WorldWideScience

Sample records for leksell head frame

  1. Effective usage of a clearance check to avoid a collision in Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery with the Leksell skull frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hisato; Komori, Masataka; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Hashizume, Chisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yoshimasa; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    Skull frame attachment is one of the most significant issues with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Because of the potential for suffering by patients, careful control of the frame position is required to avoid circumstances such as collision between the frame or the patient's head and the collimator helmet, and inaccessible target coordinates. This study sought to develop a simulation method to find the appropriate frame location on the patient's head by retrospective analysis of treatment plans for brain metastasis cases. To validate the accuracy of the collision warning, we compared the collision distance calculated using Leksell Gamma Plan (LGP) with actual measured distances. We then investigated isocenter coordinates in near-collision cases using data from 844 previously treated patients and created a clearance map by superimposing them on CT images for just the frame, post and stereotactic fiducial box. The differences in distance between the simulation in LGP and the measured values were <1.0 mm. In 177 patients, 213 lesions and 461 isocenters, there was a warning of one possible collision. The clearance map was helpful for simulating appropriate skull frame placement. The clearance simulation eliminates the psychological stress associated with potential collisions, and enables more comfortable treatment for the patient. (author)

  2. Geometric accuracy of 3D coordinates of the Leksell stereotactic skull frame in 1.5 Tesla- and 3.0 Tesla-magnetic resonance imaging: a comparison of three different fixation screw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hisato; Mori, Yoshimasa; Yamamuro, Osamu; Komori, Masataka; Shibamoto, Yuta; Uchiyama, Yukio; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Hagiwara, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the geometric distortion of 1.5-Tesla (T) and 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) images with the Leksell skull frame system using three types of cranial quick fixation screws (QFSs) of different materials—aluminum, aluminum with tungsten tip, and titanium—for skull frame fixation. Two kinds of acrylic phantoms were placed on a Leksell skull frame using the three types of screws, and were scanned with computed tomography (CT), 1.5-T MR imaging and 3.0-T MR imaging. The 3D coordinates for both strengths of MR imaging were compared with those for CT. The deviations of the measured coordinates at selected points (x = 50, 100 and 150; y = 50, 100 and 150) were indicated on different axial planes (z = 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150). The errors of coordinates with QFSs of aluminum, tungsten-tipped aluminum, and titanium were 2.0 mm in most positions. The geometric accuracy of the Leksell skull frame system with 1.5-T MR imaging was high and valid for clinical use. However, the geometric errors with 3.0-T MR imaging were larger than those of 1.5-T MR imaging and were acceptable only with aluminum QFSs, and then only around the central region. PMID:25034732

  3. The use of a Leksell-BRW adapter for linac radiosurgery as an adjunct to Gamma Knife treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth E; Hinson, William H; Bourland, J Daniel; Guzman, Allan F de; Stieber, Volker W; Tatter, Steven B; Ellis, Thomas L

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the use of an adapter that permits the use of a Leksell coordinate frame with a linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery system based on the Brown-Robert-Wells (BRW) design. This device is useful when lesions that are planned for treatment on a Leksell Gamma Knife system are found to be inaccessible to the Gamma Knife. We have found that with this device objects within a head phantom can be targeted by the linear accelerator within an accuracy of approximately 1 mm

  4. The use of a Leksell-BRW adapter for linac radiosurgery as an adjunct to Gamma Knife treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth E [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Hinson, William H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Bourland, J Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Guzman, Allan F de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Stieber, Volker W [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Tatter, Steven B [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Ellis, Thomas L [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2003-12-21

    We have investigated the use of an adapter that permits the use of a Leksell coordinate frame with a linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery system based on the Brown-Robert-Wells (BRW) design. This device is useful when lesions that are planned for treatment on a Leksell Gamma Knife system are found to be inaccessible to the Gamma Knife. We have found that with this device objects within a head phantom can be targeted by the linear accelerator within an accuracy of approximately 1 mm.

  5. Preventing skin injury during MR imaging for gamma knife surgery. Necessity and verification of insulated posts for fixation of leksell G-frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenai, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Masanori; Yamada, Akira; Asano, Tomoshige; Wakabayashi, Yukihiro; Nagatomi, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    At our institution, several patients developed swelling or, in some cases, severe skin injury (exempli gratia (e.g.) ulcer) at the sites of contact with frame fixation pins, during an early period after introduction of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). We confirmed that the skin injury was caused by heating of the skin tissue around a quick fixation screw (QFS) during MR imaging sequences with high specific absorption ratios (SARs), and noted for the first time that insulation of QFSs from the posts could prevent heat generation and skin injury. Therefore, we developed a novel insulated fixation post (IFP). The use of the IFP is the only practical means for ensuring safety. Here, we review our cases of skin injury, along with experimental results. We also describe the results of our verification study regarding the reliability of the IFP. To determine the degree of heating of the skin tissue around QFSs, which were suspected to be the causes of skin injury, MR imaging sequences used for patients who developed skin injury were reviewed and reproduced using a pumpkin and a melon as dummies with the 1.5-tesla apparatus. The strength of the IFP was also evaluated by fixing an aluminum pipe with IFPs and QFSs and applying impact. In addition, with patients, we compared the degree of displacement of coordinates using IFP versus conventional post made of aluminum alloy for frame fixation. In almost all cases of skin injury, 3D-time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiograpy with magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) pulse had been performed. In our experiments using the same MR imaging sequence, SARs were always high, with a whole body SAR (one-eighth of head SAR) exceeding 0.3 W/kg, and the temperature of the skin tissue around QFSs increased to about 55 deg C on average. Frame fixation with the IFPs did not induce heat generation during MR imaging for GKS in any sequences and did not cause skin injury. The strength and fixation accuracy of the IFP was comparable to those of the

  6. Development of re-locatable head frame system using hydraulic arms for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and CT evaluation of repositioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masayuki; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ando, Yutaka; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Shiba, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel re-locatable head frame system consisting of a dental cast and hydraulic arms as an immobilization device for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and to evaluate the repositioning accuracy by measurement of landmark coordinates in repeated computed tomography (CT) examinations. The acrylic dental casts were customized for each patient. First the dental cast was attached to the upper jaw of the patient, then the dental cast was connected to a Leksell stereotactic frame, which was finally secured by two hydraulic arms. Since this system is compatible with the Leksell frame, stereotactic indicators could be used to obtain coordinates of anatomical landmarks of the head. Seven patients treated by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy underwent repeated quality-assurance CTs during their treatment courses. We evaluated the coordinates of the short process of incus and the top of crista galli as reference points for evaluation of variation in a total of 26 repeat CT data sets, and then x, y, and z fluctuations relative to their positions in the treatment-planning CTs. The distances among the reference points of both processes of incus and the top of crista galli were calculated to evaluate the feasibility of the method. The distances were less than 0.5 mm on averages and less than 1 mm in the standard deviations. The respective fluctuations in the x, y and z directions were less than 1 mm in mean values and less than 2 mm in standard deviations. The fluctuations in distance were less than 2 mm on average and in standard deviations. The fluctuation of the center of three reference points was 0.7 mm on average and the rotation of the cranium was 1.0 degree in average. We concluded that our evaluation method is feasible and the reproducibility of the fixation system is acceptable for its routine use in stereotactic radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Radiosurgery by Leksell gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The learning objectives of the lecture were as follows: to learn basic principles of Leksell gamma knife (LGK) radiosurgery; to discuss imaging, treatment planning and optimization procedures; to discuss quality assurance for LGK treatments; and to present examples of diagnoses treated by LGK. The following topics were discussed: Radiosurgery - definition, components of selectivity, fundamentals; Leksell gamma knife - principles; Stereotactic target localization; Radiosurgery - imaging; Treatment planning; LGK treatment; Quality control - process tree, LGK, distortion of scanners, 3D phantom measurements; Physical and technical parameters; and Clinical applications. (P.A.)

  8. Sheep head frame validation for CT and MRI studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marco trovatelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Introductions Aim of EDEN 2020 project’s Milestone 5 is the development of a steerable catheter for CED system in glioblastoma therapy. The VET group is involved in realization and validation of the proper animal model. Materials and methods In this part of the study two fresh sheep’s head from the local slaughter were used. The heads were located into an ad hoc Frame system based on anatomical measures and CT images, producted by Renishaw plc partner in this project. The frame was adapted and every components were checked for the ex vivo validation tests. CT imaging was taken in Lodi at Università degli studi di Milano, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, with CT scanner and MRI imaging was taken in La Cittadina, Cremona Results System validation was approved by the ex vivo trial. The frame system doesn’t compromise the imaging acquisition in MRI and CT systems. Every system components are functional to their aims. Discussion The Frame system is adapted to the sheep head. It is composed by elements able to lock the head during the imaging acquisition. Frame system is characterized by a support base helpings the animals to keep the head straight forward during imaging time, under general anesthesia. The design of these device support the airways anatomy, avoiding damaging or obstruction of airflows during anesthesia period. The role of elements like mouth bar and ovine head pins is to lock the head in a stable position during imaging acquisition; fixing is guaranteed by V shape head pins, that are arranged against the zygomatic arches. Lateral compression forces to the cranium, and the V shape pins avoid the vertical shifting of the head and any kind of rotations. (fig. 1

  9. Dissociating contributions of head and torso to spatial reference frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmith, Adrian J T; Ferrè, Elisa R; Longo, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    contribution of each part to spatial judgments. Both the head and the torso contributed to judgements, though with greater contributions from the torso. A second experiment manipulating visual contrast of the torso showed that this does not reflect low-level differences in visual salience between body parts....... Our results demonstrate that spatial perspective-taking relies on a weighted combination of reference frames centred on different parts of the body....

  10. GAFChromic film dosimetry with a flatbed color scanner for Leksell Gamma Knife therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Tominaga, T.; Nakamura, O.; Ueda, R.; Hoshi, M.

    2004-01-01

    GAFChromic films MD-55-2 have recently been established widely in industrial, scientific, and medical applications as radiation dosimeters. We applied these films to the dosimetry for Leksell Gamma Knife therapy. We used a flatbed image scanner to take digital images of irradiated MD-55-2, and the data were converted to Red, Green and Blue pixel values. The absorbed dose, as derived from the response curve of the Red pixel value, was consistent with the Leksell Gamma Plan dose planning system, for exposures using collimator sizes, 4 mm, 8 mm, and 14 mm. However, the maximum dose in the exposure of the 18 mm collimator was measured to be about 5% smaller than Gamma Plan due to the density effect of the compound material in the head phantom

  11. The influence of head frame distortions on stereotactic localization and targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treuer, H; Hunsche, S; Hoevels, M; Luyken, K; Maarouf, M; Voges, J; Sturm, V [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, 50924 Cologne (Germany)

    2004-09-07

    A strong attachment of a stereotactic head frame to the patient's skull may cause distortions of the head frame. The aim of this work was to identify possible distortions of the head frame, to measure the degree of distortion occurring in clinical practice and to investigate its influence on stereotactic localization and targeting. A model to describe and quantify the distortion of the Riechert-Mundinger (RM) head frame was developed. Distortions were classified as (a) bending and (b) changes from the circular ring shape. Ring shape changes were derived from stereotactic CT scans and frame bending was determined from intraoperative stereotactic x-ray images of patients with implanted {sup 125}I-seeds acting as landmarks. From the examined patient data frame bending was determined to be 0.74 mm {+-} 0.32 mm and 1.30 mm in maximum. If a CT-localizer with a top ring is used, frame bending has no influence on stereotactic CT-localization. In stereotactic x-ray localization, frame bending leads to an overestimation of the z-coordinate by 0.37 mm {+-} 0.16 mm on average and by 0.65 mm in maximum. The accuracy of patient positioning in radiosurgery is not affected by frame bending. But in stereotactic surgery with an RM aiming bow trajectory displacements are expected. These displacements were estimated to be 0.36 mm {+-} 0.16 mm (max. 0.74 mm) at the target point and 0.65 mm {+-} 0.30 mm (max. 1.31 mm) at the entry point level. Changes from the circular ring shape are small and do not compromise the accuracy of stereotactic targeting and localization. The accuracy of CT-localization was found to be close to the resolution limit due to voxel size. Our findings for frame bending of the RM frame could be validated by statistical analysis and by comparison with an independent patient examination. The results depend on the stereotactic system and details of the localizers and instruments and also reflect our clinical practice. Therefore, a generalization is not possible

  12. Improved frame-based estimation of head motion in PET brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, J. M.; Lindsay, C.; King, M. A.; Licho, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Olivier, P.; Shao, L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Head motion during PET brain imaging can cause significant degradation of image quality. Several authors have proposed ways to compensate for PET brain motion to restore image quality and improve quantitation. Head restraints can reduce movement but are unreliable; thus the need for alternative strategies such as data-driven motion estimation or external motion tracking. Herein, the authors present a data-driven motion estimation method using a preprocessing technique that allows the usage of very short duration frames, thus reducing the intraframe motion problem commonly observed in the multiple frame acquisition method. Methods: The list mode data for PET acquisition is uniformly divided into 5-s frames and images are reconstructed without attenuation correction. Interframe motion is estimated using a 3D multiresolution registration algorithm and subsequently compensated for. For this study, the authors used 8 PET brain studies that used F-18 FDG as the tracer and contained minor or no initial motion. After reconstruction and prior to motion estimation, known motion was introduced to each frame to simulate head motion during a PET acquisition. To investigate the trade-off in motion estimation and compensation with respect to frames of different length, the authors summed 5-s frames accordingly to produce 10 and 60 s frames. Summed images generated from the motion-compensated reconstructed frames were then compared to the original PET image reconstruction without motion compensation. Results: The authors found that our method is able to compensate for both gradual and step-like motions using frame times as short as 5 s with a spatial accuracy of 0.2 mm on average. Complex volunteer motion involving all six degrees of freedom was estimated with lower accuracy (0.3 mm on average) than the other types investigated. Preprocessing of 5-s images was necessary for successful image registration. Since their method utilizes nonattenuation corrected frames, it is

  13. Improved frame-based estimation of head motion in PET brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, J. M., E-mail: joyeeta.mitra@umassmed.edu; Lindsay, C.; King, M. A.; Licho, R. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Mukherjee, A. [Aware, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (United States); Olivier, P. [Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Shao, L. [ViewRay, Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Head motion during PET brain imaging can cause significant degradation of image quality. Several authors have proposed ways to compensate for PET brain motion to restore image quality and improve quantitation. Head restraints can reduce movement but are unreliable; thus the need for alternative strategies such as data-driven motion estimation or external motion tracking. Herein, the authors present a data-driven motion estimation method using a preprocessing technique that allows the usage of very short duration frames, thus reducing the intraframe motion problem commonly observed in the multiple frame acquisition method. Methods: The list mode data for PET acquisition is uniformly divided into 5-s frames and images are reconstructed without attenuation correction. Interframe motion is estimated using a 3D multiresolution registration algorithm and subsequently compensated for. For this study, the authors used 8 PET brain studies that used F-18 FDG as the tracer and contained minor or no initial motion. After reconstruction and prior to motion estimation, known motion was introduced to each frame to simulate head motion during a PET acquisition. To investigate the trade-off in motion estimation and compensation with respect to frames of different length, the authors summed 5-s frames accordingly to produce 10 and 60 s frames. Summed images generated from the motion-compensated reconstructed frames were then compared to the original PET image reconstruction without motion compensation. Results: The authors found that our method is able to compensate for both gradual and step-like motions using frame times as short as 5 s with a spatial accuracy of 0.2 mm on average. Complex volunteer motion involving all six degrees of freedom was estimated with lower accuracy (0.3 mm on average) than the other types investigated. Preprocessing of 5-s images was necessary for successful image registration. Since their method utilizes nonattenuation corrected frames, it is

  14. Histopathological findings after Leksell gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Dexel, A.; Haller-Schober, E.M.; Koelli, H.; Kleinert, R.

    2002-01-01

    Radiosurgery for uveal melanoma can achieve tumor control according to clinical studies, yet histopathological proof has not been described. 8 eyes after radiosurgery which had to be removed either to regression failure or severe complications like neovascular glaucoma or persisting retinal detachment were investigated histopathologically and compared to 10 uveal melanomas that were treated by enucleation alone. Uveal melanomas treated with the gamma knife showed tumor necrosis (in more than 50 % total necrosis), a higher number of balloon cells, less number of mitoses and vascular changes (thickening of the vessel's walls, obliteration, thrombosis) which could not be demonstrated in enucleated eyes without irradiation. Leksell gamma knife can cause tumor necrosis and varying degrees of cell death and reduced reproducibility. Vascular changes seem to play a major role in tumor regression. (author)

  15. In search of rules behind environmental framing; the case of head pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gwendoline Ixia; Norman, Brad; Walker, James; Williams, Hannah J; Holton, M D; Clarke, D; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Whether, and how, animals move requires them to assess their environment to determine the most appropriate action and trajectory, although the precise way the environment is scanned has been little studied. We hypothesized that head attitude, which effectively frames the environment for the eyes, and the way it changes over time, would be modulated by the environment. To test this, we used a head-mounted device (Human-Interfaced Personal Observation platform - HIPOP) on people moving through three different environments; a botanical garden ('green' space), a reef ('blue' space), and a featureless corridor, to examine if head movement in the vertical axis differed between environments. Template matching was used to identify and quantify distinct behaviours. The data on head pitch from all subjects and environments over time showed essentially continuous clear waveforms with varying amplitude and wavelength. There were three stylised behaviours consisting of smooth, regular peaks and troughs in head pitch angle and variable length fixations during which the head pitch remained constant. These three behaviours accounted for ca. 40 % of the total time, with irregular head pitch changes accounting for the rest. There were differences in rates of manifestation of behaviour according to environment as well as environmentally different head pitch values of peaks, troughs and fixations. Finally, although there was considerable variation in head pitch angles, the peak and trough values bounded most of the variation in the fixation pitch values. It is suggested that the constant waveforms in head pitch serve to inform people about their environment, providing a scanning mechanism. Particular emphasis to certain sectors is manifest within the peak and trough limits and these appear modulated by the distribution of the points where fixation, interpreted as being due to objects of interest, occurs. This behaviour explains how animals allocate processing resources to the

  16. A modification to the Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) head frame for stereotactic radiosurgery of head and neck and cervical spine sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, G.; Hasala, P.; Rashid, H.; Costantino, T.; Cangiane, L.; Lombardi, E.; Arbit, E; Lederman, G.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery (FSR) is used primarily to treat intracranial lesions. Many tumors which arise at or inferior to the base of skull and about the cervical spine area were not amenable to radiosurgery. Presented is a modification to the GTC head frame which permits stereotactic radiosurgery to be directed at head and neck tumors with accurate reproducible precision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The original GTC head frame has two fixation points; an anterior individualized dental impression and a posterior occipital plate with a mold contoured to the occipital pertuberance. The height of the occipital plate is adjustable in its vertical plane. However, the position of the dental piece is fixed and, therefore, limits treatment to regions superior. Treatment of head and neck and cervical spine tumors has been accomplished with a modification of the dental apparatus. Presented is our new device; a bracket extension which attaches to the dental piece and allows the head frame to be lowered to multiple desired positions. The occipital plate is elevated accordingly to support the occipital pertuberance. The depth helmet is also modified for quality assurance. A Rando phantom was used to test the accuracy and reproducibility of the new equipment. Bracket extensions lowering the head frame by 3 cm and 8 cm, respectively, were tested for accuracy of relocation on the Rando Phantom. Each extension was tested 20 times and for each individual test 18 depth helmet positions were obtained. RESULTS: The standard deviation of the modified head frame for each depth helmet measurement ranged from 0.05 to 0.35mm (mean 0.20) as compared to the standard deviation for the original GTC head frame which was 0.13 to 0.34mm (mean 0.24). The new device maintains the accuracy and reproducibility of the original GTC head frame. CONCLUSION: The GTC relocatable head frame for FSR has been modified to treat tumors of the head and neck and cervical spine sites

  17. MCNP-based computational model for the Leksell gamma knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Jiri; Novotny, Josef; Kluson, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    We have focused on the usage of MCNP code for calculation of Gamma Knife radiation field parameters with a homogenous polystyrene phantom. We have investigated several parameters of the Leksell Gamma Knife radiation field and compared the results with other studies based on EGS4 and PENELOPE code as well as the Leksell Gamma Knife treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan (LGP). The current model describes all 201 radiation beams together and simulates all the sources in the same time. Within each beam, it considers the technical construction of the source, the source holder, collimator system, the spherical phantom, and surrounding material. We have calculated output factors for various sizes of scoring volumes, relative dose distributions along basic planes including linear dose profiles, integral doses in various volumes, and differential dose volume histograms. All the parameters have been calculated for each collimator size and for the isocentric configuration of the phantom. We have found the calculated output factors to be in agreement with other authors' works except the case of 4 mm collimator size, where averaging over the scoring volume and statistical uncertainties strongly influences the calculated results. In general, all the results are dependent on the choice of the scoring volume. The calculated linear dose profiles and relative dose distributions also match independent studies and the Leksell GammaPlan, but care must be taken about the fluctuations within the plateau, which can influence the normalization, and accuracy in determining the isocenter position, which is important for comparing different dose profiles. The calculated differential dose volume histograms and integral doses have been compared with data provided by the Leksell GammaPlan. The dose volume histograms are in good agreement as well as integral doses calculated in small calculation matrix volumes. However, deviations in integral doses up to 50% can be observed for large

  18. Leksell Gammaknife PerfexionTM and discussion on clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Johansson, J.; Kjaell, P.; Lundin, A.; Nordstroem, H.

    2008-01-01

    Leksell GammaKnife has been a well established treatment modality for more than 20 years in the field of stereotactic radiosurgery. In 2006 a new model was presented that introduces a number of new features at the same time as it keeps all the beneficial features of the other models. This new model, Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion TM , has a significantly improved radiation shielding capacity towards patient and treatment room walls, all collimators are built into the unit and therefore no changes of collimator helmets between shots are needed, the sources are placed on eight individually controllable mechanical structures meaning that one shot may be composed of several different collimator sizes, the patient is moved into position by the entire couch therefore increasing patient comfort significantly. This presentation aims at describing the entire Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion TM system from a physicist's point of view: design of the collimator system, dosimetry, design of radiation shielding, leakage field in the treatment room, design of secondary barriers, applicable QA-procedures, calibration -dosimetric and mechanical

  19. Evaluation of stability of stereotactic space defined by cone-beam CT for the Leksell Gamma Knife Icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDahlawi, Ismail; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2017-05-01

    The Gamma Knife Icon comes with an integrated cone-beam CT (CBCT) for image-guided stereotactic treatment deliveries. The CBCT can be used for defining the Leksell stereotactic space using imaging without the need for the traditional invasive frame system, and this allows also for frameless thermoplastic mask stereotactic treatments (single or fractionated) with the Gamma Knife unit. In this study, we used an in-house built marker tool to evaluate the stability of the CBCT-based stereotactic space and its agreement with the standard frame-based stereotactic space. We imaged the tool with a CT indicator box using our CT-simulator at the beginning, middle, and end of the study period (6 weeks) for determining the frame-based stereotactic space. The tool was also scanned with the Icon's CBCT on a daily basis throughout the study period, and the CBCT images were used for determining the CBCT-based stereotactic space. The coordinates of each marker were determined in each CT and CBCT scan using the Leksell GammaPlan treatment planning software. The magnitudes of vector difference between the means of each marker in frame-based and CBCT-based stereotactic space ranged from 0.21 to 0.33 mm, indicating good agreement of CBCT-based and frame-based stereotactic space definition. Scanning 4-month later showed good prolonged stability of the CBCT-based stereotactic space definition. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of the Leksell Gamma KnifeTM: II. Effects of heterogeneous versus homogeneous media for stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, Vadim; Timmerman, Robert; DesRosiers, Colleen; Randall, Marcus; DesRosiers, Paul; Dittmer, Phil; Papiez, Lech

    2004-01-01

    The absence of electronic equilibrium in the vicinity of bone-tissue or air-tissue heterogeneity in the head can misrepresent deposited dose with treatment planning algorithms that assume all treatment volume as homogeneous media. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation (PENELOPE) and measurements with a specially designed heterogeneous phantom were applied to investigate the effect of air-tissue and bone-tissue heterogeneity on dose perturbation with the Leksell Gamma Knife TM . The dose fall-off near the air-tissue interface caused by secondary electron disequilibrium leads to overestimation of dose by the vendor supplied treatment planning software (GammaPlan TM ) at up to 4 mm from an interface. The dose delivered to the target area away from an air-tissue interface may be underestimated by up to 7% by GammaPlan TM due to overestimation of attenuation of photon beams passing through air cavities. While the underdosing near the air-tissue interface cannot be eliminated with any plug pattern, the overdosage due to under-attenuation of the photon beams in air cavities can be eliminated by plugging the sources whose beams intersect the air cavity. Little perturbation was observed next to bone-tissue interfaces. Monte Carlo results were confirmed by measurements. This study shows that the employed Monte Carlo treatment planning is more accurate for precise dosimetry of stereotactic radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife TM for targets in the vicinity of air-filled cavities

  1. Study of the heterogeneities effect in the dose distributions of Leksell Gamma Knife (R), through Monte Carlo simulation; Estudio del efecto de las heterogeneidades en las distribuciones de dosis del Leksell GammaKnife (R), mediante simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Al-Dweri, F.M.O.; Lallena R, A.M. [Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)]. e-mail: elrc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    In this work they are studied, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the effects that take place in the dose profiles that are obtained with the Leksell Gamma Knife (R), when they are kept in account heterogeneities. The considered heterogeneities simulate the skull and the spaces of air that are in the head, like they can be the nasal breasts or the auditory conduits. The calculations were made using the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code (v. 2003). The geometry of each one of the 201 sources that this instrument is composed, as well as of the corresponding channels of collimation of the Gamma Knife (R), it was described by means of a simplified model of geometry that has been recently studied. The obtained results when they are kept in mind the heterogeneities they present non worthless differences regarding those obtained when those are not considered. These differences are maximum in the proximities of the interfaces among different materials. (Author)

  2. Study of the heterogeneities effect in the dose distributions of Leksell Gamma Knife (R), through Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Al-Dweri, F.M.O.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work they are studied, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the effects that take place in the dose profiles that are obtained with the Leksell Gamma Knife (R), when they are kept in account heterogeneities. The considered heterogeneities simulate the skull and the spaces of air that are in the head, like they can be the nasal breasts or the auditory conduits. The calculations were made using the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code (v. 2003). The geometry of each one of the 201 sources that this instrument is composed, as well as of the corresponding channels of collimation of the Gamma Knife (R), it was described by means of a simplified model of geometry that has been recently studied. The obtained results when they are kept in mind the heterogeneities they present non worthless differences regarding those obtained when those are not considered. These differences are maximum in the proximities of the interfaces among different materials. (Author)

  3. "Head versus heart": Effect of monetary frames on expression of sympathetic magical concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of the Leksell Gamma Knife{sup TM}: II. Effects of heterogeneous versus homogeneous media for stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, Vadim; Timmerman, Robert; DesRosiers, Colleen; Randall, Marcus; DesRosiers, Paul; Dittmer, Phil; Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 535 Barnhill Dr, RT041, IN 46202-5289 (United States)

    2004-11-07

    The absence of electronic equilibrium in the vicinity of bone-tissue or air-tissue heterogeneity in the head can misrepresent deposited dose with treatment planning algorithms that assume all treatment volume as homogeneous media. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation (PENELOPE) and measurements with a specially designed heterogeneous phantom were applied to investigate the effect of air-tissue and bone-tissue heterogeneity on dose perturbation with the Leksell Gamma Knife{sup TM}. The dose fall-off near the air-tissue interface caused by secondary electron disequilibrium leads to overestimation of dose by the vendor supplied treatment planning software (GammaPlan{sup TM}) at up to 4 mm from an interface. The dose delivered to the target area away from an air-tissue interface may be underestimated by up to 7% by GammaPlan{sup TM} due to overestimation of attenuation of photon beams passing through air cavities. While the underdosing near the air-tissue interface cannot be eliminated with any plug pattern, the overdosage due to under-attenuation of the photon beams in air cavities can be eliminated by plugging the sources whose beams intersect the air cavity. Little perturbation was observed next to bone-tissue interfaces. Monte Carlo results were confirmed by measurements. This study shows that the employed Monte Carlo treatment planning is more accurate for precise dosimetry of stereotactic radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife{sup TM} for targets in the vicinity of air-filled cavities.

