGR, BCF, Tiand FV/FM indicates that L. minor maintains a good capacity of growth, metal bioconcentration, tolerance and efficiency of PSII up to 48h in plants exposed to 13 and 22μM CdSO4. Our results exhibited that L. minor is a good cadmium accumulator and is able to remediate Cd-polluted waters, especially at low Cd concentrations.

  3. Thorough removal of inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Lemna minor powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shunxing; Zheng Fengying; Huang Yang; Ni Jiancong


    The adsorption ability of duckweed (Lemna minor) powders for removing inorganic and organic mercury (methyl and ethyl mercury) has been studied using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimal adsorption conditions were: (a) the pH value of the solution 7.0 for inorganic and ethyl mercury, 9.0 for methyl mercury, and (b) equilibrium adsorption time 10, 20, and 40 min for inorganic mercury, methyl mercury, and ethyl mercury, respectively. After adsorption by L. minor powder for 40 min, when the initial concentrations of inorganic and organic mercury were under 12.0 μg L -1 and 50.0 μg L -1 , respectively, the residual concentrations of mercury could meet the criterion of drinking water (1.0 μg L -1 ) and the permitted discharge limit of wastewater (10.0 μg L -1 ) set by China and USEPA, respectively. Thorough removal of both inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions was reported for the first time. The significant adsorption sites were C-O-P and phosphate groups by the surface electrostatic interactions with aqueous inorganic and organic mercury cations, and then the selective adsorption was resulted from the strong chelating interaction between amine groups and mercury on the surface of L. minor cells.

  4. Differential oxidative and antioxidative response of duckweed Lemna minor toward plant growth promoting/inhibiting bacteria. (United States)

    Ishizawa, Hidehiro; Kuroda, Masashi; Morikawa, Masaaki; Ike, Michihiko


    Bacteria colonizing the plant rhizosphere are believed to positively or negatively affect the host plant productivity. This feature has inspired researchers to engineer such interactions to enhance crop production. However, it remains to be elucidated whether rhizobacteria influences plant oxidative stress vis-a-vis other environmental stressors, and whether such influence is associated with their growth promoting/inhibiting ability. In this study, two plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and two plant growth-inhibiting bacteria (PGIB) were separately inoculated into axenic duckweed (Lemna minor) culture under laboratory conditions for 4 and 8 days in order to investigate their effects on plant oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. As previously characterized, the inoculation of PGPB and PGIB strains accelerated and reduced the growth of L. minor, respectively. After 4 and 8 days of cultivation, compared to the PGPB strains, the PGIB strains induced larger amounts of O 2 •- , H 2 O 2 , and malondialdehyde (MDA) in duckweed, although all bacterial strains consistently increased O 2 •- content by two times more than that in the aseptic control plants. Activities of five antioxidant enzymes were also elevated by the inoculation of PGIB, confirming the severe oxidative stress condition in plants. These results suggest that the surface attached bacteria affect differently on host oxidative stress and its response, which degree correlates negatively to their effects on plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Capacidad de las macrofitas Lemna minor y Eichhornia crassipes para eliminar el niquel

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    BRES, P


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la capacidad de dos especies de macrofitas, Lemna minor y Eichhornia crassipes, para eliminar el níquel. Se realizaron cuatro tratamientos durante dos semanas para cada una de las especies. Las plantas fueron incubadas con 0, 1, 3 y 6 mg l-1 de Ni. Ambas especies mostraron, en todos los tratamientos con Ni, una reducción en la concentración a lo largo del tiempo. L. minor mostró ser más eficiente para remover este ión a la más baja concentración. Sin embargo, en concentraciones más elevadas no se observaron diferencias entre ambas especies. El análisis del tejido de las plantas mostró que las mismas acumulaban el metal, en los tres casos evaluados con concentraciones diferentes.Palabras clave: fitorremediación, metales pesados, plantas acuáticas, acumulación.

  6. Possible ecological risk of two pharmaceuticals diclofenac and paracetamol demonstrated on a model plant Lemna minor. (United States)

    Kummerová, Marie; Zezulka, Štěpán; Babula, Petr; Tříska, Jan


    Lemna minor is often used in environmental risk assessment and it can be supposed that usually evaluated parameters will be reliable even for assessing the risk of pharmaceuticals. Subtle changes in duckweed plant number, biomass production, and leaf area size induced by 10-day-exposure to diclofenac (DCF) and paracetamol (PCT) (0.1, 10, and 100 μg/L), excepting 100 μg/L DCF, are in contrast with considerable changes on biochemical and histochemical level. Both drugs caused a decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments (by up to 50%), an increase in non-photochemical quenching (by 65%) and decrease in relative chlorophyll fluorescence decay values (by up to 90% with DCF). Both DCF and especially PCT increased amount of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in roots. DCF-induced effects included mainly increased lipid peroxidation (by 78%), disturbation in membrane integrity and lowering both oxidoreductase and dehydrogenase activities (by 30%). PCT increased the content of soluble proteins and phenolics. Higher concentrations of both DCF and PCT increased the levels of oxidised ascorbate (by 30%) and oxidised thiols (by up to 84% with DCF). Glutathion-reductase activity was elevated by both pharmaceuticals (nearly by 90%), glutathion-S-transferase activity increased mainly with PCT (by 22%). The early and sensitive indicators of DCF and PCT phytotoxicity stress in duckweed are mainly the changes in biochemical processes, connected with activation of defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalytic production of levulinic acid and ethyl levulinate from uniconazole-induced duckweed (Lemna minor). (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Feng, Qingna; Yang, Jirui; Qi, Xinhua


    Duckweed (Lemna minor) with a high starch content of 50.4% was cultivated by uniconazole-induction method. The cultivated duckweed was used to produce value-added chemicals such as glucose, levulinic acid and formic acid in diluted HCl aqueous solution. A high glucose yield of 93.4% (471 g/kg based on loading duckweed mass) could be achieved at 180 °C in short reaction time, and the generated glucose was converted into levulinic acid and formic acid with yields of 52.0% and 34.1%, respectively, for 150 min, corresponding to 262 g/kg levulinic acid yield and 171 g/kg formic acid yield based on the mass of loading duckweed, respectively. Moreover, the duckweed was efficiently converted to ethyl levulinate with 55.2% yield (400.6 g/kg) at 200 °C in ethanol. This work provides a promising strategy for the production of value-added chemicals from phytoplankton that is able to purify the wastewater containing high content of P and N. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes Godinho, R., E-mail: [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa 1449-006 (Portugal); Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P. [IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa 1449-006 (Portugal); Alves, L.C.; Pinheiro, T. [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL – Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)


    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism.

  9. Modeling the interaction of light intensity, nutrient concentration and uranium toxicity in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, E.; Horemans, N.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Cedergreen, N. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jager, T. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Radioecology aims at assessing the effect of radionuclides and radiation on the environment. Since we cannot test every possible environmental situation in the laboratory, we need modeling approaches to extrapolate the results of toxicity assays to environmentally relevant scenarios. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand the effect of relevant environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light on the toxicity of the test. Radionuclides are often found to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, an overload of ROS can lead to disturbances of the photosynthetic system. Since the light intensity determines the efficiency of the photo-systems in plants, it can be expected to interact with the effect of radionuclides. The nutrient concentration of the test medium determines the physiological state of the plant, affecting in turn the plant's capability of dealing with stress and hence influences the toxicity of the contaminant. To study the interaction of stressors with environmental conditions, mechanistic effect modeling is promoted widely in ecotoxicology. In principle, the modelling aims at a mechanistic understanding of the different processes causing the stress individually, and integrating them in one framework to study their joint effect and possible interaction. We here present a mechanistic effect model for Lemna minor (common duckweed), which is based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. Models based on DEB have been used widely to study the effects of compounds on animals. Due to its general applicability to all types of organisms, it holds potential to be used for comparison of species and compounds in a broad context. Energy uptake from the environment is modeled explicitly, and metabolic rates are set to depend on temperature in DEB models. Therefore, they can be used to extrapolate effects to a wide range of environmentally relevant scenarios. Until now, the DEB research in ecotoxicology has

  10. Duckweed (Lemna minor as a model plant system for the study of human microbial pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant infection models provide certain advantages over animal models in the study of pathogenesis. However, current plant models face some limitations, e.g., plant and pathogen cannot co-culture in a contained environment. Development of such a plant model is needed to better illustrate host-pathogen interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a novel model plant system for the study of human pathogenic bacterial infection on a large scale. This system was initiated by co-cultivation of axenic duckweed (Lemna minor plants with pathogenic bacteria in 24-well polystyrene cell culture plate. Pathogenesis of bacteria to duckweed was demonstrated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as two model pathogens. P. aeruginosa PAO1 caused severe detriment to duckweed as judged from inhibition to frond multiplication and chlorophyll formation. Using a GFP-marked PAO1 strain, we demonstrated that bacteria colonized on both fronds and roots and formed biofilms. Virulence of PAO1 to duckweed was attenuated in its quorum sensing (QS mutants and in recombinant strains overexpressing the QS quenching enzymes. RN4220, a virulent strain of S. aureus, caused severe toxicity to duckweed while an avirulent strain showed little effect. Using this system for antimicrobial chemical selection, green tea polyphenols exhibited inhibitory activity against S. aureus virulence. This system was further confirmed to be effective as a pathogenesis model using a number of pathogenic bacterial species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that duckweed can be used as a fast, inexpensive and reproducible model plant system for the study of host-pathogen interactions, could serve as an alternative choice for the study of some virulence factors, and could also potentially be used in large-scale screening for the discovery of antimicrobial chemicals.

  11. Fate, toxicity and bioconcentration of cadmium on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor in mid-term single tests. (United States)

    Clément, Bernard; Lamonica, Dominique


    In the frame of a project which consists in modeling a laboratory microcosm under cadmium pressure, we initiated this study on the fate and effects of cadmium in the presence of either the microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata or the duckweed Lemna minor, two organisms of the microcosm. For each organism, growth inhibition tests on a duration of 2-3 weeks were carried out with the objective of linking effects with total dissolved, ionic and internalized forms of cadmium. Numbers of organisms (algal cells or duckweed fronds) in 2-L beakers filled with synthetic nutritive medium containing EDTA were counted during the course of assays, while cadmium concentrations in the water and in the organisms were measured. Free cadmium fraction was calculated using PHREEQC, a computer program for chemical speciation. Results showed that cadmium toxicity to microalgae could be correlated to the free divalent fraction of this metal, limited by the presence of EDTA, and to its concentration in the organisms. Bioconcentration factors for our medium were suggested for P. subcapitata (111,000 on the basis of free cadmium concentration) and L. minor (17,812 on the basis of total dissolved concentration). No effect concentrations were roughly estimated around 400 µg/g for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 200-300 µg/g for Lemna minor. This study is a first step towards a fate model based on chemical speciation for a better understanding of microcosm results.

  12. Apport du traitement d'images dans le suivi de l'influence des teneurs en nutriments sur la croissance des lentilles d'eau (Lemna minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangou, TT.


    Full Text Available Contribution of image processing in monitoring the influence of nutrients on the growth of duckweed (Lemna minor. The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor is an important component in the treatment process in wastewater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ponds. Modeling these duckweed ponds through mass balances based on Petersen's matrix may be helpful in facilitating the optimal management of such facilities. This study sought to assess the efficiency of digital image processing in the growth monitoring of Lemna minor under different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The experiments were carried out in a growth chamber (phytotron using an experimental pilot involving initial fresh Lemna minor biomass (1 g, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations varying between 5 and 64 mg N-NH4+·l-1, and 1 and 24 mg P-PO43-·-1, respectively. Digital image processing was achieved in addition to gravimetric methods (fresh weight and/or dry weight. Our results showed that the image processing method allowed a continuous and non-destructive monitoring of duckweed biomass. The growth of Lemna minor progressively decreased when nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were greater than 16 mg N-NH4+·l-1 and 6 mg P-PO43-·-1. The maximum growth rates μmax were of the order of 0.07 d-1. The kinetic constants KS and KI were respectively 3.83 mg·l-1 and 204 mg·l-1 for nitrogen, and 1.26 mg·l-1 and 13.3 mg·l-1 for phosphorus. Such results are interesting as they could contribute to the optimal management of Lemna minor and the modeling of biological reactors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Mayangsari


    Full Text Available Energi terbarukan sangatlah diperlukan karena semakin meluasnya krisis energi sehingga memerlukan alternatif selain penggunaan bahan bakar fosil, penggunaan bioethanol merupakan alternatif yang baik karena banyak kelebihanya. Lemna minor merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang berpotensi sebagai bioethanol, hal ini dapat dilihat dari kandungan glukosanya yang tinggi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan waktu dan suhu pada proses hidrolisis terhadap nilai kadar glukosa serta mengetahui hubungan densitas terhadap kadar etanol. Proses ekstrasi glukosa menggunakan perbandingan volume HCl dengan kosentrasi 0,1 N, berat serbuk Lemna minor dan volume aquades yaitu 1:10:100 dengan variasi waktu ekstrasi 60, 90, dan 120 menit pada variasi suhu 60, 70, 80 °C dengan ukuran serbuk 60 mesh. Hasil penelitian ekstrasi hidrolisis terbaik pada menit ke-90 didapatkan panjang gelombang tertinggi 415 nm. Semua glukosa pada ekstrasi 90 menit difermentasi menggunakan bakteri Saccharomiches cerevisiae sebanyak 10% dari volume glukosa dengan waktu 144 jam, setelah fermentasi selesai sampel didestilasi untuk menghilangkan kadar air dan dihasilkan kadar ethanol terbaik 0,47% dengan densitas 0,9345 gr/ml3pada panjang gelombang larutan glukosa 316 nm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khodijah


    Full Text Available Salah satu alternatif dalam mendukung ketersediaan sumber daya energi terbarukan adalah dengan memanfaatkan sumber dari non fosil seperti bioetanol. Bioetanol merupakan etanol yang dibuat dari biomass yang mengandung komponen pati (karbohidrat atau selulosa yang selanjutnya di fermentasi menggunakan bantuan mikroorganisme (Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Karbohidrat yang digunakan pada penelitian ini berasal dari Lemna minor (Duckweed. Penelitian ini bertujuan membuat bioetanol dari Lemna minor dengan variasi penambahan ragi dan lamanya waktu fermentasi terhadap nilai kadar etanol dan nilai densitas, serta mengetahui hubungan densitas dengan kadar etanol. Produksi bioetanol dari tanaman yang mengandung pati (karbohidrat, dilakukan melalui proses konversi karbohidrat menjadi gula (glukosa dengan hidrolisis asam (HCl, hidrolisat yang diperoleh selanjutnya dilakukan fermentasi dengan menambahkan yeast atau ragi sehingga diperoleh bioetanol. Variabel yang digunakan adalah perubahan massa ragi 5%,15%, dan 25% serta lama fermentasi 5, 6, dan 7 hari . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan lama fermentasi dan persentase ragi mempengaruhi kadar etanol. Nilai kadar etanol optimum diperoleh presentase ragi 25% dengan lama fermentasi 7 hari sebesar 3.81% dengan density optimum sebesar 0.9438 gr/cm3, Hubungan nilai densitas berbanding terbalik dengan peningkatan kadar etanol.

  15. Genetic programming-based mathematical modeling of influence of weather parameters in BOD5removal by Lemna minor. (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sivapragasam; Sankararajan, Vanitha; Neelakandhan, Nampoothiri; Ram Kumar, Mahalakshmi


    This study, through extensive experiments and mathematical modeling, reveals that other than retention time and wastewater temperature (T w ), atmospheric parameters also play important role in the effective functioning of aquatic macrophyte-based treatment system. Duckweed species Lemna minor is considered in this study. It is observed that the combined effect of atmospheric temperature (T atm ), wind speed (U w ), and relative humidity (RH) can be reflected through one parameter, namely the "apparent temperature" (T a ). A total of eight different models are considered based on the combination of input parameters and the best mathematical model is arrived at which is validated through a new experimental set-up outside the modeling period. The validation results are highly encouraging. Genetic programming (GP)-based models are found to reveal deeper understandings of the wetland process.

  16. Influence of nutrient medium composition on uranium toxicity and choice of the most sensitive growth related endpoint in Lemna minor. (United States)

    Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Saenen, Eline; Van Hoeck, Arne; Smolders, Valérie; Blust, Ronny; Vandenhove, Hildegarde


    Uranium (U) toxicity is known to be highly dependent on U speciation and bioavailability. To assess the impact of uranium on plants, a growth inhibition test was set up in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. First growth media with different compositions were tested in order to find a medium fit for testing U toxicity in L. minor. Following arguments were used for medium selection: the ability to sustain L. minor growth, a high solubility of U in the medium and a high percentage of the more toxic U-species namely UO2(2+). Based on these selection criteria a with a low phosphate concentration of 0.5 mg L(-1) and supplemented with 5 mM MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) to ensure pH stability was chosen. This medium also showed highest U toxicity compared to the other tested media. Subsequently a full dose response curve for U was established by exposing L. minor plants to U concentrations ranging from 0.05 μM up to 150 μM for 7 days. Uranium was shown to adversely affect growth of L. minor in a dose dependent manner with EC10, EC30 and EC50 values ranging between 1.6 and 4.8 μM, 7.7-16.4 μM and 19.4-37.2 μM U, respectively, depending on the growth endpoint. Four different growth related endpoints were tested: frond area, frond number, fresh weight and dry weight. Although differences in relative growth rates and associated ECx-values calculated on different endpoints are small (maximal twofold difference), frond area is recommended to be used to measure U-induced growth effects as it is a sensitive growth endpoint and easy to measure in vivo allowing for measurements over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Citric acid enhanced the antioxidant defense system and chromium uptake by Lemna minor L. grown in hydroponics under Cr stress. (United States)

    Sallah-Ud-Din, Rasham; Farid, Mujahid; Saeed, Rashid; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Tauqeer, Hafiz Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Asad Hussain


    Phytoextraction is a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique for the removal of pollutants, mainly heavy metal(loids) especially from polluted water and metal-contaminated soils. The phytoextraction of heavy metals is, in general, limited due to the low availability of heavy metals in the growth medium. Organic chelators can help to improve the phytoextraction by increasing metal mobility and solubility in the growth medium. The present research was carried out to examine the possibility of citric acid (CA) in improving chromium (Cr) phytoextraction by Lemna minor (duckweed). For this purpose, healthy plants were collected from nearby marsh and grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Initial metal contents of both marsh water and plant were measured along with physico-chemical properties of the marsh water. Different concentrations of Cr and CA were applied in the hydroponics in different combinations after defined intervals. Continuous aeration was supplied and pH maintained at 6.5 ± 0.1. Results showed that increasing concentration of Cr significantly decreased the plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, and antioxidant enzyme activities (like catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase). Furthermore, Cr stress increased the Cr concentrations, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde contents in plants. The addition of CA alleviated the Cr-induced toxicity in plants and further enhanced the Cr uptake and its accumulation in L. minor. The addition of CA enhanced the Cr concentration in L. minor by 6.10, 26.5, 20.5, and 20.2% at 0, 10, 100, and 200 μM Cr treatments, respectively, compared to the respective Cr treatments without CA. Overall, the results of the present study showed that CA addition may enhance the Cr accumulation and tolerance in L. minor by enhancing the plant growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  18. Ecotoxicological evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium to Lemna minor L. (1753) individually and in binary mixtures. (United States)

    Godoy, Aline A; Kummrow, Fábio; Pamplin, Paulo Augusto Z


    Antihypertensive pharmaceuticals, including the beta-blockers, are one of the most detected therapeutic classes in the environment. The ecotoxicity of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium was evaluated, both individually and combined in a binary mixture, by using the Lemna minor growth inhibition test. The endpoints evaluated in the single-pharmaceutical tests were frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. For the evaluation of the mixture toxicity, the selected endpoint was frond number. Water quality criteria values (WQC) were derived for the protection of freshwater and saltwater pelagic communities regarding the effects induced by propranolol and losartan using ecotoxicological data from the literature, including our data. The risks associated with both pharmaceutical effects on non-target organisms were quantified through the measured environmental concentration (MEC)/predicted-no-effect concentration (PNEC) ratios. For propranolol, the total frond area was the most sensitive endpoint (EC50 = 77.3 mg L(-1)), while for losartan there was no statistically significant difference between the endpoints. Losartan is only slightly more toxic than propranolol. Both concentration addition and independent action models overestimated the mixture toxicity of the pharmaceuticals at all the effect concentration levels evaluated. The joint action of both pharmaceuticals showed an antagonistic interaction to L. minor. Derived WQC assumed lower values for propranolol than for losartan. The MEC/PNEC ratios showed that propranolol may pose a risk for the most sensitive aquatic species, while acceptable risks posed by losartan were estimated for most of aquatic matrices. To the authors knowledge these are the first data about losartan toxicity for L. minor.

  19. A Nanopore-Structured Nitrogen-Doped Biocarbon Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction from Two-Step Carbonization of Lemna minor Biomass (United States)

    Guo, Chaozhong; Li, Zhongbin; Niu, Lidan; Liao, Wenli; Sun, Lingtao; Wen, Bixia; Nie, Yunqing; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Changguo


    So far, the development of highly active and stable carbon-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace commercial Pt/C catalyst is a hot topic. In this study, a new nanoporous nitrogen-doped carbon material was facilely designed by two-step pyrolysis of the renewable Lemna minor enriched in crude protein under a nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical measurements show that the onset potential for ORR on this carbon material is around 0.93 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode), slightly lower than that on the Pt/C catalyst, but its cycling stability is higher compared to the Pt/C catalyst in an alkaline medium. Besides, the ORR at this catalyst approaches to a four-electron transfer pathway. The obtained ORR performance can be basically attributed to the formation of high contents of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen atoms inside this catalyst. Thus, this work opens up the path in the ORR catalysis for the design of nitrogen-doped carbon materials utilizing aquatic plants as starting precursors.

  20. Effects of exposure to nano and bulk sized TiO2and CuO in Lemna minor. (United States)

    Dolenc Koce, Jasna


    Nanoparticles of TiO 2 and CuO are among most commonly used nanoparticles, and elevated concentrations of them are expected to be found in all environments, including aquatic. A standard growth inhibition test ISO/CD 20079 was used to determine the toxicity of nano sized and larger micro sized (bulk) particles in the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μM CuO and TiO 2 on common duckweed (Lemna minor L.). Both nano and bulk CuO particles caused changes in the structure and function of treated plants. The number of fronds and colonies decreased by as much as 78%, the length of roots and fronds decreased by 99% and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, photochemical efficiency was reduced by up to 35%, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased by more than 240%. The altered physiological state of the CuO exposed plants was also reflected in the elevated occurrence of necrosis and bleaching in the duckweed colonies. Nano sized particles of CuO proved more phytotoxic than bulk particles, and the effects of both studied CuO sizes were concentration dependent. On the other hand, both bulk and nano sized particles of TiO 2 caused no severe phytotoxic effects, there was no concentration dependence and they could be considered as non-harmful to common duckweed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant growth-promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 increases the chlorophyll content of the monocot Lemna minor (duckweed) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce). (United States)

    Suzuki, Wakako; Sugawara, Masayuki; Miwa, Kyoko; Morikawa, Masaaki


    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was isolated from the surface of duckweed (Lemna aoukikusa). The bacterium was observed to colonize on the plant surfaces and increase the chlorophyll content of not only the monocotyledon Lemna minor but also the dicotyledon Lactuca sativa in a hydroponic culture. This effect on the Lactuca sativa was significant in nutrient-poor (×1/100 dilution of H2 medium) and not nutrient-rich (×1 or ×1/10 dilutions of H2 medium) conditions. Strain P23 has the potential to play a part in the future development of fertilizers and energy-saving hydroponic agricultural technologies. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A marriage of convenience; a simple food chain comprised of Lemna minor (L.) and Gammarus pulex (L.) to study the dietary transfer of zinc. (United States)

    Lahive, E; O'Halloran, J; Jansen, M A K


    Macrophytes contribute significantly to the cycling of metals in aquatic systems, through accumulation during growth and release during herbivory or decomposition. Accumulation of high levels of metals has been extensively documented in Lemnaceae (duckweeds). However, the degree of trophic transfer of metals from Lemnaceae to secondary consumers remains poorly understood. This study demonstrates that zinc accumulated in Lemna minor is bioavailable to the herbivore consumer Gammarus pulex. Overall, the higher the zinc content of L. minor, the more zinc accumulated in G. pulex. Accumulation in G. pulex was such that mortality occurred when they were fed high zinc-containing L. minor. Yet, the percentage of consumed zinc retained by G. pulex actually decreased with higher zinc concentrations in L. minor. We hypothesise that this decrease reflects internal zinc metabolism, including a shift from soluble to covalently bound zinc in high zinc-containing L. minor. Consistently, relatively more zinc is lost through depuration when G. pulex is fed L. minor with high zinc content. The developed Lemna-Gammarus system is simple, easily manipulated, and sensitive enough for changes in plant zinc metabolism to be reflected in metal accumulation by the herbivore, and therefore suitable to study ecologically relevant metal cycling in aquatic ecosystems. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Getting More Ecologically Relevant Information from Laboratory Tests: Recovery of Lemna minor After Exposure to Herbicides and Their Mixtures. (United States)

    Knežević, Varja; Tunić, Tanja; Gajić, Pero; Marjan, Patricija; Savić, Danko; Tenji, Dina; Teodorović, Ivana


    Recovery after exposure to herbicides-atrazine, isoproturon, and trifluralin-their binary and ternary mixtures, was studied under laboratory conditions using a slightly adapted standard protocol for Lemna minor. The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare empirical to predicted toxicity of selected herbicide mixtures; (2) to assess L. minor recovery potential after exposure to selected individual herbicides and their mixtures; and (3) to suggest an appropriate recovery potential assessment approach and endpoint in a modified laboratory growth inhibition test. The deviation of empirical from predicted toxicity was highest in binary mixtures of dissimilarly acting herbicides. The concentration addition model slightly underestimated mixture effects, indicating potential synergistic interactions between photosynthetic inhibitors (atrazine and isoproturon) and a cell mitosis inhibitor (trifluralin). Recovery after exposure to the binary mixture of atrazine and isoproturon was fast and concentration-independent: no significant differences between relative growth rates (RGRs) in any of the mixtures (IC10 Mix , 25 Mix , and 50 Mix ) versus control level were recorded in the last interval of the recovery phase. The recovery of the plants exposed to binary and ternary mixtures of dissimilarly acting herbicides was strictly concentration-dependent. Only plants exposed to IC10 Mix , regardless of the herbicides, recovered RGRs close to control level in the last interval of the recovery phase. The inhibition of the RGRs in the last interval of the recovery phase compared with the control level is a proposed endpoint that could inform on reversibility of the effects and indicate possible mixture effects on plant population recovery potential.

