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Sample records for leluthia astigma ashmead

  1. Leluthia astigma (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) as a parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilinae), with an assessment of host associations for nearctic species of Leluthia Cameron.

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    Robert R. Kula; Kathleen S. Knight; Joanne Rebbeck; Leah S. Bauer; David L. Cappaert; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2010-01-01

    Published host associations are assessed for Leluthia astigma (Ashmead), Leluthia floridensis Marsh, and Leluthia mexicana Cameron, the three known species of Leluthia Cameron in the Nearctic Region. Leluthia astigma is reported as a parasitoid of Agrilus planipennis...

  2. New World species of the genus Calliscelio Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Scelioninae

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    Hua-yan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Calliscelio Ashmead is presumed to be a diverse group of parasitoids of the eggs of crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae. A least one species has been found to be an important factor in depressing cricket pest populations. The New World species of Calliscelio are revised. Forty-two species are recognized, 3 are redescribed: C. bisulcatus (Kieffer, C. laticinctus Ashmead, C. rubriclavus (Ashmead, comb. n.; and 38 are described as new: C. absconditum Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. absum Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. alcoa Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. amadoi Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. armila Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. bidens Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. brachys Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. brevinotaulus Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. brevitas Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. carinigena Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. crater Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. crena Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. eboris Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. extenuatus Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. flavicauda Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. foveolatus Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. gatineau Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. glaber Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. granulatus Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. latifrons Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. levis Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. longius Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. magnificus Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. migma Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. minutia Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. paraglaber Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. pararemigio Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. prolixus Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. punctatifrons Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. remigio Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. ruga Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. rugicoxa Chen & Masner, sp. n., C. sfina Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. storea Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. suni Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. telum Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. torqueo Chen & Johnson, sp. n., C. virga Chen & Johnson, sp. n. Four species are treated as junior synonyms of Calliscelio rubriclavus (Ashmead: Anteris nigriceps Ashmead, syn. n., Caloteleia marlattii Ashmead, syn. n., Caloteleia grenadensis Ashmead, syn. n

  3. Description of the first Neotropical species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Panama

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, from Panama is described. The new species induces galls on the stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae sect. Quercus. The diagnostic characteristics, distribution data, and biology of the new species are given. The new species is included in the existing key for the identification of the Nearctic species of Bassettia. The morphological diagnosis of Bassettia and the first record of this genus in the Neotropical region are noted.Se describe una nueva especie de Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, de Panamá. La nueva especie induce agallas en los tallos de Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae secc. Quercus. Se aportan los caracteres diagnósticos de la nueva especie, su distribución y su biología. La nueva especie es incluida en la clave de identificación de la especies de Bassettia del Neártico. Se amplían los datos diagnósticos morfológicos del género Bassettia así como se comenta el primer registro de este género en la región neotropical.

  4. Review of Stantonia Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) from Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia, with descriptions of six new species

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    Achterberg, van C.; Long, K.D.; Chen, X.-X.

    2017-01-01

    The genus Stantonia Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) is reviewed for Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia. Six new species of the genus Stantonia are described and illustrated: Stantonia brevicaudata van Achterberg, sp. n., S. dickyyui van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. granulata Long

  5. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae); Biologia y habitos del barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

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    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A., E-mail: hernandez.luismartin@inifap.gob.m, E-mail: urias.marioalfonso@inifap.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestal000, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Santiago, Nayarit (Mexico). Campo Experimental Santiago Ixcuintla; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor, E-mail: nestor@colpos.m [Instituto de Fitosanidad, Montecillo, Texcoco (Mexico). Colegio de Postgraduados

    2010-07-15

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  6. Side-effects of pesticides used in irrigated rice areas on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

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    Pazini, Juliano de Bastos; Pasini, Rafael Antonio; Seidel, Enio Júnior; Rakes, Matheus; Martins, José Francisco da Silva; Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei

    2017-08-01

    Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T. podisi). In the choice tests, sprays were conducted only at pre-parasitism stages. For all tests, we prepared cards with 25 eggs of the alternative host Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) non-parasitized (pre-parasitism) and parasitized (post-parasitism), which were subjected to pesticide sprays. The parasitism and emergence rates of T. podisi were determined classifying the pesticides in terms of the reduction of parasitism or emergence rates compared to the control. The neurotoxic insecticide cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, zeta-cypermethrin, etofenprox, thiamethoxam, thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid + alpha-cypermethrin, and bifenthrin + alpha-cypermethrin + carbosulfan were more harmful to T. podisi and, therefore, are less suitable for the integrated management of insect pests in irrigated rice areas.

  7. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

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    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A.; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  8. Pengaruh lama ketiadaan inang terhadap kapasitas reproduksi parasitoid Snellenius manilae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

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    Mohamad Eldiary Akbar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the  influence  of host deprivation on the oviposition and physiological condition of Snellenius manilae Ashmead. The research was conducted at Laboratory of Bioecology of Parasitoid and Predator, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB. Ten parasitoids of the same age and cohort were used in this experiment. Deprivation of hosts were done for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days at the beginning and toward the end of their life. All hosts were replaced every 24 hours. Result indicated that host deprivation affects the reproductive capacity of Snellenius manilae. Even though parasitoids were able to lay eggs even when they were deprived of hosts for seven consecutive days, the overall results of host deprivation experiment showed that the length and timing of deprivation period can affect reproductive capacity. Deprivation of hosts tends to increase the parasitism rate and the numbers of eggs laid upon their first encounter of hosts after the treatment. The difference is more pronounced on treatements that allowed parasitism to occur before the deprivation treatment. However, the overall results suggests that deprivation overall decrease the reproductive capacity of the parasitoid. The longevity of deprived individuals was also lengthened. Parasitoids that were given host before deprivation treatments tend to produced more eggs than those were not. These results showed that deprivation of hosts in the field may affect the effectiveness of parasitoids and the success of biological control.

  9. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a guava orchard in Hawaii

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    We examined temporal and spatial patterns of both sexes of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava orchard. Bactrocera dorsalis spatial patterns were initially random, but became high...

  10. Doryctorgilus gen. nov. and other new taxa, with a study of the internal microsculpture of the ovipositor in the subfamily Orgilinae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2003-01-01

    One new monotypic genus of the subfamily Orgilinae Ashmead, 1900 (type species: D. morvanae spec. nov.), two new species of the genus Podorgilus van Achterberg, 1994 (P. nemorensis spec. nov. and P. luteus spec. nov.) and one new species of the genus Agathis Latreille, 1804 (A. depressifrons spec.

  11. Review ofStantoniaAshmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) from Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia, with descriptions of six new species.

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    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2017-01-01

    The genus Stantonia Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) is reviewed for Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia. Six new species of the genus Stantonia are described and illustrated: Stantonia brevicaudata van Achterberg, sp. n. , S. dickyyui van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. , S. granulata Long & van Achterberg, sp. n. , S. robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. , S. stilpnosoma Long & van Achterberg, sp. n. , and S. vietnamica van Achterberg, sp. n. A new subgenus ( Planitonia subg. n. : type species Stantonia robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. ) is proposed for the species with a flat clypeus and face, and reduced vein r-m of the fore wing. Three species are newly recorded from Vietnam: Stantonia gracilis van Achterberg, 1987, S. sumatrana Enderlein, 1908, and S. tianmushana Chen, He & Ma, 2004. A key to species of Stantonia from Vietnam, China, Russia, and Japan is provided.

  12. Review of Stantonia Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae from Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia, with descriptions of six new species

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    Cornelis van Achterberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Stantonia Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae is reviewed for Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia. Six new species of the genus Stantonia are described and illustrated: Stantonia brevicaudata van Achterberg, sp. n., S. dickyyui van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. granulata Long & van Achterberg, sp. n., S. robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. stilpnosoma Long & van Achterberg, sp. n., and S. vietnamica van Achterberg, sp. n. A new subgenus (Planitonia subg. n.: type species Stantonia robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. is proposed for the species with a flat clypeus and face, and reduced vein r-m of the fore wing. Three species are newly recorded from Vietnam: Stantonia gracilis van Achterberg, 1987, S. sumatrana Enderlein, 1908, and S. tianmushana Chen, He & Ma, 2004. A key to species of Stantonia from Vietnam, China, Russia, and Japan is provided.

  13. Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil

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    Otacílio M. Silva Filho

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae found in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Feces samples were collected in the field at two-week intervals and later were taken to the laboratory to extract pupae by the water flotation method. Each pupa was placed in a capsule of colorless gelatin until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. The parasitism prevalence was 1.2%.

  14. Biology and natural enemies of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead in corn (Zea mays L., in systems of polycrops

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    Marcos Tulio García González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in Fomento municipality, Sancti Spíritus, in Cuba, from 2011 through 2013 in two ecosystems and in two sowing times (rainy and dry seasons. The objectives were to describe the life cycle of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead and the damage caused to corn (Zea mays L., to identify the main pest bio-regulators naturally occurring in two agro-ecosystems, and to determine the predator-prey relationship. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The data were collected through observation at weekly intervals. In order to estimate the number of pest insects and bio-regulators occurring on the plants, 25 plants per parcel were selected for a total of 100 plants per treatment (maize/squash, maize/beans, maize/ Sesame, maize/sunflower, and maize monoculture. Once the research was accomplished, it was concluded that P maidis had been present since the first week, and reached its population peak in week six. The lower indexes of affectation occurred in the pre-mountain agro-ecosystems, and with more frequency in the maize/sesame and maize/squash polyculture, which depended on the time of the year and the season. Fifteen species of P. maidis control insects of were identified, and Scymnus sp was found in all treatments. The life cycle of P maidis averaged 5.4 days more in the dry season than in rain season. The predator-prey relationship showed relatively superior indexes in the polyculture systems than in monocrops systems.

  15. Predation on pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by parasitoid, Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Ophyra spinigera larva (Diptera: Muscidae).

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    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Omar, Baharudin; Dhang, Chen Chee; Weng, Lau Koon; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.

  16. Description of the first Palaearctic species of Tineobius Ashmead, 1896 with DNA data, a checklist of world species, and nomenclatural changes in Eupelmidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea

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    Lucian Fusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tineobius (Tineobius tamaricis Ribes & Fusu sp. nov. is newly described from Parapodia sinaica (Frauenfeld, 1859 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae galls from Catalonia in Spain. This is the first record of the so far Palaeotropical genus Tineobius Ashmead, 1896 in the Palaearctic region. Basic biological data and a DNA barcode are provided for the new species. Parapodia sinaica (the host of T. tamaricis sp. nov. is reported for the first time to form galls on Tamarix canariensis (Willd. A checklist of described world Tineobius species is provided, with nine species formally transferred to Tineobius from Anastatoidea Gahan, 1927 and thirteen species newly assigned to T. (Tineobius. Metapelma seyrigi (Risbec, 1952 is transferred to Tineobius and the replacement name Tineobius (Tineobius madagascariensis nom. nov. is proposed, as the name is preoccupied by Tineobius (Tineobius seyrigi (Ferrière, 1938 comb. nov.; Tineobius (Tineobius albopalpalis (Brues, 1907 comb. nov. is transferred from Charitopus Förster, 1856 (a genus in Encyrtidae. One species is transferred from Anastatoidea to Eupelmus Dalman, 1820 as Eupelmus (Episolindelia ambatomangae (Risbec, 1958 comb. nov.