  5. Is it possible to avoid hypopituitarism after irradiation of pituitary adenomas by the Leksell gamma knife

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, J.; Ježková, J.; Hána, V.; Kršek, M.; Bandúrová, Ľ.; Pecen, Ladislav; Vladyka, V.; Liščák, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 2 (2011), s. 169-178 ISSN 0804-4643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : hypopituitarism * pituitary adenomas * Leksell gamma knife * irradiation Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.423, year: 2011

  6. Use of the Leksell Gamma Knife in the Treatment of Prolactinoma Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježková, J.; Hána, V.; Kršek, M.; Weiss, V.; Vladyka, V.; Liščák, R.; Vymazal, J.; Pecen, Ladislav; Marek, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 5 (2009), s. 732-741 ISSN 0300-0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : prolactinoma * Leksell gamma knife * time to prolactin normalization analysis Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.201, year: 2009

  7. Radiosurgical lesion of the rat hippocampus using the Leksell gamma knife: relation between radiation dose and functional and structural damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liščák, R.; Vladyka, V.; Novotný Jr., J.; Brožek, G.; Náměstková, Kateřina; Mareš, V.; Hájek, M.; Herynek, V.; Syková, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 5 (2002), s. 666-673 ISSN 0022-3085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : radiosurgery * Leksell gamma knife Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2002

  8. A simplified model of the source channel of the Leksell GammaKnife tested with PENELOPE

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dweri, Feras M. O.; Lallena, Antonio M.; Vilches, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations using the code PENELOPE have been performed to test a simplified model of the source channel geometry of the Leksell GammaKnife$^{\\circledR}$. The characteristics of the radiation passing through the treatment helmets are analysed in detail. We have found that only primary particles emitted from the source with polar angles smaller than 3$^{\\rm o}$ with respect to the beam axis are relevant for the dosimetry of the Gamma Knife. The photons trajectories reaching the out...

  9. SU-E-T-517: Investigation of Factors Contributing to Extracranial Radiation Doses From Leksell Gamma Knife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kon, D [The University of Tokyo Graduate school of Medicine, Tokyo, JP (Japan); Kameda Medical Centre, Chiba, JP (Japan); Nakano, M [The University of Tokyo Graduate school of Medicine, Tokyo, JP (Japan); Nawa, K; Haga, A; Nakagawa, K [University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, JP (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate dominant factors for doses to extracranial sites in treatment with Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK). Methods Monte Carlo simulation was implemented using EGS5 version 1.4.401. The simulation was divided into two major steps for the purpose of efficiency. As the first step, phase-space files were obtained at a scoring plane located just below patient-side surface of the collimator helmet of LGK. Scored particles were classified into three groups, primary, leakage and scatter, using their history information until their arrival to the scoring plane. Then classification was used at the following second step simulation to investigate which type of particle is dominant in the deposited energy at extra-cranial sites. In the second stage, a cylindrical phantom with a semisphere shaped head was modeled such that the geometrical center of the phantom’s head corresponds to the unit center point (UCP) of LGK. Scoring regions were arranged at 10 cm intervals from the UCP to 70 cm away on the central axis of the phantom. Energy deposition from each type of particles and location of interaction were recorded. Results The dominant factor of deposited energy depended on the collimator size. In the case of smaller collimator size, leakage was dominant. However, contribution of leakage was relatively small in the case of larger collimator size. The contribution of internal scatter varied with the distance from the UCP. In the proximal areas, internal scatter was dominant, whereas in the distal areas, particles interacting with machine components became dominant factor. Conclusion The Result of this study indicates that the dominant factor to dose to an extracranial site can vary with the distance from UCP and with collimator size. This means that the variation of this contribution must be considered for modeling of the extracranial dose especially in the distal area. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program (No

  10. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki

    2016-01-01

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when not used in accordance with the use of the in-house Bos

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when

  12. In vitro study of dose rate effect on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastykova, V.; Novotny, J. jr.; Vachelova, J.; Davidkova, M.; Liscak, R.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the radiobiological effect of the dose rate changes in Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) clinical conditions. In principle there are two reasons why dose rate on LGK is reduced during patient irradiation: 1) Co-60 sources decay with a half-life of 5.26 years and 2) using multiple iso-centers and conformal treatment plans (e.g. with blocked beams). This pilot study is an experimental work performed in vitro with medulloblastoma DAOY cells. Are there effects caused by low dose rate which could negatively influence the clinical outcome of the radiosurgery? (authors)

  13. Risk analysis of Leksell Gamma Knife Model C with automatic positioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the decrease in risk from misadministration of the new Leksell Gamma Knife Model C with Automatic Positioning System compared with previous models. Methods and Materials: Elekta Instruments, A.B. of Stockholm has introduced a new computer-controlled Leksell Gamma Knife Model C which uses motor-driven trunnions to reposition the patient between isocenters (shots) without human intervention. Previous models required the operators to manually set coordinates from a printed list, permitting opportunities for coordinate transposition, incorrect helmet size, incorrect treatment times, missing shots, or repeated shots. Results: A risk analysis was conducted between craniotomy involving hospital admission and outpatient Gamma Knife radiosurgery. A report of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies dated November 29, 1999 estimated that medical errors kill between 44,000 and 98,000 people each year in the United States. Another report from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System estimates that 2.1 million nosocomial infections occur annually in the United States in acute care hospitals alone, with 31 million total admissions. Conclusions: All medical procedures have attendant risks of morbidity and possibly mortality. Each patient should be counseled as to the risk of adverse effects as well as the likelihood of good results for alternative treatment strategies. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the existing medical literature, which has a paucity of data involving risk estimates for stereotactic radiosurgery

  14. Endocrinologist's first experience in the treatment of pituitary adenomas using Leksell's gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, J.; Malik, J.; Fendrych, P.

    1996-01-01

    The group treated included 13 patients with pituitary adenomas. Hormonally active acromegaly was found in 9 patients, prolactinoma in 1 patient, and afunctional adenoma in 3 patients. Twelve patients had previously undergone surgery, 3 of them twice. Magnetic resonance was used for imaging the pituitary prior to the surgery and one year later. The following hormonal factors were examined: the growth hormone during the day and during the thyroliberin test, the insulin-like growth factor I, the prolactin level, the thyrotropin level during the thyrotropin-releasing hormone test, the thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels, the plasma concentration of adrenocorticotropin, the cortisol level, the plasma testosterone level, and the 17-beta estradiol level. Complete recovery within 18 months after the Leksell surgery was only achieved in 1 female patient with acromegaly. In other 5 patients with acromegaly and 1 patient with prolactinoma, the hormonal levels decreased partly without demonstrable changes in the size of the adenoma. Hypopituarism developed in 1 only female patient within 18 months after the irradiation. No other complications were observed. Stereotactic irradiation with Leksell's gamma knife proved to be a useful and well tolerated approach in the treatment of pituitary adenomas. 11 refs

  15. SU-F-J-96: Comparison of Frame-Based and Mutual Information Registration Techniques for CT and MR Image Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popple, R; Bredel, M; Brezovich, I; Dobelbower, M; Fisher, W; Fiveash, J; Guthrie, B; Riley, K; Wu, X [The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of CT-MR registration using a mutual information method with registration using a frame-based localizer box. Methods: Ten patients having the Leksell head frame and scanned with a modality specific localizer box were imported into the treatment planning system. The fiducial rods of the localizer box were contoured on both the MR and CT scans. The skull was contoured on the CT images. The MR and CT images were registered by two methods. The frame-based method used the transformation that minimized the mean square distance of the centroids of the contours of the fiducial rods from a mathematical model of the localizer. The mutual information method used automated image registration tools in the TPS and was restricted to a volume-of-interest defined by the skull contours with a 5 mm margin. For each case, the two registrations were adjusted by two evaluation teams, each comprised of an experienced radiation oncologist and neurosurgeon, to optimize alignment in the region of the brainstem. The teams were blinded to the registration method. Results: The mean adjustment was 0.4 mm (range 0 to 2 mm) and 0.2 mm (range 0 to 1 mm) for the frame and mutual information methods, respectively. The median difference between the frame and mutual information registrations was 0.3 mm, but was not statistically significant using the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p=0.37). Conclusion: The difference between frame and mutual information registration techniques was neither statistically significant nor, for most applications, clinically important. These results suggest that mutual information is equivalent to frame-based image registration for radiosurgery. Work is ongoing to add additional evaluators and to assess the differences between evaluators.

  16. Leksell gamma knife lesioning of the rat hippocampus: the relationship between radiation dose and functional and structural damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liščák, R.; Vladyka, V.; Novotný ml., J.; Brožek, G.; Náměstková, K.; Mareš, Vladislav; Herynek, V.; Jirák, D.; Hájek, M.; Syková, E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 97, Suppl. 5 (2002), s. 666-673 ISSN 0022-3085 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5161 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Leksell gamma knife * rats * memory Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2002

  17. Framing the frame

    OpenAIRE

    Todd McElroy; John J. Seta

    2007-01-01

    We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the ty...

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of the Leksell Gamma Knife: I. Source modelling and calculations in homogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, Vadim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)]. E-mail: vmoskvin@iupui.edu; DesRosiers, Colleen; Papiez, Lech; Timmerman, Robert; Randall, Marcus; DesRosiers, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2002-06-21

    The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE has been used to simulate photon flux from the Leksell Gamma Knife, a precision method for treating intracranial lesions. Radiation from a single {sup 60}Co assembly traversing the collimator system was simulated, and phase space distributions at the output surface of the helmet for photons and electrons were calculated. The characteristics describing the emitted final beam were used to build a two-stage Monte Carlo simulation of irradiation of a target. A dose field inside a standard spherical polystyrene phantom, usually used for Gamma Knife dosimetry, has been computed and compared with experimental results, with calculations performed by other authors with the use of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code, and data provided by the treatment planning system Gamma Plan. Good agreement was found between these data and results of simulations in homogeneous media. Owing to this established accuracy, PENELOPE is suitable for simulating problems relevant to stereotactic radiosurgery. (author)

  19. Clinical experience with Leksell gamma knife in the treatment of trigeminal schwannomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG En-min; PAN Li; ZHANG Nan; ZHOU Liang-fu; WANG Bing-jiang; DONG Ya-fei; DAI Jia-zhong; CAI Pei-wu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Trigeminal nerve schwannomas, which are rare, slowly growing, benign tumors, account for 0.2% to 1.0% of all intracranial tumors and 0.8% to 8.0% of intracranial schwannomas.1-5 These tumors are treated surgically.1-4 The development of microsurgery and skull base surgery has made complete resection possible in most patients. Nevertheless, cranial nerve sequelae appear after complete resection of these tumors because they are located close to the cavernous sinus and usually adhere to the vital vascular and neural structures. As an alternative to microsurgical resection, Leksell gamma knife (LGK) radiosurgery has been performed for patients with intracranial schwannomas to minimize the treatment-related morbidity and achieve a long-term control of tumor growth.6,7 In this report, we describe our 6-year experience in the treatment of 38 patients with trigeminal schwannomas by LGK.

  20. Framing the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the typical findings was observed whereas when the goal was to maintain, no framing effect was found. When we examined the decisions of the entire population, we did not observe a framing effect. In Study 2, we provided participants with a similar decision task except in this situation the goal was ambiguous, allowing us to observe participants' self-imposed goals and how they influenced choice preferences. The findings from Study 2 demonstrated individual variability in imposed goal and provided a conceptual replication of Study 1. %need keywords

  1. Performance of a Novel Repositioning Head Frame for Gamma Knife Perfexion and Image-Guided Linac-Based Intracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschin, Mark; Nayebi, Nazanin; Carlsson, Per; Brown, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric positioning and immobilization performance of a vacuum bite-block repositioning head frame (RHF) system for Perfexion (PFX-SRT) and linac-based intracranial image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with intracranial tumors received linac-based image-guided SRT using the RHF for setup and immobilization. Three hundred thirty-three fractions of radiation were delivered in 12 patients. The accuracy of the RHF was estimated for linac-based SRT with online cone-beam CT (CBCT) and for PFX-SRT with a repositioning check tool (RCT) and offline CBCT. The RCT's ability to act as a surrogate for anatomic position was estimated through comparison to CBCT image matching. Immobilization performance was evaluated daily with pre- and postdose delivery CBCT scans and RCT measurements. Results: The correlation coefficient between RCT- and CBCT-reported displacements was 0.59, 0.75, 0.79 (Right, Superior, and Anterior, respectively). For image-guided linac-based SRT, the mean three-dimensional (3D) setup error was 0.8 mm with interpatient (Σ) and interfraction (σ) variations of 0.1 and 0.4 mm, respectively. For PFX-SRT, the initial, uncorrected mean 3D positioning displacement in stereotactic coordinates was 2.0 mm, with Σ = 1.1 mm and σ = 0.8 mm. Considering only RCT setups o in pitch. The mean 3D intrafraction motion was 0.4 ± 0.3 mm. Conclusion: The RHF provides excellent immobilization for intracranial SRT and PFX-SRT. Some small systematic uncertainties in stereotactic positioning exist and must be considered when generating PFX-SRT treatment plans. The RCT provides reasonable surrogacy for internal anatomic displacement.

  2. A simplified model of the source channel of the Leksell GammaKnife tested with PENELOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dweri, Feras M O; Lallena, Antonio M; Vilches, Manuel

    2004-06-21

    Monte Carlo simulations using the code PENELOPE have been performed to test a simplified model of the source channel geometry of the Leksell GammaKnife. The characteristics of the radiation passing through the treatment helmets are analysed in detail. We have found that only primary particles emitted from the source with polar angles smaller than 3 degrees with respect to the beam axis are relevant for the dosimetry of the Gamma Knife. The photon trajectories reaching the output helmet collimators at (x, v, z = 236 mm) show strong correlations between rho = (x2 + y2)(1/2) and their polar angle theta, on one side, and between tan(-1)(y/x) and their azimuthal angle phi, on the other. This enables us to propose a simplified model which treats the full source channel as a mathematical collimator. This simplified model produces doses in good agreement with those found for the full geometry. In the region of maximal dose, the relative differences between both calculations are within 3%, for the 18 and 14 mm helmets, and 10%, for the 8 and 4 mm ones. Besides, the simplified model permits a strong reduction (larger than a factor 15) in the computational time.

  3. Is it possible to avoid hypopituitarism after irradiation of pituitary adenomas by the Leksell gamma knife?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Josef; Jezková, Jana; Hána, Václav; Krsek, Michal; Bandúrová, L'ubomíra; Pecen, Ladislav; Vladyka, Vilibald; Liscák, Roman

    2011-02-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the treatment options for pituitary adenomas. The most common side effect associated with Leksell gamma knife (LGK) irradiation is the development of hypopituitarism. The aim of this study was to verify that hypopituitarism does not develop if the maximum mean dose to pituitary is kept under 15 Gy and to evaluate the influence of maximum distal infundibulum dose on the development of hypopituitarism. We followed the incidence of hypopituitarism in 85 patients irradiated with LGK in 1993-2003. The patients were divided in two subgroups: the first subgroup followed prospectively (45 patients), irradiated with a mean dose to pituitary 15 Gy. Serum TSH, free thyroxine, testosterone or 17β-oestradiol, IGF1, prolactin and cortisol levels were evaluated before and every 6 months after LGK irradiation. Hypopituitarism after LGK irradiation developed only in 1 out of 45 (2.2%) patients irradiated with a mean dose to pituitary 15 Gy. The radiation dose to the distal infundibulum was found as an independent factor of hypopituitarism with calculated maximum safe dose of 17 Gy. Keeping the mean radiation dose to pituitary under 15 Gy and the dose to the distal infundibulum under 17 Gy prevents the development of hypopituitarism following LGK irradiation.

  4. Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann

    2012-01-01

    Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...

  5. Determination of Absorbed Dose to Water for Leksell Gamma Knife Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrsak, H.

    2013-01-01

    Because of geometry of photon beams in Leksell Gamma Knife Unit (LGK), there are several technical problems in applying standard protocols for determination of absorbed dose to water (Dw). Currently, Dw in LGK unit, measured at the center of spherical plastic phantom, is used for dose calculation in LGK radiosurgery. Treatment planning software (LGP TPS) accepts this value as a measurement in water and since plastic phantom has higher electron density than water, this leads to systematic errors in dose calculation. To reduce these errors, a photon attenuation correction (PAC) method was applied. For that purpose, measurements of absorbed dose in a center of three different plastic phantoms with 16 cm diameter (ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, PMMA - polymethyl metacrylate, PMMA + teflon - polytetrafluoroethylene 5 mm shell) were made with ionization chamber (Semiflex, PTW Freiburg). For measured dose values, PAC to water was applied based on electron density (ED) and equivalent water depths (EWD) of the plastic phantoms. The relation between CT number and ED was determined by measuring CT number of standard CT to ED phantom (CIRS Model 062 Phantom). Absorbed dose in plastic phantoms was 2.5 % lower than calculated dose in water for ABS phantom and more than 5.5 % lower for PMMA and PMMA+teflon phantom. Calculated dose in water showed more consistent values for all three phantoms (max. difference 2.6 %). EWD for human cranial bones and brain has value close to the EWD of ABS phantom, which makes this phantom most suitable for dose measurements in clinical application. In LGK radiosurgery determination of errors related to the difference of phantom materials should not be neglected and measured dose should be corrected before usage for patient treatment dose calculation.(author)

  6. Frames and semi-frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Balazs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Loosely speaking, a semi-frame is a generalized frame for which one of the frame bounds is absent. More precisely, given a total sequence in a Hilbert space, we speak of an upper (resp. lower) semi-frame if only the upper (resp. lower) frame bound is valid. Equivalently, for an upper semi-frame, the frame operator is bounded, but has an unbounded inverse, whereas a lower semi-frame has an unbounded frame operator, with a bounded inverse. We study mostly upper semi-frames, both in the continuous and discrete case, and give some remarks for the dual situation. In particular, we show that reconstruction is still possible in certain cases.

  7. Quantum frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  8. Media Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  9. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  10. Dosimetric calculations by Monte Carlo for treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, homogeneous and non homogeneous cases; Calculos dosimetricos por Monte Carlo para tratamientos de radiocirugia con el Leksell Gamma Knife, casos homogeneo y no homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lallena R, A.M. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    In this work dose profiles are calculated that are obtained modeling treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife. This was made with the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope for an homogeneous mannequin and one not homogeneous. Its were carried out calculations with the irradiation focus coinciding with the center of the mannequin as in near areas to the bone interface. Each one of the calculations one carries out for the 4 skull treatment that it includes the Gamma Knife and using a model simplified of their 201 sources of {sup 60} Co. It was found that the dose profiles differ of the order of 2% when the isocenter coincides with the center of the mannequin and they ascend to near 5% when the isocenter moves toward the skull. (Author)

  11. Long-term stability of the Leksell Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ patient positioning system (PPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Bhatnagar, J. P.; Xu, Y.; Huq, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the long-term mechanical stability and accuracy of the patient positioning system (PPS) of the Leksell Gamma Knife ® Perfexion™ (LGK PFX). Methods: The mechanical stability of the PPS of the LGK PFX was evaluated using measurements obtained between September 2007 and June 2011. Three methods were employed to measure the deviation of the coincidence of the radiological focus point (RFP) and the PPS calibration center point (CCP). In the first method, the onsite diode test tool with single diode detector was used together with the 4 mm collimator on a daily basis. In the second method, a service diode test tool with three diode detectors was used biannually at the time of the routine preventive maintenance. The test performed with the service diode test tool measured the deviations for all three collimators 4, 8, and 16 mm and also for three different positions of the PPS. The third method employed the conventional film pin-prick method. This test was performed annually for the 4 mm collimator at the time of the routine annual QA. To estimate the effect of the patient weight on the performance of the PPS, the focus precision tests were also conducted with varying weights on the PPS using a set of lead bricks. Results: The average deviations measured from the 641 daily focus precision tests were 0.1 ± 0.1, 0.0 ± 0.0, and 0.0 ± 0.0 mm, respectively, for the 4 mm collimator in the X (left/right of the patient), Y (anterior/posterior of the patient), and Z (superior/inferior of the patient) directions. The average of the total radial deviations as measured during ten semiannual measurements with the service diode test tool were 0.070 ± 0.029, 0.060 ± 0.022, and 0.103 ± 0.028 mm, respectively for the central, long, and short diodes for the 4 mm collimator. Similarly, the average total radial deviations measured during the semiannual measurements for the 4, 8, and 16 mm collimators and using the central diode were 0.070 ± 0.029, 0.097 ± 0

  12. Dosimetric calculations by Monte Carlo for treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, homogeneous and non homogeneous cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work dose profiles are calculated that are obtained modeling treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife. This was made with the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope for an homogeneous mannequin and one not homogeneous. Its were carried out calculations with the irradiation focus coinciding with the center of the mannequin as in near areas to the bone interface. Each one of the calculations one carries out for the 4 skull treatment that it includes the Gamma Knife and using a model simplified of their 201 sources of 60 Co. It was found that the dose profiles differ of the order of 2% when the isocenter coincides with the center of the mannequin and they ascend to near 5% when the isocenter moves toward the skull. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector for relative dosimetry on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.reggiori@humanitas.it; Stravato, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Palumbo, Valentina; Tomatis, Stefano [Physics Service of Radiation Oncology Department, Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20098 (Italy); Navarria, Piera; Ascolese, Anna; Scorsetti, Marta [Radiation Oncology Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Picozzi, Piero [Neurosurgery Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma 00133 (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the new commercial PTW-60019 synthetic single-crystal microDiamond detector (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for relative dosimetry measurements on a clinical Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system. Methods: Detector output ratios (DORs) for 4 and 8 mm beams were measured using a microDiamond (PTW-60019), a stereotactic unshielded diode [IBA stereotactic field detector (SFD)], a shielded diode (IBA photon field detector), and GafChromic EBT3 films. Both parallel and transversal acquisition directions were considered for PTW-60019 measurements. Measured DORs were compared to the new output factor reference values for Gamma Knife Perfexion (0.814 and 0.900 for 4 and 8 mm, respectively). Profiles in the three directions were also measured for the 4 mm beam to evaluate full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbra and to compare them with the corresponding Leksell GammaPlan profiles. Results: FWHM and penumbra for PTW-60019 differed from the calculated values by less than 0.2 and 0.3 mm, for the parallel and transversal acquisitions, respectively. GafChromic films showed FWHM and penumbra within 0.1 mm. The output ratio obtained with the PTW-60019 for the 4 mm field was 1.6% greater in transverse direction compared to the nominal value. Comparable differences up to 0.8% and 1.0% for, respectively, GafChromic films and SFD were found. Conclusions: The microDiamond PTW-60019 is a suitable detector for commissioning and routine use of Gamma Knife with good agreement of both DORs and profiles in the three directions.

  14. Evaluation of a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector for relative dosimetry on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo; Stravato, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Palumbo, Valentina; Tomatis, Stefano; Navarria, Piera; Ascolese, Anna; Scorsetti, Marta; Picozzi, Piero; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the new commercial PTW-60019 synthetic single-crystal microDiamond detector (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for relative dosimetry measurements on a clinical Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system. Methods: Detector output ratios (DORs) for 4 and 8 mm beams were measured using a microDiamond (PTW-60019), a stereotactic unshielded diode [IBA stereotactic field detector (SFD)], a shielded diode (IBA photon field detector), and GafChromic EBT3 films. Both parallel and transversal acquisition directions were considered for PTW-60019 measurements. Measured DORs were compared to the new output factor reference values for Gamma Knife Perfexion (0.814 and 0.900 for 4 and 8 mm, respectively). Profiles in the three directions were also measured for the 4 mm beam to evaluate full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbra and to compare them with the corresponding Leksell GammaPlan profiles. Results: FWHM and penumbra for PTW-60019 differed from the calculated values by less than 0.2 and 0.3 mm, for the parallel and transversal acquisitions, respectively. GafChromic films showed FWHM and penumbra within 0.1 mm. The output ratio obtained with the PTW-60019 for the 4 mm field was 1.6% greater in transverse direction compared to the nominal value. Comparable differences up to 0.8% and 1.0% for, respectively, GafChromic films and SFD were found. Conclusions: The microDiamond PTW-60019 is a suitable detector for commissioning and routine use of Gamma Knife with good agreement of both DORs and profiles in the three directions

  15. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used

  16. On Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    On framing as artistic and conceptual tool in the works of Claudia Carbone. Contribution to exhibition at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......On framing as artistic and conceptual tool in the works of Claudia Carbone. Contribution to exhibition at the Aarhus School of Architecture....

  17. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  18. The Word Outside and the Pictures in Our Heads: Contingent Framing Effects of Labels on Health Policy Preferences by Political Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    This study uses data from systematic Web image search results and two randomized survey experiments to analyze how frames commonly used in public debates about health issues, operationalized here as alternative word choices, influence public support for health policy reforms. In Study 1, analyses of Bing (N = 1,719), Google (N = 1,872), and Yahoo Images (N = 1,657) search results suggest that the images returned from the search query "sugar-sweetened beverage" are more likely to evoke health-related concepts than images returned from a search query about "soda." In contrast, "soda" search queries were more likely to incorporate brand-related concepts than "sugar-sweetened beverage" search queries. In Study 2, participants (N = 206) in a controlled Web experiment rated their support for policies to reduce consumption of these drinks. As expected, strong liberals had more support for policies designed to reduce the consumption of these drinks when the policies referenced "soda" compared to "sugar-sweetened beverage." To the contrary, items describing these drinks as "soda" produced lower policy support than items describing them as "sugar-sweetened beverage" among strong conservatives. In Study 3, participants (N = 1,000) in a national telephone survey experiment rated their support for a similar set of policies. Results conceptually replicated the previous Web-based experiment, such that strong liberals reported greater support for a penny-per-ounce taxation when labeled "soda" versus "sugar-sweetened beverages." In both Studies 2 and 3, more respondents referred to brand-related concepts in response to questions about "sugar-sweetened beverages" compared to "soda." We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and methodological implications for studying framing effects of labels.