  4. Combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrini, F.; Bianconi, D.; Massacci, A. [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council of Italy, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Iannelli, M.A., E-mail: [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology, National Research Council of Italy, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy)


    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the ability of L. minor plants to accumulate Cd in their tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} decreased Cd toxicity in L. minor plants by increasing photosynthesis. • Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced Cd toxicity in duckweed by enhancing antioxidant system. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L{sup −1} Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO{sub 2} (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO{sub 2} levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO{sub 2} levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  5. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1. (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Ilse; De Mets, Laura; De Boevre, Marthe; Uka, Valdet; Di Mavungu, José Diana; De Saeger, Sarah; De Gelder, Leen; Audenaert, Kris


    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose-response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1) were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Determination of the presence of the recombinant fusion protein (ESAT6-Ag85B(ΔTMD-6His and its accumulation level in duckweed plants (Lemna minor L. was the aim of the research. ESAT6 and Ag85B are secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are considered as potential candidates for development of new vaccine against tuberculosis (TB. Transgenic duckweed plants were obtained previously by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation and possessed fusion gene sequence esxA-fbpBΔTMD. Specific polyclonal antibodies were produced in immunized mice to identify levels of accumulation of TB antigens in plants. Recombinant antigen used for mice immunization was obtained in our laboratory by expression in E. coli. Western blot analysis revealed the recombinant tuberculosis antigen ESAT6-Ag85B(ΔTMD-6His in extracts from transgenic L. minor plants. The level of accumulation of the protein corresponds to 0.4-0.5 µg protein per 1 g of fresh weight of plant. Additionally, the accumulation of recombinant protein was investigated in lyophilized transgenic plants after 1.5 year storage. Duckweed plants accumulating a recombinant analogue of M. tuberculosis secretory proteins can be used for development of plant-based edible vaccines.

  7. Effect of zinc and lead on the physiological and biochemical properties of aquatic plant Lemna minor: its potential role in phytoremediation (United States)

    Jayasri, M. A.; Suthindhiran, K.


    Plants have gained importance in situ bioremediation of heavy metals. In the present study, different concentrations of zinc (Zn2+) (0.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/l) and lead (Pb2+) (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 mg/l) were used to evaluate metal tolerance level of Lemna minor. L.minor were exposed to metals for 4 days and tested for its dry to fresh weight ratio (DW/FW), photosynthetic pigments production and protein content. The oxidative damage was detected by measuring catalase activity. L.minor showed tolerance against Zn2+ and Pb2+ at a concentration of 10 and 4 mg/l, respectively. Among the metals, Pb2+ showed a significant toxicity at 8 mg/l. High concentration (20 mg/l of Zn2+ and 8 mg/l of Pb2+) of the metals displayed a considerable negative effect on soluble proteins (13 fold decrease with Zn2+ and 4 fold decrease with Pb2+) and photosynthetic pigments (twofold decrease with Zn2+ and onefold decrease with Pb2+) and lead to a consequent reduction in number of fronds. Further, the catalase was greatly increased (twofold decrease with Zn2+ and sixfold decrease with Pb2+) under metal stress. The results indicate that L.minor withstands Zn2+ and Pb2+ toxicity up to the concentration of 10 and 4 mg/l, respectively. Hence, the metal tolerant property of this plant shall be exploited for bioremediation of Zinc and Lead in polluted water. Further, the detailed and wide range of heavy metal toxicity studies should be done to reveal the possible use of this plant on large scale bioremediation purpose.

  8. Assessment of Lemna minor (duckweed) and Corbicula fluminea (freshwater clam) as potential indicators of contaminated aquatic ecosystems: responses to presence of psychoactive drug mixtures. (United States)

    Mohamed, Bourioug; Jean-Yves, Mazzitelli; Pierre, Marty; Hélène, Budzinski; Aleya, Lotfi; Elsa, Bonnafé; Florence, Geret


    The pharmaceutical products are emerging pollutants continuously released into the environment, because they cannot be effectively removed by the wastewater treatment plants. In recent years, questions have been raised concerning the environmental risks related to these pollutants. The goal of this research was to evaluate the responses in Lemna minor after 7 days and in Corbicula fluminea after differing durations (1, 3, 7, and 19 days) of exposure to the psychoactive drug mixture (valproic acid, citalopram, carbamazepine, cyamemazine, hydroxyzine, oxazepam, norfluoxetine, lorazepam, fluoxetine, and sertraline) in different concentrations (0, 0 + ethanol, drug concentration (DC) 1 = river water concentration, DC2 = effluent concentration, and DC3 = 10× effluent concentration). In this aim, growth parameters of L. minor, gluthathione S-transferase (GSTs), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and/or gene expressions (pi-gst, cat, cytochrome P450 4 (cyp4), multidrug resistant 1 (mdr1), and superoxide dismutase (sod)) were measured. GST activities increased significantly in L. minor exposed to DC3, but no changes were found in CAT activity. In C. fluminea, EROD activity was induced significantly in both gill and digestive gland tissues after 3 days' exposure to DC3, while a GST increase was observed only in digestive gland tissues, suggesting that these pharmaceuticals induced an oxidative effect. Gene expression analysis revealed transient transcriptomic responses of cyp4, sod, and mdr1 under drug concentrations 2 or 3 and no change of expression for the other genes (cat and pi-gst) or condition (environmental drug concentration) tested. Finally, the data reported in this study represent important ecotoxicological information, confirming that this enzyme family (cyp4, sod, and mdr1) may be considered as a sensible and early indicator of exposure to drugs and emphasizing the involvement of selected genes in detoxification pathways.

  9. Toxicidade aguda e risco ambiental do antibiótico oxitetraciclina para tilápia ( Oreochromis niloticus , Daphnia magna e Lemna minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Machado

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi classificar o antibiótico Terramicina(r de acordo com a toxicidade aguda e o risco de intoxicação ambiental para Oreochromis niloticus, Daphnia magna e Lemna minor, com base no seu ingrediente ativo oxitetraciclina (OTC. Além disso, observou-se a ocorrência de sinais de intoxicação aguda em peixes e o efeito da diluição do antibiótico sobre as variáveis de qualidade de água. Alevinos, neonatos e frondes foram expostos a concentrações de OTC. De acordo com os resultados dos testes de toxicidade aguda, a Terramicina(r foi classificada pela toxicidade aguda e pelo risco de intoxicação ambiental. Para O. niloticus, a CL(I50; 48h calculada foi de 6,92 mg L-1, para D. magna a CE(I50; 48h foi de 0,17mg.L-1, enquanto para L. minor a CI(I50;7d foi de 0,68 mg L-1. A Terramicina(r foi classificada como muito tóxica para O. niloticus e extremamente tóxica para D. magna e L. minor e causa risco de intoxicação ambiental para os três organismos testados. Concentrações de 7,5 e 8,0 mg L-1 de OTC reduziram a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido na água. De acordo com este estudo, a Terramicina(r não deve ser utilizada na aquicultura, pois é altamente tóxica e causa risco de intoxicação ambiental aos organismos teste.

  10. Fitorremediación mediante el uso de dos especies vegetales Lemna minor (Lenteja de agua), y Eichornia crassipes (Jacinto de agua) en aguas residuales producto de la actividad minera


    Jaramillo Jumbo, Mariuxi Del Cisne; Flores Campoverde, Edison Darío


    La contaminación del agua con metales pesados es un problema de gran importancia, aunque existen varios métodos convencionales para su remoción estos son muy costosos por lo que la fitorremediación es una alternativa que utiliza plantas para reducir la concentración de dichos contaminantes. En este trabajo se determinó la capacidad de absorción del mercurio mediante el uso de las macrófitas acuáticas Eichornia crassipes y Lemna minor en diferentes condiciones experimentales. A las macrófit...

  11. Comparing the acute sensitivity of growth and photosynthetic endpoints in three Lemna species exposed to four herbicides. (United States)

    Park, Jihae; Brown, Murray T; Depuydt, Stephen; Kim, Jang K; Won, Dam-Soo; Han, Taejun


    An ecological impact assessment of four herbicides (atrazine, diuron, paraquat and simazine) was assessed using the aquatic floating vascular plants, Lemna gibba, Lemna minor and Lemna paucicostata as test organisms. The sensitivity of several ecologically relevant parameters (increase in frond area, root length after regrowth, maximum and effective quantum yield of PSII and maximum electron transport rate (ETR max ), were compared after a 72 h exposure to herbicides. The present test methods require relatively small sample volume (3 mL), shorter exposure times (72 h), simple and quick analytical procedures as compared with standard Lemna assays. Sensitivity ranking of endpoints, based on EC 50 values, differed depending on the herbicide. The most toxic herbicides were diuron and paraquat and the most sensitive endpoints were root length (6.0-12.3 μg L -1 ) and ETR max (4.7-10.3 μg L -1 ) for paraquat and effective quantum yield (6.8-10.4 μg L -1 ) for diuron. Growth and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in all three Lemna species were sensitive enough to detect toxic levels of diuron and paraquat in water samples in excess of allowable concentrations set by international standards. CV values of all EC 50 s obtained from the Lemna tests were in the range of 2.8-24.33%, indicating a high level of repeatability comparable to the desirable level of herbicides in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electronic cigarette sales to minors via the internet. (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Derrick, Jason; Ribisl, Kurt M


    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the US market in 2007 and, with little regulatory oversight, grew into a $2-billion-a-year industry by 2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported a trend of increasing e-cigarette use among teens, with use rates doubling from 2011 to 2012. While several studies have documented that teens can and do buy cigarettes online, to our knowledge, no studies have yet examined age verification among Internet tobacco vendors selling e-cigarettes. To estimate the extent to which minors can successfully purchase e-cigarettes online and assess compliance with North Carolina's 2013 e-cigarette age-verification law. In this cross-sectional study conducted from February 2014 to June 2014, 11 nonsmoking minors aged 14 to 17 years made supervised e-cigarette purchase attempts from 98 Internet e-cigarette vendors. Purchase attempts were made at the University of North Carolina Internet Tobacco Vendors Study project offices using credit cards. Rate at which minors can successfully purchase e-cigarettes on the Internet. Minors successfully received deliveries of e-cigarettes from 76.5% of purchase attempts, with no attempts by delivery companies to verify their ages at delivery and 95% of delivered orders simply left at the door. All delivered packages came from shipping companies that, according to company policy or federal regulation, do not ship cigarettes to consumers. Of the total orders, 18 failed for reasons unrelated to age verification. Only 5 of the remaining 80 youth purchase attempts were rejected owing to age verification, resulting in a youth buy rate of 93.7%. None of the vendors complied with North Carolina's e-cigarette age-verification law. Minors are easily able to purchase e-cigarettes from the Internet because of an absence of age-verification measures used by Internet e-cigarette vendors. Federal law should require and enforce rigorous age verification for all e-cigarette sales as with the federal

  13. Rhizobium lemnae sp. nov., a bacterial endophyte of Lemna aequinoctialis. (United States)

    Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Thawai, Chitti


    Bacterial strain L6-16(T) was isolated from Lemna aequinoctialis. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile with monopolar flagella. The phylogenetic analysis of its nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain L6-16(T) was a member of the genus Rhizobium. Its closest relative was Rhizobium tarimense PL-41(T) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value of 98.3%. Sequence similarity analysis of the housekeeping recA and atpD genes showed low levels of sequence similarity (Rhizobium. Strain L6-16(T) was able to grow between pH 5 and 11 (optimum 7.0) and at temperatures ranging from 20 to 41 °C (optimum 30 °C). It tolerated NaCl up to 1 % (w/v) (optimum 0.5%). C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 :  1ω6c (summed feature 8; 79.5%) were found as predominant cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain L6-16(T) was 58.1 mol% (Tm). Based on low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness, strain L6-16(T) was distinct from members of phylogenetically related species including R. tarimense PL-41(T) (38.3 ± 0.8%), Rhizobium rosettiformans W3(T) (6.9 ± 0.4%) and Rhizobium pseudoryzae J3-A127(T) (12.3 ± 0.6 %). Strain L6-16(T) was unable to nodulate the roots of Phaseolus vulgaris, and nodC and nifH genes were not detected. The results obtained from phylogenetic analyses, phenotypic characterization and DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain L6-16(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium lemnae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L6-16(T) ( = NBRC 109339(T) = BCC 55143(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  14. comparative study on the efficiency of Lemna minor L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from kaduna refinery and Petro-chemical Company. Water samples were collected from Kaduna ... use in the phytoremediation of water from Kaduna. Refining and Petro-chemical Company since it shows the ..... Wolverton, B.C. and McDonald, R.C. (1979): The Water. Hyacinth: From Prolific Pest to Potential Provider.,Ambio ...

  15. Minority Carrier Electron Traps in CZTSSe Solar Cells Characterized by DLTS and DLOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheraj, V.; Lund, E. A.; Caruso, A. E.; Al-Ajmi, K.; Pruzan, D.; Miskin, C.; Agrawal, R.; Beall, Carolyn; Repins, Ingrid; Scarpulla, M. A.


    We report observations of minority carrier interactions with deep levels in 6-8% efficient Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 (CZTSSe) devices using conventional and minority deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS). Directly observing defect interactions with minority carriers is critical to understanding the recombination impact of deep levels. In devices with Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 nanoparticle ink absorber layers we identify a mid-gap state capturing and emitting minority electrons. It is 590+/-50 meV from the conduction band mobility edge, has a concentration near 1015/cm3, and has an apparent electron capture cross section ~10-14 cm2. We conclude that, while energetically positioned nearly-ideally to be a recombination center, these defects instead act as electron traps because of a smaller hole cross-section. In CZTSe devices produced using coevaporation, we used minority carrier DLTS on traditional samples as well as ones with transparent Ohmic back contacts. These experiments demonstrate methods for unambiguously probing minority carrier/defect interactions in solar cells in order to establish direct links between defect energy level observations and minority carrier lifetimes. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of steady-state device simulation to aid in the interpretation of DLTS results e.g. to put bounds on the complimentary carrier cross section even in the absence its direct measurement. This combined experimental and theoretical approach establishes rigorous bounds on the impact on carrier lifetime and Voc of defects observed with DLTS as opposed to, for example, assuming that all deep states act as strong recombination centers.

  16. Interpretation of scanning electron microscope measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths in semiconductors (United States)

    Flat, A.; Milnes, A. G.


    In scanning electron microscope (SEM) injection measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths some uncertainties of interpretation exist when the response current is nonlinear with distance. This is significant in epitaxial layers where the layer thickness is not large in relation to the diffusion length, and where there are large surface recombination velocities on the incident and contact surfaces. An image method of analysis is presented for such specimens. A method of using the results to correct the observed response in a simple convenient way is presented. The technique is illustrated with reference to measurements in epitaxial layers of GaAs. Average beam penetration depth may also be estimated from the curve shape.

  17. C_14 Oxylipin glucosides isolated from Lemna paucicostata


    Kai, Kenji; Akaike, Ryota; Iida, Kanae; Yokoyama, Mineyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu


    Oxylipin glucosides (2−4) were isolated from Lemna paucicostata, with their structuresand absolute configurations elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.Compounds 2−4 were glucosides of C14-oxylipin which were synthesized fromα-linolenic acid via the 9-lipoxygenase pathway.

  18. C14-oxylipin glucosides isolated from Lemna paucicostata. (United States)

    Kai, Kenji; Akaike, Ryota; Iida, Kanae; Yokoyama, Mineyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu


    Oxylipin glucosides (2-4) were isolated from Lemna paucicostata with their structures and absolute configurations elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 2-4 were glucosides of C14 oxylipin which were synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid via the 9-lipoxygenase pathway. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of additional minor elements on accumulation behavior of point defects under electron irradiation in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekio, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Heishichiro; Sakaguchi, Norihito


    Addition of minor elements to a base alloy is often applied with the aim of mitigating void swelling by decreasing the vacancy diffusivity and flux which influence vacancy accumulation behavior. However, the comparative evaluations of parameters, such as the diffusivity and flux, between a base alloy and modified alloys with specific additives have not been studied in detail. In this study, type 316 austenitic stainless steel as a base alloy and type 316 austenitic stainless steels modified with vanadium (V) or zirconium (Zr) additions were used to perform evaluations from the changes of widths of the void denuded zone (VDZ) formed near a random grain boundary during electron irradiation because these widths depend on vacancy diffusivity and flux. The formations of VDZs were observed in in-situ observations during electron irradiation at 723 K and the formed VDZ widths were measured from the transmission electron microscopic images after electron irradiation. As a result, the VDZs were formed in both steels without and with V, and respective widths were ∼119 and ∼100 nm. On the other hand, the VDZ formation was not observed clearly in the steel with Zr. From the measured VDZ widths in the steels without and with V addition, the estimated ratio of the vacancy diffusivity in the steel with V to that in the steel without V was about 0.50 and the estimated ratio of the vacancy flux in the steel with V to that in the steel without V was about 0.71. This result suggests that the effect of additional minor elements on vacancy accumulation behaviors under electron irradiation could be estimated from evaluations of the VDZ width changes among steels with and without minor elements. Especially, because void swelling is closely related with the vacancy diffusion process, the VDZ width changes would also be reflected on void swelling behavior. (author)


    The research presented here resulted in EC50 and LOEC values for the contaminants copper, cadmium, diazinon, atrazine, and cyanide to the species Lemna Minor, Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Observed values were used as benchmarks for assessing the se...

  1. Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids: Child-Resistant Packaging, Nicotine Content, and Sales to Minors2 (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R.; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh


    Purpose To determine the accuracy of the labeled quantity of the nicotine content of the e-liquids sold in unlicensed vape stores, whether the packaging of e-liquids sold within the vape stores was child-resistant, whether minors were present within vape stores, and whether sales to minors occurred. This study was conducted across North Dakota prior to implementation of a new e-cigarette state law and provided a baseline assessment before enactment of the new legal requirements. Design and Methods We tested samples of e-liquids and performed observations in 16 stores that were selling e-cigarettes but were not legally required to be licensed for tobacco retail. The e-liquids were analyzed for nicotine content using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for nicotine analysis. Results Of the 70 collected e-liquid samples that claimed to contain nicotine, 17% contained more than the labeled quantity and 34% contained less than the labeled quantity by 10% or more, with one sample containing 172% more than the labeled quantity. Of the 94 e-liquid containers sampled, only 35% were determined to be child-resistant. Minors were present in stores, although no sales to minors occurred. Conclusions Mislabeling of nicotine in e-liquids is common and exposes the user to the harmful effects of nicotine. The lack of child-resistant packaging for this potentially toxic substance is a serious public health problem. E-cigarettes should be included in the legal definition of tobacco products, child-resistant packaging and nicotine labeling laws should be enacted and strictly enforced, and vape stores should be licensed by states. PMID:27079973

  2. Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids: Child-Resistant Packaging, Nicotine Content, and Sales to Minors. (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh


    To determine the accuracy of the labeled quantity of the nicotine content of the e-liquids sold in unlicensed vape stores, whether the packaging of e-liquids sold within the vape stores was child-resistant, whether minors were present within vape stores, and whether sales to minors occurred. This study was conducted across North Dakota prior to implementation of a new e-cigarette state law and provided a baseline assessment before enactment of the new legal requirements. We tested samples of e-liquids and performed observations in 16 stores that were selling e-cigarettes but were not legally required to be licensed for tobacco retail. The e-liquids were analyzed for nicotine content using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for nicotine analysis. Of the 70 collected e-liquid samples that claimed to contain nicotine, 17% contained more than the labeled quantity and 34% contained less than the labeled quantity by 10% or more, with one sample containing 172% more than the labeled quantity. Of the 94 e-liquid containers sampled, only 35% were determined to be child-resistant. Minors were present in stores, although no sales to minors occurred. Mislabeling of nicotine in e-liquids is common and exposes the user to the harmful effects of nicotine. The lack of child-resistant packaging for this potentially toxic substance is a serious public health problem. E-cigarettes should be included in the legal definition of tobacco products, child-resistant packaging and nicotine labeling laws should be enacted and strictly enforced, and vape stores should be licensed by states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. State laws prohibiting sales to minors and indoor use of electronic nicotine delivery systems--United States, November 2014. (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy; Holmes, Carissa Baker; King, Brian A; Promoff, Gabbi; Bunnell, Rebecca; McAfee, Timothy


    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other devices such as electronic hookahs, electronic cigars, and vape pens, are battery-powered devices capable of delivering aerosolized nicotine and additives to the user. Experimentation with and current use of e-cigarettes has risen sharply among youths and adults in the United States. Youth access to and use of ENDS is of particular concern given the potential adverse effects of nicotine on adolescent brain development. Additionally, ENDS use in public indoor areas might passively expose bystanders (e.g., children, pregnant women, and other nontobacco users) to nicotine and other potentially harmful constituents. ENDS use could have the potential to renormalize tobacco use and complicate enforcement of smoke-free policies. State governments can regulate the sales of ENDS and their use in indoor areas where nonusers might be involuntarily exposed to secondhand aerosol. To learn the current status of state laws regulating the sales and use of ENDS, CDC assessed state laws that prohibit ENDS sales to minors and laws that include ENDS use in conventional smoking prohibitions in indoor areas of private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Findings indicate that as of November 30, 2014, 40 states prohibited ENDS sales to minors, but only three states prohibited ENDS use in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Of the 40 states that prohibited ENDS sales to minors, 21 did not prohibit ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Three states had no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS sales to minors and no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. According to the Surgeon General, ENDS have the potential for public health harm or public health benefit. The possibility of public health benefit from ENDS could arise only if 1) current smokers use these devices to switch completely

  4. Toxic Effects of Nickel Oxide Bulk and Nanoparticles on the Aquatic Plant Lemna gibba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Oukarroum


    Full Text Available The aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. was used to investigate and compare the toxicity induced by 30 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs and nickel(II oxide as bulk (NiO-Bulk. Plants were exposed during 24 h to 0–1000 mg/L of NiO-NPs or NiO-Bulk. Analysis of physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles in solution indicated agglomerations of NiO-NPs in culture medium and a wide size distribution was observed. Both NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk caused a strong increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, especially at high concentration (1000 mg/L. These results showed a strong evidence of a cellular oxidative stress induction caused by the exposure to NiO. Under this condition, NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk induced a strong inhibitory effect on the PSII quantum yield, indicating an alteration of the photosynthetic electron transport performance. Under the experimental conditions used, it is clear that the observed toxicity impact was mainly due to NiO particles effect. Therefore, results of this study permitted determining the use of ROS production as an early biomarker of NiO exposure on the aquatic plant model L. gibba used in toxicity testing.

  5. The new method of determination of the minor carriers life-time in the base of a diode irradiated by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poklonskij, N.A.; Syaglo, A.I.; Gardej, A.P.; Gorbachuk, N.I.; Shpakovskij, S.V.; Vlasov, A.T.


    A new method for the determination of minor carriers life-time that uses the current response on the input signal in the circuit 'p + n-junction + resistor' is proposed. The method was approved for determination of the life-time of minor carriers in n-type base of silicon diodes, irradiated by streams of electrons with energy 3.5 MeV with different fluences. (authors)

  6. Hydroxycinnamoylmalated flavone C-glycosides from Lemna japonica. (United States)

    Bai, Huan-Huan; Wang, Ni-Ni; Mi, Jiao; Yang, Tao; Fang, Dong-Mei; Wu, Lin-Wei; Zhao, Hai; Li, Guo-You


    Three previously undescribed flavone C-glycosides (1-3), along with seven known ones (4-10), were isolated and characterized from the smallest flowering aquatic plant, Lemna japonica. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis and alkaline hydrolysis, compounds 1-3 were identified to be luteolin 6-C-(2″-O-trans-caffeoyl-d-malate)-β-glucoside (1), apigenin 6-C-(2″-O-trans-caffeoyl-d-malate)-β-glucoside (2), and luteolin 6-C-(2″-O-trans-coumaroyl-d-malate)-β-glucoside (3). Compounds 1-3 are characteristic of a trans-coumaroyl-d-malate or trans-caffeoyl-d-malate linked to C-2″ of the glucose, which was reported for the first time. Compounds 1-3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against HepG-2, SW-620, and A-549 cell lines, with IC 50 values between 42.5 and 19.2μg/ml, and moderate antioxidant activity. Meanwhile compound 3 displayed moderate nematocidal activity with an EC 50 value of 1.56mg/ml. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The toxicity of phthalocyanines to the aquatic plant Lemna minor (duckweed) – Testing of 31 compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, Daniel; Maršálek, Blahoslav


    Roč. 88, č. 8 (2012), s. 962-965 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/196 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ekotoxicity * impact * influence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2012

  8. Effectiveness duckweed (Lemna minor) as an alternative native chicken feed native chicken (Gallus domesticus) (United States)

    Putra, A.; Ritonga, M. Z.


    This study aimed to know the effectiveness duckweed as feed as native chicken (Gallus domesticus) on growth period (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion). This research was conducted in Desa Telaga Jernih Kabupaten Langkat. The study was conducted in February 2017 until May 2017. This study use completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 Replication, where each treatment consisting of 5 Native chickens unsexing. The treatment was used P0 = control (feed manufacturing), P1 = ration conventional with 10% duckweed, P2 = ration conventional with 20% duckweed, P3 = ration conventional with 30% duckweed. The parameters observed were weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The results showed not significantly effect in body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. Where the average of best weight gain on treatment P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed), P3 (30% duckweed) and P1 (10% duckweed), average of best feed consumption in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed ) Of P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), average of best feed conversion rate in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed) P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed).

  9. Short-duration exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation alters the chlorophyll fluorescence of duckweeds (Lemna minor). (United States)

    Senavirathna, Mudalige Don Hiranya Jayasanka; Takashi, Asaeda; Kimura, Yuichi


    Plants growing in natural environments are exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by various communication network base stations. The environmental concentration of this radiation is increasing rapidly with the congested deployment of base stations. Although numerous scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of EMR on the physiology of humans and animals, there have been few attempts to investigate the effects of EMR on plants. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of EMR on photosynthesis by investigating the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) parameters of duckweed fronds. During the experiment, the fronds were tested with 2, 2.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 8 GHz EMR frequencies, which are not widely studied even though there is a potentially large concentration of these frequencies in the environment. The duckweed fronds were exposed to EMR for 30 min, 1 h and 24 h durations with electric field strength of 45-50 V/m for each frequency. The results indicated that exposure to EMR causes a change in the non-photochemical quenching of the duckweeds. The changes varied with the frequency of the EMR and were time-varying within a particular frequency. The temperature remained unchanged in the duckweed fronds upon exposure to EMR, which confirms that the effect is non-thermal.

  10. Caracterización molecular por patrones electroforéticos de isoenzimas esterasas en Lemna aequinoctialis y Lemna valdiviana (lemnaceae de Costa Rica (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Jiménez Delgado


    Full Text Available The Lemnaceae family lacks morphologic and anatomical characteristics with comparative aims and for that reason the molecular studies has been necessary a differentiation. In Costa Rica there are two species of Lemna: Lemna aequinoctialis and Lemna valdiviana. With the objective of a molecular characterization and differentiation of both species were extracted isoenzymes esterases. The study was carried out in the Molecular Genetics Laboratory of the School of Biological Sciences at Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The technical electrophoresis in gel of polyacrylamida SDS-PAGE was used. It was difference in the pattern of isoenzymes between both species. According to previous molecular studies based on morphology and anatomy, flavonoides, isoenzymes, and DNA sequences of certain genes both species are very different; in addition they belong to different monophyletics groups. On the other hand, the importance of this molecular characterization is its possible use in water treatment, because the esterases have had important in the bioremediation. Also, species of the Lemnaceae family are used in the water treatment like bioremediation.