  17. ABUNDANCIA POBLACIONAL DE Chrysomphalus ficus Ashmead SOBRE LA ESPECIE DE ORQUÍDEA CUBANA Encyclia brevifolia EN FUNCIÓN DE LA TEMPERATURA

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    S. González-Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La intención de proteger los recursos naturales y disminuir las incidencias, catalizadas por el hombre, en la desaparición de muchas especies, requiere de toda nuestra atención. Los estudios realizados sobre las amenazas que ponen en peligro la existencia de muchas especies de orquídeas en diferentes hábitats, no profundizan en la relación existente de estas especies con las plagas presentes en el ambiente donde se desarrollan estas plantas. La presente investigación aporta a los cultivadores de orquídeas una nueva información acerca de la incidencia de Chrysomphalus ficus Ashmead. Sobre la especie de orquídea cubana Encyclia brevifolia. El análisis estadístico aplicado a la misma, ha obtenido importantes resultados. Este proceso se basó en el monitoreo sistemático estadístico para las condiciones del Jardín Botánico Orquideario Soroa, el cual arrojó importante información para los cultivadores de orquídeas y los Jardines Botánicos Nacionales, que puede ser utilizada como referencia en el perfeccionamiento de la estrategia trazada para la conservación de dicha especie. En la misma se muestra el comportamiento de la plaga comparativamente sobre los órganos de la planta en función del tiempo y de la temperatura.

  18. Evaluación de estrategias de control biológico de Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks y Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead en naranja Valencia

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    Karol Imbachi L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El daño ocasionado por los ácaros Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks y Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. es reconocido tanto por el impacto económico como por el daño externo de los frutos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de agentes biológicos para el control de estas plagas en un cultivo comercial de naranja Valencia en el municipio de Caicedonia, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se usó un diseño de bloques completos al azar para evaluar los tratamientos siguientes: (1 liberación de especies de Phytoseiidae nativos (Neoseiulus anonymus, Neoseiulus californicus, Iphiseiodes zuluagai y Amblyseius herbicolus en poblaciones de 500 individuos/árbol; (2 liberación de larvas de Chrysoperla carnea (100 larvas/árbol; (3 aplicación localizada de cipermetrina 2 cm³/lt como tratamiento de exclusión de agentes benéficos; y (4 testigo consistente en el tratamiento utilizado por los agricultores (aplicación localizada de abamectina, 1.5 cm³/lt. Las liberaciones de las especies benéficas y las aplicaciones de los tratamientos se realizaron sobre racimos florales y frutos marcados en el tercio medio de cada árbol. Las evaluaciones de daños se realizaron cada semana hasta la cosecha. Los tratamientos de liberación de Phytoseiidae, liberación de larvas de C. carnea y aplicación de abamectina presentaron el menor daño de P. latus; el tratamiento de exclusión de benéficos demostró la importancia de los agentes controladores naturales sobre la plaga. En el manejo de P. oleivora, los tratamientos de liberación de larvas de C. carnea y aplicación de abamectina presentaron los mejores resultados con el menor daño en frutos. La población de P. oleivora ocasionó daños significativos en el tratamiento de liberación de ácaros Phytoseiidae y exclusión de benéficos.

  19. New records of Paracrias Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae as parasitoids on weevil larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Brazil, with the description of a new species

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    Luciano Palmieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracrias strii Schauff, 1985 and P. ceratophaga Palmieri & Hansson sp. nov. are first record in Brazil and both are associated with Ceratopus Schoenherr larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae reared from syconia of two species of fig-trees. Both Paracrias species are diagnosed and illustrated. Males of P. ceratophaga sp. nov. are described. The association of Paracrias with weevil larvae is briefly discussed.

  20. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and alternative splicing of a ryanodine receptor gene from the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead).

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    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Ke-Yi; Mou, Xing; Luo, Ruo-Yu; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Insect ryanodine receptors are the main targets of diamide insecticides that have highly selective insecticidal activity but are less toxic to mammals. Therefore, these insecticides are ideal for pest control. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a critical role in Ca 2+ signaling in muscle and non-muscle cells. In this study, we cloned the complete cDNA (DcRyR) of the RyR from the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri, a serious pest of citrus orchards in China. The open reading frame of RyR is 15,378bp long and encodes a protein with 5126 amino acids with a computed molecular weight of 579.523kDa. DcRyR shows a high amino acid sequence identity to RyRs from other insects (76%-95%) and low identity to those from nematodes and mammals (44%-52%). DcRyR shares many features of insect and vertebrate RyRs, including a MIR domain, two RIH domains, three SPRY domains, four copies of RyR repeat domain, RIH-associated domain at the N-terminus, two consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains at the C-terminus. The expression of DcRyR mRNA was the highest in the nymphs and lowest in eggs; DcRyR mRNA was 1.85-fold higher in the nymphs than in the eggs. Among the tissues, DcRyR mRNA expression was 4.18- and 4.02-fold higher in the adult head and thorax than in the abdomen. DcRyR had three alternative splice sites and the splice variants showed body part-specific expression and were developmentally regulated. These results may help investigate target-based resistance to diamide insecticides in D. citri. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on irradiated larva of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae);Aspectos biologicos e morfologicos de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) criado em larvas irradiadas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    Valle, Giuliana Etore do

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was evaluate some biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata on irradiated and not irradiated larva of bisexual and tsl strains of Ceratitis capitata. The experiments were developed at the Laboratorio de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia (LIARE) of CENA/USP. For gamma radiation treatment it was used a Cobalt-60 source, model Gamma beam-650. Larva of bisexual strain were irradiated with 65 Gy and the tsl strain with 45 Gy. Experiments were carried out at room temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, 75 +- 5 % RH and 14 hours of photo phase. After irradiation, the bisexual strain larva were exposed to adults of D. longicaudata for parasitization and parameters of percentage adult emergency and rate of male and female of D. longicaudata were observed. For tsl strain, were used larva from the first and the fourth collection only, and the following parameters were observed: percentage of adult emergency, rate of male and female, and the average unitary volume and weight of pupae at the 8{sup th} and 16 days after the parasitism date. Other parameters evaluated for tsl strain related to the parasitoid morphology such as, the length of the body, antenna, tibia and ovipositor. As result, both of the first and second experiments, the rate of parasitism was satisfactory, as well as showed larger incidence of females than males in parasitized larva, discarding the possibility that gamma radiation interfere in the sexual rate. No significant differences were observed on pupae volume. Some differences on pupae weight were observed at 8th and 16th day after the parasitism date, which should be associated to pre-emerging flies (8th day) and empty pupa (16th day). None significant difference was observed on morphological parameters, so one can conclude that gamma radiation treatment did not interfere in these quality parameters of the parasitoid. (author)

  2. Custos variáveis de produção de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) para controle de moscas-das-frutas = Variable costs of production for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata to control the fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Gisely Camargos; Maria de Lourdes Zamboni Costa; Elisângela de Souza Miranda

    2017-01-01

    O controle biológico aplicado consiste em liberações em massa de predadores ou parasitoides após a criação laboratorial em larga escala. Avaliar o custo de produção do parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata para controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas irá fornecer uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar o planejamento, controle e uma forma de apoiar as empresas quanto as suas tomadas de decisão. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os c...

  3. Custos variáveis de produção de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead para controle de moscas-das-frutas = Variable costs of production for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata to control the fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisely Camargos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico aplicado consiste em liberações em massa de predadores ou parasitoides após a criação laboratorial em larga escala. Avaliar o custo de produção do parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata para controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas irá fornecer uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar o planejamento, controle e uma forma de apoiar as empresas quanto as suas tomadas de decisão. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os custos variáveis de produção do parasitoideD. longicaudata, criado em larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus utilizando a ferramenta de Custeio Baseado em Atividade [ABC]. Foi acompanhado o processo produtivo para obter o custo variável total de produção em laboratório de pesquisa e biofábrica de inimigos naturais, localizado em Piracicaba, São Paulo. A capacidade de produção de pupas de A. fraterculus parasitadas por D. longicaudata é de um milhão por semana nesse laboratório, sendo que um milhão de pupas representa 34 L, e um mL contém aproximadamente 30 pupas. O custo variável de produção para produzir um milhão de pupas parasitadas por semana foi de R$ 5.919,65 ou R$0,0059 por pupa. O custo com mão de obra representa 57% do custo total, enquanto o custo com materiais representa 43%. A tomada de decisão do produtor em relação ao controle biológico utilizando D. longicaudatadependerá de estudos prévios sobre o parasitoide e cultura pretendida. = Applied biological control consists in the mass liberation of laboratory reared predators or parasitoids. Evaluating the variable cost of production of the fruit flies parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata for biological control will provide a tool to assist the planning, control and a way to support businesses as their decision-making. This study aims to identify and analyze the variable costs productionof D. longicaudata, created in larvas of Anastrepha fraterculus using the Activity-Based Costing Tool [ABC]. The total variable cost was obtained by means of monitoring the rearing in a biofactory located in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. The pupa production capacity of A. fraterculus parasitized by D. longicaudata is a million a week in this lab being a million pupas around 34 L or 30 per mL. The total cost of production to produce one million parasitized pupa per week was R$ 5,919.65 or R$ 0.0059 per pupa. The cost of labor is 57% of the total cost, while the cost of materials is 43%. The producer's decision-making in relation to biological control using D. longicaudata depends on previous studies of the parasitoid and desired crop.