  19. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  20. Investigation of intracranial peripheral dose arising from the treatment of large lesions with Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschin, Mark; Nordström, Håkan; Kjäll, Per; Cho, Young-Bin; Jaffray, David

    2009-06-01

    This investigation involves quantifying the extent of intracranial peripheral dose arising from simulated targets situated in the skull-base or upper-spine region using the Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion treatment unit. For each of three spherical target volumes--denoted as Vs (4 cm3), VM (18 cm3), and VL (60 cm3)--three treatment plans were manually generated, one for each of the three collimator sizes--4, 8, and 16 mm. Each of the plans was delivered to a spherical dosimetry phantom with an insert containing EBT Gafchromic film. The total dose at 70 mm from the targets' edges, %D(70 mm), was measured as a function of elevation angle and expressed as a percentage of the prescription dose. The film insert was placed centered in the median sagittal plane (Leksell X = 100) and %D(70 mm) was measured for the angular range from 0 degree (superior/along Z axis) to 90 degrees (anterior/along Y axis). For a given collimator i, the irradiation time ti to treat a spherical target of volume V using the 50% isodose line was observed to follow a power-law relationship of the form ti = Ai(V/ Vi)n where Ai was the maximum dose divided by collimator dose rate and Vi was the volume encompassed by the 50% isodose line for a single shot. The mean value of n was 0.61 (range: 0.61-0.62). Along the superior (Z) direction (angle=0 degree) and up to angles of around 30 degrees, the %D(70 mm) was always highest for the 4 mm plans, followed by the 8 mm, followed by the 16 mm. In this angular range, the maximum measured %D(70 mm) was 1.7% of the prescription dose. The intracranial peripheral dose along the superior direction (combined scatter and leakage dose) resulting from irradiation of upper-spine or base-of-skull lesions is measured to be less than 2% of the prescription dose, even for very large (60 cm3) targets. The results of this study indicate that, for a given target volume, treatment plans consisting of only 4 mm shots yield larger peripheral dose in the superior direction than 8

  1. A simplified model of the source channel of the Leksell GammaKnife (registered) tested with PENELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dweri, Feras M O; Lallena, Antonio M; Vilches, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations using the code PENELOPE have been performed to test a simplified model of the source channel geometry of the Leksell GammaKnife (registered) . The characteristics of the radiation passing through the treatment helmets are analysed in detail. We have found that only primary particles emitted from the source with polar angles smaller than 3 deg. with respect to the beam axis are relevant for the dosimetry of the Gamma Knife. The photon trajectories reaching the output helmet collimators at (x, y, z = 236 mm) show strong correlations between ρ = (x 2 + y 2 ) 1/2 and their polar angle θ, on one side, and between tan -1 (y/x) and their azimuthal angle φ, on the other. This enables us to propose a simplified model which treats the full source channel as a mathematical collimator. This simplified model produces doses in good agreement with those found for the full geometry. In the region of maximal dose, the relative differences between both calculations are within 3%, for the 18 and 14 mm helmets, and 10%, for the 8 and 4 mm ones. Besides, the simplified model permits a strong reduction (larger than a factor 15) in the computational time

  2. A simplified model of the source channel of the Leksell GammaKnife (registered) tested with PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dweri, Feras M O [Departamento de FIsica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Lallena, Antonio M [Departamento de FIsica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Vilches, Manuel [Servicio de RadiofIsica, Hospital ClInico ' San Cecilio' , Avda. Dr Oloriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain)

    2004-06-21

    Monte Carlo simulations using the code PENELOPE have been performed to test a simplified model of the source channel geometry of the Leksell GammaKnife (registered) . The characteristics of the radiation passing through the treatment helmets are analysed in detail. We have found that only primary particles emitted from the source with polar angles smaller than 3 deg. with respect to the beam axis are relevant for the dosimetry of the Gamma Knife. The photon trajectories reaching the output helmet collimators at (x, y, z = 236 mm) show strong correlations between {rho} = (x{sup 2} + y{sup 2}){sup 1/2} and their polar angle {theta}, on one side, and between tan{sup -1}(y/x) and their azimuthal angle {phi}, on the other. This enables us to propose a simplified model which treats the full source channel as a mathematical collimator. This simplified model produces doses in good agreement with those found for the full geometry. In the region of maximal dose, the relative differences between both calculations are within 3%, for the 18 and 14 mm helmets, and 10%, for the 8 and 4 mm ones. Besides, the simplified model permits a strong reduction (larger than a factor 15) in the computational time.

  3. A simplified model of the source channel of the Leksell GammaKnife® tested with PENELOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dweri, Feras M. O.; Lallena, Antonio M.; Vilches, Manuel

    2004-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations using the code PENELOPE have been performed to test a simplified model of the source channel geometry of the Leksell GammaKnife®. The characteristics of the radiation passing through the treatment helmets are analysed in detail. We have found that only primary particles emitted from the source with polar angles smaller than 3° with respect to the beam axis are relevant for the dosimetry of the Gamma Knife. The photon trajectories reaching the output helmet collimators at (x, y, z = 236 mm) show strong correlations between rgr = (x2 + y2)1/2 and their polar angle thgr, on one side, and between tan-1(y/x) and their azimuthal angle phgr, on the other. This enables us to propose a simplified model which treats the full source channel as a mathematical collimator. This simplified model produces doses in good agreement with those found for the full geometry. In the region of maximal dose, the relative differences between both calculations are within 3%, for the 18 and 14 mm helmets, and 10%, for the 8 and 4 mm ones. Besides, the simplified model permits a strong reduction (larger than a factor 15) in the computational time.

  4. Verification of gamma knife based fractionated radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, Raj Kishor; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Singh, Manmohan Jit; Agarwal, Deepak; Garg, Ajay; Rath, Goura Kishore; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Pratik; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Purpose of the study is to verify the Gamma Knife Extend™ system (ES) based fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom. Methods: Phantoms are extensively used to measure radiation dose and verify treatment plan in radiotherapy. A human upper body shaped phantom with thorax was designed to simulate fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using Extend™ system of Gamma Knife. The central component of the phantom aids in performing radiological precision test, dosimetric evaluation and treatment verification. A hollow right circular cylindrical space of diameter 7.0 cm was created at the centre of this component to place various dosimetric devices using suitable adaptors. The phantom is made of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic material. Two sets of disk assemblies were designed to place dosimetric films in (1) horizontal (xy) and (2) vertical (xz) planes. Specific cylindrical adaptors were designed to place thimble ionization chamber inside phantom for point dose recording along xz axis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were used to analyze and map radiation field. The focal precision test was performed using 4 mm collimator shot in phantom to check radiological accuracy of treatment. The phantom head position within the Extend™ frame was estimated using encoded aperture measurement of repositioning check tool (RCT). For treatment verification, the phantom with inserts for film and ion chamber was scanned in reference treatment position using X-ray computed tomography (CT) machine and acquired stereotactic images were transferred into Leksell Gammaplan (LGP). A patient treatment plan with hypo-fractionated regimen was delivered and identical fractions were compared using EBT3 films and in-house MATLAB codes. Results: RCT measurement showed an overall positional accuracy of 0.265 mm (range 0.223 mm–0.343 mm). Gamma index analysis across fractions exhibited close agreement between LGP and film

  5. Optical loop framing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Prono, D.S.; Cavagnolo, H.R.

    1984-06-01

    The ATA provides an electron beam pulse of 70-ns duration at a 1-Hz rate. Our present optical diagnostics technique involve the imaging of the visible light generated by the beam incident onto the plant of a thin sheet of material. It has already been demonstrated that the light generated has a sufficiently fast temporal reponse in performing beam diagnostics. Notwithstanding possible beam emittance degradation due to scattering in the thin sheet, the observation of beam spatial profiles with relatively high efficiencies has provided data complementary to that obtained from beam wall current monitors and from various x-ray probes and other electrical probes. The optical image sensor consists of a gated, intensified television system. The gate pulse of the image intensifier can be appropriately delayed to give frames that are time-positioned from the head to the tail of the beam with a minimum gate time of 5-ns. The spatial correlation of the time frames from pulse to pulse is very good for a stable electron beam; however, when instabilities do occur, it is difficult to properly assess the spatial composition of the head and the tail of the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Multiple gating within a pulse duration becomes desirable but cannot be performed because the recycle time (20-ms) of the TV system is much longer than the beam pulse. For this reason we have developed an optical-loop framing technique that will allow the recording of two frames within one pulse duration with our present gated/intensified TV system

  6. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  7. Framing Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Louise Møller; Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2017-01-01

    Designing a remarkable product innovation is a difficult challenge, which businesses today continuously are striving to tackle. This challenge is particularly present in the early phase of innovation, where the main product concept and frames of the innovation is determined. As a main challenge...... in the early phase is the reasoning process; innovation team are faced with open-ended ill-defines problems, where they need to make decisions about an unknown future having only incomplete, ambiguous and contradicting insights available. We study the reasoning of experts, how they frame to make sense of all...... the insights and create a basis for decision making in relation to a new project. Based on case studies of five innovative products from various industries, we suggest a Product Reasoning Model for understanding reasoning and envisioning of new product innovations in the early phases...

  8. Framing Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Louise Møller; Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2017-01-01

    Designing a remarkable product innovation is a difficult challenge, which businesses today continuously are striving to tackle. This challenge is particularly present in the early phase of innovation, where the main product concept and frames of the innovation is determined. As a main challenge...... in the early phase is the reasoning process; innovation team are faced with open- ended ill-defines problems, where they need to make decisions about an unknown future having only incomplete, ambiguous and contradicting insights available. We study the reasoning of experts, how they frame to make sense of all...... the insights and create a basis for decision making in relation to a new project. Based on case studies of five innovative products from various industries, we suggest a Product Reasoning Model for understanding reasoning and envisioning of new product innovations in the early phases of innovation....

  9. On frame multiresolution analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We use the freedom in frame multiresolution analysis to construct tight wavelet frames (even in the case where the refinable function does not generate a tight frame). In cases where a frame multiresolution does not lead to a construction of a wavelet frame we show how one can nevertheless...

  10. Nonmonotonic belief state frames and reasoning frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Herre, H.; Treur, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper five levels of specification of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. The notions of semantical frame, belief state frame and reasoning frame are introduced and used as a semantical basis for the first three levels. Moreover, the semantical connections between the levels are

  11. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  12. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  13. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  14. A newly designed attachment device of multipurpose frame for neuronavigator. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Okudera, H; Kobayashi, S; Osawa, M; Tokushige, K

    1994-01-01

    A newly designed attachment device of the multipurpose head frame (Sugita) for Neuronavigator (Watanabe) is presented with an illustrative case of glioblastoma in an eloquent area. This has extended the usefulness of the neuronavigator for those who prefer and use the multipurpose head frame, while the requirements for keeping a stereotactic combination and the original concept of the multipurpose head frame, as well as that of the neuronavigator have been kept undisturbed.

  15. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  16. Spatial Updating Strategy Affects the Reference Frame in Path Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiliang; McNamara, Timothy P

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated how spatial updating strategies affected the selection of reference frames in path integration. Participants walked an outbound path consisting of three successive waypoints in a featureless environment and then pointed to the first waypoint. We manipulated the alignment of participants' final heading at the end of the outbound path with their initial heading to examine the adopted reference frame. We assumed that the initial heading defined the principal reference direction in an allocentric reference frame. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to use a configural updating strategy and to monitor the shape of the outbound path while they walked it. Pointing performance was best when the final heading was aligned with the initial heading, indicating the use of an allocentric reference frame. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to use a continuous updating strategy and to keep track of the location of the first waypoint while walking the outbound path. Pointing performance was equivalent regardless of the alignment between the final and the initial headings, indicating the use of an egocentric reference frame. These results confirmed that people could employ different spatial updating strategies in path integration (Wiener, Berthoz, & Wolbers Experimental Brain Research 208(1) 61-71, 2011), and suggested that these strategies could affect the selection of the reference frame for path integration.

  17. Making students' frames explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Hansen, Poul Henrik Kyvsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Framing is a vital part of the design and innovation process. Frames are cognitive shortcuts (i.e. metaphors) that enable designers to connect insights about i.e. market opportunities and users needs with a set of solution principles and to test if this connection makes sense. Until now, framing...

  18. Assessment of MicroDiamond PTW 60019 detector and its comparison with other detectors for relative dosimetry in small radiosurgery fields of the Leksell gamma knife perfexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J. Jr.; Kozubikova, P.; Pastykova, V.; Pipek, J.; Bhatnagar, J. P.; Huq, M. S.; Veselsky, T.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of relative output factors (ROF) for the Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) is not a trivial task due to strict demands of an accurate set up and small size of measured radiosurgery fields. The purpose of this study was to perform an assessment of a new synthetic single crystal MicroDiamond PTW 60019 detector (volume 0.004 mm 3 ) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the LGK Perfexion. Small sensitive volume of this detector, near water equivalence and low energy dependence make it an attractive candidate for small field dosimetry. Results obtained in this study were compared with results measured by broad variety of different detectors and also Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. MicroDiamond detector connected to PTW UNIDOS electrometer was positioned in ELEKTA spherical phantom and pre-irradiated to dose of 5 Gy. Measurements were performed in two different detector positions: 1) parallel with table axis, 2) orthogonal to table axis. Electrometer timer of 1 min was used to measure subsequently signal from 16 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm beams. Altogether ten measurements were performed for each of three collimator sizes. Results from MicroDiamond were compared with those obtained from various types of detectors used in the past by authors for measurement of LGK ROFs. New synthetic single crystal MicroDiamond PTW 60019 detector appears to be a very promising detector for relative output factor measurements in very small radiosurgery fields. (authors)

  19. Effects of bone- and air-tissue inhomogeneities on the dose distributions of the Leksell Gamma Knife (registered) calculated with PENELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dweri, Feras M O; Rojas, E Leticia; Lallena, Antonio M

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation with PENELOPE (version 2003) is applied to calculate Leksell Gamma Knife (registered) dose distributions for heterogeneous phantoms. The usual spherical water phantom is modified with a spherical bone shell simulating the skull and an air-filled cube simulating the frontal or maxillary sinuses. Different simulations of the 201 source configuration of the Gamma Knife have been carried out with a simplified model of the geometry of the source channel of the Gamma Knife recently tested for both single source and multisource configurations. The dose distributions determined for heterogeneous phantoms including the bone- and/or air-tissue interfaces show non-negligible differences with respect to those calculated for a homogeneous one, mainly when the Gamma Knife isocentre approaches the separation surfaces. Our findings confirm an important underdosage (∼10%) nearby the air-tissue interface, in accordance with previous results obtained with the PENELOPE code with a procedure different from ours. On the other hand, the presence of the spherical shell simulating the skull produces a few per cent underdosage at the isocentre wherever it is situated

  20. Multivariate wavelet frames

    CERN Document Server

    Skopina, Maria; Protasov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a systematic study of multivariate wavelet frames with matrix dilation, in particular, orthogonal and bi-orthogonal bases, which are a special case of frames. Further, it provides algorithmic methods for the construction of dual and tight wavelet frames with a desirable approximation order, namely compactly supported wavelet frames, which are commonly required by engineers. It particularly focuses on methods of constructing them. Wavelet bases and frames are actively used in numerous applications such as audio and graphic signal processing, compression and transmission of information. They are especially useful in image recovery from incomplete observed data due to the redundancy of frame systems. The construction of multivariate wavelet frames, especially bases, with desirable properties remains a challenging problem as although a general scheme of construction is well known, its practical implementation in the multidimensional setting is difficult. Another important feature of wavelet is ...

  1. Changing climate, changing frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Martinus J.; Boezeman, Daan; Dewulf, Art; Termeer, Catrien J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show development of flood policy frames in context of climate change attention. ► Rising attention on climate change influences traditional flood policy framing. ► The new framing employs global-scale scientific climate change knowledge. ► With declining attention, framing disregards climate change, using local knowledge. ► We conclude that frames function as sensemaking devices selectively using knowledge. -- Abstract: Water management and particularly flood defence have a long history of collective action in low-lying countries like the Netherlands. The uncertain but potentially severe impacts of the recent climate change issue (e.g. sea level rise, extreme river discharges, salinisation) amplify the wicked and controversial character of flood safety policy issues. Policy proposals in this area generally involve drastic infrastructural works and long-term investments. They face the difficult challenge of framing problems and solutions in a publicly acceptable manner in ever changing circumstances. In this paper, we analyse and compare (1) how three key policy proposals publicly frame the flood safety issue, (2) the knowledge referred to in the framing and (3) how these frames are rhetorically connected or disconnected as statements in a long-term conversation. We find that (1) framings of policy proposals differ in the way they depict the importance of climate change, the relevant timeframe and the appropriate governance mode; (2) knowledge is selectively mobilised to underpin the different frames and (3) the frames about these proposals position themselves against the background of the previous proposals through rhetorical connections and disconnections. Finally, we discuss how this analysis hints at the importance of processes of powering and puzzling that lead to particular framings towards the public at different historical junctures

  2. Comparison of target volumes in radiotherapy defined on scanner and on PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the frame of head and neck cancers; Comparaison des volumes cibles en radiotherapie definis sur scanner et sur TEP-TDM au 18F FDG dans le cadre des cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques De Figueiredo, B.; Barret, O.; Allard, M.; Fernandez, P. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Pellegrin, Bordeaux, (France); Demeaux, H.; Maire, J.P.; Lagarde, P. [service de radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Andre, Bordeaux, (France); Kantor, G.; Richau, P. [departement de radiotherapie, institut Bergonie, Bordeaux, (France); De Mones Del Pujol, E. [service d' ORL, hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to study in a prospective way, in the frame of head and neck cancers, the impact of the positron computed tomography with {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-F.D.G.) on the limitation of target volumes in radiotherapy. In conclusions, the gross tumor volume (G.T.V.) defined on PET is smaller than this one defined on scanner, that could be interesting in radiotherapy, in the perspective of a dose escalation. In addition, areas of discordance exist between the clinical target volumes (C.T.V.70 and C.T.V.50) defined on PET and on scanner. These discordances, synonyms of under or over estimation of target volumes, could have important clinical consequences in term of local control and toxicity. (N.C.)

  3. Frame on frames: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, T.; Tsao, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The success or failure of any sample survey of a finite population is largely dependent upon the condition and adequacy of the list or frame from which the probability sample is selected. Much of the published survey sampling related work has focused on the measurement of sampling errors and, more recently, on nonsampling errors to a lesser extent. Recent studies on data quality for various types of data collection systems have revealed that the extent of the nonsampling errors far exceeds that of the sampling errors in many cases. While much of this nonsampling error, which is difficult to measure, can be attributed to poor frames, relatively little effort or theoretical work has focused on this contribution to total error. The objective of this paper is to present an annotated bibliography on frames with the hope that it will bring together, for experimenters, a number of suggestions for action when sampling from imperfect frames and that more attention will be given to this area of survey methods research

  4. Determination of small field synthetic single-crystal diamond detector correction factors for CyberKnife, Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselsky, T; Novotny, J; Pastykova, V; Koniarova, I

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine small field correction factors for a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector (PTW microDiamond) for routine use in clinical dosimetric measurements. Correction factors following small field Alfonso formalism were calculated by comparison of PTW microDiamond measured ratio M Qclin fclin /M Qmsr fmsr with Monte Carlo (MC) based field output factors Ω Qclin,Qmsr fclin,fmsr determined using Dosimetry Diode E or with MC simulation itself. Diode measurements were used for the CyberKnife and Varian Clinac 2100C/D linear accelerator. PTW microDiamond correction factors for Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) were derived using MC simulated reference values from the manufacturer. PTW microDiamond correction factors for CyberKnife field sizes 25-5 mm were mostly smaller than 1% (except for 2.9% for 5 mm Iris field and 1.4% for 7.5 mm fixed cone field). The correction of 0.1% and 2.0% for 8 mm and 4 mm collimators, respectively, needed to be applied to PTW microDiamond measurements for LGK Perfexion. Finally, PTW microDiamond M Qclin fclin /M Qmsr fmsr for the linear accelerator varied from MC corrected Dosimetry Diode data by less than 0.5% (except for 1 × 1 cm 2 field size with 1.3% deviation). Regarding low resulting correction factor values, the PTW microDiamond detector may be considered an almost ideal tool for relative small field dosimetry in a large variety of stereotactic and radiosurgery treatment devices. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modern frame structure buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Першаков

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the design, construction and implementation of reinforced concrete frame structures with span 18, 21 m for agricultural production buildings, hall-premises of public buildings and buildings of agricultural aviation. Structures are prefabricated frame buildings and have such advantages as large space inside the structure and lower cost compared with other facilities with same purpose

  6. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  7. The Frame Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael Todd; Cox, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore framing, a non-multiplicative technique commonly employed by students as they construct similar shapes. When students frame, they add (or subtract) a "border" of fixed width about a geometric object. Although the approach does not yield similar shapes in general, the mathematical underpinnings of…

  8. Traditional timber frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text

  9. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  10. Dragging of inertial frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-06

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth.

  11. Framing effects over time: comparing affective and cognitive news frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; Matthes, J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of scholars examine the duration of framing effects. However, duration is likely to differ from frame to frame, depending on how strong a frame is. This strength is likely to be enhanced by adding emotional components to a frame. By means of an experimental survey design (n = 111),

  12. Updating of visual orientation in a gravity-based reference frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehof, Nynke; Tramper, Julian J; Doeller, Christian F; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2017-10-01

    The brain can use multiple reference frames to code line orientation, including head-, object-, and gravity-centered references. If these frames change orientation, their representations must be updated to keep register with actual line orientation. We tested this internal updating during head rotation in roll, exploiting the rod-and-frame effect: The illusory tilt of a vertical line surrounded by a tilted visual frame. If line orientation is stored relative to gravity, these distortions should also affect the updating process. Alternatively, if coding is head- or frame-centered, updating errors should be related to the changes in their orientation. Ten subjects were instructed to memorize the orientation of a briefly flashed line, surrounded by a tilted visual frame, then rotate their head, and subsequently judge the orientation of a second line relative to the memorized first while the frame was upright. Results showed that updating errors were mostly related to the amount of subjective distortion of gravity at both the initial and final head orientation, rather than to the amount of intervening head rotation. In some subjects, a smaller part of the updating error was also related to the change of visual frame orientation. We conclude that the brain relies primarily on a gravity-based reference to remember line orientation during head roll.

  13. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  14. Framing in criminal investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Failures in criminal investigation may lead to wrongful convictions. Insight in the criminal investigation process is needed to understand how these investigative failures may rise and how measures can contribute to the prevention of this kind of failures. Some of the main findings of an empirical study of the criminal investigation process in four cases of major investigations are presented here. This criminal investigation process is analyzed as a process of framing, using Goffman's framing (Goffman, 1975) and interaction theories (Goffman, 1990). It shows that in addition to framing, other substantive and social factors affect the criminal investigation. PMID:29046594

  15. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  16. On transforms between Gabor frames and wavelet frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2013-01-01

    We describe a procedure that enables us to construct dual pairs of wavelet frames from certain dual pairs of Gabor frames. Applying the construction to Gabor frames generated by appropriate exponential Bsplines gives wavelet frames generated by functions whose Fourier transforms are compactly...... supported splines with geometrically distributed knot sequences. There is also a reverse transform, which yields pairs of dual Gabor frames when applied to certain wavelet frames....

  17. Frames for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Deguang; Larson, David; Weber, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Frames for Undergraduates is an undergraduate-level introduction to the theory of frames in a Hilbert space. This book can serve as a text for a special-topics course in frame theory, but it could also be used to teach a second semester of linear algebra, using frames as an application of the theoretical concepts. It can also provide a complete and helpful resource for students doing undergraduate research projects using frames. The early chapters contain the topics from linear algebra that students need to know in order to read the rest of the book. The later chapters are devoted to advanced topics, which allow students with more experience to study more intricate types of frames. Toward that end, a Student Presentation section gives detailed proofs of fairly technical results with the intention that a student could work out these proofs independently and prepare a presentation to a class or research group. The authors have also presented some stories in the Anecdotes section about how this material has moti...

  18. Weaving Hilbert space fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani; Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar

    2018-01-01

    A new notion in frame theory, so called weaving frames has been recently introduced to deal with some problems in signal processing and wireless sensor networks. Also, fusion frames are an important extension of frames, used in many areas especially for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the notion of weaving Hilbert space fusion frames. This concept can be had potential applications in wireless sensor networks which require distributed processing using different fusion frames...

  19. Comparative multibody dynamics analysis of falls from playground climbing frames

    OpenAIRE

    Forero Rueda, Manuel A.; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the utility of multibody dynamics in evaluating changes in injury related parameters of the head and lower limbs of children following falls from playground climbing frames. A particular fall case was used as a starting point to analyze the influence of surface properties, posture of the body at impact, and intermediate collisions against the climbing frame before impacting the ground. Simulations were made using the 6-year-old pedestrian MADYMO rigid body model and scaled he...

  20. Framing Artistic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxvig, Henrik; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    A mail correspondence between heads of research at respectively The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation and the Aarhus School of Architecture. The correspondence discuss how to implement artistic research.......A mail correspondence between heads of research at respectively The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation and the Aarhus School of Architecture. The correspondence discuss how to implement artistic research....

  1. Operator representations of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show......The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...

  2. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  3. Framing (implicitly) matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalikova, Radka

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit...... and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified...... by the participants’ religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion...

  4. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  5. Video frame processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.M.; Agashe, Alok; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides technical description regarding the Video Frame Processor (VFP) developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The instrument provides capture of video images available in CCIR format. Two memory planes each with a capacity of 512 x 512 x 8 bit data enable storage of two video image frames. The stored image can be processed on-line and on-line image subtraction can also be carried out for image comparisons. The VFP is a PC Add-on board and is I/O mapped within the host IBM PC/AT compatible computer. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 19 photographs

  6. What's in a Frame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    Maintaining a good image and reputation in the eyes of stakeholders is vital to the organisation. Thus, in its corporate communication and discourse the organisation will seek to present or frame itself as favourably as possible while observing regulations stipulating accuracy and precision...... an organisation, and hence in shaping the image projected to the public. Framing is here understood as the selection of ‘some aspects of perceived reality … [making] them more salient in the communication text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation...

  7. Thinking inside the frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    directed at the humanities. The purpose of this study is to argue the case for further research of public understanding of the humanities and to take a first step in that direction by presenting a study of the framing of the humanities in Danish print news media. Different framings of the humanities......The humanities, the natural and social sciences all represent advanced and systematic knowledge production—and they all receive public funding for doing so. However, although the field of public understanding of science has been well established for decades, similar research attention has not been...

  8. Framing financial culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2014-01-01

    between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....

  9. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  10. Frame scaling function sets and frame wavelet sets in Rd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanwei; Hu Guoen; Wu Guochang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we classify frame wavelet sets and frame scaling function sets in higher dimensions. Firstly, we obtain a necessary condition for a set to be the frame wavelet sets. Then, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be a frame scaling function set. We give a property of frame scaling function sets, too. Some corresponding examples are given to prove our theory in each section.

  11. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  12. Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...

  13. The Cage; Framing Dad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Unfolding his story very gradually and arousing the viewer’s curiosity, Sitaru invites the audience to investigate the parents’ and the boy’s mutual positions in their small flat, as well as the various layers of their conversations, through such means as framing, editing style, and the use...

  14. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  15. Framing the Oscars live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Helle Kannik

    2016-01-01

    How is the global media event of the Oscars localised through the talk show on Danish television? How are both the mediated film star and the special brand of Hollywood celebrity culture addressed by the cultural intermediaries in the Danish framing? These are the questions I propose to answer...

  16. Quotation and Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    . In Black Angels the composer – among other well-known pieces of music – quotes the medieval dies irae sequence and the second movement of Schubert’s string quartet in D minor (D. 810). The musical and intermedial references are framed with striking modernistic sounds exploring instrumental possibilities...

  17. Framing ‘fracking’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public

  18. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  19. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    consensus. It extents research on framing in mass communication by applying institutional theory and Boltanski and Thévenot’s (2006) theory on justification in order to explain how the success and failure of proposed interpretations depend on the mobilization of accepted social institutions to justify...

  1. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  2. Some relationship between G-frames and frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proved that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space $H$ with respect to $K$ by adding a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert $B(K$-module $B(H,K$. This is an extension of [A. Askarizadeh,M. A. Dehghan, {em G-frames as special frames}, Turk. J. Math., 35, (2011 1-11]. Also, we derived similar results for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases. Some relationships between dual frame, dual g-frame and exact frame and exact g-frame are presented too.

  3. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  4. Wavelet frames and their duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    frames with good time localization and other attractive properties. Furthermore, the dual wavelet frames are constructed in such a way that we are guaranteed that both frames will have the same desirable features. The construction procedure works for any real, expansive dilation. A quasi-affine system....... The signals are then represented by linear combinations of the building blocks with coefficients found by an associated frame, called a dual frame. A wavelet frame is a frame where the building blocks are stretched (dilated) and translated versions of a single function; such a frame is said to have wavelet...... structure. The dilation of the wavelet building blocks in higher dimension is done via a square matrix which is usually taken to be integer valued. In this thesis we step away from the "usual" integer, expansive dilation and consider more general, expansive dilations. In most applications of wavelet frames...

  5. The Trouble with Issues: The Case for Intentional Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Susan Nall

    2009-01-01

    Although framing as a process is value neutral, since it can be put to any political, commercial, or ideological purpose, this article shows how it can be used to engage Americans in discussions of public life and how it might be improved. By offering readers a deeper understanding of the pictures in people's heads that often prevent engagement in…

  6. Work and Inertial Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard

    2017-12-01

    A fairly recent paper resolves a large discrepancy in the internal energy utilized to fire a cannon as calculated by two inertial observers. Earth and its small reaction velocity must be considered in the system so that the change in kinetic energy is calculated correctly. This paper uses a car in a similar scenario, but considers the work done by forces acting over distances. An analysis of the system must include all energy interactions, including the work done on the car and especially the (negative) work done on Earth in a moving reference frame. This shows the importance of considering the force on Earth and the distance Earth travels. For calculation of work in inertial reference frames, the center of mass perspective is shown to be useful. We also consider the energy requirements to efficiently accelerate a mass among interacting masses.