  11. Bio-accumulation and toxicity of lead (Pb) in Lemna gibba L (duckweed). (United States)

    Sobrino, Alma S; Miranda, Maria G; Alvarez, Carlos; Quiroz, Agustin


    The vascular aquatic plant Lemna gibba (duckweed) was exposed during seven days to lead (Pb) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 300 mg/L in a greenhouse with controlled photoperiod and temperature. The effects of Pb on growth of Lemna gibba were examined during 13 days in the same experimental design. The maximum accumulation of lead by Lemna gibba occurs during the third day in the 50 mg/L test, and at the sixth day, lead in all test concentrations produces approximately a 100% inhibitory effect on duckweed growth. In all tests, the maximum relative growth rates were achieved on the third day and then, the toxicity effects were: 59.3% total soluble starch reduction; 94.7% total soluble proteins reduction; 246% increase in total soluble amino acids; 50% increase in total soluble sugars and an 18.2% increase in total phenols. This experiment showed that the transfers of Pb from nutritive solution to plants were fast. Nevertheless, Pb produced toxic effects on Lemna gibba; however duckweed was able to remove Pb at the experimental concentrations used.

  12. Functional analysis of a Lemna gibba rbcS promoter regulated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. Functional analysis of a Lemna gibba rbcS ... Photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) are able to respond to multiple environmental and developmental signals, including light, sugar and abscisic acid (ABA). PhANGs have been extensively studied at the ...

  13. Rhizobium paknamense sp. nov., isolated from lesser duckweeds (Lemna aequinoctialis). (United States)

    Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Thawai, Chitti


    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated and designated strain L6-8(T) during a study of endophytic bacterial communities in lesser duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis). Cells of strain L6-8(T) were motile with peritrichous flagella. The analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L6-8(T) was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Rhizobium. Its closest relatives were Rhizobium borbori DN316(T) (97.6 %), Rhizobium oryzae Alt 505(T) (97.3 %) and Rhizobium pseudoryzae J3-A127(T) (97.0 %). The sequence similarity analysis of housekeeping genes recA, glnII, atpD and gyrB showed low levels of sequence similarity (Rhizobium with validly published names. The pH range for growth was 4.0-9.0 (optimum 6.0-7.0), and the temperature range for growth was 20-45 °C (optimum 30 °C). Strain L6-8(T) tolerated NaCl up to 2 % (w/v) (optimum 1 % NaCl). The predominant components of cellular fatty acids were C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (31.32 %), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c; 25.39 %) and C16 : 0 (12.03 %). The DNA G+C content of strain L6-8(T) was 60.4 mol% (Tm). nodC and nifH were not amplified in strain L6-8(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain L6-8(T) and R. borbori DN316(T), R. oryzae Alt505(T) and R. pseudoryzae J3-A127(T) was between 11.2 and 18.3 %. Based on the sequence similarity analyses, phenotypic, biochemical and physiological characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain L6-8(T) could be readily distinguished from its closest relatives and represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium paknamense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L6-8(T) ( = NBRC 109338(T) = BCC 55142(T)).

  14. Effects of thermal annealing on deep-level defects and minority-carrier electron diffusion length in Be-doped InGaAsN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, S.Y.; Yoon, S.F.; Wang, S.Z.


    We report the effects of ex situ thermal annealing on the deep-level defects and the minority-carrier electron diffusion length in Be-doped, p-type In 0.03 Ga 0.97 As 0.99 N 0.01 grown by solid source molecular-beam epitaxy. Deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements reveal two majority-carrier hole traps, HT1 (0.18 eV) and HT4 (0.59 eV), and two minority-carrier electron traps, ET1 (0.09 eV) and ET3 (0.41 eV), in the as-grown sample. For the sample with postgrowth thermal annealing, the overall deep-level defect-concentration is decreased. Two hole traps, HT2 (0.39 eV) and HT3 (0.41 eV), and one electron trap, ET2 (0.19 eV), are observed. We found that the minority-carrier electron diffusion length increases by ∼30% and the leakage current of the InGaAsN/GaAs p-n junction decreases by 2-3 orders after thermal annealing. An increase of the net acceptor concentration after annealing is also observed and can be explained by a recently proposed three-center-complex model

  15. Evaluation of the effects of diuron and its derivatives on Lemna gibba using a fluorescence toxicity index. (United States)

    Dewez, David; Marchand, Mathieu; Eullaffroy, Philippe; Popovic, Radovan


    The herbicide diuron (DCMU) [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is largely used in agricultural practices which contribute to water pollution in large areas. Its degradation induced by light or microbial activity is known to be a slow process, and may result in the accumulation of DCMU derivatives in the environment. In this report we used the yield of PSII variable fluorescence of Lemna gibba affected by the DCMU derivatives DCPMU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea], DCPU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea], and DCA [3,4-dichloroaniline] to calculate the fluorescence toxicity index. We found the fluorescence toxicity index to be a useful parameter to evaluate the inhibitory effect on PSII electron transport in L. gibba exposed to DCMU and its derivatives. The variations observed for the inhibitory effect between DCMU and its derivatives seem to be caused by the modification of the dimethylurea group within the DCMU molecule. The fluorescence toxicity index demonstrated a strong quantitative dependency between the inhibitory effect of PSII electron transport and pollutant concentrations. We propose the fluorescence toxicity index to be a useful tool for future bioassays in evaluating the quality of water polluted with herbicides that induce an inhibition to PSII photochemistry. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of soluble copper released from copper oxide nanoparticles solubilisation on growth and photosynthetic processes of Lemna gibba L. (United States)

    Perreault, François; Samadani, Mahshid; Dewez, David


    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used as a biocide in paints, textiles and plastics. Their application may lead to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems, where potential environmental effects remain to be determined. Toxic effects may be related to interactions of NPs with cellular systems or to particles' solubilisation releasing metal ions. In this report, we evaluated CuO NPs and soluble copper effects on photosynthesis of the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba L to determine the role of particle solubility in NPs toxicity. When L. gibba plants were exposed 48 h to CuO NPs or soluble copper, inhibition of photosynthetic activity was found, indicated by the inactivation of Photosystem II reaction centers, a decrease in electron transport and an increase of thermal energy dissipation. Toxicity of CuO NPs was mainly driven by copper ions released from particles. However, the bioaccumulation of CuO NPs in plant was shown, indicating the need to evaluate organisms of higher trophic level.

  17. Phytoplasma associated with witches´-broom disease of Ulmus minor in the Czech Republic. Electron microscopy and molecular characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Válová, P.; Fránová, Jana; Šimková, Marie


    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2009), s. 37-42 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Ulmus minor * Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi * PCR * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  18. Removal of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 201}Tl by means of Lemna Gibba; Remocion de {sup 99m}Tc y {sup 201}Tl mediante Lemna Gibba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Carreno de L, M. C.; Cuevas S, J. C.; Hernadez T, U. O. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Fraccionamiento La Virgen, 52149 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this work the capacity of the water macrophyte Lemna gibba coming from San Pedro Tultepec in the Mexico State was studied to remove the radioisotopes {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 201}Tl, in order to show the capacity of this macrophyte for to treat some radioactive waste flowing that could contain this radioisotopes type. The removal capacity of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 201}Tl of the macrophyte Lemna gibba was determined using the batch method. In accordance with the values of the obtained K{sub d}, the Lemna gibba with a size of particle diameter among 1mm - 300 {mu}m presents a better adsorption of {sup 99m}Tc. The {sup 201}Tl is adsorbed better in the bioadsorbent when it has a size of particle diameter <150{mu}m. (Author)

  19. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation during cellulose metabolism in Lemna gibba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakir, D.; DeNiro, M.J.


    Lemna gibba L. B3 was grown under heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic, and autotrophic conditions in water having a variety of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions. The slopes of the linear regression lines between the isotopic composition of water and leaf cellulose indicated that under the three growth conditions about 40, 70, and 100% of oxygens and carbon-bound hydrogens of cellulose exchanged with those of water prior to cellulose formation. Using the equations of the linear relationships, we estimated the overall fractionation factors between water and the exchanged oxygen and carbon bound-hydrogen of cellulose. At least two very different isotope effects must determine the hydrogen isotopic composition of Lemna cellulose. One reflects the photosynthetic reduction of NADP, while the second reflects exchange reactions that occur subsequent to NADP reduction. Oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose apparently is determined by a single type of exchange reaction with water. Under different growth conditions, variations in metabolic fluxes affect the hydrogen isotopic composition of cellulose by influencing the extent to which the two isotope effects mentioned above are recorded. The oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose is not affected by such changes in growth conditions

  20. Deep levels in as-grown and electron-irradiated n-type GaN studied by deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc, Tran Thien [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Pozina, Galia; Son, Nguyen Tien; Kordina, Olof; Janzén, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Ohshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)


    Development of high performance GaN-based devices is strongly dependent on the possibility to control and understand defects in material. Important information about deep level defects is obtained by deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy on as-grown and electron irradiated n-type bulk GaN with low threading dislocation density produced by halide vapor phase epitaxy. One hole trap labelled H1 (E{sub V} + 0.34 eV) has been detected on as-grown GaN sample. After 2 MeV electron irradiation, the concentration of H1 increases and at fluences higher than 5 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, a second hole trap labelled H2 is observed. Simultaneously, the concentration of two electron traps, labelled T1 (E{sub C} – 0.12 eV) and T2 (E{sub C} – 0.23 eV), increases. By studying the increase of the defect concentration versus electron irradiation fluence, the introduction rate of T1 and T2 using 2 MeV- electrons was determined to be 7 × 10{sup −3 }cm{sup −1} and 0.9 cm{sup −1}, respectively. Due to the low introduction rate of T1, it is suggested that the defect is associated with a complex. The high introduction rate of trap H1 and T2 suggests that the defects are associated with primary intrinsic defects or complexes. Some deep levels previously observed in irradiated GaN layers with higher threading dislocation densities are not detected in present investigation. It is therefore suggested that the absent traps may be related to primary defects segregated around dislocations.

  1. Phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom disease of Ulmus minor MILL . in the Czech Republic: Electron microscopy and molecular characterization. (United States)

    Navrátil, M; Safárová, D; Válová, P; Fránová, J; Simková, M


    Visual inspections of elm trees in south Moravia in 1997-2007 revealed a rare occurrence of plants with smaller and cowl-forming leaves on some twigs, i.e. a feature resembling witches'-broom disease observed on the end of twigs. The presence of phytoplasma-like bodies was observed by transmission electron microscopy of phloem tissue. On the other hand, no phytoplasmas were found in asymptomatic trees. Nucleic acids extracted from these plants were used in nested-PCR assays with primers amplifying 16S rRNA sequences specific for phytoplasmas. Sequence analyses of the 16S-23S ribosomal operon (1852 bp) allowed for the classification of the detected phytoplasmas in the elm yellows group, but its position remained on the boundary of the 16SrV-A and 16SrV-C ribosomal subgroups. Sequence analyses of the ribosomal protein of the rpl22-rps3 and secY genes lead to further classification and revealed the phytoplasmas' affiliations to the 'Candidates Phytoplasma ulmi'. Some exceptions in unique oligonucleotide sequences defined for 'Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi' were found in the Czech isolate. This is the northernmost confirmed occurrence of phytoplasma on elm trees within Europe.

  2. Transport characteristics of minority electrons across surface-activated-bonding based p-Si/n-4H-SiC heterointerfaces (United States)

    Shigekawa, Naoteru; Shimizu, Sae; Liang, Jianbo; Shingo, Masato; Shiojima, Kenji; Arai, Manabu


    We investigate the transport properties of minority electrons across p-Si/n-4H-SiC interfaces fabricated using surface activated bonding. The transport properties along each direction are examined by measuring the photoresponse (PR) of p-Si/n-4H-SiC heterojunctions and characterizing 4H-SiC/Si heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The photoyield obtained in PR measurements is sensitive to the concentration of acceptors in p-Si and reverse-bias voltages, which indicates that the energy of optically excited electrons in p-Si is first relaxed and then they are driven to n-SiC through the tunneling process. By the postprocess annealing of HBTs, the properties of emitter/base interfaces are improved so that the current gain is drastically increased, which means that the Si/4H-SiC interfaces are in metastable states when the device process is completed. A maximum current gain of >10 is demonstrated.

  3. Comparative phytotoxicity of methylated and inorganic arsenic- and antimony species to Lemna minor, Wolffia arrhiza and Selenastrum capricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duester, L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Moelleken, S.; Hirner, A.V.; Kueppers, K.


    The alkylation of metalloids through the transfer of methyl groups is an important factor in the biogeochemical cycling of elements like arsenic and antimony. In the environment, many different organic and inorganic forms of these elements can therefore be found in soils, sediments or organisms.

  4. Exogenous salicylate application affects the lead and copper accumulation characteristics of Lemna gibba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, Fatih; Aksoy, Ahmet; Ozturk, Fatma; Ceylan, Ahmet [Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Biology


    Previous studies have shown that salicylates can change the ion permeability of root cells. Therefore the possible effects of exogenous salicylate application on lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) accumulation and its protective role against DNA damage due to metal exposure in Lemna gibba were studied. L. gibba was exposed to 5, 10, and 25 {mu}M Pb and Cu for six days in the presence and absence of sodium salicylate (SA) (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM). At all concentrations tested, SA application decreased Pb accumulation. On the other hand, application of 0.5 mM SA increased Cu accumulation. SA did not reduce DNA damage resulting from Pb and Cu toxicity. In summary, SA may be useful for reducing Pb accumulation, and application of SA at 0.5 mM may be useful for the phytoextraction of Cu. (orig.)

  5. Potentiation of aquatic pollution by ethylene glycol with regard to the aquatic angiosperm, Lemna gibba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.A.; Barber, J.T.; Yatsu, L.Y.; Ensley, H.E. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology


    Ethylene glycol is usually thought of as a benign component of urban runoff. Thus, its EC50 value, with regard to the vegetative growth of axenically grown Lemna gibba, is relatively high, viz. 164 mM. Ethylene glycol is not metabolized by Lemna but growth is demonstrably stimulated at concentrations below 75 mM. In the presence of ethylene glycol, the fronds of duckweed are dark green, translucent and the growth medium contains gas bubbles of carbon dioxide which result from an enhanced uptake of sucrose from the growth medium and its subsequent respiration. The uptake is a non-specific effect since the uptake of various other compounds, including water, is enhanced when duckweed is grown in the presence of ethylene glycol. The increased uptake of water, sucrose, inorganic ions and organic compounds results from an increased permeability due to the creation of intercellular holes in the aerenchymatous tissues of the ethylene glycol-treated plants. The mechanism by which ethylene glycol causes the holes is unknown but may involve a disruption in lipid metabolism since the hydrophobicity of the fronds is altered and their lipid composition is changed. The significance of this phenomenon is that toxicants, just like innocuous substances, are taken up in increased amounts by treated plants and as a result their toxicities are increased with regard to duckweed as evidenced by a decrease in their effective concentrations, often of more than 3-fold. These results suggest that although ethylene glycol itself may be benign, its presence in polluted waters containing other toxicants may potentiate the effects of those pollutants.

  6. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil using Lemna perpusilla Torrey ash as heterogeneous catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouhan, Ashish Pratap Singh; Sarma, Anil Kumar


    Refined Jatropha curcas L. oil (JCO) and methanol were used as the reactants for the transesterification reactions in a Radleys reactor in the presence of a heterogeneous ash catalyst derived from the waste aquatic plant Lemna perpusilla Torrey. Physical characterization of the catalyst showed partly crystalline behaviour and a moderate surface area 9.622 m 2 g −1 . The L. perpusilla Torrey ashes obtained from traditional combustion method were further calcined at 550 ± 5 °C before use. In addition to other non-metal and metallic constitutes the ash contains 11.3% potassium which attributed to its catalytic behaviour. The cumulative mass fraction of 89.43% of the oil was converted to biodiesel at 65 ± 5 °C in 5 h at 1:9 M ratio of oil to alcohol with 5% of the ash as catalyst. The biodiesel (FAME) so obtained were characterized using appropriate ASTM methods and found within the defined standard limits. The catalyst could be reused upto 3-times but there is a reduction of efficacy by about 25% for 3rd consecutive batch reaction. The activation energy was calculated for FAME and found to be 29.49 kJ mol −1 . -- Highlights: ► Lemna perpusilla Torrey ash is a potential heterogeneous catalyst. ► The catalyst has moderately good surface area and pores. ► The ash contain 11.3% potassium which is attributed to its catalytic behaviour. ► 89.43% of the refined Jatropha curcas oil could be converted to FAME in a Radleys reactor. ► The activation energy for FAME was calculated and found to be 29.49 kJ mol −1

  7. Minority electron mobilities in GaAs, In0.53Ga0.47As, and GaAs0.50Sb0.50 calculated within an ensemble Monte Carlo model (United States)

    Tea, E.; Aniel, F.


    The minority electron transport is crucial for the performances of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Among the III-V semiconductors family, GaAsSb exhibits several advantages making it a serious candidate for the new generation of high speed HBTs. However, this alloy suffers from a lack of experimental studies. Properties such as electronic structure and charge carrier mobilities are of prime importance in theoretical device operation calculations. In this article, we investigate the minority electron mobilities by means of an ensemble Monte Carlo modeling including polar optical phonon-plasmon coupling through a self-consistent dielectric function. Realistic electronic structures are provided by a nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method. It is found that GaAs0.50Sb0.50 does not show a mobility enhancement for very high acceptor doping levels unlike GaAs and Ga0.47In0.53As.

  8. Sustainable biodegradation of phenol by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 isolated from the rhizosphere of duckweed Lemna aoukikusa. (United States)

    Yamaga, Fumiko; Washio, Kenji; Morikawa, Masaaki


    Phenol-degrading bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of duckweed (Lemna aoukikusa) using an enrichment culture method. One of the isolates, P23, exhibited an excellent ability to degrade phenol and attach to a solid surface under laboratory conditions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P23 belongs to the genera Acinetobacter and has the highest similarity to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. P23 rapidly colonized on the surface of sterilized duckweed roots and formed biofilms, indicating that the conditions provided by the root system of duckweed are favorable to P23. A long-term performance test (160 h) showed that continuous removal of phenol can be attributed to the beneficial symbiotic interaction between duckweed and P23. P23 is the first growth-promoting bacterium identified from Lemna aoukikusa. The results in this study suggest the potential usefulness of dominating a particular bacterium in the rhizosphere of duckweeds to achieve efficient and sustainable bioremediation of polluted water.

  9. Minority Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, R


    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG when

  10. Effects of coronatine elicitation on growth and metabolic profiles of Lemna paucicostata culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Kim

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of coronatine treatment on the growth, comprehensive metabolic profiles, and productivity of bioactive compounds, including phenolics and phytosterols, in whole plant cultures of Lemna paucicostata were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. To determine the optimal timing of coronatine elicitation, coronatine was added on days 0, 23, and 28 after inoculation. The total growth of L. paucicostata was not significantly different between the coronatine treated groups and the control. The coronatine treatment in L. paucicostata induced increases in the content of hydroxycinnamic acids, such as caffeic acid, isoferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, and phytosterols, such as campesterol and β-sitosterol. The productivity of these useful metabolites was highest when coronatine was added on day 0 and harvested on day 32. These results suggest that coronatine treatment on day 0 activates the phenolic and phytosterol biosynthetic pathways in L. paucicostata to a greater extent than in the control. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the effects of coronatine on the alteration of metabolism in L. paucicostata based on GC-MS profiling. The results of this research provide a foundation for designing strategies for enhanced production of useful metabolites for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries by cultivation of L. paucicostata.

  11. Diferenciación molecular de Lemna aequinoctialis y L. Valdiviana (lemnaceae por patrones proteicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Milagro Montero Rojas


    Full Text Available El estudio se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Genética Molecular de la Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. Se utilizaron plantas acuáticas macrófitas de Lemna valdiviana y L. aequinoctialis previamente identificadas. Estas especies habitan en aguas ricas en sales disueltas y aguas servidas. Recientemente se les consideró como un indicador de la contaminación ocasionada por pesticidas y herbicidas en el agua. La composición proteica llega a niveles entre 38 y 43% de materia seca, importante para diversos usos. La extracción de proteínas totales, por medio de electroforesis discontinua en gel de poliacrilamida, se realizó en condiciones reductoras con SDS (SDS-PAGE. Los geles separadores empleados fueron al 8 y 10%, gel espaciador al 4% y la tinción se efectuó con azul commassie. Los diversos patrones proteicos reflejaron diferencias genéticas entre ambas especies que se pueden deber a las diferencias de hábitat y de reproducción.

  12. Toxicity of 14 photooxidized anthracene derivatives to Lemna gibba L.G-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallakin, A.; MacConkey, B.J.; McKibbenyen, B.; Sniekusyen, V.; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)


    Phototoxicity of PAHs is known to occur via photosensitization reactions and potentially by photomodification of chemicals to more toxic species. The hazards enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) toxicity to plants by artificial light source and natural solar radiation has been recently demonstrated. Growth and chlorosis were used as end points to assess the photoinduced toxicity to 14 oxygenated anthracene derivatives to Lemna gibba. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with diode array detector was used as analytical technique for measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons photomodification products and to study the modification kinetics. The toxicity bioassays were performed both under visible light and simulated solar radiation (SSR), which mimicked the relative load of UV + visible light in solar radiation. Comparative studies with visible and SSR showed that the phototoxicity of these chemicals was activated, with UV radiation being the most influenced spectral region in enhancing the harmful effects of the chemicals. Photomodified PAHs exhibited toxicity in visible light and increased toxicity in simulate solar radiation. The rates of photomodification of chemicals were quite different but rapid enough to contribute to toxicity. There was increase in inhibition of growth of plants, relative to control, with increasing in rate of photomodification of the oxygenated PAHs.

  13. Toxicity and metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol by the aquatic angiosperm Lemna gibba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensley, H.E. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Barber, J.T.; Polito, M.A.; Oliver, A.I. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology)


    The toxicity and metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol with regard to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba (duckweed), have been studied. Toxicity is described in terms of the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) on the vegetative reproduction of duckweed over a 10-d growth period; the EC10 and EC50 were 2.5 and 9.2 [mu]M, respectively. Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol was monitored by incubation of the plants with radiolabeled substrate, and periodic sampling and analysis by reversed-phase HPLC of the plant growth medium. Depending on the growth conditions, up to 95% of the 2,4-DCP was metabolized over a 6-d growth period. To analyze the metabolites, the plants were grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of [U-[sup 14]C]-2,4-DCP. The growth medium was lyophilized and then mixed with the plants, extracted, and analyzed using reversed-phase HPLC, followed by scintillation counting of the fractions. The major metabolite was isolated and identified as 2,4-dichlorophenol-[beta]-D-glucopyranoside by high-field NMR and MS. The structure of the metabolite was confirmed by synthesis and by enzymatic cleavage of the [beta]-glucosidic linkage to afford 2,4-DCP. An important consequence of conjugate formation is the masking of the presence of 2,4-DCP to the usual analytical techniques used for its detection and quantitation. This finding is probably applicable to other contaminants and organisms.

  14. Aquatic microcosm assessment of the effects of tylosin on Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum spicatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain, Richard A. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Bestari, Ketut [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sanderson, Hans [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hanson, Mark L. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Wilson, Christian J. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Johnson, David J. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sibley, Paul K. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail:


    Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic commonly used for therapeutic treatment and prophylaxis in livestock. As part of a larger ecotoxicological study, the potential phytotoxic effects of tylosin on the rooted macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum and the floating macrophyte Lemna gibba were assessed under semi-field conditions using 15 12000-L microcosms. Concentrations of 0, 10, 30, 300 {mu}g/L (n = 3), and 600, 1000, and 3000 {mu}g/L (n = 1) were evaluated as part of separate ANOVA and regression analyses over an exposure period of 35 days. Fate of tylosin was monitored over time in the highest three treatments, where dissipation followed pseudo-first order kinetics with associated half-lives ranging from 9 to 10 days. For both M. spicatum and L. gibba, tylosin was found to cause no biologically significant changes to any endpoint assessed compared to controls at a Type I error rate of 0.1. However, subsequent power analyses revealed that there was generally insufficient power to declare that there were no significant differences at a Type II error rate of 0.2. Conclusions concerning biologically significant impacts were therefore further assessed based on other statistical criteria including comparisons of percent differences between replicated treatments and controls, minimum significant and minimum detectable differences, and coefficients of variation. Based on these criteria, at an ecological effect size of >20% change, tylosin was concluded to elicit no biologically or ecologically significant toxicity to M. spicatum or L. gibba. A hazard quotient assessment indicated that tylosin poses little risk to either species of macrophyte, with an HQ value calculated to be nearly three orders of magnitude below 1 (0.002). - Tylosin is not expected to have ecologically significant effects on Ontario freshwater macrophytes.

  15. Efecto del fotoperiodo en la remoción de plomo por Lemna gibba L. (Lemnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Miranda


    Full Text Available El plomo llega a las aguas provenientes de las industrias de baterías, soldaduras, pinturas, etc. causando daños a los seres vivos, por lo que es necesario promover el desarrollo de tecnologías que ayuden a mejorar la calidad de los efluentes y que al mismo tiempo sean adecuadas al contexto socioeconómico del país. En este trabajo se plantea el uso de una angiosperma acuática, la especieLemna gibbade la familia Lemnaceae que tiene un crecimiento exponencial y su cultivo es fácil en laboratorio. Para absorber el plomo (PbNO32 se prepararon cinco concentraciones, a nivel de bioensayo en el laboratorio y bajo el efecto de dos diferentes condiciones de fotoperiodo (luz continua y 12 h luz/12 h oscuridad durante cuatro días, ya que a partir de este día libera el Pb al medio. Los resultados indican que en las dos concentraciones de Pb más bajas (30 y 50 mgl-1, el fotoperiodo 12/12 es más favorable para su absorción (9405 µgl-1más y 18,895 µgl-1 más respectivamente mientras que en las tres restantes (100, 200 y 300 mgl-1 lo fue la condición de luz continua. (6600 µgl-1, 1949 µgl-1, 5587 µgl-1 más respectivamente. Los conocimientos que se derivan de este estudio, permiten optimizar el uso deL. gibbaen el tratamiento terciario de aguas residuales.

  16. Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from the water plant Lemna trisulca taken from a freshwater pond. (United States)

    Lang Halter, Evi; Neuhaus, Klaus; Scherer, Siegfried


    The phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics of two non-spore-forming bacilli similar to members of the genus Listeria were studied. The gram-reaction-positive, slightly motile, facultatively anaerobic strains were isolated from the water plant Lemna trisulca sampled from a freshwater pond in Bavaria, Germany. Although no identification was possible employing the API Listeria test (bioMérieux), 16S rRNA sequence analysis confirmed a close phylogenetic similarity to Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) (99.0 % sequence similarity) and a more distant relationship to other Listeria species (96.0 % to Listeria monocytogenes DSM 20600(T) and 95.0 % similarity to Listeria grayi DSM 20601(T)). DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between the isolates and Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) yielded a similarity of 22.5 %. Analysis of partial sequences of sigB, prs, recA and HSP60 were studied and compared with those of other members of the genus Listeria and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSM 20171(T) supporting the relationships indicated by 16S rRNA gene sequences. The studied isolates were non-haemolytic and were not associated with cases of human or animal disease. While the results demonstrate that the strains belong to the genus Listeria, phenotypic and genotypic differences from Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) suggest that the strains represent a novel species for which the name Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is WS 4560(T) ( = DSM 24698(T) = LMG 26374(T)), with WS 4615 ( = DSM 24699 = LMG 26375) as a second strain of the species.