  4. An online photographic catalog of primary types of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

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    Elijah J. Talamas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A photographic catalog of primary types of Platygastroidea housed in the National Insect Collection, National Museum of Natural History, is here made available online at the image database at The Ohio State University (specimage.osu.edu. Following examination of this collection we enact the following taxonomic changes: Leptacis piniella MacGown syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Leptacis pinicola MacGown; Sacespalus indicus Mani is transferred to Platygaster Latreille; Platygaster indica Mukerjee is given the replacement name Platygaster chaos Talamas, n. n.; Synopeas rugiceps (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Leptacis Förster; Axea atriclava (Kieffer, comb. n. is transferred from Psilanteris Kieffer; Chakra pachmarhica (Sharma, comb. n. is transferred from Paridris Kieffer; Paridris dubeyi Sharma, syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Chakra pachmarhica; Holoteleia indica (Mani is transferred to Opisthacantha Ashmead and given a replacement name, Opisthacantha nomados Talamas, n. n.; Psilanteris nigriclavata (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Anteris Förster; Probaryconus grenadensis (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Monoteleia Kieffer; Monoteleia syn.n. is treated as a junior synonym of Probaryconus Kieffer; Paridris karnatakensis Sharma, syn. n is treated as a junior synonym of Probaryconus cauverycus Saraswat; Probaryconus punctatus (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Oxyteleia Kieffer; Triteleia bengalensis (Saraswat, comb. n. is transferred from Alloteleia Kieffer; Trimorus varius Fouts, syn. n. and Trimorus pulchricornis Fouts, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Trimorus annulicornis (Ashmead; Neotypes are designated for Gryon leptocorisae (Howard, Idris seminiger (Ashmead, Telenomus graptae Howard, Telenomus persimilis Ashmead, and Telenomus rileyi Howard; lectotypes are designated for Cremastobaeus bicolor Ashmead, Oethecoctonus insularis (Ashmead, Oethecoctonus laticinctus (Ashmead and Probaryconus

  5. Relationship of Mesofauna Bioiversity and Undergrowth Vegetations in Jobolarangan Forest

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    MARTINUS PUJO

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil mesofauna is one group of soil biodiversity, which take main role of decomposition processes of organic matter. The objective of this research was to investigate the composition and diversity of soil mesofauna at Jobolarangan forest. Soil samples were collected from 8 sampling points which different vegetation types. Soil mesofaunas extracted by modified Barless-Tullgren extractor apparatus for 4 days. The results showed that in the north side of Jobolarangan forest were identified 6 groups of microarthropods, i.e.: Mesostigma and Astigma (Ordo: Acarina, Isotomidae (Ordo: Collembola, Rhinotermitidae (Ordo: Hymenoptera, Staphyllinidae and Carabidae (Ordo: Coleoptera. The group with highest density and wide distribution was Astigma. There were high diversities of soil mesofauna community structure at Jobolarangan forest.

  6. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906),

  7. Differences in morphometrics and reproductive physiology between two populations of Trissolcus japonicus, a promising biological control agent candidate for brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stal) in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), a solitary egg parasitoid of Pentatomidae native to Southeast Asia, has been undergoing host-range testing in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2009 as a candidate for the biological control of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål)(BMSB), an invasive agri...

  8. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lissonotini Ashmead, Proc. ent. Soc., Wash., 3: 278, (1893—96). Schmiedeknecht, Genera Insect., fas. 62: 70, (1907). Townes, Mem. Amer. ent. Soc., 11 (1): 442, (1944). Muesebeck, Krombein, Townes and Others,. U.S. Dep. Agric. Monograph, 2: 310, (1951). Lissonotides Morley, Ichn. Brit., 3; 171, (1907); Fauna Brit. India,.

  9. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Algal flora of Vindhyan formations of the Mirzapur District, U.P. (Singh), 66. Apanteles angaleti Muesebeck (Braconidae: Hymenoptera), host selection and oviposition response in (Narayanan and others), 139. Blast disease of rice, the problem of (Sadasivan), 1. Bracon gelechiae Ashmead, insect parasite, labelling of adults ...

  10. Ooencyrtus marcelloi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) on passion vines (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrieri, E.; Huigens, M.E.; Estrada, C.; Woelke, J.B.; Rijk, de M.; Fatouros, N.E.; Aiello, A.; Noyes, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    A new species belonging to the genus Ooencyrtus Ashmead is described. Ooencyrtus marcelloi sp. nov. has been reared from eggs of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) collected in Panama on Passiflora spp. The new species is compared with its closest Ooencyrtus species, i.e. O. caligo

  11. Ants of the genus Camponotus Mayr, 1861 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Kaz Mountains, Turkey, with descriptions of sexuals of Camponotus candiotes Emery, 1894 and Camponotus ionius Emery, 1920

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMAN, Celal; AKTAÇ, Nihat; KIRAN, Kadri

    2014-01-01

    The Camponotus fauna of the Kaz Mountains was examined horizontally and vertically, from 175 to 1600 m a.s.l. Materials were collected from 20 different localities and 11 different habitats between 2001 and 2003. In all, 14 species belonging to 3 subgenera (Colobopsis Mayr, Myrmentoma Forel, and Tanaemyrmex Ashmead) were found. The hitherto unknown sexuals of C. candiotes Emery and C. ionius Emery are described for the first time.

  12. Effects of Amplitude Compression on Relative Auditory Distance Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    m. Stybel and Perrott (1984) had participants sit in the middle of an athletic field in an elevated chair while they were blind folded. The chair...Ashmead et al. (1990) collected data in an anechoic chamber and Stybel and Perrott (1984) collected data on an athletic field with the participants...A. (2012). Comparison of User Volume Control Settings for Portable Music Players with Three Earphone Configurations in Quiet and Noisy

  13. Preferencia de oviposición de Peregrinus maidis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) en distintas plantas hospederas

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia N. DIAZ; Erica LUFT ALBARRACIN; Mariela ALDERETE

    2016-01-01

    La chicharrita del maíz, Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead), es una especie que ha sido registrada en la mayoría de las regiones tropicales. Esta asociada a diversos cultivos de importancia económica. En América tropical, esta especie es un vector de diversas enfermedades virales en maíz, Zea mays L. El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar la preferencia de oviposición de P. maidis sobre dife- rentes especies vegetales hospederas, mediante un ensayo de elecc...

  14. Desarrollo de herramientas moleculares para la evaluación de la calidad genética y productividad en la cría artificial de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, agente de control biológico de moscas plaga de los frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Mannino, María Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide solitario de estadios larvales de moscas de la fruta perteneciente a la familia Tephritidae. Es criado a nivel masivo en bioplantas y utilizado en diversas partes del mundo para las estrategias de control biológico (CB) principalmente de dípteros de importancia económica de los géneros Ceratitis, Anastrepha y Bactrocera. Actualmente, se estudia su implementación en nuestro país para el control de Ceratitis ca...

  15. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae Uma nova espécie de Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae de uma área de Caatinga e novos registros de ocorrência de outros Heimbrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.Os limites geográficos de Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 e H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 são estendidos com base no material examinado das coleções entomológicas do Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brasil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae é descrita, ilustrada e comparada com a única espécie conhecida desse gênero, S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986. Uma chave para os gêneros de Heimbrinae e para as espécies de Symbra é fornecida.

  16. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.

  17. Additions to the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae (Chalcidoidea of India with new distribution and host records for some species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rameshkumar

    2015-06-01

    Results and conclusions. A total of 961 specimens were collected, from which 883 COI sequences were obtained. The sequences generated corresponded to 289 barcoding species and 30 identified genera. The most speciose genera were Heterospilus Haliday (170 spp., Ecphylus Förster (19 spp., Allorhogas Gahan (15 spp. and Callihormius Ashmead (14 spp.. Addition of previously collected material increased the diversity of the subfamily in the region to 34 genera and 290 species. Paraphyly of Heterospilus with respect to Neoheterospilus and Heterospathius was again recovered. Twenty new species and two new genera (Sabinita Belokobylskij, Zaldívar-Riverón et Martínez, Ficobolus Martínez, Belokobylskij et Zaldívar-Riverón have been described so far from the material collected in this work.

  18. Species of Spalangia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae collected from buffalo dung in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. V. Milhomem

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of determining the species of Spalangia in pupae of muscoid Diptera present in buffalo dung, collected in the municipality of Itumbiara, GO, from May to December 2003. The dipterous pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 2.59%. The prevalences of parasitism presented by the parasitoid species Spalangia cameroni (Perkins, Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead, Spalangia endius (Walker, Spalangia nigra (Letraille and Spalangia nigroaenea (Curtis were 0.53%, 1.37%, 0.15%, 0.04% and 0.49%, respectively.

  19. Keys to genera of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of Russia and neighbouring countries, with check-list of genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-10-28

    Keys to 55 genera of spider wasps of Russia and neighbouring countries in females and males are given. Of them 34 genera are distributed in Russia. An annotated list of genera with type species and distribution data within Russia and biogeographical regions is given. The genus Xenaporus Ashmead, 1902 and X. eremocanus Wolf, 1990 are newly recorded from Russia. According to ICZN 1995 (Opinion 1820) new synonymy (valid name first) is proposed for the type species of genus Cryptocheilus Panzer, 1806: Sphex annulata Fabricius, 1798 (=Pompilus alternatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, syn. nov.; =Pompilus comparatus Smith, 1855, syn. nov.; =Priocnemis culpabilis Costa, 1893, syn. nov.; Salius annulatilis Richards, 1935, syn. nov.).

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2011-31 January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Arnoux, E; Bell, James J; Bernadou, Abel; Bino, Giorgia; Blatrix, R; Bourguet, Denis; Carrea, Cecilia; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Cunha, Haydée A; d'Alençon, E; Ding, Yi; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; Dumas, P; Eraud, C; Faivre, B; Francisco, F O; Françoso, E; Garcia, M; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garnier, S; Gimenez, S; Gold, John R; Harris, D J; He, Guangcun; Hellemans, B; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Jing, Shengli; Kergoat, G J; Liu, Bingfang; McDowell, Jan R; McKey, D; Miller, Terrence L; Newton, Erica; Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Papetti, Chiara; Paterson, Ian; Peccoud, J; Peng, Xinxin; Piatscheck, F; Ponsard, Sergine; Reece, Kimberly S; Reisser, Céline M O; Renshaw, Mark A; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sauve, M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Solé-Cava, Antonio; Souche, E L; Van Houdt, J K J; Vasconcellos, Anderson; Volckaert, F A M; Wang, Shuzhen; Xiao, Jie; Yu, Hangjin; Zane, Lorenzo; Zannato, Barbara; Zemlak, Tyler S; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Lili

    2012-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Monograph of the Afrotropical species of Scelio Latreille (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), egg parasitoids of acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Valerio, Alejandro A; Polaszek, Andrew; van Noort, Simon; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F