  7. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... of end users from as many labs and user groups as possible has been rather slow but quite successful in building international trust and cooperation around the system. This is mandatory prerequisites when our primary goal is not the programming project itself, but the creation of a tool that adds real...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....

  8. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...

  9. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  10. Density of Gabor Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Heil, C.; Deng, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Gabor system is a set of time-frequency shifts$S(g,\\Lambda) = \\{e^{2\\pi i b x} g(x-a)\\}_{(a,b) \\in \\Lambda}$of a function $g \\in L^2({\\bold R}^d)$.We prove that if a finite union of Gabor systems$\\bigcup_{k=1}^r S(g_k,\\Lambda_k)$, with arbitrary sequences $\\Lambda_k$,forms a frame for $L^2({\\bo...

  11. Pseudo-set framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasz, Kate; John, Leslie K; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Norton, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete. In turn, these feelings of incompleteness motivate people to persist until the pseudo-set has been fulfilled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Attribute Framing and Goal Framing Effects in Health Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy; Carter, Patrick; Blair, Edward

    2001-07-01

    Levin, Schneider, and Gaeth (LSG, 1998) have distinguished among three types of framing-risky choice, attribute, and goal framing-to reconcile conflicting findings in the literature. In the research reported here, we focus on attribute and goal framing. LSG propose that positive frames should be more effective than negative frames in the context of attribute framing, and negative frames should be more effective than positive frames in the context of goal framing. We test this framework by manipulating frame valence (positive vs negative) and frame type (attribute vs goal) in a unified context with common procedures. We also argue that the nature of effects in a goal-framing context may depend on the extent to which the research topic has "intrinsic self-relevance" to the population. In the context of medical decision making, we operationalize low intrinsic self-relevance by using student subjects and high intrinsic self-relevance by using patients. As expected, we find complete support for the LSG framework under low intrinsic self-relevance and modified support for the LSG framework under high intrinsic self-relevance. Overall, our research appears to confirm and extend the LSG framework. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case

  14. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... M. encyclopedia. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  15. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  16. Frames in super Hilbert modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define super Hilbert module and investigate frames in this space. Super Hilbert modules are  generalization of super Hilbert spaces in Hilbert C*-module setting. Also, we define frames in a super Hilbert module and characterize them by using of the concept of g-frames in a Hilbert C*-module. Finally, disjoint frames in Hilbert C*-modules are introduced and investigated.

  17. New avenues for framing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the studies in this special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist. It is a strong collection of articles reporting findings from an integrated project that looks at frame building, frames, and effects of frames. The project is part of an exciting large-scale

  18. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  19. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  1. on Goal Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia P. Abril

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En respuesta a la enorme y algunas veces conceptualmente inconsistente literatura sobre valence framing,Levin y sus colegas (1998 desarrollaron una tipología de encuadre de valencia que organiza los diferentesresultados a partir de elección arriesgada, atributo, y encuadre de los resultados (goal framing. Este estudiofavorece la literatura sobre encuadre de los resultados mediante (a su aplicación en el contexto de una cuestiónsocial como la pobreza infantil extrema; y (b el examen de los mecanismos afectivos sobre el cual el encuadrede los resultados es de eficacia persuasiva. Los resultados experimentales (N = 197 mostraron que la exposiciónal mensaje de encuadre de pérdida permitió un apoyo mayor hacia las políticas públicas que buscan erradicar lapobreza infantil, en comparación con el mensaje de encuadre de ganancia. Los resultados también revelaronque el afecto negativo sirve como herramienta mediadora de apoyo hacia las políticas públicas. Estos hallazgossugieren que, en el contexto del apoyo social hacia la población pobre, la capacidad de persuasión dentro delencuadre de pérdida se facilita cuando los participantes experimentan afectos negativos.

  2. Balinese Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  3. Cognitive framing in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping in inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1989-05-01

    World space mapping in inertial frames is used to examine the Lorentz covariance of symmetry operations. It is found that the Galilean invariant concepts of simultaneity (S), parity (P), and time reversal symmetry (T) are not Lorentz covariant concepts for inertial observers. That is, just as the concept of simultaneity has no significance independent of the Lorentz inertial frame, likewise so are the concepts of parity and time reversal. However, the world parity (W) [i.e., the space-time reversal symmetry (P-T)] is a truly Lorentz covariant concept. Indeed, it is shown that only those mapping matrices M that commute with the Lorentz transformation matrix L (i.e., [M,L] = 0) are the ones that correspond to manifestly Lorentz covariant operations. This result is in accordance with the spirit of the world space Mach's principle. Since the Lorentz transformation is an orthogonal transformation while the Galilean transformation is not an orthogonal transformation, the formal relativistic space-time mapping theory used here does not have a corresponding non-relativistic counterpart. 12 refs

  5. Identifying issue frames in text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Sagi

    Full Text Available Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.

  6. Message framing and perinatal decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haward, Marlyse F; Murphy, Ryan O; Lorenz, John M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of information framing on parental decisions about resuscitation of extremely premature infants. Secondary outcomes focused on elucidating the impact of other variables on treatment choices and determining whether those effects would take precedence over any framing effects. This confidential survey study was administered to adult volunteers via the Internet. The surveys depicted a hypothetical vignette of a threatened delivery at gestational age of 23 weeks, with prognostic outcome information framed as either survival with lack of disability (positive frame) or chance of dying and likelihood of disability among survivors (negative frame). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the positively or negatively framed vignette. They were then asked to choose whether they would prefer resuscitation or comfort care. After completing the survey vignette, participants were directed to a questionnaire designed to test the secondary hypothesis and to explore possible factors associated with treatment decisions. A total of 146 subjects received prognostic information framed as survival data and 146 subjects received prognostic information framed as mortality data. Overall, 24% of the sample population chose comfort care and 76% chose resuscitation. A strong trend was detected toward a framing effect on treatment preference; respondents for whom prognosis was framed as survival data were more likely to elect resuscitation. This framing effect was significant in a multivariate analysis controlling for religiousness, parental status, and beliefs regarding the sanctity of life. Of these covariates, only religiousness modified susceptibility to framing; participants who were not highly religious were significantly more likely to be influenced to opt for resuscitation by the positive frame than were participants who were highly religious. Framing bias may compromise efforts to approach prenatal counseling in a

  7. Comparative multibody dynamics analysis of falls from playground climbing frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero Rueda, M A; Gilchrist, M D

    2009-10-30

    This paper shows the utility of multibody dynamics in evaluating changes in injury related parameters of the head and lower limbs of children following falls from playground climbing frames. A particular fall case was used as a starting point to analyze the influence of surface properties, posture of the body at impact, and intermediate collisions against the climbing frame before impacting the ground. Simulations were made using the 6-year-old pedestrian MADYMO rigid body model and scaled head contact characteristics. Energy absorbing surfaces were shown to reduce injury severity parameters by up to 30-80% of those of rigid surfaces, depending on impact posture and surface. Collisions against components of a climbing frame during a fall can increase injury severity of the final impact of the head with the ground by more than 90%. Negligible changes are associated with lower limb injury risks when different surfacing materials are used. Computer reconstructions of actual falls that are intended to quantify the severity of physical injuries rely on accurate knowledge of initial conditions prior to falling, intermediate kinematics of the fall and the orientation of the body when it impacts against the ground. Multibody modelling proved to be a valuable tool to analyze the quality of eyewitness information and analyze the relative injury risk associated with changes in components influencing fall injuries from playground climbing frames. Such simulations can also support forensic investigations by evaluating alternative hypotheses for the sequence of kinematic motion of falls which result in known injuries.

  8. Framing the Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Genres are ways for organisations of discursively interacting with the surrounding world, with the aim of achieving specific disciplinary goals (Bhatia 2004). As such, the management job ad has the objective of finding the right candidate for the management job advertised (Norlyk 2006......). In this process, framing (Evans & Green 2006; Fillmore 1982; Kövecses 2006; Lakoff 1987, 1996) plays a salient role in conceptualising the profile and qualities of the preferred candidate, drawing on established cultural models of what constitutes the perfect leader. Thus, in a Danish setting we may talk of two...... in this realisation, the fact that one of the two models, the ‘goal-oriented motivator’ model, seems to be monopolising the genre raises a number of issues that need to be addressed: How is this model realised conceptually and linguistically? Why does this model continue to be the Danish business world’s preferred...

  9. Shield support frame. Schildausbaugestell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, K.

    1981-09-17

    A powered shield support frame for coal sheds is described comprising of two bottom sliding shoes, a large area gob shield and a larg area roof assembly, all joined movable together. The sliding shoes and the gob shield are joined by a lemniscate guide. Two hydraulic props are arranged at the face-side at one third of the length of the sliding shoes and at the goaf-side at one third of the length of the roof assembly. A nearly horizontal lying pushing prop unit joins the bottom wall sliding shoes to the goaf-side lemniscate guide. This assembly can be applied to seams with a thickness down to 45 cm. (OGR).

  10. Voz sobre frame relay

    OpenAIRE

    D´Elia, Gabriel Anibal

    2000-01-01

    Esta tesis trata el tema de VOFR, desde la digitalización de la voz hasta su transmisión a través de dicha red, así también como la comparación con otros medios de transporte como VOIP. Dada las características del protocolo frame relay y su disponibilidad se eligió como el medio más apropiado para la transmisión de voz y datos en forma integrada sobre una misma red. El trabajo comienza con una breve explicación de la voz, su digitalización y forma actual de transmisión a través de una red di...

  11. Riesz frames and approximation of the frame coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.; Christensen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A frame is a fmaily {f i } i=1 ∞ of elements in a Hilbert space with the property that every element in can be written as a (infinite) linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes how one can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are called frame coefficients. From...... the mathematical point of view this is gratifying, but for applications it is a problem that the calculation requires inversion of an operator on . The projection method is introduced in order to avoid this problem. The basic idea is to consider finite subfamilies {f i } i=1 n of the frame and the orthogonal...... projection Pn onto its span. For has a representation as a linear combination of fi, i=1,2,..., n and the corresponding coefficients can be calculated using finite dimensional methods. We find conditions implying that those coefficients converge to the correct frame coefficients as n→∞, in which case we have...

  12. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanli Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  13. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, Mehmet; Unal, Alptug

    2017-10-01

    After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  14. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  15. Six problems in frame theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role.......We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role....

  16. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    The time–frequency analysis of a signal is often performed via a series expansion arising from well-localized building blocks. Typically, the building blocks are based on frames having either Gabor or wavelet structure. In order to calculate the coefficients in the series expansion, a dual frame...... is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  17. Frames, agency and institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Jensen, Per Langaa; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    This study examines change and the sources influencing the formulation and diffusion of policies in construction. The change examined is the introduction of a benchmarking policy initiative in the Danish construction industry. Using institutional theory with emphasis on the concepts of frames...... and framings, we show how strategically motivated actors are able to frame policy problems in ways that disclose the mixture of motives, interests and institutional mechanisms at play in change processes. In doing so, we contribute to the literature on the role of agency in institutional change and the framing...

  18. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  19. column frame for design of reinforced concrete sway frames

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adminstrator

    design of slender reinforced concrete columns in sway frames according .... concrete,. Ac = gross cross-sectional area of the columns. Step 3: Effective Buckling Length Factors. The effective buckling length factors of columns in a sway frame shall be computed by .... shall have adequate resistance to failure in a sway mode ...

  20. Power to the frame: bringing sociology back to frame analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; van Zoonen, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article critically reviews current frame and framing research in media and communication studies. It is first argued that most authors fail to distinguish between ‘frame’ and ‘framing’ and therewith produce a conceptual confusion and imprecision that is not conducive to the field. Second, it is

  1. Value Framing: A Prelude to Software Problem Framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Gordijn, Jaap; van Eck, Pascal; Cox, K.; Hall, J.G.; Rapanotti, L.

    2004-01-01

    Software problem framing is a way to find specifications for software. Software problem frames can be used to structure the environment of a software system (the machine) and specify desired software properties in such a way that we can show that software with these properties will help achieve the

  2. New characterizations of fusion frames (frames of subspaces)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory (College Park, MD, 2003) Contemp. Math. 345, Amer. Math. Soc. (RI: Provi- dence) (2004) 87–113. [4] Casazza P G and Kutyniok G, Robustness of Fusion Frames under Erasures of sub- spaces and of Local Frame Vectors, Radon transforms, geometry, and wavelets (LA: New Orleans) (2006) Contemp. Math., Amer.

  3. Body frames and frame singularities for three-atom systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.; Mitchell, K.A.; Aquilanti, V.; Cavalli, S.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of body frames and their singularities for three-particle systems is important not only for large-amplitude rovibrational coupling in molecular spectroscopy, but also for reactive scattering calculations. This paper presents a geometrical analysis of the meaning of body frame conventions and their singularities in three-particle systems. Special attention is devoted to the principal axis frame, a certain version of the Eckart frame, and the topological inevitability of frame singularities. The emphasis is on a geometrical picture, which is intended as a preliminary study for the more difficult case of four-particle systems, where one must work in higher-dimensional spaces. The analysis makes extensive use of kinematic rotations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Riesz Frames and Approximation of the Frame Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A frame is a familyof elements in a Hilbert space with the propertythat every element in the Hilbert space can be written as a (infinite)linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes howone can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are calledframe coefficients. From...... the mathematical point of view this isgratifying, but for applications it is a problem that the calculationrequires inversion of an operator on the Hilbert space.The projection method is introduced in order to avoid this problem.The basic idea is to consider finite subfamiliesof the frame and the orthogonal...... projection onto its span. Forfin QTR H,P_nf has a representation as a linear combinationof f_i,i=1,2,..,n, and the corresponding coefficients can be calculatedusing finite dimensional methods. We find conditions implying that thosecoefficients converge to the correct frame coefficients as n goes...

  5. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  6. Framing the frame: How task goals determine the likelihood and direction of framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Todd McElroy; John J. Seta

    2007-01-01

    We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the ty...

  7. [The framing effect: medical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Ketti; Cherubini, Paolo; Rumiati, Rino

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, many studies explored how the way information is presented modifies choices. This sort of effect, referred to as "framing effects", typically consists of the inversion of choices when presenting structurally identical decision problems in different ways. It is a common assumption that physicians are unaffected (or less affected) by the surface description of a decision problem, because they are formally trained in medical decision making. However, several studies showed that framing effects occur even in the medical field. The complexity and variability of these effects are remarkable, making it necessary to distinguish among different framing effects, depending on whether the effect is obtained by modifying adjectives (attribute framing), goals of a behavior (goal framing), or the probability of an outcome (risky choice framing). A further reason for the high variability of the framing effects seems to be the domain of the decision problem, with different effects occurring in prevention decisions, disease-detection decisions, and treatment decisions. The present work reviews the studies on framing effects, in order to summarize them and clarify their possible role in medical decision making.

  8. FRAME CATAGORIZATION OF CONVERSATIONAL INTIMACY

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov Kit

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of intimacy. The frame of intimacy is studied on the basis of the linguistic parameters, analysis of text extracts and universal knowledge about intimacy. Frame analysis helped to establish the catagorization of types and nominators of intimate speech genres, their construction in static and dynamic aspects.

  9. Frame Catagorization of Conversational Intimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov Kit

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of intimacy. The frame of intimacy is studied on the basis of the linguistic parameters, analysis of text extracts and universal knowledge about intimacy. Frame analysis helped to establish the catagorization of types and nominators of intimate speech genres, their construction in static and dynamic aspects.

  10. Frames and outer frames for Hilbert C^*-modules

    OpenAIRE

    Arambašić, Ljiljana; Bakić, Damir

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to extend the theory of frames for countably generated Hilbert $C^*$-modules over arbitrary $C^*$-algebras. In investigating the non-unital case we introduce the concept of outer frame as a sequence in the multiplier module $M(X)$ that has the standard frame property when applied to elements of the ambient module $X$. Given a Hilbert $\\A$-module $X$, we prove that there is a bijective correspondence of the set of all adjointable surjections from the generalize...

  11. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  12. Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…

  13. serialising languages: satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    George Saad

    Figure 2: Verb-framed construction type (Slobin 2000: 109). 2 ... 2 An anonymous reviewer asks why we have replaced Talmy's conflation term “Ground” with ..... an S-language may predispose speakers to pay more linguistic attention to.

  14. Serialising languages: Satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity in the coding of the core schema of motion, i.e., Path, has led to a traditional typology of languages into verb-framed and satellite-framed languages. In the former Path is encoded in verbs and in the latter it is encoded in non-verb elements that function as sisters to co-event expressing verbs such as manner ...

  15. Framing of health information messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-12-07

    The same information about the evidence on health effects can be framed either in positive words or in negative words. Some research suggests that positive versus negative framing can lead to different decisions, a phenomenon described as the framing effect. Attribute framing is the positive versus negative description of a specific attribute of a single item or a state, for example, "the chance of survival with cancer is 2/3" versus "the chance of mortality with cancer is 1/3". Goal framing is the description of the consequences of performing or not performing an act as a gain versus a loss, for example, "if you undergo a screening test for cancer, your survival will be prolonged" versus "if you don't undergo screening test for cancer, your survival will be shortened". To evaluate the effects of attribute (positive versus negative) framing and of goal (gain versus loss) framing of the same health information, on understanding, perception of effectiveness, persuasiveness, and behavior of health professionals, policy makers, and consumers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, issue 3 2007), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1966 to October 2007), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2007), PsycINFO (Ovid) (1887 to October 2007). There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of related systematic reviews, included studies and of excluded but closely related studies. We also contacted experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, and cross-over studies with health professionals, policy makers, and consumers evaluating one of the two types of framing. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate and independently. We graded the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We standardized the outcome effects using standardized mean difference (SMD). We stratified the analysis by the type of framing (attribute, goal) and conducted pre

  16. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  17. SU-F-J-166: Volumetric Spatial Distortions Comparison for 1.5 Tesla Versus 3 Tesla MRI for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Scans Using Frame Marker Fusion and Co-Registration Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyman, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare typical volumetric spatial distortions for 1.5 Tesla versus 3 Tesla MRI Gamma Knife radiosurgery scans in the frame marker fusion and co-registration frame-less modes. Methods: Quasar phantom by Modus Medical Devices Inc. with GRID image distortion software was used for measurements of volumetric distortions. 3D volumetric T1 weighted scans of the phantom were produced on 1.5 T Avanto and 3 T Skyra MRI Siemens scanners. The analysis was done two ways: for scans with localizer markers from the Leksell frame and relatively to the phantom only (simulated co-registration technique). The phantom grid contained a total of 2002 vertices or control points that were used in the assessment of volumetric geometric distortion for all scans. Results: Volumetric mean absolute spatial deviations relatively to the frame localizer markers for 1.5 and 3 Tesla machine were: 1.39 ± 0.15 and 1.63 ± 0.28 mm with max errors of 1.86 and 2.65 mm correspondingly. Mean 2D errors from the Gamma Plan were 0.3 and 1.0 mm. For simulated co-registration technique the volumetric mean absolute spatial deviations relatively to the phantom for 1.5 and 3 Tesla machine were: 0.36 ± 0.08 and 0.62 ± 0.13 mm with max errors of 0.57 and 1.22 mm correspondingly. Conclusion: Volumetric spatial distortions are lower for 1.5 Tesla versus 3 Tesla MRI machines localized with markers on frames and significantly lower for co-registration techniques with no frame localization. The results show the advantage of using co-registration technique for minimizing MRI volumetric spatial distortions which can be especially important for steep dose gradient fields typically used in Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Consultant for Elekta AB

  18. SU-F-J-166: Volumetric Spatial Distortions Comparison for 1.5 Tesla Versus 3 Tesla MRI for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Scans Using Frame Marker Fusion and Co-Registration Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyman, G [The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare typical volumetric spatial distortions for 1.5 Tesla versus 3 Tesla MRI Gamma Knife radiosurgery scans in the frame marker fusion and co-registration frame-less modes. Methods: Quasar phantom by Modus Medical Devices Inc. with GRID image distortion software was used for measurements of volumetric distortions. 3D volumetric T1 weighted scans of the phantom were produced on 1.5 T Avanto and 3 T Skyra MRI Siemens scanners. The analysis was done two ways: for scans with localizer markers from the Leksell frame and relatively to the phantom only (simulated co-registration technique). The phantom grid contained a total of 2002 vertices or control points that were used in the assessment of volumetric geometric distortion for all scans. Results: Volumetric mean absolute spatial deviations relatively to the frame localizer markers for 1.5 and 3 Tesla machine were: 1.39 ± 0.15 and 1.63 ± 0.28 mm with max errors of 1.86 and 2.65 mm correspondingly. Mean 2D errors from the Gamma Plan were 0.3 and 1.0 mm. For simulated co-registration technique the volumetric mean absolute spatial deviations relatively to the phantom for 1.5 and 3 Tesla machine were: 0.36 ± 0.08 and 0.62 ± 0.13 mm with max errors of 0.57 and 1.22 mm correspondingly. Conclusion: Volumetric spatial distortions are lower for 1.5 Tesla versus 3 Tesla MRI machines localized with markers on frames and significantly lower for co-registration techniques with no frame localization. The results show the advantage of using co-registration technique for minimizing MRI volumetric spatial distortions which can be especially important for steep dose gradient fields typically used in Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Consultant for Elekta AB.

  19. Frames and counter-frames giving meaning to dementia: a framing analysis of media content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorp, Baldwin; Vercruysse, Tom

    2012-04-01

    Media tend to reinforce the stigmatization of dementia as one of the most dreaded diseases in western society, which may have repercussions on the quality of life of those with the illness. The persons with dementia, but also those around them become imbued with the idea that life comes to an end as soon as the diagnosis is pronounced. The aim of this paper is to understand the dominant images related to dementia by means of an inductive framing analysis. The sample is composed of newspaper articles from six Belgian newspapers (2008-2010) and a convenience sample of popular images of the condition in movies, documentaries, literature and health care communications. The results demonstrate that the most dominant frame postulates that a human being is composed of two distinct parts: a material body and an immaterial mind. If this frame is used, the person with dementia ends up with no identity, which is in opposition to the Western ideals of personal self-fulfilment and individualism. For each dominant frame an alternative counter-frame is defined. It is concluded that the relative absence of counter-frames confirms the negative image of dementia. The inventory might be a help for caregivers and other professionals who want to evaluate their communication strategy. It is discussed that a more resolute use of counter-frames in communication about dementia might mitigate the stigma that surrounds dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  1. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  2. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  3. Reynolds Stress Closure for Inertial Frames and Rotating Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Charles; Benard, Andre

    2017-11-01

    In a rotating frame-of-reference, the Coriolis acceleration and the mean vorticity field have a profound impact on the redistribution of kinetic energy among the three components of the fluctuating velocity. Consequently, the normalized Reynolds (NR) stress is not objective. Furthermore, because the Reynolds stress is defined as an ensemble average of a product of fluctuating velocity vector fields, its eigenvalues must be non-negative for all turbulent flows. These fundamental properties (realizability and non-objectivity) of the NR-stress cannot be compromised in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of turbulent flows in either inertial frames or in rotating frames. The recently developed universal realizable anisotropic prestress (URAPS) closure for the NR-stress depends explicitly on the local mean velocity gradient and the Coriolis operator. The URAPS-closure is a significant paradigm shift from turbulent closure models that assume that dyadic-valued operators associated with turbulent fluctuations are objective.

  4. Frames of exponentials:lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies, and approximation of the inverse frame operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Lindner, Alexander M

    2001-01-01

    We give lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies of a frame of exponentials {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ in L-2(-pi,pi). We also present a method for approximation of the inverse frame operator corresponding to {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ, where knowledge of the frame bounds for...

  5. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  6. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  7. Another frame, another game? : Explaining framing effects in economic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, B.; Hopfensitz, A.; Lori, E.

    2016-01-01

    Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate

  8. C-connected frame congruences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmanand Baboolal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the congruences $theta$ that are connected as  elements of the (totally disconnected congruence frame $CF L$,  and show that they are in a one-to-one correspondence with the completely prime elements of $L$, giving an explicit formula. Then we investigate those frames $L$ with enough connected congruences to cover the whole of $CF L$. They are, among others, shown to be $T_D$-spatial;  characteristics for some special cases (Boolean, linear, scattered and Noetherian are presented.

  9. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  10. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  11. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  12. Sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We study sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames of a given finite frame. We show that any finite frame has a dual with no more than $n^2$ non-vanishing entries, where $n$ denotes the ambient dimension, and that for most frames no sparser dual is possible. Moreover, we derive an expressio...

  13. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and G?vruta etc.

  14. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging or...

  15. Key Frame Extraction in the Summary Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqiang; Xuelong Li; Bin Zhao; Xiaoqiang Lu; Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Key frame extraction is an efficient way to create the video summary which helps users obtain a quick comprehension of the video content. Generally, the key frames should be representative of the video content, meanwhile, diverse to reduce the redundancy. Based on the assumption that the video data are near a subspace of a high-dimensional space, a new approach, named as key frame extraction in the summary space, is proposed for key frame extraction in this paper. The proposed approach aims to find the representative frames of the video and filter out similar frames from the representative frame set. First of all, the video data are mapped to a high-dimensional space, named as summary space. Then, a new representation is learned for each frame by analyzing the intrinsic structure of the summary space. Specifically, the learned representation can reflect the representativeness of the frame, and is utilized to select representative frames. Next, the perceptual hash algorithm is employed to measure the similarity of representative frames. As a result, the key frame set is obtained after filtering out similar frames from the representative frame set. Finally, the video summary is constructed by assigning the key frames in temporal order. Additionally, the ground truth, created by filtering out similar frames from human-created summaries, is utilized to evaluate the quality of the video summary. Compared with several traditional approaches, the experimental results on 80 videos from two datasets indicate the superior performance of our approach.

  16. A new 3-dimensional head fixation device for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Akaizawa, Takashi; Koyama, Masamichi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new head fixation device for studies of brain function. This device was designed to immobilize subject's heads during image scanning and to precisely reproduce the head position for two different imaging modalities such as MRI and PET. The device consists of a plastic frame, a pillow filled with beads of styrene foam, and a face mask of thermoplastic resin which was originally intended for application in radiotherapy. A bridge for biting was incorporated into the mask for stable fixation. The device enables immobilization of subject's heads with good reproducibility of position at the practical level. Our results indicate that this head fixation system is useful for fixation of head during activation studies using PET. (author)

  17. Framing and misperception in public good experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have found that framing has substantial impact on the degree of cooperation observed in public good experiments. We show that the way the public good game is framed affects misperceptions about the incentives of the game. Moreover, we show that such framing-induced differences...... in misperceptions are linked to the framing effect on subjects' cooperation behavior. When we do not control for the different levels of misperceptions between frames, we observe a significant framing effect on subjects’ cooperation preferences. However, this framing effect becomes insignificant once we remove...

  18. Media framing and social movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Snow, D.A.; Della Porta, D.; Klandermans, B.; McAdam, D.

    2013-01-01

    In their study of media content, mass communication scholars commonly rely on Entman's (1993: 52) definition of framing: "[selecting] some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal

  19. On framed simple Lie groups

    OpenAIRE

    MINAMI, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    For a compact simple Lie group $G$, we show that the element $[G, \\mathcal{L}] \\in \\pi^S_*(S^0)$ represented by the pair $(G, \\mathcal{L})$ is zero, where $\\mathcal{L}$ denotes the left invariant framing of $G$. The proof relies on the method of E. Ossa [Topology, 21 (1982), 315–323].