  17. Evaluation and application of an innovative method based on various chitosan composites and Lemna gibba for boron removal from drinking water. (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Baran, Talat


    Boron exists in various types of water environments, and it is difficult and costly to remove B with conventional treatment methods from drinking water. Clearly, alternative and cost effective treatment techniques are imperative. In the present study, an innovative and environment friendly method based on hybrid systems consisting of various chitosan composite beads and Lemna gibba were evaluated for removal of B from drinking water. Our results from batch adsorption experiment indicated that a plant-based chitosan composite bead has a higher capacity of B removal than mineral-based chitosan composite beads. Almost 50% of total B removal was achieved using the hybrid system based on dried Lemna-chitosan composite beads and Lemna gibba combination in 4 days. Even at the high B concentration (8mgBL -1 ), B in drinking water could be reduced to less than 2.4mgL -1 when 0.05g plant-based chitosan composite beads and 12 Lemna fronds were used for 50mL test solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A simple method for analysing the effects of algae on the growth of Lemna and preventing algal growth in duckweed bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, S.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Scheffer, M.


    A simple novel method for indoor culture experiments with small floating water plants, such as Lemnaceae, is described. Experiments demonstrate that the method allows for longer lasting culture experiments with Lemna, avoiding algal growth and self-shading of fronds by overcrowding. This is achieved

  19. The influence of barley straw extract addition on the growth of duckweed (Lemna valdiviana Phil. under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pęczuła W.


    Full Text Available Due to its ability to forming dense mats in small waterbodies, duckweeds are often considered as nuisance plants in some freshwaters. Up to now, few techniques had been tested aiming towards managing duckweeds, but all of them had appeared to have some disadvantages. As an attempt to find a new effective management tool, a laboratory experiment assessing the influence of barley straw (BS extract addition – a substance used in algal bloom control, upon the growth of the duckweed Lemna valdiviana, was performed. Reaction on two various concentrations of BS extract were quantified by measurements of changes in duckweed biomass and root length. The results showed that plants which have received the extract increased their biomass slower than that of the control, however only those with the addition of smaller amounts of BS differed significantly from the controls. Furthermore, BS addition stimulated the root growth in both experimental tanks. This implies that the mean roots length was higher, although the statistical differences were insignificant. As possible explanation for the observed changes we suggest that: (1 the growth inhibition of Lemna valvidiana under exposition to BS extract might be induced by an uptake of organic compounds from which some (phenolic substances are (probably toxic; (2 competitive interactions with the microbial communities developed upon the duckweed roots might play a role as well.

  20. Minorities and Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, D.


    The relationship between minorities and language is complicated and related to the development of nation-states. Language minorities, as a social group, are distinguished from minority languages. The definition of minority is problematic. The size of a minority can differ widely. For membership,

  1. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012. (United States)


    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  2. Influence of pH, light cycle, and temperature on ecotoxicity of four sulfonylurea herbicides towards Lemna gibba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Cedergreen, Nina; Baun, Anders


    In chemical regulation, e.g. the EU Water Framework Directive, REACH, or the Pesticide Directive, standardized ecotoxicological tests are applied to evaluate and rank the hazard of compounds and for deriving environmental quality standards (EQS). Standardized test methods prescribe fixed testing...... conditions e.g. specific temperature, pH, light intensity etc. However, environmental conditions under which the organisms live are rarely identical to the standard conditions. Thus, the ecotoxicity of compounds found in standard test is not only a function of the compounds inherent physico...... test conditions on the toxicity of four sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs). The toxicity of the four SUs towards Lemna gibba was investigated at three pH levels (6, 7.5 and 9), at two temperatures (15 and 24 °C) and two light regimes (continuous and 12:12 h light:dark cycle) The EC50 increased twofold...

  3. Diversidad genética entre especies del género lemna (lemnaceae utilizando fragmentos polimórficos de ADN amplificados al azar (rapds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Solano Campos


    Full Text Available Lemna aequinoctialis and Lemna valdiviana were tested genetic similarity by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting. Of 60 primers (10-mer tested, 26 generated polymorphic products. 143 bands were found from 200bp up to 1500bp, 109 were polymorphic (76,2%, with an average of 4,19. Of these, only 18 were specific of L. aequinoctialis, while 91 bands were specific for L. valdiviana. Data were used to generate Jaccard’s similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram using UPGMA method in the BiodiversityPro statistical package. It is concluded from this study that there were clear differences (high genetic diversity between L. aequinoctialis and L. valdiviana and that RAPD sesults are comparable with those obtained from studies on morphology, It is a practical method to assess the relationships between these species.

  4. Synthesis of the (9R,13R)-isomer of LDS1, a flower-inducing oxylipin isolated from Lemna paucicostata. (United States)

    Takayasu, Yuki; Ogura, Yusuke; Towada, Ryo; Kuwahara, Shigefumi


    The first synthesis of the (9R,13R)-stereoisomer of LDS1, a flower-inducing oxylipin isolated from Lemna paucicostata, has been achieved from a known allylic alcohol by a seven-step sequence that involves the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination to construct its full carbon framework and an enzymatic hydrolysis of a penultimate methyl ester intermediate to provide the target molecule.

  5. Boron removal by the duckweed Lemna gibba: a potential method for the remediation of boron-polluted waters. (United States)

    Del-Campo Marín, Claudia M; Oron, Gideon


    Boron (B) is often found in polluted and desalinated waters. Despite its potentially environmental damaging effects, efficient treatments are lacking. The duckweed Lemna gibba has been shown to remove toxic elements from water; however, its applicability to B removal is unknown. In this study, L. gibba was examined for its tolerance to B in water and its B removal efficiency. Duckweed plants were grown in outdoor 12-day batch experiments in nutrient solution containing 0.3-10 mg B L(-1). Plant biomass production was not affected by B over the tested concentrations during the 12-day cultivation period. Boron removal and the bioconcentration factor of B in L. gibba were highest at initial B concentrations below 2 mg L(-1), and decreased as the initial B concentration increased. Boron content in the plants at the end of the experiment ranged between 930 and 1900 mg kg(-1) dry weight, and was comparable to that of wetland plants reported to be good B accumulators. Boron removal by L. gibba may therefore be a suitable option for the treatment of water containing B concentrations below 2 mg L(-1).

  6. A combination method based on chitosan adsorption and duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) phytoremediation for boron (B) removal from drinking water. (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Baran, Talat


    The metalloid boron (B) and its compounds widely exist in the environment, and boron can have hazardous effects on plants, animals, and human beings when it is found in high concentrations in water bodies. It is difficult and costly to remove B with conventional treatment methods from drinking water. Therefore, alternative and cost-effective treatment techniques are necessary. In this study, for the first time, a novel and environmentally friendly method based on the phytoremediation ability of chitosan and duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) combination was evaluated for B removal from drinking water. Our results from batch adsorption experiment indicated that the highest B uptake capacity of chitosan bead was found as 3.18 mg/g, and we determined the optimal B sorption occurs at pH value of 7. The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model better fitted the equilibrium obtained for B removal. B in drinking water could be reduced to less than 2.4 mg L -1 when 0.05 g of plant-based chitosan beads and 12 L. gibba fronds were used in the 4-day treatment period.

  7. Performance of the macrophyte Lemna valdiviana in tertiary pig waste treatment and its contribution to the sustainability of swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. Lapolli


    Full Text Available The present study aims to contribute to the sustainability of swine production by evaluating usage of the aquatic macrophyte Lemna valdiviana in the tertiary treatment of pig waste. Five assays (1 to 5 in triplicate were conducted using swine effluent with different COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand concentrations: 400, 550, 700, 850 and 1,000mg.L-1, respectively. The trial lasted for 21 days and the evaluated variables were: (a pollutant removal efficiency, (b biomass production and (c plant protein content under the different detention times of 7, 14 and 21 days. In general, assays 1 and 2 (CODs of 400 and 550mg.L-1 presented the best removal efficiencies under a detention time of 21 days. Regarding the purpose of both nutrient removal and production of high protein biomass, assay 3 (COD of 700mg.L-1 showed the best results under 14 days’ detention time (36.81% crude protein. It was established that the use of duckweeds in the tertiary swine waste treatment was able to provide a sustainable alternative regarding its advantages such as effluent polishing, minimization of environmental impact, and production of high protein feed.

  8. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike


    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide......, are they at odds with each other or do they possibly overlap? This last possibility would be that minority rights are so extensive that they actually amount to autonomy. Autonomy has a range of dimensions and one must distinguish between political autonomy which is largely territorial in nature and autonomy...

  9. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming. (United States)

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  10. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof


    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  11. Bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of irrigation water contaminated with boron (B) using duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) in a batch reactor system. (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl; Gür, Nurcan


    The present study assesses ability of Lemna gibba L. using a batch reactor approach to bioaccumulation boron (B) from irrigation waters which were collected from a stream in largest borax reserve all over the world. The important note that bioaccumulation of B from irrigation water was first analyzed for first time in a risk assessment study using a Lemna species exposed to various B concentrations. Boron toxicity was evaluated through plant growth and biomass production during phytoremediation process. The result from the present experiment indicated that L. gibba was capable of removing 19-63% B from irrigation water depending upon contaminated level or initial concentration. We also found that B was removed from aqueous solution following pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model better fitted equilibrium obtained for B phytoremediation. Maximum B accumulation in L. gibba was determined as 2088mgkg -1 at average inflow B concentration 17.39mgL -1 at the end of the experiment. Conversely, maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest inflow B concentrations were 232 for L. gibba. The present study suggested that L. gibba was very useful B accumulator, and thus L. gibba-based techniques could be a reasonable phytoremediation option to remove B directly from water sources contaminated with B. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. BINARY MINOR PLANETS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  13. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders


    Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20...... homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation...

  14. Minority Veteran Report 2014 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  15. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  16. Minority Veteran Report (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  17. BCDC Minor Permits (United States)

    California Department of Resources — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  18. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency. (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J


    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  19. Multichoice minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang


    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations

  20. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011. (United States)


    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  1. Disproportionate Minority Contact. (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R


    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  2. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike


    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide...... with kin-states face a two-way situation regarding autonomy. First there is the autonomy from the home-state - the state the minority exists in. Secondly, though, there is the question of autonomy from the kin-state: How autonomous is a minority when it is (partly) financed by the kin-state? The discussion...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Sex Trafficking of Minors. (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E


    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine


    This article explores how everyday school life interacts with students’ practices of ‘becoming teenagers’ at a Danish school, analysing how age and ethnicity intersect with emotional well-being. The article builds on an ethnographic study at a public sports school following ethnic minority...... and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  6. Housing Problems of Minorities (United States)

    Weaver, Robert


    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  7. Britain's Ethnic Minorities. (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  8. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg


    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  9. Sexual minorities seeking services. (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith


    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  10. Salt and cadmium stress tolerance caused by overexpression of the Glycine Max Na+/H+ Antiporter (GmNHX1) gene in duckweed (Lemna turionifera 5511). (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Han, Yujie; Wu, Di; Yong, Wang; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Sutong; Liu, Wenxin; Lu, Meiyi; Wei, Ying; Sun, Jinsheng


    Cadmium (Cd) pollution has aroused increasing attention due to its toxicity. It has been proved that Na + /H + Antiporter (NHX1) encodes a well-documented protein in Na + /H + trafficking, which leads to salt tolerance. This study showed that Glycine max Na + /H + Antiporter (GmNHX1) improved short-term cadmium and salt resistance in Lemna turionifera 5511. Expression of GmNHX1 prevented root from abscission and cell membrane damage, which also can enhance antioxidant system, inhibited of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cause a less absorption of Cd under cadmium and salt stress. The cadmium tolerance suggested that NHX1 was involved under the cadmium stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media


    Sierp, Aline


    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the role that mass media can play in the preservation or weakening of minority languages. By comparing different measures of protection adopted by national and regional authorities in Italy, the article ...

  12. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.


    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games (United States)

    Metzler, R.


    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  14. National Tests and minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    Assessment in school represent a technology and materiality with profound impact on the life, activities and interactions in school (eg. Lawn & Grosvenor, 2005). It can be considered as an integrated and in different ways also dominating part of pedagogic practice which influence processes of in......- and exclusion in both direct and in more indirect ways. Depending of its design and use it might also point to differences between pupils with references to categories such as clever, skilled, good, medium, average, below average, best etc.. These processes might be considered as problematic at the micro level...... language, and are often not adapted to the languages of minorities.However, regionally determined differences – for example, linguistic or cultural – often exhibit considerable influence over student performance in such national academic tests, with any such potential effects generally not considered...

  15. Comparison of salicylic acid, benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid for their ability to induce flowering in Lemna Gibba G3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, F.C.; Kang, B.G.; Khurana, J.P.


    The long-day plant Lemna gibba G3 fails to flower under continuous light on NH 4 + -free 0.5 H medium. This inhibition is completely reversed by 10 μM salicyclic acid (SA) or 32 μM benzoic acid (BA). By contrast, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-OH-BA) has virtually no effect on flowering at levels as high as 320 μM. Uptake rates for the three compounds are comparable. Competition studies using 14 C-SA indicate that, compared to SA, BA is about 10-fold less effective and p-OH-BA is nearly 100-fold less effective in competing against 14 C-SA uptake. Both the effectiveness of SA for inducing flowering and the uptake of 14 C-SA are substantially increased as the pH of the medium is lowered from 8 to 4.5. Under a nitrogen atmosphere the uptake of 14 C-SA is partially inhibited above pH 5. Phosphate metabolism may be important for flowering since increasing the phosphate level in the medium 10-15 fold results in substantial flowering, and suboptimal levels of Sa and phosphate interact synergistically to stimulate flowering. The interaction of phosphate with BA and p-OH-BA will be presented

  16. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.


    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  17. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk


    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  18. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.


    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  19. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)


    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  1. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets (United States)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  2. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D


    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  3. Demarketing, minorities, and national attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.; Nisan, Udi

    This study addresses two important global trends: protection of public goods, specifically the environment, and the emergence of multiethnic societies with influential minority groups. The study tests the effect of a government proenvironmental demarketing campaign on the deconsumption behavior of

  4. NAFTA Minor Use Joint Reviews (United States)

    EPA and Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) worked together to develop a registration process that will permit a regulatory decision of pesticide uses for the minor use grower communities in both countries simultaneously.

  5. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo


    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  6. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert


    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  7. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups. (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo


    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  8. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications. (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L


    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D


    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  10. DNA minor groove alkylating agents. (United States)

    Denny, W A


    Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. There has been much work with nitrogen mustards, where attachment of the mustard unit to carrier molecules can change the normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to a few adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. Carrier molecules discussed for mustards are intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), polybenzamides and anilinoquinolinium salts. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect of their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Recent work on the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural product minor groove binders is also reviewed.

  11. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status. (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne


    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  12. The Willink Minority Commission and minority rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the alternative, they demanded for constitutional safeguards as guarantees against their potential domination by majority ethnic groups in an independent Nigeria. In 1957, the colonial government convoked a commission to ascertain the facts, and thereupon, recommend measures of allaying the fears of minority ethnic ...

  13. Effects of Homeopathic Arsenicum Album, Nosode, and Gibberellic Acid Preparations on the Growth Rate of Arsenic-Impaired Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Jäger


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of homeopathically potentized Arsenicum album, nosode, and gibberellic acid in a bioassay with arsenic-stressed duckweed (Lemna gibba L.. The test substances were applied in nine potency levels (17x, 18x, 21x–24x, 28x, 30x, 33x and compared with controls (unsuccussed and succussed water regarding their influence on the plant’s growth rate. Duckweed was stressed with arsenic(V for 48 h. Afterwards, plants grew in either potentized substances or water controls for 6 days. Growth rates of frond (leaf area and frond number were determined with a computerized image analysis system for different time intervals (days 0–2, 2–6, 0–6. Five independent experiments were evaluated for each test substance. Additionally, five water control experiments were analyzed to investigate the stability of the experimental setup (systematic negative control experiments. All experiments were randomized and blinded. The test system exhibited a low coefficient of variation (≈1%. Unsuccussed and succussed water did not result in any significant differences in duckweed growth rate. Data from the control and treatment groups were pooled to increase statistical power. Growth rates for days 0–2 were not influenced by any homeopathic preparation. Growth rates for days 2–6 increased after application of potentized Arsenicum album regarding both frond area (p < 0.001 and frond number (p < 0.001, and by application of potentized nosode (frond area growth rate only, p < 0.01. Potencies of gibberellic acid did not influence duckweed growth rate. The systematic negative control experiments did not yield any significant effects. Thus, false-positive results can be excluded with high certainty. To conclude, the test system with L. gibba impaired by arsenic(V was stable and reliable. It yielded evidence for specific effects of homeopathic Arsenicum album preparations and it will provide a valuable tool for future experiments that aim at

  14. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991. (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  15. Minority game with SK interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Pedro Castro; Sherrington, David


    A batch minority game with fake random history and additional SK-like quenched interaction is introduced and analysed. A mixing parameter λ quantifies the admixture and dictates the relative dominance of the two contributions: if λ → 0, agent decisions are based on their strategies and point-scores alone, as in the pure minority game, whereas for λ > 0 the agents also communicate with each other directly and update their points accordingly. Keeping the minority game dynamics in which the agents’ points are updated in parallel at each time step, the aim is to understand what happens if instead of simply using the normal strategy-based decisions, the agents also take account of an ‘effective field’ generated by the other agents. It is shown that the SK interaction introduces a ‘noise’ term which is broader than that in the normal minority game and which furthermore kills the normal phase transition. It is also shown that the same effect would occur if, instead of an SK interaction, Gaussian-distributed quenched random fields are added. By calculating order parameters in the time-translational invariant phase we show that the system is persistent in a ergodic phase. Both simulational and analytical results are presented. (paper)

  16. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo


    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  17. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv


    Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different ...

  18. Internet alcohol sales to minors. (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M


    OBJECTIVES To determine whether minors can successfully purchase alcohol online and to examine age verification procedures at the points of order and delivery. DESIGN A cross-sectional study evaluated underage alcohol purchase attempts from 100 popular Internet vendors. SETTING The study was conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, July 14-27, 2011. PARTICIPANTS Eight 18- to 20-year-old individuals participated. OUTCOME MEASURES Rates of successful sales to minors and use of age verification procedures at order and delivery were determined. RESULTS Of the 100 orders placed by the underage buyers, 45% were successfully received; 28% were rejected as the result of age verification. Most vendors (59%) used weak, if any, age verification at the point of order, and, of 45 successful orders, 23 (51%) used none. Age verification at delivery was inconsistently conducted and, when attempted, failed about half of the time. CONCLUSIONS Age verification procedures used by Internet alcohol vendors do not adequately prevent online sales to minors. Shipping companies should work with their staff to improve administration of age verification at delivery, and vendors should use rigorous age verification at order and delivery. Further research should determine the proportion of minors who buy alcohol online and test purchases from more vendors to inform enforcement of existing policies and creation of new policies to reduce youth access to alcohol online.

  19. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche


    and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  20. Processing Methodology and Dialectological Aspects of the Dictionary of Moravian and Silesian Anoikonyms (Minor Place Names)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čižmárová, Libuše


    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2010), s. 183-195 ISSN 1855-6302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : onomastics, dialectology * electronic dictionary * anoikonyms * digitization * Moravia * Silesia * minor place names Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  1. Principal minors and rhombus tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin


    The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)

  2. Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health (United States)

    ... Minority Health HHS Office of Minority Health Related Consumer Updates The FDA Supports Research to Reduce Health Disparities FDA Broadens Its ... Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ... Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to ...

  3. Minority students benefit from mentoring programs. (United States)

    Cullen, D L; Rodak, B; Fitzgerald, N; Baker, S


    Mentoring has been proposed as one strategy to attract minority students to the radiologic sciences profession. This case study describes a minority mentoring program conducted for pre-radiologic science students at a Midwestern university during the 1991-92 academic year. Ten minority radiologic science students enrolled in the mentoring program. The study showed that mentoring may be a viable option to serve the special needs of minorities for recruitment and retention.

  4. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as one...

  5. Majoritarian tyranny in a world of minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.R.M. Salih (Mohamed)


    textabstractDespite the political upheavals, conflicts, war and genocide generated by unequal and unjust minority-majority relations, the term minority people entered social science terminology for the first time in 19321 • According to Davis (1979: 2), minority studies were initially largely

  6. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion (United States)


    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  7. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion (United States)


    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  8. The Minority Game : An Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.


    This paper gives a critical account of the minority game literature. The minority game is a simple congestion game: players need to choose between two options, and those who have selected the option chosen by the minority win. The learning model proposed in this literature seems to differ markedly

  9. Gleanings: The Minority Student Success Project. (United States)

    Smith, Barbara Leigh; MacGregor, Jean

    The Minority Student Success Project (MSSP) initiated in 1989 was designed to improve the recruitment and retention of minority students on campuses in the state of Washington. The results of a questionnaire on minority students administered to all of Washington's community colleges, and data from follow-up interviews, were used to design working…

  10. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a conceptual background typical types of minorities and typical sources of minority conflict are outlined. A historical overview is given of the problems. Niger Delta minorities have been experiencing. Their grievances and demands are highlighted, and the responses of different Nigerian governments are discussed.

  11. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  12. PIE analysis for minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya


    Minor actinide (MA) is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. Out of reactors, MA plays key role to define the property of spent fuel (SF) such as α-radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and criticality of SF. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted. In this report, we will present the status of PIE data of MA taken by post irradiation examinations (PIE) and several calculation results. (author)

  13. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien


    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  14. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server


    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  15. Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women. (United States)

    Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia


    To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.

  16. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia. (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit


    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions.

  17. Minority Carrier Transport in Lead Sulfide Quantum Dot Photovoltaics. (United States)

    Rekemeyer, Paul H; Chuang, Chia-Hao M; Bawendi, Moungi G; Gradečak, Silvija


    Lead sulfide quantum dots (PbS QDs) are an attractive material system for the development of low-cost photovoltaics (PV) due to their ease of processing and stability in air, with certified power conversion efficiencies exceeding 11%. However, even the best PbS QD PV devices are limited by diffusive transport, as the optical absorption length exceeds the minority carrier diffusion length. Understanding minority carrier transport in these devices will therefore be critical for future efficiency improvement. We utilize cross-sectional electron beam-induced current (EBIC) microscopy and develop methodology to quantify minority carrier diffusion length in PbS QD PV devices. We show that holes are the minority carriers in tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI)-treated PbS QD films due to the formation of a p-n junction with an ethanedithiol (EDT)-treated QD layer, whereas a heterojunction with n-type ZnO forms a weaker n + -n junction. This indicates that modifying the standard device architecture to include a p-type window layer would further boost the performance of PbS QD PV devices. Furthermore, quantitative EBIC measurements yield a lower bound of 110 nm for the hole diffusion length in TBAI-treated PbS QD films, which informs design rules for planar and ordered bulk heterojunction PV devices. Finally, the low-energy EBIC approach developed in our work is generally applicable to other emerging thin-film PV absorber materials with nanoscale diffusion lengths.

  18. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung


    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  19. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H


    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  20. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablos Reyes DP


    Full Text Available Una problemática ambiental impor- tante en instalaciones porcinas es la producción de excretas con alta concentración de nutrientes y su deposición en el ecosistema. Una alternativa para la biorremediación de dicha problemática es utilizar las excretas para la producción de plantas acuáticas que tengan una alta tasa de captación de nutrientes, tal como Lemna perpusilla. En el presente estudio se desarrollaron dos experimentos con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de la época del año y el tiempo de cosecha sobre la biomasa, composición química y el rendimiento de nutrientes. En el experimento I (enero a abril se utilizó una dosis de fertilización de 20 Lm-2 por cada 20 días y se manejó una densidad de siembra de 200 gm-2, realizando cosechas cada 10 días. Mientras que en el experimento II (mayo a ju- nio se utilizó la misma dosis de fertilización y densidad de siembra, pero cosechando cada seis días. Durante el desarrollo experimental (enero-junio Lemna perpusilla presentó bajo contenido de materia seca (6.87 a 8.87% y fi- bra (11.67 a 12.89%, pero alto contenido de proteína (26.02 a 27.41%. Se determinó que la época y tiempo de cosecha afectan significati- vamente la cosecha total, composición química y rendimiento de nutrientes. Las variables cli- máticas que más influyeron sobre la cosecha total fueron las horas luz y precipitación. Mien- tras que el rendimiento en nutrientes es princi- palmente afectada por la temperatura, hume- dad relativa, horas luz y precipitación.

  2. Old and New Minorities: Diversity Governance and Social Cohesion from the Perspective of Minority Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medda-Windischer Roberta


    Full Text Available Minority rights instruments have been traditionally applied to old minority groups. This paper examines to what extent these same instruments are conceptually meaningful to the integration of new minorities stemming from migration. The conviction that minority groups, irrespective of their being old or new minorities, have some basic common claims that can be subsumed under a common definition does not mean that all minority groups have all the same rights and legitimate claims: some have only minimum rights, while others have or should be granted more substantial rights; some can legitimately put forward certain claims – not enforceable rights – that need to be negotiated with the majority, while others should not. In order to devise a common but differentiated set of rights and obligations for old and new minority groups, it is essential to analyse the differences and similarities of both categories of minorities, their claims, needs, and priorities; in this way, it will be possible to delineate a catalogue of rights that can be demanded by and granted to different minority groups. Studying the interaction between traditional minorities and migrants or old and new minority groups is a rather new task because so far these topics have been studied in isolation from each other. It is also an important task for future research in Europe since many states have established systems for the rights of old minorities but have not as yet developed sound policies for the integration of new minority groups stemming from migration.

  3. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April 1...

  4. Minority Teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention (United States)

    Torres, Judith; Santos, Janet; Peck, Nancy L.; Cortes, Lydia


    When school systems began to desegregate after Brown v. Board of Education, 80 Per cent of the school population was white and 20 per cent was minority. By 1996, the number of minority students had risen to approximately 35 per cent of the student population, and today it stands at nearly 40 per cent and growing. These students continue to achieve…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 2, 2014 ... ethnic group or any other kind of group feels disenchanted with the political system. The three regions, the ... minorities in Nigeria does not lie in the lack of constitutional provision and protection of their basic ... Minority group constitutes the core of ethnic turbulence and violence world-wide. In a definition ...

  6. [Minor Uralic languages...] / Väino Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaus, Väino, 1949-


    Arvustus: Minor Uralic languages and their contacts / University of Tartu ; editor A. Künnap. Tartu : University of Tartu, 1993 ; Minor Uralic languages: structure and development : [artikleid ja materjale / edited and preface by Ago Künnap]. Tartu : [Tartu University Press] ; Groningen : University of Groningen, 1994

  7. Sociolinguistic Minorities, Research, and Social Relationships (United States)

    Garner, Mark; Raschka, Christine; Sercombe, Peter


    This paper suggests elements of an agenda for future sociolinguistics among minority groups, by seeing it as a mutual relationship that involves benefits to researcher and researched. We focus on two aspects of the relationship. One is the political, economic and social benefits that can accrue to a minority group as a result of the research.…

  8. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies (United States)

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.


    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  9. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall recurrcnce rate of 4.48%. Conclusion: Minor salivaiy gland tumours are rare. Follow-up in this environment is. 13001'. There is a need to educate the patients about the importance of early presentation and recall visits. Key worclsz Salivary glands, minor, tumour, treatment liitroduction. U f-;;i|i\\ar§, land tumours are ...

  10. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients. (United States)


    ... or drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of these... drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of these... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor...