    2014-01-01

    Yoder, sp. n., S. retifrons Yoder, sp. n., S. ructo Yoder, sp. n., S. scomma Yoder, sp. n., S. simoni Yoder, sp. n., S. simonolus Yoder, sp. n., S. somaliensis Yoder, sp. n., S. susurro Yoder, sp. n., S. tono Yoder, sp. n., S. transtrum Yoder, sp. n., S. tritus Yoder, sp. n., S. ululo Yoder, sp. n., S. vannoorti Valerio & Yoder, sp. n. The following species are redescribed: S. afer Kieffer, S. chapmani Nixon, S. howardi Crawford, S. ipomeae Risbec, stat. n., S. mauritanicus Risbec, S. philippinensis Ashmead, S. remaudierei Ferrière, S. striatus Priesner,S. taylori Nixon, and S. zolotarevskyi Ferrière. The genus Lepidoscelio Kieffer is treated as a junior synonym of Scelio Latreille, syn. n.; its type species, Lepidoscelio fuscipennis Kieffer, 1905 is transferred to Scelio, renamed Scelio obscuripennis Johnson, nom. n. (preoccupied by Scelio fuscipennis Ashmead, 1887), and redescribed. The following additional species are transferred from Lepidoscelio to Scelio: S. cayennensis (Risbec), comb. n., S. insularis Ashmead, rev. comb., S. luteus (Cameron), comb. n., S. thoracicus Ashmead, rev. comb. Lectotypes are designated for S. africanus Risbec, S. ipomeae Risbec, S. mauritanicus Risbec, S. remaudierei Ferrière, S. sudanensis Ferrière, and S. zolotarevskyi Ferrière. Scelio gaudens Nixon is a junior synonym of Scelio striatus Priesner, syn. n.; Scelio africanus Risbec and Scelio clarus Fouts are both junior synonyms of Scelio afer Kieffer, syn. n.; Scelio sudanensis Ferrière and Scelio cheops Nixon are both junior synonyms of Scelio zolotarevskyi Ferrière, syn. n.; Scelio cahirensis Priesner is a junior synonym of Scelio mauritanicus Risbec, syn. n. The name Scelio chapmanni Nixon is an incorrect original spelling, requiring an emendation to S. chapmani. Digital versions of the identification keys are available at http://www.waspweb.org/Platygastroidea/Keys/index.htm.

  2. Platigástridos (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae parasitoides de Pentatomidae en Córdoba. Caracterización de las masas de huevos parasitoidizadas y aspectos biológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma LA PORTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizan las masas de huevos parasitoidizadas de pentatómidos per - tenecientes a cinco especies, cuatro fitófagas y una depredadora. Además, se analizan aspectos biológicos de esas oviposturas (abundancia y parasitoidismo y de sus para - sitoides (proporción sexual y emergencia: cinco especies de microhimenópteros plati - gástridos pertenecientes a los géneros Trissolcus Ashmead, Telenomus Haliday y Gryon Haliday . El análisis de las masas de huevos de pentatómidos en el campo apor ta indi - cadores exomorfológicos para determinar si están o no parasitoidizadas y, en algunos casos, conocer la especie de parasitoide emergente. Los altos niveles de parasitoidismo registrados en ambos sitios muestreados –Marcos Juárez y zona periurbana de Córdoba, sugieren que los parasitoides oófagos inciden de manera importante en las poblaciones de hemípteros presentes en el cultivo de soja. Las especies parasitoides mostraron una proporción de sexos marcadamente sesgada hacia las hembras, con un comportamiento similar respecto a cada huésped con el que interactuaron. Los porcentajes de emergencia resultaron más variables dependiendo de la especie parasitoide, del huésped y del sitio. El multiparasitoidismo fue registrado en todas las especies con excepción de Nezara viridula L. Telenomus podisi Ashmead fue el parasitoide común en las combinaciones observadas, resultando T. podisi-Trissolcus urichi Crawford la más frecuente.

  3. Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidaeem Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh., 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae e Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae foram de 4,3, 1,5 0,9 e 0,6%, respectivamente. A porcentagem total de parasitismo observada foi de 7,4%. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de S. nigra em pupas de F. pusio no Brasil.The aim of this study was to report the insect species parasitizing Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, between August 2003 and May 2004. Flies were attracted to baits consisting of human feces, bovine liver and fish, with the pupae being isolated by the flotation method, in water, and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The parasitism percentages presented by Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh, 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae were 4.3, 1.5, 0.9 and 0.6%, respectively. The total percentage of parasitism was 7.4%. This study reports the first occurrence of S. nigra in pupae of F. pusio in Brazil.

  4. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

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    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasit

  5. Emergence, longevity and fecundity of Trissolcus basalis and Telenomus podisi after cold storage in the pupal stage Emergência, longevidade e fecundidade de Trissolcus basalis e Telenomus podisi após estocagem no estágio pupal

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    Luís Amilton Foerster

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston and Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae were stored at 12ºC and 15ºC for 120-210 days, after different periods of parasitism at 18ºC in order to evaluate adult emergence, longevity and ovipositional capacity. There was no emergence of adults at 12ºC. The rate of emergence of parasitoids transferred to 15ºC at the beginning of the pupal stage was 1.5% and 26.3%, for T. basalis and T. podisi respectively, whereas those parasitoids transferred one day before the expected date of emergence at 18ºC showed 86.4% of emergence for T. basalis and 59.9% for T. podisi. Mean adult longevity was also significantly lower when pupae were transferred to 15ºC at the beginning of the pupal stage. Females emerged after storage and maintained for 120 to 210 days at 15ºC parasitized host eggs after transference to 25ºC; however, fecundity of T. podisi was reduced in about 80% after cold storage.Pupas de Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston e Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae armazenadas a 12ºC e 15ºC por 120 a 210 dias, após diferentes períodos de parasitismo a 18ºC, foram avaliadas quanto à emergência, longevidade e capacidade de parasitismo dos adultos. Não houve emergência de adultos a 12ºC. Os índices de emergência de parasitóides transferidos a 15ºC no início do estágio pupal foram 1,5% e 26,3%, em T. basalis e T. podisi, respectivamente, enquanto os transferidos um dia antes da data prevista para a emergência dos adultos a 18ºC apresentaram índices de emergência de 86,4% em T. basalis e 59,9% em T. podisi. De forma semelhante, a longevidade média dos adultos foi significativamente menor quando a transferência para 15ºC foi realizada no início do estágio pupal. Fêmeas emergidas após estocagem das pupas e mantidas por 120 a 210 dias a 15ºC parasitaram ovos hospedeiros após transferência para 25ºC; no entanto, a fecundidade de T. podisi foi reduzida em cerca de

  6. Histopathology Caused by the Entomopathogenic Fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, in the Adult Planthopper, Peregrinus maidis, a Maize Virus Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, A.V.; de Remes Lenicov, A.M.M.; López Lastra, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is an important vector of maize viruses in tropical and subtropical areas. Planthoppers are biologically controlled with several species of entomopathogenic fungi that have been isolated from these insect pests of rice in Asia. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) appear to be the most useful against planthoppers because of their ease of mass production, storage, virulence, and application. In the present study, adults of P. maidis infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were observed under light and scanning electron microscopy to characterize morphologically the process of infection and the development of these fungi, prior to and after the death of the host. The hydrophobic conidia of both fungal species were able to attach to all body regions, with a preference for surfaces containing hairs. Few germinated conidia were observed on the insect's body surface at 24, 48, and 72 hr post-inoculation. On the cuticular surface of P. maidis treated with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, bacillus-like bacteria were observed. These microorganisms could be interacting with fungal conidia, playing a role of antibiosis that will not allow the fungal pathogens to germinate and penetrate. In the colonization events observed in this study, the formation and multiplication of hyphal bodies by both fungal species inside the host's body was noted. The host's whole body was invaded by hyphae between five and six days post-inoculation, and body fat was the most affected tissue. PMID:20578956

  7. Parasitóides Associados a Cochonilhas e Aleirodídeos (Sternorrhyncha de Plantas Cítricas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    William Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. With the purpose of knowing parasitids of scales and whiteflies, associates to the citrus plants in Rio de Janeiro State, they were accomplished leaves collected contend fitoparasits: Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, Tetraleurodes (=Aleurotrachelus cruzi (Cassino, Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi, Coccus viridis (Green, Crysomphalus ficus (Ashmead, Orthezia praelonga (Douglas and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret, being this ones clean, it soon after proceded the organism elimination that was study object (each leaf remained with an only species of fitoparasite, so that parasitoids that had arisen had gone same associate to that species. After this procedure the leaves were incubate for a period of 25 days, when it was observed only parasitism in A. floccosus, P. aspidistrae, C. viridis and T. cruzi, and parasitoids of this the latter, not identified because the number specimens was very reduced. It was parasiting A. floccosus it observed: Arrhenophagus sp., Cales sp., Encarsia sp. (1, Eretmocerus sp., Signiphora sp. (1, Signiphora sp. (2, Signiphora sp. (3 and a species of the family Platygasteridae. Parasiting P. aspidistrae it was observed: Arrhenophagus sp., Cales sp., Encarsia sp. (2 and Pteroptrix sp. Some species are associated either to A. floccosus or to P. aspidistrae. By the results it was verified that Arrhenophagus sp. the parasitism and the species of the family Platygasteridae in A. floccosus and parasitism of Arrhenophagus sp. and Pteroptrix sp. in P. aspidistrae, they are occurrence new record for do Rio de Janeiro State

  8. Infection rates and comparative population dynamics of Peregrinus maidis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on corn plants with and without symptoms of maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, C H V; Bressan, A

    2013-10-01

    We examined the population dynamics of the corn planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) throughout a cycle of corn (Zea mays L.) production on plants with or without symptoms of maize mosaic virus (MMV) (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus) infection. Our results indicate that the timing of MMV plant infection greatly influenced the planthopper's host plant colonization patterns. Corn plants that expressed symptoms of MMV infection early in the crop cycle (28 d after planting) harbored, on average, 40 and 48% fewer planthoppers than plants that expressed symptoms of MMV infection later in the crop cycle (49 d after planting) and asymptomatic plants, respectively. We also observed a change in the number of brachypterous (short-wing type) and macropterous (long-wing type) winged forms produced; plants expressing early symptoms of MMV infection harbored, on average, 41 and 47% more of the brachypterous form than plants with late infections of MMV and plants with no symptoms of MMV, respectively. Furthermore, we determined the rates of MMV-infected planthoppers relative to their wing morphology (macropterous or brachypterous) and gender. MMV infection was 5 and 12% higher in females than in males in field and greenhouse experiments, respectively; however, these differences were not significantly different. This research provides evidence that MMV similarly infects P. maidis planthoppers regardless of the gender and wing morphotype. These results also suggest that the timing of symptom development greatly affects the population dynamics of the planthopper vector, and likely has important consequences for the dynamics of the disease in the field.