  20. Handedness differences in information framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, John D; Fournier, Candice; Christman, Stephen D

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has shown that strength of handedness predicts differences in sensory illusions, Stroop interference, episodic memory, and beliefs about body image. Recent evidence also suggests handedness differences in the susceptibility to common decision biases such as anchoring and sunk cost. The present paper extends this line of work to attribute framing effects. Sixty-three undergraduates were asked to advise a friend concerning the use of a safe allergy medication during pregnancy. A third of the participants received negatively-framed information concerning the fetal risk of the drug (1-3% chance of having a malformed child); another third received positively-framed information (97-99% chance of having a normal child); and the final third received no counseling information and served as the control. Results indicated that, as predicted, inconsistent (mixed)-handers were more responsive than consistent (strong)-handers to information changes and readily update their beliefs. Although not significant, the data also suggested that only inconsistent handers were affected by information framing. Theoretical implications as well as ongoing work in holistic versus analytic processing, contextual sensitivity, and brain asymmetry will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta framing and polyphonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    in various ways in BT’s 2012 coverage of a doping case involving Riis. In this article I investigate the way in which BT meta frames itself and its own actions in order to show and underline the seriousness with which BT treats sports journalism. The study is part of a recurring Danish project harvesting...

  2. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  3. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  4. Plasma physics in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    Equations describing the nonrelativistic motion of a charged particle in an arbitrary noninertial reference frame are derived from the relativistically invariant form of the particle action. It is shown that the equations of motion can be written in the same form in inertial and noninertial frames, with the effective electric and magnetic fields in the latter modified by inertial effects associated with centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations. These modifications depend on the particle charge-to-mass ratio, and also the vorticity, specific kinetic energy, and compressibility of the frame flow. The Newton-Lorentz, Vlasov, and Fokker-Planck equations in such a frame are derived. Reduced models such as gyrokinetic, drift-kinetic, and fluid equations are then derivable from these equations in the appropriate limits, using standard averaging procedures. The results are applied to tokamak plasmas rotating about the machine symmetry axis with a nonrelativistic but otherwise arbitrary toroidal flow velocity. Astrophysical applications of the analysis are also possible since the power of the action principle is such that it can be used to describe relativistic flows in curved spacetime.

  5. Framing the future of fracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technology developed to improve and increase the production of natural gas. In many countries, including the Netherlands, it has caused environmental controversies. In these controversies, 'futurity framing' may open up debates for alternative paradigms such as

  6. Frames and generalized shift-invariant systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    With motivation from the theory of Hilbert-Schmidt operators we review recent topics concerning frames in L 2 (R) and their duals. Frames are generalizations of orthonormal bases in Hilbert spaces. As for an orthonormal basis, a frame allows each element in the underlying Hilbert space...... to be written as an unconditionally convergent infinite linear combination of the frame elements; however, in contrast to the situation for a basis, the coefficients might not be unique. We present the basic facts from frame theory and the motivation for the fact that most recent research concentrates on tight...... frames or dual frame pairs rather than general frames and their canonical dual. The corresponding results for Gabor frames and wavelet frames are discussed in detail....

  7. MR-guided data framing for PET motion correction in simultaneous MR–PET: A preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullisch, M.G., E-mail: m.ullisch@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Scheins, J.; Weirich, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Celik, A.; Tellmann, L.; Stöcker, T.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    Head motion can significantly degrade image quality of static and dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the human brain. One method to regain acceptable image quality in the presence of motion is to include the correction for motion in the reconstruction process. When applying motion correction, the PET data can be segmented into discrete parts of similar head position, referred to as frames. This framing of the data can reduce the computational overhead necessary for motion correction during the reconstruction process by reducing the number of discrete head positions which have to be accounted for. Here a framing algorithm is presented which minimises residual motion in the framed data, while taking full advantage of the additional information provided by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a simultaneous MR–PET acquisition. In the work presented here information on motion is derived from EPI sequences acquired simultaneously with the PET data. A comparison to images reconstructed with regular framing show a more clearly delineated cortex due to increased contrast between grey matter and white matter. This improvement in image quality is achieved as well as a reduction in the number of frames, thereby reducing the reconstruction time. Preliminary data indicates an efficient reduction of residual intra-frame motion compared to regular framing.

  8. On the structures of Grassmannian frames

    OpenAIRE

    Haas IV, John I.; Casazza, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    A common criterion in the design of finite Hilbert space frames is minimal coherence, as this leads to error reduction in various signal processing applications. Frames that achieve minimal coherence relative to all unit-norm frames are called Grassmannian frames, a class which includes the well-known equiangular tight frames. However, the notion of "coherence minimization" varies according to the constraints of the ambient optimization problem, so there are other types of "minimally coherent...

  9. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  10. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  11. Impression Procedures for Metal Frame Removable Partial Dentures as Applied by General Dental Practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, W.A.; Uchelen, J. van; Witter, D.J.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study analyzed impression procedures for conventional metal frame removable partial dentures (RPDs). Heads of RPD departments of three dental laboratories were asked to record features of all incoming impressions for RPDs during a 2-month period. Records included: (1) impression

  12. Variance based OFDM frame synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Fedra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new frame synchronization scheme for OFDM systems and calculates the complexity of this scheme. The scheme is based on the computing of the detection window variance. The variance is computed in two delayed times, so a modified Early-Late loop is used for the frame position detection. The proposed algorithm deals with different variants of OFDM parameters including guard interval, cyclic prefix, and has good properties regarding the choice of the algorithm's parameters since the parameters may be chosen within a wide range without having a high influence on system performance. The verification of the proposed algorithm functionality has been performed on a development environment using universal software radio peripheral (USRP hardware.

  13. Predicting the Strength of Online News Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Framing theory is one of the most significant approaches to understanding media and their potential impact on publics. Leaving aside that fact, the author finds that publicity effects seem to be dispersed and difficult to catch for public relations. This article employs a specific research design, which could be applied to public relations practice, namely with a view to observing correlations between specific media frames and individual frames. The approach is based on the typology of news frames. The author attributes negative, positive and neutral determinants to the types of frames in his empirical research. Online news regarding three transport organizations and the accompanying user comments (identified as negative, positive and neutral are analysed by means of the method of content and sentiment analysis. The author recognizes user comments and reviews as individual frames that take part in the creation of online image. Furthermore, he identifies the types of media frames as well as individual frames manifested as image, and undertakes correlation research in order to establish their prediction potential. The results expose the most frequently used types of media frames concerning the transport domain. The media are keen to report through the attribution of responsibility frame, and after that, through the economic frame and the conflict frame, but, on the other hand, they tend to neglect the human interest frame and the morality frame. The results show that specific types of news frames enable better prediction of user reactions. The economic frame and the human interest frame therefore represent the most predictable types of frame.

  14. Sovereignty Frames and Sovereignty Claims

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that much of the contemporary confusion and controversy over the meaning and continuing utility of the concept of sovereignty stems from a failure to distinguish between sovereignty as a deep framing device for making sense of the modern legal and political word on the one hand, and the particular claims which are made on behalf of particular institutions, agencies, rules or other entities to possess sovereign authority on the other. The essay begins by providing a basic acc...

  15. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  20. Head injury: audit of a clinical guideline to justify head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydon, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Head injury causes significant morbidity and mortality, and there is contention about which patients to scan. The UK National Health Service Clinical Guideline (CG) 56 provides criteria for selecting patients with clinically important brain injury who may benefit from a head CT scan, while minimising the radiation and economic burden of scanning patients without significant injury. This study aims to audit the documentation of the use of these guidelines in a busy UK trauma hospital and discusses the comparison with an Australian (New South Wales (NSW) ) head injury guideline. A retrospective cohort study of 480 patients presenting with head injury to the emergency department over 2 months was performed. The patient notes were assessed for documentation of each aspect of the clinical guidelines. Criteria were established to assess the utilisation of the CG 56. A database of clinical data was amalgamated with the head CT scan results for each patient. For the UK CG 56, 73% of the criteria were documented, with the least documented being 'signs of basal skull fracture' and 'amnesia of events'. Thirty-two per cent of patients received head CT and of these, 24% (37 patients) were reported to have pathology. Twenty-four patients underwent head CT without clinical justification being documented, none of which had reported pathology on CT. The study shows that the head injury guidelines are not being fully utilised at a major UK trauma hospital, resulting in 5% of patients being exposed to ionising radiation without apparent documented clinical justification. The NSW guideline has distinct differences to the CG 56, with a more complex algorithm and an absence of specific time frames for head CT completion. The results suggest a need for further education and awareness of head injury clinical guidelines.

  1. Orthogonal Multiwavelet Frames in L2Rd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhanwei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the orthogonal frames and orthogonal multiwavelet frames in L2Rd with matrix dilations of the form (Df(x=detAf(Ax, where A is an arbitrary expanding d×d matrix with integer coefficients. Firstly, through two arbitrarily multiwavelet frames, we give a simple construction of a pair of orthogonal multiwavelet frames. Then, by using the unitary extension principle, we present an algorithm for the construction of arbitrarily many orthogonal multiwavelet tight frames. Finally, we give a general construction algorithm for orthogonal multiwavelet tight frames from a scaling function.

  2. Spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    We use the generalized Fermi–Walker transport to construct a one-parameter family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the weak hypothesis of locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K′ to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. (paper)

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  5. Characterization of Oblique Dual Frame Pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Eldar, Yonina

    2006-01-01

    Given a frame for a subspace W of a Hilbert space H, we consider all possible families of oblique dual frame vectors on an appropriately chosen subspace V. In place of the standard description, which involves computing the pseudoinverse of the frame operator, we develop an alternative characteriz...... for the case of shift-invariant spaces with a single generator. The theory is also adapted to the standard frame setting in which the original and dual frames are defined on the same space. Copyright (C) 2006 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.......Given a frame for a subspace W of a Hilbert space H, we consider all possible families of oblique dual frame vectors on an appropriately chosen subspace V. In place of the standard description, which involves computing the pseudoinverse of the frame operator, we develop an alternative...

  6. 100-ps framing-camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.

    1978-01-01

    The optoelectronic framing-camera tube described is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the <100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits. The resulting dissected electron line images from the slits are restored into framed images by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen equals the number of dissecting slits in the tube. Performance has been demonstrated in a prototype tube by recording 135-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns at the cathode. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Faster frame speeds in the <100-ps range can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  7. Mercury's Reference Frames After the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, A.; Oberst, J.; Preusker, F.; Burmeister, S.; Steinbrügge, G.; Hussmann, H.

    2018-05-01

    We provide an overview of Mercury's reference frames based on MESSENGER observations. We discuss the dynamical, the principal-axes, the ellipsoid, as well as the cartographic frame, which was adopted for MESSENGER data products.

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  9. Mechanical analysis of ceramic head for modular hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravagli, E.

    1995-03-01

    A study, performed with the department of orthopaedics of the Rome Catholic University, has found out the two possible parameters mainly responsible for head breaking, i. e. errors in conical mating between head and stem, and cracks in the heads. This study has been continued in the frame of the STRIDE-CETMA project, aimed at founding and developing a centre for technologically advanced materials in Brindisi Technology Park (Italy). This report starts a systematic mechanical analysis of the above mentioned head, with the purpose of characterizing it exhaustively. The evaluations made lead to the conclusion that in nomimal conditions, the head is largely overdimensioned, taking into account the maximum load applied to the prosthesis

  10. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  11. Framing, intentions, and trust-choice incompatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keren, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper examines how framing of messages and the intentions inferred from different—positive vs. negative—framings, interact with the development of trust. Empirical evidence is presented showing that different, logically equivalent, frames are supposedly interpreted as implying different

  12. Inertial reference frames and gravitational forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santavy, I.

    1981-01-01

    The connection between different definitions of inertial, i.e. fundamental, reference frames and the corresponding characterisation of gravitational fields by gravitational forces are considered from the point of view of their possible interpretation in university introductory courses. The introduction of a special class of reference frames, denoted 'mixed reference frames' is proposed and discussed. (author)

  13. Computable Frames in Computable Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Kaushik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop some parts of the frame theory in Banach spaces from the point of view of Computable Analysis. We define computable M-basis and use it to construct a computable Banach space of scalar valued sequences. Computable Xd frames and computable Banach frames are also defined and computable versions of sufficient conditions for their existence are obtained.

  14. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  15. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jun; Gong, Jingjing; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience.

  16. Influence of framing on medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience.

  17. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  18. Evaluation and the Framing of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ernest R.

    2017-01-01

    Racial framing can have strong effects on programs, policies, and even evaluations. Racial framing developed as a justification for the exploitation of minorities and has been a primary causal factor in the persistence of racism. By being aware of its pattern, structure, origins, and how racial framing generates effects, we can significantly…

  19. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing the...

  20. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by a...

  1. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and

  2. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... good, contributions are the same regardless of political attitudes. In an economically equivalent version, in which subjects take from a public good, left-wingers cooperate significantly more than subjects in the middle or to the right of the political spectrum. Through simulation techniques we find...

  3. Meta framing and polyphonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    in various ways in BT’s 2012 coverage of a doping case involving Riis. In this article I investigate the way in which BT meta frames itself and its own actions in order to show and underline the seriousness with which BT treats sports journalism. The study is part of a recurring Danish project harvesting......The present case study deals with the Danish tabloid BT’s coverage of Cycling team owner Bjarne Riis’s possible knowledge of doping use in his cycling teams. BT sees itself as a sports paper and tries to signal that it takes sports coverage as seriously other kinds of news. We see that reflected...

  4. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  5. Automatic Thresholding for Frame-Repositioning Using External Tracking in PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Keller, Sune; Sibomana, Merence

    2010-01-01

    Motion correction (MC) in positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging become of higher importance with increasing scanner resolution. Several motion correction methods have been suggested and so far the Polaris Vicra tracking system has been the preferred one for motion registration. We...... present an automated algorithm for dividing PET acquisitions into subframes based on the registered head motion to correct for intra-frame motion with the frame repositioning MC method. The method is tested on real patient data (five 11C-SB studies and five 11C-PIB studies) and compared with an image...... based registration method (AIR). Quantitative evaluation was done using a correlation measure. The study shows that MC improves the correlation of the PET images and that AIR performed slightly better than the Polaris Vicra. We found significant intra-frame motion of 1-5 mm in 9 frames...

  6. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  7. Symmetries of collective models in intrinsic frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozdz, A.; Pedrak, A.; Szulerecka, A.; Dobrowolski, A.; Dudek, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper a very general definition of intrinsic frame, by means of group theoretical methods, is introduced. It allows to analyze nuclear properties which are invariant in respect to the group which defines the intrinsic frame. For example, nuclear shape is a well determined feature in the intrinsic frame defined by the Euclidean group. It is shown that using of intrinsic frame gives an opportunity to consider intrinsic nuclear symmetries which are independent of symmetries observed in the laboratory frame. An importance of the notion of partial symmetries is emphasized. (author)

  8. Frame by Frame II: A Filmography of the African American Image, 1978-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotman, Phyllis R.; Gibson, Gloria J.

    A reference guide on African American film professionals, this book is a companion volume to the earlier "Frame by Frame I." It focuses on giving credit to African Americans who have contributed their talents to a film industry that has scarcely recognized their contributions, building on the aforementioned "Frame by Frame I,"…

  9. Message framing in social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  10. COMPARING FRAMES, FRAMING COMPARISONS: GREECE/EU FRAMES ON GENDER INEQUALITY IN POLITICS

    OpenAIRE

    Maloutas, Maro Pantelidou

    2016-01-01

    This article intends to present the main similarities and differences between Greece and the EU in respect to the framing of gender inequality in political decision making as a policy issue, based on the ways that the problem is diagnosed. It also aims at the formulation of a hypothesis which argues that beyond the above similarities and differences, which may tint in a different colour measures and policies showing one case more gender sensitive or more «traditional» than the other, there ex...

  11. Frames, operator representations, and open problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2018-01-01

    , a topic that has recently attracted considerably interest within harmonic analysis. The goal of the paper is twofold, namely, that experts in operator theory will explore the potential of frames, and that frame theory will benefit from insight provided by the operator theory community.......A frame in a Hilbert space H is a countable collection of elements in H that allows each f ϵ H to be expanded as an (infinite) linear combination of the frame elements. Frames generalize the wellknown orthonormal bases, but provide much more exibility and can often be constructed with properties...... that are not possible for orthonormal bases. We will present the basic facts in frame theory with focus on their operator theoretical characterizations and discuss open problems concerning representations of frames in terms of iterations of a fixed operator. These problems come up in the context of dynamical sampling...

  12. Technological Frame Incongruence, Diffusion, and Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreperez, Polly

    The technological frames of reference strand of social shaping of technology theory is used to overlay the issues arising from a case study looking at noncompliance with information systems. A recent review of the theory suggests that although frame content is often addressed, frame structure, the process of framing, and the characteristics and outcomes of frames are largely overlooked. This paper attempts to address this shortfall by applying the indicators identified by case study research to the frames of different groups and using them to highlight differing perceptions and attitudes. In this way, the author suggests that issues surrounding noncompliance should not be dismissed as resistance but instead should be further studied by managers and developers, leading to accommodation of differing views. Further examination of frame incongruence reveals dependence on inefficient or ineffective organizational situations and thus these indicators can be useful in future studies to identify and address procedural, acceptance and cultural issues leading to acts of noncompliance.

  13. Towards a poetics of the cinematographic frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des O'Rawe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In delineating a poetics of the cinematographic frame, this essay presents a typology of framing styles, and demonstrates ways in which filmmakers use the frame as an expressive resource—and ways in which the frame uses them. The examples discussed are modernist in orientation, and each has a particular association with a city—its history, architecture, and cultural character. Although it is common practice to refer to various—especially, modernist—framing situations as instances of deframing, the essay also enquires into the problematic nature of this term, suggesting alternative visual and cinematographic contexts more amenable to the deconstructive implications of this term. As the boundaries between cinema and the other arts continue to converge and relations between frame, image, and screen become more complex, this essay offers a reassessment of some first principles of film language, especially the aesthetic integrity of the cinematographic frame.

  14. An introduction to finite tight frames

    CERN Document Server

    Waldron, Shayne F D

    2018-01-01

    This textbook is an introduction to the theory and applications of finite tight frames, an area that has developed rapidly in the last decade. Stimulating much of this growth are the applications of finite frames to diverse fields such as signal processing, quantum information theory, multivariate orthogonal polynomials, and remote sensing. Key features and topics: * First book entirely devoted to finite frames * Extensive exercises and MATLAB examples for classroom use * Important examples, such as harmonic and Heisenberg frames, are presented in preliminary chapters, encouraging readers to explore and develop an intuitive feeling for tight frames * Later chapters delve into general theory details and recent research results * Many illustrations showing the special aspects of the geometry of finite frames * Provides an overview of the field of finite tight frames * Discusses future research directions in the field Featuring exercises and MATLAB examples in each chapter, the book is well suited as a textbook ...

  15. Characterization of Oblique Dual Frame Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a frame for a subspace of a Hilbert space , we consider all possible families of oblique dual frame vectors on an appropriately chosen subspace . In place of the standard description, which involves computing the pseudoinverse of the frame operator, we develop an alternative characterization which in some cases can be computationally more efficient. We first treat the case of a general frame on an arbitrary Hilbert space, and then specialize the results to shift-invariant frames with multiple generators. In particular, we present explicit versions of our general conditions for the case of shift-invariant spaces with a single generator. The theory is also adapted to the standard frame setting in which the original and dual frames are defined on the same space.

  16. "Think" versus "feel" framing effects in persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Nicole D; Tormala, Zakary L

    2010-04-01

    Three studies explored think ("I think . . . ") versus feel ("I feel . . . ") message framing effects on persuasion.The authors propose a matching hypothesis, suggesting that think framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is cognitively oriented, whereas feel framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is affectively oriented. Study 1 presented cognitively and affectively oriented individuals with a think- or feel-framed message. Study 2 primed cognitive or affective orientation and then presented a think- or feel-framed message. Study 3 presented male and female participants with an advertisement containing think- or feel-framed arguments. Results indicated that think (feel) framing was more persuasive when the target attitude or recipient was cognitively (affectively) oriented. Moreover, Study 2 demonstrated that this matching effect was mediated by processing fluency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. Analisis Framing dalam Riset Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARAYANA MAHENDRA PRASTYA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give description about how to use frame analysis in Public Relations (PR research. The author use two framing models: Entman and Pan & Kosicki. The object is organization official statement about particular issue. Frame analysis method rarely used in Public Relations research. This methods commonly use in journalism study, to analyse the news in media. Meanwhile, the key word of framing is the social construction of reality. Organization can make social construction of realty in their official statement. In acacemic term, frame analysis in PR research is useful to know how organization positioned themselves in particular situation. Other benefit is use to evaluat whether the organization frame is conformable with the public opinion or agenda setting media or not. In practical term, frame analysis give benefit for PR practitioner to create the message that can be undserstood by public, also give positive image for organization.

  18. Correction of head movements in positron emission tomography using point source tracking system: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarparvar, Babak; Shamsaei, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The motion of the head during brain positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions has been identified as a source of artifact in the reconstructed image. In this study, a method is described to develop an image-based motion correction technique for correcting the post-acquisition data without using external optical motion-tracking system such as POLARIS. In this technique, GATE has been used to simulate PET brain scan using point sources mounted around the head to accurately monitor the position of the head during the time frames. The measurement of head motion in each frame showed a transformation in the image frame matrix, resulting in a fully corrected data set. Using different kinds of phantoms and motions, the accuracy of the correction method is tested and its applicability to experimental studies is demonstrated as well.

  19. Ipsilateral wrist-ankle movements in the sagittal plane encoded in extrinsic reference frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Tetsuro; Ishida, Yuki; Obu, Takashi; Crawshaw, Larry; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    When performing oscillatory movements of two joints in the sagittal plane, there is a directional constraint for performing such movements. Previous studies could not distinguish whether the directional constraint reflected movement direction encoded in the extrinsic (outside the body) reference frame or in the intrinsic (the participants' torso/head) reference frame since participants performed coordinated movements in a sitting position where the torso/head was stationary relative to the external world. In order to discern the reference frame in the present study, participants performed paced oscillatory movements of the ipsilateral wrist and ankle in the sagittal plane in a standing position so that the torso/head moved relative to the external world. The coordinated movements were performed in one of two modes of coordination, moving the hand upward concomitant with either ankle plantarflexion or ankle dorsiflexion. The same directional mode relative to extrinsic space was more stable and accurate as compared with the opposite directional mode. When forearm position was changed from the pronated position to the supinated position, similar results were obtained, indicating that the results were independent of a particular coupling of muscles. These findings suggest that the directional constraint on ipsilateral joints movements in the sagittal plane reflects movement direction encoded in the extrinsic reference frame. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Approximately dual frames in Hilbert spaces and applications to Gabor frames

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Ole; Laugesen, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately dual frames are studied in the Hilbert space setting. Approximate duals are easier to construct than classical dual frames, and can be tailored to yield almost perfect reconstruction. Bounds on the deviation from perfect reconstruction are obtained for approximately dual frames constructed via perturbation theory. An alternative bound is derived for the rich class of Gabor frames, by using the Walnut representation of the frame operator to estimate the deviation from equality in...

  1. Discursive Framings of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What does it mean to be a subject of human rights? The status of the subject is closely connected with the form and rhetoric of the framing discourse, and this book investigates the relationship between the status of the subject and the form of human rights discourse, in differing aesthetic...... and social contexts. Historical as well as contemporary declarations of rights have stressed both the protective and political aspects of human rights. But in concrete situations and conflictual moments, the high moral legitimacy of human rights rhetoric has often clouded the actual character of specific...... interventions, and so made it difficult to differentiate between the objects of humanitarian intervention and the subjects of politics. Critically re-examining this opposition – between victims and agents of human rights – through a focus on the ways in which discourses of rights are formed and circulated...

  2. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  3. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  4. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Ken' ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamashita, Yasuho [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Yoshida, Daisuke [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2017-09-15

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  5. Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R

    2014-06-01

    Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. → We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. → We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. → We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.

  7. Frames in the Ethiopian Debate on Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Portner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production, while highly contested, is supported by a number of policies worldwide. Ethiopia was among the first sub-Saharan countries to devise a biofuel policy strategy to guide the associated demand toward sustainable development. In this paper, I discuss Ethiopia’s biofuel policy from an interpretative research position using a frames approach and argue that useful insights can be obtained by paying more attention to national contexts and values represented in the debates on whether biofuel production can or will contribute to sustainable development. To this end, I was able to distinguish three major frames used in the Ethiopian debate on biofuels: an environmental rehabilitation frame, a green revolution frame and a legitimacy frame. The article concludes that actors advocating for frames related to social and human issues have difficulties entering the debate and forming alliances, and that those voices need to be included in order for Ethiopia to develop a sustainable biofuel sector.

  8. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamashita, Yasuho; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  9. BIOMECHANICS OF HEAD INJURY IN OLYMPIC TAEKWONDO AND BOXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, G.P.; Pieter, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to examine differences between taekwondo kicks and boxing punches in resultant linear head acceleration (RLA), head injury criterion (HIC15), peak head velocity, and peak foot and fist velocities. Data from two existing publications on boxing punches and taekwondo kicks were compared. Methods For taekwondo head impacts a Hybrid II Crash Dummy (Hybrid II) head was instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted inside the Hybrid II head. The Hybrid II was fixed to a height-adjustable frame and fitted with a protective taekwondo helmet. For boxing testing, a Hybrid III Crash Dummy head was instrumented with an array of tri-axial accelerometers mounted at the head centre of gravity. Results Differences in RLA between the roundhouse kick (130.11±51.67 g) and hook punch (71.23±32.19 g, d = 1.39) and in HIC15 (clench axe kick: 162.63±104.10; uppercut: 24.10±12.54, d = 2.29) were observed. Conclusions Taekwondo kicks demonstrated significantly larger magnitudes than boxing punches for both RLA and HIC. PMID:24744497

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  12. Advance on the technology of assembly and disassembly of a head frame with four legs and the machine-assembled head frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Youzong; Cao Baozhen [Ministry of Coal Industry (China). Geological Exploration Machinery Factory

    1996-12-31

    According to the meditation of assembling headframes from upper to lower instead of that from lower to upper, the authors created successfully a new type of machine for assembling and disassembling headframes as well as a type of machine-assembled headframe. The new type of headframe not only has the merits of old type of headframe with four legs, but also can keep people away from dangers of working in high space and save the workers much labour. The new technology has good effect on raising productive efficiency. 2 figs.

  13. Frame and Metaphor in Political Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bogost, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers an approach to analyzing political rhetoric in videogames, and on designing videogames intended to carry ideological bias, based cognitive linguist George Lakoff’s notion of metaphor and frame in political discourse. I argue for two important ways games function in relation to ideological frames, reinforcement and exposition, through examples of art games, political games, and commercial games. Finally, I argue that an explicit design of ideological frames in games is crucia...

  14. Economics and psychology. The framing of decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    In the Theory of Rational Decision Making the psychological aspects are set aside. This contribution seeks to point out the relevance of psychology into economic decisions. The essay treats the "framing of decisions", which is a pillar of Kahneman's behavioral theory. Framing must be considered a special case of the more general phenomenon of dependency from the representation. The best-known risky choice-framing problem, i.e. the "Asian Disease Problem", is shown where an essential aspect of...

  15. Molecular frame and recoil frame angular distributions in dissociative photoionization of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchese, R R; Carey, R; Elkharrat, C; Houver, J C; Dowek, D

    2008-01-01

    Photoelectron angular distributions in the dipole approximation can be written with respect to several different reference frames. A brief review of the molecular frame and recoil frame are given. Experimentally, one approach for obtaining such angular distributions is through angle-resolved coincidence measurements of dissociative ionization. If the system dissociates into two heavy fragments, then the recoil frame angular distribution can be measured. Computed molecular frame and recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions are compared to experimental data for the Cl 2p ionization of CH 3 Cl.