  11. Multiple Minority Stress and LGBT Community Resilience among Sexual Minority Men. (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Janulis, Patrick; Phillips, Gregory; Truong, Roky; Birkett, Michelle


    Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i.e., racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood) and community resilience (i.e., connection to LGBT community) among sexual minority men of different racial/ethnic groups who use a geosocial networking application for meeting sexual partners. Results showed that Black sexual minority men reported the highest levels of racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and White sexual minority men reported the lowest levels, with Asian and Hispanic/Latino men falling in between. Consistent with minority stress theory, racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood were associated with greater stress for sexual minority men of all racial/ethnic groups. However, connection to LGBT community played more central role in mediating the relationship between stigma and stress for White than POC sexual minority men. Results suggest that minority stress and community resilience processes may differ for White and POC sexual minority men. Potential processes driving these differences and implications for minority stress theory are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kitkanj


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  13. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.


    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  14. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities. (United States)

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V


    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual and Computational Modelling of Minority Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Minority Game and focuses on analysis and computational modelling of several variants (variable payoff, coalition-based and ternary voting of Minority Game using UAREI (User-Action-Rule-Entities-Interface model. UAREI is a model for formal specification of software gamification, and the UAREI visual modelling language is a language used for graphical representation of game mechanics. The URAEI model also provides the embedded executable modelling framework to evaluate how the rules of the game will work for the players in practice. We demonstrate flexibility of UAREI model for modelling different variants of Minority Game rules for game design.

  16. Considerations for successful minority investments in independent power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleveans, Lincoln


    This article considers the role of lead developers and lead investors, and minority investors in power projects. The risks involved in minority investment without control is examined, and minority investor issues, the 'due diligence' of the minority investor, the need for timely information, and the importance of minority investors to the power project are discussed. (UK)

  17. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a data table giving basic physical and orbital parameters for known binary minor planets in the Solar System (and Pluto/Charon) based on published...

  18. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V6.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  19. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V4.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  20. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V5.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  1. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V8.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  2. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V9.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  3. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V7.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  4. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V2.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...

  5. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V3.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...

  6. National Minority Organisations in Prague: structure, competence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sulitka, Andrej; Uherek, Zdeněk


    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2015), s. 3-17 ISSN 0862-8351 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : ethnology * social anthropology * Czech Republic * minority * national policy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. Clinical Implications of HIV-1 Minority Variants


    Li, Jonathan Z.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.


    Low-frequency HIV variants are increasingly recognized as a key factor that increases the risk of HIV treatment failure. This article will provide a review of HIV minority variants, including their demonstrated clinical impact and areas of controversy.

  8. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; He, Yi


    , especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... these minor collagens. The generation and release of fragmented molecules could generate novel biochemical markers with the capacity to monitor disease progression, facilitate drug development and add to the existing toolbox for in vitro studies, preclinical research and clinical trials....... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  9. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal


    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  10. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.


    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  11. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A South African Perspective. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad. Journal Home ... The abuse of trade unions under the previous government gave rise to a unique entrenchment of labour rights in the Constitution.

  12. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences (United States)

    O'Connell, S.


    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  13. Minority stress, psychosocial resources, and psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Jabson, Jennifer M; Mustian, Karen M; Boehmer, Ulrike


    Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical factors, minority stress factors (discrimination, minority identity development, outness), psychosocial resources (resilience, social support), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression). These factors were included in a structural equation model, testing psychosocial resources as mediators between minority stress and psychological distress. There were no significant differences noted between lesbian and bisexual women. The final structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit across all sexual minority women, χ2 = 27.83, p > .05; confirmatory fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.93. The model accounted for significant variance in psychological distress (56%). Examination of indirect effects confirmed that exposure to discrimination was associated with distress via association with resilience. Factors unique to sexual minority populations, such as minority stress, may be associated with higher rates of psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. However, presence of psychosocial resources may mediate relationships with distress in this population; enhancement of resilience, in particular, could be an aim of psychological intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. An exercise of 'genealogy' - reactivating minor knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungurean, Ş.


    Full Text Available In fact, we do not endeavor to disqualify any form of knowledge. We do not desire to repeat the discourse of self-sufficiency – critical with others – claiming that only this type of thinking knowledge is valid. Our intention consists in attracting attention onto the singular fact, onto the radical contingency we constantly meet in our daily lives. Consequently, we suggest the sociologist's training be oriented towards the capacity to identify a problem starting from a single fact, in other words, we request heeding minor knowledge. The large majority of graduates in sociology work with this kind of reality. Within minor knowledge the possibility of hiding the fact that power endeavors to produce both the individual and the truth it needs, does not exist. In the case we are presenting, this minor knowledge found in travel diaries has generated some of the social representations on to which major political and historical decisions were founded.

  15. Minority Variants of Drug-Resistant HIV (United States)

    Gianella, Sara; Richman, Douglas D.


    Minor drug-resistant variants exist in every HIV-infected patient. Since these minority variants are usually present at very low levels, they cannot be detected and quantified using conventional genotypic and phenotypic tests. Recently, several assays have been developed to characterize these low-abundance drug-resistant variants in the large genetically complex population present in every HIV-infected individual. The most important issue is, what results generated by these assays can predict clinical or treatment outcomes and might guide patient management in clinical practice. Cutoff-values for the detection of these low-abundance viral variants that predict increased risk of treatment failure should be determined. These thresholds may be specific for each mutation and treatment regimen. In this review we summarize the attributes and limitations of the currently available detection assays and review the existing information about both acquired and transmitted drug resistant minority variants. PMID:20649427

  16. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs. (United States)

    Sue, Stanley


    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Peculiarities of radiodiagnosis of minor colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushnikova, V.N.; Arablinskij, V.M.; Strekalovskij, V.P.; Markova, E.V.


    Basing on an analysis of the results of a multimodality study of 40 patients with minor (under 3 cm) colonic cancer the authors described in detail a method of its detection and classified its X-ray symptoms with relation to the tumor type and the degree of colon wall invasion. They showed the difficulty of radiodiagnosis of minor colonic cancer and its possibility in combination with endoscopic and morphological studies. For a better detection of the X-ray signs of minor colonic cancer one should successively use a number of methods including a polypositional study, pharmacological tests, spot roentgenography of the suspect parts of the colon using tight and semitight filling with barium meal and double contrast examination. The X-ray appearance of colonic cancer does not depend on its size: the smaller tumor size the less noticeable X-ray signs not only of malignancy but also of the tumor itself

  18. Self-Esteem Comparisons among Intellectually Gifted Minority/Non-Minority Junior High Students. (United States)

    Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others

    Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…

  19. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers (United States)

    Knierman, Karen; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline; Scowen, Paul; Groppi, Christopher


    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio HI for 15 minor mergers, are providing a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation that can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  20. The BCLA Minor: Business, Communication, and Liberal Arts Minor at Towson University (United States)

    Mahin, Linda


    In this article, the author describes a cross-disciplinary minor that combines elements of business, communication, and the liberal arts. The BCLA Minor enhances employment opportunities and cultural awareness for students with majors in the Colleges of Business and Economics, Fine Arts and Communication, and Liberal Arts by integrating the…

  1. The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority versus White Teachers (United States)

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Halpin, Peter F.


    The demographic divide between teachers and students is of growing public concern. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the common argument that students, and particularly minority students, have more favorable perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, we find that students…

  2. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.


    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  3. Minority Stress and Psychological Distress among Asian American Sexual Minority Persons (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra


    The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…

  4. Electronic Cigarettes (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed to ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics on ...

  5. Women and minorities science bill becomes law (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton has signed into law a measure to establish a commission to identify and address problems associated with the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering fields."Today, we have taken a positive step forward to strengthen and expand our high-tech workforce by ensuring that women, minorities, and persons with disabilities have the skills necessary to compete in the Information Age," said U.S. Rep. Connie Morella (R.-Md.), who introduced the measure.

  6. [Health and wellbeing of sexual minorities]. (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime; Gómez, Fabiola; Cárdenas, Manuel; Gúzman, Mónica; Bahamondes, Joaquín


    Most of the information in Chile about health and wellbeing of sexual minorities refers to risk behaviors. To assess health and wellbeing in a sample of Chilean homosexual men and women. Spanish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale and Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) were answered by 191 homosexual women and 256 homosexual men aged 18 to 67 years, from four Chilean cities. Lesbian women have better levels of satisfaction with life and adjustment in personal relationships than homosexual men. Eight percent of respondents had suicidal thoughts in some moment of their life. The information gathered in this work could help in the development of mental health policies for sexual minorities.

  7. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su


    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  8. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George


    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  9. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight. (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward


    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.0001), but BMI was not (ρ = 0.025, P = 0.61). On regression analysis, gestational weight gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  11. Improving Underrepresented Minority Student Persistence in STEM (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Burnett, Myra; Campbell, Andrew G.; Campbell, Patricia B.; Denetclaw, Wilfred F.; Gutiérrez, Carlos G.; Hurtado, Sylvia; John, Gilbert H.; Matsui, John; McGee, Richard; Okpodu, Camellia Moses; Robinson, T. Joan; Summers, Michael F.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Zavala, MariaElena


    Members of the Joint Working Group on Improving Underrepresented Minorities (URMs) Persistence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)--convened by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute--review current data and propose deliberation about why the academic "pathways"…

  12. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.


    Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents’ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of

  13. Minority Students: Understanding a New Clientele. (United States)

    Tarmy Rudnick, Diane


    Provides data on recruitment, family, academic background, attitudes, and extracurricular/cultural interests of 1288 minority engineering technology students. Indicates that although their high school achievement was superior to average freshmen, their limited finances and low self-esteem remain as problems. Recommendations for addressing the…

  14. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 27 December 2013, between the Tarangire National Park entrance and Makuyuni,. Tanzania, at 3°33´ S, 36°04´ E, altitude 1073 m, I stopped at 11:00 to photograph an aca- cia tree with nine traditional beehives in it. To my amazement I saw two Abyssinian. Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the ...

  15. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  16. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n =

  17. The SWOT Team Approach: Focusing on Minorities. (United States)

    Gorski, Susan E.


    Underscores the applicability of marketing principles to minority student recruitment and retention at community colleges. Proposes the assessment of an institution's Strengths, Weaknesses, and external Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) to strategically market the college. Considers the development of a plan for action based on the SWOT analysis.…

  18. Language and Cultural Minorities Resource Catalog. (United States)

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.

    The revised edition of the resource catalog lists nearly 1,000 print and non-print materials for use in Maine schools where close to 7,000 children of linguistic minorities are enrolled. There are 19 sections on these groups or topics: Afghan, Asian and refugee, bilingual education, Chinese, civil rights, Eastern Europe, English as a Second…

  19. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters. (United States)

    Thomas, David A.


    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  20. Learning Disability and Ethnic Minority Discrimination. (United States)

    Drucker, Howard; And Others

    Discrimination is discussed as it applies to the exclusion of racial minorities in classes for children with learning disabilities. The authors contend that this type of racial discrimination is prevalent nationwide (as illustrated by results of a national survey), and that the definition of learning disabilities and how it is operationalized has…

  1. Education for minority groups: a case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    1993:79) definition is more appropriate: a minority is a group that is numerically inferior to the rest of the population of .... the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (United Nations,. 1965, articles 1(4) and 2):. Special measures must be ...

  2. Stillbirth in an Anglophone minority of Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Mortensen, Laust Hvas


    OBJECTIVES: We assessed trends in stillbirth over time for Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, a large Canadian province with publically funded health care and an English-speaking minority. METHODS: We calculated stillbirth rates for Francophones and Anglophones, and estimated hazard ratios (...

  3. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen


    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.

  4. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.


    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  5. Ethnic Minority Women. CRE Factsheet. Revised. (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet contains information about the numbers and status of ethnic minority women in Great Britain. In 1991, the last full count, 1.5 million women in Britain classified themselves as other than White. Women from all ethnic groups are less likely to be economically active (paid for work or looking for it) than men. However, among ethnic…

  6. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised. (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  7. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin


    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...

  8. Drugs and Minorities. Research Issues 21. (United States)

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains summaries of the latest research focusing on the issue of the extent of drug use and abuse among racial and ethnic minorities and the factors influencing it. Taken into consideration are age and sex differences among users, narcotics addiction, socioeconomic influences, cultural factors, racial factors, demographic factors,…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 19, 1996 ... market in recent times can be attributed, in part, to inter-union rivalry.1 Minority unions ... March 2013 – resulting in a negative impact on South Africa's GDP and currency depreciation. In. 2013, the .... Organisational rights are regulated by Part A and B of Chapter 111 of the LRA, and the right to strike is ...

  10. Toric ideals and diagonal 2-minors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Katsampekis (Anargyros)


    htmlabstractLet $G$ be a simple graph on the vertex set ${1,\\ldots,n}$. An algebraic object attached to $G$ is the ideal $P_G$ generated by diagonal 2-minors of an $n \\times n$ matrix of variables. In this paper we first provide some general results concerning the ideal $P_G$. It is also proved that

  11. Minors and social networks: legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández


    Full Text Available The participation in a company increasingly technological does that numerous questions appear on the protection of the most vulnerable subjects, between them the minors. The influence of the social networks like instrument of communication is not exempt from risks for the quantity of information that is facilitated and is shared. The lack of a specific regulation that he contemplates from the point of view of the Law which is the protection that a minor must have, does that there take place situations of abandonment of the rights of the same ones.The opportunity of regulation has been left to escape in the future law of protection of the infancy, nowadays in phase of preliminary design, since it does not refer to the social networks since it had been desirable. The current procedure as for minors, as well as those of protection of information, between others, do not turn out to be sufficient to contemplate all the situations of risk that can be given in the above mentioned area. In the present work we propose to think on minors and social networks raising some legal questions, and trying to contribute some response to the problematics that appears in the juridical area.

  12. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul


    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish

  13. The behaviour of minor species in the solar wind (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Axford, W. I.


    The flow of minor species in the solar wind is considered on the basis of a model in which all species are heated in an arbitrary manner as they leave the sun and the minor species interact with the background proton-electron plasma through the radial electric field associated with the latter and by means of Coulomb collisions. In order to produce satisfactory results in which the ions all move at more or less the same speed at the orbit of the earth, it is necessary to introduce heating functions such that each species is given energy in proportion to its mass. Coulomb collisions are found to be important as a means of removing energy from the heavier species close to the sun and bringing all species closer to thermal equilibrium at great distances from the sun. Substantial velocity differences can occur between species, especially close to the sun. Furthermore it is not difficult to construct solutions in which the bulk velocity of the helium ions exceeds that of the solar wind, as is often observed.

  14. Eating disorders symptoms in sexual minority women: A systematic review. (United States)

    Meneguzzo, Paolo; Collantoni, Enrico; Gallicchio, Davide; Busetto, Paolo; Solmi, Marco; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela


    Although the literature consistently shows increased levels of psychological distress in the gay population, less evidence-and with contrasting findings-is available with regard to lesbian women. The aim of the present study is to review the literature in the eating disorders (EDs) field in order to provide further data on the frequency of EDs symptoms in sexual minority women. A systematic review of the studies identified by electronic database search (PubMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar) up to August 2017. Fourty-five studies were found, conducted on 372,256 women. Only 7 studies investigated patients with lifetime diagnosis of ED. As for the symptomatology of EDs, 39 studies were found, which presented huge differences in the scales used for the assessment (e.g., Eating Disorders Inventory and Eating Attitudes Test-26). A higher number of diagnoses of EDs were found in sexual minority women, with a symptomatology characterized by higher occurrence of binge eating and purging, as well as lower body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, compared with heterosexual peers. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Čorni


    Full Text Available The article tries to explore the practical application of the soft law, in concrete terms, the documents adopted by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, referring to the models of participation of national minorities in public life in the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of the research was to assess the legal and political grounds for functioning national minority councils as participation and consultative mechanisms, scope of responsibilities and capacities in relation to their effectiveness and impact and to identify relevant good practices on such mechanisms. The political and decision-making structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina demonstrated lack of actual commitment to the realization of the rights of minorities referring to participation in decision-making processes. Bearing in mind formal position within parliaments, visibility, and a significant promotional capacity for presence in the public sphere, the councils on national minorities may represent a significant body and channel for the minority – majority dialogue. However, at the moment, the national minority councils’ capacity to ensure participation of national minorities in Bosnian political life and their influence in decision-making process remains insufficient. In general, the consultative mechanisms, within their mandated responsibilities, have had insignificant and minimal impact on the practical, political and legislative segment.

  16. Electron radiography (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher


    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  17. Sextortion of Minors: Characteristics and Dynamics. (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Walsh, Wendy; Treitman, Leah


    Sextortion (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors) has been identified as an emerging online threat to youth, but research is scarce. We describe sextortion incidents from a large sample of victims (n = 1,385) and examine whether incidents occurring to minors (n = 572) are more or less serious than those experienced by young adults (n = 813). We ran advertising campaigns on Facebook to recruit victims of sextortion, ages 18-25, for an online survey. We use cross tabulations and logistic regression to analyze incidents that began when 18- and 19-year-old respondents were minors (ages 17 and younger) and compare them with incidents that began at ages 18-25 years. Most minor victims were female (91%) and aged 16 or 17 when incidents started (75%). Almost 60% of respondents who were minors when sextortion occurred knew perpetrators in person, often as romantic partners. Most knowingly provided images to perpetrators (75%), but also felt pressured to do so (67%). About one-third were threatened with physical assaults and menaced for >6 months. Half did not disclose incidents, and few reported to police or websites. Perpetrators against minors (vs. adults) were more likely to pressure victims into producing initial sexual images, demand additional images, threaten victims for >6 months, and urge victims to harm themselves. Sextortion incidents were serious victimizations, and often co-occurred with teen dating violence. We describe resources so that practitioners can help victims find support and legal advice and remove posted images. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M


    We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social-psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social-psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ²(79) = 414.00, p Lewis index = .91, standardized root-mean-square residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social-psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social-psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Perturbed GUE Minor Process and Warren's Process with Drifts (United States)

    Ferrari, Patrik L.; Frings, René


    We consider the minor process of (Hermitian) matrix diffusions with constant diagonal drifts. At any given time, this process is determinantal and we provide an explicit expression for its correlation kernel. This is a measure on the Gelfand-Tsetlin pattern that also appears in a generalization of Warren's process (Electron. J. Probab. 12:573-590, 2007), in which Brownian motions have level-dependent drifts. Finally, we show that this process arises in a diffusion scaling limit from an interacting particle system in the anisotropic KPZ class in 2+1 dimensions introduced in Borodin and Ferrari (Commun. Math. Phys., 2008). Our results generalize the known results for the zero drift situation.

  20. Separator Theorems for Minor-Free and Shallow Minor-Free Graphs with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, C.


    Alon, Seymour, and Thomas generalized Lipton and Tarjan's planar separator theorem and showed that a K(h)-minor free graph with n vertices has a separator of size at most h(3/2)root n. They gave an algorithm that, given a graph G with m edges and n vertices and given an integer h >= 1, outputs in...... the shallow minor algorithm of Plotkin, Rao, and Smith when m = Omega(n(1+is an element of)). We get a similar running time improvement for an approximation algorithm for the problem of finding a largest.. h-minor in a given graph....

  1. We the Minorities of CASE: A Special Survey of Minorities Working in Institutional Advancement. (United States)

    Perkins, Claranne


    Council for Advancement and Support of Education minority member representatives listed in a CASE Membership Directory were surveyed. Information on job titles, job responsibilities, career preparation, professional development, salaries, factors affecting salary, and salary differences by sex was collected. (MLW)

  2. Vaccines for minor use and minor species (MUMS)--industry's views. (United States)

    Bönisch, B


    Over the past 30 years the importance of vaccines for minor use and minor species has changed for multinational animal health companies. The major reasons for this are being reviewed, with a particular focus on technical, financial and business aspects. Key regulatory obstacles to the development of new products for minor uses and minor species are identified, and examples of vaccines falling into the various categories are provided. A number of proposals are offered with the intention of resolving the medicines availability problem between all the stakeholders involved. Finally, based on the presented scientific and regulatory considerations, ideas are shared as to where the legal and economical framework would need to change to reach a viable solution.

  3. d-3He reaction measurements during fast wave minority heating in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.


    Time- and energy-resolved d- 3 He fusion reactions have been measured to infer the energy of the d + or He ++ minority ions heated near their cyclotron frequency by the magnetosonic fast wave. The average energy of the reacting 3 He ions during 3 He minority heating is in the range of 100 to 400 keV, as deduced from the magnitude of the reaction rate, its decay time, and the energy spread of the proton reaction products. The observed reaction rate and its scaling with wave power and electron density and temperature are in qualitative agreement with a radial reaction rate model using the minority distribution predicted from quasilinear velocity space diffusion. Oscillations in the reaction rate are observed concurrent with sawtooth and m = 2 MHD activity in the plasma

  4. Minority participation: Institutional remedies against the political exclusion of ethnic minorities


    Bühlmann, M; Hänni, M


    In this paper, we investigated the impact of different institutions on ethnic minorities’ political participation. Based on the results of a hierarchical cross-country comparison, we found that individuals belonging to ethnic minorities were less likely to participate in national elections than members of the majority groups within the same country. We tested whether this negative effect of belonging to an ethnic minority group on political participation could be attenuated by inclusive insti...

  5. The Human Rights of Minority Women:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida


    This article explores the complexities surrounding the human rights of minority women. With analytical focus on Romani women in Europe it seeks to contribute with new insight into the grey areas of rights issues, where groups within special rights categories share different human rights concerns......, by being both women and members of a minority group. Through an investigation of how contemporary human rights law and politics serve to address the concerns of Romani women, it sheds light on the challenges that the Romani women’s issue presents to the international human rights framework...... rights attention that they claim. It is argued that in order to strengthen the validity of human rights in the lives of Romani women, as a framework that ensures their full and equal protection, special attention needs to be given to interrelated grounds and forms of discrimination. “Intersectionality...

  6. Issues in contracting with small minority businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, M.L.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.


    The focus of this investigation was to identify issues central to increasing the involvement of small minority businesses (MBs) in federal or prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE), as a foundation for designing a program to assist buyers of contracted goods and services. The approach to determining issues involved interviewing the owners of 15 MBs, representing a range of businesses, and buyers and purchasing officers from three large DOE prime contractors. The interviewees identified issues related to positive working relationships and rated a predetermined set of 27 potential MB-DOE problems regarding their existence and criticalness. The issues identified by MBs were of two broad types. The predominant issues and barriers were associated with their being small businesses. Secondary issues reflected the disadvantaged status of the business (woman and/or minority-owned).

  7. Modeling market mechanism with the minority game (United States)

    Challet, Damien; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng


    Using the minority game model we study a broad spectrum of problems of market mechanism. We study the role of different types of agents: producers, speculators as well as noise traders. The central issue here is the information flow: producers feed in the information whereas speculators make it away. How well each agent fares in the common game depends on the market conditions, as well as their sophistication. Sometimes there is much to gain with little effort, sometimes great effort virtually brings no more incremental gain. Market impact is also shown to play an important role, a strategy should be judged when it is actually used in play for its quality. Though the minority game is an extremely simplified market model, it allows to ask, analyze and answer many questions which arise in real markets.

  8. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth. (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  9. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huemer Julia


    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance.

  10. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian


    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity......, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has become hegemonic in policy initiatives and legal documents. This hegemony is achieved by understanding ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversions from established norms in terms of deprivation. In this way,educational institutions and ‘majority society......’ as such are protected from criticism and structural changes towards multiculturalism and the recognition of the linguistic and cultural rights of minority groups. Alternative and competing positions exist in the research literature in the field, but this literature has been excluded from the level of policy and public...

  11. Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Children with Dyslexia (United States)

    Punt, Marja; de Jong, Marianne; de Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna


    Aim: To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method: One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of greater than or equal to 85, retardation in…

  12. De Gaulle, alliances, and minor powers


    Riste, Olav


    The subject of this study is De Gaulle’s vision of foreign policy and international relations. The concept “Grandeur de la France” indicates that de Gaulle’s foreign policy was exclusively concerned with great power politics. However, the majority of states that France had to deal with were minor and middle powers. On these grounds, Olav Riste discusses what place these states occupied in de Gaulle’s view of international relations.

  13. The naming of minor planets: multicultural relationships (United States)

    Merlin, Jean-Claude


    To date, among the hundred or so minor planets we discovered with various instruments around the world, twenty of these objects have been definitively numbered and named. We have choosen the names according to our centers of interest. In honouring people in domains as varied as astronomy, astronautics, music, paleontology, comic strips, . . . we had the opportunity of establishing fruitful relationships with a large horizon of cultures. It was also a good opportunity for the diffusion of astronomy towards other communities.

  14. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects


    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek


    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  15. On entropy, financial markets and minority games (United States)

    Zapart, Christopher A.


    The paper builds upon an earlier statistical analysis of financial time series with Shannon information entropy, published in [L. Molgedey, W. Ebeling, Local order, entropy and predictability of financial time series, European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems 15/4 (2000) 733-737]. A novel generic procedure is proposed for making multistep-ahead predictions of time series by building a statistical model of entropy. The approach is first demonstrated on the chaotic Mackey-Glass time series and later applied to Japanese Yen/US dollar intraday currency data. The paper also reinterprets Minority Games [E. Moro, The minority game: An introductory guide, Advances in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics (2004)] within the context of physical entropy, and uses models derived from minority game theory as a tool for measuring the entropy of a model in response to time series. This entropy conditional upon a model is subsequently used in place of information-theoretic entropy in the proposed multistep prediction algorithm.

  16. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor. (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban


    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  17. Research into minorities: between science and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ingilæ Landsem


    Full Text Available The article examines the interplay between science and politics in minority research in the period 1979 to mid-1980s at the University of Tromsø. Research was influenced by different conditions at the time, such as political events and policy priorities and ideological of streams in academia. Three factors influenced the choice of theme, priorities and approaches to minority research in North Norway. The first factor was the damming of the Alta-Kautokeino river, followed by Sami rights struggle and political changes towards the Sami population in Norway. What consequences did the political case for the research for the academic environment in the Northern Norway? The second factor was the research program run by the Norwegian general scientific Research (NAVF. An analysis on the relevant themes and focus areas within minority research is undertaken on basis of the research program. Finally I will use the methodological and research political discussions on emic and etic research positions that took place in the 1980s. Was it the Sami themselves, or also the researchers belonging to the majority that had the right to pursue research on the Sami? Sources consist of internal documents, reports, research papers and oral sources from the UiT.

  18. RAMOBoost: Ranked Minority Oversampling in Boosting. (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; He, Haibo; Garcia, Edwardo A


    In recent years, learning from imbalanced data has attracted growing attention from both academia and industry due to the explosive growth of applications that use and produce imbalanced data. However, because of the complex characteristics of imbalanced data, many real-world solutions struggle to provide robust efficiency in learning-based applications. In an effort to address this problem, this paper presents Ranked Minority Oversampling in Boosting (RAMOBoost), which is a RAMO technique based on the idea of adaptive synthetic data generation in an ensemble learning system. Briefly, RAMOBoost adaptively ranks minority class instances at each learning iteration according to a sampling probability distribution that is based on the underlying data distribution, and can adaptively shift the decision boundary toward difficult-to-learn minority and majority class instances by using a hypothesis assessment procedure. Simulation analysis on 19 real-world datasets assessed over various metrics-including overall accuracy, precision, recall, F-measure, G-mean, and receiver operation characteristic analysis-is used to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.