  9. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

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    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  10. Karyotypes of parasitic wasps of the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking leaf-mining Lepidoptera (Gracillariidae, Gelechiidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eleven parasitoid species of the family Eulophidae were examined, namely, Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839 (2n = 10, Chrysocharis sp. aff. laomedon (n = 5, 2n = 10, Chrysocharis sp. aff. albipes (Ashmead, 1904 (2n = 12, Mischotetrastichus petiolatus (Erdös, 1961 (n = 6, 2n = 12, Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees, 1834 (n = 5, 2n = 10, Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834 (2n = 12, Hyssopus geniculatus (Hartig, 1838 (2n = 16, Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839 (2n = 12, S. sericeicornis (Nees, 1834 (2n = 12, Pnigalio agraules (Walker, 1839 (2n = 12 + 0–2B and Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (2n = 12 + 0–6B reared from Phyllonorycter acerifoliella (Zeller, 1839, Ph. apparella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855, Ph. issikii (Kumata, 1963 (Gracillariidae and Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg, 1794 (Gelechiidae. Chromosome sets of all species except P. agraules and P. gyamiensis were studied for the first time. B chromosomes were detected in the two latter species; in P. gyamiensis, the maximum number of B chromosomes represents the highest value known for parasitic wasps to date.

  11. Monograph of the Afrotropical species of Scelio Latreille (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, egg parasitoids of acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae

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    Matthew Yoder

    2014-02-01

    . quasiclypeatus Yoder, sp. n., S. retifrons Yoder, sp. n., S. ructo Yoder, sp. n., S. scomma Yoder, sp. n., S. simoni Yoder, sp. n., S. simonolus Yoder, sp. n., S. somaliensis Yoder, sp. n., S. susurro Yoder, sp. n., S. tono Yoder, sp. n., S. transtrum Yoder, sp. n., S. tritus Yoder, sp. n., S. ululo Yoder, sp. n., S. vannoorti Valerio & Yoder, sp. n. The following species are redescribed: S. afer Kieffer, S. chapmani Nixon, S. howardi Crawford, S. ipomeae Risbec, stat. n., S. mauritanicus Risbec, S. philippinensis Ashmead, S. remaudierei Ferrière, S. striatus Priesner, S. taylori Nixon, and S. zolotarevskyi Ferrière. The genus Lepidoscelio Kieffer is treated as a junior synonym of Scelio Latreille, syn. n.; its type species, Lepidoscelio fuscipennis Kieffer, 1905 is transferred to Scelio, renamed Scelio obscuripennis Johnson, nom. n. (preoccupied by Scelio fuscipennis Ashmead, 1887, and redescribed. The following additional species are transferred from Lepidoscelio to Scelio: S. cayennensis (Risbec, comb. n., S. insularis Ashmead, rev. comb., S. luteus (Cameron, comb. n., S. thoracicus Ashmead, rev. comb. Lectotypes are designated for S. africanus Risbec, S. ipomeae Risbec, S. mauritanicus Risbec, S. remaudierei Ferrière, S. sudanensis Ferrière, and S. zolotarevskyi Ferrière. Scelio gaudens Nixon is a junior synonym of Scelio striatus Priesner, syn. n.; Scelio africanus Risbec and Scelio clarus Fouts are both junior synonyms of Scelio afer Kieffer, syn. n.; Scelio sudanensis Ferrière and Scelio cheops Nixon are both junior synonyms of Scelio zolotarevskyi Ferrière, syn. n.; Scelio cahirensis Priesner is a junior synonym of Scelio mauritanicus Risbec, syn. n. The name Scelio chapmanni Nixon is an incorrect original spelling, requiring an emendation to S. chapmani. Digital versions of the identification keys are available at http://www.waspweb.org/Platygastroidea/Keys/index.htm

  12. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  13. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids

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    Glynn Tillman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L. adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F. at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  14. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions.

  15. POTENSI PARASITOID TELUR PENGGEREK BATANG PADI KUNING Scirpophaga incertulas Walker PADA BEBERAPA TIPOLOGI LAHAN DI PROVINSI JAMBI

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    . Wilyus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze the diversity, dispersal and domination of the egg parasitoid species of the yellow rice stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas Walker on several land typologies in Jambi Province.  The study was conducted by survey method, from December 2010 until June 2011.  Samples of egg parasitoids of S. incertulas were collected by baiting parasitoids with eggs of S. incertulas.  The results of the research showed that there were three spesies of the egg parasitoids of S. incertulas found in Jambi Province, the most dominant was Telenomus rowani Gahan, followed by Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead and Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferriere. T. rowani and T. japonicum were found in all wetland ecosystems in Jambi Province (tidal swamp, swampy area, rainfed lowland, lowland technical irrigation, and upland technical irrigation, while T. schoenobii was found only in tidal swamp, swampy area, and lowland technical irrigation.  The highest species diversity of egg parasitoid of S. incertulas was found on tidal swamp (Shannon index 1.047, followed by swampy area, lowland technical irrigation, rainfed and upland technical irrigation area.  The average of proportion of egg masses parasitized by T. rowani, T. japonicum and T. Schoenobii were 22.58, 6.18 and 2.68% respectively. The average of individual eggs parasitized by T. rowani, T. schoenobii, and T. japnicum were 8.41, 1.67 and 1.47%   respectively.

  16. Moscas blancas y enemigos naturales asociados al cultivo de naranja bajo dos tipos de manejo sanitario en San Pedro, provincia de Buenos Aires

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    Silvia N. LÓPEZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae son importantes plagas que afectan al género Citrus. En este trabajo se identificaron las especies presentes en naranjos de San Pedro (provincia de Buenos Aires y se analizó su evolución poblacional y la de sus enemigos naturales bajo dos manejos sanitarios (convencional y orgánico. Mensualmente se registró la densidad de adultos y ninfas, la especie y densidad de parasitoides y predadores, la presencia de fumagina en hojas/frutos, el rendimiento y los agroquímicos aplicados. Las principales especies fueron Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead y Singhiella citrifolii (Morgan, cuyas poblaciones de adultos predominaron entre octubre y mayo, sin diferencias entre los tipos de manejo. Las ninfas estuvieron presentes a lo largo del año, con mayores cantidades en los cultivos orgánicos. Los niveles de fumagina fueron similares para ambos manejos. El predador Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae fue el enemigo natural más abundante, con mayor densidad en los cultivos orgánicos. Hubo bajos niveles de parasitismo por Encarsia protransvena Viggiani, Encarsia grupo strenua (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae y Neopomphale sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. El rendimiento de frutos fue mayor en el tratamiento convencional. Los resultados muestran la necesidad de controlar la plaga con productos menos nocivos para la fauna benéfica.

  17. Population biology of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in two potato cropping systems in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, M; Gavish, S; Dori, I

    2000-08-01

    The life cycle, within-field distribution, crop damage and impact of natural enemies of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) were investigated in two potato cropping systems. The two systems differed in soil type (sandy vs. loess) which in turn affected the choice of cultivars, irrigation programme, insecticide application method (ground vs. aerial), and planting and harvest times. From mid-April to the end of May, almost twice as many moths were caught in pheromone traps in sandy than in loess fields. Highest infestation of tubers was found before harvest, and infestation was greater in loess than in sandy fields. Larval densities in foliage and tubers were significantly higher at the margins of the fields than in the centre. A significant positive correlation was found between adult catch and larval infestation on foliage in sandy fields but not in loess. Tuber infestation in sand was positively correlated with foliage infestation. No such correlation was detected in loess. Five parasitic wasps emerged from P. operculella larvae collected from commercial fields and volunteer plants: Diadegma pulchripes (Kokujev) and Temelucha decorata, (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) and Bracon gelechiae Ashmead and two other unidentified Braconidae. The most abundant predators at the field site were Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coccinellidae), Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Chrysopidae), Orius albidipennis (Reuter) (Anthocoridae) and four ant species (Formicidae). Parasitism rate reached 40% and predation was estimated at 79%. Results are discussed with regard to the development of an integrated pest management programme for this important pest.

  18. Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab does not harm two parasitoids, Cotesia marginiventris and Copidosoma floridanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Wang, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yang; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Wang, Ping; Shelton, Anthony M

    2018-01-10

    Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) is an important lepidopteran pest on many vegetable and greenhouse crops, and some field crops. Although there are no commercial transgenic Bt vegetable or greenhouse crops, T. ni is a target of Bollgard II cotton, which produces Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. We expand on previous work that examined the effect of Bt crops on parasitoids using Bt-resistant lepidopteran populations as hosts. Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab-resistant T. ni larvae were used to eliminate host quality effects and to evaluate the direct effects of Bt cotton on the parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead) and Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson). These tri-trophic studies confirm that Bt cotton had no significant impact on development, success of parasitism, survival and adult longevity of C. marginiventris when using Bt-resistant T. ni fed on Bt cotton. Similarly, this Bt cotton had no significant impact on the development, mummy weight and the number of progeny produced by C. floridanum. Our studies verified that lyophilized Bt crop tissue maintained its insecticidal bioactivity when incorporated into an artificial diet, demonstrating that hosts and parasitoids were exposed to active Cry proteins. The egg-larval parasitoid C. floridanum, or similar species that consume their entire host, should be considered useful surrogates in risk assessment of Bt crops to non-target arthropods.

  19. Opiine parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Australian and South Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, A E; Wharton, R A; Clarke, A R

    2005-12-01

    Opiine wasps are parasitoids of dacine fruit flies, the primary horticultural pests of Australia and the South Pacific. A taxonomic synopsis and distribution and host records (44% of which are new) for each of the 15 species of dacine-parasitizing opiine braconids found in the South Pacific is presented. Species dealt with are Diachasmimorpha hageni (Fullaway), D. kraussii (Fullaway), D. longicaudata (Ashmead), D. tryoni (Cameron), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), F. deeralensis (Fullaway), F. ferrari Carmichael & Wharton sp. n., F. illusorius (Fischer) comb. n., F. schlingeri Wharton, Opius froggatti Fullaway, Psyttalia fijiensis (Fullaway), P. muesebecki (Fischer), P. novaguineensis (Szépligeti) and Utetes perkinsi (Fullaway). A potentially undescribed species, which may be a colour morph of F. vandenboschi (Fullaway), is diagnosed but not formally described. Fopius vandenboschi sensu stricto, Diachasmimorpha fullawayi Silvestri, Psyttalia concolor Szépligeti and P. incisi Silvestri have been liberated into the region but are not considered to have established: a brief diagnosis of each is included. Biosteres illusorius Fischer is formally transferred to the genus Fopius. A single opiine specimen reared from a species of Bactrocera (Bulladacus) appears to be Utetes albimanus (Szépligeti), but damage to this specimen and to the holotype (the only previously known specimen) means that this species remains unconfirmed as a fruit fly parasite: a diagnosis of U. cf. albimanus is provided. Psyttalia novaguineensis could not be adequately separated from P. fijiensis using previously published characterizations and further work to resolve this complex is recommended. A key is provided to all taxa.