  16. Journalism Curiosity and Story Telling Frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwald, Ebbe; Rupar, Verica

    2009-01-01

    This comparative study of journalism practices in Australia and Denmark explores the interplay between two concepts relevant for journalism's meaning-making activity: a curiosity seen as an action meant to close an information gap, and a story telling frame seen as a form of structuring information...... the epistemological and organisational dimension of frames relates to the process of  meaning-making. We suggest refining the concept of frame in journalism studies by making a distinction between a frame (an epistemological category) and an angle (a textual organisation category). Our investigation shows...... that this distinction better serves the analysis and understanding of the mechanisms behind journalism in comparative contexts. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  17. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  18. A new non-invasive and relocatable immobilization frame for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorou, K.; Kappas, C.; Tsokas, C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: A newly developed non-invasive immobilization frame for stereotactic radiotherapy is presented, which is intended to be used for both imaging (computed tomography (CT) and angiography) and radiotherapeutic procedures. Materials and methods: The frame is made of duraluminium so as to be stable and light and it has an elliptical shape. The immobilization is achieved using three stable locations on the patient's head, i.e. the upper dentition, the nose and the back of the neck. The fixation on the three locations ensures complete immobilization in all directions. Results: The immobilization frame can be fitted as many times as is needed to most heads. In order to assess the accuracy of relocation, repeated fittings on two volunteers and on 22 patients undergoing stereotactic treatment were performed (more than 200 mountings in total), which showed maximum anterior-posterior, inferior-superior and lateral reproducibility in positioning of less than 1 mm in all cases. Conclusions and discussion: The in-house-constructed stereotactic frame is simple to use, easily made, non-invasive, relocatable and well tolerated by the patients, providing the possibility of multiple fractions. The major advantage of using such a non-invasive stereotactic frame is the flexibility in timing the different diagnostic procedures (CT and angiography) as well as providing the possibility to extend the use to large brain lesions (treatment without an additional collimator) where a high precision is also required. It also offers significant labour and cost saving over the invasive frames and the majority of the non-invasive frames. To date, 22 patients with ages varying between 12 and 70 years have been treated using this method. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Rotating frames in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.

    1979-01-01

    The transformation theory for rotating frames presented in a previous paper is generalized by replacing the usual condition r = R for ωR < c (invariance of radius) by r = Rg(βsub(R)) so that r is now defined for all values of R, 0 <= R <= infinity. This generalization does not affect the kinematic transformation bracetheta, T → bracethetasup(r), bracesup(r) and the result group structure required by the theoretical constraints previously established, provided the old parameter 'r' (=R) is now identified throughout with either r or R; for physical reasons it must be identified with R. The function g, which cannot be fixed by theoretical constraints, determines the degree of geometrical anisotropy in the rotating plane z = const. More specifically, since g enters the expression for the ratio C/D (circumference/diameter) its choice corresponds to the choice of a congruence definition for lengths in radial and tangential directions. While on this (purely geometrical) level g remains undetermined, it can be uniquely determined experimentally on the kinematic level, e.g. by observing in Σsup(ω) the motion of a free particle. Thus the supremacy of kinematics over geometry is explicated by a further instance. At the same time, special relativity theory (SRT) is shown to belong to the class of theories with theoretically unsolvable problems. (author)

  20. Network-based H.264/AVC whole frame loss visibility model and frame dropping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Lun; Lin, Ting-Lan; Cosman, Pamela C

    2012-08-01

    We examine the visual effect of whole frame loss by different decoders. Whole frame losses are introduced in H.264/AVC compressed videos which are then decoded by two different decoders with different common concealment effects: frame copy and frame interpolation. The videos are seen by human observers who respond to each glitch they spot. We found that about 39% of whole frame losses of B frames are not observed by any of the subjects, and over 58% of the B frame losses are observed by 20% or fewer of the subjects. Using simple predictive features which can be calculated inside a network node with no access to the original video and no pixel level reconstruction of the frame, we developed models which can predict the visibility of whole B frame losses. The models are then used in a router to predict the visual impact of a frame loss and perform intelligent frame dropping to relieve network congestion. Dropping frames based on their visual scores proves superior to random dropping of B frames.

  1. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  2. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  3. A note on the standard dual frame of a wavelet frame with three-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qingjiang; Wei Zongtian; Feng Jinshun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that there exist wavelet frames generated by two functions which have good dual wavelet frames, but for which the standard dual wavelet frame does not consist of wavelets. That is to say, the standard dual wavelet frame cannot be generated by the translations and dilations of a single function. Relation to some physical theories such as entropy and E-infinity theory is also discussed.

  4. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive

    OpenAIRE

    Uskul, Ayse K.; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a me...

  5. News Framing in a Time of Terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    the attacks at the Charlie Hebdo office in Paris in January 2015. This article analyses how the Danish television channel DR1 framed the attacks in the newscast from the first shot at Krudttønden and for the following week. Furthermore, the analysis will discuss how the framing of the shooting as a “terror...

  6. Framing effect debiasing in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashat, Sammy; Ayotte, Brian; Edelstein, Barry; Margrett, Jennifer

    2008-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts. The present study investigated the effects of a debiasing procedure designed to prevent the framing effect for young adults who made decisions based on hypothetical medical decision-making vignettes. The debiasing technique involved participants listing advantages and disadvantages of each treatment prior to making a choice. One hundred and two undergraduate students read a set of three medical treatment vignettes that presented information in terms of different outcome probabilities under either debiasing or control conditions. The framing effect was demonstrated by the control group in two of the three vignettes. The debiasing group successfully avoided the framing effect for both of these vignettes. These results further support previous findings of the framing effect as well as an effective debiasing technique. This study improved upon previous framing debiasing studies by including a control group and personal medical scenarios, as well as demonstrating debiasing in a framing condition in which the framing effect was demonstrated without a debiasing procedure. The findings suggest a relatively simple manipulation may circumvent the use of decision-making heuristics in patients.

  7. Sustainable food and agriculture: stakeholder's frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, B.; van der Goot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance, the notion of sustainability is open for discursive struggle. This article's primary objective is to acquire insight into the manner in which the principal stakeholders strategically use frames in their public communication about sustainable food and agriculture. A framing

  8. Teaching the Dynamics of Framing Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Eike Mark

    2012-01-01

    Framing theory is one of the most thriving and complex fields of communication theory, and as such it has grown to be an integral part of many political communication, public opinion, and communication theory courses. Part of the complexity stems from scholars' efforts to develop accounts of framing processes that are closer to the "real world" of…

  9. Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Nicole; Sharp, Helen; Woodroffe, Mark; Blyth, Richard; Rajah, Dino; Ranganai, Turugare

    2015-01-01

    Framing design problems and solutions has been recognised in design studies as a central designerly activity. Some recent findings with expert designers relate framing practices to problem-solution co-evolution and analogy use, two further widely recognised design strategies. We wanted to understand if interaction design novices also use…

  10. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  11. Effect of framing on adolescents' decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Y C; Lin, C; Worthley, J

    1996-12-01

    92 young adolescents were tested using Tversky and Kahneman's (1981) decision problems for framing effects. A notable number of young adolescents tested were not influenced by the context of the decision problems, thus they selected the same response option for positively and negatively framed problems. Parallel information was not available in Tversky and Kahneman's study for adults because they used a between-subjects design. However, for present adolescents who selected different response options for different framing problems, the response pattern exhibited by them resembled the general pattern exhibited by the adults tested in Tversky and Kahneman's study-negative frames led them to accept risk to avoid certain loss; positive frames prevented them from risking what they were certain to gain. Boys and girls were similar in their susceptibility to framing effects as were honors students in mathematics as compared to nonhonors students. Although the positive vs negative framing only influenced some of the young adolescents tested in this study, because the influence was consistent, researchers and educators interested in adolescents' decisions involving risky choices might use framing principles to design and assess cognitive interventions for high-risk behaviors among young adolescents.

  12. Career Compromises: Framings and Their Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar; Houminer, Daphna; Aviram, Tamar

    1998-01-01

    Career compromise was investigated in three framings (alternatives, aspect importance, within-aspect preference). Young adults and school counselors rated hypothetical stories. Results of four studies with different designs (Average N=106) supported the hypothesis. The alternatives framing was associated with greater compromise and decision…

  13. I spy with my little eye: cognitive processing of framed physical activity messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Castelhano, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose was to examine the relative cognitive processing of gain-framed versus loss-framed physical activity messages following exposure to health risk information. Guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, the secondary purpose was to examine the relation between dwell time, message recall, and message-relevant thoughts, as well as perceived risk, personal relevance, and fear arousal. Baseline measures of perceived risk for inactivity-related disease and health problems were administered to 77 undergraduate students. Participants read population-specific health risk information while wearing a head-mounted eye tracker, which measured dwell time on message content. Perceived risk was then reassessed. Next, participants read PA messages while the eye tracker measured dwell time on message content. Immediately following message exposure, recall, thought-listing, fear arousal, and personal relevance were measured. Dwell time on gain-framed messages was significantly greater than loss-framed messages. However, message recall and thought-listing did not differ by message frame. Dwell time was not significantly related to recall or thought-listing. Consistent with the Extended Parallel Process Model, fear arousal was significantly related to recall, thought-listing, and personal relevance. In conclusion, gain-framed messages may evoke greater dwell time than loss-famed messages. However, dwell time alone may be insufficient for evoking further cognitive processing.

  14. Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...... is conducted to determine which of the parameters describing the frame have the highest impact on its thermal performance. Afterwards, an optimization process is conducted on each frame in order to optimize the design with regard to three objectives: minimizing the thermal transmittance, maxim izing the net...... energy gain factor and minimizing the material use. Since the objectives contradiet each other, it was found that it is not possible to identifY a single solution that satisfies all these goals. lnstead, a compromise between the objectives has to be found....

  15. An introduction to frames and Riesz bases

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This revised and expanded monograph presents the general theory for frames and Riesz bases in Hilbert spaces as well as its concrete realizations within Gabor analysis, wavelet analysis, and generalized shift-invariant systems.  Compared with the first edition, more emphasis is put on explicit constructions with attractive properties.  Based on the exiting development of frame theory over the last decade, this second edition now includes new sections on the rapidly growing fields of LCA groups, generalized shift-invariant systems, duality theory for as well Gabor frames as wavelet frames, and open problems in the field.   Key features include: *Elementary introduction to frame theory in finite-dimensional spaces * Basic results presented in an accessible way for both pure and applied mathematicians * Extensive exercises make the work suitable as a textbook for use in graduate courses * Full proofs includ ed in introductory chapters; only basic knowledge of functional analysis required * Explicit constructi...

  16. Mixed Frames and Risky Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Zhang, Jiaxi; Sun, Hao; Zeng, Zhicong; Mai, Yuexia; Miao, Danmin

    2017-01-01

    By applying unitive vocabulary, "die" or "save," to respective frames of the Asian disease problem, Tversky and Kahneman were able to define framing effect. In this study, we preliminarily explored the effect of mixed frames, which are characterized by the use of different vocabulary in one frame. In study 1, we found that only the sure option description had significant effect on decision-making, while the effects of risky option descriptions were not significant, nor were interactions between descriptions. In study 2, the results suggested that after controlling the effects of the hedonic tone of the sure options, risky option description did not significantly predict decision-making. In study 3, we found that neither the sure-to-risky option presentation order nor presentation order within risky options had significant effect on decision-making. We thus concluded that sure option description can serve as the decision-making foundation (reference point) for decision-makers in mixed frames.

  17. Geometric Properties of Grassmannian Frames for and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto John J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassmannian frames are frames satisfying a min-max correlation criterion. We translate a geometrically intuitive approach for two- and three-dimensional Euclidean space ( and into a new analytic method which is used to classify many Grassmannian frames in this setting. The method and associated algorithm decrease the maximum frame correlation, and hence give rise to the construction of specific examples of Grassmannian frames. Many of the results are known by other techniques, and even more generally, so that this paper can be viewed as tutorial. However, our analytic method is presented with the goal of developing it to address unresovled problems in -dimensional Hilbert spaces which serve as a setting for spherical codes, erasure channel modeling, and other aspects of communications theory.

  18. Multipliers for continuous frames in Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, P; Bayer, D; Rahimi, A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the general theory of continuous frame multipliers in Hilbert space. These operators are a generalization of the widely used notion of (discrete) frame multipliers. Well-known examples include anti-Wick operators, STFT multipliers or Calderón–Toeplitz operators. Due to the possible peculiarities of the underlying measure spaces, continuous frames do not behave quite as their discrete counterparts. Nonetheless, many results similar to the discrete case are proven for continuous frame multipliers as well, for instance compactness and Schatten-class properties. Furthermore, the concepts of controlled and weighted frames are transferred to the continuous setting. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)

  19. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, N.; Shahid-Saless, B.

    1990-01-01

    In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism

  20. Filtering SVM frame-by-frame binary classification in a detection framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betancourt Arango, A.; Morerio, P.; Marcenaro, L.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Regazzoni, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Classifying frames, or parts of them, is a common way of carrying out detection tasks in computer vision. However, frame by frame classification suffers from sudden significant variations in image texture, colour and luminosity, resulting in noise in the extracted features and consequently in the

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  2. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  4. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  10. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  12. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...

  14. Catalogue of tooth brush head designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Marsha A; Bayne, Stephen C; Liu, Ying; Walker, Mary P

    2013-06-01

    Manual toothbrushes (MTBs) and power toothbrushes (PTBs) are effective oral physiotherapy aids for plaque removal. End-rounded bristles are safer and reduce damage to oral tissues. Nylon bristles are more effective in plaque removal because the bristle is stiffer than natural bristles. In the last 10 years the number of options for MTBs and PTBs has expanded significantly and there is very little information providing a reference frame for the design characteristics of the heads. The present in vitro study characterized a variety of MTB and PTB heads to provide a reference library for other research comparisons which might be made. Various commercial MTB and PTB heads were used to characterize the following: bristle size, shape, diameter, number of tufts, number of bristles per tuft and surface characteristics. Photographs were collected from the side, at 45 degrees and the top of each toothbrush (TB) head using a scanning electron microscope and digital camera. Images were analyzed (Soft Imaging System) for bristle features and designs. One-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) was performed to detect differences among TB types within MTB and PTB groups and between pooled values for MTB and PTB groups. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in toothbrush bristle diameter and bristle shape. In contrast, there were no significant differences between PTB vs. MTB in regards to bristle diameter, bristle count and tuft count. The results suggest that although there are wide variations in toothbrush head designs, significant differences were found only in relation to bristle diameter and shape.

  15. The exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.

  16. Analysis of translational errors in frame-based and frameless cranial radiosurgery using an anthropomorphic phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Taynna Vernalha Rocha [Faculdades Pequeno Principe (FPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cordova Junior, Arno Lotar; Almeida, Cristiane Maria; Piedade, Pedro Argolo; Silva, Cintia Mara da, E-mail: taynnavra@gmail.com [Centro de Radioterapia Sao Sebastiao, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Brincas, Gabriela R. Baseggio [Centro de Diagnostico Medico Imagem, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Marins, Priscila; Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate three-dimensional translational setup errors and residual errors in image-guided radiosurgery, comparing frameless and frame-based techniques, using an anthropomorphic phantom. Materials and Methods: We initially used specific phantoms for the calibration and quality control of the image-guided system. For the hidden target test, we used an Alderson Radiation Therapy (ART)-210 anthropomorphic head phantom, into which we inserted four 5- mm metal balls to simulate target treatment volumes. Computed tomography images were the taken with the head phantom properly positioned for frameless and frame-based radiosurgery. Results: For the frameless technique, the mean error magnitude was 0.22 ± 0.04 mm for setup errors and 0.14 ± 0.02 mm for residual errors, the combined uncertainty being 0.28 mm and 0.16 mm, respectively. For the frame-based technique, the mean error magnitude was 0.73 ± 0.14 mm for setup errors and 0.31 ± 0.04 mm for residual errors, the combined uncertainty being 1.15 mm and 0.63 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The mean values, standard deviations, and combined uncertainties showed no evidence of a significant differences between the two techniques when the head phantom ART-210 was used. (author)

  17. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  18. Magic Frames: The Best of All Possible Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Jayemanne

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available If videogame realism is dazzling and flighty, unrealism is a solid and dependable. Unrealistic elements are a feature of all genres and all stages of gaming history. Icons that signify potential actions, pop-up menus, ‘heads-up displays’ (HUDs quantifying the avatar’s status and various methods of representing the player’s own virtual body (or apparent lack thereof are all highly unrealistic visual elements. They are also very common across all the genres of gaming. Galloway (2006: 69 argues that the first-person perspective in games tends to marginalise montage in the sense of an editorial cut in cinema. However, a broader definition of the term – one which is not restricted to a cinematic antecedent – would recognise that multiple frames of many videogames are montage. The overwhelming majority of game screens involve overlays or partitions, and gameplay often demands the dynamic navigation of multiple frames. These elements constitute moments of counterplay with regard to the realist ambitions of many videogames.

  19. Positive Operator Valued Measures: A General Setting for Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Bill; Howard, Stephen; Cochran, Doug

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of close parallels that exist between the theory of positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) associated with a separable Hilbert space and the theory of frames on that space, including its most important generalizations. The concept of a framed POVM is introduced, and classical frames, fusion frames, generalized frames, and other variants of frames are all shown to to arise as framed POVMs. This observation allows drawing on a rich existing theory of POVMs to ...

  20. Animation of 3D Model of Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new algorithm of animation of 3D model of the human head in combination with its global motion. The designed algorithm is very fast and with low calculation requirements, because it does not need the synthesis of the input videosequence for estimation of the animation parameters as well as the parameters of global motion. The used 3D model Candide generates different expressions using its animation units which are controlled by the animation parameters. These ones are estimated on the basis of optical flow without the need of extracting of the feature points in the frames of the input videosequence because they are given by the selected vertices of the animation units of the calibrated 3D model Candide. The established multiple iterations inside the designed animation algorithm of 3D model of the human head between two successive frames significantly improved its accuracy above all for the large motion.

  1. Quantitative rotating frame relaxometry methods in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Irtiza Ali; Sepponen, Raimo

    2016-06-01

    Macromolecular degeneration and biochemical changes in tissue can be quantified using rotating frame relaxometry in MRI. It has been shown in several studies that the rotating frame longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1ρ ) and the rotating frame transverse relaxation rate constant (R2ρ ) are sensitive biomarkers of phenomena at the cellular level. In this comprehensive review, existing MRI methods for probing the biophysical mechanisms that affect the rotating frame relaxation rates of the tissue (i.e. R1ρ and R2ρ ) are presented. Long acquisition times and high radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition into tissue during the process of spin-locking in rotating frame relaxometry are the major barriers to the establishment of these relaxation contrasts at high magnetic fields. Therefore, clinical applications of R1ρ and R2ρ MRI using on- or off-resonance RF excitation methods remain challenging. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and experimental approaches to the design of hard RF pulse cluster- and adiabatic RF pulse-based excitation schemes for accurate and precise measurements of R1ρ and R2ρ . The merits and drawbacks of different MRI acquisition strategies for quantitative relaxation rate measurement in the rotating frame regime are reviewed. In addition, this review summarizes current clinical applications of rotating frame MRI sequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Simple Design Tool for Development of Well Insulated Window Frames and Optimization of the Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    in order to approach an optimal solution. The program was also used to conduct an optimization process of the frame geometry. A large number of various window frame designs were created and evaluated, based on their insulation properties. The paper presents the investigation process and some of the best......This paper describes a design tool created with the purpose of designing highly insulated window frames. The design tool is based on a parametric model of the frame geometry, where various parameters describing the frame can be easily changed by the user. Based on this input, geometry of the frame...... is generated by the program and is used by the finite element simulator to calculate the thermal performance of the frame (the U value). After the initial design is evaluated, the user can quickly modify chosen parameters and generate a new design. This process can then be repeated in multiple iterations...

  3. The role of message framing in promoting MMR vaccination: evidence of a loss-frame advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Purva; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of message framing on intentions to obtain the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine for one's child and investigated whether Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and perceived outcome efficacy variables mediate and/or moderate message framing effects. One hundred and forty women read either a loss-framed or gain-framed message and then completed measures assessing their intentions to obtain the MMR vaccine for their child, and TPB and outcome efficacy variables. Exposure to the loss frame increased intentions to obtain the MMR vaccine and influenced perceptions of outcome efficacy. This suggests that outcome efficacy, but not other TPB variables may mediate framing effects within the context of MMR vaccination. Message frame, in addition to TPB variables, significantly predicted unique variance in behavioural intentions. These findings are discussed within the context of Prospect Theory, perceived risk and prevention/detection behaviours.

  4. Framing of regimes and transition strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that transition strategies are always formulated in the context of specific representations of the regime and the challenges it faces. It is argued that the framing of a regime affects the envisioning of transition strategies. An analysis of the current development agenda...... for the housing construction sector in Denmark reveals the relevance and impacts of different regime framings. It is proposed that the ability to cope with framing issues as situated and political processes is at the core of the governance of transitions....

  5. Quantum reference frames and quantum transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toller, M.

    1997-01-01

    A quantum frame is defined by a material object following the laws of quantum mechanics. The present paper studies the relations between quantum frames, which are described by some generalization of the Poincare' group. The possibility of using a suitable quantum group is examined, but some arguments are given which show that a different mathematical structure is necessary. Some simple examples in lower-dimensional space-times are treated. They indicate the necessity of taking into account some ''internal'' degrees of freedom of the quantum frames, that can be disregarded in a classical treatment

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  10. Figurative framing: Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  11. Approximation of the inverse G-frame operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... projection method for -frames which works for all conditional -Riesz frames. We also derive a method for approximation of the inverse -frame operator which is efficient for all -frames. We show how the inverse of -frame operator can be approximated as close as we like using finite-dimensional linear algebra.

  12. Figurative framing : Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  13. The characteristics of a successful framing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Louise Møller

    2017-01-01

    In design schools and university we need to teach students how to frame their projects in ways that create a significant and new perspective on the problem situation as well as clear direction for the solution. We teach students how to engage in user research, prototyping, conceptualization......, business and technology analysis, but often the ability to take information from these different processes and add it together, into a new way of solving the wicked problem, is left for the student to figure out either in a supervised or unsupervised process. Previous research in the framing process has...... mainly focused on describing the different steps in the process or by describing the type of reasoning that lies behind the framing process. Only a few studies have provided insights into the type of actions that is needed to achieve a successful framing process i.e. searching for the paradox in the data...

  14. Supporting Product Line Evolution with Framed Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loughran, Neil; Rashid, Awais; Zhang, Weishan

    2004-01-01

    , but there will eventually come a time when a certain feature or scenario appears which could not have been foreseen in the early stages of development. We argue that frames and aspects when used in isolation cannot overcome these weaknesses effectively. However, they can be addressed by using the respective strengths......This paper discusses how evolution in software product lines can be supported using framed aspects: a combination of aspect-oriented programming and frame technology. Product line architectures and assets are subject to maintenance and evolution throughout their lifetime due to the emergence of new...... of both technologies in combination. The amalgamation of framing and aspect-oriented techniques can help in the integration of new features and thus reduce the risk of architectural erosion....

  15. News Media Framing of Negative Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    that news coverage of negative campaigning does apply the strategic game frame to a significantly larger degree than articles covering positive campaigning. This finding has significant implications for campaigning politicians and for scholars studying campaign and media effects.......News media coverage of election campaigns is often characterized by use of the strategic game frame and a focus on politicians’ use of negative campaigning. However, the exact relationship between these two characteristics of news coverage is largely unexplored. This article theorizes that consumer...... demand and norms of journalistic independence might induce the news media outlets to cover negative campaigning with a strategic game frame. A comprehensive content analysis based on several newspaper types, several election campaigns, and several different measurements of media framing confirms...

  16. Gabor frames by sampling and periodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    By sampling the window of Gabor frame for L-2 (R) belonging to Feichtingers algebra S-0 (R), one obtains a Gabor frame for l(2) (Z). In this article we present a survey of results by R. Orr and A.J.E.M. Janssen and extend their ideas to cover interrelations among Gabor frames for the four spaces L......-2 (R), l(2) (Z), L-2 ([O,L]) and C-L. Some new results about the general dual windows with respect to sampling and periodization are presented as well. This theory is used to show a new result of the Kaiblinger type to construct an approximation to the canonical dual window of a Gabor frame for L-2...

  17. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  18. Quantum communication, reference frames, and gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enk, S. J. van

    2006-01-01

    We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model

  19. PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rogac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the plastic analysis of steel frame structure loaded by gravity loads. By applying the cinematic theorem of ultimate analysis, the ultimate load for the case of elastic - ideally plastic material is calculated. The identical structure was treated in the computer program SAP2000 where the zone of material reinforcement in the plastic area was covered. Keywords: Steel frame structure, plastic analysis, ultimate gravity load, material reinforcement.

  20. Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, Ren?; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed ? as a potential loss or a potential gain ? systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral ...

  1. Quantum bit commitment with misaligned reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrow, Aram; Oliveira, Roberto; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2006-01-01

    Suppose that Alice and Bob define their coordinate axes differently, and the change of reference frame between them is given by a probability distribution μ over SO(3). We show that this uncertainty of reference frame is of no use for bit commitment when μ is uniformly distributed over a (sub)group of SO(3), but other choices of μ can give rise to a partially or even arbitrarily secure bit commitment

  2. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  4. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  5. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  6. Ambiguities in the deduction of rest frame fluctuation spectrums from spectrums computed in moving frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericks, R.W.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of interpretation of power spectrums computed by Fourier analysis of data time series taken in frames moving with respect to the medium containing the fluctuations is examined. It is found that no unique connection exists between the rest frame power spectrum as a function of scale length and the derived power spectrum as a function 'frequency' computed from the time series data taken in the moving frame. This caused by a complex Doppler-shifting phenomenon that leads to a basically aliased frequency spectrum in the moving frame. Examples of nonuniqueness are given for various types of rest frame density or wave turbulence that lead to the same frequency dependence of the power spectrum computed in the moving frame. This has implications for the past interpretations of power spectrums of density or magnetic field fluctuations from satellites or interplanetary probes

  7. Some properties of dual and approximate dual of fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar; Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the notion of approximate dual to fusion frames and present some approaches to obtain dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames. Also, we study the stability of dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames.

  8. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame

    OpenAIRE

    van de Lindt, John W.; Rechan, R. Karthik

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA). Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percen...

  9. Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process information and act upon it. Three goal frames are distinguished: a hedonic, gain, and normative goal frame. In general, multiple goals are active at any given time, which may (or may not) be compat...

  10. A short introduction to frames, Gabor systems, and wavelet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames, and a recent transform that allows to move results from one setting into the other and vice versa.......In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames, and a recent transform that allows to move results from one setting into the other and vice versa....

  11. Stellar aberration correction and thermoelastic compensation of Swarm μASC attitude observations: A comment to the Express Letter “Mysterious misalignments between geomagnetic and stellar reference frames seen in CHAMP and Swarm satellite measurements”, by Stefan Maus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, M.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Jørgensen, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    . However, comparison of the Inter Boresight Angle shows a relative attitude variation between the μASC Camera Head Units. These misalignments between Camera Head Units and a geomagnetic reference frame cannot be explained by incorrect aberration correction (as theorized by Maus). Herceg et al. found them...... and clean from any variation caused by thermoelastic effects....

  12. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here i...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  16. The Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Bennik, J.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This video shows the results of the project on the mechatronic development of the Twente humanoid head. The mechanical structure consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) and two eyes (a stereo pair system) which tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely providing a three more

  17. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  18. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-01-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  19. Manufacturing of neutron reflector frame for JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Yoshio; Tsuboi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kunihiro; Uchida, Munenori; Suzuki, Ken

    2010-03-01

    Beryllium has been used as the neutron reflector in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A beryllium frame is arranged in the JMTR core and the frame consists of 3 sections (North, East and West). Each section has 7 stories of the beryllium blocks. Each block is connected by the aluminium joints. The capsule or the berylium plug is located in the inside of the beryllium frame. The first criticality achieved in 1968 and the frame has been replaced 6 times and now the 7th frame is being manufactured. The replacement is planned to be done in the spring of 2010. The design has been modified to decrease the swelling camber and the lifetime has been improved. The manufacturing procedure is severely controlled to assure the quality. The chemical composition must be specified to minimize the swelling and radiation. The machining procedure is highly controlled because beryllium is very brittle. And the environmental control is also important, because the beryllium is a toxic material. (author)

  20. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  1. On Λ-Type Duality of Frames in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Chugh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Frames are redundant system which are useful in the reconstruction of certain classes of spaces. The dual of a frame (Hilbert always exists and can be obtained in a natural way. Due to the presence of three Banach spaces in the definition of retro Banach frames (or Banach frames duality of frames in Banach spaces is not similar to frames for Hilbert spaces. In this paper we introduce the notion of Λ-type duality of retro Banach frames. This can be generalized to Banach frames in Banach spaces. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the dual of retro Banach frames are obtained. A special class of retro Banach frames which always admit a dual frame is discussed.