  19. Minority dental faculty development: responsibility and challenge. (United States)

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; West, Joseph F


    Over at least the last twenty years, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) has given attention and priority to increasing the number of underrepresented minority (URM) dental school applicants, enrollees, and faculty members and to meeting the challenges of achieving diversity in the oral health workforce of the future as racial and ethnic minorities continue to grow and are expected to comprise more than 50 percent of the U.S. population by the middle of the twenty-first century. Dental schools have the responsibility of preparing dentists to provide oral health care for the nation's population. This includes creating a workforce of adequate size and racial/ethnic composition. As part of ADEA's priorities to improve the recruitment, retention, and development of URMs in the dental profession, with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, ADEA launched the Minority Dental Faculty Development Program in 2004. The intent of the program is to foster academic partnerships, mentoring, and institutional commitment and leadership designed to increase the number of URM individuals interested in and prepared for careers in academic dentistry.

  20. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G. Ivan; Christenson, John M.; Renier, J.P.; Marcille, T.F.; Casal, J.


    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs). A top-level objective of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis program element of the DOE NERI program is to investigate spent fuel treatment and recycling options for current light water reactors (LWRs). Accordingly, this project targets to expand the traditional scope of nuclear fuel management optimization into the following two complementary specific objectives: (1) To develop a direct coupling between the pin-by-pin within-bundle loading control variables and core-wide (bundle-by-bundle) optimization objectives, (2) to extend the methodology developed to explicitly encompass control variables, objectives, and constraints designed to maximize minor actinide incineration in BWR bundles and cycles. The first specific objective is projected to 'uncover' dormant thermal margin made available by employing additional degrees of freedom within the optimization process, while the addition of minor actinides is expected to 'consume' some of the uncovered thermal margin. Therefore, a key underlying goal of this project is to effectively invest some of the uncovered thermal margin into achieving the primary objective.

  1. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis. (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S


    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  2. Minority Institution ARO Fuel Cell/Battery Manufacturing Research Hub

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selman, J


    ...) high-energy rechargeable battery research concentrated on Li-ion batteries; (3) minority outreach to give undergraduate minority students hands-on experience in electrochemical energy conversion technology and attract them to graduate studies...

  3. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 4. (United States)


    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  4. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 5. (United States)


    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  5. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.


    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  6. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  7. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...

  8. Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth. (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L.

    This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

  9. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (United States)


    ... maximizing the participation of minority farmers and ranchers in USDA programs; and (3) civil rights... organizations with a history of working with minority farmers and ranchers; (3) not less than two civil rights...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA...

  10. Community Racial Segregation, Electoral Structure, and Minority Representation. (United States)

    Vedlitz, Arnold; Johnson, Charles A.


    Community electoral structures and segregation levels affect minority representation. Single-member district electorate systems provide significantly more favorable minority representation levels in segregated communities. In nonsegregated cities type of election system makes little difference in the equality of minority representation. (Author/AM)

  11. Improving Educational Outcomes for Minority Males in Our Schools (United States)

    Gardner, Ralph, III; Rizzi, Gleides Lopes; Council, Morris, III


    This article examines the academic underachievement and disproportionate special education placement of minority males. Causes and consequences for poor academic performance by minority males are reviewed. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind Act are discussed in relation to minority male academic achievement.…

  12. 40 CFR 158.60 - Minor use data policies. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor use data policies. 158.60... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.60 Minor use data policies. FIFRA sec. 2(ll... to, the following: (a) A new data requirement pertinent to both an unregistered minor use and a...

  13. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus. (United States)

    Ottenritter, Nan


    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  14. 78 FR 72527 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013 (United States)


    ..., but whether our economic system provides a fair shot for the many. Minority-owned businesses play a... fundamental promise. America's minority enterprises include everything from Main Street cornerstones that... to recover, our investments in minority owned and operated firms will help create jobs, strengthen...

  15. Minor's healthcare: who decides? | Osime | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Virtually all legal authorities are in agreement that minors can indeed give valid informed consent for treatment (or make informed refusal) provided the minor is mature or emancipated. And for minors indeed, the overall best interest of the child should be taken into consideration with respect to parents or guardians ...

  16. Language, Minority Education and Gender: Linking Social Justice and Power. (United States)

    Corson, David

    Injustices in language policy and practice in education are examined, focusing on three groups that appear to be most affected by unfair language policies in education; women and girls; minority social groups; and minority cultural groups, distinguished from minority social groups in that the former usually possess or identify with a language that…

  17. 7 CFR 772.7 - Leasing minor program loan security. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing minor program loan security. 772.7 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.7 Leasing minor program loan security. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may consent to the borrower leasing all or a portion of security...

  18. Recruiting Minority Students: A Priority for the '90s. (United States)

    Applegate, Jimmie R.; Henniger, Michael L.


    Minority student enrollment in higher education over the last decade is examined, as well as population projections into the early 21st century. Many minority youth reject the assertion that success requires a college degree, and racial prejudice and violence on campuses create an inhospitable environment for minorities. (MLW)

  19. Minority Stress across the Career-Lifespan Trajectory (United States)

    Dispenza, Franco; Brown, Colton; Chastain, Taylor E.


    Sexual minority persons (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) are likely to encounter "minority stress", such as discrimination, concealment, expectation of rejection, and internalized heterosexism. Minority stress occurs alongside one's lifespan and has considerable implications in the context of the career lifespan trajectory.…

  20. Self-Regulation in Children and Minors in Institutional Care (United States)

    Hrbackova, Karla; Vavrova, Sona


    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ…

  1. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick


    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  2. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening....... Each axle is suspended on two elastic supports modelling the wheels....

  3. Editorial: From Radicalism to Minority Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah Journal of Islamic Studies


    Full Text Available This edition presents contemporary themes around Islam and Muslims in Indonesia from the issues of radicalism, online media, a Dutch scholar during colonial era, women’s resistance to shariatization, local practice of Islamic sufism, minority group, to broader theme of the relation of religion and science. To begin with, James Adam Fenton sheds light on the way in which Indonesian society has responded to radical ideology. He argues that dialogue in open society with democratic spirit helps the society to disengage from radicalism.

  4. Social organization in the Minority Game model (United States)

    Slanina, František


    We study the role of imitation within the Minority Game model of market. The players can exchange information locally, which leads to formation of groups which act as if they were single players. Coherent spatial areas of rich and poor agents result. We found that the global effectivity is optimized at certain value of the imitation probability, which decreases with increasing memory length. The social tensions are suppressed for large imitation probability, but generally the requirements of high global effectivity and low social tensions are in conflict.

  5. ISLAM AND MINORITIES: Managing Identity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suaedy


    Full Text Available The Malaysian general election in March 2008 raised an interesting and new phenomenon. For the first time since independence in 1957, the ruling alliance known as the National Front (Barisan Nasional, BN failed to secure two thirds of seats in parliament and lost control of five of Malaysia’s 13 states. This was due to the challenge presented by the new opposition alliance known as the Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif, BA or the People’s Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat, PK which won more than 36% of seats in parliament and gained control of the five states. In the 2004 election, BN secured the largest ever percentage of seats in parliament with 91%. What is interesting is that it seems that this significant increase in support for the opposition is  due to their offer to change the way minorities and ethnicity is managed. They  propose a move from “Bumiputera Supremacy”, or affirmative action for the approximately 65% of “Bumiputera” Malaysians (the rest being largely of Chinese or Indian ethnicity, to “The People’s Supremacy”, which involves eradicating affirmative action based on ethnicity, basing it instead on need, for  instance need due to poverty. This would potentially increase the likelihood  of justice and equality for all ethnic or racial groups. This paper connects the phenomenon of change, as seen in the about turn in the results between the  2004 and 2008 elections, to the more global trend in which minorities are standing up to demand their rights in this era of globalization, and to the challenge multiculturalism presents to parts of the Muslim world such as Malaysia. Malaysia, a Muslim majority nation that has formally declared Islam the official state religion with Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the King as  Head of the State and symbol of Islam, is one example, though not necessarily  representative, of how Islam and Muslims manage minorities and identity or  multiculturalism within the process of globalization

  6. Minorities in Nursing Education: Using Smartphones. (United States)

    Day-Black, Crystal


    The use of Smartphones in teaching and learning is transforming academia and affords a shift in paradigm for Historically Black Universities and Colleges (HBCUs) nurse programs for the 21st century. Smartphone use in academic settings has gained popularity among college students. For minority and low-income students, this handheld device may be the only source to real-time Internet-accessible information, and in anchoring social, vocational, and academic habits. Nursing faculty acceptance of smartphones in the classroom assists in clinical and simulation learning experiences. These experiences are keys to integration of successful smartphone initiatives in HBCU nursing programs.

  7. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults......, reciprocal expectations, ambivalences. The results of these studies show a convergence in the filial norms among ethnic groups in the Danish welfare state. The unique aspects of the young adults’ trajectories challenge, transgress and transform some of the stereotypes related to cultural practices...

  8. Domestic abuse against minors: A victomological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The study presents the main findings of the secondary analysis conducted by the author on the statistics of the Prosecutors' Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice in the period between 2005 and the first semester of 2007, regarding domestic physical and sexual abuse against minors. The study emphasizes the increase or decrease trends in the number of victims of domestic abuse according to the category of crime (for example manslaughter, battery resulting in death, battery and other types of violence, rape, incest, sexual corruption, etc. as well as in relation to aggressors and victims.

  9. Domestic Sex Trafficking of Minors: Medical Student and Physician Awareness. (United States)

    Titchen, Kanani E; Loo, Dyani; Berdan, Elizabeth; Rysavy, Mary Becker; Ng, Jessica J; Sharif, Iman


    Our aim was to assess: (1) medical trainee and practicing physician awareness about domestic sex trafficking of minors; and (2) whether respondents believe that awareness of trafficking is important to their practice. We designed an anonymous electronic survey, and a convenience sample was collected from June through October 2013. Voluntary participants were 1648 medical students, residents, and practicing physicians throughout the United States. Data were analyzed for correlations between study cohort characteristics and: (1) agreement with the statement: "knowing about sex trafficking in my state is important to my profession"; (2) knowledge of national statistics regarding the sex trafficking of minors; and (3) knowledge of appropriate responses to encountering a trafficked victim. More practicing physicians than residents or medical students: (1) agreed or strongly agreed that knowledge about human trafficking was important to their practice (80.6%, 71.1%, and 69.2%, respectively; P = .0008); (2) correctly estimated the number of US trafficked youth according to the US Department of State data (16.1%, 11.7%, and 7.9%, respectively; P = .0011); and (3) were more likely to report an appropriate response to a trafficked victim (40.4%, 20.4%, and 8.9%, respectively; P = .0001). Although most medical trainees and physicians place importance on knowing about human trafficking, they lack knowledge about the scope of the problem, and most would not know where to turn if they encountered a trafficking victim. There exists a need for standardized trafficking education for physicians, residents, and medical students. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy


    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  11. On freak minor octopus, Octopus minor, found out in Imabari Fish Market, Ehime Prefecture


    Higashide, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Hiroaki


    The three male freak minor octopus, Octopus minor were found out on Fish Market of Imabari Fisheries Cooperative, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One of them was the octopus landed on May 25, 2006, which had two hectocotilized arms on both of the third right and left, though male octopus usually has only one hectocotilized arm on the third right arm. It was seemed to be arisen from the abnormal generation. Another ones were landed on the Fish Market on April 16 and June 26, 2007, respectively. Both ...

  12. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.


    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  13. Minority games, evolving capitals and replicator dynamics (United States)

    Galla, Tobias; Zhang, Yi-Cheng


    We discuss a simple version of the minority game (MG) in which agents hold only one strategy each, but in which their capitals evolve dynamically according to their success and in which the total trading volume varies in time accordingly. This feature is known to be crucial for MGs to reproduce stylized facts of real market data. The stationary states and phase diagram of the model can be computed, and we show that the ergodicity breaking phase transition common for MGs, and marked by a divergence of the integrated response, is present also in this simplified model. An analogous majority game turns out to be relatively void of interesting features, and the total capital is found to diverge in time. Introducing a restraining force leads to a model akin to the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory, and we demonstrate that here a different type of phase transition is observed. Finally we briefly discuss the relation of this model with one strategy per player to more sophisticated minority games with dynamical capitals and several trading strategies per agent.

  14. Minor and major health: a Nietzschean reading. (United States)

    Biato, Emília Carvalho Leitão; Costa, Luciano Bedin da; Monteiro, Silas Borges


    This paper aims to discuss the concept of health, understood as multiple and plural. We use Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical thought as an analytical tool, allowing us to reach a typology involving minor and major health. While the first is normative and sustained by an ideal of healing, the second is an expanding strength, a condition constantly achieved. If minor health follows a preset life moralization script, major health relates to the expanded living being, which affirms its creative nature and transcends established rules. The notion of major health embraces the overcoming of imperative models rooted in biomedicine-based practices and approaches to health collective actions. Nevertheless, on the one hand, if this movement extends the co-participatory nature between staff and users of the health system, on the other hand, it lacks more radical actions to break with the moral nature of health-disease processes. Not refusing life's own vicissitudes, major health understands the need to incorporate pain and suffering involved in individuation movements.

  15. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools. (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy


    Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To replicate across cultures the known motivational benefits of perceived instrumentality and internal regulation by distant future goals; to clarify when and how the future motivates minority students' educational performance. Participants in this study were 279 minority students (100 of Turkish and 179 of Moroccan origin) and 229 native Dutch students in Dutch secondary schools. Participants rated the importance of future goals, their perceptions of instrumentality, their task motivation and learning strategies. Dependent measures and their functional relations with future goal setting were simultaneously validated across minority and non-minority students, using structural equation modelling in multiple groups. As expected, Positive Perceived Instrumentality for the future increases task motivation and (indirectly) adaptive learning of both minority and non-minority students. But especially internally regulating future goals are strongly related to more task motivation and indirectly to more adaptive learning strategies. Our findings throw new light on the role of future goal setting in minority school careers: distant future goals enhance minority and non-minority students' motivation and learning, if students perceive positive instrumentality and if their schoolwork is internally regulated by future goals.

  16. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis (United States)

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.


    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

  17. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.


    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  18. Electron Microscopy. (United States)

    Beer, Michael


    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  19. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A


    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen


    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Vacuum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Eichmeier, Joseph A


    Nineteen experts from the electronics industry, research institutes and universities have joined forces to prepare this book. ""Vacuum Electronics"" covers the electrophysical fundamentals, the present state of the art and applications, as well as the future prospects of microwave tubes and systems, optoelectronics vacuum devices, electron and ion beam devices, light and X-ray emitters, particle accelerators and vacuum interrupters. These topics are supplemented by useful information about the materials and technologies of vacuum electronics and vacuum technology.

  2. Electronic Commerce


    Slavko Đerić


    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  3. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Callahan, C. N.


    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources, including industry, scientific societies, individuals, and during the last 10 years, the NSF. College-level students apply for the MPP awards or award renewals, and the MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. Mentoring is a long-standing hallmark of the AGI MPP. Every AGI MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars. The MPP Advisory Committee aims to match the profession of the mentor with the scholar's academic interest. Throughout the year, mentors and scholars communicate about possible opportunities in the geosciences such as internships, participation in symposia, professional society meetings, and job openings. Mentors have also been active in helping younger students cope with the major changes involved in relocating to a new region of the country or a new college culture. We believe that AGI is well-positioned to advance diversity in the geosciences through its unique standing as the major professional organization in the

  4. Electronic Publishing. (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.


    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (a) facilitate ecommerce;2. (b) remove and prevent barriers to electronic communications in South Africa;3. (c) ensure that electronic transactions in the Republic conform to the highest international standards;4. (d) promote the development of electronic transactions services which are responsive to the needs of users and ...

  6. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.


    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  7. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework. (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B


    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  8. Social Interaction and the Minority-Majority Earnings Inequality : Why Being a Minority Hurts but being a big Minority Hurts More

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahanec, M.


    Empirical findings that minorities typically attain lower economic status than majorities and that relatively larger minorities perform worse than smaller ones pose a challenge to economics.To explain this scale puzzle, I model an economy where the society is bifurcated into two social groups that

  9. Minority game and anomalies in financial markets (United States)

    Liu, Xinghua; Liang, Xiaobei; Tang, Bingyong


    The minority game (MG), which is intrinsically associated with financial markets, is an agent-based model of a competing population with limited resources. We find that the fluctuation features of MG in crowded region are more similar to real market than that of in perfect cooperation region. So we propose and study a modified model based on the MG in which agents accumulate virtual points for their strategies from the last H steps instead of from the beginning of the game. The results of numerical simulations on our new model show that agents will be more intelligent, and the types of features of fluctuations are the same in real-world market. We also give a numerical explanation of the high adaptability of agents in new model.

  10. Dynamics of a spherical minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, T; Coolen, A C C; Sherrington, D


    We present an exact dynamical solution of a spherical version of the batch minority game (MG) with random external information. The control parameters in this model are the ratio of the number of possible values for the public information over the number of agents, and the radius of the spherical constraint on the microscopic degrees of freedom. We find a phase diagram with three phases: two without anomalous response (an oscillating versus a frozen state) and a further frozen phase with divergent integrated response. In contrast to standard MG versions, we can also calculate the volatility exactly. Our study reveals similarities between the spherical and the conventional MG, but also intriguing differences. Numerical simulations confirm our analytical results

  11. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  12. Information visualization of the minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W; Herbert, R D; Webber, R


    Many dynamical systems produce large quantities of data. How can the system be understood from the output data? Often people are simply overwhelmed by the data. Traditional tools such as tables and plots are often not adequate, and new techniques are needed to help people to analyze the system. In this paper, we propose the use of two spacefilling visualization tools to examine the output from a complex agent-based financial model. We measure the effectiveness and performance of these tools through usability experiments. Based on the experimental results, we develop two new visualization techniques that combine the advantages and discard the disadvantages of the information visualization tools. The model we use is an evolutionary version of the Minority Game which simulates a financial market

  13. Information visualization of the minority game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, W [Shanghai E and P International, Inc. 12 and 37F, Shanghai Information Tower, 211 Century Ave., Pu Dong New District, Shanghai 200120 (China); Herbert, R D; Webber, R [School of Design, Communication and Information Technology, University of Newcastle (Australia)], E-mail:


    Many dynamical systems produce large quantities of data. How can the system be understood from the output data? Often people are simply overwhelmed by the data. Traditional tools such as tables and plots are often not adequate, and new techniques are needed to help people to analyze the system. In this paper, we propose the use of two spacefilling visualization tools to examine the output from a complex agent-based financial model. We measure the effectiveness and performance of these tools through usability experiments. Based on the experimental results, we develop two new visualization techniques that combine the advantages and discard the disadvantages of the information visualization tools. The model we use is an evolutionary version of the Minority Game which simulates a financial market.

  14. The transition to efficiency in minority games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, Tobias; De Martino, Andrea


    The existence of a phase transition with diverging susceptibility in batch minority games (MGs) is the mark of informationally efficient regimes and is linked to the specifics of the agents' learning rules. Here, we study how the standard scenario is affected in a mixed population game in which agents with the 'optimal' learning rule (i.e. the one leading to efficiency) coexist with those whose adaptive dynamics is sub-optimal. Our generic finding is that any non-vanishing intensive fraction of optimal agents guarantees the existence of an efficient phase. Specifically, we calculate the dependence of the critical point on the fraction q of 'optimal' agents focusing our analysis on three cases: MGs with market impact correction, grand-canonical MGs and MGs with heterogeneous comfort levels

  15. Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games (United States)

    Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.


    Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

  16. Learning Schoolscapes in a Minority Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biró Enikő


    Full Text Available In my paper, I present a qualitative approach to the linguistic landscape of Hungarian schools in Sepsiszentgyörgy/Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. These landscapes are called schoolscapes as they represent the material environment where texts and images “constitute, reproduce and transform language ideologies” (Brown 2012: 282. These manifestations reveal a lot about language learning and teaching in a formal educational environment. Beyond the simple representations of languages in education, we may trace more or less hidden curriculum details of foreign- and second-language teaching (English/German, Romanian in a Hungarian-Romanian dominant bilingual setting. My aim is to describe the visual manifestations of the differences and similarities between the languages taught to minority children and the mutual efforts of teachers and students to meet the basic challenges of learning and teaching these languages.

  17. Double-Critical Graphs and Complete Minors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Toft, Bjarne


      A connected $k$-chromatic graph $G$ is double-critical if for all edges $uv$ of $G$ the graph $G - u - v$ is $(k-2)$-colourable. The only known double-critical $k$-chromatic graph is the complete $k$-graph $K_k$. The conjecture that there are no other double-critical graphs is a special case...... of a conjecture from 1966, due to Erd\\H{o}s and Lov\\'asz.  The conjecture has been verified for $k \\leq 5$.  We prove for $k=6$ and $k=7$ that any non-complete double-critical $k$-chromatic graph is $6$-connected and has $K_k$ as a minor. Udgivelsesdato: 07.06....

  18. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage (United States)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.


    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  19. Development of Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscope Capability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Kimberlee Chiyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Talin, Albert Alec [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michael, Joseph R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Modern semiconductor devices rely on the transport of minority charge carriers. Direct examination of minority carrier lifetimes in real devices with nanometer-scale features requires a measurement method with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolutions. Achieving nanometer spatial resolutions at sub-nanosecond temporal resolution is possible with pump-probe methods that utilize electrons as probes. Recently, a stroboscopic scanning electron microscope was developed at Caltech, and used to study carrier transport across a Si p-n junction [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . In this report, we detail our development of a prototype scanning ultrafast electron microscope system at Sandia National Laboratories based on the original Caltech design. This effort represents Sandia's first exploration into ultrafast electron microscopy.

  20. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D


    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  1. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa


    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  2. Own education institutions as an option for minority groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Steyn


    Full Text Available In this article the introductory part deals with Christian guidelines regarding the rights of minority groups. In the ensuing part the provision of education according to the unique educational needs of minority groups is discussed within the context of the presented guidelines. It is indicated that own education is internationally accepted as one of the major rights of minority groups. Within the international context, for example in the treaties of Unesco and in the educational provision of several countries, it is accepted that minority groups also prefer their own education institutions in order to effectively provide in their unique educational needs. In this article the more general requirements, regarding the characteristics of the education institution needed to meet the unique educational needs of a particular minority group are also identified. The impending problems in South Africa regarding own education schools for minorities are discussed briefly. In order to find possible solutions the situation in the Netherlands regarding "bijzondere scholen” to provide in the unique educational needs of particular interest groups and particularly religious groups is analysed. The conclusion arrived at is that the mentioned situation does not oppose Christian guidelines if minorities need each other to influence educational change, that the acknowledgement of the educational rights of minority groups promotes national unity, that the educational rights of minorities should imply freedom of establishment, denomination and institution and that the educational rights of minorities are fully realised if their education is financially supported by government on an equal basis to that of the majority.

  3. Effectiveness of Recycling Promotion and Education Initiatives among First-Generation Ethnic Minorities in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lakhan


    Full Text Available This study examines how first-generation ethnic minorities respond to different types of recycling promotion and education campaigns (P&E used by municipalities in Ontario, Canada. A total of eight focus group sessions were conducted over an eight-week period to gauge participant attitudes and responses towards print (newspaper and signs and electronic (websites P&E messaging. Participants were asked to comment on message “recognition”, “clarity”, “the ability to increase recycling awareness” and “the ability to affect changes in recycling behavior”. Results from the focus group sessions suggest that none of the P&E mediums tested were able to increase recycling awareness or change recycling behavior in any meaningful way. First-generation ethnic minorities struggle with recognizing the central theme and purpose of P&E advertisements. Respondents also found existing campaigns excessively complex and confusing, and were not familiar with many of the terms and symbols used in existing P&E messaging. Other findings suggest that ethnic minorities are skeptical and distrustful of the municipalities’ intentions with respect to what they do with the waste after it is collected. The findings from this study lead to the recommendation that municipalities rethink and redesign recycling promotion and education initiatives to better engage minority communities.

  4. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S


    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  5. The electron and the electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Balmaseda, M.


    The aim of this work is to present a brief report of those historical events that originated and contributed to the scientific area of Electronics. The main discovering and investigations in both Vacuum Electronics and Semiconductor Electronics are reviewed. (Author) 12 refs

  6. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan


    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  7. Enhanced thermoelectric properties in bulk nanowire heterostructure-based nanocomposites through minority carrier blocking. (United States)

    Yang, Haoran; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Day, Tristan; Mohammed, Amr M S; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Shakouri, Ali; Wu, Yue


    To design superior thermoelectric materials the minority carrier blocking effect in which the unwanted bipolar transport is prevented by the interfacial energy barriers in the heterogeneous nanostructures has been theoretically proposed recently. The theory predicts an enhanced power factor and a reduced bipolar thermal conductivity for materials with a relatively low doping level, which could lead to an improvement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). Here we show the first experimental demonstration of the minority carrier blocking in lead telluride-silver telluride (PbTe-Ag2Te) nanowire heterostructure-based nanocomposites. The nanocomposites are made by sintering PbTe-Ag2Te nanowire heterostructures produced in a highly scalable solution-phase synthesis. Compared with Ag2Te nanowire-based nanocomposite produced in similar method, the PbTe-Ag2Te nanocomposite containing ∼5 atomic % PbTe exhibits enhanced Seebeck coefficient, reduced thermal conductivity, and ∼40% improved ZT, which can be well explained by the theoretical modeling based on the Boltzmann transport equations when energy barriers for both electrons and holes at the heterostructure interfaces are considered in the calculations. For this p-type PbTe-Ag2Te nanocomposite, the barriers for electrons, that is, minority carriers, are primarily responsible for the ZT enhancement. By extending this approach to other nanostructured systems, it represents a key step toward low-cost solution-processable nanomaterials without heavy doping level for high-performance thermoelectric energy harvesting.

  8. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph


    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  9. 76 FR 10337 - National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprises; Meeting (United States)


    ... minority businesses and their ability to successfully access the domestic and global marketplace. Topics to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Minority Business Development Agency National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprises; Meeting AGENCY: Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA), Department of Commerce...

  10. Minority stress in people who identify as transgender: testing the minority stress model


    Stennett, Sabrina


    Objectives: People who identify as transgender are reported to experience high levels of mental health problems in comparison to people who do not identify as transgender. The minority stress model has been used to explain these high prevalence rates. But this model was designed to be used in lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) populations (Meyer, 1995, 2003). Researchers have applied some of the hypothesised processes of the model to people who identify as transgender. However, evidence testing ...

  11. Mentoring for minorities in mathematics and science. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, S.E.


    The University of West Florida received a grant from the US Department of Energy to initiate a program on mentoring for Minorities in Mathematics and Science. The purpose of the program was to develop interest of minority freshman and sophomore students in teaching mathematics and science and then have these students act as role models for grade school students, especially for minorities who are experiencing difficulties in science and mathematics education. Fifteen students, one more than what was budgeted, participated in the project.

  12. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić


    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  13. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma. (United States)

    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes


    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  14. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.


    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  15. Music in minor activates limbic structures: a relationship with dissonance? (United States)

    Green, Anders C; Baerentsen, Klaus B; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter


    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we contrasted major and minor mode melodies controlled for liking to study the neural basis of musical mode perception. To examine the influence of the larger dissonance in minor melodies on neural activation differences, we further introduced a strongly dissonant stimulus, in the form of a chromatic scale. Minor mode melodies were evaluated as sadder than major melodies, and in comparison they caused increased activity in limbic structures, namely left parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral ventral anterior cingulate, and in left medial prefrontal cortex. Dissonance explained some, but not all, of the heightened activity in the limbic structures when listening to minor mode music.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov


    Full Text Available Minor enterprises do not have resources sufficient for investment. Present experience of venture financing and attraction of funds from finance markets is poor in Russia. Main minor entrepreneurship financing sources are state allocations in the form of subsidies, subventionsand donations. This support promotes economics diversification and increases jobs. The state becomes client of innovations and provides for business environment favorable for minor entrepreneurship and for subsequent diffusion of innovations. One of most efficient innovationactivity stimulation methods (applied to minor enterprises as well is provision for tax privileges, favorable state bank credits and preferences to innovation activity supporting commercial banks.

  17. Self-regulation in children and minors in institutional care


    Hrbáčková, Karla; Vávrová, Soňa


    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ significantly in perception of the wards' self-regulation of behaviour in the short and long-term context. The lowest rate of self-regulation in children and minor...

  18. Creep in electronic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routbort, J. L.; Goretta, K. C.; Arellano-Lopez, A. R.


    High-temperature creep measurements combined with microstructural investigations can be used to elucidate deformation mechanisms that can be related to the diffusion kinetics and defect chemistry of the minority species. This paper will review the theoretical basis for this correlation and illustrate it with examples from some important electronic ceramics having a perovskite structure. Recent results on BaTiO{sub 3}, (La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr){sub 1{minus}y}MnO{sub 3+{delta}}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}, (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and Sr(Fe,Co){sub 1.5}O{sub x} will be presented.

  19. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng


    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  20. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.


    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  1. Microfluidic electronics. (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang


    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  2. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph


    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  3. Isolated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrom, Ph.; Winwland, D.


    The problem of electron g-factor measurement by means of an isolated electron is considered. The technique of the experiment performed at the Washington university is described. A single electron is enclosed in a homogeneous magnetic field which is superimposed by an electric field. The electric field configuration represents a Penning trap. The trap together with the enclosed electron forms an ''atom'' of macroscopic dimensions. The electron trajectory in the trap consists of three components. The electron quickly rotates over small loops (cyclotron motion), the centre of these loops slowly moves over a large circle (magistron motion). Meanwhile the electron oscillates back and forth along the trap axis. The electron motion in the atom field is quantized and the transitions between various types of motions correspond to definite radiation frequencies. At the anomal frequency the transition with spin flip is registered and the electron g-factor is measured. The value g=2.0023193044 is obtained with a probable error less than a unit of the last decimal digit.

  4. Cultural Minorities and Life Styles: Iranian Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fakouhi


    Full Text Available The Globalization accelerated the paradoxical processes of modernization by introducing the cultural homogenizations and heterogenizations: construction and deconstruction of local-communitarian identities. This is why we are facing on the one hand, the increasing of local identities and visions and on the other hand, the interference, sometimes in a conflicted way, of the latter forms with the national and global identities. In this context, the Iranian problematic is discussed by an urban anthropological theoretical approach. The main concern in this article is the everyday life styles as the most important means of the cultural identity formation and their self expressions. Social constructed space as Lefebvre put it, and Cultural Studies tradition of everyday life, have been the starting points of this paper aiming to analyze the cultural resistance phenomenon expressed in physical and bodily spaces as well as in social and intercultural relations in domains such as age, ethnics and gender. These identity schemes have been taken as minority situations when they express in a way or other, some sort of cultural or social resistance facing a dominant pattern and by this way the paper try to present some practical and applied solutions to decrease the social tensions.

  5. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio


    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. Sexual Minority Disparities in Substance Use Willingness Among Youth. (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Hayes, Kerri; Jackson, Kristina M


    Disparities in substance use have been observed in sexual minority youth, but less is known about willingness to use substances, an important precursor to actual use. The goal of this study was to examine willingness to use cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among sexual minority youth compared to their non-sexual minority counterparts using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. The present study drew on two waves (Times 1 and 2; 6 months apart) of data collected during high school as part of a prospective study of substance use initiation and progression in Rhode Island. At Time 1, participants (N = 443) ranged in age from 15 to 20 years (M age = 16.7 years, 26.6% sexual minority, 59.5% female, 72.0% White). Participants self-reported their sexual identity and attraction, lifetime use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use willingness (i.e., if offered by a best friend or group of friends). In cross-sectional multivariate regression models, sexual minority youth were more likely to report willingness to use cigarettes (p alcohol use willingness in multivariable cross-sectional or longitudinal models by sexual minority status. Sexual minority youth reported more willingness than non-sexual minority youth to use substances offered by peers; however, longitudinal analyses revealed that peers appear to play a role only in willingness to smoke cigarettes for these youth, and thus peer influence may be a contributing factor in explaining tobacco-related disparities among sexual minority youth. Given that stigma and peer groups may a particular risk factor for tobacco among sexual minority youth, our findings highlight the importance of prevention programs such as social marketing approaches that correct social norms, reduce stigma, and provide refusal-skills training to reduce tobacco-related disparities among sexual minorities.

  7. Electronic marketplaces




    This thesis describes the principles of electronic and Internet marketplaces. For analyzing the status of the use of electronic marketplaces and online polling was done with the actual marketplace and society, which is a member of the marketplace. Proposal that trade through the market is prepared for a particular company, which previously traded through the marketplace.

  8. Printed Electronics (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)


    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  9. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    reference material for power electronics engineers, students and academicians. We thank the editors of Sadhana for inviting us to guest-edit this special issue on power electronics. July 2017. KISHORE CHATTERJEE. Department of Electrical Engineering,. Indian Institute of Technology,. Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, ...

  10. Transmission electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, Ludwig


    "Transmission Electron Microscopy" presents the theory of image and contrastformation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy Theprinciples of particle and wave optics of electrons are described Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast Also analysed are the kinetical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure determination and imaging of lattices and their defects X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods The third edition includes a brief discussionof Schottky emission guns, some clarification of minor details, and references to the recent literature

  11. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová


    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  12. 75 FR 52211 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2010 (United States)


    ... good idea and enough hard work can succeed and share those achievements with their employees and... businesses to double our exports over the next 5 years. The skills and leadership of minority business owners... we honor minority enterprises, their industrious owners, and their hard-working employees, let us...

  13. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  14. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  15. Digital Divide: Low German and Other Minority Languages (United States)

    Wiggers, Heiko


    This paper investigates the online presence of Low German, a minority language spoken in northern Germany, as well as several other European regional and minority languages. In particular, this article presents the results of two experiments, one involving "Wikipedia" and one involving "Twitter," that assess whether and to…

  16. Lines of Deterritorialization: The Becoming-Minor of Carter's Drawing (United States)

    Schulte, Christopher M.


    Invoking Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's configuration of minor literature, the author of this case study theorizes the drawing practice of a young boy (Carter) as a process of becoming-minor. Critical to this theorization is the creation and activation of a semblance between Brent and Marjorie Wilson's (1977) treatment of the…

  17. 77 FR 72679 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2012 (United States)


    ..., you can succeed. It is this belief that leads a worker to leave a job to become her own boss, propels... belief in tomorrow's promise is guiding minority entrepreneurs across our country to start the kinds of..., contracts, and markets to minority entrepreneurs seeking to expand their businesses at home and overseas. We...

  18. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison


    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  19. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kamen


    Conclusion: The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions.

  20. Leadership Identity Development through an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.


    Leadership development among postsecondary students can occur through a variety of experiences; one such experience is a leadership minor. The purpose of this descriptive interpretive study was to analyze students' experiences while enrolled in a leadership minor with a focus on exploring evidence of leadership identity development. By exploring…

  1. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.


    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  2. Community College Organizational Climate for Minorities and Women (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.


    This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…

  3. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...

  4. A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators (United States)

    Bishop, Holly N.; Caraway, Chadwick; Stader, David L.


    Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K-12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which…

  5. SEM investigation of minor constituents of carbide materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1267–1271. c Indian Academy of Sciences. SEM investigation of minor constituents of carbide materials ... distribution of admixture constituents. It is found that the most common minor phase represents Al–Fe–Si–C-based alloys. ... into pellets of 20 mm in diameter and 15 mm in thickness which were heated up to 1700.

  6. Minorities in Higher Education. Fifth Annual Status Report 1986. (United States)

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. Office of Minority Concerns.

    For the past 5 years, the American Council on Higher Education's Office of Minority Concerns (OMC) has been monitoring the annual progress of minorities in higher education and issuing a report card on the system itself and the country as a whole. The 1986 report takes a more in-depth look at the whole by focusing on the progress of the particular…

  7. The Broccoli Syndrome: Higher Education's Pubdown Of The Minority Student (United States)

    Tate, Penfield; Delworth, Ursula


    The assumption underlying the broccoli syndrome is that minority group students are not familiar with a whole range of Anglo goodies''. This article points out how, as the minority student is enlightened time and again to such facts'', he perceives inherent racism in his enlightener.'' (JC)

  8. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand (United States)

    de Bres, Julia


    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  9. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.


    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  10. On Reconstruction of a Matrix by Its Minors (United States)

    Akhtyamov, Azamat; Amram, Meirav; Mouftakhov, Artour


    In this paper, we reconstruct matrices from their minors, and give explicit formulas for the reconstruction of matrices of orders 2 × 3, 2 × 4, 2 × n, 3 × 6 and m × n. We also formulate the Plücker relations, which are the conditions of the existence of a matrix related to its given minors.

  11. Ethnic Minorities and the Nigerian State | Rindap | AFRREV IJAH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethnic-minority relationship is a universal issue in all multi-ethnic societies. In Nigeria, the issue started with the amalgamation of the colony, that is, southern and northern protectorates by Sir Lord Frederick Lugard in 1914. The out- cry has always been the marginalisation of the minorities by the majorities especially in ...

  12. Mother Tongue and Bilingual Minority Education in China (United States)

    Tsung, Linda T. H.; Cruickshank, Ken


    Mother tongue education in separate schools has been in the norm for several of China's large minorities since 1949. In recent years, however, the shift in minority parental demand, media focus on low educational outcomes of mother tongue education combined with government concerns about separatism have led to the development of mixed schools for…

  13. An Examination of the Variables Related to Minority Youth Employment. (United States)

    Price-Curtis, William; Jarvis, Carolyn Hunter


    Examines postprogram experiences of minority youth in the National Urban League Youth Career Development Project. Results confirmed the difficulties minority female teenagers have obtaining jobs. Found parents' employment status had little effect, and unemployed youth tended to rely on informal job search techniques. (Author/JAC)

  14. Bilingual Education for Majority and Minority Language Children. (United States)

    Swain, Merrill


    The fact that early immersion in a second language has led to bilingualism and academic success among majority language children has been used as an argument against mother tongue instruction for minority language children. However, for minority language children, immersion in a second language has often led to language loss and academic failure.…

  15. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.


    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  16. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.


    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs

  17. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.


    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  18. Minority Recruitment and Retention for Universities: Bilingual Special Education Faculty (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.


    Recruitment and retention of minority faculty in bilingual special education is a perilous task. Research has shown that minority faculty/teachers are able to provide emotional support, mentor students, serve as role models, create a positive climate, provide diverse views, increase collaboration among faculty and teachers, and work with…

  19. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups (United States)

    Mingyuan, Gu


    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  20. Accessing medication information by ethnic minorities : barriers and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Evelyn; Raynor, Theo; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje


    Aim: This review discusses two main questions: how suitable is current consumer medication information for minority ethnic groups, and what are effective strategies to overcome existing barriers. The focus is on minority groups whose first language is not the language of the healthcare system.

  1. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. The immunogenic properties of Ricinus communis var minor seed was determined after feeding 7 healthy virgin albino white rabbits with varying doses of 0.5g – 0.9g dried ground. Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). Booster doses of the same weight were further ...

  2. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunogenic properties of Ricinus communis var minor seed was determined after feeding 7 healthy virgin albino white rabbits with varying doses of 0.5g – 0.9g dried ground Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). Booster doses of the same weight were further administered ...

  3. 78 FR 59425 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency [Docket ID OCC-2013-0017] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) announces a meeting of the Minority Depository...

  4. Minority dissent, social acceptance in collaborative learning groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Schruijer, S.G.L.; Fodor, Oana


    The main aim of this paper is to test the extent to which social acceptance moderates the impact of minority dissent on group cognitive complexity (GCC). We hypothesize that divergent views expressed by a minority increase GCC especially when the group climate is open to divergent contributions

  5. Audience and the use of minority languages on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.; Trieschnigg, D.; Cornips, L.


    On Twitter, many users tweet in more than one language. In this study, we examine the use of two Dutch minority languages. Users can engage with different audiences and by analyzing different types of tweets, we find that characteristics of the audience influence whether a minority language is used.

  6. Audience and the Use of Minority Languages on Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Cornips, Leonie

    On Twitter, many users tweet in more than one language. In this study, we examine the use of two Dutch minority languages. Users can engage with different audiences and by analyzing different types of tweets, we find that characteristics of the audience influence whether a minority language is used.

  7. Fear and anxiety in patients undergoing minor oral surgery | Saheeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the causes of fear and anxiety in consecutive patients who attended the University of Benin Teaching Hospital for minor oral surgical treatment. Method: All consenting consecutive patients referred for minor oral surgery were studied. Information on all the patients was ...

  8. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa | Mothata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicated that there is no international consensus on the definition of the concept minority; the South African constitution uses the concept communities rather than minorities but in this incidence, no definition is given. However, the South African constitution contains sufficient provisions for the right of communities ...

  9. Chromatic roots and minor-closed families of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas


    Given a minor-closed class of graphs G, what is the in mum of the non-trivial roots of the chromatic polynomial of G ε G? When G is the class of all graphs, the answer is known to be 32/27. We answer this question exactly for three minor-closed classes of graphs. Furthermore, we conjecture...

  10. On Their Own Terms: Two-Year Minority Serving Institutions (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Castro Samayoa, Andrés; Gasman, Marybeth; Wilson, Audrey; Diggs, Desmond; Wolff, Melanie; Dávila, Carolina; Boland, William


    This report, published by the Center for Minority Serving Institutions in collaboration with CAPSEE, looks at the role of two-year Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) in improving postsecondary access and degree completion for disadvantaged students in the United States. In doing so, it aims to prepare the groundwork for research that considers…

  11. 20 CFR 725.507 - Guardian for minor or incompetent. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian for minor or incompetent. 725.507... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Payment of Benefits General Provisions § 725.507 Guardian for minor or incompetent. An adjudication officer may require that a legal guardian or representative...

  12. Impact of minor actinide recycling on sustainable fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.


    The recent Evaluation and Screening study chartered by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has identified four fuel cycle options as being the most promising. Among these four options, the two single-stage fuel cycles rely on a fast reactor and are differing in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The two other fuel cycles are two-stage and rely on both fast and thermal reactors. They also differ in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The current study assesses the impact of recycling minor actinides on the reactor core design, its performance characteristics, and the characteristics of the recycled material and waste material. The recycling of minor actinides is found not to affect the reactor core performance, as long as the same cycle length, core layout and specific power are being used. One notable difference is that the required transuranics (TRU) content is slightly increased when minor actinides are recycled. The mass flows are mostly unchanged given a same specific power and cycle length. Although the material mass flows and reactor performance characteristics are hardly affected by recycling minor actinides, some differences are observed in the waste characteristics between the two fuel cycles considered. The absence of minor actinides in the waste results in a different buildup of decay products, and in somewhat different behaviors depending on the characteristic and time frame considered. Recycling of minor actinides is found to result in a reduction of the waste characteristics ranging from 10% to 90%. These results are consistent with previous studies in this domain and depending on the time frame considered, packaging conditions, repository site, repository strategy, the differences observed in the waste characteristics could be beneficial and help improve

  13. Market mechanism and expectations in minority and majority games (United States)

    Marsili, Matteo


    We present a derivation of the minority game from a market mechanism. This shows that the minority nature of the interaction crucially depends on the expectation model of agents. The same market mechanism with different expectations leads indeed to the majority game. We study in detail the minority game without information and clarify the role of initial conditions on the dynamics. The stronger and the more heterogeneous the prior beliefs which agents hold on the best choice, the more efficient is the final stationary state. We also review the effect of market impact. Finally we discuss mixed minority-majority games in order to address the issue of whether the dynamics of the market satisfies the expectations of agents. We find that in both a minority and a majority game expectations are self-fulfilled.

  14. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten


    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject...... to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen...... as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse...

  15. Gambling Disorder and Minority Populations: Prevalence and Risk Factors. (United States)

    Okuda, Mayumi; Liu, Weiwei; Cisewski, Jodi A; Segura, Luis; Storr, Carla L; Martins, Silvia S


    Previous studies demonstrate disparities in health and health services including gambling disorders (GD) among ethnic and racial minority groups. In this review, we summarize studies examining the prevalence of GD across different ethnic and racial minorities. We describe the sociodemographic subgroup variations at heightened risk for GD and factors associated with GD in racial and ethnic minority groups including gambling availability, comorbid substance use, psychiatric conditions, stress, acculturation, and differences in cultural values and cognitions. We found that research of GD among minority groups is scant, and the prevalence of GD among these groups is at a magnitude of concern. Racial and ethnic minority status in it of itself is not a risk factor for GD but may be a proxy for underlying potential risk factors. The need for prevention and treatment programs for different cultural group remains unmet.

  16. Variation in Subjective Aging by Sexual Minority Status. (United States)

    Barrett, Anne; Barbee, Harry


    The past few decades have seen increased scholarly attention to gay and lesbian individuals' aging experiences; however, few studies examine differences in subjective aging by sexual minority status. We identify four perspectives on the association between sexual minority status and subjective aging-double jeopardy, crisis competence, gender interactive, and limited salience perspectives. We examine each perspective's predictions using data from the first wave of Midlife in the United States (1995-1996; MIDUS). Ordinary least square regression models reveal strongest support for the limited salience perspective, suggesting that sexual minority status has weaker effects on subjective aging than do other social factors, such as age, health, and gender. However, some results provide support for the gender interactive perspective, positing that the effect of sexual minority status on subjective aging varies by gender. Our study provides an organizational framework of theoretical perspectives that can guide further examinations of variation in aging experiences by sexual minority status.

  17. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current research activity is quite intensive in the use of mathematical tools such as cryptography, game theory, mechanism design, optimization, ...

  18. Persistence among Minority STEM Majors: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Williams-Watson, Stacey

    The United States needs to increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates to remain competitive in the global market and maintain national security. Minority students, specifically African-American and Hispanic, are underrepresented in STEM fields. As the minority population continues to grow it is essential that higher education institutions improve minority students' persistence in STEM education. This study examined the problem of minority students' lack of persistence in STEM programs. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences that minority students perceived as contributing to their persistence in STEM. The central research question was: What are the lived experiences of minority STEM students that have contributed to their persistence in a STEM program? The sub-questions were: a) What led participants to majors in STEM?; b) What contributed to students' success and persistence in STEM?; and c) What advice do students have to offer? The researcher interviewed 12 minority STEM students and uncovered 10 themes that described the lived experiences of minority students' persistence in STEM programs. The themes were 1) Childhood experiences and interests; 2) Positive educational experiences in secondary school; 3) Self- motivation; 4) Positive experiences with professors; 5) Family encouragement and values; 6) Lack of minorities; 7) Lack of educational preparation; 8) The need for financial assistance; 9) Clubs and organizations; and 10) Friends within the major. The significance of these findings is the potential to produce changes in curricula, programs, and retention methods that may improve the persistence of minority students in STEM programs.

  19. Minorities in India: Democracy and the Modernisation of Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Čičak-Chand


    Full Text Available In the context of research into the influence of tradition and the modern on (reshaping new/ old (ethno-religious, linguistic, caste and other identities in contemporary India, the specific nature of the Indian situation is examined as well as India's approach to definition and protection of minority rights, based, on the one hand, on the idea of liberal democracy, and on the other, conditioned by its socio-historical heritage. In other words, socio-cultural pluralism in India, founded on the constitutional concept of secularism, has imposed the necessity of adopting a policy that will systematically promote the social and economic interests of the marginalised, and thus minority categories of society, whether their marginality stems from their numbers or their social, economical and/or educational status. Therefore, the Constitution, apart from providing for the protection of the rights and interests of religious, linguistic and/or cultural minorities, also includes protection of the interests of ‘scheduled castes and scheduled tribes’ and other historically underprivileged groups in the population, so that in the Indian context one can speak of two separate groups of minorities. In the paper minority issues are placed within the framework of socio-political reality, which is marked, on the one hand, by the heritage of traditional and exceptionally complex pluralistic structure, and on the other, by the idea of building a political community on the principles of liberal democracy, egalitarian values, secularism and cultural pluralism. Attention is also drawn to those aspects of minority rights which, particularly in more recent times, have led to conflicts between the majority community and the minority communities (for example, on the question of the personal laws of religious minorities, the policy of compensatory discrimination, the special rights of Kashmir, and other; the issue of protection of individual rights within the minority

  20. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David


    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  1. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A


    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  2. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John


    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  3. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith


    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  4. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark


    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  5. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao


    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  6. Electronic structure of lanthanide scandates (United States)

    Mizzi, Christopher A.; Koirala, Pratik; Marks, Laurence D.


    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations were used to study the electronic structure of three lanthanide scandates: GdSc O3,TbSc O3 , and DySc O3 . X-ray photoelectron spectra simulated from first-principles calculations using a combination of on-site hybrid and GGA +U methods were found to be in good agreement with experimental x-ray photoelectron spectra. The hybrid method was used to model the ground state electronic structure and the GGA +U method accounted for the shift of valence state energies due to photoelectron emission via a Slater-Janak transition state approach. From these results, the lanthanide scandate valence bands were determined to be composed of Ln 4 f ,O 2 p , and Sc 3 d states, in agreement with previous work. However, contrary to previous work the minority Ln 4 f states were found to be located closer to, and in some cases at, the valence band maximum. This suggests that minority Ln 4 f electrons may play a larger role in lanthanide scandate properties than previously thought.

  7. Essays on Minority Folklore: Selected Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Minority Studies (3rd, April 3, 1975), Volume 3. (United States)

    Carter, George E., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of selected conference papers includes experiences of specific minority groups: the native Americans, the Chicanos, and the Puerto Ricans. The papers represent the work of folklorists, historians, musicians, literary critics, and minority and ethnic studies experts. The section on native American oral tradition includes papers on…

  8. ICRF fundamental minority heating in inhomogeneous tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, H.; Scharer, J.


    A theoretical model for the investigation of the ICRF fundamental minority plasma heating scheme in tokamak configurations is developed. The wave differential operator is obtained by including in a self-consistent manner the effects of strong wave damping, linear mode conversion and a one-dimensional non-uniform equilibrium configuration. It is found that the use of a self-consistent equilibrium distribution function yields important modifications of the ICRF wave differential operator applicable to this heating regime. In particular, the paper presents a set of new terms which are resonant at the fundamental cyclotron frequency and which ensure the self-adjointness of the resulting wave operator in the limit k parallel -> 0. A numerical scheme is developed with which solutions for the ICRF electromagnetic field and the corresponding power deposition and energy flux profiles can be obtained. An extensive parametric study is carried out for a range of wave and plasma parameters illustrative of current and proposed JET operating regimes. The results are considerably different from those obtained using a WKB fast wave model. In particular, the 'full wave' model presented in this paper yields a percentage for the wave power absorbed by the ionic species which is much larger than the one predicted by the WKB theory. The model presented also shows that the majority species can absorb a much higher proportion of the incident wave power than previously reported. Finally, the results obtained for JET indicate that in the case of low magnetic field incidence a sizeable percentage of the launched wave energy can be reflected on the fast wave branch for values of k parallel -1 and that at higher plasma temperatures electron heating becomes appreciable. (author)

  9. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten


    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  10. Electron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Shaw, J.J.; Bahri, C.


    Electron scattering is one of the best probes available to us to probe the nucleus. It has revealed to us, with unprecedented accuracy, the charge and current distributions of nuclei. It has provided us with positive evidence for meson exchange currents. It was used to 'discover' the quark and it revealed to us that nucleons may be modified in the nuclear environment (EMC Effect). In short, electron scattering has revolutionized the study of nuclear physics. Several recent developments will insure that electron beams which will soon become availabe at CEBAF, Bates and elsewhere will make high-precision coincidence experiments possible. As the technology is becoming available, we are just beginning to exploit polarization degrees of freedom in our experiments. In this paper, we will introduce the formalism of electron scattering, review what we have learned in the past and look ahead toward the future

  11. Paper electronics. (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald


    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Electronic plants (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus


    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  13. Electron Emitters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua


    When two carbon-nanotube coated electrodes are placed at a small distance from each other, electron emission from carbon nanotubes allows a DC or AC electrical current to flow between these two electrodes...

  14. Electron Microprobe (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  15. Electronic spectroscopies


    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.


    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is directly chemical since the outer shell electrons of the TMI are probed and provide information about the oxidation state and coordination environment of TMI on surfaces. Furthermore, the DRS technique ca...

  16. Electronic commerce


    Zvolánková, Pavla


    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  17. Spin Electronics (United States)


    applications, a ferromagnetic metal may be used as a source of spin-polarized electronics to be injected into a semiconductor, a superconductor or a...physical phenomena in II-VI and III-V semiconductors. In II-VI systems, the Mn2+ ions act to boost the electron spin precession up to terahertz ...conductors, proximity effect between ferromagnets and superconductors , and the effects of spin injection on the physical properties of the

  18. Testing the tenets of minority stress theory in workplace contexts. (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L; Moradi, Bonnie; Brewster, Melanie E


    The links of minority stressors (workplace discrimination, expectations of stigma, internalized heterosexism, and identity management strategies) with psychological distress and job satisfaction were examined in a sample of 326 sexual minority employees. Drawing from minority stress theory and the literature on the vocational experiences of sexual minority people, patterns of mediation and moderation were tested. Minority stressors were associated with greater distress and lower job satisfaction. A mediation model was supported in which the links of discrimination and internalized heterosexism with psychological distress were mediated by a concealment-focused identity management strategy (i.e., avoiding), and the links of discrimination, expectations of stigma, and internalized heterosexism with job satisfaction were mediated by a disclosure-focused identity management strategy (i.e., integrating). Tests of moderation indicated that for sexual minority women (but not men), the positive association of discrimination with distress was stronger at higher levels of internalized heterosexism than at lower levels. In addition, lower levels of internalized heterosexism and concealment strategies (i.e., counterfeiting and avoiding) and higher levels of a disclosure strategy (i.e., integrating) were associated with higher job satisfaction in the context of low discrimination, but this buffering effect disappeared as level of discrimination increased. The implications of these findings for minority stress research are discussed, and clinical recommendations are made.

  19. Impact of Parental Notification on Illinois Minors Seeking Abortion. (United States)

    Ramesh, Shanthi; Zimmerman, Lindsay; Patel, Ashlesha


    To describe the impact of the Illinois Parental Notification of Abortion Act on minors presenting for first-trimester abortion at an urban clinic in Chicago, Illinois. Descriptive, retrospective review looked at minors obtaining a first-trimester abortion at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital Reproductive Health Services during the 12 months prior (August 15, 2012-August 14, 2013) and after (August 15, 2013-August 14, 2014) the Illinois Parental Notification Act was in effect. Young women, ages 18-21 years, unaffected by the law, served as the control group. Before the law, 320 minors of a total of 5,505 patients (5.8%) obtained a first-trimester abortion and after the law went into effect, 311 minors of a total of 6,311 patients (4.9%) obtained an abortion. This constituted a 2.8% decrease in procedures among minors before and after the law went into effect (p = .003). However, this decrease was not significant when compared to an 8.8% growth in procedures among the control group, ages 18-21 years (p = .079). Among minors, there was no difference in race/ethnicity, age, and mean gestational age at the time of abortion before and after the law (p = .189, p = .116, and p = .961). There was a trend toward a larger decline in the youngest minors, aged 12-15 years and in those with at least one prior abortion. The impact of a parental notification law on minors at an urban, public clinic is unclear. The 3% decrease warrants further study of both teen pregnancy rates and legislative barriers to minors' abortion access. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing a Model of Minority Identity Achievement, Identity Affirmation and Psychological Well-Being among Ethnic Minority and Sexual Minority Individuals (United States)


    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one’s identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one’s social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one’s minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

  1. The deportation of unaccompanied minors from the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin; Schuster, Liza; Stern, Rebecca

    his report is the outcome of a joint effort between the University of Copenhagen and the Refugee Studies Centre at the University of Oxford to examine European governments’ plans to deport unaccompanied minors from the EU. With support from the Migration Industry Research Network, Danish Institute...... for International Studies, the workshop “The deportation of unaccompanied minors from the EU: family tracing and government accountability in the European Return Platform for Unaccompanied Minors (ERPUM) project” was convened at the Refugee Studies Centre (RSC) in Oxford on 3 May 2013. Its explicit aim...

  2. Extra Federal aid for minorities presents challenges for CBOs. (United States)


    Congress awarded $156 million to deal with the HIV epidemic among African-Americans and other minorities. AIDS service providers welcomed the money but said that much more needs to be done. Community-based organizations (CBOs) serving minority populations are relatively new, and many need improved accounting and auditing procedures, information technology, and leadership development systems if they are to be productive. Hurdles faced by CBOs include competing for funding, recruiting volunteers, educating minority physicians, and planning community responses. The opinions of two former U.S. Surgeon Generals regarding this new funding and how it should be used are discussed.

  3. Language in education: Minorities and multilingualism in India (United States)

    Sridhar, Kamal K.


    The question of education in India cannot be properly discussed without referring to its socio-linguistic context. This paper provides background information on the linguistic profile of India. The term "minorities" in the Indian context is defined, and the protection offered to linguistic minorities in the Indian Constitution is examined. A discussion of language policy in Indian education follows in which the recommendations of the different education commissions are analysed. The important issues covered include: the number of languages that are taught, the medium of instruction, and the educational policies regarding speakers of minority languages. The article also discusses different language movements and their impact on Indian education.

  4. Belgian Photography: Towards a Minor Photography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Baetens


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article investigates Belgian photography from within the national framework. Using the notion of "banal nationalism" (Billig, it explores how even in the case of a nation widely perceived as non-existing , a nation in which the “official” national culture has completely eroded, the relationship between  photography and national culture are worth wile addressing. Furthermore, this text shows that Belgian photography, repeatedly described as having no schools, no centre, no towering figures, nor strong institutions, in short as lacking any positive identity, can not be approached in any essentializing way. In order to study the photographic production made in Belgium, new questions are needed, questions reaching beyond the traditional aesthetic questions of styles, masters, evolutions; questions that address the medium in its multiplicity and its context sensitiveness. This article tries to develop such a new set of questions by proposing a transfer of the notion of “minor literature” as it was theorized by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari to the study of the photographic medium.


    Résumé: Le présent article examine la photographie belge du point de vue des liens entre culture et nation. En partant du concept de

  5. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael


    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  6. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  7. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review. (United States)

    Pool, Michelle S; Agyemang, Charles O; Smalbrugge, Martin


    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative health outcomes. The goal of this article was to identify effective interventions that improve social participation, and minimise social isolation and loneliness in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. An electronic database (PubMed) was systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for intervention studies in English, French, Dutch of German, without time limit. Additional articles were found using references. Articles were included if they studied an intervention aimed to improve social participation or minimise social isolation or loneliness and were focusing on community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Data regarding studies characteristics and results were extracted. Six studies (three randomized controlled trials, three non-controlled intervention studies) were included in the review. All studies were group-based interventions and had a theoretical basis. Five out of six studies showed improvement on a social participation, -isolation or loneliness outcome. Type of intervention included volunteering-, educational- and physical activities. In three studies active participation of the participant was required, these interventions were not more effective than other interventions. Some interventions improved the included social determinants of health in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Investment in further development and implementation of these interventions may help to improve social determinants of health in these populations. It is necessary to evaluate these interventions in the European setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of... (United States)


    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power project with a license not subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act. (a...

  9. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes


    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  10. Enhancement of minority carrier injection in ambipolar carbon nanotube transistors using double-gate structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bongjun; Liang, Kelly; Dodabalapur, Ananth, E-mail: [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)


    We show that double-gate ambipolar thin-film transistors can be operated to enhance minority carrier injection. The two gate potentials need to be significantly different for enhanced injection to be observed. This enhancement is highly beneficial in devices such as light-emitting transistors where balanced electron and hole injections lead to optimal performance. With ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube semiconductors, we demonstrate that higher ambipolar currents are attained at lower source-drain voltages, which is desired for portable electronic applications, by employing double-gate structures. In addition, when the two gates are held at the same potential, the expected advantages of the double-gate transistors such as enhanced on-current are also observed.

  11. Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence from Fixed-Effects Models (United States)

    Johnson, Kecia; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.


    Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely…

  12. Experimental life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 Ciclo evolutivo experimental de Lagochilascaris minor, Leiper 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa Campos


    Full Text Available The life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor was studied using material collected from human lesion and applying the experimental model: rodents (mice, hamsters, and carnivorae (cats, dogs. In mice given infective eggs, orally, hatch of the third stage larvae was noted in the gut wall, with migration to liver, lungs, skeletal musculature and subcutaneous tissue becoming, soon after, encysted. In cats infected with skinned carcasses of mice (60 to 235 days of infection it was observed: hatch of third stage larvae from the nodules (cysts in the stomach, migration through the oesophagus, pharynx, trachea, related tissues (rhino-oropharynx, and cervical lymphonodes developing to the mature stage in any of these sites on days 9-20 post inoculation (P.I.. There was no parasite development up to the mature stage in cats inoculated orally with infective eggs, which indicates that the life cycle of this parasite includes an obligatory intermediate host. In one of the cats (fed carcass of infected mice necropsied on day 43 P.I., it was observed the occurence of the self-infective cycle of L. minor in the lung tissues and in the cervical region which was characterized by the finding of eggs in different stages of development, third stage larvae and mature worms. It's believed that some component of the carnivorae gastrointestinal tracts may preclude the development of third stage larvae from L. minor eggs what explains the interruption of the life cycle in animals fed infective eggs. It's also pointed out the role of the intermediate host in the first stages of the life cycle of this helminth.A partir de material colhido de lesões humanas estudou-se o ciclo evolutivo de Lagochilascaris minor empregando-se o modelo experimental: roedores (camundongos, hamster e carnívoros (gatos, cão. Em camundongos inoculados com ovos infectantes, por via oral, observou-se eclosão de larvas de 3º estágio na parede do intestino, migração das mesmas para o fígado, pulm

  13. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph


    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...

  14. Strategies for minority actinides transmutation in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, S.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.


    Presentation of the strategies that can be followed in fast reactors designed for the fourth generation to reduce the inventory of minority actinides generated in current light water reactors, as the actinides generation in fast reactor.

  15. Details on Exclusive Use Data Protection for Minor Use Registrations (United States)

    This document provides information about issues related to exclusive use data protection for minor use registrations, including extension of the exclusive use period and establishing a new exclusive use period.

  16. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert


    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  17. Evaluating the efficacy of a minor actinide burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Omberg, R.P.; Wootan, D.W.


    The efficacy of a minor actinide burner can be evaluated by comparing safety and economic parameters to the support ratio. Minor actinide mass produced per unit time in this number of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) can be burned during the same time period in one burner system. The larger the support ratio for a given set of safety and economic parameters, the better. To illustrate this concept, the support ratio for selected Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) burner core designs was compared with corresponding coolant void worths, a fundamental safety concern following the Chernobyl accident. Results can be used to evaluate the cost in reduced burning of minor actinides caused by LMR sodium void reduction efforts or to compare with other minor actinide burner systems

  18. [Depressive disorders in ethnic minorities in the doctor's office]. (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Blom, Marc B J; Hoek, H Wijbrand


    Doctors often find the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in non-Western ethnic minorities difficult. Not only do language and culture form barriers to understanding, the symptoms of these disorders can be expressed in unfamiliar ways. We describe three cases that illustrate how the clinical presentation of depression in ethnic minorities living in the Netherlands can differ from that of Dutch patients. While the core symptoms of depressive disorder are similar, ethnic minority patients exhibit somatic symptoms more frequently. On average, they also have more severe symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity such as anxiety and psychosis; the illness is also more often complicated by a multitude of social problems. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of depression in ethnic minorities requires knowledge and the exploration of potential differences in symptom presentation and the patient's explanatory models of mental illness. Patients and physicians also need to discuss their mutual expectations, in order to reach a consensus about treatment goals.

  19. A Complete Security of Criminological Safety of Minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Saveliev


    Full Text Available The article considers questions relating to the diversity of theoretical comprehension levels of criminological safety of minors. The Author analyzes the normative legal basis of activities of subjects of prevention and protection of children's rights

  20. National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (United States)

    ... for both baby and mom. More Minorities and Mental Health: Moving Beyond the Stigma Mental illness is ... Science-Based Health & Wellness Resources NIH Información de salud Brother, You're on My Mind Toolkit Staying ...

  1. Perceived Support and the Retirement Expectations of Sexual Minority Adults. (United States)

    Mock, Steven E; Schryer, Emily


    Despite the importance of retirement planning among an aging population, little is known about the retirement planning of sexual minority adults (e.g., gay, lesbian, bisexual) and their potentially unique challenges. We compared retirement planning perceptions of these adults with heterosexual adults and examined the potential role of social support. There were no significant differences between sexual minorities and heterosexual adults regarding their expected retirement age, certainty of retirement age, and anticipated income adequacy in retirement, and higher levels of perceived support were associated with younger anticipated retirement age and greater certainty in retirement planning perceptions. Perceived support also had a stronger association with retirement planning perceptions for sexual minority adults compared to heterosexuals, such that lower perceived support was associated with a later retirement age and less certainty about retirement age, and lower levels of perceived support were linked to diminished anticipated retirement income adequacy for sexual minority adults.

  2. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asachi Maryam


    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Midcourse Space Experiment Infrared Minor Planet Survey (MIMPS) includes infrared data for 168 main-belt asteroids serendipitously observed by the Midcourse...

  4. Minority Business Enterprises and Woman Business Enterprises Grant Utilization (United States)

    The policy goal of the MBE/WBE Programs is to assure that minority business enterprises and woman business enterprises are given the opportunity to participate in contract and procurement for supplies, construction, equipment & services under any EPA grant

  5. A study on the anatomical morphology of the minor fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Hyung Jin; You, Jin Jong; Ahn, In Oak; Chung, Sung Hoon


    The minor fissure is an important anatomical landmark in the localization of the pulmonary disease. For the evaluation of the normal feature of the minor fissure, we analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans in 51 normal patients. The purpose of this study are to evaluate the normal appearance of the minor fissure on high-resolution CT scans and to compare it with that on the conventional CT and radiographys. We analyzed the morphologic feature of the minor fissure on the high-resolution CT scans in 51 normal patients, and compared it with that on the conventional CT scans. On the high-resolution CT scans, we particularly paid attention to the completeness and types according to Berkmen classification. And finally, we compared the types determined by the high-resolution CT scans with those by the plain radiographys. In most patients (n=47), the minor fissure was seen as a hyperattenuating line or band on the high resolution CT scans. In contrast, it was mostly seen as a lucent zone on the conventional CT scans (n=44). Of 47 patient having a hyperattenuating line or band on the high-resolution CT scans, the minor fissure was considered to be complete in 17 patients (36%), and incomplete in 30 patients (64%), who had a defeat at medial portion of the minor fissure. The most common type of the minor fissure seen on the high-resolution CT scans was type I variety (n=23), followed by tape IIa (n=8). We could not determined the type in six patients. The type determined by the high-resolution CT scans was highly well correlated with that determined by the plain radiographys (p<0.05). In conclusion, the minor fissure was seen CT studies as variable appearances and high-resolution CT scans were superior to the conventional CT scans in the evaluation of the minor fissure. The types of the minor fissure determined by the high-resolution CT scans were well correlated with those seen on the radiographys

  6. An Examination of the Utilization of Electronic Government Services by Minority Small Businesses (United States)

    Ford, Wendy G.


    There are a wide variety of e-government information and services that small business owners and managers can utilize. However, in spite of all of the service incentives and initiatives to promote e-government, research studies have shown that this information is not widely accessed. Studies that explore the utilization of e-government information…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov


    Full Text Available Conversion of Eastern Europe countries and RF to market economics causes many organizational, legal and infrastructural problems to rise. By the degree of «innovativeness», minor and medium enterprises are classified to three categories: «leader», «successor» and «outsider». Minor enterprises to whom different support may be extended by regional powers are grouped to 4 types.

  8. Majority versus Minority: ‘Governmentality’ and Muslims in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sofie Roald


    Full Text Available This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority–minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim minority communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influences both the relationship Muslims have with non-Muslims and the understandings that Muslims have of Islam.

  9. Telemann. Musique de table - Quartet in E minor / Anderson, Nicholas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anderson, Nicholas


    Uuest heliplaadist "Telemann. Musique de table - Quartet in E minor. Paris Quartets. "Nouveaux quatuors en six suites" - Nr. 1 in D, TWV43: D3, Nr. 2 in A minor, TWV43: a2. Six Concerts et Six Suites - Concert Nr. 3 in A, TWV42: A3. Hortus Musicus (Neeme Punder (fl.), Imbi Tarum (hpd.), Peeter Klaas (va da gamba), Tarmo Toom (vc) / Andres Mustonen (vn). Finlandia CD 4509-95578-2 (52 minutes)



    Georgeta Zegan; Daniela Anistoroaei; Loredana Golovcencu


    The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of some minor oral surgery performed on both teeth and on the soft tissues, before any orthodontic treatment. The sample group included 587 patients (240 boys and 347 girls), divided into 3 categories. The data base was created wtih patient records, the statistical analyses being performed with the SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. The frequency of malocclusions with minor oral surgery pretreatment orthodontics was of 2...

  11. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health. (United States)

    Jaeger, Kirsten


    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens.

  12. National minorities in legislation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagradić Slobodan


    Full Text Available There are 17 recognized national minorities living and working in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At least, they have been enumerated, identified and sanctioned as such by the Law on the Protection of Rights of National Minorities adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2003. Apart from that law, the rights of national minorities and its members have also been regulated by the whole set of many different laws, from the election, criminal, education and other identity-related laws to the laws addressing the specific areas and/or life issues, all adopted at the level of the state, the entities, the cantons, and the Brcko District of BiH. This paper analyses the content, the significance, and the legal and sociopolitical implications of certain provisions of the Law on the Protection of Rights of National Minorities from the sociological and political views and methods, as well as the relation and the impact of its norms on social sphere and individual existence (in politics, education, culture, the media, employment etc. of minority members within a multi-specific and asymmetric state as post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. The causa finalis of this tractatus's narrative is to give a better understanding of human rights of minorities, their etiology and determination.

  13. Minority Political Representation: Muslim Councilors in Newham and Hackney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari


    Full Text Available Scholars have long been intrigued by the role of minority elected officials in representing the interests of their communities. There is an on-going debate on whether distinctive minority agendas exist and whether the existence of minority representatives (descriptive representation is a necessary condition to secure the representation of minority interests (substantive representation. This article analyzes original interview data to examine these issues through a case study of Muslim city councilors and the dynamics of local government in the Newham and Hackney Borough Councils of London. It finds that the exceptionally high ethnic diversity of Newham with no dominant ethnic group, the lack of racial or religious divides among neighborhoods, and low racial tensions shapes the political culture of the Council, as well as the Muslim councilors, and yields high responsiveness for all minorities. It also finds that non-Muslim councilors play a significant role in the substantive representation of minority interests, including Muslim interests. In contrast, the case study of the Hackney Council reveals that beyond high party fragmentation, ethnicity and religiosity of the Muslim councilors vary widely and hinder effective representation. In addition, their political incorporation is low, and the leadership positions they hold seem to have symbolic rather than substantive impact. The political behavior and representative styles of Muslim councilors reveal a balancing perspective, whereby they advocate for group interests with a more moderate tone. These factors account for the low government responsiveness to Muslim interests in Hackney.

  14. Contested minorities – the case of Upper Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierczak Dariusz


    Full Text Available Upper Silesia in terms of ethnicity is a typical example of a historical region in Europe, but in fact, one of the few exceptions in contemporary Poland, where its mixed ethnic and religious structures have at least partly survived until today. While their existence had been denied by Nazi Germany (1933-1945 as well as by the Polish People's Republic (1945-1989, the emancipation of the German and Silesian minorities after the democratic changes of 1989 have evoked strong emotions in the ethnically almost uniform country. Nonetheless, the recent situation of minorities has improved as never before. Minority organisations has been officially recognized and German finally has become the second language in some municipalities of Upper Silesia, but the largest ethnic group in the whole country, the Silesians, have still experienced no formal recognition as a national minority. This article deals with the demographic aspects of the ethnic groups in Upper Silesia since the 19th century until recent times. The census results concerning the ethnic minorities or languages in Upper Silesia have been contested since the first records of that kind have been taken. The outcomes of the both last censuses of 2002 and 2011 concerning the minority question reflected for the first time a much more realistic picture of the status quo. Furthermore, they showed that the idea of Silesian identification found an unexpected high number of supporters. This fact indicates an emerging meaning of regional identification amid significant changes of cultural values in Polish society.

  15. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.


    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  16. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  17. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  18. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 30, 2000 ... applications of internet are exchange of electronic mail, ex- change of files (text as well as multimedia), storing information in a form which allows other computers connected to the internet to access it and remote logging into a computer and using it to run programs. For two computers in different locations to.

  19. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electronic commerce usually uses a public switched telephone network (PSTN) and is often between entities which are not known to one another. Ensuring security of communication between the entities participating in e-commerce is hence an important requirement. Apart from ensuring the security of messages on the ...

  20. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.


    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  1. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    Power electronics plays an important role in the processing, conditioning and utilization of electric power. From ubiquitous ... An induction motor drive based on a modular multilevel converter (MMC) is presented ... dynamic voltage restorer and the control of an induction motor drive having an active front end converter.

  2. Electronic Money. (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  3. Electronics department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  4. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nance, Vol.6, No.2, 6-13, 2001. SERIES I ARTICLE. Electronic Commerce. 5. Cash Transactions. V Rajaraman. In this article we will discuss payment by cash for e-com- merce transactions and micro payments for services re- ceived via the internet. Introduction. In the previous part, we discussed payment by credit cards and.

  5. Cryogenic electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourches, N.; Abbon, P.; Delagnes, E.; Le Meur, L.P.


    This study presents the cryogenic electronics, which is used in high energy physics with appropriate device. It discuss their ability to hardening against ionization radiation and neutrons. Some partial results on the operation of microelectronics devices at cryogenic temperature are given. (TEC). 33 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 30, 2000 ... Electronic Commerce. 2. E-Commerce System Architecture. V Rajaraman is with the. J awaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific. Research and the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. Several generations of scientists and engineers in India have learnt computer science using his lucidly.

  7. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this series we stated that in business to business e-commerce, electronic documents are exchanged be- tween business partners by using either a private network or a public switched network. We also stated that in order to inter- pret them correctly we need a standard notation which is agreed to by both ...

  8. Biosolubilization of uranyl ions in uranium ores by hydrophyte plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Alexandru; Calmoi, Rodica; Melniciuc-Puica, Nicoleta


    This paper investigated the bioleaching of uranyl ions from uranium ores, in aqueous medium by hydrophyte plants: Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana and Elodea canadensis under different experimental conditions. The oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI) species was done by the atomic oxygen generated in the photosynthesis process by the aquatic plants in the solution above uranium ores. Under identical experimental conditions, the capacity of bioleaching of uranium ores decreases according to the following series: Lemna minor > Elodea canadensis > Azolla caroliniana. The results of IR spectra suggest the possible use of Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis as a biological decontaminant of uranium containing wastewaters. (author)

  9. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy. (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G


    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  10. 77 FR 2700 - National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprise: Meeting of the National Advisory... (United States)


    ... Business Enterprise: Meeting of the National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprise AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The National Advisory Council for Minority Business Enterprise (NACMBE) will hold its fifth... deliberate on possible recommendations. The Subcommittee topics include: (1) Definition of Minority Business...

  11. 76 FR 81915 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; National Minority Enterprise Development (MED... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Minority Business Development Agency Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; National Minority Enterprise Development (MED) Week Awards Program Requirements AGENCY: Minority Business Development Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its...

  12. 75 FR 78225 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Minority-Owned Business Participation... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Minority Business Development Agency Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Minority-Owned Business Participation, Opportunities and Barriers to Global Commerce AGENCY: Minority Business Development Agency, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of...

  13. End- of- life decisions and minors: do minors have the right to refuse life preserving medical treatment? A comparative study. (United States)

    Lemmens, Christophe


    The principles of the right to informed consent and informed refusal are quite clear for competent adult patients. The right of a competent adult patient to give his informed consent before medical treatment can be started, is a patients' right that is recognised all over the world. The logical corollary of the right to informed consent is the right to informed refusal. A competent adult patient also has the right to refuse medical treatment by simply withholding or withdrawing his consent. A physician who starts medical treatment without the informed consent of his patient will be held liable for battery. Can these same principles be applied to minors? In other words: do minors also have the right to refuse medical treatment? Can a minor refuse even life preserving care? The interests of the involved parties (minor, parents and state) have to be weighed against each other case by case. A thorough examination of the available case law shows that the best interests of the minor are paramount. This "best interests" standard guides judges in their making of a decision. However, this is certainly not always in accordance with reality. In fact, minors can be mature enough to refuse treatment at a much earlier time than the age of legal majority, whatever the consequences of that refusal may be.

  14. Minority stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults: A resiliency-based conditional process analysis. (United States)

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Christianson, Nathan; Cochran, Bryan N


    Sexual minority young adults experience elevated rates of distal stress (discrimination, victimization), and related psychological distress and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have examined the degree to which personality trait differences confer risk/resilience among sexual minority young adults. We hypothesized that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse, but that these relationships would be moderated by personality trait differences. Sexual minority young adults (N=412) were recruited nationally. Survey measures included demographic questions, minority stressors, Five Factor personality traits, and current psychological distress and alcohol misuse symptoms. We used a data-driven two-stage cluster analytic technique to empirically derive personality trait profiles, and conducted mediation and moderated mediation analyses using a regression-based approach. Our results supported a two-group personality profile solution. Relative to at-risk individuals, those classified as adaptive scored lower on neuroticism, and higher on agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. As predicted, psychological distress mediated the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse. However, personality moderated these relationships to the degree that they did not exist among individuals classified as adaptive. In the current study, we found that personality moderated the established relationships between distal stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults. Future research is needed to further explicate these relationships, and in order to develop tailored interventions for sexual minority young adults at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners. (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa


    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.

  16. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron...... transistors (Part 2). The synthetic protocols rely on stepwise Sonogashira coupling reactions. Conductivity studies on various OPE-based molecular wires reveal that mere OPE compounds have a higher electrical resistance compared to the cruciform based wires (up to 9 times higher). The most spectacular result...

  17. Automotive electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van [ed.; Baun, R. [comp.


    Electronic equipment is indispensable in modern motor cars for active and passive safety, exhaust and consumption monitoring or comfort. Electric and electronic systems today account for nearly 20 percent of the production cost of a normal passenger car, with an upward trend. Infotainment equipment is a growing market, which gets center stage in this issue. Further subjects discussed are current electronic and mechatronic applications as well as new developments in data transmission, development tools and constructional elements. [German] Ohne Elektronik sind moderne Automobile nicht mehr vorstellbar. Ob aktive oder passive Sicherheit, Abgas, Verbrauch oder Komfort - der Fortschritt im Autombil ist eng verknuepft mit der Einfuehrung neuer elektronischer Systeme und Komponenten. Obwohl meist nicht sehr auffaellig in einer Black-box verpackt, liegen die anteiligen Herstellungskosten fuer die Elektrik und Elektronik bei einem Mittelklassefahrzeug schon bei knapp 20 Prozent. Tendenz: Weiter steigend. Waehrend die Segnungen von ABS, ESP oder Motormanagement fuer den Kunden unsichtbar bleiben, tritt die Elektronik mit den Infotainment-Systemen ins Rampenlicht. Hochwertige Audio-Anlagen im Doppel-DIN-Format und grosse Farbbildschirme sitzen an prominenter Stelle im Armaturenbrett. Elektronische Systeme werden damit fuer den Kunden sichtbar, greifbar und erlebbar. Doch je mehr Funktionen integriert werden, desto wichtiger wird eine einfache Bedienung, die den Fahrer moeglichst wenig vom Verkehrsgeschehen ablenkt. Das ist leider keine Selbstverstaendlichkeit: Eine klare, einfache Bedienung wurde in der Vergangenheit schon bei so manchem simplen Cassetten-Radio schmerzlich vermisst. Infotainment im Automobil ist ein Wachstumsmarkt - und das Schwerpunkt-Thema der vorliegenden zweiten Ausgabe von 'Automotive Electronics'. Darueber hinaus beschaeftigt sich auch diese Ausgabe mit aktuellen Elektronik- und Mechatronik-Anwendungen und berichtet ueber neue Entwicklungen

  18. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  19. ELECTRON GUN (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.


    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  20. Design of a cluster-randomized minority recruitment trial: RECRUIT. (United States)

    Tilley, Barbara C; Mainous, Arch G; Smith, Daniel W; McKee, M Diane; Amorrortu, Rossybelle P; Alvidrez, Jennifer; Diaz, Vanessa; Ford, Marvella E; Fernandez, Maria E; Hauser, Robert A; Singer, Carlos; Landa, Veronica; Trevino, Aron; DeSantis, Stacia M; Zhang, Yefei; Daniels, Elvan; Tabor, Derrick; Vernon, Sally W


    Racial/ethnic minority groups remain underrepresented in clinical trials. Many strategies to increase minority recruitment focus on minority communities and emphasize common diseases such as hypertension. Scant literature focuses on minority recruitment to trials of less common conditions, often conducted in specialty clinics and dependent on physician referrals. We identified trust/mistrust of specialist physician investigators and institutions conducting medical research and consequent participant reluctance to participate in clinical trials as key-shared barriers across racial/ethnic groups. We developed a trust-based continuous quality improvement intervention to build trust between specialist physician investigators and community minority-serving physicians and ultimately potential trial participants. To avoid the inherent biases of non-randomized studies, we evaluated the intervention in the national Randomized Recruitment Intervention Trial (RECRUIT). This report presents the design of RECRUIT. Specialty clinic follow-up continues through April 2017. We hypothesized that specialist physician investigators and coordinators trained in the trust-based continuous quality improvement intervention would enroll a greater proportion of minority participants in their specialty clinics than specialist physician investigators in control specialty clinics. Specialty clinic was the unit of randomization. Using continuous quality improvement, the specialist physician investigators and coordinators tailored recruitment approaches to their specialty clinic characteristics and populations. Primary analyses were adjusted for clustering by specialty clinic within parent trial and matching covariates. RECRUIT was implemented in four multi-site clinical trials (parent trials) supported by three National Institutes of Health institutes and included 50 associated specialty clinics from these parent trials. Using current data, we have 88% power or greater to detect a 0.15 or