  20. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kimberly B; Yeargan, Kenneth V

    2008-06-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major indigenous pest of Cucurbita species across the United States and a vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease. The seasonal phenology of the squash bug in central Kentucky and its natural enemies were studied using summer squash planted sequentially throughout the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The squash bug was first detected on 5 June 2005 and 3 June 2006. In both years, peak numbers of all squash bug stages occurred in July and August. Our field data, substantiated by published degree-day models for squash bug development, suggest one complete and a partial second generation of squash bugs in 2005 and one complete generation of squash bugs in 2006. The most abundant ground-active predators in squash fields included Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Geocoridae. Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Geocoris punctipes (Say) were the most abundant foliage-inhabiting predators. Direct field observations of predators feeding on squash bugs or their eggs included G. punctipes, Pagasa fusca (Stein), and Nabis sp. The parasitoids Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) and Gyron pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) were found also. Squash bug egg masses were monitored to determine predation and parasitism rates in the field. In four studies during 2005 and 2006, predation rates were low (7% or less), and parasitism ranged from 0 to 31%. Overall, squash bug egg mortality increased as the season progressed.

  1. Parasitismo e sítios de diapausa de adultos do percevejo marrom, Euschistus heros na região da Grande Dourados, MS Parasitism and diapause sites of brown stink bug adults, Euschistus heros in the Great Dourados Region, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlla Barbosa Godoy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre os insetos que atacam a soja, o percevejo marrom Euschistus heros (Fabricius é considerado uma das principais pragas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a ocorrência de parasitismo em adultos do percevejo marrom E. hero, no período de cultivo da soja e de entressafra, e identificar seus sítios de diapausa no período de entressafra, na região da Grande Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS. Foram coletados adultos do percevejo em lavouras de soja, durante as safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, sendo as coletas realizadas semanalmente. No período de entressafra da soja de 2005 e 2006, foram realizadas inspeções em diferentes ambientes vegetais visando a constatar possíveis sítios de diapausa do percevejo, bem como avaliar a ocorrência de parasitismo nesses ambientes. Em cada coleta, foram individualizados 40 adultos em caixas gerbox contendo Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (Oleraceae, sendo os insetos observados durante um período de 40 dias. Os parasitoides foram armazenados em álcool 70% e encaminhados para identificação. O índice natural de parasitismo de adultos de E. heros amostrados no período de safra e de entressafra de soja variou de 0,0 a 5,0%, considerando-se as diferentes coletas realizadas, sendo Hexacladia smithii Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae a única espécie de parasitoide ocorrente. No período de entressafra, foi verificada maior incidência do percevejo E. heros em folhas secas de mangueira (Mangifera indica L. caídas no chão, evidenciando que esse ambiente é um importante sítio de diapausa para essa praga na região.Among the insects that attack soybeans, brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Fabricius is considered a major pest. The aim of this research was to evaluate the occurrence of parasitism in adults of brown stink bugs E. heros during soybean crop season and to identify diapause sites during the period of soybean absence in the great region of Dourados, MS. Adults of brown stick bugs were collected weekly in

  2. DNA Barcoding of the parasitoid wasp subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chamela, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Arellano, Daniela; Gutiérrez-Arellano, Claudia Renata

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims. The Doryctinae is a considerably diverse, poorly studied group of parasitoid wasps and one of the most diverse subfamilies within Braconidae. Taxonomic knowledge of this group remains highly incomplete, specially in the tropics. In Mexico, it has been reported as the subfamily with the highest number of recorded genera. A preliminary Barcoding study carried out in the Chamela region, located near the Mexican pacific coast in Jalisco, identified 185 barcoding species of Dorytinae assigned to 19 identified doryctine genera. This work updates the later study, representing a three years effort to assess the species richness of this subfamily for the Chamela region. Materials and methods. Ten collecting field trips of 5 to 10 days each were carried out from June 2009 to May 2011. A 2% divergence criterion using the BIN system implemented in BOLD was followed in order to establish species boundaries among the specimens that were collected. Results and conclusions. A total of 961 specimens were collected, from which 883 COI sequences were obtained. The sequences generated corresponded to 289 barcoding species and 30 identified genera. The most speciose genera were Heterospilus Haliday (170 spp.), Ecphylus Förster (19 spp.), Allorhogas Gahan (15 spp.) and Callihormius Ashmead (14 spp.). Addition of previously collected material increased the diversity of the subfamily in the region to 34 genera and 290 species. Paraphyly of Heterospilus with respect to Neoheterospilus and Heterospathius was again recovered. Twenty new species and two new genera (Sabinita Belokobylskij, Zaldívar-Riverón et Martínez, Ficobolus Martínez, Belokobylskij et Zaldívar-Riverón) have been described so far from the material collected in this work. PMID:26023287

  3. Desempenho alimentar e sobrevivência de Euschistus heros parasitado por Hexacladia smithii em sementes de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Maria Clarice

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em laboratório, a influência do parasitóide Hexacladia smithii Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae na atividade alimentar e sobrevivência de Euschistus heros (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, aos 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias após o início do parasitismo. A atividade alimentar foi avaliada pelo número de bainhas constatadas nas sementes de soja, Glycine max (L. Merrill (Fabaceae, em 48 horas de alimentação. O teste foi mantido sob condições controladas de temperatura (25±2°C, umidade (65±10% e fotoperíodo (14L:10E. No início do desenvolvimento de H. smithii a atividade alimentar dos percevejos não-parasitados e parasitados foi semelhante, obtendo-se, entretanto, duas vezes mais bainhas alimentares depositadas/grão pelos machos e fêmeas, após 30 dias de parasitismo. A sobrevivência dos percevejos parasitados foi menor que a dos percevejos não-parasitados, alcançando 100% de mortalidade 40 a 50 dias após o início do parasitismo. A redução na sobrevivência dos percevejos parasitados por H. smithii e a atividade alimentar, semelhante a dos percevejos não-parasitados durante quase todo o período de desenvolvimento do parasitóide, destacam a contribuição desse parasitismo na redução da população do percevejo-marrom E. heros.

  4. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  5. Diapause and different seasonal morphs of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Northern Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Ana P. M.; Panizzi, Antonio R.

    2000-01-01

    The Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabr.), was collected on sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.)], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], star bristle [Acanthospermum hispidum (DC.)], and under fallen leaves of mango tree [Mangifera indica (L.)] and privet (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.), during one year, to evaluate the diapause incidence and the occurrence of different seasonal morphs. The majority of the insects (ca. 90%) with mature reproductive organs was observed during the summer (December-March), when E. heros was found on soybean or on sunflower; in the beginning of autumn, most insects (87%) showed immature reproductive organs, and they were found on star bristle and under fallen leaves. Bugs with mature reproductive organs had more developed shoulders (3.23 and 3.27 mm, for males and females, respectively) than bugs with immature organs (2.91 and 2.89 mm, for males and females, respectively). Two distinct body colors, dark brown and reddish brown, were observed. Nevertheless, the reddish brown was the predominant color of both mature and immature adults during all year. Adults were parasitized by Hexacladia smithii (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tachinidae mainly Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) (80% and 40% of parasitism in male and female, respectively) during summer (December), when the bugs colonized sunflower. In soybean, 12% of males and 10% of females were parasitized, whereas in fallen leaves, the parasitism rate was 5% in both sexes.These results showed that in autumn/winter (shorter photoperiod) the majority of the insects were inactive under fallen leaves, showing immature reproductive organs and less developed shoulders, indicating that, at this time, these bugs were in diapause. (author)

  6. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  7. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha -1 , along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  8. Comparisons of demographic parameters: Six parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Ramadan, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been introduced accidentally into the Hawaiian Islands. They are the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (introduced in 1895), the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (in 1907), the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (in 1945) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) (in 1983). These fruit flies jeopardise development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii, cause exported fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatment and provide a reservoir for introduction into mainland United States. The establishment of fruit flies in Hawaii resulted in subsequent releases of numerous entomophagous insects. For example, Bess et al. (1961) listed a total of 32 natural enemies released between 1947 and 1952. Today, Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), Psyttalia incisi (Silvestri), Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri) are the most abundant species. These species have played a major role in the reduction of fruit flies throughout the Hawaiian Islands. For example, as a result of parasitisation (60-79.1%) by F. arisanus, the average number of Oriental fruit fly larvae per guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit declined from 8.5 in 1950 to 2.6 in 1955 (Clausen et al. 1965). Demographic population analysis has diverse applications: analysing population stability and structure, estimating extinction probabilities, predicting life history evolution, predicting outbreaks in pest species and examining the dynamics of colonising or invading species. This study of the demography of Hawaiian fruit flies and their parasitoids is based on data from Vargas et al. (1984) and Vargas and Ramadan (1998). This paper describes the comparative demography of F. arisanus, B. tryoni, B. longicaudata, B. vandenboschi, P. incisi and P. fletcheri

  9. De novo characterization of the Dialeurodes citri transcriptome: mining genes involved in stress resistance and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E-H; Wei, D-D; Shen, G-M; Yuan, G-R; Bai, P-P; Wang, J-J

    2014-02-01

    The citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is one of the three economically important whitefly species that infest citrus plants around the world; however, limited genetic research has been focused on D. citri, partly because of lack of genomic resources. In this study, we performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). In total, 36,766 unigenes with a mean length of 497 bp were identified. Of these unigenes, we identified 17,788 matched known proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, as determined by Blast search, with 5731, 4850 and 14,441 unigenes assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), and SwissProt, respectively. In total, 7507 unigenes were assigned to 308 known pathways. In-depth analysis of the data showed that 117 unigenes were identified as potentially involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and 67 heat shock protein (Hsp) genes were associated with environmental stress. In addition, these enzymes were searched against the GO and COG database, and the results showed that the three major detoxification enzymes and Hsps were classified into 18 and 3, 6, and 8 annotations, respectively. In addition, 149 simple sequence repeats were detected. The results facilitate the investigation of molecular resistance mechanisms to insecticides and environmental stress, and contribute to molecular marker development. The findings greatly improve our genetic understanding of D. citri, and lay the foundation for future functional genomics studies on this species. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Impact of water-deficit stress on tritrophic interactions in a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Suhail Ahmed

    Full Text Available Increasing temperature and CO2 concentrations can alter tritrophic interactions in ecosystems, but the impact of increasingly severe drought on such interactions is not well understood. We examined the response of a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system to variation in water-deficit stress levels. Our results showed that arid area clones of the aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius, tended to have longer developmental times compared to semiarid and moist area clones, and the development of S. avenae clones tended to be slower with increasing levels of water-deficit. Body sizes of S. avenae clones from all areas decreased with increasing water-deficit levels, indicating their declining adaptation potential under drought. Compared to arid area clones, moist area clones of S. avenae had a higher frequency of backing under severe water stress only, but a higher frequency of kicking under well-watered conditions only, suggesting a water-deficit level dependent pattern of resistance against the parasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead. The number of S. avenae individuals attacked by the parasitoid in 10 min showed a tendency to decrease with increasing water-deficit levels. Clones of S. avenae tended to have lower parasitism rates under treatments with higher water-deficit levels. The development of the parasitoid tended to be slower under higher levels of water-deficit stress. Thus, the bottom-up effects of water-deficit stressed plants were negative on S. avenae. However, the top-down effects via parasitoids were compromised by water-deficit, which could favor the growth of aphid populations. Overall, the first trophic level under water-deficit stress was shown to have an indirect and negative impact on the third trophic level parasitoid, suggesting that parasitoids could be increasingly vulnerable in future warming scenarios.