  2. Framing climate change in a popularised setting:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Engberg, Jan

    of the conference. In our part of the project, we look at how knowledge is created via the choice of metaphors. On the basis of an analysis of the framing of the COP15 conference and its goals as presented in the introductory statements by the two Danish presidents of the conference we have found a range of salient......Framing climate change in a popularised setting: The case of the COP conferences The major project from which this presentation has emerged intends to analyze the media communication in connection with mainly the COP15 conference in Copenhagen on climate change 2009 in a number of European...... and with the introductory statement by the president of the Cancún conference in 2010 in order to assess possible influences in the framing from the national and the political setting....

  3. Framing global health: the governance challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Colin; Kamradt-Scott, Adam; Lee, Kelley; Reubi, David; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Rushton, Simon; Williams, Owain David; Woodling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of global health comes governance challenges which are equally global in nature. This article identifies some of the initial limitations in analyses of global health governance (GHG) before discussing the focus of this special supplement: the framing of global health issues and the manner in which this impacts upon GHG. Whilst not denying the importance of material factors (such as resources and institutional competencies), the article identifies how issues can be framed in different ways, thereby creating particular pathways of response which in turn affect the potential for and nature of GHG. It also identifies and discusses the key frames operating in global health: evidence-based medicine, human rights, security, economics and development.

  4. High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Phase 1 of the study is to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. The systems we consider are high data rate space communication systems. Also...... components. Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. We present a list of system configurations that we find potentially useful. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization...... and various other functions needed in a complete system is presented. Two such units are described, one for placement before the Viterbi decoder and another for placement after the decoder. The high level architectures of three possible implementations of Viterbi decoders are described: The first...

  5. High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.

    1998-01-01

    The study has been divided into two phases. The purpose of Phase 1 of the study was to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. After selection of which specific...... potentially useful.Algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization and various other functions needed in a complete system is presented. Two such units are described, one for placement before the Viterbi decoder...... towards a realization in an FPGA.Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and the high level architectures of three possible implementations of Viterbi decoders are described: The first implementation uses a number of commercially available decoders while the the two others...

  6. Random optical frames in atmospheric turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Min; Korotkova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of the recently introduced class of stochastic optical frames by Korotkova and Shchepakina (2014 Opt. Express 22 10622–633) is investigated on propagation in the clear-air isotropic atmospheric turbulence with von Karman power spectrum having varying slope, with the help of the extended Huygens–Fresnel integral. It is illustrated that for the suitable choice of the source parameters it is possible to form the required optical frame at a certain intermediate distance from the source plane, on the order of a kilometer for typical atmospheric conditions. However, for sufficiently large distances from the source, on the order of tens of kilometers, the frame starts to resemble a Gaussian profile. (paper)

  7. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  11. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  12. Strategic Framing Study Circles: Toward a Gold Standard of Framing Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how communities of practice have been developed as part of FrameWorks' field-building efforts. Strategic Framing Study Circles, as they are known, have been conducted with four statewide coalitions, one group of national organizations, and an emerging regional coalition. The goal of each community of practice is to build…

  13. Approximately dual frames in Hilbert spaces and applications to Gabor frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Laugesen, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    constructed via perturbation theory. An alternative bound is derived for the rich class of Gabor frames, by using the Walnut representation of the frame operator to estimate the deviation from equality in the duality conditions. To illustrate these results, we construct explicit approximate duals of Gabor...

  14. Strategic framing in the BP crisis: A semantic network analysis of associative frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, F.; Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Oegema, D.; Utz, S.; van Atteveldt, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the interplay of public relations and news in crisis situations, and the conceptualization of strategic framing by introducing the idea of associative frames and the method of semantic network analysis to the PR research field. By building on a more advanced

  15. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-07-20

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect.

  16. News framing and public opinion: A mediation analysis of framing effects on political attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    There is no satisfactory account of the psychological processes that mediate a news framing effect. Based on an experimental study (N = 1,537), this article presents a mediation analysis of a news framing effect on opinion, testing for two important mediation processes: belief importance and belief

  17. Evaluation of Strategies to Improve the Thermal Performance of Steel Frames in Curtain Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high thermal conductivity, its thermal performance can be important for the improvement of the overall thermal performance of the curtain wall system, as well as the energy efficiency of the building envelope. This study aims to evaluate variety of design strategies to improve the thermal performance of steel curtain wall frames. Five base cases and three further steps were selected for two different head profile shapes based on a state-of-the art technology review, and their thermal transmittances were calculated through simulations according to the ISO 12631 standard which is an international standard for calculating thermal transmittance of curtain wall system. Measured results that were obtained from hot-box tests were compared with the calculated results to validate the simulation method of this study. The shape of the head profile did not strongly influence the overall thermal transmittance, and the choice of strategies for the rabbet space was more important. More effective strategies could be decided according to the steps for variation development. This result can serve as a guideline for the design of high-performance curtain wall frames.

  18. Time delay control of power converters: Mixed frame and stationary-frame variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P.C.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a mixed-frame and a stationary-frame time delay current controller are proposed for high precision reference tracking and disturbance rejection of power converters. In particular, the controllers use a proportional-resonant regulator in the stationary frame for regulating...... the positive and negative-sequence fundamental currents, which are known to directly influence the flow of active and reactive power in most energy conversion systems. Moreover, for the tracking or compensation of harmonics, the controllers include a time delay control path in either the synchronous...... or stationary frame, whose inherent feedback and feedforward structure can be proven to resemble a bank of resonant filters in either reference frames. Unlike other existing controllers, the proposed time delay controllers function by introducing multiple resonant peaks at only those harmonic frequencies...

  19. On the interaction between media frames and individual frames of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on a media effects research experiment in which six groups of participants were asked to read and evaluate differently framed news articles about two scenarios: a Palestinian attack on Israel and an Israeli military operation against Palestinians. The experimental results show that media peace frames of violent events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict are generally regarded by the German public as more comprehensible, less biased, more balanced and less partisan than media war frames of the same events. The specific ways in which recipients respond to the frames, however, depend on their prior knowledge of the conflict, on their positioning to the conflict and on their sensitivity to the ambivalence of war and peace for both Israel and the Palestinians. This supports the hypothesis that neither news selection nor framing have uniform effects on public opinion.

  20. Riemannian geometry in an orthogonal frame

    CERN Document Server

    Cartan, Elie Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Foreword by S S Chern. In 1926-27, Cartan gave a series of lectures in which he introduced exterior forms at the very beginning and used extensively orthogonal frames throughout to investigate the geometry of Riemannian manifolds. In this course he solved a series of problems in Euclidean and non-Euclidean spaces, as well as a series of variational problems on geodesics. In 1960, Sergei P Finikov translated from French into Russian his notes of these Cartan's lectures and published them as a book entitled Riemannian Geometry in an Orthogonal Frame. This book has many innovations, such as the n

  1. Supplier-induced demand as strategic framing

    OpenAIRE

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a model of supplier-induced demand as strategic framing where the patient has reference-dependent references, and the physician can persuade the patient to buy a treatment by affecting the patient’s reference point. In the main result, the patient is assumed to have a constant rate of risk aversion (lovingness) in the gain (loss) region. Two scenarios are treated. In the cure scenario, the physician wants to frame the patient’s decision problem such that he prefers to buy ...

  2. Open quantum systems in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Salman; Khan, M K

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of decoherence on the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect in noninertial frames by using phase flip, phase damping and depolarizing channels. It is shown that decoherence strongly influences the initial state entanglement. Entanglement sudden death can occur irrespective of the acceleration of the noninertial frame under the action of phase flip and phase damping channels. It is investigated that an early sudden death occurs for large acceleration under the depolarizing environment. Moreover, entanglement increases for a highly decohered phase flip channel.

  3. Expanding Technological Frames Towards Mediated Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Scupola, Ada; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of technological and social factors leading to the successful adoption of groupware in a virtual team in educational setting. Drawing on a theoretical framework based on the concept of technological frames, we conducted an action research study to analyze...... the chronological sequence of events leading to groupware adoption. We argue that groupware adoption can be conceptualized as a three-step process of expanding and aligning individual technological frames towards groupware: The first step comprises activities facilitating participants in articulation and evaluation...... collaborative practice and use of technology, and that this activity cannot take place at the outset....

  4. Stability of wavelet frames with matrix dilations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Sun, Wenchang

    2006-01-01

    (j,k) are perturbed. As a special case of our result, we obtain that if {Tau(A(j), A(j)Bn)psi} (j is an element of Z, n is an element of Zd) is a frame for an expansive matrix A and an invertible matrix B, then {Tau(A'(j), A(j)B lambda(n))psi}(j is an element of Z,) (n is an element of) (Zd) is a frame if vertical...... bar vertical bar A(-j)A'(j) - I vertical bar vertical bar(2) lambda(n) - n vertical bar vertical bar infinity 0....

  5. Frame Complexity and the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Jan; Schultz, Friederike; Oegema, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    . The financial crisis in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany (2007–2012) offers an example. An automated content analysis was applied to over 160,000 newspaper articles. Frame complexity decreased until the spotlight fell on the demise of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers (2008). The subsequent...... gradual recovery was only partly interrupted by the euro crisis. A Vector AutoRegression time series analysis shows that increasing frame complexity may indeed have fostered the recovery of financial markets and consumer confidence....

  6. SU-E-T-230: Creating a Large Number of Focused Beams with Variable Patient Head Tilt to Improve Dose Fall-Off for Brain Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J; Ma, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment delivery and planning strategy by increasing the number of beams to minimize dose to brain tissue surrounding a target, while maximizing dose coverage to the target. Methods: We analyzed 14 different treatment plans via Leksell PFX and 4C. For standardization, single tumor cases were chosen. Original treatment plans were compared with two optimized plans. The number of beams was increased in treatment plans by varying tilt angles of the patient head, while maintaining original isocenter and the beam positions in the x-, y- and z-axes, collimator size, and beam blocking. PFX optimized plans increased beam numbers with three pre-set tilt angles, 70, 90, 110, and 4C optimized plans increased beam numbers with tilt angles increasing arbitrarily from range of 30 to 150 degrees. Optimized treatment plans were compared dosimetrically with original treatment plans. Results: Comparing total normal tissue isodose volumes between original and optimized plans, the low-level percentage isodose volumes decreased in all plans. Despite the addition of multiple beams up to a factor of 25, beam-on times for 1 tilt angle versus 3 or more tilt angles were comparable (<1 min.). In 64% (9/14) of the studied cases, the volume percentage decrease by >5%, with the highest value reaching 19%. The addition of more tilt angles correlates to a greater decrease in normal brain irradiated volume. Selectivity and coverage for original and optimized plans remained comparable. Conclusion: Adding large number of additional focused beams with variable patient head tilt shows improvement for dose fall-off for brain radiosurgery. The study demonstrates technical feasibility of adding beams to decrease target volume.

  7. SU-E-T-230: Creating a Large Number of Focused Beams with Variable Patient Head Tilt to Improve Dose Fall-Off for Brain Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, J; Ma, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment delivery and planning strategy by increasing the number of beams to minimize dose to brain tissue surrounding a target, while maximizing dose coverage to the target. Methods: We analyzed 14 different treatment plans via Leksell PFX and 4C. For standardization, single tumor cases were chosen. Original treatment plans were compared with two optimized plans. The number of beams was increased in treatment plans by varying tilt angles of the patient head, while maintaining original isocenter and the beam positions in the x-, y- and z-axes, collimator size, and beam blocking. PFX optimized plans increased beam numbers with three pre-set tilt angles, 70, 90, 110, and 4C optimized plans increased beam numbers with tilt angles increasing arbitrarily from range of 30 to 150 degrees. Optimized treatment plans were compared dosimetrically with original treatment plans. Results: Comparing total normal tissue isodose volumes between original and optimized plans, the low-level percentage isodose volumes decreased in all plans. Despite the addition of multiple beams up to a factor of 25, beam-on times for 1 tilt angle versus 3 or more tilt angles were comparable (<1 min.). In 64% (9/14) of the studied cases, the volume percentage decrease by >5%, with the highest value reaching 19%. The addition of more tilt angles correlates to a greater decrease in normal brain irradiated volume. Selectivity and coverage for original and optimized plans remained comparable. Conclusion: Adding large number of additional focused beams with variable patient head tilt shows improvement for dose fall-off for brain radiosurgery. The study demonstrates technical feasibility of adding beams to decrease target volume

  8. Framing Failures in Wood-Frame Hip Roofs under Extreme Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Stevenson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood-frame residential roof failures are among the most common and expensive types of wind damage. Hip roofs are commonly understood to be more resilient during extreme wind in relation to gable roofs. However, inspection of damage survey data from recent tornadoes has revealed a previously unstudied failure mode in which hip roofs suffer partial failure of the framing structure. In the current study, evidence of partial framing failures and statistics of their occurrence are explored and discussed, while the common roof design and construction practice are reviewed. Two-dimensional finite element models are developed to estimate the element-level load effects on hip roof trusses and stick-frame components. The likelihood of failure in each member is defined based on relative demand-to-capacity ratios. Trussed and stick-frame structures are compared to assess the relative performance of the two types of construction. The present analyses verify the common understanding that toenailed roof-to-wall connections are likely to be the most vulnerable elements in the structure of a wood-frame hip roof. However, the results also indicate that certain framing members and connections display significant vulnerability under the same wind uplift, and the possibility of framing failure is not to be discounted. Furthermore, in the case where the roof-to-wall connection uses hurricane straps, certain framing members and joints become the likely points of failure initiation. The analysis results and damage survey observations are used to expand the understanding of wood-frame residential roof failures, as they relate to the Enhanced Fujita Scale and provide assessment of potential gaps in residential design codes.

  9. MRI in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  10. Where is Russia heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  11. MRI in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Kyo

    1986-01-01

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  12. "Head versus heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.

  13. [The exploding head syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L

    1991-04-06

    The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.

  14. Where are we heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  15. "Head versus heart"

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  16. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  17. Pengaruh Negative Framing dan Adverse Selection terhadap Eskalasi Komitmen

    OpenAIRE

    Arimawan, Muhammad Sandi; Sukirno, Sukirno

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengetahui: (1) Pengaruh negative framing terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (2) Pengaruh adverse selection terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (3) Pengaruh negative framing dan adverse selection secara bersama-sama terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (4) Pengaruh negative framing terhadap eskalasi komitmen dimoderasi locus of control, (5) Pengaruh adverse selection terhadap eskalasi komitmen dimoderasi locus of control, (6) Pengaruh negative framing dan adverse selection se...

  18. Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process

  19. Transitions in Students' Epistemic Framing along Two Axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul W.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    We use epistemological framing to interpret participants' behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together…

  20. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be exceeded...

  1. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe and...

  2. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2 inches...

  3. Framing in mass communication research: an overview and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the use of the framing concept in mass communication research. It focuses on the questions what a frame is and how it is measured, how variation in framing can be explained and what the effects of media framing are. Specific attention will be paid to the

  4. Effects of Problem Frame and Gender on Principals' Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul M.; Fagley, Nancy S.; Casella, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates people's decisions can sometimes be influenced by seemingly trivial differences in the "framing" (i.e., wording) of alternative options. The tendency to prefer risk averse options when framed positively and risky options when framed negatively is known as the framing effect. The current study examined the susceptibility of…

  5. Inertial frames and breakthrough propulsion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2017-09-01

    The term ;Breakthrough Propulsion Physics; comes from the NASA project by that name which examined non-rocket space drives, gravity control, and faster-than-light travel. The focus here is on space drives and the related unsolved physics of inertial frames. A ;space drive; is a generic term encompassing any concept for using as-yet undiscovered physics to move a spacecraft instead of existing rockets, sails, or tethers. The collective state of the art spans mostly steps 1-3 of the scientific method: defining the problem, collecting data, and forming hypotheses. The key issues include (1) conservation of momentum, (2) absence of obvious reaction mass, and (3) the net-external thrusting requirement. Relevant open problems in physics include: (1) the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, (2) coupling of gravitation to the other fundamental forces, and (3) the nature of the quantum vacuum. Rather than following the assumption that inertial frames are an immutable, intrinsic property of space, this paper revisits Mach's Principle, where it is posited that inertia is relative to the distant surrounding matter. This perspective allows conjectures that a space drive could impart reaction forces to that matter, via some as-yet undiscovered interaction with the inertial frame properties of space. Thought experiments are offered to begin a process to derive new hypotheses. It is unknown if this line of inquiry will be fruitful, but it is hoped that, by revisiting unsolved physics from a propulsion point of view, new insights will be gained.

  6. Time and outcome framing in intertemporal tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but then its timing is changed. The outcome framing model generalizes the approach taken by the hyperbolic discounting model (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1992): Not obtaining a positive outcome when expected is a worse than expected state, to which people are over-responsive, or hypersensitive, and not incurring a negative outcome when expected is a better than expected state, to which people are under-responsive, or hyposensitive. The time framing model takes a new approach: Delaying a positive outcome or speeding up a negative one involves a loss of time to which people are hypersensitive, and speeding up a positive outcome or delaying a negative one involves a gain of time to which people are hyposensitive. We compare the models on their quantitative predictions of indifference data from matching and preference data from choice. The time framing model systematically outperforms the outcome framing model. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Compactly supported frames for decomposition spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we study a construction of compactly supported frame expansions for decomposition spaces of Triebel-Lizorkin type and for the associated modulation spaces. This is done by showing that finite linear combinations of shifts and dilates of a single function with sufficient decay in b...

  8. Foldable Frame Supporting Electromagnetic Radiation Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to flexible frames supporting electromagnetic radiation collectors, such as antennas, antenna reflectors, deflectors or solar collectors, for celestial or terrestrial applications, which can be folded to be stored and/or transported. The method for stowing deforms...

  9. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  10. Supplier-induced demand as strategic framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a model of supplier-induced demand as strategic framing where the patient has reference-dependent references, and the physician can persuade the patient to buy a treatment by affecting the patient’s reference point. In the main result, the patient is assumed to have a constant

  11. Connecting VLBI and Gaia Celestial Reference Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, Zinovy, E-mail: malkin@gao.spb.ru [Department of Radio Astronomy Research, The Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Astronomy and Cosmic Geodesy Department, Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-12

    The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered. The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparison and the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) and the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3), obtained from VLBI observations. Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System) at micro-arcsecond level accuracy. Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial task due to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands. In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF–ICRF link is presented. Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF–ICRF link accuracy are discussed. The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio sources with optical magnitude to 20{sup m} rather than to 18{sup m} as currently planned for the GCRF–ICRF link. In addition, the use of radio stars is also a prospective method to obtain independent and accurate orientation between the Gaia frame and the ICRF.

  12. An Affect-Responsive Interactive Photo Frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.; Kosunen, I.; Ortega Hortas, M.; Salah, A.A.; Zuzánek, P.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an interactive photo-frame system in which a series of videos of a single person are automatically segmented and a response logic is derived to interact with the user in real-time. The system is composed of five modules. The first module analyzes the uploaded videos and prepares segments

  13. Controversies in watermanagement : Frames and mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Rien; van der Veen, A.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Controversies in decision and policy-making processes can be analysed using frame reflection and mental model mapping techniques. The purpose of the method presented in this paper is to improve the quality of the information and interpretations available to decision makers, by surfacing and

  14. Densification of FL Chains via Residuated Frames

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldi, Paolo; Terui, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-195 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Keywords : densifiability * standard completeness * residuated lattices * residuated frames * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  15. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  16. Cognitive Style, Creativity Framing and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how individuals with different cognitive styles respond to choices involving framing effects. The results suggest that cognitive style as defined by Kirton (1976) is far more complex than previous studies indicate. Kirton characterises "Innovators" as rule breakers and "Adaptors" as conformists. The most…

  17. The covariance of GPS coordinates and frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We explore, in the general relativistic context, the properties of the recently introduced global positioning system (GPS) coordinates, as well as those of the associated frames and coframes that they define. We show that they are covariant and completely independent of any observer. We show that standard spectroscopic and astrometric observations allow any observer to measure (i) the values of the GPS coordinates at his position (ii) the components of his 4-velocity and (iii) the components of the metric in the GPS frame. This provides this system with a unique value both for conceptual discussion (no frame dependence) and for practical use (involved quantities are directly measurable): localization, motion monitoring, astrometry, cosmography and tests of gravitation theories. We show explicitly, in the general relativistic context, how an observer may estimate his position and motion, and reconstruct the components of the metric. This arises from two main results: the extension of the velocity fields of the probes to the whole (curved) spacetime, and the identification of the components of the observer's velocity in the GPS frame with the (inversed) observed redshifts of the probes. Specific cases (non-relativistic velocities, Minkowski and Friedmann-Lemaitre spacetimes, geodesic motions) are studied in detail

  18. [Designing metal frame removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Barel, J.C.; Keltjens, H.M.A.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Oral health care providers have the full responsibility for designing metal frame removable partial dentures and making all of the necessary preparations. Important principles of design are that the denture should hamper natural cleaning and daily oral hygiene as little as possible and that it

  19. Framing Trust at the Street-Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Kevin Anthony

    and artefacts such as media and local authority reports. In addition to the empirical material, the study explores a key governmental policy to investigate how the (previous) government names and frames people with minority ethnic backgrounds. Analysing this policy helps to locate the fieldwork and interactants...

  20. Connecting VLBI and Gaia celestial reference frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinovy Malkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered.The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparisonand the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical it Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRFand the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3, obtained from VLBI observations.Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System at micro-arcsecond level accuracy.Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial taskdue to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands.In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF--ICRF link is presented.Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF--ICRF link accuracy are discussed.The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio sources with optical magnitude to 20$^m$ rather than to 18$^m$ as currently plannedfor the GCRF--ICRF link.In addition, the use of radio stars is also a prospective method to obtain independent and accurate orientation between the Gaia frame and the ICRF.

  1. On Translators' Cultural Frame of Functionist Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyi

    2009-01-01

    A deep cognition with translators' cultural frame of functionist reference can help instructors and teachers adjust and extend patterns and schemes of translation and generate the optimal classroom conditions for acquisition of the target language. The author of the paper, in the perspectives of motivational, cognitive and communicative…

  2. Defining Enrollment Management: The Political Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the elements of Bolman and Deal's (1991) political frame, which are widely discussed and written about among enrollment managers. Whether it is under the guise of managing change, getting things done, understanding institutional politics, or soliciting campus-wide involvement, the issues are often thorny and leave many…

  3. A Model of Framing in Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Mithra; Heaton, Lorna

    2017-01-01

    How do ideas evolve in the context of collaborative design? This research explores the framing strategies and tools involved in the co-construction of a shared understanding in the early stages of a design project. We observed a team of four industrial design students working to design a pop-up shop. We found that, while the key design elements of…

  4. The Institutional Framing of the Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    A review of the significance of the intellectual tool of the technology complex for an understanding of the role of innovation in the market economy. The framing of the market economy is understood as the way that institutions of finance, education and intellectual property are reformed to aid...

  5. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  6. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  7. Density functionals in the laboratory frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals

  8. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  9. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structrures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. Since the blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade, it is

  10. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varas, J.M.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. The blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade. In particular

  11. The framing effect and skin conductance responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eRing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and finally to reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e. decision-processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e. whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa.

  12. The framing effect and skin conductance responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa.

  13. 290 Supervisors' Leadership Frames: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The purpose of this study was to explore the leadership frames of supervisor of public schools in .... according to the paper in a bid to counter the factors that were known to have hindered the .... success in their leadership roles. 2. The type of ...

  14. Construction sector development: frames and governance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan C.; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    institutional theory it is suggested that strategic framing activities aiming to conceptualize an industry as a sectoral object of development are likely to generate multiple and incommensurable representations with different and conflicting strategic implications. Second, if faced with a development agenda...

  15. Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, René; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-05-01

    A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed--as a potential loss or a potential gain--systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral amygdala degeneration, exhibit an intact framing effect. However, choice preference in these patients did show a qualitatively distinct pattern compared to controls evident in an increased propensity to gamble, indicating that loss of amygdala function does exert an overall influence on risk-taking. These findings suggest either that amygdala does contribute to decision making but does not play a causal role in framing, or that UW is not a pure lesion model of amygdala function. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dissecting the risky-choice framing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using five variants of the Asian Disease Problem, we dissected the risky-choice framing effect by requiring each participant to provide preference ratings for the full decision problem and also to provide attractiveness ratings for each of the component parts, i.e., the sure-thing option and the risky option. Consistent with previous research, more risky choices were made by respondents receiving negatively framed versions of the decision problems than by those receiving positively framed versions. However, different processes were evident for those scoring high and low on numeracy. Whereas the choices of the less numerate showed a large effect of frame above and beyond any influence of their evaluations of the separate options, the choices of the highly numerate were almost completely accounted for by their attractiveness ratings of the separate options. These results are consistent with an increased tendency of the highly numerate to integrate complex numeric information in the construction of their preferences and a tendency for the less numerate to respond more superficially to non-numeric sources of information.

  17. Common Frame of Reference & social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) in terms of social justice. It concludes the DCFR has all the characteristics of a typical European compromise. Ideological and esthetical purists will certainly be disappointed. In this respect, it has much in common with the

  18. Einstein and Jordan frames reconciled: A frame-invariant approach to scalar-tensor cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, Riccardo; Pietroni, Massimo; Scarabello, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity can be formulated in different frames, most notably, the Einstein and the Jordan one. While some debate still persists in the literature on the physical status of the different frames, a frame transformation in scalar-tensor theories amounts to a local redefinition of the metric, and then should not affect physical results. We analyze the issue in a cosmological context. In particular, we define all the relevant observables (redshift, distances, cross sections, ...) in terms of frame-independent quantities. Then, we give a frame-independent formulation of the Boltzmann equation, and outline its use in relevant examples such as particle freeze-out and the evolution of the cosmic microwave background photon distribution function. Finally, we derive the gravitational equations for the frame-independent quantities at first order in perturbation theory. From a practical point of view, the present approach allows the simultaneous implementation of the good aspects of the two frames in a clear and straightforward way

  19. Who's been framed? Framing effects are reduced in financial gambles made for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Fenja V; Tunney, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Decisions made on behalf of other people are sometimes more rational than those made for oneself. In this study we used a monetary gambling task to ask if the framing effect in decision-making is reduced in surrogate decision-making. Participants made a series of choices between a predetermined sure option and a risky gambling option of winning a proportion of an initial stake. Trials were presented as either a gain or a loss relative to that initial stake. In half of the trials participants made choices to earn money for themselves and in the other half they earned money for another participant. Framing effects were measured as risk seeking in loss frames and risk aversion in gain frames. Significant framing effects were observed both in trials in which participants earned money for themselves and those in which they earned money for another person; however, these framing effects were significantly reduced when making decisions for another person. It appears that the reduced emotional involvement when the decision-maker is not affected by the outcome of the decision thus lessens the framing effect without eradicating it altogether. This suggests that the deviation from rational choices in decision-making can be significantly reduced when the emotional impact on the decision maker is lessened. These results are discussed in relation to Somatic Distortion Theory.

  20. Framing Autism: A Content Analysis of Five Major News Frames in U.S.-Based Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendorf Muhamad, Jessica; Yang, Fan

    2017-03-01

    The portrayal of child autism-related news stories has become a serious issue in the United States, yet few studies address this from media framing perspective. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined the applicability of a media framing scale (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000) for the deductive examination of autism-related news stories in U.S.-based newspapers. Under the theoretical framework of framing theory, a content analysis of news stories (N = 413) was conducted to investigate the presence of the five news frames using an established questionnaire. Differentiating between local and national news outlets, the following five news frames were measured: (a) attribution of responsibility, (b) human interest, (c) conflict, (d) morality, and (e) economic consequences. Findings revealed that news stories about autism most frequently fell within the human interest frame. Furthermore, the study shed light on how local and national newspapers might differ in framing autism-related news pieces and in their placement of the autism-related story within the newspaper (e.g., front page section, community section).

  1. Measuring the quality of a quantum reference frame: The relative entropy of frameness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gour, Gilad; Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a reference frame for transformations associated with group G, any quantum state that is noninvariant under the action of G may serve as a token of the missing reference frame. We here present a measure of the quality of such a token: the relative entropy of frameness. This is defined as the relative entropy distance between the state of interest and the nearest G-invariant state. Unlike the relative entropy of entanglement, this quantity is straightforward to calculate, and we find it to be precisely equal to the G-asymmetry, a measure of frameness introduced by Vaccaro et al. It is shown to provide an upper bound on the mutual information between the group element encoded into the token and the group element that may be extracted from it by measurement. In this sense, it quantifies the extent to which the token successfully simulates a full reference frame. We also show that despite a suggestive analogy from entanglement theory, the regularized relative entropy of frameness is zero and therefore does not quantify the rate of interconversion between the token and some standard form of quantum reference frame. Finally, we show how these investigations yield an approach to bounding the relative entropy of entanglement.

  2. Framing effects in medical situations: distinctions of attribute, goal and risky choice frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Yuan; Miao, Danmin; Li, Rui; Xiao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    To verify whether three different framing effects (risky choice, attribute and goal) exist in simulated medical situations and to analyse any differences. Medical decision-making problems were established, relating to medical skill evaluation, patient compliance and a selection of treatment options. All problems were described in positive and negative frame conditions. Significantly more positive evaluations were made if the doctor's medical records were described as 'of 100 patients, 70 patients became better' compared with those described as 'of 100 patients, 30 patients didn't become better'. Doctor's advice described in a negative frame resulted in significantly more decisions to comply, compared with advice described in a positive frame. Treatment options described in terms of survival rates resulted in significantly more adventurous choices compared with options described in terms of mortality rates. Decision-making reversal appeared in the risky choice and attribute frames, but not the goal frame. Framing effects were shown to exist in simulated medical situations, but there were significant differences among the three kinds of such effects.

  3. Mechanical analysis of a ceramic head being part of a modular hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravagli, Ermenegildo

    1998-04-01

    This report still pursues the aim of carrying out a systematic mechanical analysis of a ceramic head being part of a modular hip prosthesis, in order to characterize it exhaustively, i.e. to assess its performances and some of its main specifications. Here in particular the aim is to locate the stress of the head when it undergoes the load transferred by the stem, presuming that the stem-head mating is not perfect, but there is a conical error called of the 2. type, to which corresponds a stem summit angle smaller than the one in the head hole. This conical error changes considerably the head stress and therefore this study is considered decisive for a later correct assessment of its resistance to breaking. This study is performed in the frame of the STRIDE-CETMA Project, which is aimed at founding and developing a Centre for technologically advanced materials in Brindisi (Italy) Technology Park [it

  4. Grassmannian frames with applications to coding and communication

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmer, Thomas; Heath Jr., Robert W

    2003-01-01

    For a given class ${\\cal F}$ of uniform frames of fixed redundancy we define a Grassmannian frame as one that minimizes the maximal correlation $||$ among all frames $\\{f_k\\}_{k \\in {\\cal I}} \\in {\\cal F}$. We first analyze finite-dimensional Grassmannian frames. Using links to packings in Grassmannian spaces and antipodal spherical codes we derive bounds on the minimal achievable correlation for Grassmannian frames. These...

  5. High-frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas S. P.; Cverna, Frank H.; Albright, Kevin L.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Yates, George J.; McDonald, Thomas E.; Flynn, Michael J.; Tashman, Scott

    1994-10-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100 microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  6. Framing and Claiming: How Information-Framing Affects Expected Social Security Claiming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey R.; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a “breakeven analysis” encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others. PMID:28579641

  7. Framing and Claiming: How Information-Framing Affects Expected Social Security Claiming Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey R; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a "breakeven analysis" encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others.

  8. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  9. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  10. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  11. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  12. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  13. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  14. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  15. Postural adaptation of the spatial reference frames to microgravity: back to the egocentric reference frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Viel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to test how gravitational information would affect the choice of stable reference frame used to control posture and voluntary movement, we have analysed the forearm stabilisation during sit to stand movement under microgravity condition obtained during parabolic flights. In this study, we hypothesised that in response to the transient loss of graviceptive information, the postural adaptation might involve the use of several strategies of segmental stabilisation, depending on the subject's perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field. More precisely, we expected a continuum of postural strategies across subjects with 1 at one extreme the maintaining of an egocentric reference frame and 2 at the other the re-activation of childhood strategies consisting in adopting an egocentric reference frame. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To check this point, a forearm stabilisation task combined with a sit to stand movement was performed with eyes closed by 11 subjects during parabolic flight campaigns. Kinematic data were collected during 1-g and 0-g periods. The postural adaptation to microgravity's constraint may be described as a continuum of strategies ranging from the use of an exo- to an egocentric reference frame for segmental stabilisation. At one extremity, the subjects used systematically an exocentric frame to control each of their body segments independently, as under normogravity conditions. At the other, the segmental stabilisation strategies consist in systematically adopting an egocentric reference frame to control their forearm's stabilisation. A strong correlation between the mode of segmental stabilisation used and the perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field of the subjects was reported. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show different subjects' typologies from those that use the forearm orientation in a mainly exocentric reference frame to

  16. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Katherine V.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  17. Framing effects: The impact of framing on copresence in virtual theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Unterman, Benjamin Asher

    2017-01-01

    Virtual theatre (enacted dramatic narrative performed live online) is an emerging form of theatrical mediation. One of the biggest challenges faced by this growing media practice is the management of audience experience. This thesis attempts to address the uncertainty around virtual theatre audiences by focusing on the framing of performances that take place in virtual worlds. Strategic approaches to framing and audience preparation are suggested based on literature-based research, case studi...

  18. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  19. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Nintendo Wii remote controllers for head posture measurement: accuracy, validity, and reliability of the infrared optical head tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongshin; Nam, Kyoung Won; Jang, Ik Gyu; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the accuracy, validity, and reliability of a newly developed infrared optical head tracker (IOHT) using Nintendo Wii remote controllers (WiiMote; Nintendo Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) for measurement of the angle of head posture. The IOHT consists of two infrared (IR) receivers (WiiMote) that are fixed to a mechanical frame and connected to a monitoring computer via a Bluetooth communication channel and an IR beacon that consists of four IR light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With the use of the Cervical Range of Motion (CROM; Performance Attainment Associates, St. Paul, MN) as a reference, one- and three-dimensional (1- and 3-D) head postures of 20 normal adult subjects (20-37 years of age; 9 women and 11 men) were recorded with the IOHT. In comparison with the data from the CROM, the IOHT-derived results showed high consistency. The measurements of 1- and 3-D positions of the human head with the IOHT were very close to those of the CROM. The correlation coefficients of 1- and 3-D positions between the IOHT and the CROM were more than 0.99 and 0.96 (P < 0.05, Pearson's correlation test), respectively. Reliability tests of the IOHT for the normal adult subjects for 1- and 3-D positions of the human head had 95% limits of agreement angles of approximately ±4.5° and ±8.0°, respectively. The IOHT showed strong concordance with the CROM and relatively good test-retest reliability, thus proving its validity and reliability as a head-posture-measuring device. Considering its high performance, ease of use, and low cost, the IOHT has the potential to be widely used as a head-posture-measuring device in clinical practice.

  1. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskul, Ayse K; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a message about health risks of caffeine consumption among individuals prescreened to be regular caffeine consumers. After being primed for individualism, European Americans who read a health message that focused on the personal self were more likely to accept the message-they found it more persuasive, believed they were more at risk and engaged in more message-congruent behaviour. These effects were also found among Asian Americans who were primed for collectivism and who read a health message that focused on relational obligations. The findings point to the importance of investigating the role of situational cues in persuasive effects of health messages and suggest that matching content to primed frame consistent with the chronic frame may be a way to know what to match messages to.

  2. Framing crime: moral panic in Argentine newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia ARUGUETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Píparo was shot a few minutes after withdrawing cash from a bank branch. This case outraged the public opinion because she was eight months pregnant at the moment of the assault. She had to undergo a caesarean section and her baby only survived one week. Through an exploratory and inductive research we will analyze how the Argentine newspapers presented the case. We aim at elaborating a content analysis code book that can be validated in future similar researches on the subject. We apply the Framing theory in order to detect the frames used in the news coverage and to observe if they are compatible with the idea of «moral panic» proposed by Stanley Cohen.

  3. Framing effects in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Goldstein, David; Hasher, Lynn; Zacks, Rose T

    2005-07-01

    A growing literature on decision making in older adults suggests that they are more likely to use heuristic processing than are younger adults. We assessed this tendency in the context of a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to describe options greatly influences the decision maker's choice. We compared decision making under a standard ("heuristic") condition and also under a "justification" condition known to reduce reliance on heuristics. In the standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the two groups did not differ when participants were asked to provide a justification. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making.

  4. High frame rate synthetic aperture duplex imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    aperture flow imaging as demonstrated in this paper. Synthetic aperture, directional beamforming, and cross-correlation are used to produce B-mode and vector velocity images at high frame rates. The frame rate equals the effective pulse repetition frequency of each imaging mode. Emissions for making the B...... estimation is −1.8% and the relative standard deviation 5.4%. The approach can thus estimate both high and low velocities with equal accuracy and thereby makes it possible to present vector flow images with a high dynamic range. Measurements are made using the SARUS research scanner, a linear array......Conventional color flow images are limited in velocity range and can either show the high velocities in systole or be optimized for the lower diastolic velocities. The full dynamics of the flow is, thus, hard to visualize. The dynamic range can be significantly increased by employing synthetic...

  5. Integration of Reference Frames Using VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chopo; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has the unique potential to integrate the terrestrial and celestial reference frames through simultaneous estimation of positions and velocities of approx. 40 active VLBI stations and a similar number of stations/sites with sufficient historical data, the position and position stability of approx. 150 well-observed extragalactic radio sources and another approx. 500 sources distributed fairly uniformly on the sky, and the time series of the five parameters that specify the relative orientation of the two frames. The full realization of this potential is limited by a number of factors including the temporal and spatial distribution of the stations, uneven distribution of observations over the sources and the sky, variations in source structure, modeling of the solid/fluid Earth and troposphere, logistical restrictions on the daily observing network size, and differing strategies for optimizing analysis for TRF, for CRF and for EOP. The current status of separately optimized and integrated VLBI analysis will be discussed.

  6. Dynamic analysis program for frame structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kozo; Chiba, Toshio

    1975-01-01

    A general purpose computer program named ISTRAN/FD (Isub(HI) STRucture ANalysis/Frame structure, Dynamic analysis) has been developed for dynamic analysis of three-dimensional frame structures. This program has functions of free vibration analysis, seismic response analysis, graphic display by plotter and CRT, etc. This paper introduces ISTRAN/FD; examples of its application are shown with various problems : idealization of the cantilever, dynamic analysis of the main tower of the suspension bridge, three-dimensional vibration in the plate girder bridge, seismic response in the boiler steel structure, and dynamic properties of the underground LNG tank. In this last example, solid elements, in addition to beam elements, are especially used for the analysis. (auth.)

  7. Hadronic currents in the infinite momentum frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of the transformation properties of hadronic currents in the infinite momentum frame (IMF) is investigated. A general method is proposed to deal with the problem which is based upon the concept of group contraction. The two-dimensional aspects of the IMF description are studied in detail, and the current matrix elements of a three-dimensional Poincare covariant theory are reduced to those of a two-dimensional one. It is explicitlyshown that the covariance group of the two-dimensional theory may either be a 'non-relativistic' (Galilei) group, or a 'relativistic' (Poincare) one depending on the value of a parameter reminiscent of the light velocity in the three-dimensional theory. The value of this parameter cannot be determined by kinematical argument. These results offer a natural generalization of models which assume Galilean symmetry in the infinite momentum frame

  8. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goyeneche, D.; Turek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 24 (2017), č. článku 245304. ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : equiangular tight frames * unistochastic matrices * SIC POVM Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2016

  9. Framing Effects as Violations of Extensionality

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois-Gironde , Sacha; Giraud , Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    Framing effects occur when different descriptions of the same decision problem give rise to divergent decisions. They can be seen as a violation of the decisiontheoretic version of the principle of extensionality (PE). The PE in logic means that two logically equivalent sentences can be substituted salva veritate. We explore what this notion of extensionality becomes in decision contexts. Violations of extensionality may have rational grounds. Based on some ideas proposed by the psychologist ...

  10. Frames of reference in spatial language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Anna; Li, Peggy

    2016-08-01

    Languages differ in how they encode spatial frames of reference. It is unknown how children acquire the particular frame-of-reference terms in their language (e.g., left/right, north/south). The present paper uses a word-learning paradigm to investigate 4-year-old English-speaking children's acquisition of such terms. In Part I, with five experiments, we contrasted children's acquisition of novel word pairs meaning left-right and north-south to examine their initial hypotheses and the relative ease of learning the meanings of these terms. Children interpreted ambiguous spatial terms as having environment-based meanings akin to north and south, and they readily learned and generalized north-south meanings. These studies provide the first direct evidence that children invoke geocentric representations in spatial language acquisition. However, the studies leave unanswered how children ultimately acquire "left" and "right." In Part II, with three more experiments, we investigated why children struggle to master body-based frame-of-reference words. Children successfully learned "left" and "right" when the novel words were systematically introduced on their own bodies and extended these words to novel (intrinsic and relative) uses; however, they had difficulty learning to talk about the left and right sides of a doll. This difficulty was paralleled in identifying the left and right sides of the doll in a non-linguistic memory task. In contrast, children had no difficulties learning to label the front and back sides of a doll. These studies begin to paint a detailed account of the acquisition of spatial terms in English, and provide insights into the origins of diverse spatial reference frames in the world's languages. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating learners' epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal

    Classical mechanics challenges students to use their intuitions and experiences as a basis for understanding, in effect to approach learning as "a refinement of everyday thinking'' (Einstein, 1936). Moving on to quantum mechanics (QM), students, like physicists, need to adjust this approach, in particular with respect to the roles that intuitive knowledge and mathematics play in the pursuit of coherent understanding (these are adjustments to aspects of their epistemologies). In this dissertation, I explore how some students manage the epistemological transition. I began this work by recruiting both graduate and undergraduate students, interviewing each subject several times as they moved through coursework in QM. The interviews featured, among other things, how students tried to fit ideas together in mutually consistent ways, including with respect to intuitive knowledge, mathematics and experiment, if at all. I modeled these dynamic cognitive processes as different epistemological framings (i.e., tacit, in-the-moment responses to the question "How should I approach knowledge?''). Through detailed qualitative analyses of students' reasoning and a systematic coding of their interviews, I explored how these coherence seeking related framings impacted their learning. The dissertation supports three main findings: (1) students' patterns of epistemological framing are mostly stable within a given course; (2) students who profess epistemologies aligned with the coordination of coherence seeking framings tend to be more stable in demonstrating them; and (3) students aware that their understanding of QM ultimately anchors in its mathematics tend to produce more coherent explanations and perform better in their courses. These findings are consistent with existing research on student epistemologies in QM and imply that epistemologies, in particular whether and how students seek coherence, require greater attention and emphasis in instruction.

  12. Comparative methods of concrete portal frame design

    OpenAIRE

    A, Letengsang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to design a concrete portal frame with two column spacings of 12 meters and 6 meters and its structural elements in a building located in Hämeenlinna city, Finland. A comprehension study on the concrete design chapter of Eurocode 2 was done before proceeding on the calculation process, the materials’ properties. The corresponding ca-pacity diagrams from concrete product manufacturers in Finland can be assistance tools during the calculation process. ...

  13. Frames of Mind in Intertemporal Choice

    OpenAIRE

    George F. Loewenstein

    1988-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that choices between gambles are systematically influenced by the way they are expressed. Kahneman and Tversky's Prospect Theory (Kahneman, D., A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(2) 363--391.) explains many of these "framing" effects as shifts in the point of reference from which prospects are evaluated. This paper demonstrates the applicability of the reference point concept to intertemporal choice. Three ex...

  14. Sporadic frame dropping impact on quality perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Vidal, Ricardo R.; Gicquel, Jean Charles; Colomes, Catherine; Cherifi, Hocine

    2004-06-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in real time video services over packet networks. When considering quality, it is essential to quantify user perception of the received sequence. Severe motion discontinuities are one of the most common degradations in video streaming. The end-user perceives a jerky motion when the discontinuities are uniformly distributed over time and an instantaneous fluidity break is perceived when the motion loss is isolated or irregularly distributed. Bit rate adaptation techniques, transmission errors in the packet networks or restitution strategy could be the origin of this perceived jerkiness. In this paper we present a psychovisual experiment performed to quantify the effect of sporadically dropped pictures on the overall perceived quality. First, the perceptual detection thresholds of generated temporal discontinuities were measured. Then, the quality function was estimated in relation to a single frame dropping for different durations. Finally, a set of tests was performed to quantify the effect of several impairments distributed over time. We have found that the detection thresholds are content, duration and motion dependent. The assessment results show how quality is impaired by a single burst of dropped frames in a 10 sec sequence. The effect of several bursts of discarded frames, irregularly distributed over the time is also discussed.

  15. The hot hand belief and framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport-where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance-indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and task on the perception of baseball pitch behavior as well as the hot hand belief and free-throw behavior in basketball. Study 1 asked participants to designate outcomes with different alternation rates as the result of baseball pitches or coin tosses. Study 2 examined basketball free-throw behavior and measured predicted success before each shot as well as general belief in the hot hand pattern. The results of Study 1 illustrate that experience and stimulus alternation rates influence the perception of chance in human performance tasks. Study 2 shows that physically performing an act and making judgments are related. Specifically, beliefs were related to overall performance, with more successful shooters showing greater belief in the hot hand and greater predicted success for upcoming shots. Both of these studies highlight that the hot hand belief is influenced by framing, which leads to instability and situational contingencies. We show the specific effects of framing using accumulated experience of the individual with the sport and knowledge of its structure and specific experience with sport actions (basketball shots) prior to judgments.

  16. Frame Synchronization Without Attached Sync Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to synchronize codeword frames without making use of attached synchronization markers (ASMs). Instead, the synchronizer identifies the code structure present in the received symbols, by operating the decoder for a handful of iterations at each possible symbol offset and forming an appropriate metric. This method is computationally more complex and doesn't perform as well as frame synchronizers that utilize an ASM; nevertheless, the new synchronizer acquires frame synchronization in about two seconds when using a 600 kbps software decoder, and would take about 15 milliseconds on prototype hardware. It also eliminates the need for the ASMs, which is an attractive feature for short uplink codes whose coding gain would be diminished by the overheard of ASM bits. The lack of ASMs also would simplify clock distribution for the AR4JA low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and adds a small amount to the coding gain as well (up to 0.2 dB).

  17. The Game Frame and Political Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2012-01-01

    Several observational and experimental studies have confirmed the ‘spiral of cynicism’ hypothesis: the tendency of the news media to cover politics through a game frame, which focuses on political strategy instead of political issues, leads to cynicism about election campaigns and politicians amo...... on a survey among the electorate and a content analysis of political coverage in newspapers. The study shows that exposure to the game frame is indeed associated with lower levels of internal efficacy, even when controlling for potentially confounding variables.......Several observational and experimental studies have confirmed the ‘spiral of cynicism’ hypothesis: the tendency of the news media to cover politics through a game frame, which focuses on political strategy instead of political issues, leads to cynicism about election campaigns and politicians among...... the electorate. However, such cynicism may in itself be somewhat inconsequential, and so this article suggests that we move beyond cynicism regarding specific electoral campaigns or politicians, and that we turn our attention towards political efficacy. This is done in an empirical study, which is based...

  18. Representation of heading direction in far and near head space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye

  19. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    In our cases of acute and subacute subdural hematoma, the use of CT was evaluated. In our department of surgery, acute subdural hematoma was found in 46 of 388 patients of head trauma who underwent CT. Acute subdural hematoma, like epidural hematoma was usually visualized as a high-density area along the cranial inner table, and this was easily differenciated from epidural hematoma because of difference in shape from the other. The picture of acute subdural hematoma was occasionally confused with that of intracerebral hematoma or cerebral contusion. Single use of CT does not differenciate subacute subdural hematoma from chronic subdural hematoma. However, CT usually visualized acute hematoma as a high-density area, showing the extent of hematoma. Comparison of the thickness of hematoma with the axis deviation of the median part such as the 3rd cerebral ventricle suggested severity of cerebral edema. CT also revealed bilateral or multiple lesions of cerebral contusion or intracerebral hematoma. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  1. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  2. Research on Optimization of Formula SAE Truss-Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frame, as one of the basic components of a car, plays an important role of connecting components and withstanding various loads. The truss-frame is the commonest form of Formula SAE car in that it has many advantages, such as low cost, simple manufacture, high rigidity and high strength. The development of frame is reviewed. First, the key performance indicators and the mechanical state of the frame under different conditions are discussed. Second, a variety of optimization methods used in the design of frame are described. Finally, the test method of frame are introduced, with the experimental data and the finite element analysis of results being compared. Through analyzing and summarizing the development of the design, optimization and testing technology of the Formula SAE truss-frame, forecasting the future trends, the great theoretical reference is provided for the design and research of the follow-up frame.

  3. ~ Effects of Data Frame Size Disbibution on Wireless LANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    back-off duration control frames (ACK) transmissions and even inter-frame spaces. This paper provides ... single Medium Access Control (MAC) and ... The rules of .... graph. Results of the three cases are shown below. DUAL FIXED CASE 1.

  4. Multiresolution Motion Estimation for Low-Rate Video Frame Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezerul Abdul Karim

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation of video frames with the purpose of increasing the frame rate requires the estimation of motion in the image so as to interpolate pixels along the path of the objects. In this paper, the specific challenges of low-rate video frame interpolation are illustrated by choosing one well-performing algorithm for high-frame-rate interpolation (Castango 1996 and applying it to low frame rates. The degradation of performance is illustrated by comparing the original algorithm, the algorithm adapted to low frame rate, and simple averaging. To overcome the particular challenges of low-frame-rate interpolation, two algorithms based on multiresolution motion estimation are developed and compared on objective and subjective basis and shown to provide an elegant solution to the specific challenges of low-frame-rate video interpolation.

  5. Thinking inside the frame: A framing analysis of the humanities in Danish print news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2017-11-01

    The humanities, the natural and social sciences all represent advanced and systematic knowledge production-and they all receive public funding for doing so. However, although the field of public understanding of science has been well established for decades, similar research attention has not been directed at the humanities. The purpose of this study is to argue the case for further research of public understanding of the humanities and to take a first step in that direction by presenting a study of the framing of the humanities in Danish print news media. Different framings of the humanities are analyzed. Despite the differences in the issue-specific frames, the generic framing of the humanities shared by most articles is as follows: 75% explicitly frame the humanities as deficit, while the remaining 25% are more neutral. Consequently, if newspapers constitute the only source of information concerning the humanities, newsreaders may not be much wiser in understanding what the humanities might be-but they will know that whatever the humanities is, it is broken and useless.

  6. A comment on framing effects in linear public good games

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Edward

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent papers have looked at framing effects in linear public good games. In this comment, I argue that, within this literature, the distinction between give-take and positive–negative framing effects has become blurred, and that this is a barrier towards understanding the experimental evidence on framing effects. To make these points, I first illustrate that frames can differ along both an externality and choice dimension. I then argue that the existing evidence is consistent wit...

  7. Duplication of Key Frames of Video Streams in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sagatov, Evgeny S.; Sukhov, Andrei M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper technological solutions for improving the quality of video transfer along wireless networks are investigated. Tools have been developed to allow packets to be duplicated with key frames data. In the paper we tested video streams with duplication of all frames, with duplication of key frames, and without duplication. The experiments showed that the best results are obtained by duplication of packages which contain key frames. The paper also provides an overview of the coefficient...

  8. The impact of moods and cognitive processing on framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ravndal, Mathias; Sjøbakken, Hallvard

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mood and cognitive processing on risky choice framing. A mixed between- and within-subject lab experimental design was conducted to investigate our hypotheses. As predicted, the results indicate that cognitive processing moderated the effects of scenario framing, with higher levels of intuitive processing leading to classical framing effects, whereas higher levels of analytical processing leading to no such framing effects. Self-reported valence, as in self-...

  9. Transformations between inertial and linearly accelerated frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Transformation equations between inertial and linearly accelerated frames of reference are derived and these transformation equations are shown to be compatible, where applicable, with those of special relativity. The physical nature of an accelerated frame of reference is unambiguously defined by means of an equation which relates the velocity of all points within the accelerated frame of reference to measurements made in an inertial frame of reference. (author)

  10. Extensions of Bessel sequences to dual pairs of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2013-01-01

    Tight frames in Hilbert spaces have been studied intensively for the past years. In this paper we demonstrate that it often is an advantage to use pairs of dual frames rather than tight frames. We show that in any separable Hilbert space, any pairs of Bessel sequences can be extended to a pair of...... be extended to a pair of dual frames. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  11. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Framing the text: 'Background studies' and New Testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The notion 'framing the text' is defended to emphasise that history is constructed and always pre supposes a perspective. Framing is a comprehensive activity which adds complexity. Because it engages in historical interpretation and describes aspects of the various levels of context, one's framing activity can be criticised ...

  13. Automatic thematic content analysis: finding frames in news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, D.; Burscher, B.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Rijke, M.; Jatowt, A.; Lim, E.P.; Ding, Y.; Miura, A.; Tezuka, T.; Dias, G.; Tanaka, K.; Flanagin, A.; Dai, B.T.

    2013-01-01

    Framing in news is the way in which journalists depict an issue in terms of a ‘central organizing idea.’ Frames can be a perspective on an issue. We explore the automatic classification of four generic news frames: conflict, human interest, economic consequences, and morality. Complex

  14. An Analysis of Environmental Advertising Frames from 1990 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    VanDyke, Matthew Steven

    2012-01-01

    Recent calls in environmental communication literature suggest researchers should understand the relationships between media message content, message construction, and audience effects. This thesis analyzed environmental advertising frames over time to inform strategic environmental communication research and practice. The study was a media content analysis guided by framing theory. Framing theory asserts the construction of media messages involves the selection and salience of particular mes...

  15. Quantum mechanics with respect to different reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geometric (Schroedinger) quantization of nonrelativistic mechanics with respect to different reference frames is considered. In classical nonrelativistic mechanics, a reference frame is represented by a connection on a configuration space fibered over a time axis R. Under quantization, it yields a connection on the quantum algebra of Schroedinger operators. The operators of energy with respect to different reference frames are examined

  16. A characterization of tight and dual generalized translation invariant frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    such systems form tight frames, and when two GTI Bessel systems form dual frames for L2(G). In particular, this offers a unified approach to the theory of discrete and continuous frames and, e.g., yields well known results for discrete and continuous Gabor and wavelet systems....

  17. Learning as Issue Framing in Agricultural Innovation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisenkopfs, Talis; Kunda, Ilona; Šumane, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Networks are increasingly viewed as entities of learning and innovation in agriculture. In this article we explore learning as issue framing in two agricultural innovation networks. Design/methodology/approach: We combine frame analysis and social learning theories to analyse the processes and factors contributing to frame convergence and…

  18. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  19. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for vision...

  20. Inferring Teacher Epistemological Framing from Local Patterns in Teacher Noticing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we use research from science education on teacher framing and work from mathematics education on teacher noticing to develop new approaches to modeling teacher cognition. The framing literature proposes a dynamic cognitive model of teaching in which teacher epistemological framing, or moment-to-moment understanding of what is going on…