  11. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  13. A Survey of the Species of Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Egg Parasitoids in Virginia and Their Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James M; Kuhar, Thomas P

    2017-12-05

    Squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of squash and pumpkins in the United States. In order to better understand the importance of natural egg parasitism of this species in Virginia, we conducted a 2-yr statewide survey. In total, 1,127 squash bug egg masses (~20,000 total eggs) were sampled from squash and pumpkins from 43 counties in Virginia from 2014 to 2015. Egg masses were brought back to the lab to record levels of squash bug nymphal emergence or adult parasitoid eclosion and identification. Over 50% of the total squash bug eggs collected statewide were parasitized. Gryon pennsylvanicum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was the predominant egg parasitoid accounting for over 98% of all parasitoid adults recovered. The only other species emerging from squash bug eggs was Anastatus reduvii Howard (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), which is a generalist parasitoid. G. pennsylvanicum was found in 75% of the counties surveyed with the highest levels of parasitism occurring in the Northern, Southwestern Mountain, and Western Piedmont regions of the state and the lowest levels of parasitism occurring in the Tidewater region in the southeastern portion of the state. Based on this 2-yr survey, G. pennsylvanicum was determined to be a major natural enemy of squash bug, significantly reducing the number of nymphs that emerge from deposited eggs. Conservation of this natural enemy should therefore be a priority for integrated pest management programs in cucurbits. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Impact of water-deficit stress on tritrophic interactions in a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Suhail; Liu, Deguang; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperature and CO2 concentrations can alter tritrophic interactions in ecosystems, but the impact of increasingly severe drought on such interactions is not well understood. We examined the response of a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system to variation in water-deficit stress levels. Our results showed that arid area clones of the aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), tended to have longer developmental times compared to semiarid and moist area clones, and the development of S. avenae clones tended to be slower with increasing levels of water-deficit. Body sizes of S. avenae clones from all areas decreased with increasing water-deficit levels, indicating their declining adaptation potential under drought. Compared to arid area clones, moist area clones of S. avenae had a higher frequency of backing under severe water stress only, but a higher frequency of kicking under well-watered conditions only, suggesting a water-deficit level dependent pattern of resistance against the parasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead). The number of S. avenae individuals attacked by the parasitoid in 10 min showed a tendency to decrease with increasing water-deficit levels. Clones of S. avenae tended to have lower parasitism rates under treatments with higher water-deficit levels. The development of the parasitoid tended to be slower under higher levels of water-deficit stress. Thus, the bottom-up effects of water-deficit stressed plants were negative on S. avenae. However, the top-down effects via parasitoids were compromised by water-deficit, which could favor the growth of aphid populations. Overall, the first trophic level under water-deficit stress was shown to have an indirect and negative impact on the third trophic level parasitoid, suggesting that parasitoids could be increasingly vulnerable in future warming scenarios.

  15. An exotic parasitoid provides an invasional lifeline for native parasitoids.

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    Konopka, Joanna K; Haye, Tim; Gariepy, Tara; Mason, Peter; Gillespie, David; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of an exotic species may alter food webs within the ecosystem and significantly affect the biodiversity of indigenous species at different trophic levels. It has been postulated that recent introduction of the brown marmorated stinkbug ( Halyomorpha halys (Stål)) represents an evolutionary trap for native parasitoids, as they accept H. halys egg masses as a host but produce no viable progeny. Interspecific interactions between European egg parasitoid, Trissolcus cultratus (Mayr), and an Asian parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), were assessed by providing egg masses to T. cultratus at various time intervals following the initial parasitization by T. japonicus . The suitability of the host for the parasitoid development was re-assessed by providing T. cultratus with fresh and frozen egg masses of various ages. The likelihood of T. cultratus being able to attack previously parasitized egg masses was determined by assessing the duration of egg mass guarding behavior by T. japonicus following parasitization. The results of experiments examining the interspecific interactions between a native European egg parasitoid, T. cultratus , and an Asian parasitoid, T. japonicus (a candidate for the biological control of H. halys ), showed that the native species can act as facultative hyperparasitoid of the exotic one. Although this is only possible during certain stages of T. japonicus development, the presence of the introduced parasitoid may reduce the impact of the evolutionary trap for indigenous parasitoid species. There is a possibility that the occurrence of facultative hyperparasitism between scelionid parasitoids associated with stinkbugs is common. This resulting intraguild predation could promote conservation and stabilization of natural communities by impacting the diversity and population dynamics of native stinkbugs and their parasitoids (e.g., by allowing native parasitoids to avoid wasting reproductive effort on unsuitable

  16. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides on the Egg Parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

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    Turchen, L M; Golin, V; Butnariu, A R; Guedes, R N C; Pereira, M J B

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide use remains controversial, and subjected to increasing environmental and health concerns, even when recent insecticide groups are considered. Neonicotinoids and even bioinsecticides are in the forefront of discussions regarding their nontarget safety. The ubiquitous focus on the lethal effects of insecticides on nontarget species has been expanding to sublethal effects, as sublethal exposure extends for a longer time and affects a broader range of (nontarget) species. Here we explored the lethal and sublethal effects of a lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxan mixture, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the bioinsecticide azadirachtin on the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead, an important parasitoid of stink bug Euschistus heros (F.), a key soybean pest in neotropical America. Contact with dry insecticide residue on glass surface and (parasitized and healthy) host egg immersion exposure bioassays were performed, assessing their acute lethal effects, and their potential sublethal impairment of parasitism, adult emergence, and fertility of the egg parasitoid. Both imidacloprid and the insecticide mixture exhibited high acute lethal activity toward the parasitoid under contact with dry insecticide residue. These insecticides compromised parasitism and wasp emergence when exposure took place before parasitism. In contrast, azadirachtin did not affect adult survival. However, this bioinsecticide compromised parasitism and progeny production, impairing the female parasitoid reproductive potential. Our results indicate strong negative effects of imidacloprid, and specially of the mixture lambda-cyhalthrin + thiamethoxan. However, even azadirachtin, which exhibited low acute lethality, exhibited significant negative sublethal effects on parasitism and population growth of egg parasitoid, cautioning against their use and the need of semifield and field assessments to confirm such an impact. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  17. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  18. La situación de las annonaceae en México: principales plagas, enfermedades y su control

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    Librado Vidal Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia económica de las especies de la familia Annonaceae en México es diversa y no se restringe a las especies comestibles, pues además incluye especies con propiedades aromáticas para la extracción de aceites esenciales, medicinales, insecticidas y tóxicos a peces. En general esta familia no se ha formalizado agronómica ni económicamente, sin embargo, presenta grandes perspectivas dentro de programas de mejoramiento genético, en el uso como portainjertos o bien como cultivos alternativos. Las principales plagas asociadas al género Annona son: Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead, Cerconota anonella Sepp., Corythuca gossypii Fab., Planococcus citri, Chrysobotris sp., Talponia batesi Heinrich., Acantocephala femorata Fab.. Las principales enfermedades de las anonáceas reportadas son: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, Rhizopusstolonifer Ehr., Phyllosticta sp., Pestalotia sp., Macrophoma sp., Fusarium sp y Phytopthora sp.. Siendo la primera la principal enfermedad de mayor importancia en el cultivo del guanábano dado que disminuye el rendimiento y calidad de los frutos. En chirimoyo y guanábano es muy poca la información bibliográfica existente sobre plagas y enfermedades, y en las demás especies de Annona es nula. No se han realizado evaluaciones de las pérdidas que ocasionan las plagas y enfermedades en las Anonáceas, ocasionando un desconocimiento pleno sobre los daños ocasionados por este factor biótico.

  19. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogenetics of the Idarnes incertus species-group (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae

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    Fernando H.A. Farache

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In this paper we reviewed the Idarnes incertus species-group and provide detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for the species belonging to this group. Three previously described species were redescribed: I. brasiliensis (Mayr, 1906 comb. nov., I. hansoni Bouček, 1993, and I. incertus (Ashmead, 1900. Seventeen new species are described by Farache and Rasplus: I. amacayacuensis sp. n., I. amazonicus sp. n., I. americanae sp. n., I. badiovertex sp. n., I. brevis sp. n., I. brunneus sp. n., I. comptoni sp. n., I. cremersiae sp. n., I. dimorphicus sp. n., I. flavicrus sp. n., I. flaviventris sp. n., I. gibberosus sp. n., I. gordhi sp. n., I. maximus sp. n., I. nigriventris sp. n., I. pseudoflavus sp. n. and I. ramirezi sp. n. We provided keys for the identification of the species as well as for recognising the different species-groups of Idarnes and a closely related genus (Sycophaga Westwood, 1840. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships among 13 species of the I. incertus species-group were inferred using four molecular markers and discussed in the light of Ficus taxonomy and host specificity.

  20. Influence of Temperature on the Reproductive and Developmental Biology of Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Biological Control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Julian R; Duan, Jian J; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2017-08-01

    Ontsira mellipes Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a North American parasitoid species that develops on the invasive pest, Anoplophora glabripennis (Moltschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), under laboratory conditions and is currently being considered as a potential new-association biocontrol agent. To develop mass-rearing protocols and field-release strategies for this parasitoid, information on its reproductive biology in relation to temperature is needed. We determined the effect of temperature (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) on development, survivorship, and sex ratio, and its effect on the longevity, fecundity, and host attack rates (parasitism) of adults. Developmental time for parasitoid eggs to pupae decreased from 26.7 d to 6.1 d as temperature increased from 10 °C to 30 °C. While no pupae eclosed as adults at 10 °C, time of adult emergence from pupae decreased from 39.7 d to 12.2 d as temperature increased from 15 °C to 30 °C. Based on estimated lower development temperature threshold (11.1 °C), the degree-days required for one generation was estimated at 342.9. When female parasitoids were provided with host larvae, parasitism occurred at all temperatures and was maximized at 25 °C. Additionally, increasing temperatures significantly reduced the preoviposition period and longevity of female O. mellipes. In addition, combining these results with temperature data from areas in the United States currently infested with A. glabripennis, we estimated that O. mellipes can complete 1.2-3.7 generations per year. Findings from this study may be considered for the future development of effective mass rearing and augmentative release strategies of O. mellipes for biological control of A. glabripennis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Influence of the corn resistance gene Mv on the fitness of Peregrinus maidis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) and on the transmission of maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, C H V; Brewbaker, J L; Bressan, A

    2013-08-01

    Crops that are resistant to pests and pathogens are cost-effective for the management of pests and diseases. A corn (Zea mays L.) breeding program conducted in Hawaii has identified a source of heritable resistance to maize mosaic virus (MMV) (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus). This resistance is controlled by the gene Mv, which has been shown to have a codominant action. To date, no studies have examined whether the resistance associated with this gene affects only MMV or whether it also affects the insect vector, the corn planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Here, we examined the life history of the corn planthopper and its ability to transmit MMV on near isogenic lines that were homozygous dominant (Mv/Mv), homozygous recessive (mv/mv), or heterozygous (Mv/mv) for the gene. A field trial was also conducted to study the colonization of the corn plants with different genotypes by the planthopper. Although field observations revealed slightly lower densities ofplanthoppers on corn with the genotype Mv/Mv than on the inbreds with the genotype mv/mv and their hybrids with the genotype Mv/mv, laboratory assays showed no effects of the gene on planthopper development, longevity, or fecundity. In the field, the corn lines Mv/Mv had a lower incidence of MMV-infected plants. However, in the greenhouse, the transmission of MMV to corn seedlings did not differ across the near isogenic lines, although the corn lines Mv/Mv showed a delayed onset of symptoms compared with the corn lines mv/mv and Mv/mv. The acquisition of MMV by corn planthoppers on the corn genotypes Mv/Mv and Mv/mv averaged 0.2, whereas the acquisition on the corn genotypes mv/mv averaged > 0.3. Our results show that the Mv gene does not influence the fitness of the planthopper vector, suggesting that it may confer resistance by other means, possibly by limiting virus replication or movement within the host plant.

  2. Temperature-dependent development of the parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus on five forensically important carrion fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Spafford, H; Dadour, I R

    2010-06-01

    The influences of temperature and host species on the development of the forensically important parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were studied at six constant temperatures in the range of 15-30 degrees C. T. zealandicus completed development successfully between 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C on five species of Calliphoridae, Calliphora albifrontalis Malloch, Calliphora dubia Macquart, Lucilia sericata Meigen, Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius. No adult parasitoids emerged from any of the host species reared at 30 degrees C. Temperature and host species significantly influenced development time, emergence success and progeny size. Development was significantly longer on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies at 18-24 degrees C and significantly longer on Ch. rufifacies and C. albifrontalis at 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Parasitoid emergence success was greatest at 21 degrees C, declined at the temperature extremes (15 degrees C and 27 degrees C) and was significantly lower on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than on the three other host species. Progeny numbers per host pupa were highest at 21-24 degrees C, declined on either side of this temperature range and were significantly lower on L. sericata, Ch. rufifacies and Ch. megacephala than on either C. dubia or C. albifrontalis. An effect of host species on sex ratio was only observed at 27 degrees C, at which a higher proportion of T. zealandicus females emerged from Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than from the other host species. The thermal requirements for development (developmental thresholds, thermal constant, optimum temperature) of T. zealandicus in each host species were estimated using linear and non-linear models. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 29.90 degrees C and 31.73 degrees C, and 9.73 degrees C and 10.08 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated at between 25

  3. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

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    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  4. Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

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    Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil. Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Petri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10% until the emergence of lepidopterans and/or parasitoids. In all, 63 lepidopterans were obtained: three species of Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker; one of Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, and an unidentified species of Tortricidae. One unidentified tachinid fly (Diptera and the Hymenoptera parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead (Encyrtidae and Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae emerged from A. flava, while C. floridanum and an unidentified tachinid, from P. includens. This is the first report of an association between the herbivores S. frugiperda, P. includens and A. monuste orceis, the parasitoids C. floridanum and Euplectrus sp. on okra plants.Este estudo objetivou identificar lepidópteros desfolhadores e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. As lagartas foram coletadas através de catação manual entre março e abril de 2009, individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido contendo pedaços de folhas de quiabo e mantidas sob condições controladas (25±1°C, 12 horas de fotofase, 70±10% de UR até a obtenção dos adultos de lepidópteros e/ou de seus parasitoides. Foram obtidos 63 adultos de lepidópteros: três espécies de Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, uma de Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart e uma de Tortricidae não identificada. Uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo (Diptera e os

  5. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

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    Vildan GÖL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  6. Utilisation of the egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius (Biosteres) arisanus, for augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Ernest J.; Bautista, Renato C.; Spencer, John P.

    2000-01-01

    In Hawaii, entomologists concerned about tephritid fruit fly control recognise and accept the fact that the introduction of tephritid fruit flies consisting of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata (Wiedemann), Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) required the introduction of many species of parasitoids into Hawaii (Clausen 1956) to reduce crop damage caused by tephritid fruit flies. The parasitoids established in the order of their succession were Diachasimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), and Fopius (Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan). F. arisanus was first discovered in Hawaii in 1949 in a guava fruit collection (van den Bosch and Haramoto 1951). In 1950, the rate of parasitism caused F. arisanus to increase and this insect spread and became the dominant and most widely distributed parasitoid in Hawaii (Haramoto and Bess 1970). Entomologists investigating fruit fly ecology in Hawaii recognised that the four species of tephritid fruit flies differ in their distribution, abundance and host utilisation patterns in different habitats. The rapid spread and distribution of F. arisanus in Hawaii indicated the reality that among the parasitoids, F. arisanus has the highest adaptation capabilities in the Hawaiian ecosystem comparable to that of B. dorsalis and C. capitata, the most persistent fruit fly species in Hawaii. A strategy receiving high priority to improve biological control of tephritid fruit flies is foreign exploration to find new parasitoids for introduction into tephritid fruit fly invested areas including Guatemala and Hawaii. It is possible another species comparable to F. arisanus might be found. New introductions could increase the diversity of parasitoid species and result in the introduction of species more efficient for suppressing B. latifrons in Hawaii. The cost of parasitoid exploration is very expensive, US$100,000 or

  7. Development and reproductive biology of the egg-pupal parasite, Fopius arisanus in Anastrepha suspensa, a new tephritid host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Pauline O.; Harris, Ernest J.; Bautist, Renato C.

    2000-01-01

    Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (=Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary egg parasite (parasitoid) that attacks tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and first instars (Haramoto 1953, Clausen et al. 1965, Harris and Okamoto 1991). It completes its development within the host's larva and pupa and emerges from the latter as an adult and as such, is an egg-pupal endoparasite. F. arisanus is known to attack at least seven tephritid fruit fly species (Wharton and Gilstrap 1983) and appears to be the only egg-pupal parasite of tephritids in the Western Hemisphere. It is considered to be the most successful of the parasites that attack the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann) in Hawaii (Knipling 1995), resulting in 74-92% of total parasites recovered from both host species (Wong and Ramadan 1987). However, in Malaysia, Palacio et al. (1992) found that F. arisanus was outcompeted by the larval endoparasite, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in multiple parasitised B. dorsalis. While several larval parasites of tephritids had been cultured successfully in the laboratory (Ramadan 1991) and utilised in inundative release programmes, F. arisanus proved difficult to maintain in culture. In recent years, a laboratory strain of F. arisanus (termed the 'Harris strain') has been established on B. dorsalis (Harris and Okamoto 1991). Efforts are currently in progress to mass rear this strain on the Medfly and other tephritid pests. F. arisanus was first released into Florida from Hawaii in 1974-75 as a biological control agent against the Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) but this was unsuccessful (Baranowski et al. 1993). Interestingly, it was also introduced into Costa Rica from Hawaii and was subsequently reared from puparia of Anastrepha spp. (Wharton et al. 1981), indicating its

  8. Mesoionic Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinone Insecticides: From Discovery to Triflumezopyrim and Dicloromezotiaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming

    2017-09-19

    One of the greatest global challenges is to feed the ever-increasing world population. The agrochemical tools growers currently utilize are also under continuous pressure, due to a number of factors that contribute to the loss of existing products. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones are an unusual yet very intriguing class of compounds. Known for several decades, this class of compounds had not been systemically studied until we started our insecticide discovery program. This Account provides an overview of the efforts on mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyridinone insecticide discovery, beginning from the initial high throughput screen (HTS) discovery to ultimate identification of triflumezopyrim (4, DuPont Pyraxalt) and dicloromezotiaz (5) for commercialization as novel insecticides. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones with a n-propyl group at the 1-position, such as compound 1, were initially isolated as undesired byproducts from reactions for a fungicide discovery program at DuPont Crop Protection. Such compounds showed interesting insecticidal activity in a follow-up screen and against an expanded insect species list. The area became an insecticide hit for exploration and then a lead area for optimization. At the lead optimization stage, variations at three regions of compound 1, i.e., side-chain (n-propyl group), substituents on the 3-phenyl group, and substitutions on the pyrido- moiety, were explored with many analogues prepared and evaluated. Breakthrough discoveries included replacing the n-propyl group with a 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl group to generate compound 2, and then with a 2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl group to form compound 3. 3 possesses potent insecticidal activity not only against a group of hopper species, including corn planthopper (Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead), CPH) and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae (Harris), PLH), as well as two key rice hopper species, namely, brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), BPH) and rice green leafhopper (Nephotettix

  9. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L.; Whitfield, James B.; Rodriguez, Josephine J.; Smith, M. Alex; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie D.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M.; Solis, M. Alma; Brown, John; Cardinal, Sophie; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    , Elachistidae and Crambidae (Lepidoptera). About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9%) parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography) to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900), comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921), comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964), stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904), stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae

  10. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Rodriguez, Josephine J; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie D; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Solis, M Alma; Brown, John; Cardinal, Sophie; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    Crambidae (Lepidoptera). About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9%) parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography) to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900), comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921), comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964), stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904), stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai

  11. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    , Elachistidae and Crambidae (Lepidoptera. About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9% parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles.The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958 comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958 comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900 comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921 comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964 stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904 stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai