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Sample records for lekima approaching taiwan

  1. A Study of Sustainable Material Management Approach in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Mingchien; Chou Chenpei; Chen Yizih

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable material management (SMM) has been initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2005. SMM is an approach to promote resource conservation, reducing negative environmental impacts and preserving the natural capital of material and the balance of economic efficiency and social equity. Life cycle assessment and material flow analysis have been widely used to estimate the environmental impacts for resource consumption, but economic development has not been taken into account. Before 1984, improper garbage disposal was not an important issue in Taiwan. But over the past three decades, the Taiwan Government has accomplished not only waste disposal but also resource recycling, which are conducive to the essence of SMM. This study is the first research project to develop a SMM conceptual model for policy and strategy in Taiwan. SMM is the suitable waste management concept for the next era. This study reviewed the policy and strategy that has been applied in Taiwan's waste management, and compares the efficiency of waste management policy in Taiwan with the concept of SMM. A case study of the waste flow will be used to prove that the sustainable material policy can be a suitable management system to achieve sustainable development. This study will open a new chapter of research on global SMM for Taiwan.

  2. Toward a collaborative model of pandemic preparedness and response: Taiwan's changing approach to pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Schwartz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The Taiwan case provides evidence that by implementing the whole-of-society approach to pandemic preparedness and response governments can enhance their ability to manage future outbreaks. We recommend that governments beyond Taiwan's borders seriously consider adopting this approach.

  3. A MIMIC approach to modeling the underground economy in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Han-Min; Lin, Jer-Yan; Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang

    2006-11-01

    The size of underground economy (UE) expansion usually increases the tax gap, impose a burden on the economy, and results in tax distortions. This study uses the MIMIC approach to model the causal variables and indicating variables to estimate the UE in Taiwan. We also focus on testing the data for non-stationarity and perform diagnostic tests. By using annual time-series data for Taiwan from 1961 to 2003, it is found that the estimated size of the UE varies from 11.0% to 13.1% before 1988, and from 10.6% to 11.8% from 1989 onwards. That the size of the UE experienced a substantial downward shift in 1989 indicates that there was a structural break. The UE is significantly and positively affected by such casual variables as the logarithm of real government consumption and currency inflation, but is negatively affected by the tax burden at 5% significant level. Unemployment rate and crime rate are not significantly correlated with the UE in this study.

  4. Toward a collaborative model of pandemic preparedness and response: Taiwan's changing approach to pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jonathan; Yen, Muh-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Over time, as newly emerging infectious diseases have become increasingly common and more easily spread, it has become clear that traditional response mechanisms have proven inadequate to the task of prevention and control. To explore whether enhanced cooperation with local government and community institutions can effectively supplement traditional state-centric public health epidemic responses. Drawing on Taiwan as a case study, we assess the role of the whole-of-society approach to epidemic response as arises from the collaborative governance literature. The approach calls for enhanced cooperation, trust building, resource sharing and consensus-oriented decision making among multiple levels of government, business, non-profits, and the public in general. The Taiwan case illustrates the benefits of the whole-of-society approach. Enhanced cooperation between state, local government and non-state institutions, particularly neighborhood committees, has resulted in a strengthened, holistic epidemic preparedness and response infrastructure. The Taiwan case provides evidence that by implementing the whole-of-society approach to pandemic preparedness and response governments can enhance their ability to manage future outbreaks. We recommend that governments beyond Taiwan's borders seriously consider adopting this approach. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A Delphi-matrix approach to SEA and its application within the tourism sector in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, N.-W.; Hsiao, T.-Y.; Yu, Y.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a procedural tool and within the framework of SEA, several different types of analytical methods can be used in the assessment. However, the impact matrix used currently in Taiwan has some disadvantages. Hence, a Delphi-matrix approach to SEA is proposed here to improve the performance of Taiwan's SEA. This new approach is based on the impact matrix combination with indicators of sustainability, and then the Delphi method is employed to collect experts' opinions. In addition, the assessment of National Floriculture Park Plan and Taiwan Flora 2008 Program is taken as an example to examine this new method. Although international exhibition is one of the important tourism (economic) activities, SEA is seldom about tourism sector. Finally, the Delphi-matrix approach to SEA for tourism development plan is established containing eight assessment topics and 26 corresponding categories. In summary, three major types of impacts: resources' usages, pollution emissions, and local cultures change are found. Resources' usages, such as water, electricity, and natural gas demand, are calculated on a per capita basis. Various forms of pollution resulting from this plan, such as air, water, soil, waste, and noise, are also identified

  6. A fuzzy logic approach to modeling the underground economy in Taiwan

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    Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang; Wang, David Han-Min; Chen, Su-Jane

    2006-04-01

    The size of the ‘underground economy’ (UE) is valuable information in the formulation of macroeconomic and fiscal policy. This study applies fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic to model Taiwan's UE over the period from 1960 to 2003. Two major factors affecting the size of the UE, the effective tax rate and the degree of government regulation, are used. The size of Taiwan's UE is scaled and compared with those of other models. Although our approach yields different estimates, similar patterns and leading are exhibited throughout the period. The advantage of applying fuzzy logic is twofold. First, it can avoid the complex calculations in conventional econometric models. Second, fuzzy rules with linguistic terms are easy for human to understand.

  7. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Cultural distance between parents' and children's creativity: A within-country approach in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen-Ho; Su, Jenny C; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2015-07-01

    The present study adopted a within-country approach to investigate the relation of cultural distance to general creativity and math creativity in Taiwan. First, we conducted a pilot study of 201 young adolescents with parents from one of the 3 largest subethnic groups in Taiwan, namely Min-nan Taiwanese, Ha-kka Taiwanese, and Outside-Province Taiwanese. The results revealed that young Taiwanese adolescents perceived the cultural distance between Min-nan Taiwanese and Outside-Province Taiwanese as larger than the cultural distance between the other subethnic groups. The main study revealed that 610 young adolescents from large cultural distance families (i.e., those comprising 1 Min-nan Taiwanese parent and 1 Outside-Province Taiwanese parent) outperformed those from small cultural distance families (i.e., those comprising 2 Min-nan Taiwanese parents, and those comprising 1 Min-nan Taiwanese parent and 1 Ha-kka Taiwanese parent) on both general creativity and math creativity. This pattern remained even after controlling for family socioeconomic status, parents' education level, and adolescents' school mathematical performance. Implications and limitations are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Consumer trust in food safety--a multidisciplinary approach and empirical evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Food scandals that happened in recent years have increased consumers' risk perceptions of foods and decreased their trust in food safety. A better understanding of the consumer trust in food safety can improve the effectiveness of public policy and allow the development of the best practice in risk communication. This study proposes a research framework from a psychometric approach to investigate the relationships between the consumer's trust in food safety and the antecedents of risk perceptions of foods based on a reflexive modernization perspective and a cultural theory perspective in the hope of benefiting the future empirical study. The empirical results from a structural equation modeling analysis of Taiwan as a case in point reveal that this research framework based on a multidisciplinary perspective can be a valuable tool for a growing understanding of consumer trust in food safety. The antecedents in the psychometric research framework comprised reflexive modernization factors and cultural theory factors have all been supported in this study except the consumer's perception of pessimism toward food. Moreover, the empirical results of repeated measures analysis of variance give more detailed information to grasp empirical implications and to provide some suggestions to the actors and institutions involved in the food supply chain in Taiwan.

  10. An Integrated Approach For Developing Environmental Performance Evaluation Of Taiwans Food Industry

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    Anirut Pipatprapa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental performance EP is a comprehensive sustainable development concept. Thus determining the suitable EP indicator is an important process. This study combines structural equation modeling SEM and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process FAHP to identify the priority weight of factors for assessing the EP of Taiwans food industry. A SEM approach was used to develop and define EP factors and sub-factors using a questionnaire designed to gather data from 163 managers in the food industry. A FAHP approach was employed to prioritize the scores using a questionnaire to interview 21 experts regarding the different aspects of EP. The SEM results indicate that market orientation MO quality management QM and innovation capability IC have a positive and significant effect on EP. The FAHP results illustrate that quality policy quality assurance competitor orientation and quality control are most important in assessing EP. The findings of this study provide alternative ways to assess EP in the food industry and assist manager decision-making to reduce the environmental effects of the industry.

  11. Facilitating the implementation and efficacy of health-promoting schools via an action-research approach in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Chou, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tzu-Chau

    2014-06-01

    Taiwan launched its evidence-based health-promoting school (HPS) program via an action-research approach in 2010. The program featured a collaborative partnership between schools, local education authorities and university support networks. This study was focused on examining whether an HPS action-research approach was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy in Taiwan. In 2011, questionnaires were sent to 900 sample schools in Taiwan. A total of 621 schools returned the questionnaire, including 488 primary schools and 133 middle schools. The response rate was 69%. This study compared the difference in HPS implementation status, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy between those schools that had implemented action-research HPS (138 schools) and those that had not (483 schools). The univariate analysis results indicated that the HPS implementation levels for components that included school health policies, physical environment, social environment, teaching activities and school-community relations were significantly higher in action-research schools than in non-action-research schools. Teachers in action-research schools reported significantly higher levels of HPS impact and HPS efficacy than non-action-research schools. The multivariate analysis results indicated that after controlling for school level and HPS funding, the HPS action-research approach was significantly positively related to greater levels of HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy.

  12. Newspaper reporting and the emergence of charcoal burning suicide in Taiwan: A mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Biddle, Lucy; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Gunnell, David

    2016-03-15

    It has been suggested that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicide was a key factor in the rapid spread of this novel method in many East Asian countries. But very few empirical studies have explored the relationship between media reporting and the emergence of this new method of suicide. We investigated the changing pattern of media reporting of charcoal burning suicides in Taiwan during 1998-2002 when this method of suicide increased most rapidly, assessing whether the characteristics of media reporting were associated with the changing incidence of suicide using this method. A mixed method approach, combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of newspaper content during 1998-2002 was used. We compared differences in reporting characteristics before and after the rapid increase in charcoal burning suicide. Point-biserial and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify the associations between the media item content and changes in suicide rates. During the period when charcoal burning suicide increased rapidly, the number of reports per suicide was considerably higher than during the early stage (0.31 vs. 0.10). Detailed reporting of this new method was associated with a post-reporting increase in suicides using the method. Qualitative analysis of news items revealed that the content of reports of suicide by charcoal burning changed gradually; in the early stages of the epidemic (1999-2000) there was convergence in the terminology used to report charcoal burning deaths, later reports gave detailed descriptions of the setting in which the death occurred (2001) and finally the method was glamourized and widely publicized (2001-2002). Our analysis was restricted to newspaper reports and did not include TV or the Internet. Newspaper reporting was associated with the evolution and establishment of charcoal burning suicide. Working with media and close monitoring of changes in the incidence of suicide using a new method might help

  13. Child protection medical service demonstration centers in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P neglect (P abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse had a higher Injury Severity Score, longer duration of hospitalization, and more injuries of head, face, and neck compared with other types of abuse. The reported rate of neglect was highly elevated after the CPMSDC established during the study period. Recognition of neglect is not easy, but the consequent injury, especially

  14. Deterministic Approach for Estimating Critical Rainfall Threshold of Rainfall-induced Landslide in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chien; Tan, Chih-Hao; Chen, Mien-Min; Su, Tai-Wei

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan is an active mountain belt created by the oblique collision between the northern Luzon arc and the Asian continental margin. The inherent complexities of geological nature create numerous discontinuities through rock masses and relatively steep hillside on the island. In recent years, the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme natural events due to global warming or climate change brought significant landslides. The causes of landslides in these slopes are attributed to a number of factors. As is well known, rainfall is one of the most significant triggering factors for landslide occurrence. In general, the rainfall infiltration results in changing the suction and the moisture of soil, raising the unit weight of soil, and reducing the shear strength of soil in the colluvium of landslide. The stability of landslide is closely related to the groundwater pressure in response to rainfall infiltration, the geological and topographical conditions, and the physical and mechanical parameters. To assess the potential susceptibility to landslide, an effective modeling of rainfall-induced landslide is essential. In this paper, a deterministic approach is adopted to estimate the critical rainfall threshold of the rainfall-induced landslide. The critical rainfall threshold is defined as the accumulated rainfall while the safety factor of the slope is equal to 1.0. First, the process of deterministic approach establishes the hydrogeological conceptual model of the slope based on a series of in-situ investigations, including geological drilling, surface geological investigation, geophysical investigation, and borehole explorations. The material strength and hydraulic properties of the model were given by the field and laboratory tests. Second, the hydraulic and mechanical parameters of the model are calibrated with the long-term monitoring data. Furthermore, a two-dimensional numerical program, GeoStudio, was employed to perform the modelling practice. Finally

  15. Prediction of Currency Volume Issued in Taiwan Using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and Multiple Regression Approach

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    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the volume of currency issued by a country always affects its interest rate, price index, income levels, and many other important macroeconomic variables, the prediction of currency volume issued has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In contrast to the typical single-stage forecast model, this study proposes a hybrid forecasting approach to predict the volume of currency issued in Taiwan. The proposed hybrid models consist of artificial neural network (ANN and multiple regression (MR components. The MR component of the hybrid models is established for a selection of fewer explanatory variables, wherein the selected variables are of higher importance. The ANN component is then designed to generate forecasts based on those important explanatory variables. Subsequently, the model is used to analyze a real dataset of Taiwan's currency from 1996 to 2011 and twenty associated explanatory variables. The prediction results reveal that the proposed hybrid scheme exhibits superior forecasting performance for predicting the volume of currency issued in Taiwan.

  16. Price Limit and Volatility in Taiwan Stock Exchange: Some Additional Evidence from the Extreme Value Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aktham I. Maghyereh; Haitham A. Al Zoubi; Haitham Nobanee

    2007-01-01

    We reexamine the effects of price limits on stock volatility of Taiwan Stock Exchange using a new methodology based on the Extreme-Value technique. Consistent with the advocates of price limits, we find that stock market volatility is sharply moderated under more restrictive price limits.

  17. Factors influencing the occupational injuries of physical therapists in Taiwan: A hierarchical linear model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Lung; Huang, Wan-Yun

    2017-01-01

    The evidence literature suggests that physical therapy practitioners are subjected to a high probability of acquiring work-related injuries, but only a few studies have specifically investigated Taiwanese physical therapy practitioners. This study was conducted to determine the relationships among individual and group hospital-level factors that contribute to the medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan. Physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan with occupational injuries were selected from the 2013 National Health Insurance Research Databases (NHIRD). The age, gender, job title, hospitals attributes, and outpatient data of physical therapy practitioners who sustained an occupational injury in 2013 were obtained with SAS 9.3. SPSS 20.0 and HLM 7.01 were used to conduct descriptive and hierarchical linear model analyses, respectively. The job title of physical therapy practitioners at the individual level and the hospital type at the group level exert positive effects on per person medical expenses. Hospital hierarchy moderates the individual-level relationships of age and job title with the per person medical expenses. Considering that age, job title, and hospital hierarchy affect medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners, we suggest strengthening related safety education and training and elevating the self-awareness of the risk of occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners to reduce and prevent the occurrence of such injuries.

  18. An integrated approach for improving occupational health and safety management: the voluntary protection program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Teh-Sheng; Tsai, Way-Yi; Yu, Yi-Chun

    2005-05-01

    A voluntary compliance program for occupational health and safety management, Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP), was implemented with a strategy of cooperation and encouragement in Taiwan. Due to limitations on increasing the human forces of inspection, a regulatory-based guideline addressing the essence of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) was promulgated, which combined the resources of third parties and insurance providers to accredit a self-improving worksite with the benefits of waived general inspection and a merit contributing to insurance premium payment reduction. A designated institute accepts enterprise's applications, performs document review and organizes the onsite inspection. A final review committee of Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) confers a two-year certificate on an approved site. After ten years, the efforts have shown a dramatic reduction of occupational injuries and illness in the total number of 724 worksites granted certification. VPP worksites, in comparison with all industries, had 49% lower frequency rate in the past three years. The severity rate reduction was 80% in the same period. The characteristics of Taiwan VPP program and international occupational safety and health management programs are provided. A Plan-Do-Check-Act management cycle was employed for pursuing continual improvements to the culture fostered. The use of a quantitative measurement for assessing the performance of enterprises' occupational safety and health management showed the efficiency of the rating. The results demonstrate that an employer voluntary protection program is a promising strategy for a developing country.

  19. Institutional Approach to Anti-corruption Efforts in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Mainland China: Improving the Norms, Strengthening the Ethics

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    Olga Yurievna Adams

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores institutional and normative developments in the area of anti-corruption efforts in three Chinese-speaking countries/territories with the latest emphasis on fostering all-encompassing corruption-intolerable environment. Hong Kong’s experience is often regarded as the high standard in establishing efficient anti-corruption institutions in inhospitable conditions. Over relatively short period of time – Hong Kong’s Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC was established in 1974 – the city made great strides against official corruption and has upheld its clean reputation ever since. ICAC’s former Deputy Commissioner and Head of Operations cites the 2000 public opinion poll in which Hong Kong residents named ICAC’s establishment the 6th most important event in the city’s 1 50-year history. ICAC is an example of a successful reactive approach to anti-corruption. Taiwan has its own success story. The Control Yuan – part of a unique five-branch government structure – combines watchdog and ombudsman functions which nowadays are considered prerequisite for successful fight against corruption and even more important for preventive efforts. This institution – supported by legitimacy of tradition – has a potential to become a coordinating center for comprehensive anti-corruption policy with more specialized agencies handling various aspects of corruption and economic crimes. Lately the Control Yuan’s role in Taiwan’s political structure has been debated, but it remains an example of effective proactive approach to fighting malfeasance. China’s anti-corruption strategy for 2013-17 aims to put forth a “dense net” of regulations, institutions and ethic norms towards country-wide corruption-intolerable environment. Preventive measures that include citizens’ awareness-raising and increasing ethical requirements of government workers warrant additional attention.

  20. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan

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    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  1. Exploration of approaches to adjusting brand-name drug prices in Mainland of China: based on comparison and analysis of some brand-name drug prices of Mainland and Taiwan, China.

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    Weng, Geng; Han, Sheng; Pu, Run; Pan, Wynn H T; Shi, Luwen

    2014-01-01

    Under the circumstance of the New Medical Reform in Mainland of China, lowering drug prices has become an approach to relieving increase of medical expenses, and lowering brand-name medication price is a key strategy. This study, by comparing and analyzing brand-name medication prices between Mainland of China and Taiwan, explores how to adjust brand-name medication prices in Mainland of China in the consideration of the drug administrative strategies in Taiwan. By selecting brand-name drug with generic name and dose types matched in Mainland and Taiwan, calculate the average unit price and standard deviation and test it with the paired t-test. In the mean time, drug administrative strategies between Mainland and Taiwan are also compared systematically. Among the 70 brand-name medications with generic names and matched dose types, 54 are at higher prices in Mainland of China than Taiwan, which is statistically significant in t-test. Also, among the 47 medications with all of matched generic names, dose types, and manufacturing enterprises, 38 are at higher prices in Mainland than Taiwan, and the gap is also statistically significant in t-test. In Mainland of China, brand-name medication took cost-plus pricing and price-based price adjustment, while in Taiwan, brand-name medication took internal and external reference pricing and market-based price adjustment. Brand-name drug prices were higher in Mainland of China than in Taiwan. The adjustment strategies of drug prices are scientific in Taiwan and are worth reference by Mainland of China.

  2. Value-Based Approaches to Healthcare Systems and Pharmacoeconomics Requirements in Asia: South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Isao Kamae

    2010-01-01

    Asian healthcare systems are very diverse, representing cultures, political systems and economies from more than 30 countries with varying histories. Despite the diversity in the region, there has been enormous growth in health economics and outcomes research since the beginning of the 21st century. Whilst Japan has seen very limited use of health technology assessment (HTA), South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand have had remarkable success in establishing government agencies for HTA, employing HT...

  3. A network approach for researching political feasibility of healthcare reform: the case of universal healthcare system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Xu

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates the political feasibility of healthcare reform taking place in Taiwan in the past decade. Since Taiwan adopted National Health Insurance (NHI) in 1995, it has provided coverage for virtually all of the island's citizens. However, the imbalance between expenditure and revenue has resulted in a cycle of unsustainable spending which has necessitated financial reforms and political confrontations. By applying social network analysis, this paper examines multiple types of ties between policy elites and power distribution that have evolved in crucial policy events of the NHI's financial reforms between 1998 and 2010. Data sources include official documents and 62 social network interviews that were held with government officials and related unofficial policy participants. Blockmodeling and multidimensional scaling (MDS) are used to determine the major participants and network structures in the NHI domain, as well as the influential policy actors, based on information transmission, resource exchange, reputation attribution and action-set coalition networks in Taiwan's current political situation. The results show that although both public actors and all medical associations are the leading actors in the NHI reform, without good communication with societal actors, the promotion of reform proposals ends in failure. As a tool of political feasibility evaluation, social network analysis can map the political conflict between policy stakeholders systematically when policy makers pursue the result of policy adoption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VADASE: a new approach for real-time fast displacement detection - First application to Taiwan High-Rate GNSS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Huang-Kai; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Colosimo, Gabriele; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to show new possibilities for GNSS Permanent Network data processing offered by VADASE (Variometric Approach for Displacements Analysis Standalone Engine) to retrieve waveforms and coseismic displacements in real-time when an earthquake occurs. The main advantage of using GNSS receiver, in a complementary way with traditional seismic network, is that it can work without being affected by saturation, which commonly influence seismometers and accelerometers close to strong earthquake epicenters. VADASE was originally proposed in 2010 ([4],[5]) as the third way in GPS Seismology (in addition to Precise Point Positioning and Instantaneous Differential Positioning). The approach is based on time single differences of carrier phase observations continuously collected at high rate (1 Hz or higher) using a standalone GPS receiver and standard GPS broadcast products (orbits and clocks) that are available in real-time. Hence, one receiver works in standalone mode and the epoch-by-epoch displacements (equivalent to velocities) are estimated. Then, they are summed over the time interval when the earthquake occurred to retrieve coseismic displacements and waveforms. Considering time intervals limited to few minutes, the receiver displacements can be ascertained at a few centimeters accuracy level in real-time. The effectiveness of this approach was recognized by DLR (German Aerospace Agency), and VADASE was awarded the DLR Special Topic Prize and the Audience Award at the European Satellite Navigation Competition 2010. Moreover, VADASE potential was proven in the dramatic occasion of the Japanese earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 ([3]-[6]); in fact VADASE was able to provide the first estimates of the displacements suffered at the IGS sites of MIZU and USUD [7], as soon as the data of these stations were available. The results were then confirmed by several other solutions based on the renown (DP, PPP) approaches. More recently, VADASE was applied

  5. Factors Influencing Junior High School Students’ English Language Achievement in Taiwan: A Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System Approach

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    Hsin-Yi Kung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to construct a social profile of Taiwanese students’ English language achievement by employing Bronfenbrenner’s perspectives. Data were collected on a sample of 709 ninth graders in central Taiwan via survey questionnaires and were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that, first, a Taiwanese Students' English Language Achievement model was constructed by parental involvement, teachers’ beliefs/attitudes, parent–teacher interaction, and mass media/the Internet. Second, mass media/the Internet significantly predicted parental involvement and teachers’ beliefs/attitudes; parental involvement and teachers’ beliefs/attitudes significantly predicted students’ English language achievement; the correlation between parental involvement and teachers’ beliefs/attitudes was significant. Third, the completely mediating effects of parental involvement and teachers’ beliefs/attitudes in predicting students’ English language achievement from mass media/the Internet were supported, and the effect of teachers’ beliefs/attitudes tended to be stronger than parental involvement. These findings were in line with Bronfenbrenner’s theory and demonstrate that the influence of the mass media/the Internet (exosystem in students’ English language achievement conveyed the degree of parental involvement (microsystem, teachers’ beliefs/attitudes (microsystem, and the interaction between parents and teachers (mesosystem, especially within the context of the socio-cultural atmosphere in Taiwan (macrosystem. Implications and suggestions were discussed and provided to enhance students’ English language learning.

  6. Summer nitrogenous nutrient transport and its fate in the Taiwan Strait: A coupled physical-biological modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hong, Huasheng; Jiang, Yuwu; Chai, Fei; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2013-09-01

    In order to understand the fate of nutrients in the Taiwan Strait during summer, we built a coupled physical-biological numerical ocean model, which can capture the basic hydrographic and biological features within the strait. The nutrient that we chose to model is dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The model includes individual reservoirs for nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4). Both the observational evidence and model results show that NO3 in the strait originates primarily from the upwelling subsurface water in the northern South China Sea (SCS) that enters the strait via the eastern and western routes separated by the Taiwan Bank. The coupled physical and biological effects on the NO3 transport at these two routes are highlighted in the study. For the western route, the shallow topography and the coastal upwelling intensify the biological uptake of NO3 in the whole water column. Consequently, the nitrogenous contribution by this route is mainly in form of the particulate organic nitrogen (PON). In contrast, NO3 is transported conservatively below the nitricline at the deep eastern route, contributing the whole NO3 supply in the TWS. The model estimates the fluxes of DIN and PON into the TWS, from the northern SCS, are 1.8 and 4 kmol s-1, respectively. Over half (˜1 kmol s-1) of the DIN is synthesized into PON by the phytoplankton in the strait. Overall, this study estimates the physical and biological effects on the nutrient transport in the TWS during summer.

  7. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's eco- environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Analysis of research results brings several important findings. (1) Taiwan's economic ..... above that this study is an innovative expansion and combination of material flow calculation and ..... using thermodynamic approach. Resour. Conserv.

  8. The Relationships between Epistemic Beliefs in Biology and Approaches to Learning Biology among Biology-Major University Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and…

  9. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy

    2012-02-01

    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means?end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). ...

  11. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  12. The Relationships Between Epistemic Beliefs in Biology and Approaches to Learning Biology Among Biology-Major University Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and large, it was found that the students reflected "mixed" motives in biology learning, while those who had more sophisticated epistemic beliefs tended to employ deep strategies. In addition, the results of paired t tests revealed that the female students were more likely to possess beliefs about biological knowledge residing in external authorities, to believe in a right answer, and to utilize rote learning as a learning strategy. Moreover, compared to juniors and seniors, freshmen and sophomores tended to hold less mature views on all factors of epistemic beliefs regarding biology. Another comparison indicated that theoretical biology students (e.g. students majoring in the Department of Biology) tended to have more mature beliefs in learning biology and more advanced strategies for biology learning than those students studying applied biology (e.g. in the Department of Biotechnology). Stepwise regression analysis, in general, indicated that students who valued the role of experiments and justify epistemic assumptions and knowledge claims based on evidence were more oriented towards having mixed motives and utilizing deep strategies to learn biology. In contrast, students who believed in the certainty of biological knowledge were more likely to adopt rote learning strategies and to aim to qualify in biology.

  13. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  14. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means-end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). This study conducted one-on-one in-depth interviews with participants. The interview content was subsequently analyzed and coded to produce an implication matrix and a hierarchical value map, which was further used to determine customers' value perceptions. The results indicate the terminal values of the highest strength comprised economy, pleasure, and efficiency. Pleasure was emphasized among consumers who were on a date or gathering with friends, whereas satisfaction was emphasized among consumers who craved ice cream. Based on the results, the study also provides suggestions to the industry and future researchers.

  15. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  16. Childlessness patterns in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston Dl

    1988-06-01

    Taiwan is a newly developed and industrialized area, and along with Korea, Brazil, Argentina, and a few other countries, belongs in a special class of recently industrialized areas. Taiwan has been undergoing large-scale modernization since the 1950s when the Nationalist government 1st began to implement land reform programs and today is 1 of the showcase of newly developed areas of the world. Demographic transition theory shows that fertility is negatively associated with modernization. During the past 3 decades, fertility in Taiwan has followed this pattern in a dramatic manner. Studies of childlessness conducted in Western countries have shown also that as the modernizing influences continue, fertility declines, and childlessness increases as it becomes more and more voluntary. Subregions with the highest levels of modernization and the lowest fertility rates should therefore be characterized by the highest levels of childlessness, particularly among younger women, and vice versa. Given the levels of socioeconomic and demographic development in Taiwan and its subregions circa 1980, as well as its variability among the hsiens and major cities, the author would expect to find higher levels of childlessness in the more developed localities, and lower levels in the less developed subregions. This hypothesis is tested with data from the 1980 Census of Population and Housing: General Report, Taiwan--Fukien Area (Republic of China, 1982) and the 1980 Taiwan--Fukien Demographic Fact Book (Republic of China, 1980).

  17. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's ecoenvironmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the material flow indicators and ecological footprint approach structured are adopted to construct eco-environmental stress indicators. We use relevant data to proceed with the empirical analyses on environmental stress and ecological impacts in Taiwan between the years of 1998 and 2007. Analysis of ...

  18. Establishing and evaluating FRAX® probability thresholds in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Cheng Chan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Three FRAX®-based models of alendronate use were established in Taiwan to help optimize treatment strategies. The government is encouraged to incorporate FRAX®-based approaches into the reimbursement policy for antiosteoporosis medicines.

  19. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO 2 emitted by a certain activity or the CO 2 accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO 2 emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO 2 land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m 3 in 2000 and 784 m 3 in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m 3 blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has transferred the environmental

  20. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has

  1. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    2010-01-01

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  2. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2010-09-15

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  3. A study of the talent training project management for semiconductor industry in Taiwan: the application of a hybrid data envelopment analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ling-Jing; Chiu, Shu-Yu; Ko, Hsien-Tang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the training institution performance and to improve the management of the Manpower Training Project (MTP) administered by the Semiconductor Institute in Taiwan. Much literature assesses the efficiency of an internal training program initiated by a firm, but only little literature studies the efficiency of an external training program led by government. In the study, a hybrid solution of ICA-DEA and ICA-MPI is developed for measuring the efficiency and the productivity growth of each training institution over the period. The technical efficiency change, the technological change, pure technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change, and the total factor productivity change were evaluated according to five inputs and two outputs. According to the results of the study, the training institutions can be classified by their efficiency successfully and the guidelines for the optimal level of input resources can be obtained for each inefficient training institution. The Semiconductor Institute in Taiwan can allocate budget more appropriately and establish withdrawal mechanisms for inefficient training institutions.

  4. Cogeneration in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E. [International Cogeneration Alliance (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The short article discusses pollution abatement and the potential role of cogeneration in Taiwan. A diagram shows the contributions of various energy sources (coal, oil etc.) from 1979-1999 and the growth of cogeneration between 1979 and 1999. The lack of natural gas or diesel does not help the cause of cogeneration in Taiwan, nor does the structure of the local electricity market. Nevertheless, if the proposed new LNG facilities are built in the North, then the opportunities for cogeneration will be very good.

  5. Eocene Acritarchs of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Long Shaw

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new taxa (Multiplicisphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., Trichosphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., Tylosphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., and Cymatiosphaera taiwaniana C. L. Shaw sp. nov. of the fossil acritarchs obtained from Eocene sediments from offshore of the Keelung area in northern Taiwan are reported. They belong to two subgroups, four genera.

  6. How did Popular Science Become a Legend? On the linguistic communication of “Science Culture” book series in 1990s Taiwan from the approach of text analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Lin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonwealth Publishing Co. in Taiwan has published a series of popular science books, named Science Culture, since 1991. This series has achieved great success in publication and in marketing and up to the present has published over 164 volumes and sold out a great number of hard copies. It is well regarded as a publication legend. How did it succeed? What strategies has it adopted to become such a legend? This paper shows that the series’ success depends on two strategies: exciting subjects and strengthening the first impression. This research applies three related tactics or techniques publishing scientific biographies, literary rhetoric, and using romanticizing titles to realize two strategies of the series. This paper reveals these strategies and techniques by investigating the writing style of books in the series, comparing the titles of the series with other titles of popular science books before 1990, and conducting interviews with the editors of that series.

  7. Effect of Doppler Radial Velocity Data Assimilation on the Simulation of a Typhoon Approaching Taiwan: A Case Study of Typhoon Aere (2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to conventional data, radar observations have an advantage of high spatial and temporal resolutions, and Doppler radars are capable of capturing detailed characteristics of flow fields, including typhoon circulation. In this study, the possible improvement of short-term typhoon predictions near Taiwan, particularly with regard to related rainfall forecasts over the mountainous island, using Doppler radial wind observations is explored. The case of Typhoon Aere (2004 was chosen for study, and a series of experiments were carried out using the Penn State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5 with its three-dimensional variational (3D-VAR data assimilation system.

  8. Ambient noise levels in the Taiwan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W.; Liu, C.; Chen, R.; Huang, B.; Wu, F. T.; Wang, C.

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the island-wide background seismic noise in Taiwan, we estimate the power spectral density (PSD) at broadband stations of both the BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology) and the TAIGER experiment (Apr. 2006~Apr. 2008) for periods ranging from ~0.2 to 100 seconds. A new approach to calculate the probability density functions of noise power (PDFs, MaNamara and Buland, 2004) is used in this study. The results indicate that the cultural noise at higher frequencies is significant at populated area, which shows diurnal and weekly variation as what we expected. The noise power for microseisms centered at a period of ~5 seconds around the western costal plain show ~20dB higher than what observed at eastern Taiwan. This observation supports the inference that the coastal regions having narrow shelf with irregular coastlines are know to be especially efficient at radiating the predominat microseisms. Results from the linear array across central Taiwan demonstrate that the average noise power is quietest at the eastern Central Range. We have mapped the PDF mode for stations at various periods to see the spatial distribution of ambient noise levels, which could be used as the basic information for future station siting. Temporal variation of noise PSD is also present to provide a quantitative description of the seismic data quality collected by both BATS and TAIGER experiment. Some operational problems like base tilt, sensitivity change can be identified easily as well.

  9. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  10. Chrysosplenium japonicum (Saxifragaceae, Newly Recorded from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosplenium japonicum (Maxim. Makino (Saxifragaceae is newly recorded from northeastern Taiwan. Description, color photos and a key to the Chrysosplenium species in Taiwan are provided.

  11. A New Approach to Identify High Burnout Medical Staffs by Kernel K-Means Cluster Analysis in a Regional Teaching Hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yii-Ching; Huang, Shian-Chang; Huang, Chih-Hsuan; Wu, Hsin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    This study uses kernel k-means cluster analysis to identify medical staffs with high burnout. The data collected in October to November 2014 are from the emotional exhaustion dimension of the Chinese version of Safety Attitudes Questionnaire in a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan. The number of effective questionnaires including the entire staffs such as physicians, nurses, technicians, pharmacists, medical administrators, and respiratory therapists is 680. The results show that 8 clusters are generated by kernel k-means method. Employees in clusters 1, 4, and 5 are relatively in good conditions, whereas employees in clusters 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 need to be closely monitored from time to time because they have relatively higher degree of burnout. When employees with higher degree of burnout are identified, the hospital management can take actions to improve the resilience, reduce the potential medical errors, and, eventually, enhance the patient safety. This study also suggests that the hospital management needs to keep track of medical staffs' fatigue conditions and provide timely assistance for burnout recovery through employee assistance programs, mindfulness-based stress reduction programs, positivity currency buildup, and forming appreciative inquiry groups. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. A New Approach to Identify High Burnout Medical Staffs by Kernel K-Means Cluster Analysis in a Regional Teaching Hospital in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Ching Lee PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses kernel k-means cluster analysis to identify medical staffs with high burnout. The data collected in October to November 2014 are from the emotional exhaustion dimension of the Chinese version of Safety Attitudes Questionnaire in a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan. The number of effective questionnaires including the entire staffs such as physicians, nurses, technicians, pharmacists, medical administrators, and respiratory therapists is 680. The results show that 8 clusters are generated by kernel k-means method. Employees in clusters 1, 4, and 5 are relatively in good conditions, whereas employees in clusters 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 need to be closely monitored from time to time because they have relatively higher degree of burnout. When employees with higher degree of burnout are identified, the hospital management can take actions to improve the resilience, reduce the potential medical errors, and, eventually, enhance the patient safety. This study also suggests that the hospital management needs to keep track of medical staffs’ fatigue conditions and provide timely assistance for burnout recovery through employee assistance programs, mindfulness-based stress reduction programs, positivity currency buildup, and forming appreciative inquiry groups.

  13. Induced abortion in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P D; Lin, R S

    1995-04-01

    Induced abortion is widely practised in Taiwan; however, it had been illegal until 1985. It was of interest to investigate induced abortion practices in Taiwan after its legalization in 1985 in order to calculate the prevalence rate and ratio of induced abortion to live births and to pregnancies in Taiwan. A study using questionnaires through personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended a family planning service in Taipei metropolitan areas between 1991 and 1992. The reproductive history and sexual behaviour of the subjects were especially focused on during the interviews. Preliminary findings showed that 46% of the women had a history of having had an induced abortion. Among them, 54.8% had had one abortion, 29.7% had had two, and 15.5% had had three or more. The abortion ratio was 379 induced abortions per 1,000 live births and 255 per 1,000 pregnancies. The abortion ratio was highest for women younger than 20 years of age, for aboriginal women and for nulliparous women. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that the number of previous live births is the strongest predictor relating to women seeking induced abortion. In addition, a significant positive association exists between increasing number of induced abortions and cervical dysplasia.

  14. Governance and Economic Transformation in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the developmental-state approach as compared with a broader and more flexible developmental-governance approach – in relation to economic transformation in a single case country, Taiwan. It argues that both approaches have strong and weak points......, and comes down in favour of the view that it is only through a ‘thick’ study of political forces, processes and circumstances that the reasoning behind developmental policies and institutions can be understood and the processes of economic transformation explained....

  15. Impacts of Tides and Typhoon Fanapi (2010 on Seas Around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S. Ko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We used satellite data, typhoon-resolving atmospheric forcing and a data assimilating ocean model, the East Asian Seas Nowcast/Forecast System (EASNFS, to investigate circulation and three upwelling regions perturbed by tides and Typhoon Fanapi (2010 in the seas around Taiwan. The three upwelling areas located off northeast Taiwan, off southeast China and over the Penghu Channel off southwest Taiwan are normally limited in expanse before Fanapi. The tidal currents enhance all three. To cope with typhoon strength atmospheric forcing, we applied typhoon-resolving Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model wind fields that significantly enhanced Fanapi-induced upwelling. Approaching Taiwan, Fanapi induces a cold wake spreading preferably on the right side of the essentially westward running track in the western Pacific. The three upwelling areas in the East China Sea and Taiwan Strait subsequently become expansive as Fanapi approaches and enters the Taiwan Strait. The mechanisms leading to normal or Fanapi-perturbed upwelling and circulation in seas around Taiwan, especially the latter two mentioned above, are suggested. In essence, Fanapi disrupts circulation in the Taiwan Strait, and also the Taiwan Strait outflow entering the East China Sea, leading to expanded upwelling areas. We also suggest that high-resolution wind and tides application is essential for the upwelling modeling study and also the general circulation in the region with and without typhoons.

  16. Climate change impacts in Zhuoshui watershed, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Chao-Tzuen; Li, Hsin-Chi; Wu, Tingyeh; Chen, Wei-Bo; Shih, Hung-Ju

    2017-04-01

    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualty and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily. One of the aims for Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform (TCCIP) is to demonstrate the linkage between climate change data and watershed impact models. The purpose is to understand relative disasters induced by extreme rainfall (typhoons) under climate change in watersheds including landslides, debris flows, channel erosion and deposition, floods, and economic loss. The study applied dynamic downscaling approach to release climate change projected typhoon events under RCP 8.5, the worst-case scenario. The Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) and FLO-2D models, then, were used to simulate hillslope disaster impacts in the upstream of Zhuoshui River. CCHE1D model was used to elevate the sediment erosion or deposition in channel. FVCOM model was used to asses a flood impact in urban area in the downstream. Finally, whole potential loss associate with these typhoon events was evaluated by the Taiwan Typhoon Loss Assessment System (TLAS) under climate change scenario. Results showed that the total loss will increase roughly by NT 49.7 billion (1.6 billion USD) in future in Zhuoshui watershed in Taiwan. The results of this research could help to understand future impact; however model bias still exists. Because typhoon track is a critical factor to consider regional

  17. Taiwan Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq

    Taiwan space programs consist of FORMOSAT-1, -2, and -3, sounding rockets, and international cooperation. FORMOSAT-1, a low-earth-orbit (LEO) scientific experimental satellite, was launched on January 26, 1999. It circulates with an altitude of 600 km and 35 degree inclination around the Earth every 97 minutes, transmitting collected data to Taiwan's receiving stations approximately six times a day. The major mission of FORMOSAT-1 includes three scientific experiments for measuring the effects of ionospheric plasma and electrodynamics, taking the ocean color image and conducting Ka-band communication experiment. The FORMOSAT- 1 mission was ended by June 15, 2004. FORMOSAT-2, launched on May 21, 2004 onto the Sun-synchronous orbit located at 891 km above ground. The main mission of FORMOSAT-2 is to conduct remote sensing imaging over Taiwan and on terrestrial and oceanic regions of the entire earth. The images captured by FORMOSAT-2 during daytime can be used for land distribution, natural resources research, environmental protection, disaster prevention and rescue work etc. When the satellite travels to the eclipsed zone, it observes natural phenomena of lighting in the upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is an international collaboration project between Taiwan and the US to develop advanced technology for the real-time monitoring of the global climate. This project is also named Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate, or FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC for short. Six micro-satellites were launched on 15 April 2007 and eventually placed into six different orbits at 700 800 kilometer above the earth ground. These satellites orbit around the earth to form a LEO constellation that receives signals transmitted by the 24 US GPS satellites. The satellite observation covers the entire global atmosphere and ionosphere, providing over 2,500 global sounding data per day. These data distribute uniformly over the earth's atmosphere. The global climate information

  18. The Prospects for the Implementation of School-Based Financial Management in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-fu

    2010-01-01

    The current approach to solving educational problems in Taiwan is to adopt policies employed in Western countries. However, given the very different cultural and educational environment of Asia, not all policies effective in Western countries are necessarily applicable to schools in Taiwan. Therefore, an examination of the feasibility and…

  19. Space programs in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang [Academia Sinica, Institute of Earth Sciences, 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chang, Guey-Shin, E-mail: gschang@nspo.narl.org.tw [National Space Organization, 8F, 9 Prosperity 1st Rd., Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Ting, Nan-Hong [National Applied Research Laboratories, 3F, 106, Sec. 2, Hepin East Rd., Taipei 10622, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, and 3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload “Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)”. ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

  20. Space programs in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang; Chang, Guey-Shin; Ting, Nan-Hong

    2013-10-01

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, &3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload "Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)". ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

  1. Space programs in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang; Chang, Guey-Shin; Ting, Nan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, and 3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload “Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)”. ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research

  2. The Boletes of Taiwan (XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chen

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Three boletes are recorded as new to Taiwan. They are Boletinus asiaticus Singer, Boletus balloui Peck and Fuscoboletinus glandulosus (Peck Pomerleau & Smith, respectively. The specimens are described and illustrated.

  3. A Case Study of an Affective Education Course in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Chiang; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the components of a framework for affective education implementation based on a positive psychology approach. A fifth grade class of 31 students in a public rural elementary school in Taiwan participated in a 13-week long affective education course that consisted of six units: Self-discovery, Love and…

  4. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  5. Medical Leaders in Taiwan During Japanese Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tung Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan established the medical system in Taiwan during its 50 years of occupation, which evolved into the present National Taiwan University Hospital system. This paper summarizes the biographies of 97 Japanese leaders in various medical disciplines during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan. These leaders were among the elite of Japan, with superior intellectual, social and economic status, who helped to establish the important attributes of medical professionals in Taiwan, such as a good academic background, heritage, and research skills.

  6. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  7. Enterovirus 71 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan-Yin Chang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The enterovirus 71 (EV71 outbreak in Taiwan in 1998 proved fatal in many children. A seroepidemiological study performed prior to the 1998 outbreak showed pre-epidemic (1997 EV71 seroprevalence rates to be about 60–70% in adults and children older than 6 years of age. A retrospective case review carried out from 1980–81 identified 16 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with central nervous system involvement, two of whom died soon after hospitalization. There were 405 severe cases and 78 deaths reported in the 1998 epidemic, and dozens of fatal EV71 cases were still reported from 2000 to 2002. A stage-based management strategy was developed to reduce fatality, but most survivors of brainstem encephalitis with cardio pulmonary failure have neurologic sequelae and impaired cognition. Continuous clinical and laboratory surveillance of EV71 disease is required to enable earlier implementation of control and prevention measures. Development of EV71-specific antiviral therapy, a novel class of imidazolidinones, and development of a vaccine are ongoing.

  8. Taiwan Universities: Where to Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Kuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic expansion of Taiwan universities/colleges from about 100 to 160 from the late 1980s has encountered problems due to social and global changes. What should Taiwan universities move toward and how? This research relies on secondary data to explore the issues Taiwan universities currently face—a low birth rate and global competition. The decreasing number of incoming students will result in a lower registration rate and less tuition revenue, which will make some universities struggle to survive. Hence, government policies, proposed by the Ministry of Education, have been implemented to assist Taiwan universities to adjust to external changes. The Innovative Transformation Policy, adopted in 2015, consists of strategies for university–industry cooperation, university mergers, university closures, and a re-shaping of the university paradigm. This policy has begun to be implemented and its initial outcome will be continually evaluated. In accordance with the Innovative Transformation Policy, this study encourages Taiwan universities to improve governance, set prominent unique characteristics of development, and enhance global competitiveness.

  9. Nuclear safeguards implementations in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, R-H.; Chang, C-K.; Lin, C-R.; Gone, J-K.; Chen, W-L.; Yao, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Now with six Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) units in operation, two Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) units under construction, and other peaceful applications of nuclear and radiation technology expanding in great pace, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has been focused on reactor safety regulation, radiation protection, radioactive waste administration, environmental monitoring and R and D for technology development and other civilian nuclear applications. Despite Taiwan's departure from the United Nations and therefore its family member International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1971, Taiwan remains its commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). To date, Taiwan is still part of the international nuclear safeguards system and accepts IAEA's inspections in accordance with its regulations on nuclear safeguards. In 1998, Taiwan further agreed, through exchange of letters between the AEC and IAEA, to implementation of the measures provided for in the model Protocol Additional to its safeguards agreement. In this paper, we will introduce Taiwan's nuclear safeguards history and describe some highlights of safeguards implementation in recent years, such as complementary accesses, transparency visits, remote monitoring inspections, unannounced inspections, facility attachment termination for the decommissioned facilities, and annual safeguards implementation meeting with IAEA

  10. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  11. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  12. Use of recurrence plot and recurrence quantification analysis in Taiwan unemployment rate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Shing

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the article is to answer the question if the Taiwan unemployment rate dynamics is generated by a non-linear deterministic dynamic process. This paper applies a recurrence plot and recurrence quantification approach based on the analysis of non-stationary hidden transition patterns of the unemployment rate of Taiwan. The case study uses the time series data of the Taiwan’s unemployment rate during the period from 1978/01 to 2010/06. The results show that recurrence techniques are able to identify various phases in the evolution of unemployment transition in Taiwan.

  13. Re-evaluation of emergency planning zone for 3 NPPS in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, S.-T.; Yin, H.-L.; Chen, C.-S.; Shih, C.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The emergency planning zone for the 3 nuclear power plants in Taiwan are re-evaluated. The analysis is performed by the CRAC2 code and the basic approach follows the NUREG-0396 evaluation procedure. Meteorological data are provided by Taiwan Power Company and reviewed by Taiwan University and Central Weather Bureau. Accident source terms are also provided by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) by probabilistic risk assessment method with consideration of actual plant system improvement and/or modification. The dose rate distribution, acute and latent cancer fatality are evaluated and compared with proposed EPZ decision criteria including protective action guide dose levels, individual and societal risk safety goal. (author)

  14. The Umbrella Sedge in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The umbrella sedge Cyperus involucratus was misidentified as C. alternifolius subsp. flabelliformis in Taiwan. The investigation of the status of the umbrella sedge is prompted by the recent discovery of C. alternifolius which was naturalized to eastern Taiwan. Cyperus alternifolius, though similar to C. involucratus in appearance, differs on the fine structure of achene surface, bract margin, etc. In this article, we report the newly naturalized plant, compare the differences of characteristics between the species, and provide the photos of habitat and fine structure for taxonomic identification.

  15. EVALUATING KEY ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS FOR POLLUTION AT INTERNATIONAL PORTS IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hao Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to use the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP approach to evaluate the key environmental risk factors for pollution at international ports in Taiwan. Relying on the literature and experts’ opinions, a hierarchical structure with three risk aspects and thirteen risk factors is first constructed, and a FAHP model then proposed. Based on data from the AHP experts’ questionnaires, we use the FAHP approach to determine key environmental risk factors. Finally, the results show that: (1 Air pollution is the most important aspect of environmental pollution at international ports in Taiwan. (2 In order of relative importance, the top five key environmental risk factors for pollution at international ports in Taiwan are the oil leaks from ships, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, exhaust emissions from ships at berth, harmful coatings on ships' hulls, and ships' failure to use low-pollution fuel. Furthermore, some discussions are provided for port authority in Taiwan.

  16. Marital role attitudes and expected role behaviors of college youth in mainland China and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, K H; Burgess, R L

    1994-09-01

    Mainland China and Taiwan have been politically and physically segregated since 1949, and it was not until the late 1980s that limited contacts and cultural exchanges between the two societies began to take place. During their period of segregation, the two societies adopted different approaches toward gender roles. While gender equality was actively promoted in mainland China, the government in Taiwan lacked the theoretical guidance on how to achieve such equality. Gender egalitarianism in Taiwan therefore remains at the abstract or philosophical level with no specification of what gender equality means in concrete terms. Testing the hypothesis that people in mainland China have become more egalitarian than have people in Taiwan with respect to the division of marital roles, the authors investigated the differences in marital role attitudes and expected behavior among selected college students in mainland China and Taiwan. Survey responses were obtained from 185 male and 154 female students from Taiwan and 150 male and 138 female students from mainland China of different years and majors on four dimensions of marital role attitudes and six areas of traditional husband and wife role behaviors. The dimensions were determined through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The data indicate that although most of the hypothesized societal differences are supported, some are not. The authors speculate that possible regressive changes in mainland China and progressive changes in Taiwan during the past decade were responsible for the discrepancy between hypotheses and results.

  17. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  18. Lyssavirus in Japanese Pipistrelle, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shu-Chia; Hsu, Chao-Lung; Lee, Ming-Shiuh; Tu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Jen-Chieh; Wu, Chieh-Hao; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Ting, Lu-Jen; Tsai, Kwok-Rong; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Tu, Wen-Jane; Hsu, Wei-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    A putative new lyssavirus was found in 2 Japanese pipistrelles (Pipistrellus abramus) in Taiwan in 2016 and 2017. The concatenated coding regions of the virus showed 62.9%-75.1% nucleotide identities to the other 16 species of lyssavirus, suggesting that it may be representative of a new species of this virus.

  19. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-chen

    2012-01-01

    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

  20. From the Teachings of Confucius to Western Influences: How Adult Education Is Shaped in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Farmer, Lesley S. J

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study designed to determine whether the teachings of Confucius (liberal and behavioral teaching approaches) or Western teaching approaches (humanistic, progressive, radical and analytic teaching approaches) shaped adult education in Taiwan. Thirty-nine randomly selected adult educators from three premium…

  1. Magnetic properties as tracers for source-to-sink dispersal of sediments: A case study in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Chorng-Shern; Huh, Chih-An

    2011-09-01

    Different lithologies between Taiwan and southeastern China lead to diverse mineralogical composition for weathering products derived from the two shores of the Taiwan Strait. Pyrrhotite and magnetite are respectively the dominant magnetic minerals associated with fluvial sediments from western Taiwan and southeastern China. While magnetite commonly co-exists with pyrrhotite in sediments sourced from Taiwan, pyrrhotite has not been found in sediments sourced from mainland China. Associated with such a distinction are vast differences in magnetic properties, including magnetic susceptibility (χ), SIRM, HIRM and the S-ratio, which can be used to study the provenances of sediments in the Taiwan Strait and adjoining marginal seas. Based on any two of these parameters, the magnetic characteristics of much of the Taiwan Strait sediment can be explained using a two-endmember mixing model. Source-to-sink dispersal of sediments in the Taiwan Strait can then be traced from the distribution of these parameters. The results not only corroborate an earlier study based on radionuclides and particle size distribution ( Huh et al., 2011) but reveal more diagnostic details. Besides spatial distribution based on a large number (216) of surface sediments, we also analyzed temporal variation of magnetic properties in six well-dated cores collected at key sites along the sediment source-to-sink pathways. From profiles of these parameters in cores from the middle of the northern Taiwan Strait, it is calculated that sediment supply from Taiwan has increased substantially in the past five decades, which may very well be related to accelerated land use and increased frequency of intense rainfalls in Taiwan during the same period. The approach described in this work may be extended to other source-to-sink systems around the world and through time, especially the mountainous islands fringing the Pacific and Indian Oceans in southeastern Asia. As with Taiwan, these islands have high

  2. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    .... Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) instead of Taiwan...

  3. Open data mining for Taiwan's dengue epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, ChienHsing; Kao, Shu-Chen; Shih, Chia-Hung; Kan, Meng-Hsuan

    2018-07-01

    By using a quantitative approach, this study examines the applicability of data mining technique to discover knowledge from open data related to Taiwan's dengue epidemic. We compare results when Google trend data are included or excluded. Data sources are government open data, climate data, and Google trend data. Research findings from analysis of 70,914 cases are obtained. Location and time (month) in open data show the highest classification power followed by climate variables (temperature and humidity), whereas gender and age show the lowest values. Both prediction accuracy and simplicity decrease when Google trends are considered (respectively 0.94 and 0.37, compared to 0.96 and 0.46). The article demonstrates the value of open data mining in the context of public health care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005-2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Managing Stability in the Taiwan Strait: Non-Military Policy towards Taiwan under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ueh Chang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s Taiwan policy has been one of coupling intimidation (the “stick” approach with coercion (the “carrot” approach, a policy mix which, in the near term, is not likely to change, as is evidenced by the passage of the “Anti-Secession Law” in March, 2005. However, under Hu Jintao, the focus has been on pragmatism. The warm atmosphere that presently reigns in the Taiwan Strait area is unprecedented. Further talks are expected before the two cross-Strait leaders are slated to step down, simultaneously, in 2012. An era of reconciliation and negotiations has dawned. For the first time there is consensus regarding norms of interaction between the two sides. Cross-Strait relations have stabilized after years of tumult. More open, stable and predictable cross-Strait relations are in the interests of both sides. Difficulties surely lie ahead, but they will be dealt with in a different manner than what has been witnessed in the past.

  6. Childhood Atopic Dermatitis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD appears to have increased dramatically over the past decades. It is generally believed that such rapid increase in prevalence cannot be explained fully by genetic factors. Environmental factors might play a role in such an increment. Children with AD are most likely to suffer considerable school absences, family stress, and health care expenditures. Because the onset of AD occurs relatively early in life, identification of early life risk factors and early management for AD to prevent the development of atopic march are of critical importance. However, there is still no consensus on coordinated prevention and management for AD in Taiwan. In this review, we discuss the specific risk factors of AD and important results of recent articles on AD from Taiwan. The management and prevention strategies of AD for Asian skin are also discussed.

  7. Current situation and industrialization of Taiwan nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-N.; Lee, P.-C.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chien, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is projected to be a very promising field, and the impact of nanotechnology on society is increasingly significant as the research funding and manufactured goods increase exponentially. A clearer picture of Taiwan's current and future nanotechnology industry is an essential component for future planning. Therefore, this investigation studies the progress of industrializing nanotechnology in Taiwan by surveying 150 companies. Along with understanding Taiwan's current nanotechnology industrialization, this paper also suggests ways to promote Taiwan's nanotechnology. The survey results are summarized and serve as the basis for planning a nanotechnology industrialization strategy

  8. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  9. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  10. Gas fuels Taiwan's expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    2000-01-01

    The volume of liquid natural gas (LNG) imported into Taiwan is expected to double over the next ten years as the use of natural gas for power generation increases significantly. The Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) expects to import 4.5 million tonnes of LNG in 2000 compared with 4 million tonnes in 1999. CPC is building an undersea, offshore pipeline from the Yung An LNG terminal in the south of Taiwan up the western coastline to the north. The pipeline will supply gas to power stations in the north and city gas companies in Taipei. Combined cycle power plant units at Tungshiao power station are converting to gas and a new power plant at Changsheng will burn LNG. More LNG power plants are planned. LNG is imported from Indonesia and Malaysia to supplement Taiwan's dwindling reserves of natural gas. As well as expanding the existing terminal at Yung An, the CPC is considering the need for a second import terminal. This would probably be financed and operated by the private sector

  11. Climate protection laws in Taiwan; Klimaschutzrecht in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes [Fu Jen Catholic Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). School of Law

    2014-07-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  12. History and development of ophthalmology in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Hou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Western medicine was first introduced to Taiwan by medical missionaries in the mid-19th century. Modernization of medicine was systematically transplanted to Taiwan in the Japanese colonial period, and ophthalmology was established third among hospital departments, following internal medicine and surgery. Dr Hidetaka Yamaguchi, an ophthalmologist, was the first head of the Taihoku Hospital, later known as National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; Taipei, Taiwan. Ophthalmologists during the colonial period conducted studies on tropical and infectious eye diseases. After World War II, ophthalmologists at NTUH played an important role in medical education, residency training, studies, and teaching. Dr Yan-Fei Yang established the Taiwan Ophthalmological Society in 1960 and instituted its official journal in 1962. Dr Ho-Ming Lin established the Department of Ophthalmology at the Tri-Service General Hospital in the 1950s and the Veterans General Hospital in the 1960s. Taiwan ophthalmologists eradicated trachoma by 1971. Cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty were initially performed in the 1960s. Currently, there are about 1600 ophthalmologists in Taiwan conducting an estimated 120,000 cataract surgeries and 600 corneal transplantations annually. Many subspecialty societies have been established recently that serve to educate Taiwanese ophthalmologists and to connect with international ophthalmic societies. Taiwan ophthalmologists continue to contribute to the advancement of ophthalmic knowledge globally.

  13. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation, the United... Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl alcohol, provided for under subheading 3905.30.00 of...

  14. Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…

  15. 76 FR 13982 - Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department... on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date: March 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER... from Taiwan. See Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value...

  16. Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, C

    1992-01-01

    "Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." excerpt

  17. Solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.; Lee, T.; Chung, K.

    2006-01-01

    Solar water heater has been commercialized during the last two decades in Taiwan. The government initiated the incentive programs during 1986-1991 and 2000-2004. This created an economic incentive for the end-users. The total area of solar collectors installed was more than one million square meters. The data also show that most of the solar water heaters are mainly used by the domestic sector for hot water production (about 97%). The regional popularization analysis indicates limited installation of solar water heaters in the northern district. In the eastern district and remote islands, the problems of climatic conditions and availability of localized installers/dealers are addressed. (author)

  18. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  19. Large-Scale Seismic Test Program at Hualien, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Graves, H.L.; Yeh, Y.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) Program at Hualien, Taiwan, is a follow-on to the soil-structure interaction (SSI) experiments at Lotung, Taiwan. The planned SSI studies will be performed at a stiff soil site in Hualien, Taiwan, that historically has had slightly more destructive earthquakes in the past than Lotung. The objectives of the LSST project is as follows: To obtain earthquake-induced SSI data at a stiff soil site having similar prototypical nuclear power plant soil conditions. To confirm the findings and methodologies validated against the Lotung soft soil SSI data for prototypical plant condition applications. To further validate the technical basis of realistic SSI analysis approaches. To further support the resolution of USI A-40 Seismic Design Criteria issue. These objectives will be accomplished through an integrated and carefully planned experimental program consisting of: soil characterization, test model design and field construction, instrumentation layout and deployment, in-situ geophysical information collection, forced vibration test, and synthesis of results and findings. The LSST is a joint effort among many interested parties. EPRI and Taipower are the organizers of the program and have the lead in planning and managing the program

  20. The Past, Present, and Future of Discharge Planning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Lin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Discharge planning is an interdisciplinary approach to provide continuity of care; it is a process that includes identification, assessment, goal setting, planning, implementation, coordination, and evaluation. Discharge planning has been viewed as a major way to enhance a smooth transition for patients from the hospital to home or other chronic care units and as a solution to solve problems associated with postdischarge care. The promotion of discharge planning began in the United States in the 1960s. Nursing scholars from Taiwan learned about the concept of discharge planning from the United States in the early 1980s and subsequently introduced it to Taiwanese medical institutions in 1985. A policy to promote discharge planning in Taiwan was announced by the Executive Yuan, Department of Health in 1993. Following the healthcare reforms in 1995, discharge planning has since been strongly promoted. Studies concerning discharge planning in Taiwan showed some promising results, including increased satisfaction of patients and their families, improved preparation of caregivers, and improved quality of life for patients. However, patients receiving interdisciplinary discharge planning services were still in the minority. There was no standard evaluation procedure for interdisciplinary discharge planning, and a high percentage of patients thought that hospitals handled the postdischarge long-term care services referral procedure inadequately. Despite the positive attitudes toward discharge planning, many physicians still demonstrate an unsatisfactory level of knowledge and behaviors with regard to discharge planning. To enhance the implementation of discharge planning, a standard evaluation procedure for interdisciplinary discharge planning and improved physician awareness concerning the importance of discharge planning are needed. In Taiwan, the improvement of discharge planning in the foreseeable future is promising with the accreditation of the

  1. Solar thermal market in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The long-duration of national programs has been the driving force behind the expansion of the local market of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan in the last two decades. This study examines the potential market for SWHs using the statistical data from end users and the 2010 Population and Housing Census. The current effective utilization rate of residential SWHs in terms of potential number of systems installed is estimated to be 11.8%. The analyses also show that the current national subsidy program has recently lost its momentum in expanding the market. Therefore, regional subsidy programs should become the main force in influencing the growth in sales. In addition, SWHs of larger scale would be particularly effective in industries. To promote such applications, a combination of performance-based and direct subsidy schemes or tax deductions can be offered to end users to promote the applications of SWHs in the commercial sector. Solar-assisted cooling systems are considered to be another potential application of solar energy, which is associated with energy saving and power consumption in commercial and residential buildings. A short review of the R and D activities is also given in this paper. - Highlights: ► Regional subsidy programs will be the main force in influencing the growth in sales. ► A revised program is needed to promote solar water heaters for industry applications. ► Solar-assisted cooling systems are potential applications of solar energy in Taiwan

  2. Present state of backend in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    As Taiwan is poor in its energy source as well as Japan is, nuclear power generation is one of important energy sources. Management and disposal (backend) of radioactive wastes accompanied with application to nuclear generation is a large problem for Taiwan which had 36,000 square kilometer of national area (about twice area of Shikoku in Japan) than that for Japan. In Taiwan, as the radioactive waste management policy (RWMP) was established in 1977 to arrange a basic indication of the backend policy, final disposal sites for both low and high level radioactive wastes (spent fuel) are not specified yet. For management of low level radioactive waste, the Taiwan Electric Power Corp. (TPC) reported the most promising area for the final disposal site to Taiwan Committee of Atomic Energy on February, 1998. And, for the high level radioactive waste, TPC intends to specify the final disposal site in 2016, to be under selection of site on aiming at beginning of its operation on 2032. And, on the backend policy in Taiwan its reprocessing option has not been abandoned yet, to remain feasibility of option in disposal of the low level radioactive waste on abroad. Here was introduced on present condition of the backend in Taiwan. (G.K.)

  3. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Marine Educational and Research Cruise in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Lallemand, S.; Wu, F. T.

    2009-12-01

    During April 2009, we conducted a seismic and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) cruise as part of the Taiwan mountain building process study, called the TAIGER. The seismic is shot by the US Columbia University’s research vessel Langseth and the OBSs, including Taiwan, French and American OBSs, are carried out by a Taiwanese student training ship, called Yu-Yin (means to educate the young people) No. 2. Both ships take a big number of research scientists and technical staff (15-25 people) to conduct the seismic and OBS survey. In addition, the Yu-Yin No. 2 ship hosts a total of 25 students, both MS and PhD graduate students, from Taiwan, France and USA. The student group consists of 13 from the National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan), 1 from the National Central University (Taiwan), 9 from the Montpellier University (France) and 2 from the New York State University. Nearly all the French and American students are on their very first trip to Taiwan. The research activities will be reported in the T25 Tectonophysics Section. This paper only deals with the educational events. The cruise includes two parts: the first mainly to deploy the OBSs and the second to retrieve the OBSs back to the ship. In addition, the French group arranges a field geological trip onshore Taiwan to put into their hands of the actions of Taiwan mountain building processes. The marine educational courses are filled in the daily ship time at 4 hours per day. As a result, we believe that we have achieved the followings: (1) mix the students and encourage a lovely study environment, (2) mix the teachers and enhance their teaching spectrum, (3) stay in a live and work together boat, allowing more and wider culture exchange. In the future, we certainly will use every possible opportunity to promote more Marine Educational and Research Cruises.

  5. Lattice Study for the Taiwan Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chin-Cheng; Chen Chien Te; Luo, Gwo-Huei; Tsai, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Huey

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility study for the new 3.0~3.3 GeV Taiwan synchrotron light source, dubbed Taiwan Photon Source, was initiated in July, 2004. The goal is to construct a high performance light source with extremely bright X-ray in complementary to the existing 1.5 GeV light source in Taiwan. The ring circumference is 518.4 m and a 24-cell DBA lattice structure is chosen. The natural emittance with distributed dispersion is less than 2 nm-rad. A large booster ring of 499.2 m sharing the storage ring tunnel will be adopted.

  6. The development and achievement of a healthy cities network in Taiwan: sharing leadership and partnership building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Susan C; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities (HC) projects are the best known of the settings-based approaches to health promotion. They engage local governments in health development through a process of political commitment, institutional change, capacity-building, partnership-based planning and innovative projects. Many cities have promoted HC projects in Taiwan since 2002. In 2008, the Taiwan Alliance for Healthy Cities (TAHC) was launched to assist local governments in effectively establishing, operating and promoting HC projects. In this article, we share our experiences of establishing a platform and network to promote the HC program in Taiwan. Based on individual city profiles and governance in Taiwan, the TAHC developed a well-organized framework and model to encourage strong leadership in local governments and to promote participation and engagement in their communities. In the last 6 years, leaders from Taiwan's local governments in HC networks have integrated the HC concepts into their governance models, actively engaging and combining various resources with practical expertise and private sectors. The network of health in Taiwan allows each city to develop its unique perspective on the HC projects. Using this method, not only local government meets its needs, but also increases governance efficiency and effectiveness, resulting in the promotion of its citizens' overall sustainable urban health development. This HC network in Taiwan has partnerships with government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), with academic support and citizen involvement, a dynamic data collection system and demonstrated leadership in the sharing of information in the Asian region. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Status of radioactive waste management in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Taiwan started to generate nuclear power in 1977. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy generated radwaste. The major radwaste generators are nuclear power plants of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). The other generators are the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), industry, medicine, agriculture, and education. Radwaste Administration (RWA), a subsidiary of Atomic Energy Council (AEC), is the regulatory body of radwaste in Taiwan. Radwaste management projects in Taiwan include: (1) construction of a Volume Reduction Center (VRC); (2) construction of a low-level radwaste transport ship; (3) construction of low-level waste final disposal facility; (4) construction of a spent fuel interim storage facility; (5) construction of spent fuel disposal facility. In the near future, final disposal of low-level waste is the most important work of both Taipower and RWA. Both organizations will put much more effort into this work

  8. China-Taiwan: What Kind of Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynnyczok, Martha-Jean H

    1994-01-01

    .... This paper will review the nature of recent economic development in China, the potential impact of that development on the political unity of China, Taiwan's contribution to the mainland's economy...

  9. [The medical autonomy of elderly in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Li; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. With the average life expectancy on the rise, the elderly have become major consumers of healthcare products and services. Factors that influence respect for autonomy, a core value of medical ethics, may be related to family, society, and the medical culture. Especially in patients who are already elderly, aging causes declines in physical, mental and societal capacities. Practicing a respect for patient autonomy is particularly challenging for healthcare professionals in Taiwan due the unique culture background of elderly Taiwanese patients. This article reviews and integrates the literature related to the issue of patient autonomy and elaborates on medical decision-making among elderly patients in Taiwan in the contexts of: the disadvantages faced by the elderly, the background of Chinese culture, and the current medical decision-making environment. A few suggestions are proposed to help preserve the medical-decision-making autonomy of elderly patients in Taiwan.

  10. Biogeochemical cycling in the Taiwan Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, H.; Chen, C-T.A.

    Based on repeat observations made during 2001-2003 along two transects in the Taiwan Strait this study aims at understanding factors controlling primary productivity with an emphasis on biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, the major bio...

  11. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  12. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Myocarditis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Hsiao

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric myocarditis presents primarily with gastrointestinal symptoms in Taiwan. Careful check of heart rhythm may provide a useful objective marker of myocarditis. The predictors of a poor prognosis were gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatomegaly, and hypotension.

  13. Revision of Sciaphila (Triuridaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsin Hsieh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sciaphila (Triuridaceae is revised based on comparative morphological and palynological studies in Taiwan. Four species are recognized, i. E. Sciaphila arfakiana Becc., S. Maculata Miers, S. ramosa Fukuy. & T. Suzuki, and S. secundiflora Thwaites ex Benth. Sciaphila arfakiana and S. maculata are new record to Flora of Taiwan and S. secundiflora distributed in Kueishan Island is a new distribution. SEM micrographs of pollen grains, a key to species, species descriptions, and taxonomic notes are provided.

  14. Gambling in Taiwan: problems, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Harry Yi-Jui

    2013-03-01

    This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has evaluated unique gambling experiences in Taiwan. A comprehensive review of electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Chinese Electronic Periodical Services and the Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature System, was conducted to identify evaluations of gambling experiences in Taiwan. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed. Various types of gambling are prevalent in Taiwan, even though the laws of Taiwan forbid illegal gambling. Both traditional and novel types of gambling have brought adverse impacts to Taiwanese people in multiple aspects of everyday life. The strategies and attitudes of the government towards gambling have been forced to change as gambling has flourished. Various types of gambling have developed in Taiwan in response to social, economic and cultural changes over time. The psychological aspects of gambling, however, need further study to provide fundamental information for developing intervention models for pathological gambling. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. HIV/HCV Coinfection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are important global public health problems with shared transmission routes. Although HIV/HCV coinfection is not uncommon, the prevalence rates vary significantly across different studies and regions. In Taiwan, injection drug users have become the major contributors to the HIV/AIDS epidemic since 2005. Because the prevalence of HCV infection is high in injection drug users, this HIV epidemic is also associated with a significant increase of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan. To control Taiwan's HIV epidemic, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) launched a harm-reduction program in 2006. The HIV epidemic, the percentage attributed to injection drug users, and the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection gradually declined thereafter. In this article, we aimed to thoroughly examine the current literatures of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan and hope to provide a better understanding of the needs for the management of this coinfection. We conducted a narrative review and searched for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database untill August 2015. Studies relevant to the epidemiology and associated risk factors of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan were examined and discussed.

  16. New Risk Measure and Idiosyncratic Risk in Taiwan Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Ching Jan; Su-Ling Chiu; Jerry M. C. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Under the model developed by Merton (1987), the idiosyncratic risk would be important to explain the expected stock return. We follow the approach of Daniel and Titman (1998), and use the risk measure developed by Jan and Wang (2012) to examine whether idiosyncratic risk can play an important role in explaining the expected return in Taiwan stock market. We find that beta can¡¯t explain the expected return, and that idiosyncratic risk has a positive relation to expected returns for stocks wit...

  17. Graduate Students' Usage of and Attitudes towards E-Books: Experiences from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-der; Chen, Shih-chuan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: University libraries are increasing their e-book collections. The purpose of this study is to investigate graduate students' usage of and attitudes towards e-books at National Taiwan University. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 20 graduate students from the fields of humanities, social sciences, science and technology, and medicine…

  18. Dawning of Hope: Practice of and Reflections on Indigenous Teacher Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanhua

    2016-01-01

    Teachers more familiar with students' culture tend to use culturally relevant teaching methods to smooth students' learning. Most pre-service teachers in Taiwan lack sufficient training for multicultural competence to enable them to embrace indigenous students' culture and appropriate teaching approaches. In 2013, the Education Act for Indigenous…

  19. Effects of School Principals' Leadership Behaviors: A Comparison between Taiwan and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Gean; Cheng, Jao-Nan; Sato, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    This study is a cross-national research in school leadership behaviors. Research subjects in this study include primary and secondary school teachers in Taiwan and northeastern Japan. By referring to "School leadership of the future," this study summarized that school leadership is working toward a team approach to instruction…

  20. Using Response Cards in Teacher Education--A Case Example in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Using response cards is one strategy to increase active student response. This approach may also satisfy a unique cultural learning need in some cultures like Taiwan where students are hesitant to speak in class. This paper provides a case example of using personal writing boards (PWBs) as an alternative response option to improve student…

  1. Evaluation of thermal power plant operational performance in Taiwan by data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.H.; Lin, Sue J.; Lewis, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Electricity is essential in the economic development of a nation. Due to the rapid growth of economy and industrial development in Taiwan, the demand for use of electricity has increased rapidly. This study evaluates the power-generation efficiency of major thermal power plants in Taiwan during 2004-2006 using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. A stability test was conducted to verify the stability of the DEA model. According to the results, all power plants studied achieved acceptable overall operational efficiencies during 2004-2006, and the combined cycle power plants were the most efficient among all plants. The most important variable in this DEA model is the 'heating value of total fuels'. Findings from this study can be beneficial in improving some of the existing power plants and for more efficient operational strategies and related policy-making for future power plants in Taiwan.

  2. Reconstruction and systemization of the methodologies for strategic environmental assessment in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, M.-L.; Yeh, S.-C.; Yu, Y.-H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the current SEA procedures and assessment methodologies, aiming to propose strategies that can lead to effective improvement in a newly industrialized Asian country, Taiwan. Institutional and practical problems with regard to the regulations and tools of SEA in Taiwan are compared to those in other countries. According to the research results, it is suggested that extra evaluation processes should be incorporated into the current assessment procedures to improve their scientific validity and integrity. Moreover, it is also suggested that the sustainability appraisal approaches be included in the SEA framework. In this phase, revised evaluation indicators associated with corresponding targets can be the first attempt for modifying the SEA system. It is believed that these can promote the operability in practice and also lead the whole assessment procedures to a direction closer to sustainable development. The trails that Taiwan has followed can help other countries that are going to adopt SEA to find a more effective and efficient way to follow

  3. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    of the workforce involved in agriculture and unemployment. We compared pesticide products banned by the Taiwanese government with products that remained on the market and pesticides that accounted for the most poisoning deaths in Taiwan. Results. Age-standardised rates of pesticide suicide showed a 67% reduction......, in Taiwan, a rapidly developing East Asian country. Methods. We conducted an ecological study using graphical approaches and Spearman's correlation coefficients to examine trends in pesticide suicide (1987-2010) in Taiwan in relation to pesticide sales, bans on selected pesticides, the proportion....... The reduction was paralleled by a 66% fall in the workforce involved in agriculture but there was no strong evidence for its association with trends in pesticide sales, bans on selected pesticide products or unemployment. The bans mostly post-dated the decline in pesticide suicides; furthermore, they did...

  4. Regulatory oversight on nuclear safety in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T-T. [Atomic Energy Council, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Taiwan is a densely populated island and over 98% of its energy is imported, 16.5% of which is nuclear, in the form of materials and services. Ensuring that the most stringent nuclear safety standards are met therefore remains a priority for the government and the operator, Taiwan power Company (Taipower). There are eight nuclear power reactors in Taiwan, six of which are in operation and two are under construction. The first began operating nearly 40 years ago. For the time being the issue of whether to decommission or extend life of the operating units is also being discussed and has no conclusion yet. Nuclear energy has been a hot issue in debate over the past decades in Taiwan. Construction of Lungmen nuclear power plant, site selection of a final low-level waste disposal facility, installation of spent fuel dry storage facilities and safety of the currently operating nuclear power reactors are the issues that all Taiwanese are concerned most. In order to ensure the safety of nuclear power plant, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has implemented rigorous regulatory work over the past decades. After the Fukushima accident, AEC has conducted a reassessment program to re-evaluate all nuclear power plants in Taiwan, and asked Taipower to follow the technical guidelines, which ENSREG has utilized to implement stress test over nuclear power plants in Europe. In addition, AEC has invited two expert teams from OECD/NEA and ENSREG to conduct peer reviews of Taiwan's stress test national report in 2013. My presentation will focus on activities regulating safety of nuclear power programs. These will cover (A) policy of nuclear power regulation in Taiwan, (B)challenges of the Lungmen Plant, (C) post-Fukushima safety re-assessment, and (D)radioactive waste management. (author)

  5. Ambulance traffic accidents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen-Long; Fang, Pin-Hui; Lu, Chien-Hsin; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien

    2018-04-01

    Ambulance traffic accidents (ATAs) are the leading cause of occupation-related fatalities among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. We aim to use the Taiwan national surveillance system to analyze the characteristics of ATAs and to assist EMS directors in developing policies governing ambulance operations. A retrospective, cross-sectional and largely descriptive study was conducted using Taiwan national traffic accidents surveillance data from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2016. Among the 1,627,217 traffic accidents during the study period, 715 ATAs caused 8 deaths within 24 h and 1844 injured patients. On average, there was one ATA for every 8598 ambulance runs. Compared to overall traffic accidents, ATAs were 1.7 times more likely to result in death and 1.9 times more likely to have injured patients. Among the 715 ATAs, 8 (1.1%) ATAs were fatal and 707 (98.9%) were nonfatal. All 8 fatalities were associated with motorcycles. The urban areas were significantly higher than the rural areas in the annual number of ATAs (14.2 ± 7.3 [7.0-26.7] versus 3.1 ± 1.9 [0.5-8.4], p = 0.013), the number of ATA-associated fatalities per year (0.2 ± 0.2 [0.0-0.7] versus 0.1 ± 0.1 [0.0-0.2], p = 0.022), and the annual number of injured patients (who needed urgent hospital visits) in ATAs (19.4 ± 7.3 [10.5-30.9] versus 5.2 ± 3.8 [0.9-15.3], p traffic accident reporting system should be built to provide EMS policy guidance for ATA reduction and outcome improvements. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    .... Among other things, President Bush publicly stated in 2001 that the United States would do "whatever it takes" to help Taiwan's defense and approved, in April 2001, a substantial sale of U.S. weapons to Taiwan...

  7. Contribution to a Revised Orchid Flora of Taiwan (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Jye Su

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Orchidaceae, Listera meifongensis is described from Taiwan. The native species of Galeola in Taiwan are also revised. Illustrations and taxonomic notes are given for these species.

  8. Factors associated with Taiwan anesthesiologists' intention to leave anesthesia practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-O Wang

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Unfavorable working conditions were considered to lower the satisfaction of anesthesiologists in Taiwan. In particular, an inability to take care of the family and a low salary were major factors in deterring anesthesiologists in Taiwan from continuing in anesthesia.

  9. Underreporting of maternal mortality in Taiwan: A data linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Pi Wu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Approximately two-thirds of the maternal deaths in Taiwan were unreported in the officially published mortality data. Hence, routine nationwide data linkage is essential to monitor maternal mortality in Taiwan accurately.

  10. The Research of Foreign Exchange Exposures in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi Chen

    2006-01-01

    The research will be mainly focused on the relationship between the stock returns and the fluctuation of foreign exchange rate exposure in Taiwan listed corporations. Due to the environmental limitations and in sufficient resources, if Taiwan inclines to develop international trade, the exchange market plays an important role in the advances of Taiwan's economy. Therefore, the fluctuations of foreign exchange rate must have a substantially impact on the profitability of industries in Taiwan.

  11. An Event Study of Chinese Tourists to Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); S.-H. Hsu (Shu-Han); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe number of Chinese tourists visiting Taiwan has been closely related to the political relationship across the Taiwan Strait. The occurrence of political events and disasters or accidents have had, and will continue to have, a huge impact on the Taiwan tourism market. To date,

  12. What University Governance Can Taiwan Learn from the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Land, Ming H.

    2010-01-01

    Due to changes from centralization to marketization, Taiwan's university governance must increase its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper was to introduce trends in and issues of Taiwan's university governance, describe university governance in the United States, and draw implications that Taiwan's university governance needs to learn from…

  13. 75 FR 15726 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl.... industry was materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of imports of PVA from Taiwan... Alcohol From Taiwan; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation...

  14. Equal, global, local: discourses in Taiwan's international medical graduate debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Shaw, Kevin; Liu, Tzu-Hung; Norris, Jessie; Chiu, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    With the globalisation of medicine, the role of international medical graduates (IMGs) has expanded. Nonetheless, the experiences of native-born IMGs remain under-researched. In Taiwan, public controversy has unfolded around IMGs educated in Poland, calling into question the meaning(s) of equality in policy and medicine. In focusing on the return of IMGs to their countries of origin, this study adds to the growing literature concerning equality and globalisation in medical education. The primary research aim was to analyse how stakeholders in the IMG debate use equality in their arguments. The authors set out to frame the dispute within the recent history of Taiwanese medical governance. An overarching objective was to contribute a critical, historical view of how discourses of globalisation and equality construct different policy approaches to international medical education. The authors performed a critical discourse analysis of a public policy dispute in Taiwan, assembling an archive from online interactions, government reports and news articles. Coding focused on stakeholders' uses of equality to generate broader discourses. International and domestic Taiwanese students conceived of equality differently, referencing both 'equality of opportunity' and 'equality of outcome' within localisation and globalisation frameworks, respectively. The dominance of localisation discourse is reflected in hostile online rhetoric towards Poland-educated IMGs. Rhetorical disagreements over equality in medical education trace shifting state policies, from earlier attempts to remove barriers for IMGs to the present-day push to regulate IMGs for acculturation and quality assurance. The global Internet had a double-sided influence, facilitating both democratic political mobilization and the spread of hate speech. The policy debate in Taiwan mirrors discourses in Canada, where IMGs are likewise conceived either as globally competent physicians or as lacking in merit and technical

  15. Review of recycling performance indicators: A study on collection rate in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lihchyi; Lin Chunhsu; Lee, Soo-cheol

    2009-01-01

    The Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) launched a national Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) system after integrating eight private recycling organizations in 1998. After that, the environmental performance of the EPR system brought a lot of attention to policy makers. Many studies show positive environmental effects of the EPR system in Taiwan. However, there are controversial questions remained, such as whether the performance indicators used are the right choice to estimate the environmental effects of the recycling policy? Can those estimated results really reflect the performance of the system? This paper would therefore like to more accurately evaluate the performance indicators of the EPR system based on data observed over the past decade in Taiwan. In the process of evaluating the performance indicators, we have found that the collection rates for durable goods are often ignored in countries that pursue a zero waste policy. This may affect the actual recycling outcome and resource direction targeted by producers. However, in order for the collection rate to be adopted as a policy indicator, how to estimate the amounts of retired or waste products during a period is critical. In this paper, we estimate the collection rate for electrical and electronic waste by using the survival analysis and ownership data analysis approaches. We also provide a comparison of both approaches and put forward suggestions for directions in the future in solid waste management.

  16. Review of recycling performance indicators: a study on collection rate in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lihchyi; Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Soo-Cheol

    2009-08-01

    The Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) launched a national Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) system after integrating eight private recycling organizations in 1998. After that, the environmental performance of the EPR system brought a lot of attention to policy makers. Many studies show positive environmental effects of the EPR system in Taiwan. However, there are controversial questions remained, such as whether the performance indicators used are the right choice to estimate the environmental effects of the recycling policy? Can those estimated results really reflect the performance of the system? This paper would therefore like to more accurately evaluate the performance indicators of the EPR system based on data observed over the past decade in Taiwan. In the process of evaluating the performance indicators, we have found that the collection rates for durable goods are often ignored in countries that pursue a zero waste policy. This may affect the actual recycling outcome and resource direction targeted by producers. However, in order for the collection rate to be adopted as a policy indicator, how to estimate the amounts of retired or waste products during a period is critical. In this paper, we estimate the collection rate for electrical and electronic waste by using the survival analysis and ownership data analysis approaches. We also provide a comparison of both approaches and put forward suggestions for directions in the future in solid waste management.

  17. The Study of Aeromagnetic Surveys in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. T.; Tong, L. T.; Lin, W.; Chang, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    The airborne magnetic survey is a cost-effective method for regional geological investigation. Most of developed countries use aeromagnetic data as important fundamental information for resources development. The first aeromagnetic survey was conducted in the offshore areas of west and southern Taiwan in 1968 by U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office to help Taiwan finding oil. Later, in 2007, a helicopter-borne magnetic survey was proceed in east Taiwan for underground granite bodies. In order to improve better understanding of deep geological structures associated with the Holocene volcanism in Taiwan, we applied helicopter-borne magnetic technique in northern Taiwan include Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) and Kueishan island in 2013 and 2014 to obtain the distribution information of potential magma chamber as well as hydrothermal pathways along regional geological structures. The most important findings of the high-resolution aeromagnetic dataset since 1960's to 2014 acquired include: (1) the distribution of subsurface igneous rocks and the Curie point depth in Tatun Volcano Group, Keelung Volcano Group, and Kueishantao Volcano; (2) the widely distributed NE high-magnetic belts in northern Taiwan may be associated with NE fractures created by long-term subsidence in this area; (3) the high-magnetic belts in south of Lanyang River which is very different from the magnetic characteristics of the Central Range may imply paleo oceanic plate; (4) the NE high-magnetic belts in Penghu area formed by magma intrusion along NE fractures and the dense and high-magnetic anomalies may be associated with the Miocene basaltic lava overlying on the pre-Tertiary igneous dykes and are widely spread in northern Penghu area. The new aeromagnetic survey techniques help us to investigate the areas with steep terrain or covered by dense vegetation which was difficult to obtain reasonable geological understanding, and also provide an opportunity for us to apply the geothermal energy prospecting.

  18. An evaluation model for low carbon island policy: The case of Taiwan's green transportation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappey, Amy J.C.; Trappey, Charles; Hsiao, C.T.; Ou, Jerry J.R.; Li, S.J.; Chen, Kevin W.P.

    2012-01-01

    Conserving energy and reducing carbon emissions have become the common responsibility of the international community. During the year 2010, the Taiwan government planned a four-year project budgeted at 300 million US dollars, called “The Penghu Low Carbon Island Development Project.” The policy objective is to use Penghu Island (population 85,000) as a test platform to evaluate new ways to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions before attempting to replicate the policies on Taiwan Island. For Taiwan, a zero carbon island green transportation policy will regulate the total number of electric scooters, the total number of gasoline motorcycles, influence government subsidy incentives, and create the need for new motorcycle license issuing and control. These factors interact with each other to form a complex and dynamic system that impacts policy as well as the current way of life. In this study, a system dynamics approach is designed to construct a model for evaluating the green transportation policy on Penghu Island. Simulations are conducted to model green transportation system behavior and related policy effects in a smaller, controlled environment before creating policies for Taiwan Island that will impact the lives of over 23 million people. - Highlights: ► Provides an overview of Taiwan's Penghu Low Carbon Island Development Project. ► Develops a systems dynamics approach for green transportation policy assessment. ► Provides causal analysis of social, economic, and environmental factors. ► Demonstrates that the proposed policy cannot meet the CO 2 reduction goals. ► Alternative policies can be evaluated using the proposed approach.

  19. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai; Hebenton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  20. Diatoms in Liyu Lake, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chi Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study described the diatoms appeared in the sediments of Liyu Lake, a lowland natural lake situated at Hualen, eastern Taiwan. A total of 50 species was found in the sediments of this eutrophic lake. In them, 8 species were reported for the first time in Taiwan. They are: Cymbella thienemannii, Navicula absoluta, Navicula bacillum, Frustulia rhomboides var. crassinervia, Gyrosigma procerum, Nitzschia paleacea Epithemia smithii and Eunotia subarcuatioides. The ultrastructures of each species were described on the basis of observations under a scanning electron microscope. The ecological implications of the occurrence of these diatom species in this lake were inferred.

  1. Russia-Taiwan Relations: History and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vradiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of potential possibilities for the development of business, scientific and technical cooperation, Taiwan could be considered as a prospective partner for Russian businessmen in East Asia. It is defined by the island’s high degree of import dependence upon main categories of raw material resources and by its leading role in producing a number of articles in the manufacturing industry. The article will briefly review the contemporary history of Russia’s relations with Taiwan. It will also analyze the current status and presume the possibility for future prospects of bilateral economic and trade relations.

  2. Improvement of ALARA in Taiwan Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, H. M.; Chang, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The ALARA(as low as reasonable achievable ) principle is a basic spirit of radiation safety culture and the most important element of a successful radiation safety program. In recent years, the ALARA principle and practices have been widely applied to the three operating nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Through the effective communication and fully cooperation between the authority and utility, the performance goals of improving radiation safety program have been set, and the implementation plans have been proposed and followed. Taking Chinshan nuclear power station as an example, in 2004, the occupational individual dose was 1.13mSv/ person in average,no one exceeded 20mSv ,and the collective dose was 1.03man-Sv/unit which achieved the best record of BWR plant in Taiwan. The radiation reduction approaches and tools adopted by the plants include removing radiation sources, setting radiation shieding, optimizing and controlling the schedule of radiation practices, considering the occupancy factors, and better administrative management to keep exposure ALARA will be discussed in this paper

  3. Cloud Image Data Center for Healthcare Network in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shao-Jen; Lai, Lai-Shiun; Gotcher, Donald; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Xu, Yeong-Yuh; Yang, Ching-Wen

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates how a healthcare network in Taiwan uses a practical cloud image data center (CIDC) to communicate with its constituent hospital branches. A case study approach was used. The study was carried out in the central region of Taiwan, with four hospitals belonging to the Veterans Hospital healthcare network. The CIDC provides synchronous and asynchronous consultation among these branches. It provides storage, platforms, and services on demand to the hospitals. Any branch-client can pull up the patient's medical images from any hospital off this cloud. Patients can be examined at the branches, and the images and reports can be further evaluated by physicians in the main Taichung Veterans General Hospital (TVGH) to enhance the usage and efficiency of equipment in the various branches, thereby shortening the waiting time of patients. The performance of the CIDC over 5 years shows: (1) the total number of cross-hospital images accessed with CDC in the branches was 132,712; and (2) TVGH assisted the branches in keying in image reports using the CIDC 4,424 times; and (3) Implementation of the system has improved management, efficiency, speed and quality of care. Therefore, the results lead to the recommendation of continuing and expanding the cloud computing architecture to improve information sharing among branches in the healthcare network.

  4. Development of Safe Taiwan Information System (SATIS for Typhoon Early Warning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ray Su

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the particular geographical location and geological condition, Taiwan is constantly attacked by typhoons, flood, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Those natural hazards had caused huge loss of lives and properties. To reduce the damages and losses caused by the natural hazards, an integrated and complete decision support system for decision makers is necessary. In this study, Safe Taiwan information system (SATIS, which includes two subsystems, response operation subsystem for staff members and decision support subsystem for commanders, is developed for preparedness and response of typhoon hazards. It is based on the Web- GIS framework that the disaster information can be distributed via internet technology. When typhoon is approaching, response operation subsystem is used by National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR staffs to integrate real-time monitoring information, hazard models and graphical user interfaces to analyze and manage the disaster information such as the current position and possible path of typhoon, the spatial distribution of rainfalls, and potential areas of flooding, landslides and debris flows. The input data of this subsystem includes the basic maps, the real-time information of typhoon and rainfall issued by the Central Weather Bureau, the real-time water information from the Water Resources Agency, and the hazard maps indicating areas of potential landslide, debris flow and flooding made by NCDR herself to estimate endangered areas under the current typhoon. There are four main modules integrated into the subsystem including the rainfall monitoring and forecasting, the estimation of potential inundation areas, the estimation of potential landslide and debris flows, and the management of disaster information. The results of hazard risk analysis which include potential rainfall distribution, inundation and landslide risk areas, early warning messages, and total suggestion over the

  5. Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage documentation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    Taiwan is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in Taiwan with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in Taiwan.

  6. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  7. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  8. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  9. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  10. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Chu (Lan-Fen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-C. Chang (Ching-Chung)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  11. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chu (LanFen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-H. Chang (Chu-Hsiang)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  12. The Quality of Life in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in Taiwan, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…

  13. The deregulation of Taiwan electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is on the brink of embarking on an ambitious reform in the electricity sector. The future electricity market of Taiwan will be operated under the framework set out in the Electricity Act Amendment. Independent system operator (ISO) will be the core body of the future market operations and its establishment will therefore be the key to the liberalization. This paper presents the proposed implementation plan based on diverse factors considered by the officials. A three steps phased introduction of Taiwan ISO is discussed. During the proposed Phase I interim market arrangements, Taipower's System Operation Department will assume the role of System Operator for the market. The dispatch rules are largely based on the existing Taipower internal procedure. As competition increases, the need for increased transparency will necessitate the establishment of a fully independent ISO in Phase II to provide the real time dispatch services. This will be completed within 2 years after the passage of the Electricity Act Amendment Bill. In the last phase of the deregulation process a multilateral market arrangement for managing energy imbalance and transmission constraints will result in better outcomes in relation to the policy objectives of security and economic efficiency. The 2-year timeframe stipulated in the Electricity Act Amendment Bill is a challenge for the Government and the industry. However, a smoothly functioning Taiwan ISO will bring benefits to the industry and the country in general

  14. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-Chuan Hsu; Jia-Jung Lin; Shih-Wen Chung

    2009-01-01

    Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst.) Seem. (Scrophulariaceae), native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L.) E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae), native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  15. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  16. Industrialization and Household Complexity in Rural Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, William

    1990-01-01

    In 274 Taiwanese townships, farm household complexity in 1960 and 1970 was positively related to the proportion of the labor force in nonagricultural occupations. The close proximity of industry to family farms in Taiwan has reduced rural to urban migration usually associated with industrialization. Contains 46 references. (Author/SV)

  17. 75 FR 61175 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final phase of an.... 1673d(b)) (the Act) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially...

  18. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Taiwan, China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Taiwan. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through...

  19. Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

  20. The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

  1. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  2. Non-nuclear, low-carbon, or both? The case of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Heng Henry

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan has renewed debates on the safety of nuclear power, possibly hurting the role of nuclear power in efforts to limit CO 2 emissions. I develop a dynamic economy-wide model of Taiwan with a detailed set of technology options in the power sector to examine the implications of adopting different carbon and nuclear power policies on CO 2 emissions and the economy. Without a carbon mitigation policy, limiting nuclear power has a small economic cost for Taiwan, but CO 2 emissions may increase by around 4.5% by 2050 when nuclear is replaced by fossil-based generation. With a low-carbon target of a 50% reduction from year 2000 levels by 2050, the costs of cutting CO 2 emissions are greatly reduced if both carbon sequestration and nuclear expansion were viable. This study finds that converting Taiwan's industrial structure into a less energy-intensive one is crucial to carry out the non-nuclear and low-carbon environment. - Highlights: • This study provides an analysis for Taiwan under a low-carbon policy with or without the nuclear option. • A new approach that improves the modeling of non-dispatchable generation is presented. • Emission reduction costs are greatly reduced if both carbon sequestration and nuclear expansion were viable. • A less energy-intensive industrial structure is crucial in pursuing a non-nuclear and low carbon environment

  3. Chinese isms dimensions in mainland China and Taiwan: Convergence and extension of American isms dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo Job; Hsu, Kung-Yu; Zhou, Xinyue; Saucier, Gerard

    2017-07-21

    Previous studies of American English isms terms have uncovered as many as five broad factors: tradition-oriented religiousness (TR), subjective spirituality (SS), communal rationalism (CR), unmitigated self-interest (USI), and inequality aversion (IA). The present studies took a similar lexical approach to investigate the Chinese-language isms structures in both mainland China and Taiwan. In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses with 915 mainland Chinese subjects uncovered four interpretable factors dimensionalizing 165 mainland Chinese dictionary isms terms. These factors represented contents of a combination of TR and SS, USI, CR, and a culturally unique Communist Party of China (CPC) ideology factor. In Study 2, exploratory factor analyses with 467 Taiwan Chinese subjects revealed four interpretable factors categorizing 291 Taiwan Chinese dictionary isms terms. These factors represented contents of a combination of TR and SS, USI, CR, and a culturally unique dimension expressing aspirations for happiness. The results gave evidence for the existence of the isms factors TR and SS, USI, and CR in Chinese culture. Cultural uniqueness was reflected in the merging of TR and SS into the factor Syncretic Religiousness and the culture-specific factors of CPC ideology in China and Happiness/Peace Promotion in Taiwan. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Liability of pediatric nurses for professional negligence in Taiwan: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Man; Sun, Fan-Ko

    2014-04-01

    Liability attribution and professional negligence in pediatric nursing are topics that have been neglected in Taiwan. (1) Identify the definitions of related criminal activities in accordance with domestic criminal law; (2) Elucidate the facts and the dispute in a current case involving a pediatric nurse; (3) Elucidate the principle of 'no punishment without law'; (4) Explore the reasons why the pediatric nurse in the current case received a verdict of 'not guilty'. A literature review and case study approach were used to analyze a sentence reconsideration of the first instance No. 1 (2011) issued by the Taiwan high court, Kaohsiung branch court. The conditions for the scrutiny of criminal activity under Taiwan criminal law are statement of facts, illegality (justifiable cause), and liability (excuse). In this case, the pediatric nurse was accused of failing to prevent an infant from suffocation and of not discharging her obligations as a nurse. The pediatric nurse rebutted the charge of criminal negligence. The intervening behaviors of the pediatric nurse were found to be legal and not culpable. In this case, the High Court and Supreme Court made a final criminal judgment based on the presumption of innocence, and the pediatric nurse was pronounced innocent of the charge. This article intends to assist pediatric nurses understand their liabilities under Taiwan's criminal law. Pediatric nurses should gain a better understanding of the nature of liability for professional negligence in order to clarify how actions that may be illegal do not necessarily make nurses culpable.

  5. SKS Splitting and the Scale of Vertical Coherence of the Taiwan Mountain Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Lin, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

    2018-02-01

    Many continental orogens feature a pattern of SKS shear wave splitting with fast polarization directions parallel to the mountain fabrics and delay times of 1-2 s, implying that the crust and lithosphere deform consistently. In the Taiwan arc-continent collision zone, similar pattern of SKS splitting exists, and thereby lithospheric scale deformation due to collision has been assumed. However, recent dynamic modeling demonstrated that the SKS splitting in Taiwan can be generated by the toroidal flow in the asthenosphere induced by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we analyzed a new data set using a quantitative approach. The results show that models with slab geometries constrained by seismicity explain the observed fast splitting direction to within 25°, whereas the misfit grows to 50-60° if the toroidal flow is disrupted by the presence of a sizable aseismic slab beneath central Taiwan as often suggested by tomographic imaging. However, small sized aseismic slab or detached slab fragment can potentially reconcile the splitting observations. We estimated the scale of vertical coherence to be 10-40 km in the lithosphere and 100-150 km in the asthenosphere, making the former unfavorable for accumulating large delay times. The low coherence is caused by the subduction of the Eurasian plate that creates complex deformation different from what characterizes the compressional tectonics above the plate. This suggests that the mountain building in Taiwan is a shallow process, rather than lithospheric in scale.

  6. Development of Taiwan's strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiun-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hsiau-Wen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan's regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may be initiated as the starting point for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in Taiwan.

  7. Emergency nurses' knowledge of perceived barriers in pain management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Ching; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2007-11-01

    To explore knowledge of and perceived barriers to pain management among emergency nurses in Taiwan. Pain is the most common patient complaint in emergency departments. Quality care of these patients depends on the pain knowledge and pain management skills of emergency nurses. However, no studies have explored emergency nurses' knowledge of and perceived barriers to pain management in Taiwan. Nurse subjects (n = 249) were recruited from nine hospitals chosen by stratified sampling across Taiwan. Data were collected using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey-Taiwanese version, a scale to assess perceived barriers to pain management and a background information form. The overall average correct response rate for the knowledge scale was 49.2%, with a range of 4.8-89.2% for each survey question. The top barrier to managing pain was identified by these nurses as 'the responsibility of caring for other acutely ill patients in addition to a patient with pain. Knowledge of pain management had a significant, negative relationship with perceived barriers to pain management and a significant, positive relationship with extent of clinical care experience and total hours of prior pain management education. In addition, scores for knowledge and perceived barriers differed significantly by the nursing clinical ladder. Perceived barriers also differed significantly by hospital accreditation category. Our results indicate an urgent need to strengthen pain education for emergency nurses in Taiwan. The pain education should target knowledge deficits and barriers to changing pain management approaches for Taiwanese emergency nurses.

  8. Policies and legislation driving Taiwan's development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2010-01-01

    Under the current wave of international responses to the growing threat of climate change, Taiwan cannot afford to step back from its goal of advancing its renewable energy, strengthening its energy self sufficiency and energy security. This paper will first analyze the high level dependency structure of Taiwan's energy demands; then we will explore Taiwan current situation in terms of renewable energy development; furthermore from an overview of the course of changes and development in Taiwan's energy policy, highlight the commitment to and aims of Taiwan's Renewable Energy Development, made by the government at the Annual National Energy Conference. Fourth, we shall analyse technological R and D, incentives, taxes, market reforms and other related policy tools. Fifth, in light of public announcements and budgets set in recent years for Taiwan's renewable energy research plan, highlight main strategies being given impetus by the government. Sixth, the author will discuss the implications of recent significant legal reforms to the development of renewable energy in Taiwan and from the correlating aspects of industrial structures and energy consumption, take the first steps in emphasizing the urgent need for adjustments to be made to Taiwan's industrial structure. Finally, this paper will conclude by examining current policies, legislation and strategies which are in place to promote this area in Taiwan and discuss the potential competitiveness and future scenarios which the development of Renewable Energy could mean for Taiwan. (author)

  9. Discrepancy of cytogenetic analysis in Western and eastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Pui-Yi; Li, Tzu-Ying; Yeh, Chung-Nan; Li, Yi-Shian; Chu, Shao-Yin; Lee, Ming-Liang

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the results of second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping in western and eastern Taiwan, and identifying any regional differences in the prevalence of fetal chromosomal anomalies. From 2004 to 2009, pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis in their second trimester at three hospitals in western Taiwan and at four hospitals in eastern Taiwan were included. All the cytogenetic analyses of cultured amniocytes were performed in the cytogenetics laboratory of the Genetic Counseling Center of Hualien Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital. We used the chi-square test, Student t test, and Mann-Whitney U test to evaluate the variants of clinical indications, amniocyte karyotyping results, and prevalence and types of chromosomal anomalies in western and eastern Taiwan. During the study period, 3573 samples, 1990 (55.7%) from western Taiwan and 1583 (44.3%) from eastern Taiwan, were collected and analyzed. The main indication for amniocyte karyotyping was advanced maternal age (69.0% in western Taiwan, 67.1% in eastern Taiwan). The detection rates of chromosomal anomalies by amniocyte karyotyping in eastern Taiwan (45/1582, 2.8%) did not differ significantly from that in western Taiwan (42/1989, 2.1%) (p = 1.58). Mothers who had abnormal ultrasound findings and histories of familial hereditary diseases or chromosomal anomalies had higher detection rates of chromosomal anomalies (9.3% and 7.2%, respectively). The detection rate of autosomal anomalies was higher in eastern Taiwan (93.3% vs. 78.6%, p = 0.046), but the detection rate of sex-linked chromosomal anomalies was higher in western Taiwan (21.4% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.046). We demonstrated regional differences in second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping results and established a database of common chromosomal anomalies that could be useful for genetic counseling, especially in eastern Taiwan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Estimation of Rice Crop Yields Using Random Forests in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Lin, H. S.; Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Rice is globally one of the most important food crops, directly feeding more people than any other crops. Rice is not only the most important commodity, but also plays a critical role in the economy of Taiwan because it provides employment and income for large rural populations. The rice harvested area and production are thus monitored yearly due to the government's initiatives. Agronomic planners need such information for more precise assessment of food production to tackle issues of national food security and policymaking. This study aimed to develop a machine-learning approach using physical parameters to estimate rice crop yields in Taiwan. We processed the data for 2014 cropping seasons, following three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct input layers, including soil types and weather parameters (e.g., maxima and minima air temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) obtained from meteorological stations across the country; (2) crop yield estimation using the random forests owing to its merits as it can process thousands of variables, estimate missing data, maintain the accuracy level when a large proportion of the data is missing, overcome most of over-fitting problems, and run fast and efficiently when handling large datasets; and (3) error verification. To execute the model, we separated the datasets into two groups of pixels: group-1 (70% of pixels) for training the model and group-2 (30% of pixels) for testing the model. Once the model is trained to produce small and stable out-of-bag error (i.e., the mean squared error between predicted and actual values), it can be used for estimating rice yields of cropping seasons. The results obtained from the random forests-based regression were compared with the actual yield statistics indicated the values of root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) achieved for the first rice crop were respectively 6.2% and 2.7%, while those for the second rice crop were 5.3% and 2

  11. The potential for the recovery and reuse of cooling water in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shu-Hai; Tseng, Dyi-Hwa; Guo, Gia-Luen; Yang, Jyh-Jian [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Chungli (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1999-04-01

    The cooling water is the major part of industrial water use in Taiwan, either from the view of demand priority or supply volume. In order to save water, the loading of supply system can be reduced if the cooling water can be recovered and reused. For this reason, exploration of the recent operation status of the cooling water system has become essential in Taiwan. This study was initially focused on the current applications and reuse trends of cooling water in oil refineries, chemical industry, steel mills, food industry, electronics works, textile plants and power stations. According to the statistical analysis, the portable water and groundwater are the primary sources of makeup water for cooling systems. The multiple-chemicals method and makeup treatment are increasingly accepted for the reclamation of cooling water. On the other hand, sidestream treatment and blowdown reuse are not popular in Taiwan. The recovery rate of blowdown is only 26.8%. The fact of higher cost is the major reason to depress the willingness of recovery. Some representative plants had been selected for case study. However, most cooling water systems are only operated by operator`s experience according to field investigation. In each case, the water quality indexes were used to evaluate the operational condition of cooling water systems. There was no case plant found to be operated at appropriate cycles of concentration. This paper also presented the bottlenecks of conservation technologies of cooling water in Taiwan. These bottlenecks include increasing the cycles of concentration, the reuse of wastewater, and the blowdown treatment for reuse. This paper also demonstrates that the recovery and reuse of cooling water has great potential and is feasible for the available technologies in present Taiwan, but the industries are still unwilling to upgrade because of initial cost. Finally, some approaches associated with technology, economics, environment and policy are proposed to be a

  12. Retrospect and prospect of Taiwan's spent fuel disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.C.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, R.T.; Soong, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    The first nuclear power unit at Taipower's Chinshan site, located on the northern tip of Taiwan, was commissioned in December 1978 and marked the new era of diversifying the utilization of energy resources. With the continuous development and expansion of nuclear power, Taipower has foreseen that nuclear wastes must be carefully handled. Two approaches, establishing a Nuclear Backend Fund and launching comprehensive R ampersand D projects were adopted in parallel to ensure the fulfillment of Taipower's responsibility concerning safe waste management. In late 1983, Taipower took the initiative to propose and set up the Nuclear Backend Fund of which the mechanism of backend cost estimation, fund collection, and management as well as associated accounting procedures were addressed. The proposal was approved by the Executive Yuan, in 1986. From that time on, Taipower is able to avoid laying the financial burden of safe waste management on the next generation

  13. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan’s most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort range for both Taiwan and Western/Middle European conditions, presented by frequency analysis of 10-day intervals. Furthermore, an integrated approach (climate tourism information scheme) is applied to present the frequencies of each facet under particular criteria for each 10-day interval, generating a time-series of climate data with temporal resolution for tourists and tourism authorities.

  14. Surrogate mothers: aboriginal grandmothers raising grandchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.

  15. Formulation of marketing information and communication strategies in Taiwan tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tzong-Ru; Kuo, Yu-Hsuan; Hilletofth, Per

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to formulate marketing information and communication (ICT) strategies for Taiwan tourism industry. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses a literature review to identify problems and solutions of Taiwan’s tourism industry. One of the identified problems is used as an example to formulate marketing ICT strategies. Findings: This research has identified twenty-five main problems and forty-eight solutions of Taiwan’s tourism industry and formulat...

  16. Vaginal birth after cesarean section—The world trend and local experience in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Ting Tsai; Chia-Hsun Wu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The trend of increasing cesarean section rates had evoked worldwide attention. Many approaches were introduced to diminish cesarean section rates. Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) is a route of delivery with diverse agreements. In this study, we try to reveal the world trend in VBAC and our experience of a 10-year period in a medical center in northern Taiwan. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study of all women who underwent elective repeat cesarean deli...

  17. Origins of Semisulcospira libertina (gastropoda: semisulcospiridae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Bor, Hor; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Tan, Mian-Shin; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Hung-Du

    2017-07-01

    The most accepted hypothesis has suggested that the fauna in Taiwan Island originated from South China, but some studies supported the Japan, Ryukyu Archipelago, and Taiwan Islands as a unique biogeographical district. This study examines whether the populations of freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan are closer to those in Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Our study shows the populations in North Taiwan originated from Japan and the cyclic glacial caused the migrations among islands and continent repeatedly; the populations in South Taiwan might originate from South China or South Asia. Our results will not only affect the conclusions in phylogeography of freshwater species in Taiwan but also change the sampling plans in the future studies about evolutionary of freshwater species in East Asia.

  18. Science Education Reform in Confucian Learning Cultures: Teachers' Perspectives on Policy and Practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-01-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical…

  19. Enabling School Structure, Collective Responsibility, and a Culture of Academic Optimism: Toward a Robust Model of School Performance in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H.; Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold: to test a theory of academic optimism in Taiwan elementary schools and to expand the theory by adding new variables, collective responsibility and enabling school structure, to the model. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling was used to test, refine, and expand an…

  20. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    flights and tourism across the Taiwan Strait in July. While the resumption of the cross-strait dialogue for the first time in a decade was welcomed... Taiwan : Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990 Shirley A. Kan Specialist in Asian Security Affairs March 3, 2014 Congressional Research Service 7...number. 1. REPORT DATE 03 MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Taiwan : Major U.S. Arms

  1. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai [Department of Regional Studies in Humanity and Social Sciences, National Hsin-Chu University of Education, No. 521 Nan-Da Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Hebenton, Bill [School of Law, University of Manchester, M13 9PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  2. Coal consumption and economic growth in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the causality issue between coal consumption and economic growth for Taiwan. The co-integration and Granger's causality test are applied to investigate the relationship between the two economic series. Results of the co-integration and Granger's causality test based on 1954--1997 Taiwan data show a unidirectional causality from economic growth to coal consumption with no feedback effects. Their major finding supports the neutrality hypothesis of coal consumption with respect to economic growth. Further, the finding has practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning, as coal conservation is a feasible policy with no damaging repercussions on economic growth

  3. Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keh-Chin [Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Kueijen, Tainan, Taiwan 711 (China); Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming [Aerospace Science and Technology Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Kueijen, Tainan, Taiwan 711 (China); Lin, Wei-Min [Tainan University of Technology (China)

    2008-01-15

    The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

  4. Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming; Lin, Wei-Min

    2008-01-01

    The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

  5. Aboriginal fractions: enumerating identity in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Notions of identity in Taiwan are configured in relation to numbers. I examine the polyvalent capacities of enumerative technologies in both the production of ethnic identities and claims to political representation and justice. By critically historicizing the manner in which Aborigines in Taiwan have been, and continue to be, constructed as objects and subjects of scientific knowledge production through technologies of measuring, I examine the genetic claim made by some Taiwanese to be "fractionally" Aboriginal. Numbers and techniques of measuring are used ostensibly to know the Aborigines, but they are also used to construct a genetically unique Taiwanese identity and to incorporate the Aborigines within projects of democratic governance. Technologies of enumeration thus serve within multiple, and sometimes contradictory, projects of representation and knowledge production.

  6. Taiwan in 2004: Elections, Referenda, and Other Democratic Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    .... In both the presidential and legislative election campaigns, Chen emphasized gaining a separate international identity for Taiwan -- an emphasis to which Beijing strenuously objected as dangerously...

  7. Energy statistics and the role of nuclear energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.T.; Chen, Y.B.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the very limited indigenous energy resources, Taiwan has to import over 95% of the energy from overseas to meet her need. In this paper, the supply and demand of various kind of major energies will be discussed. Also, in order to lessen the environmental burden and increase the energy independence for Taiwan, the so-called quasi-indigenous energy - nuclear energy, will play an important role in Taiwan's future energy mix. The optimal ratios of the mix in the year of 2005 in Taiwan area using multiobjective method by independent research Institute will also be discussed. (author)

  8. Transmission Modes of Melioidosis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Tan Hsueh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, melioidosis is an emerging disease that suddenly increased in the Er-Ren River Basin, beginning in 2005 and in the Zoynan region during 2008–2012, following a typhoon. Additionally, the disease sporadically increased in a geography-dependent manner in 2016. Subcutaneous inoculation, ingestion, and the inhalation of soil or water contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei are recognized as the transmission modes of melioidosis. The appearance of environmental B. pseudomallei positivity in northern, central and southern Taiwan is associated with disease prevalence (cases/population: 0.03/100,000 in the northern region, 0.29/100,000 in the central region and 1.98/100,000 in the southern region. However, melioidosis-clustered areas are confined to 5 to 7.5 km2 hot spots containing high-density populations, but B. pseudomallei-contaminated environments are located >5 km northwestern of the periphery of these hot spots. The observation that the concentration of B. pseudomallei-specific DNA in aerosols was positively correlated with the incidence of melioidosis and the appearance of a northwesterly wind in a hot spot indicated that airborne transmission had occurred in Taiwan. Moreover, the isolation rate in the superficial layers of a contaminated crop field in the northwest was correlated with PCR positivity in aerosols collected from the southeast over a two-year period. The genotype ST58 was identified by multilocus sequence typing in human and aerosol isolates. The genotype ST1001 has increased in prevalence but has been sporadically distributed elsewhere since 2016. These data indicate the transmission modes and environmental foci that support the dissemination of melioidosis are changing in Taiwan.

  9. Vertical Integration in the Taiwan Aquaculture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen); Yi-Hsu; Cheng-Jen Lin; Kongkiti Phusavat; Nirote Sinnarong

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwan aquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This study is derived from a need to improve the distribution performance of agricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demands in Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived from both a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategies are developed. This development is based on key success factors and strategies for...

  10. Low-level radwaste transportation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, L.F.; Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the past ten years, 273 voyages have been made to ship radwaste produced by nuclear power plants and Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). It more or less lowers the problem of insufficient storage space in Taiwan. Although all organizations followed various regulations to operate the transportation, ten events occurred in marine transport. However, they were ordinary incidents and neither released any radiation to contaminate the environment nor caused any casualty. (J.P.N.)

  11. Nomenclature Changes for Some Dicots of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Po Yang

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the preparation of the Manual of Taiwan Vascular Plants, name changes for 7 dicots are needed. Four new names are given: Melastoma scaberrima (Hayata Yuen-Po Yang & Ho-Yih Liu, Medinilla taiwaniana Yuen-Po Yang & Ho-Yih Liu, Rhaphiolepis indica (L. Lindley ex Ker var. shilanensis Yuen-Po Yang & Ho-Yih Liu, and Helwingia japonica (Thunb. Dietr. ssp. taiwaniana Yuen-Po Yang & Ho-Yih Liu.

  12. Modeling lunar calendar effects in taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Lung Lin; Tian- Syh Liu

    2003-01-01

    The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops during the holidays and gradually rises to an average level after the ho...

  13. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  14. Radiation chemistry in Taiwan, fundamental and applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, U.P.

    1980-01-01

    Both fundamental and applied research works on radiation chemistry in Taiwan have been described from the view point of economic development of new radiation chemical industry by applying unique chemical reactions on radiation processing. Seven items on the basic and applied research works and the status of recent industrial development of radiation chemistry have been consequently selected to be delineated as the major contents along this line in this paper. (author)

  15. Additional Remarks on Ranunculaceae in Taiwan (8 -Revision of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Aleck Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a taxonomic study of the genera of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan, including Aconitum L., Anemone L., Calathodes L., Cimicifuga Hook.f. & Thomson, Coptis L., Dichocarpum L., Ranunculus L., Semiaquilegea Makino, Thalictrum L. and Trollius L. Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. matsudae Yamam. is recognized in Taiwan; the concept of the genus Cimicifuga is still accepted, excluding genus Actaea. A key to the genera, keys to the taxa under each genus and synonyms of each taxon are provided. The taxonomic descriptions of taxa are only for those published after 1996. For easy understanding and checking of Taiwanese Ranunculaceae, phenology, distribution and specimens examined in each taxon are also presented. Totally, there are 11 genera and 51 taxa (including 41 species, 2 subspecies and 8 varieties of family Ranunculaceae in Taiwan.

  16. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  17. Historical overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented.

  18. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  19. Perspectives for solar thermal applications in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan has long depended on imported fossil energy. The government is thus actively promoting the use of renewable energy. Since 2000, domestic installations of solar water heaters have increased substantially because of the long-term subsidies provided for such systems. However, data on the annual installation area of solar collectors in recent years indicated that the solar thermal industry in Taiwan has reached a bottleneck. The long-term policy providing subsidies must thus be revised. It is proposed that future thermal applications in Taiwan should focus on building-integrated solar thermal, photovoltaic/thermal, and industrial heating processes. Regarding building-integrated solar thermal systems, the current subsidy model can be continued (according to area of solar collectors); nevertheless, the application of photovoltaic/thermal and industrial heating systems must be determined according to the thermal output of such systems. - Highlights: •The long-term subsidization for solar water heaters has lost effectiveness. •Solar thermal applications include BIST, PV/T and industrial heating process. •A performance-based subsidy policy should be implemented.

  20. Invasive Candidiasis: An Overview from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yuan Ruan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, especially in critically ill patients. We review the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis with an emphasis on data from Taiwan. An increasing incidence of candidemia became apparent from 1980 to the end of the 1990s, followed by relative stability. Crude mortality rates of patients with candidemia were in the range of 35% to 60%. Candida albicans remains the predominant cause of invasive candidiasis in Taiwan and accounts for more than 50% of all cases. Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis are the three most common nonalbicansCandida species that cause invasive candidiasis. The above four Candida species account for more than 90% of invasive candidiasis in Taiwan. Overall, invasive Candida isolates have remained highly susceptible to fluconazole (> 90% susceptibility over the past two decades. However, periodic surveillance is needed to monitor antifungal resistance because reduced fluconazole susceptibility in non-albicans Candida is not an uncommon trend. Voriconazole and echinocandins continue to exhibit excellent in vitro activity against invasive Candida isolates.

  1. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  2. Historical Overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented. PMID:23467308

  3. Cross-Market Linkages of Taiwan Index Futures Contracts Listed on the Taiwan Futures Exchange and the Singapore Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng "Wilson" Liu; Gyoungsin "Daniel" Park

    2007-01-01

    Cointegration tests and ex ante trading rules are applied to study cross-market linkages between the Taiwan Index futures contracts listed on the Singapore Exchange and the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization-weighted Stock Index futures contracts listed on the Taiwan Futures Exchange. The exchange rate-adjusted returns of the two futures series do not differ significantly in mean but in variances, and show significant mean-reverting tendencies between them. Our trading strategies are able t...

  4. How fast is the denudation of the Taiwan Mountains? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, L. L.; Derrieux, F.; KANG, C.; Bourles, D. L.; Braucher, R.; Léanni, L.; Chen, R.; Lee, J.; Chu, H.; Chang, C.; Byrne, T. B.

    2013-12-01

    Orogenic settings are particularly well suited to study and quantify the coupling relations between tectonics, topography, climate and erosion since they record tectonic evolution along convergent margins and the connection between deep and surface processes. However, the interaction of deep and shallow processes is still poorly understood and the role they play in the exhumation of rocks, the structural and kinematic evolution of orogenic wedges, and the relation between tectonics and climate-dependent surface processes are still debated. Therefore, quantification of denudation rates in a wide range of climatic and tectonic settings, as well as at various time and space scales, is a critical step in calibrating and validating landscape evolution models. In this study, we focus on the mountains of the arc-continent collision in Taiwan, which serve as one of the best examples in the world to understand and study mountain building processes. We investigate the pattern and magnitude of denudation rates at the scale of the orogenic system, deriving denudation rates from in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclide 10Be concentrations measured in (1) river-borne quartz minerals sampled at major watersheds outlets, and (2) bedrock outcrops along ridge crests and at summits located along the major drainage divide of the belt. We determined a denudation pattern showing a clear discrepancy between the western (1.7×0.2 mm/yr) and eastern (4.1×0.5 mm/yr) sides of the range. Conversely, bedrock denudation determined along ridge crests, summits and flat surfaces preserved at high elevations are characterized by significantly lower denudation rates on the order of 0.24×0.03 mm/yr. Altogether, the cosmogenic-derived denudation pattern at the orogen-scale reflects fundamental mountain building processes from frontal accretion in the Western Foothills to basal accretion and fast exhumation in the Central Range. Applied to the whole orogen, such field-based approach thus provides

  5. Ozone Production and Control Strategies for Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, C.; Liu, S.; Chang, C.; Chen, J.; Chou, C. C.; Lin, C.

    2006-12-01

    An observation-based modeling (OBM) approach is used to estimate the ozone production efficiency and production rate of O3 (P(O3)) in southern Taiwan. The approach can also provide an indirect estimate of the concentration of OH. Measured concentrations of two aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. ethylbenzene/m,p-xylene, are used to estimate the degree of photochemical processing and the amounts of photochemically consumed NOx and NMHCs. In addition, a one-dimensional (1d) photochemical model is used to compare with the OBM results. The average ozone production efficiency during the field campaign in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area in Fall 2003 is found to be about 5, comparable to previous works. The relationship of P(O3) with NOx is examined in detail and compared to previous studies. The derived OH concentrations from this approach are in fair agreement with values calculated from the 1d photochemical model. The relationship of total oxidants (e.g. O3+NO2) versus initial NOx and NMHCs suggests that reducing NMHCs are more effective in controlling total oxidants than reducing NOx. For O3 control, reducing NMHC is even more effective than NOx due to the NO titration effect. This observation-based approach provides a good alternative for understanding the production of ozone and formulating ozone control strategy in urban and suburban environment without measurements of peroxy radicals.

  6. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  7. Workplace smoking related absenteeism and productivity costs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S P; Wen, C P; Hu, S C; Cheng, T Y; Huang, S J

    2005-06-01

    To estimate productivity losses and financial costs to employers caused by cigarette smoking in the Taiwan workplace. The human capital approach was used to calculate lost productivity. Assuming the value of lost productivity was equal to the wage/salary rate and basing the calculations on smoking rate in the workforce, average days of absenteeism, average wage/salary rate, and increased risk and absenteeism among smokers obtained from earlier research, costs due to smoker absenteeism were estimated. Financial losses caused by passive smoking, smoking breaks, and occupational injuries were calculated. Using a conservative estimate of excess absenteeism from work, male smokers took off an average of 4.36 sick days and male non-smokers took off an average of 3.30 sick days. Female smokers took off an average of 4.96 sick days and non-smoking females took off an average of 3.75 sick days. Excess absenteeism caused by employee smoking was estimated to cost USD 178 million per annum for males and USD 6 million for females at a total cost of USD 184 million per annum. The time men and women spent taking smoking breaks amounted to nine days per year and six days per year, respectively, resulting in reduced output productivity losses of USD 733 million. Increased sick leave costs due to passive smoking were approximately USD 81 million. Potential costs incurred from occupational injuries among smoking employees were estimated to be USD 34 million. Financial costs caused by increased absenteeism and reduced productivity from employees who smoke are significant in Taiwan. Based on conservative estimates, total costs attributed to smoking in the workforce were approximately USD 1032 million.

  8. Determine Earthquake Rupture Directivity Using Taiwan TSMIP Strong Motion Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju; Gung, YuanCheng

    2013-04-01

    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters is important for studying the physics of earthquake rupture processes. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. We then use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution approach. The method for identifying the fault plane relies on the spatial patterns of the apparent source time function durations which depend on the angle between rupture direction and the take-off angle and azimuth of the ray. These derived duration patterns then are compared with the theoretical patterns, which are functions of the following parameters, including focal depth, epicentral distance, average crustal 1D velocity, fault plane attitude, and rupture direction on the fault plane. As a result, the ASTFs derived from EGFs can be used to infer the ruptured fault plane and the rupture direction. Finally we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake has occurred about a century ago. The preliminary results show a strike-slip earthquake on 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) has ruptured unilaterally toward SSW on a sub-vertical fault. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion waveforms recorded from other earthquakes to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  9. Causal factors of corporate crime in Taiwan: qualitative and quantitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Wei-Teh

    2002-04-01

    Street crimes are a primary concern of most criminologists in Taiwan. In recent years, however, crimes committed by corporations have increased greatly in this country. Employing the empirical approach to collect data about causal factors of corporate crime, the research presented in this article is the first systematic empirical study concerning corporate crime in Taiwan. The research sample was selected from a corporation with a criminal record of pollution caused by the release of toxic chemicals into the environment and a corporation with no criminal record. Questionnaire survey and interviews of corporate employees and managers were conducted, and secondary data were collected from official agencies. This research indicated the causal factors of corporate crime as follows: the failure of government regulation, lack of corporate self-regulation, lack of public concern about corporate crime, corporate mechanistic structure, and the low self-control tendency of corporate managers.

  10. GIS Adoption among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the adoption of geographic information system (GIS) knowledge and skills through in-service training for high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Through statistical analysis of primary data collected from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers, it explores what motivates these teachers to undertake GIS…

  11. Higher Education Research Community in Taiwan: An Emerging Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Chan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the evolution and characteristics of the higher education research community in Taiwan. In echoing the development of the East Asian region, Taiwan has made substantial progress during the past two decades. The massification of higher education itself has played a major role in promoting the academic differentiation or…

  12. Inclusive Higher Education for Students with Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was intended to present the current status of inclusive higher education for students with disabilities in Taiwan. Literature review, documentary analysis, and field observation were used to collect the needed information. The history for educating students with disabilities in higher education institutions in Taiwan has…

  13. Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized plant, Rivina humilis L., was found recently in the central part of Taiwan. This plant represents a new record of this genus and species for Taiwan. This Neotropical plant, native to the southern USA, Mexico, the Caribbean islands, and Central and South America, is described and illustrated in this report.

  14. Intercultural Training for US Business Expatriates in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tien-Chen; McLean, Gary N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the intercultural training needs for US business expatriates on assignment in Taiwan. The study assesses Taiwan culture-specific training needs of US expatriates from the perspectives of both US expatriates and their Taiwanese colleagues and compares the perceived importance of these intercultural training needs…

  15. Counseling Psychology Licensure in Taiwan: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…

  16. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  17. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation, the... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in subheading 7326.20...

  18. Social Context, Parental Exogamy and Hakka Language Retention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Jie-Sheng; Kuan, Ping-Yin; Lomeli, Arlett

    2016-01-01

    The Hakka people, the largest ethno-linguistic minority group in Taiwan, have found their ethnic language retention diminishing. Using the data collected by the Taiwan Education Panel Survey and Beyond in 2010, we are the first to study its reason for decrease. Results indicate that out-marriage amongst Hakka people and losing ethnic concentration…

  19. Teaching Benchmark Strategy for Fifth-Graders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lai, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    The key purpose of this study was how we taught the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction for fifth-graders in Taiwan. 26 fifth graders from a public elementary in south Taiwan were selected to join this study. Results of this case study showed that students had a much progress on the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction…

  20. Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood: Special Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…

  1. A Taiwan Study Abroad Program on Aging, Culture, and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a Taiwan Study Abroad program on aging, culture, and healthcare. The program is a short-term academic summer program (6 credits) to bring U.S. students to Taiwan. During 2011 ~ 2015, a total of four groups including over 54 students and faculty members participated. This program partnered with multiple universities,…

  2. Research on English Teaching and Learning: Taiwan (2004-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suchiao; Tsai, Yachin

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes research in second/foreign language teaching and learning conducted in Taiwan over the period 2004-2009. Representative articles published in local refereed journals and conference proceedings--not readily accessible outside Taiwan--are reviewed to reflect current trends in English teaching and learning. The main themes…

  3. The Buddha and the Computer: Career Guidance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Martin R.

    Career decision making in Taiwan was examined in the context of a society undergoing dynamic change as modern entrepreneurial values are accommodated in a cherished traditional culture. Especially during the past 20 years, the economy of Taiwan has changed from agriculture to technology. At the same time, the educational needs of students have…

  4. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a Newly Naturalized Herb in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Huai Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a newly naturalized fleshy herb in Taiwan, is reported here. The taxonomic description, line drawing, and photographs are provided. The population is colonized on Mt. Tatun, Yangmingshan National Park, north Taiwan. Since this species was reported being invasive, its impacts on the local ecosystem should be concerned.

  5. Transformation and Framework of Teacher Professional Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the situation of teacher professional development in Taiwan, including the history and the framework of teacher professional development. With diversification of teacher education systems and institutions, teacher professional development in Taiwan is undergoing a gradual governance shift from the model of centralised state…

  6. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  7. Dispersal of Airborne Pollen in Chatienshan Nature Reserve, Northern Taiwan, with Emphasis on Taiwan Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ku

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this first study on the pollen rain in natural forest in Taiwan using pollen traps, the dispersal patterns of airborne pollen were determined, with emphasis on Fagus hayatae and some major plant species, and the relationship between pollen assemblages and vegetation was elucidated. Seventeen pollen traps were installed on the western slope of Mt. Takai, northern Taiwan, from March 21 to May 10, 2008. Pollen and spores belonging to 37 families and 43 genera were identified. The results of correspondence analysis suggested differentiation of three vertical zones of pollen assemblages that corresponded to three vegetation types. Three patterns of occurrence were identified for the major pollen taxa, namely ubiquitous occurrence, local occurrence, and peak occurrence. The pollen influx of F. hayatae, a taxon characterized by local occurrence, was remarkably lower at a distance of over 200 m away from the pure stands. This suggests that pollen-mediated gene flow between the beech populations in Taiwan is unlikely. Besides providing basic data on the pollen dispersal of some important taxa in the middle altitudes of Taiwan, the present study also points out that caution should be taken in interpreting pollen percentage data from sediments.

  8. Notes on Zygomycetes of Taiwan (III: Two Blakeslea Species (Choanephoraceae New to Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Man Ho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Blakeslea (Choanephoraceae, Mucorales are reported as new records for Taiwan. They are Blakeslea monospora B. S. Mehrotra & Baijal and B. trispora Thaxter isolated from soil and fallen flowers. The morphological characters of both fungi are described.

  9. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng SL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,4 Ching-Hsiung Lin,5 Hao-Chien Wang,6 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Liang-Wen Hang,7,8 Chee-Jen Chang,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,* Chong-Jen Yu6,* On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 5Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 7Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Medicine Center, China Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung, 9Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 10Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors.Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition

  10. Perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Bair, Ming-Jong

    2010-09-01

    No studies focus on the population with perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan. The present study aimed to assess the differences between the different races and the risk factors related to mortality and morbidity in postoperative patients in southeastern Taiwan. The medical records of 237 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed: patient profiles, coexisting illnesses, diagnostic method, fever, preoperative shock, clinical data at emergency room, delay operation, site of perforation, operative method, positive ascites culture, species of microbes in ascites culture, postoperative complications, death and the length of hospital stay. Aborigines were significantly different from non-aborigines in the ratio of female cases and in the habits of alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing. There were also four significantly different variables between them: fever, hemoglobin value, site of perforation and operative method. Total postoperative complication rate was 41.3% and 39 patients (16.6%) died. In multivariate analysis, age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent predictors of mortality. Significant risk factors associated with morbidity were NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock. Aborigines were different from non-aborigines in several categories. In southeastern Taiwan, NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of morbidity, and age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of mortality in postoperative perforated peptic ulcer. Lipase > upper normal limit is needed for further research on the influence on mortality.

  11. Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 Infections in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yuan Chia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 was first described in USA in 1969 but retrospective studies in The Netherlands further detected EV71 in the clinical specimens collected in 1963. EV71 has one single serotype measured by using hyperimmune animal antisera but can be phylogenetically classified into three genogroups (A, B, and C including 11 genotypes (A, B1–B5, C1–C5. In Taiwan, EV71 caused a large-scale nationwide epidemic in 1998. Retrospective studies further detected EV71 in clinical specimens collected from hand–foot–mouth disease patients in 1980 and 1986. Therefore, EV71 may have circulated in Taiwan prior to 1980. Since 1998, EV71 has cyclically caused nationwide epidemics with different predominant genotypes in 1998 (genotype C2, 2000–2001 (B4, 2005 (C4, 2008 (B5, and 2012 (B5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that C4 viruses isolated in 2005 were probably from China, B5 viruses isolated in 2008 were probably from South Eastern Asia, and B5 viruses isolated in 2012 were probably from Xiamen, China. Several studies have collected postinfection sera from children to measure cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against different EV71 genotypes and found that antigenic differences between genogroup B and C viruses did not have a clear pattern but that genotype A virus was antigenically different from genogroup B and C viruses. In conclusion, EV71 cyclically caused nationwide epidemics through international importations. EV71 surveillance in Taiwan should combine genetic and serological methods.

  12. Regulatory System of Radiation Protection in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F. T.; Huang, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    After the radioactive contaminated buildings incident occurred in Taiwan in 1993, the competent authority for radiation protection the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) started to review the structured problem of radiation protection regulatory system. Through several years' investigation and study, the AEC has improved two important tools in radiation protection regulatory system, i.e., control regulations and actual practice, and made them more rigorous and efficient. This paper will make a brief introduction of the efforts that Taiwan has made in this respect. Taiwan's radiation protection control was based on the Atomic Energy Law promulgated in 1968, but the control idea and authorization scope were not sufficient to appropriately respond to the highly developed economy and democracy in Taiwan. After several years' legislative process, the Ionizing Radiation Protection Law (IRP Law) was promulgated and entered into force on February 1, 2003. This IRP Law specifically emphasizes categorized risk management of radiation sources, establishment of personnel licenses and training system, enhancement of public safety control, and implementation of quality assurance program for medical exposure. The Legislative Yuan (Congress) fully authorized the competent authority to establish various technological control regulations according to control necessity without prior review by the Legislative Yuan in advance. As to the penalties of the violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts high-rated administrative fines and applies the Criminal Law to those who seriously contaminate the environment. In actual practice, the AEC has constructed a Radiation Protection Control Information System compatible with the IRP Law that fully combines the functions of computers and Internet. The information of facility operators who own radiation sources, radiation protection specialists, and operating personnel are entered into this system, starting from the submission of application of the

  13. Rebuilding Public Trust in the Taiwan Military: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Coombs points out that the crisis communication strategy is chosen by the defender only after the crisis evaluation has been done, at which point...any crisis and how it can restore its image become an important task for public relations and communications . 1. Definition of a Crisis According...to Coombs , a crisis could be a turning point that will make things either better or worse. A crisis is an event that includes how negative information

  14. The market-incentive recycling system for waste packaging containers in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor Yunchang, Jeffrey; Chien, Y.-L.; Hsu, Esher

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new market-incentive (MI) system to recycle waste-packaging containers in Taiwan. Since most used packaging containers have no or insufficient market value, the government imposes a combined product charge and subsidy policy to provide enough economic incentive for recycling various kinds of packaging containers, such as iron, aluminum, paper, glass and plastic. Empirical results show that the new MI approach has stimulated and established the recycling market for waste-packaging containers. The new recycling system has provided 18,356 employment opportunities and generated NT$ 6.97 billion in real-production value and NT$ 3.18 billion in real GDP during the 1998 survey year. Cost-effectiveness analysis constitutes the theoretical foundation of the new scheme, whereas data used to compute empirical product charge are from two sources: marketing surveys of internal conventional costs of solid-waste collection, disposal and recycling in Taiwan, and benefit transfer of external environmental costs in the United States. The new recycling policy designed by the authors provides a reasonable solution for solid-waste management in a country with limited land resources such as Taiwan

  15. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  16. The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Jui

    In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.

  17. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. PMID:21139851

  18. Adaptation Strategies of Soil and Water Conservation in Taiwan for Extreme Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Ting-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Due to global climate change, the impact caused by extreme climate has become more and more compelling. In Taiwan, the total rainfall stays in the same level, but it brings along changes to rain types. The rainfall with high recurrence interval happens frequently, leading to soil loss of slope-land, and it may further result in flooding and sediment hazards. Although Taiwan is a small island, the population density is ranked at the second highest around the world. Moreover, third-fourth of Taiwan is slope-land, so the soil and water conservation is rather important. This study is based on the international trend analysis approach to review the related researches worldwide and 264 research projects in Taiwan. It indicates that under the pressure of extreme climate and social economic changes, it has higher possibility of slope-land to face the impacts from extreme rainfall events, and meanwhile, the carrying capacity of slope-land is decreasing. The experts' brainstorming meetings were held three times, and it concluded the current problems of soil and water conservation and the goal in 2025 for sustainable resources. Also, the 20-year weather data set was adopted to screen out 3 key watersheds with the potential of flooding (Puzih River Watershed), droughts (Xindian River Watershed), and sediment hazards (Chishan River Watershed) according to the moisture index, and further, to propose countermeasures in order to realize the goal in 2025, which is "regarding to climate and socioeconomic changes, it is based on multiple use to manage watershed resources for avoiding disasters and sustaining soil and water conservation." Keyword: Extreme climate, International trend analysis, Brainstorming, Key watershed

  19. LEARNING AND TEACHING RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN CHINA AND TAIWAN: PAST AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Z. Tenchurina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main study results on the analysis of processes of establishing and development of Russian language studies and Russian language training practices in mainland China and Taiwan since the early XVIII century until now. Basing on the postulates of the social-and-cultural, systemic and historical, historiographical and axiological approaches, the authors attempt to describe the development of the theory and practice of teaching and studying Russian as a foreign language (RFL with a view to form a complete picture of the past and present of the Russian language in China and Taiwan, to evaluate the role and importance of the Russian language, primarily, in the socialand-cultural, as well as in the social-and-political and even economic aspects, not only from historic perspectives but also in terms of the future development – basing on evolving cooperation between Russia, on the one hand, and China and Taiwan – on the other. Methods. The main applied research methods are the comparative-historical and historical-and-logical analysis, historical reconstruction methods, systematization, theoretical generalizations and, partly, prediction. Scientific novelty. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time in the broader period (1700–2000 s it offers a generalized description of the establishment and development of Russian studies and practice of teaching the Russian language in China and Taiwan. Practical significance. The implementation of the research outcomes can be useful due to a possibility of carrying on its basis of new studies on the problems of Russian philology and teaching Russian as a foreign language, the history of pedagogy and education, and comparative pedagogy (comparative linguistics.

  20. Achieving organizational change: findings from a case study of health promoting hospitals in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiachi Bonnie; Chen, Michael S; Powell, Michael; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk

    2014-06-01

    The Taiwanese Network of Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) has been in place since 2006 and developing rapidly. The criticism of inadequate evaluation of the HPH approach taken elsewhere also holds true for the Taiwan HPH Network. Organizational change is a key to sustainable and effective health promotion, and it is also an important aspect in the European HPH movement. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate changes in organizational capacity for the implementation of HPH in Taiwan. All 55 HPH coordinators were invited to participate in the study, and 52 of them completed the questionnaires. The survey covered seven dimensions of HPH organizational capacity, and a total score of each dimension was calculated and converted to a figure on a scale of 10. This study has shown that HPH made a positive impact on HP hospitals in Taiwan regarding organizational change in capacity building for HPH. Leadership, organization culture and mission and strategy received the top three highest mean scores (8.19 ± 1.25, 8.08 ± 1.39, 7.99 ± 1.42), while staff participation received the lowest score (7.62 ± 1.26). The high level of organizational change was associated with the high satisfaction levels of organizational support from the viewpoint of the HPH coordinators. Based on a cluster analysis, a majority of the HP hospitals in Taiwan seemed to have adopted the addition model in putting the HPH initiative into practice; a few hospitals appeared to have accepted HPH initiative well through the integration model. These results presented evidence that HPH contributed to organizational capacity building of hospitals for health promotion.

  1. "Foreign brides" meet ethnic politics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2011-01-01

    A great number of women from China, Vietnam, and Indonesia recently arrived in Taiwan to marry men of lower social strata. Such an unusual pattern of migration has stimulated debates about the status and the citizenship of the new arrivals. This study analyzes Taiwanese responses toward these marriage migrants by using a national survey conducted in 2004. Three aspects of restrictive attitudes were tapped concerning these newcomers: (1) rights to work; (2) access to public health insurance; and (3) full citizenship. Immigrants from China were most opposed, compared to women with other origins (Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe, and the US). The seemingly unrelated regression estimation regression results do not support the split labor market hypotheses, as marriage migrants do not appear to be economic threats toward members of the lower classes. In contrast, ethnic nationalism plays a key role in determining the natives’ restrictive attitudes. The case of Taiwan represents a special genre, where ethnic politics selectively arouses the social rejection of women immigrants of certain origins.

  2. Fetal exposure to environmental neurotoxins in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Fan, Chun-Hua; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As) in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively) were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively). Maternal age (≥30 y), maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (≥3 meals/wk) were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted.

  3. Fetal exposure to environmental neurotoxins in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Bin Jiang

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and arsenic (As are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively. Maternal age (≥30 y, maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (≥3 meals/wk were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted.

  4. Groundwater Molybdenum from Emerging Industries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of emerging industries development on molybdenum (Mo) groundwater contamination. A total of 537 groundwater samples were collected for Mo determination, including 295 samples from potentially contaminated areas of 3 industrial parks in Taiwan and 242 samples from non-potentially contaminated areas during 2008-2014. Most of the high Mo samples are located downstream from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel factory. Mean groundwater Mo concentrations from potentially contaminated areas (0.0058 mg/L) were significantly higher (p industry and following wastewater batch treatment were 0.788 and 0.0326 mg/L, respectively. This indicates that wastewater containing Mo is a possible source of both groundwater and surface water contamination. Nine samples of groundwater exceed the World Health Organization's suggested drinking water guideline of 0.07 mg/L. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment for Mo in adults and children using the Mo concentration of 0.07 mg/L yielded risks of 0.546 and 0.215, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the development of a national drinking water quality standard for Mo in Taiwan to ensure safe groundwater for use. According to the human health risk calculation, the groundwater Mo standard is suggested as 0.07 mg/L. Reduction the discharge of Mo-contaminated wastewater from factories in the industrial parks is also the important task in the future.

  5. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  6. Reasoning the causality of city sprawl, traffic congestion, and green land disappearance in Taiwan using the CLD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Chang, Kaowen

    2014-11-06

    Many city governments choose to supply more developable land and transportation infrastructure with the hope of attracting people and businesses to their cities. However, like those in Taiwan, major cities worldwide suffer from traffic congestion. This study applies the system thinking logic of the causal loops diagram (CLD) model in the System Dynamics (SD) approach to analyze the issue of traffic congestion and other issues related to roads and land development in Taiwan's cities. Comparing the characteristics of development trends with yearbook data for 2002 to 2013 for all of Taiwan's cities, this study explores the developing phenomenon of unlimited city sprawl and identifies the cause and effect relationships in the characteristics of development trends in traffic congestion, high-density population aggregation in cities, land development, and green land disappearance resulting from city sprawl. This study provides conclusions for Taiwan's cities' sustainability and development (S&D). When developing S&D policies, during decision making processes concerning city planning and land use management, governments should think with a holistic view of carrying capacity with the assistance of system thinking to clarify the prejudices in favor of the unlimited developing phenomena resulting from city sprawl.

  7. A pilot experiment with reactor neutrinos in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Henry T.; Li Jin

    1999-01-01

    A Collaboration comprising scientists from Taiwan, mainland China and the United States has been built up since 1996 to pursue an experimental program in neutrino and astro-particle physics in Taiwan. A pilot experiment to be performed at the Nuclear Power Station II in Taiwan is now under intense preparation. It will make use of a 500 kg CsI(Tl) crystal calorimeter to study various neutrino interactions. Various possible future directions will also be explored. The conceptual design and the physics to be addressed by the pilot experiment are discussed

  8. The key for competitive nuclear power, a view from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    2000-01-01

    The article mainly deals with the current situation of nuclear power generation in Taiwan. The development of nuclear power has been long and punctilious, whereas the contribution to meet the power demand in the lean resource country is prodigious. This article delineate the structure of power generation costs with coal, petroleum oil, and nuclear reactors in Taiwan in the recent 20 years, which highlights the superiority of nuclear application. However, as we see it from Taiwan, the nuclear power could have been better if we can simplify the design and regulation of the reactor. (author)

  9. [Japanese who affected modern medicine in Taiwan: obstetrics and gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Tung

    2009-12-01

    This text describes the leaders who established the modem obstetrics and gynecology for Taiwan. during the Japan-colonizing period (1895-1945). These leaders are Mr. Kawasoye, M., Mr. Mukae K., and Mr. Magara M. The lives of these leaders were different, but they all strongly contributed to the development of modem obstetrics and gynecology in Taiwan. With regard to the passage of time, Mr. Kawasoye contributed the initial efforts, Mr. Mukae worked during the flourishing period of the clinic; and Mr. Magara worked during the mature period, emphasizing research. These three periods are closely correlated with the course of the development of modem obstetrics and gynecology in Taiwan.

  10. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    an impasse over the program start -up costs estimated by the U.S. Navy at $333 million, but offered at $28.5 million by Taiwan . On May 20-23, 2003...Also, after starting in 2003 as the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for International Affairs, Bruce Lemkin traveled twice to Taiwan by 2009...he promptly resumed a dialogue with the PRC on June 12-13, resulting in expanded charter flights and tourism across the Taiwan Strait in July

  11. Records of new and rare elasmobranchs from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hua Hsun; Joung, Shoou Jeng; Ebert, David A; Lin, Chia Yen

    2013-01-01

    Five new records of elasmobranchs collected from eastern Taiwan fish markets, Da-xi and Cheng-gong, are presented. Samples were caught by deepsea longliners and bottom trawlers which operate in northeastern waters off Taiwan between 2004 and 2012. These five new species records include the smalltooth sandtiger, Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), salamander shark, Parmaturus pilosus Garman, 1906 (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae), leadhued skate Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940) (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae), giant skate Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), and the pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), Diagnostic characteristics for each species are given and a key to the genera Parmaturus and Dipturus from Taiwan is presented.

  12. Geranium pusillum L. (Geraniaceae: A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiung Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Geranium pusillum L., an annual or biennial herb mainly native to Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, has recently become naturalized in mountain regions of central Taiwan at about 1,800-2,300 m in elevation. This species is very similar to G. molle, which was also recently found to have become naturalized in Taiwan; however, the former has smaller flowers and scabrous fruits. In the present work, we provide a taxonomic description, an illustration, photographs, and scanning electron micrographs to facilitate identification. Furthermore, a key to the taxa of the genus Geranium in Taiwan is also provided.

  13. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-03-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  14. From waste minimization to ISO 14000: Taiwan`s experience and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Huei Chen; Wain-Sun Hou [China Technical Consultants, Inc., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-31

    Taiwan has completed a very successful five-year industrial waste minimization (IWM) demonstration and promotion project sponsored by the government. From 1990 to 1995, the project successfully disseminated the IWM concept of pollution prevention (P2) to industries. It effectively reduced industrial waste while significantly benefitting the economy by assisting industries in implementing in-plant IWM programs. In July 1995, the second stage of the five-year IWM and ISO 14000 promotion project was initiated for further promoting the IWM, P2, and cleaner production and, in particular, coping with the upcoming international environmental management standards (ISO 14000). To assist industries in establishing an environmental management system (EMS) and accumulating related experience, an EMS pilot demonstration project of five model industries and an ISO 14001 EMS demonstration and promotion project for 22 factories in 13 industries were initiated in October 1995 and August 1996, respectively. These projects can assist Taiwan`s industries in changing the constitution of their enterprises, enhancing competition in the international market, and helping our nation achieve the forerunner`s profits in sustainable development. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Leadership styles and nursing faculty job satisfaction in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Chin; Beck, Susan L; Amos, Linda K

    2005-01-01

    To examine nursing faculty job satisfaction and their perceptions of nursing deans' and directors' leadership styles, and to explore how the perceptions of leadership styles relate to faculty job satisfaction in Taiwan. Descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. The sample was recruited from 18 nursing programs, and 286 questionnaires were returned. Faculty perceived that Taiwan's nursing deans and directors showed more transformational than transactional leadership. Taiwan's nursing faculty were moderately satisfied in their jobs, and they were more satisfied with deans or directors who practiced the transactional leadership style of contingent reward and the transformational style of individualized consideration. A style with negative effect was passive management by exception. Three types of leadership behaviors explained significant variance (21.2%) in faculty job satisfaction in Taiwan, indicating the need for further attention to training and development for effective leadership behaviors.

  16. Discrepancy of Cytogenetic Analysis in Western and Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Chang

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrated regional differences in second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping results and established a database of common chromosomal anomalies that could be useful for genetic counseling, especially in eastern Taiwan.

  17. U.S.-China Relations after Resolution of Taiwan's Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cliff, Roger; Shlapak, David A

    2007-01-01

    Although it appears unlikely that the question of Taiwan's status and ultimate relationship to China will be resolved any time soon, it is instructive to speculate about how its resolution might affect U.S.- China relations...

  18. Recent Development of Education for Gifted Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Den-Mo

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical development of special education for gifted students in Taiwan; provides an overview of three chronological stages in the development of programming; describes educational opportunities and problems; and proposes recommendations for program development. (JDD)

  19. Experience and Strategy of Biodiversity Data Integration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Shao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Taiwan's biodiversity databases started in 2001, the same year that Taiwan joined GBIF as an associate participant. Taiwan, hence, embarked on a decade of integrating biodiversity data. Under the support of NSC and COA, the database and websites of TaiBIF, TaiBNET (TaiCOL, TaiBOL, and TaiEOL have been established separately and collaborate with the GBIF, COL, BOL, and EOL respectively. A cross-agency committee was thus established in Academia Sinica in 2008 to formulate policies on data collection and integration as well as the mechanism to make data available to the public. Any commissioned project will hereafter be asked to include these policy requirements in its contract. So far, TaiBIF has gained recognition in Taiwan and abroad for its efforts over the past several years. It can provide its experience and insights for others to reference or replicate.

  20. Taiwan-China: The Gordian Knot Stays Tied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Istenič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Separated historical, geographical, economic, political, and social processes on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait have formed two entirely different political, economic and cultural entities. However, up to now, the governments in Beijing and Taipei have not yet found a common language regarding the questions related to Taiwan’s sovereignty. Whereas for the government in Beijing, Taiwan is an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China, the government of the Republic of China who has actually been ruling Taiwan for almost 70 years, regards it as a sovereign, independent country. How to find a manageable political consensus that would please both parties remains a key question. The present article will outline the recent dynamics and illuminate the obstacles on the road toward long-term peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait.

  1. Wintertime sea surface temperature fronts in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi; Shimada, Teruhisa; Lee, Ming-An; Lu, Hsueh-Jung; Sakaida, Futoki; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    We present wintertime variations and distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in the Taiwan Strait by applying an entropy-based edge detection method to 10-year (1996-2005) satellite SST images with grid size of 0.01°. From climatological monthly mean maps of SST gradient magnitude in winter, we identify four significant SST fronts in the Taiwan Strait. The Mainland China Coastal Front is a long frontal band along the 50-m isobath near the Chinese coast. The sharp Peng-Chang Front appears along the Peng-Hu Channel and extends northward around the Chang-Yuen Ridge. The Taiwan Bank Front evolves in early winter. As the winter progresses, the front becomes broad and moves toward the Chinese coast, connecting to the Mainland China Coastal Front. The Kuroshio Front extends northeastward from the northeastern tip of Taiwan with a semicircle-shape curving along the 100-m isobath.

  2. Taiwan links up to world's first LHC computing grid project

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Taiwan's Academia Sinica was linked up to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Computing Grid Project last week to work jointly with 12 other countries to construct the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator" (1/2 page).

  3. Maximum mouth opening of ethnic Chinese in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ta Yao

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that both sex and age have significant influences on the MMO value of ethnic Chinese in Taiwan, and age is a significant predictor of MMO measurements.

  4. Infrastructure of Taiwan photon source control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.T.; Kuo, C.H.; Cheng, Y.S.; Jenny Chen; Hsu, S.Y.; Wu, C.Y.; Hu, K.H.; Hsu, K.T.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable, flexible and secure network is essential for the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) control system which is based upon the EPICS tool-kit framework. Subsystem sub-nets will connect to control system via EPICS based CA gateways for forwarding data and reducing network traffic. Combining cyber security technologies such as fire-wall, NAT and VLAN, control network is isolated to protect IOCs and accelerator components. Network management tools are used to improve network performance. Remote access mechanism will be constructed for maintenance and troubleshooting. The Ethernet is also used as field-bus for instruments such as power supplies. This paper will describe the system architecture for the TPS control network. Cabling topology, redundancy and maintainability are also discussed. (authors)

  5. Challenges of pediatric residency training in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan; Harasym, Peter H

    2006-01-01

    A crisis in pediatric residency training today has raised serious concerns about the healthcare quality for children in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to document the problems and to propose possible solutions for improvement. The problems include: 1) manpower shortage due to the difficulty of recruiting pediatric residents; 2) heavy workload that hinders learning; 3) lack of assessment and poor program planning; and 4) inadequate institutional and financial support. As a result, physicians' competencies are not guaranteed at the end of residency training, even with the pediatric board certification. Possible solutions may include: 1) conducting research on physician manpower statistics, work hours and environment; 2) establishing a Residency Program Review Committee and provision of standards for accreditation; 3) defining the competencies mandated as a general pediatrician and developing a set of measurable qualitative standards; 4) encouraging new programs with flexibility (e.g., primary care); and 5) pursuing adequate institutional and financial supports.

  6. Public participation in environmental issues in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    It is natural in a democratic society that people request more participation in the decision making process. The once centralized government was however reluctant to open more room in this regard concerning the nuclear power industry and radioactive waste management. The environmental impact assessment provided the statuary ground, although limited, for public participation in the environmental issues. A comprehensive social communication program which consists of public information, public education, public relation, and public participation must be established to ensure the smooth realization of a development project. This paper described the relevant situations in Taiwan and recommended various practices to alleviate the NIMBY syndrome. These descriptions and recommendations would be useful particularly for the third world countries facing emerging environmental issues in the near future

  7. Consumer choice of pork chops in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M T; Guo, H L; Tseng, T F; Roan, S W; Ngapo, T M

    2010-07-01

    Digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in appearance were presented to 716 Taiwanese consumers in a study that aimed to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork which determine consumer choice in Taiwan. Relationships between consumer segmentation in choice and socio-demographic and cultural differences were also investigated. Colour and fat cover were the most frequently chosen of the four characteristics studied. Dark red colour was preferred by 64% of consumers and lean fat cover by 44%. Marbling and drip were less important in the decision making process being used by less than a half of consumers. The four preference-based clusters of consumers showed no correlation with socio-demographic-based consumer clusters, but did show significant links with possession of a refrigerator, age at which schooling was completed, liking pork for its price and gender of consumer. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan vascular flora is exceptionally interesting not only because it is rich and diversified, but because it is of great phytogeographic significance owing to its geographic location. The flora of Taiwan, including naturalized plants, comprises 233 families and 1389 genera with 4216 species. In terms of major growth forms, there are 588 trees, 426 shrubs, 249 lianas, 177 vines, and 2776 herbs or ferns. Approximately 234 species are exotics typically associated with pastures, road clearings and other human disturbances. An extremely large percentage of these naturalized plants are of tropical New World origin. Among the native flora, the Orchidaceae (331 species, Gramineae (249, Compositae (194, Leguminosae (176, Cyperaceae (174, Rosaceae (105, Rubiaceae (93 and Euphorbiaceae (76 rank highest in numbers of species. Clearly, the greatest part of Taiwan's floristics richness comes from a wealth of species in primarily lowland (0–600 m asl. taxa. A total of 2571 species were recorded in the lowlands, whereas only about 251 species occur between 3100-3950 m. Endemic genera are extremely scarce in Taiwan, with only four, namely Sinopanax (Araliaceae, Hayatella (Rubiaceae, Kudoacanthus (Acanthaceae, and Haraella (Orchidaceae. In contrast to the low percentage of generic endemism, there is a remarkably higher specific endemism. About 1041 species (26.1% of indigenous plants are known only from Taiwan. A detailed examination of these species shows that there is a distinct trend of increasing endemism with increasing altitude (r² = 0.99. A survey of indigenous non-endemic species on the basis of their geographical distribution outside Taiwan shows that they can be classified into 6 major categories: 1. pantropical and palaeotropical species (1029 species; 2. species distributed in eastern Asia, from Himalayas through southern & eastern China to Taiwan, with some extending to the Ryukyus and Japan (1075 species; 3. widespread species extending

  9. Promotion strategies for renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Chi-Chuan, Wang; Chang, Yi-Lin

    2008-01-01

    To promote the development and application of renewable energy, under the planning and execution of Bureau of Energy of Ministry of Economical Affairs (BOEMOEA), Taiwan has implemented many measures for subsidizing the installation of RE apparatus since 2000. Besides subsidizing the installing expenses, Taiwanese government also provides incentive measures of finance/tax, such as investment deduction and accelerating depreciation. The successive growth of the amount of installing cases has apparently constructed the base of promotion and application of renewable energy; on the other hand, many barriers to be overcome were continuously discovered during the executing processes. To effectively remove these promoting barriers, the Energy Commission (the pre-BOE) issued 'Renewable Energy Development Plan' through the endorsement of Executive Yuan in January 2002. The purpose of this plan is to establish an inter-ministerial coordinating mechanism of a higher administrative level, which may focus all resources to be functioned as a working team. In the meantime, to further establish a systematically promoting mechanism, the Bureau of Energy then pushes the legislation of 'Renewable Energy Development Bill'. According to the drafted plan of this law, the power capacity of renewable energies will be 12% share of the national power installation capacity by 2020. Furthermore, in the Nuclear-free Homeland National Conference held in June 2003, government planned that the power capacity of renewable energy must reach 10% of the total power capacity in the nation by 2010. However, the share of the power capacity of renewable energy to the national power installation capacity is only 6.17%, currently, so there is still a lot of growing space for the development of renewable energy in Taiwan. (author)

  10. Cambial variations of Piper (Piperaceae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Chen, Po-Hao

    2017-12-01

    Cambial variations in lianas of Piperaceae in Taiwan have not been studied previously. The stem anatomy of seven Piper species from Taiwan was examined to document cambial variations and better distinguish the species when leaves are absent. A key for the seven species is provided, based on the internal stem anatomy. The seven Piper species climb via adventitious roots, and in cross section, the stems were generally eccentric and oblate, although a transversely elliptic stem was found in P. kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and P. sintenense Hatus. A cambial variant with secondary growth of external primary vascular bundles and xylem in plates was observed in all species except Piper betle L., which developed another cambium variant with xylem furrowed deeply by parenchyma proliferation. The sclerenchymatous ring surrounding the medullary vascular bundles was always continuous except in P. betle, where it was discontinuous. Mucilage canals varied from absent to present in the center of the pith, or present in the pith and inner cortex. Different sizes of vessels dispersed throughout the stem were ring or diffuse porous. The numbers of medullary and peripheral vascular bundles were distinctive and the widths of rays were noticeably different in each species. Differences in the growth rate of the medullary vascular bundles produced two development types of vascular bundles, although in both types, the peripheral vascular bundles gradually lengthen and become separated from each other by wide rays. We documented the internal stem anatomy of six previously unstudied species of Piper, including three endemic species, P. kwashoense Hayata, P. sintenense, and P. taiwanense Lin and Lu, and found that P. betle had deeply furrowed xylem, which had not been reported for the species before. The descriptions and photographs of seven Piper species will also provide a basis for further morphological studies.

  11. Workplace bullying among Nurses in South Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Huang, Su-Hui; Fang, Shu-Hui

    2016-09-01

    This study was to investigate bullying among hospital nurses and its correlates. Chinese people were unlikely to express their opinions or pursue individual rights. Workplace bullying took place more easily among the educated people within Chinese culture. However, studies related to workplace bullying among hospital nurses in Taiwan were still limited. A cross-sectional design. Two hundred and eighty-five nurses who worked in the regional teaching hospital in south Taiwan were recruited. The significant predictors of workplace bullying were identified by using linear regression analysis. The mean of overall bullying was 1·47, showing that the frequency of the nurses having experienced workplace bullying was between 'never' and 'now and then'. The most frequent bullying item was 'being yelled at or being the target of anger', followed by 'being the objects of untruthful criticism' and 'having views ignored'. Hospital nurses working in the Emergency room would gain 10·888 points more in the overall bullying scale compared with those who worked in operation rooms or haemodialysis rooms. They were more likely to be bullied. Hospital nurses with one year increase in nursing experience were 0·207 points less likely to be bullied. Reducing workplace bullying among hospital nurses was an essential method to provide quality assurance to health care. Nurse managers should build up zero tolerance policy to decrease nurses' exposure to workplace bullying. Training programmes related to bullying prevention are suggested to avoid workplace bullying. The contents of the educational training programmes or workshops should incorporate the characteristics and consequences of the workplace bullying, and the strategies to deal with bullying. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cyber Conflict Between Taiwan and China; Strategic Insights, Spring 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yao-chung

    2011-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, Spring 2011 The Republic of China (Taiwan hereafter) and the People’s Republic of China (China hereafter) are two particularly attractive targets for internet hackers. Reports have found that, compared to other countries in the Asia and Pacific regions, China and Taiwan rank as the top two countries in terms of malicious computer activity. Reports have also shown that most hacking into Taiwanese computer systems is initiated from wit...

  13. Remarks on the Species of Gomphrena (Amaranthaceae of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gomphrena serrata, an Amaranthaceous species of tropical origin, was recently found naturalized in disturbed sites of Taiwan. This species has been confused with G. celosioides, widespread on this island. The present study gives a key and useful characters to differentiate the present species from the latter. A taxonomic treatment of the two species in Taiwan, line drawings and other relevant information are provided.

  14. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-I Hsiao; Man-Ser Jan; Hui-Ju Chi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 201...

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Taiwan is an island of 36,000 sq km located 160 km east of mainland China. Geologically, the oldest rocks are Tertiary, and the only igneous rocks on the island are Quaternary andesites and basalts. Copper, gold, and silver are the only known metallic minerals produced. Uranium occurrences and exploration efforts are unknown. The potential uranium resource of Taiwan is considered a category 1 resource. (author)

  16. Establishment of Vespa bicolor in Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, I-Hsin; Lu, Sheng-Shan; Chao, Jung-Tai; Yeh, Wen-Chi; Lee, Wei-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The establishment of a hornet, Vespa bicolor F., in Taiwan was confirmed based on successful field collection of adults of both sexes and two subterranean colonies. Information on nesting habitat, nest measurement, and colony composition of this species are provided in this article. V. bicolor is the ninth hornet species ever recorded from Taiwan. Possible pathway for the introduction of this alien species is also discussed. PMID:25434034

  17. Reconstruction of the coastal morphodynamics of the Fulong-beach dune field in north-eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörschner, Nina; Böse, Margot; Frechen, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The Fulong-beach dune field is located at the north-eastern coast of Taiwan. Built up of medium and fine grained quartz rich sand, it represents a unique feature of only few kilometres along the east coast of Taiwan. This unique sedimentological regime makes the area most perfectly suitable for age estimations by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The dune field is crossed by the Shuangsi-river, which flows into the Pacific Ocean. The coastal area is subjected to very dynamic conditions in the transition zone between land and sea. Due to the constant force of marine and aeolian processes from tides, weather and sediment accumulation by rivers, it is a continuously changing area. Taiwan is located in a very active tectonic zone with high elevation rates, which reach from 4 mm per year at the east coast up to 7 mm per year in the southern parts of the island. Furthermore Taiwan is affected by medial 3.8 typhoons per year and minor earthquakes nearly occur every day (LIN ET AL. 2006). The consequences are high rates of erosion and sediment transport during very short time periods. The Fulong-beach coastal area is densely populated and proud for being a tourism destination. At the northern end of the dune field the Lungmen nuclear power plant is currently under construction. Four separate dune ridges could be identified from a digital elevation model and from field mapping. During the field campaign in October and November 2009 17 samples were taken for OSL-dating (MURRAY ET AL. 1995) out of the four dune ridges as well as out of a more than 30 m high elevated outcrop cut by the Shuangsi-river. The measurement and the evaluation of the OSL-samples will provide us an insight into the duration and intensity of the processes affecting the coastal area of Taiwan during the Holocene. We will give an outline during the poster presentation of the methodical approach and the morphodynamical processes affecting the Fulong-beach dune field in north-eastern Taiwan

  18. An investigation of snakebite antivenom usage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chuan; Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Tseng, Chiung-Yao

    2016-08-01

    Four types of antivenom are used to treat snakebites by the six species of venomous snakes native to Taiwan. Research into antivenom use in Taiwan and its outcomes, as well as the utility of current Taiwan Poison Control Center guidelines for antivenom use, has been limited. We aimed to provide increased understanding by investigating the treatment and outcomes of patients treated for snakebite in Taiwan. On the basis of data collected from the 2009 Taiwan National Health Insurance database, patients with snakebites were identified and categorized into two sets of groups according to types of antivenom administered. The relationships between antivenom types, dosage and the variables of antibiotic use, surgical intervention, acute respiratory failure acute, renal failure, antivenom-related allergic reaction, mortality, need for hospital admission, and length of hospitalization were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The majority of patients were successfully treated by administration of 1 vial of antivenom and discharged without complications. However, patients treated for neurotoxic-type venom snakebite required administration of larger doses of antivenom and > 30% required surgical intervention, particularly those treated for Chinese cobra snakebite. Approximately 10% of patients were administered two types of antivenom. The results partially support Taiwan Poison Control Center guidelines for treating the hemorrhagic-type venom snakebite. However, deficit in the guidelines for treatment of neurotoxic-type venom snakebite is obvious and new guidelines for treatment of neurotoxic-type venom snakebite and diagnosis should be developed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Glocalization: the outlook for Taiwan evidence based health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiehfeng

    2014-12-01

    Public attention to evidence-based health care (EBHC) has increased significantly in recent years. Key problems related to applying EBHC in current healthcare practice include the timely update of up-to-date knowledge and skills and the methodology used to implement EBHC in clinical settings. EBHC has been introduced to the Taiwan healthcare system for the past two decades. The annual EBM (Evidence based medicine) National Competition is a unique and important EBHC activity in Taiwan. EBHC has been promoted widely in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health and other professions, and EBHC-related organizations such as the Taiwan Evidence Based Medicine Association (TEBMA), and Taiwan Evidence Based Nursing Association (TEBNA), have increased in number and grown in membership. In addition to domestic developments, Taiwan is also actively involved in global organizations, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, East Asian Cochrane Alliance (EACA), and the International Society for Evidence Based Health Care (ISEHC). In Taiwan, most medical professionals work cooperatively to promote EBHC, which facilitates the gradual improvement of healthcare quality.

  20. Problem-based learning in pharmacology:a survey of department heads in Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-tung LAU

    2004-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) requires active student participation and the use of clinical cases as a trigger to learn within a given area. It has gained much attention as a pedagogic alternative in the course of reform in medica education due to information overload. From discipline-based consideration, it is interesting to understand the views of department heads of pharmacology about implementing PBL for their medical students. According to a general survey from the heads of the department of pharmacology across medical schools in Taiwan, we found that although serious reservation about the approach remains, many departments indeed look forward to including PBL component in their pharmacology curriculum.

  1. Langage corporel et interculturalité. Une étude de cas à Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Dreyer

    2013-11-01

    Body language is often neglected in theory and practice in the field of teaching French as a foreign language. This happens in spite of its importance in the many aspects of miscommunication between people of different cultures. This article deals with an original approach of body language by using various stage arts in the class of French. Exercises of clown, mime, catwalking and taiji quan (a Chinese martial art are used to train students from Taiwan in the practice of oral discourse while focusing on body language.

  2. Luxury fashion brands: factors influencing young female consumers’ luxury fashion purchasing in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Meng-Shan Sharon; Chaney, Isabella; Chen, Cheng-Hao Steven; Nguyen, Bang; Melewar, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - Against the background of increasing consumption of luxury fashion brands by young female consumers in Asian countries, this paper offers insights into the consumption motives and purchasing behaviour of that market segment in Taiwan.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - Analysis of data collected using face-to-face semi-structured interviews with twenty-three 18-32 year-old fashion-conscious females was completed and new empirical insights are offered.\\ud \\ud Findings - The study f...

  3. The Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy and Bank Credits in Taiwan Banking Industry - A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Chuan Chang; Ching-Chuan Tsong; Chieh-Tsung Wu

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether distributional effect arising from the impact of monetary policy on bank credits will be different when monetary policy is asymmetric. Methodologically, we use a set of high frequency panel data for Taiwan commercial banks and adopt Arellano and Bond's (1991) generalized method of moments approach to conduct our empirical analysis. First of all, we investigate whether there exist the distributional effects of monetary policy on bank lending behavior which is as...

  4. The influence of employees’ parents on work-family balance in Taiwan: implications for organisational behaviour and wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Work-family research in Chinese societies often directly adopts the Western work-family model and rarely attempts to consider cultural differences in the importance of employees’ parents. Researchers infrequently address the role of parents in the work-family field. The aim of this thesis was to understand the influence of employees’ parents on work-family balance and its related outcomes in a Chinese society, Taiwan. A multi-method approach was employed consisting of three studies. First, th...

  5. Modeling the impacts of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan: observations from cetacean watching boats: 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

  6. Modeling the Impacts of Cetacean-Focused Tourism in Taiwan: Observations from Cetacean Watching Boats: 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chin; Kyle, Gerard T.; Yang, Ming-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan has grown rapidly since 1997. This development, measured in terms of both number of tour boats and visitors, has resulted in many resource management challenges stemming from the absence of regulation and scientific data. To fill this void in empirical evidence, we used 464 sighting records from 2002 to 2005 to model the impact of cetacean-focused tourism. Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated cetacean avoidance responses to cetacean watching boats were strongly associated with pod size, mother-calf pairs, and cetacean-vessel distances. Mother-calf pairs abandoned their avoidance tactic by 55% compared to noncalf groups when tour boats approached. Second, the hazard ratio of abundance was 0.996, suggesting that the odds of encountering avoidance responses by the cetaceans decreased by 42% for every 100-member increase in the cetacean pod size. Last, distances maintained by boats from the cetaceans was positively related to avoidance responses (i.e., less avoidance behavior with closer interaction). Based on our findings, we have the following recommendations: (a) limit vessels from approaching mothers with calves, (b) limit vessels from approaching small groups of cetaceans, (c) reduced avoidance behavior to boat traffic may be a red flag for potential long-term disturbance, and (d) apply the "precautionary principle" based on the best scientific information available in cetacean-based tourism in Taiwan. These recommendations will help contribute to the sustainable development of cetacean-focused tourism in Taiwan.

  7. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.-C.; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-01-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator

  8. The Long Term Features of Tropical Cyclones Nearby Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueh-Shyuan; Lee, Cheng-Shang

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is affected by several factors. The variability of TC activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) has been examined in the past decade. Previous studies showed that TC activity (such as TC number, intensity and tracks) has multiscale variation or affected by natural oscillation of different scales. However, most of these studies focused mainly on the entire WNP. Very few studies examined the variability of annual TC track or the variability of TC number in the area nearby Taiwan, which caused severe economic loss and life damage to Taiwan in the typhoon season. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the variation of TC activity nearby Taiwan to address its long term features, and also the possible relationship with the associated flow patterns. Preliminary results of wavelet analysis showed that the TC number nearby Taiwan during 1970-2014 had multiscale variations. The following analysis focused on the scale about 4- and 11-year signals, in the targeted area of 118o-125oE, 20o-27oN. The positive phases of both scale 4 and scale 11 showed a tendency of TC tracks toward Taiwan area, while the negative phases showed a lower tendency toward Taiwan. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied on the 4-yr and the 11-yr filtered 500-hPa wind fields and geopotential heights. Results showed that the 4-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U- and V-wind fields, suggesting that the TC track patterns were affected mainly by the midlevel steering flow. On the other hand, the 11-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U-wind field and geopotential anomalies, indicating that the main cause of the difference in TC occurrence nearby Taiwan was the location of TC formation.

  9. Taiwan: Overall Developments and Policy Issues in the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    U.S. officials saw relations with Taiwan as especially troubled during the 109th Congress in 2005-2006, beset by the increasing complexity and unpredictability of Taiwan's democratic political environment...

  10. A Firm-Level Analysis of Productivity and the Export Market in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerkman, Adam

    2000-01-01

    Over the past four decades Taiwan has experienced tremendous economic growth. Much of the debate surrounding Taiwan's success has focused on its trade policies and the relationship between export-orientation and high output growth...

  11. Daily Tourist Arrivals, Exchange Rates and Voatility for Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer

    2009-01-01

    Both domestic and international tourism are a major source of service export receipts for many countries worldwide, and is also increasingly important in Taiwan. One of the three leading tourism source countries for Taiwan is the Republic of Korea, which is a source of short haul tourism. Daily data from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008 are used to model the Korean Won / New Taiwan $ exchange rate and tourist arrivals from Korea to Taiwan, as well as their associated volatility. The sample ...

  12. Daily Tourist Arrivals, Exchange Rates and Volatility for Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C-L.; McAleer, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBoth domestic and international tourism are a major source of service export receipts for many countries worldwide, and is also increasingly important in Taiwan. One of the three leading tourism source countries for Taiwan is the Republic of Korea, which is a source of short haul tourism. Daily data from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008 are used to model the Korean Won / New Taiwan $ exchange rate and tourist arrivals from Korea to Taiwan, as well as their associated volatility....

  13. Decomposition of SO2, NOx and CO2 emissions from energy use of major economic sectors in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue J. Lin; Tzu C. Chang

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we use the Divisia index approach to decompose emission changes of SO 2 , NO, and CO 2 from major economic sectors in Taiwan during 1980 to 1992. The study highlights the interrelationships between energy use and environmental quality, and provides insights for policy making. The emission changes are decomposed into five components-pollution coefficient, fuel mix, energy intensity, economic growth and industrial structure. Of all components analyzed, economic growth had the largest positive effect on emission changes for Taiwan's major economic sectors. Emissions of SO 2 in industry and other sectors showed a decreasing trend due to fuel quality improvements antipollution control. However, NO, and CO 2 emissions increased sharply in all sectors. Comparisons were also made with Germany, Japan and USA. This study has shown that improvement in energy efficiency, pollution control and fuel substitution are major options to reduce SO 2 , NO, and CO 2 emissions

  14. The status of performance demonstration in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, H.F.; Shong, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear authority in Taiwan adopts the ASME Code Section XI, Appendix VIII as a mandatory requirement for the in-service inspection of importance nuclear components. To fulfill this requirement, the ultrasonic testing (UT) Level II of nuclear power plants have to go abroad for the qualification of performance demonstration (PD) hosted by the EPRI, USA. It is time consuming and costs much money. In order to set up domestic PD capability, this project planned and purchased test pieces, prepared qualification procedures and arranged examination site. A prototype PD system for carbon steel piping weld and stainless steel piping weld manual UT has been established from 2002. Until January 2004, five PD qualification sections have been held. The detection accuracy and uncertainty of flaw length sizing of UT were calculated according to the data provided by the examinees. Based on the available data, the flaw detection accuracy was about 89% for both stainless steel and carbon steel. However, the uncertainty of flaw length sizing varied with test piece material and flaw orientation. This analysis can be a reference for related organizations to gain more insight information of UT results. (author)

  15. Public acceptance of nuclear power in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, T.T.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is necessary to reach the public acceptance for nuclear power development program. During the process of the application for the approval from the government to implement the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant program in Taiwan, we initialized a series of communication program in the last two years and are expecting to convince the public that to develops nuclear power is essential to the country from a viewpoint of energy diversified. The basic strategies of the communication program not only emphasized the new nuclear power project, but also for the long term public acceptance on nuclear power. The strategies include: (1) Preview and implement the promotion program for the performance of the existing nuclear power plants. (2) Designate and communicate with the major communication target groups: elected delegates, journalists, local residents, scholars and experts. (3) Edit and incorporate the basic nuclear knowledge into the preliminary school educational materials. (4) Subsidize the adjacent communities of nuclear power plants for the public well-being construction. In order to implement the mentioned strategies, Taipower has reorganized the public service department and the existing nuclear power plants, setup the nuclear exhibition center, conducted fullscale emergency drill biannually for each of nuclear power plant, and prepared the seminars for the teacher

  16. Structural design of Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideyuki; Tanno, Yoshiro; Nakai, Masayoshi; Ohshima, Takashi; Suguichi, Akihiro; Lee, William H.; Wang, Jensen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an outline description of the structural design of the main stadium for the World Games held in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, in 2009. Three new design concepts, unseen in previous stadiums, were proposed and realized: “an open stadium”, “an urban park”, and “a spiral continuous form”. Based on the open stadium concept, simple cantilever trusses in the roof structure were arranged in a delicate rhythm, and a so-called oscillating hoop of steel tubes was wound around the top and bottom surfaces of a group of cantilever trusses to form a continuous spiral form. Also, at the same time by clearly grouping the structural elements of the roof structure, the dramatic effect of the urban park was highlighted by unifying the landscape and the spectator seating area to form the stadium facade. This paper specifically reports on the overview of the building, concepts of structural design, structural analysis of the roof, roof design, foundation design, and an outline of the construction.

  17. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  18. Performance evaluation for solar collectors in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the global irradiation observed in Taiwan from 1990 to 1999 was used to estimate the optimal tilt angle for solar collectors. The observed data are resolved into diffusion and beam components, and transformed into instantaneous time frames using mathematical models. The energy gain on installing a single-axis tracked panel as compared to a traditional fixed panel is originally analyzed theoretically. In addition to the observation data, both types of radiation will be taken into account for comparison, i.e. both extraterrestrial radiation and global radiation predicted using empirical models. The results show that the yearly optimal angles for six selected stations are about 0.95 and 0.88 times their latitudes for extraterrestrial and predicted radiation, respectively. All of the observed irradiations are less than the predicted values for all times and stations, consequently resulting in a flatter tilt angle, with a few exceptions in summer. Since Taipei has the lowest clearness index, its yearly optimal angle calculated from observed data shows the greatest discrepancy when compared to its latitude. By employing a tracked panel, the yearly gains calculated from the observed data lie between 14.3% and 25.3%, which is significantly less than those from the extraterrestrial and predicted radiations

  19. Taiwan's Travel and Border Health Measures in Response to Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lee, Wang-Ping; Liao, Szu-Tsai; Wu, Li-Gin; Wu, Yi-Chun

    Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika. The Taiwan government collaborates with its tourism industry to disseminate information about precautionary measures and encourages tour guides to report suspected individuals or events to activate early response measures. Taiwan also engages in vector control activities at points of entry, including targeting aircraft from countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic, implementing mosquito sweep measures, and collecting vector surveillance data. In future emerging and reemerging disease events, entry surveillance at designated points of entry may enable early detection of diseases of international origin and more rapid activation of public health preparedness activities and international collaboration. Taiwan will continue to maximize border and travel health measures in compliance with IHR (2005) requirements, which rely on continued risk assessment, practical implementation activities, and engagement with all stakeholders.

  20. Empirical Site Amplification Factors Incorporating Soil Nonlinearity in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. H.; Chung, C. H.; Che-Min, L.; Huang, J. Y.; Wen, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of site amplifications caused by both crustal and subduction earthquakes are important in Taiwan. For example, seismic waves were amplified and led to significant building damages in the Taipei Basin by the 1986 Hualien offshore (subduction interface) and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquakes (crustal), for which the epicentral distances were about 100 km. To understand local site amplifications in Taiwan, empirical site amplification factors for horizontal ground motions are studied using recently constructed strong motion and site databases for the free-field TSMIP stations in Taiwan. Records of large magnitude earthquakes of ML larger than six from 1994 to 2014 were selected for this study. Site amplification factors at site conditions with Vs30 of 120 m/s to 1500 m/s and base accelerations up to 0.7g were inferred from intensity ratios of station pairs within specific distances. The reference site condition is assumed as Vs30 of 760 m/s (B/C boundary). Preliminary results indicate: 1. Soil nonlinearity is more obviously at short periods (PGA, Sa0.3) than long periods (PGV, Sa1.0). 2. Soil nonlinearity is significant for stations belong to site classes of B, C, D, and E in Taiwan. 3. Effect of station-pair distance is seen at short periods (PGA and Sa0.3). 4. No significant different is found in site amplifications of crustal and subduction earthquakes. The result could be a reference for the Fa and Fv in Taiwan's building code.

  1. State Spatiality and Identity Formation in Postwar Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Fix

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bi-yu Chang, Place, Identity and National Imagination in Postwar Taiwan. New York: Routledge, 2015. 260 pp. $145 (cloth. In her new book, Place, Identity and National Imagination in Postwar Taiwan, Chang Bi-yu argues that, despite this avalanche of publications and websites devoted to Taiwan’s (historical geography and cartography, few publications have offered a comprehensive and detailed analysis of Taiwan’s spatiality, in particular the representations and spatial discourse of nation and homeland that have been propagated and controlled by the Kuomintang (hereafter KMT regime since its retreat to Taiwan in late 1949. To fill that gap in the literature (particularly in the English-language scholarship on Taiwan’s spatiality, Chang has examined the annual Taiwan Yearbook, Taiwan-based cartographic production, elementary-school textbooks, and the 1950s design and construction of Chunghsing New Village (site of the relocated provincial government. Her goal has been a better understanding of the symbolism, construction, visualization, and contested meanings of Taiwan’s geography and political landscape. In this monograph, Chang also seeks to examine the ways in which state spaces are operated, contested, and changed, as well as how power relations are concretized, social alliances established, and cultural changes enacted through state spatiality. Although the central focus is state spatiality, this is also a book about Taiwan’s identity politics and the highly contested postwar power relationships on the island...

  2. Taiwan's Travel and Border Health Measures in Response to Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lee, Wang-Ping; Liao, Szu-Tsai; Wu, Li-Gin

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika. The Taiwan government collaborates with its tourism industry to disseminate information about precautionary measures and encourages tour guides to report suspected individuals or events to activate early response measures. Taiwan also engages in vector control activities at points of entry, including targeting aircraft from countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic, implementing mosquito sweep measures, and collecting vector surveillance data. In future emerging and reemerging disease events, entry surveillance at designated points of entry may enable early detection of diseases of international origin and more rapid activation of public health preparedness activities and international collaboration. Taiwan will continue to maximize border and travel health measures in compliance with IHR (2005) requirements, which rely on continued risk assessment, practical implementation activities, and engagement with all stakeholders. PMID:28418744

  3. Incidence of eye cancer in Taiwan: an 18-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-Y; Hsu, W-M

    2004-02-01

    To describe the incidence and histologic patterns of eye cancers in Chinese in Taiwan. Beginning in 1979, cases of cancer in Taiwan were reported to the Taiwan National Cancer Registry. Information on all Chinese patients diagnosed with eye malignancies under the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, site 190, was retrieved for analysis from the data bank of the Taiwan National Cancer Registry. In all, 733 cases with primary eye cancers were identified from 1979 to 1996, an 18-year period. The average annual age-standardized incidence of eye cancers was 2.46 per million population (2.57 for male and 2.33 for female). For cases less than 15 years of age, the most common eye malignancy was retinoblastoma (86.0%), followed by rhabdomyosarcoma (3.9%) and lymphoma (2.8%). For cases 15 years of age or older, the most common eye malignancy was melanoma (28.6%), followed by squamous cell sarcoma (21.0%) and lymphoma (20.8%). The time trends of the incidence of eye cancers were relatively stable over the 18-year period in Taiwan. Retinobalstoma, melanoma, and lymphoma were the three most common eye cancers in this Chinese population.

  4. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    ... that the separately ruled Taiwan is a part of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Taiwan President Ma Ying-jeou, elected on March 22, 2008, in a surprisingly broad electoral victory, has moved quickly to repair Taiwan's relations with the PRC...

  5. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY: United States... and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  6. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to...

  7. Internet Service Cognition and Use, and Their Promotion of Quality of Life in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    The "e-Taiwan Program" implemented by Taiwan government is aimed at showing the e-advantage in people's life and bring about essential benefits. This research follows the e-Life indicators of the Quality of Life measurement system developed by "e-Taiwan Program", which including four major dimensions of e-Daily Life,…

  8. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    ... that the separately ruled Taiwan is a part of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Taiwan President Ma Ying-jeou, elected on March 22, 2008, in a surprisingly broad electoral victory, has moved quickly to repair Taiwan's relations with the PRC...

  9. SWOT Analysis on Educational Systems on the Two Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ming; Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2005-01-01

    It was an important, historic phenomenon for Taiwan to separate from mainland China in 1949. Mainland China and Taiwan were originally a unified country, using the same language and same alphabet characters. Now there are still similarities in many aspects; the differences are primarily governmental. Taiwan has become more Westernized and more…

  10. 77 FR 27419 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Amended Final Determination of Sales at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... are materially injuring a U.S. industry, all unliquidated entries of such merchandise from Taiwan... Brightening Agents From Taiwan: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping... Taiwan. In addition, the Department is amending its final determination to correct a ministerial error...

  11. Research on Basis and Method of Fujian-Taiwan Cultural Creative Industry Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available deepening Fujian-Taiwan cultural creative industry connection cooperation is of great importance to close Fujian-Taiwan relationship, forge new economic growth points, optimize and adjust industrial structure. In this paper, the opportunities, potential, basis and conditions for Fujian-Taiwan cultural creative industry connection cooperation are analyzed, and countermeasures and suggestions to deepen the connection cooperation are proposed.

  12. 77 FR 73424 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... materially injuring a U.S. industry, all unliquidated entries of such merchandise from Taiwan, entered or... From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... ``ITC''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan...

  13. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the..., and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-770-773 and 775 (Second Review). By order of the Commission...

  14. 77 FR 27079 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China and Taiwan of certain... Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... that imports of certain stilbenic optical brightening agents from China and Taiwan were being sold at...

  15. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United... on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  16. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United..., and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be...

  17. 75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... India and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to... the antidumping duty orders on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to...

  18. Utterance-final particles in Taiwan Mandarin : contact, context and core functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Chin-hui

    2014-01-01

    The use of utterance-final particles (UFPs) is a salient feature of Taiwan Mandarin, a Mandarin variety spoken in Taiwan. Despite their widespread use, Taiwan Mandarin UFPs have not attracted much attention in previous research. One reason for this neglect is that previous studies focus on UFPs that

  19. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  20. 76 FR 57075 - Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Lock Washers From China and Taiwan Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and Taiwan. AGENCY: United States International... China and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  1. 76 FR 11268 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Korea and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to... the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to...

  2. An Evaluation of Taiwan Vocational and Technical Education Programs in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaders, O. Donald; Chi-ho, Hu

    Presented in both English and Chinese, this study of the system of agricultural education in Taiwan secondary and postsecondary schools resulted from the author's five-month stay in Taiwan and subsequent visits. Focus of the study is on evaluation of Taiwan's vocational agriculture education programs with information about students, faculties,…

  3. Disentangling natural and anthropogenic signals in lacustrine records: An example from the Ilan Plain, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Jaan Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of human activities has been increasing to a degree where humans now outcompete many natural processes. When interpreting environmental and climatic changes recorded in natural archives on historical time scales, it is therefore important to be able to disentangle the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic processes. Lake Meihua on the Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan offers a particularly suitable opportunity to test how human activities known from historical records can be recorded in lacustrine sediment. For this purpose, three cores from Lake Meihua have been studied by a multiproxy approach, providing the first decadal-resolution lacustrine records covering the past 150 years in Taiwan. Profiles of excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu from two short cores (MHL-09-01 and MHL-11-02 allowed a precise chronology to be established. The presence of a yellow, earthy layer with lower levels of organic material coincide with the record of land development associated with the construction of the San-Chin-Gong Temple during AD 1970-1982. Furthermore, in the lower part of the cores, the upwards increasing trend of inc/coh, TOC, TOC/TN, and grain size, coupled with the palynological data (increase of Alnus, Mallotus, Trema and herbs from the nearby core MHL-5A with radiocarbon chronology, suggest that the area surrounding the lake has been significantly affected by agricultural activities since the arrival of Chinese settlers around ~AD 1874. In sum, this study demonstrates that this suite of lacustrine sediments in northeastern Taiwan has recorded human activities in agreement with historical documents, and that different human activities will leave distinct sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological signatures in the sedimentary archives. Therefore, multiproxy reconstructions are important to capture the complex nature of human-environmental interactions. A better understanding of the weathering and erosion response to human

  4. Disentangling natural and anthropogenic signals in lacustrine records: An example from the Ilan Plain, NE Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Huh, Chih-An; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Löwemark, Ludvig; Lin, Shu-Fen; Liao, Wen-Hsuan; Yang, Tien-Nan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Lee, Meng-Yang; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lee, Teh-Quei

    2016-11-01

    The impact of human activities has been increasing to a degree where humans now outcompete many natural processes. When interpreting environmental and climatic changes recorded in natural archives on historical time scales, it is therefore important to be able to disentangle the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic processes. Lake Meihua on the Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan offers a particularly suitable opportunity to test how human activities known from historical records can be recorded in lacustrine sediment. For this purpose, three cores from Lake Meihua have been studied by a multiproxy approach, providing the first decadal-resolution lacustrine records covering the past 150 years in Taiwan. Profiles of excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu from two short cores (MHL-09-01 and MHL-11-02) allowed a precise chronology to be established. The presence of a yellow, earthy layer with lower levels of organic material coincide with the record of land development associated with the construction of the San-Chin-Gong Temple during AD 1970-1982. Furthermore, in the lower part of the cores, the upwards increasing trend of inc/coh, TOC, TOC/TN, and grain size, coupled with the palynological data (increase of Alnus, Mallotus, Trema and herbs) from the nearby core MHL-5A with radiocarbon chronology, suggest that the area surrounding the lake has been significantly affected by agricultural activities since the arrival of Chinese settlers around AD 1874. In sum, this study demonstrates that this suite of lacustrine sediments in northeastern Taiwan has recorded human activities in agreement with historical documents, and that different human activities will leave distinct sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological signatures in the sedimentary archives. Therefore, multiproxy reconstructions are important to capture the complex nature of human-environmental interactions. A better understanding of the weathering and erosion response to human activities can

  5. Transcultural spirituality: the spiritual journey of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Tien; Narayanasamy, Aru; Chang, Sung-Ling

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how hospitalization and the diagnosis of schizophrenia have an impact on Taiwanese patients' spiritual life. Psychiatric nurses tend to construe patients' spiritual issues as pathological problems and consequently are reluctant to address patient's spirituality, which results in spirituality being overlooked in mental illness. An individual's spiritual journey is dependent upon their cultural background and beliefs; however, the professional's preconceived ideas suppress the voice of patients with schizophrenia to share their experiences of their spiritual journey. The lack of research exploring spirituality in mental illness in Taiwan means that spiritual care is overlooked in practice. This study sets out to explore spirituality from the perspectives of patients in two mental hospitals in Taiwan. Using a qualitative approach, 22 long-term hospitalized patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were interviewed. Several themes from the data were identified using Ritchie and Spencer's (1994) five stages analytical framework. The study was carried out from 2006 to 2008. Patients revealed spiritual distress as a consequence of prolonged hospitalization. They used referents consistent with traditional Chinese philosophical perspectives derived from Taoism and Confucianism to describe various features of their spiritual distress and their longing for spiritual revival, transcendence and to be accepted as normal persons. In this age of globalization, nurses need to be fully cognisant of the cultural aspects of patients to respond to a mental health patient's spirituality. Clinical and educational guidelines and policies could be developed for spiritual care in Taiwan. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Levels of dioxin-like compounds in Taiwan foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.S.; Wang, S.M.; Chou, U.; Chen, S.Y.; Huang, N.C.; Liao, G.Y.; Yu, T.P.; Ling, Y.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Food is the major route of human intake of toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), which include PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinated DibenzoFurans (PCDFs), and WHO PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 95% of human DLCs exposure derives from food, with nearly 80% coming from food of animal origin. The DLCs levels in foodstuffs and the consumption rate of foodstuffs are essential to evaluate health risk posing to humans. The lack of DLCs levels in foodstuffs increases the population risk to DLCs exposure. The Department of Health, Taiwan has entrusted us to conduct a comprehensive monitoring program on PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan foodstuffs in 2001 and 2002. In 2003, the program has extended the analytes to include 12 WHO-PCBs. The DLCs levels in Taiwan foodstuffs is, therefore, being surveyed for the first time.

  7. Long-term variation of atmospheric beryllium-7 in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Ming Lin; Chi-Chang Liu; Ching-Jiang Chen

    1996-01-01

    Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) has measured the concentration of atmospheric 7 Be at tile four stations on Taiwan for almost twenty years. Gamma emitting nuclides have been collected by air samplers and measured by gamma spectrometry. Cosmogenic 7 Be and other man-made radionuclides produced by Chinese nuclear weapon testings have been detected. Compared with 7 Be, man-made nuclides vanished quickly because of their short half life. The behaviour of 7 Be in long-term concentration variation is different between northern and southern Taiwan because of local meteorological conditions. Tile results of Fourier analysis show that washout effect of rainfalls and transportation from stratosphere to troposphere are closely related to tile variation of 7Be concentration in near surface air. All the measured data of 7 Be show that tile characteristic of yearly data coincides with tile 11-year solar cycle. (author)

  8. Predictive susceptibility analysis of typhoon induced landslides in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Keh-Jian; Lin, Zora

    2017-04-01

    Climate change caused by global warming affects Taiwan significantly for the past decade. The increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, in which concentrated and intensive rainfalls generally cause geohazards including landslides and debris flows. The extraordinary, such as 2004 Mindulle and 2009 Morakot, hit Taiwan and induced serious flooding and landslides. This study employs rainfall frequency analysis together with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) downscaling estimation to understand the temporal rainfall trends, distributions, and intensities in the adopted Wu River watershed in Central Taiwan. To assess the spatial hazard of the landslides, landslide susceptibility analysis was also applied. Different types of rainfall factors were tested in the susceptibility models for a better accuracy. In addition, the routes of typhoons were also considered in the predictive analysis. The results of predictive analysis can be applied for risk prevention and management in the study area.

  9. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsin-I; Jan, Man-Ser; Chi, Hui-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+), ocean temperature (+), ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+), maximum daily rainfall (current (−) and one month ago (−)), and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (−)) had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future. PMID:26848675

  10. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, M.J.; Selvaraj, K.; Agoramoorthy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

  11. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Hsiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+, ocean temperature (+, ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+, maximum daily rainfall (current (− and one month ago (−, and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (− had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future.

  12. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsin-I; Jan, Man-Ser; Chi, Hui-Ju

    2016-02-03

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+), ocean temperature (+), ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+), maximum daily rainfall (current (-) and one month ago (-)), and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (-)) had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future.

  13. Opportunity recognition for small businesses in medical tourism in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Ying-Hsun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism has become an investment focus for many Asian countries. For example, India, Singapore, Thailand, South Korea, and Malaysia have governmental projects to foster this emerging industry, and successfully attract millions of medical tourists each year. Medical tourism consists of diverse industries that can provide abundant opportunities of new businesses. Currently Taiwan is trying to catch up in this trend by making national development policies, setting up institutions, modifying laws and regulations, and encouraging investment of private sector. The purpose of this study is to analyze the status quo of international medical tourism in Taiwan, and identify several opportunities for small businesses to catch and to participate in forming a solid medical tourism industry for Taiwan.

  14. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang; Lu, Chung-Yen

    2016-12-02

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O₃), airborne particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO₂, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan's Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA). However, elevated PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations.

  15. Education and training in nuclear science/engineering in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.

    1994-01-01

    The present status of nuclear education and training in Taiwan is reviewed. The nuclear science/engineering program has been established in Taiwan under the College of Nuclear Science at the National Tsing Hua University since 1956; it remains the only program among 123 universities and colleges in Taiwan where education and training in nuclear fields are offered. The program, with 52 faculty members, offers advanced studies leading to BSc, MSc, and PhD degrees. Lectures and lab classes are given to 600 students currently registered in the program. Career placement program geared for the 200 graduate and 400 undergraduate students is to orientate them into the local nuclear power utilities as well as agricultural, medical, industrial, academic and governmental sectors where nuclear scientists and engineers at all levels are needed. 8 refs., 1 fig

  16. Relations Across the Taiwan Strait: A New Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Shaocheng

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza las relaciones Taiwan-RPCh del nuevo gobierno de Ma Ying-jeou desde la perspectiva tanto internacional como bilateral. Las posiciones de los EEUU y la UE presentan buenos augurios. Junto con el compromiso del "consenso de 1992", la concepción de Ma de una "relación especial" no ha sido rechazada por Pekín a pesar de cierta desconfianza latente hacia Taiwan. Así las experiencias de Alemania, donde el concepto de "relación especial" surgió, podrían ser usadas como referencia para las relaciones Taiwan-RPCh, si bien sólo de manera selectiva. Podría servir como una buena base para un ulterior desarrollo de las relaciones entre ambas partes. Por tanto, las posibilidades de mejores relaciones, por lo menos a corto plazo, parecen prometedoras.

  17. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of the cigarette market opening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C P; Cheng, T Y; Eriksen, M P; Tsai, S P; Hsu, C C

    2005-06-01

    To assess the effect of the opening of the Taiwanese cigarette market on cigarette consumption, changes in market share, and the effects on tobacco control efforts. With the use of key word "Taiwan", the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, was searched for internal documents related to smuggling activities, promotion of light cigarettes, and market share analyses in Taiwan. Age adjusted smoking rates and cigarette and betel quid consumption before and after market opening were compared. By 2000, the market share of imported cigarettes increased from less than 2% in 1986 to nearly 50%, and per capita cigarette consumption increased 15% following market opening. Because of the sharp increase in smuggling, with contraband cigarettes being as popular as legal imports, and the rapid proliferation of retail outlets, such as betel quid stalls, the market penetration by foreign tobacco companies was greater in Taiwan than among the other Super 301 Asian countries. Aggressive cigarette marketing strategies were associated with a 6% increase in adult male smoking prevalence, and with a 13% increase in the youth rate, within three years after market opening. The market opening also had an incidental effect on increasing the popularity of betel quid. Betel quid chewing has since become a major public health problem in Taiwan. The opening of the cigarette market in 1987 had a long lasting impact on Taiwan. It increased smoking prevalence and the market has become dominated by foreign companies. The seriousness of smuggling and its associated loss of revenue by the government, the extent of increased youth smoking and its associated future health care costs, and the increased use of betel quid and the associated doubling of oral cancer mortality rates each pose significant problems to Taiwan. However, the market opening galvanised anti-smoking sentiment and forced the government to initiate and intensify a series of tobacco control

  19. Linking the Taiwan Fish Database to the Global Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Tsao Shao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the support of the National Digital Archive Program (NDAP, basic species information about most Taiwanese fishes, including their morphology, ecology, distribution, specimens with photos, and literatures have been compiled into the "Fish Database of Taiwan" (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. We expect that the all Taiwanese fish species databank (RSD, with 2800+ species, and the digital "Fish Fauna of Taiwan" will be completed in 2007. Underwater ecological photos and video images for all 2,800+ fishes are quite difficult to achieve but will be collected continuously in the future. In the last year of NDAP, we have successfully integrated all fish specimen data deposited at 7 different institutes in Taiwan as well as their collection maps on the Google Map and Google Earth. Further, the database also provides the pronunciation of Latin scientific names and transliteration of Chinese common names by referring to the Romanization system for all Taiwanese fishes (2,902 species in 292 families so far. The Taiwanese fish species checklist with Chinese common/vernacular names and specimen data has been updated periodically and provided to the global FishBase as well as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF through the national portal of the Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF. Thus, Taiwanese fish data can be queried and browsed on the WWW. For contributing to the "Barcode of Life" and "All Fishes" international projects, alcohol-preserved specimens of more than 1,800 species and cryobanking tissues of 800 species have been accumulated at RCBAS in the past two years. Through this close collaboration between local and global databases, "The Fish Database of Taiwan" now attracts more than 250,000 visitors and achieves 5 million hits per month. We believe that this local database is becoming an important resource for education, research, conservation, and sustainable use of fish in Taiwan.

  20. A material flow of lithium batteries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.C.; You, S.J.; Yu, B.S.; Yao, K.F.

    2009-01-01

    Li batteries, including secondary and cylindrical/button primary Li batteries, are used worldwide in computers, communications and consumer electronics products. However, there are several dangerous issues that occur during the manufacture, shipping, and storage of Li batteries. This study analyzes the material flow of lithium batteries and their valuable heavy metals in Taiwan for the year 2006 by material flow analysis. According to data from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, Bureau of Foreign Trade, Directorate General of Customs, and the Li batteries manufactures/importers/exporters. It was found that 2,952,696 kg of Li batteries was input into Taiwan for the year 2006, including 2,256,501 kg of imported Li batteries and 696,195 kg of stock Li batteries in 2005. In addition, 1,113,867 and 572,215 kg of Li batteries was domestically produced and sold abroad, revealing that 3,494,348 kg of different types of Li batteries was sold in Taiwan. Of these domestically sold batteries, 504,663 and 146,557 kg were treated domestically and abroad. Thus, a total of 2,843,128 kg of Li batteries was stored by individual/industry users or illegally disposed. In addition, it was also observed that 2,120,682 kg of heavy metals contained in Li batteries, including Ni, Co, Al, Cu and Ni, was accumulated in Taiwan, with a recycled value of 38.8 million USD. These results suggest that these heavy metals should be recovered by suitable collection, recycling and reuse procedures

  1. A Crowdsourcing-based Taiwan Scientific Earthquake Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W. T.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    To collect immediately field observations for any earthquake-induced ground damages, such as surface fault rupture, landslide, rock fall, liquefaction, and landslide-triggered dam or lake, etc., we are developing an earthquake damage reporting system which particularly relies on school teachers as volunteers after taking a series of training courses organized by this project. This Taiwan Scientific Earthquake Reporting (TSER) system is based on the Ushahidi mapping platform, which has been widely used for crowdsourcing on different purposes. Participants may add an app-like icon for mobile devices to this website at https://ies-tser.iis.sinica.edu.tw. Right after a potential damaging earthquake occurred in the Taiwan area, trained volunteers will be notified/dispatched to the source area to carry out field surveys and to describe the ground damages through this system. If the internet is available, they may also upload some relevant images in the field right away. This collected information will be shared with all public after a quick screen by the on-duty scientists. To prepare for the next strong earthquake, we set up a specific project on TSER for sharing spectacular/remarkable geologic features wherever possible. This is to help volunteers get used to this system and share any teachable material on this platform. This experimental, science-oriented crowdsourcing system was launched early this year. Together with a DYFI-like intensity reporting system, Taiwan Quake-Catcher Network, and some online games and teaching materials, the citizen seismology has been much improved in Taiwan in the last decade. All these constructed products are now either operated or promoted at the Taiwan Earthquake Research Center (TEC). With these newly developed platforms and materials, we are aiming not only to raise the earthquake awareness and preparedness, but also to encourage public participation in earthquake science in Taiwan.

  2. Recent achievements in regulating nuclear power activities in taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The energy resources in Taiwan are very scarce with more than 98% of the fuel sources imported from foreign countries. The nuclear power became essential because of its stability and economy in price. There are six operating nuclear power units in Taiwan, and two more advanced boiling water reactor units under construction. As the country's nuclear power still plays an important role, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) devotes its great efforts working on reactor safety regulation, radiation protection, nuclear security, nuclear emergency preparedness, nuclear waste management and environmental monitoring. Recent achievements of AEC on the above mentioned topics will be covered in this presentation

  3. Persistence Probability Analyzed on the Taiwan STOCK Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Chun; Chen, Hung-Jung; Tseng, Hsen-Che

    We report a numerical study of the Taiwan stock market, in which we used three data sources: the daily Taiwan stock exchange index (TAIEX) from January 1983 to May 2006, the daily OTC index from January 1995 to May 2006, and the one-min intraday data from February 2000 to December 2003. Our study is based on numerical estimates of persistence exponent θp, Hurst exponent H2, and fluctuation exponent h2. We also discuss the results concerning persistence probability P(t), qth-order price-price correlation function Gq(t), and qth-order normalized fluctuation function fq(t) among these indices.

  4. Estimating Source Duration for Moderate and Large Earthquakes in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Yen; Hwang, Ruey-Der; Ho, Chien-Yin; Lin, Tzu-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Estimating Source Duration for Moderate and Large Earthquakes in Taiwan Wen-Yen Chang1, Ruey-Der Hwang2, Chien-Yin Ho3 and Tzu-Wei Lin4 1 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC 2Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC 3Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC 4Seismology Center, Central Weather Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC ABSTRACT To construct a relationship between seismic moment (M0) and source duration (t) was important for seismic hazard in Taiwan, where earthquakes were quite active. In this study, we used a proposed inversion process using teleseismic P-waves to derive the M0-t relationship in the Taiwan region for the first time. Fifteen earthquakes with MW 5.5-7.1 and focal depths of less than 40 km were adopted. The inversion process could simultaneously determine source duration, focal depth, and pseudo radiation patterns of direct P-wave and two depth phases, by which M0 and fault plane solutions were estimated. Results showed that the estimated t ranging from 2.7 to 24.9 sec varied with one-third power of M0. That is, M0 is proportional to t**3, and then the relationship between both of them was M0=0.76*10**23(t)**3 , where M0 in dyne-cm and t in second. The M0-t relationship derived from this study was very close to those determined from global moderate to large earthquakes. For further understanding the validity in the derived relationship, through the constructed relationship of M0-, we inferred the source duration of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake with M0=2-5*10**27 dyne-cm (corresponding to Mw = 7.5-7.7) to be approximately 29-40 sec, in agreement with many previous studies for source duration (28-42 sec).

  5. A new species Cotoneaster chingshuiensis (Rosaceae from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Cheng Chang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotoneaster chingshuiensis Kun C. Chang & Chih C. Wang, a new species from Taiwan is described. A taxonomic treatment, line drawings, color photos, and SEM micrographs of pollen are also provided in the paper. Cotoneaster chingshuiensis is found at Mt. Chingshui of Taroko National Park, at 2,100 m altitude in Northern Taiwan. It is similar to C. konishii Hayata, but can be distinguished by the 1-3-flowered inflorescence, shorter pedicel (0.5-1.5 mm, smaller leaves (6-28 × 4-15 mm and the lower surface of leaf with densely yellowish villus.

  6. Measurements of environmental radioactivity and radiation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuming; Huang Chingchung

    1993-01-01

    Established in 1974, the Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) is responsible for the environmental radiation surveillance and related fields in Taiwan. Its environmental radiation monitoring programs can be categorized into two parts: surveillance of natural ionizing radiation and surveillance of man-made ionizing radiation. For natural ionizing radiation, surveillance programs are mainly to establish the radiation baseline data including radon. For man-made ionizing radiation, surveillance programs include the radio-fallout surveillance and the environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities. This article summarizes the relevant studies carried out by TRMC in the recent years

  7. Development and implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, M.-L.; Yu, Y.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is one of the few Asian countries to have officially adopted Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) as one important means towards the achievement of environmental conservation and sustainable development. Despite implementation almost a decade ago, SEA remains premature in its development. This paper analyzes the progress and characteristics of SEA in Taiwan and, through examination of its limited case studies, reveals the positive and apparent influence of SEA on policy making. This paper also identifies the barriers hindering SEA's advancement and concludes with recommendations on strategies to overcome these obstacles

  8. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Development and issues of nuclear industry in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuangchi Liu

    1994-01-01

    Industrial and economic developments in Taiwan have achieved a so-called 'miracle' in the last decades. Endeavors by the private enterprise, prudent planning by the government, and the devoted efforts by the diligent and creative labor forces have been credited jointly with the result. To develop a sustainable nuclear industry in support of an efficient and safe power generation and other applications of nuclear energy in Taiwan, continuing efforts from the private industry, government and each individual of the nuclear industry will be required. In this paper, milestones of the past and major issues for future developments will be discussed

  10. Stress test of the nuclear power plants performed in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Teng, W.C.; Chang, S.; Chen, Y.B. [Atomic Energy Council, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    In the wake of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants event, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has asked Taiwan's Nuclear Power Plant operator (TPC) to re-examine and re-evaluate the vulnerabilities of its nuclear units, and furthermore, take possible countermeasures against extreme natural disasters, including earthquake, tsunami and rock-and-mud slide. The evaluation process should be based on both within and beyond Design Basis Accidents, by reference to the actions recommended by the world nuclear authorities and groups, namely, IAEA, USNRC, NEI, ENSREG and WANO. Taiwan is a very densely populated region of the world. Furthermore, like Japan, due to its geophysical position, Taiwan is prone to large scale earthquakes, and although historically rare, Taiwan also faces the potential risk of tsunamis. AEC also asked TPC to perform the stress test following the specification given by WENRA (later ENSREG) and conducted in all the EU's nuclear reactors. After completion of the stress test for all the nuclear power plants, AEC was trying to have the reports peer reviewed by international organizations, as EU did. The OECD/NEA accepted AEC's request and formed a review team specific to the review of Taiwan's National Report for the Stress Test. There were 18 follow-up items after the NEA's review. Based on these items, AEC developed five orders to require TPC further enhancing their capabilities to cope with extreme natural hazards. The ENSREG also formed a nine-expert review team for Taiwan's Stress Test in response to AEC's request almost at the same time as the OECD/NEA. The ENSREG review team began their works in June 2013 by desktop review, and ended in early October 2013 by country visit to Taiwan. While the assessment of post-Fukushima evaluation reveals neither immediate nuclear safety concerns nor threats to the public health and safety, AEC requested that TPC focus on strengthening its re-evaluation on design

  11. Stress test of the nuclear power plants performed in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.; Teng, W.C.; Chang, S.; Chen, Y.B.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants event, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has asked Taiwan's Nuclear Power Plant operator (TPC) to re-examine and re-evaluate the vulnerabilities of its nuclear units, and furthermore, take possible countermeasures against extreme natural disasters, including earthquake, tsunami and rock-and-mud slide. The evaluation process should be based on both within and beyond Design Basis Accidents, by reference to the actions recommended by the world nuclear authorities and groups, namely, IAEA, USNRC, NEI, ENSREG and WANO. Taiwan is a very densely populated region of the world. Furthermore, like Japan, due to its geophysical position, Taiwan is prone to large scale earthquakes, and although historically rare, Taiwan also faces the potential risk of tsunamis. AEC also asked TPC to perform the stress test following the specification given by WENRA (later ENSREG) and conducted in all the EU's nuclear reactors. After completion of the stress test for all the nuclear power plants, AEC was trying to have the reports peer reviewed by international organizations, as EU did. The OECD/NEA accepted AEC's request and formed a review team specific to the review of Taiwan's National Report for the Stress Test. There were 18 follow-up items after the NEA's review. Based on these items, AEC developed five orders to require TPC further enhancing their capabilities to cope with extreme natural hazards. The ENSREG also formed a nine-expert review team for Taiwan's Stress Test in response to AEC's request almost at the same time as the OECD/NEA. The ENSREG review team began their works in June 2013 by desktop review, and ended in early October 2013 by country visit to Taiwan. While the assessment of post-Fukushima evaluation reveals neither immediate nuclear safety concerns nor threats to the public health and safety, AEC requested that TPC focus on strengthening its re-evaluation on design

  12. A synthesized biophysical and social vulnerability assessment for Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2017-11-01

    Taiwan, located in the Western Pacific, is a country that is one of the most vulnerable to disasters that are associated with the changing climate; it is located within the Ring of Fire, which is the most geologically active region in the world. The environmental and geological conditions in Taiwan are sensitive and vulnerable to such disasters. Owing to increasing urbanization in Taiwan, floods and climate-related disasters have taken an increasing toll on human lives. As global warming accelerates the rising of sea levels and increasing of the frequency of extreme weather events, disasters will continue to affect socioeconomic development and human conditions. Under such circumstances, researchers and policymakers alike must recognize the importance of providing useful knowledge concerning vulnerability, disaster recovery and resilience. Strategies for reducing vulnerability and climate-related disaster risks and for increasing resilience involve preparedness, mitigation and adaptation. In the last two decades, extreme climate events have caused severe flash floods, debris flows, landslides, and other disasters and have had negative effects of many sectors, including agriculture, infrastructure and health. Since climate change is expected to have a continued impact on socio-economic development, this work develops a vulnerability assessment framework that integrates both biophysical and social vulnerability and supports synthesized vulnerability analyses to identify vulnerable areas in Taiwan. Owing to its geographical, geological and climatic features, Taiwan is susceptible to earthquakes, typhoons, droughts and various induced disasters. Therefore, Taiwan has the urgent task of establishing a framework for assessing vulnerability as a planning and policy tool that can be used to identify not only the regions that require special attention but also hotspots in which efforts should be made to reduce vulnerability and the risk of climate-related disaster. To

  13. Methanogenic archaea isolated from Taiwan's Chelungpu fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sue-Yao; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2011-02-01

    Terrestrial rocks, petroleum reservoirs, faults, coal seams, and subseafloor gas hydrates contain an abundance of diverse methanoarchaea. However, reports on the isolation, purification, and characterization of methanoarchaea in the subsurface environment are rare. Currently, no studies investigating methanoarchaea within fault environments exist. In this report, we succeeded in obtaining two new methanogen isolates, St545Mb(T) of newly proposed species Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre FG694aF, from the Chelungpu fault, which is the fault that caused a devastating earthquake in central Taiwan in 1999. Strain FG694aF was isolated from a fault gouge sample obtained at 694 m below land surface (mbls) and is an autotrophic, mesophilic, nonmotile, thin, filamentous-rod-shaped organism capable of using H(2)-CO(2) and formate as substrates for methanogenesis. The morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to Methanobacterium palustre. The mesophilic strain St545Mb(T), isolated from a sandstone sample at 545 mbls, is a nonmotile, irregular, coccoid organism that uses methanol and trimethylamine as substrates for methanogenesis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain St545Mb(T) was 99.0% similar to that of Methanolobus psychrophilus strain R15 and was 96 to 97.5% similar to the those of other Methanolobus species. However, the optimal growth temperature and total cell protein profile of strain St545Mb(T) were different from those of M. psychrophilus strain R15, and whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization revealed less than 20% relatedness between these two strains. On the basis of these observations, we propose that strain St545Mb(T) (DSM 19953(T); BCRC AR10030; JCM 15159) be named Methanolobus chelungpuianus sp. nov. Moreover, the environmental DNA database survey indicates that both Methanolobus chelungpuianus and Methanobacterium palustre are widespread in the

  14. Mycotoxin monitoring for commercial foodstuffs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic food contaminants that are naturally produced by certain fungi. They induce negative effects on human health by making food unsafe for consumption. In this study, analyses were performed to determine the levels and incidence of aflatoxins (AFs in peanut products, tree nuts, spices, and Coix seeds; ochratoxin A (OTA in wheat and roasted coffee, as well as OTA and AFs in rice; and citrinin (CIT in red yeast rice (RYR products. A total of 712 samples from nine different food categories were collected between 2012 and 2013. The samples were analyzed over 2 years for AFs, OTA, and CIT by methods recommended by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These official analytical methods were extensively validated in-house and through interlaboratory trials. The analytical values of suspected contaminated specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry analysis to identify the specific mycotoxin present in the sample. We show that 689 samples (96.8% complied with the regulations set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. AFs were found in four peanut-candy products, one peanut-flour product, one pistachio product, one Sichuan-pepper product, and one Coix seed product. All had exceeded the maximum levels of 15 parts per billion for peanut and 10 parts per billion for other food products. Furthermore, 14 RYR samples contained CIT above 5 parts per million, and one RYR tablet exceeded the maximum amount allowed. Instances of AFs in substandard Sichuan pepper and Coix seeds were first detected in Taiwan. Measures were taken by the relevant authorities to remove substandard products from the market in order to decrease consumer exposure to mycotoxin. Border control measures were applied to importing food commodities with a higher risk of mycotoxin contamination, such as peanut, Sichuan pepper, and RYR products. Declining trends were observed in the noncompliance rate of AFs in peanut products, as well as that of

  15. Harm avoidance and depression, anxiety, insomnia, and migraine in fifth-year medical students in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen CY; Yu NW; Huang TH; Wang WS; Fang JT

    2018-01-01

    Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical school tra...

  16. Harm avoidance and depression, anxiety, insomnia, and migraine in fifth-year medical students in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen,Ching-Yen; Yu,Nan-Wen; Huang,Tien-Hao; Wang,Wei-Shin; Fang,Ji-Tseng

    2018-01-01

    Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical sc...

  17. Management consensus guideline for hepatocellular carcinoma: 2016 updated by the Taiwan Liver Cancer Association and the Gastroenterological Society of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Nan Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in Taiwan. To help clinical physicians to manage patients with HCC, the Taiwan Liver Cancer Association and the Gastroenterological Society of Taiwan produced the management consensus guideline for HCC. Methods: The recommendations focus on nine important issues on management of HCC, including surveillance, diagnosis, staging, surgery, local ablation, transarterial chemoembolization/transarterial radioembolization/hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, systemic therapy, radiotherapy, and prevention. Results: The consensus statements were discussed, debated and got consensus in each expert team. And then the statements were sent to all of the experts for further discussion and refinement. Finally, all of the experts were invited to vote for the statements, including the level of evidence and recommendation. Conclusion: With the development of the management consensus guideline, HCC patients could benefit from the optimal therapeutic modality. Keywords: Diagnosis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Staging, Surveillance, Treatment

  18. Book Review: Cooper, John F. Taiwan Nation-State or Province? Boulder: Westview Press, 2009. 288 PP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Bakhtiar Rivai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe about my analysis of Cooper (2009 perspective in how we understand Taiwan as identity. There are two perspective that to see Taiwan in recent day. First of all, for nation who believe One China Policy, they assume that Taiwan is a province of People Republic of China which is Taiwan is part of Beijing government. Secondly, for nation who do not believe it, they assume that Taiwan is independence identity, a nation identity, and also sovereign country which is separated from mainland China influences. In this discourse about how we understand Taiwan,  this article is going to review from John F. Cooper which is in his book, Taiwan: nation state or province?. This book not only discuss how we can see Taiwan, however, how Taiwan in the future in political dynamic especially after US president Donald Trump who intent to support Taiwan as independence identity. 

  19. Seasonal Patterns of Japanese Encephalitis and Associated Meteorological Factors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Liang; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2017-10-29

    The persistent transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Taiwan necessitates exploring the risk factors of occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of JE in Taiwan. We collected data for cases of JE reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) from 2000 to 2014. Meteorological data were obtained from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. The relationships between weather variability and the incidence of JE in Taiwan were determined via Poisson regression analysis and a case-crossover methodology. During the 15-year study period, a total of 379 cases of JE were reported. The incidence of JE showed significant seasonality, with the majority of cases occurring in summertime (for oscillation, p Taiwan. Therefore, these factors could be regarded as warning signals indicating the need to implement preventive measures.

  20. Modeling Evaluation of Tidal Stream Energy and the Impacts of Energy Extraction on Hydrodynamics in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsi Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tidal stream speeds in straits are accelerated because of geographic and bathymetric features. For instance, narrow channels and shallows can cause high tidal stream energy. In this study, water level and tidal current were simulated using a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element model to investigate the complex tidal characteristics in the Taiwan Strait and to determine potential locations for harnessing tidal stream energy. The model was driven by nine tidal components (M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, and M4 at open boundaries. The modeling results were validated with the measured data, including water level and tidal current. Through the model simulations, we found that the highest tidal currents occurred at the Penghu Channel in the Taiwan Strait. The Penghu Channel is an appropriate location for the deployment of a tidal turbine array because of its deep and flat bathymetry. The impacts of energy extraction on hydrodynamics were assessed by considering the momentum sink approach. The simulated results indicate that only minimal impacts would occur on water level and tidal current in the Taiwan Strait if a turbine array (55 turbines was installed in the Penghu Channel.

  1. Decomposition and decoupling effects of carbon dioxide emission from highway transportation in Taiwan, Germany, Japan and South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, I.J.; Lin, Sue J.; Lewis, Charles

    2007-01-01

    We adopted the Divisia index approach to explore the impacts of five factors on the total carbon dioxide emissions from highway vehicles in Germany, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan during 1990-2002. CO 2 emission was decomposed into emission coefficient, vehicle fuel intensity, vehicle ownership, population intensity and economic growth. In addition, the decoupling effects among economic growth, transport energy demand and CO 2 emission were analyzed to better understand the fuel performance and CO 2 mitigation strategies for each country. From our results, we suggest that the rapid growths of economy and vehicle ownership were the most important factors for the increased CO 2 emissions , whereas population intensity contributed significantly to emission decrease. Energy conservation performance and CO 2 mitigation in each country are strongly correlated with environmental pressure and economic driving force, except for Germany in 1993 and Taiwan during 1992-1996. To decouple the economic growth and environmental pressure, proponents of sustainable transport policy in Taiwan should focus on improving the operation and energy use of its highway transportation system by implementing an intelligent transportation system (ITS) with demand management, constructing an integrated feeder system, and encouraging the use of green transport modes

  2. Identifying key factors and strategies for reducing industrial CO2 emissions from a non-Kyoto protocol member's (Taiwan) perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In this study we use Divisia index approach to identify key factors affecting CO 2 emission changes of industrial sectors in Taiwan. The changes of CO 2 emission are decomposed into emission coefficient, energy intensity, industrial structure and economic growth. Furthermore, comparisons with USA, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands and South Korea are made to have a better understanding of emission tendency in these countries and to help formulate our CO 2 reduction strategies for responding to the international calls for CO 2 cuts. The results show that economic growth and high energy intensity were two key factors for the rapid increase of industrial CO 2 emission in Taiwan, while adjustment of industrial structure was the main component for the decrease. Although economic development is important, Taiwan must keep pace with the international trends for CO 2 reduction. Among the most important strategies are continuous efforts to improve energy intensity, fuel mix toward lower carbon, setting targets for industrial CO 2 cuts, and advancing green technology through technology transfer. Also, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is expected to play an important role in the future

  3. Financial assessment of government subsidy policy on photovoltaic systems for industrial users: A case study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Shuo-Yan; Nguyen, Thi Anh Tuyet; Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang; Phan, Nguyen Ky Phuc

    2015-01-01

    Due to Taiwan's limited energy resources, the development of solar photovoltaic (PV) in Taiwan has become one of the most important solutions for meeting future energy supply needs and ensuring environmental protection. A huge amount of researches about renewable energy sources has emerged recently in response to these issues. However, the amount of researches considering the effects of various influential parameters on the efficiency and performance of PV systems remains small, and is still limited to some specific parts of PV systems. In particular, researches considering thoughtfully the influence of government subsidies on PV financial assessment are still in development. This paper proposes an approach to analyze the benefit of installing a PV system under the impact of government financial subsidies, focusing especially on feed-in-tariff (FIT) and tax abatement policies for industrial users in Taiwan. In addition, a method for selecting the most appropriate policies is proposed for the government through the analysis of both user demand and the government's PV installation capacity target. - Highlights: • Analyzing the benefit of installing a PV system impacted by the government subsidy. • Analyzing the role of policy in the financial model of PV system. • Estimating the performance of PV system under the real weather condition. • Methods to select the policies which satisfy demands of both government and users. • Methods to select the policies which ensure cost-effectiveness of government's support.

  4. The "Glocalization" of Medical School Accreditation: Case Studies From Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Abbas, Joan; Ahn, Ducksun; Lai, Chi-Wan; Nara, Nobuo; Shaw, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    In an age of globalized medical education, medical school accreditation has been hailed as an approach to external quality assurance. However, accreditation standards can vary widely across national contexts. To achieve recognition by the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME), national accrediting bodies must develop standards suitable for both local contexts and international recognition. This study framed this issue in terms of "glocalization" and aimed to shine light on this complicated multistakeholder process by exploring accreditation in Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan. This study employed a comparative case-study design, examining the national standards that three accreditation bodies in East Asia developed using international reference standards. In 2015-2016, the authors conducted document analysis of the English versions of the standards to identify the differences between the national and international reference standards as well as how and why external standards were adapted. Each country's accreditation body sought to balance local needs with global demands. Each used external standards as a template (e.g., Liaison Committee on Medical Education, General Medical Council, or WFME standards) and either revised (Taiwan, South Korea) or annotated (Japan) the standards to fit the local context. Four categories of differences emerged to account for how and why national standards departed from external references: structural, regulatory, developmental, and aspirational. These countries' glocalization of medical accreditation standards serve as examples for others seeking to bring their accreditation practices in line with global standards while ensuring that local values and societal needs are given adequate consideration.

  5. Challenges in Education Research in Taiwan: Research Institutes and Organizations, Research Policies, and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, many education researchers and policy makers worldwide have reviewed education research to attempt to provide strategies to improve the quality of such research in their countries. Taiwan’s government has launched policies and funded support to set the benchmark for Taiwan’s leading universities in international academic competition. The external environment of global competition based on research policy influences the ecosystem of social science research production. To assure the quality of education policy, peer review from within the education community is one approach to supplementing the government’s governance, including the establishment of research institutes, promotion, rewards, and research value. This study tracked the mode of academic research and provides an overview of the status of academic education research in Taiwan. Because education research is part of the humanities and social sciences fields, this study identified the challenges in educational research by examining the trend of social science research and by analyzing research organizations, policy, and the evaluation of research performance. Due to the environment of education research in Taiwan is not friendly to education researcher to accumulate papers in SSCI or international journal, additional concerns entail how education research communities can develop and agree on its quality.

  6. Dynamical Competition of IC-Industry Clustering from Taiwan to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei; Tsai, Kuo-Hui

    2009-08-01

    Most studies employ qualitative approach to explore the industrial clusters; however, few research has objectively quantified the evolutions of industry clustering. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively analyze clustering among IC design, IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries by using the foreign direct investment (FDI) data. The Lotka-Volterra system equations are first adopted here to capture the competition or cooperation among such three industries, thus explaining their clustering inclinations. The results indicate that the evolution of FDI into China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDI of IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries. Since IC design industry lie in the upstream stage of IC production, the middle-stream IC manufacturing and downstream IC packing and testing enterprises tend to cluster together with IC design firms, in order to sustain a steady business. Finally, Taiwan IC industry's FDI amount into China is predicted to cumulatively increase, which supports the industrial clustering tendency for Taiwan IC industry. Particularly, the FDI prediction of Lotka-Volterra model performs superior to that of the conventional Bass model after the forecast accuracy of these two models are compared. The prediction ability is dramatically improved as the industrial mutualism among each IC production stage is taken into account.

  7. Inversion of GPS-measured coseismic displacements for source parameters of Taiwan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. T.; Chang, W. L.; Hung, H. K.; Yu, W. C.

    2016-12-01

    We performed a method of determining earthquake location, focal mechanism, and centroid moment tensor by coseismic surface displacements from daily and high-rate GPS measurements. Unlike commonly used dislocation model where fault geometry is calculated nonlinearly, our method makes a point source approach to evaluate these parameters in a solid and efficient way without a priori fault information and can thus provide constrains to subsequent finite source modeling of fault slip. In this study, we focus on the resolving ability of GPS data for moderate (Mw=6.0 7.0) earthquakes in Taiwan, and four earthquakes were investigated in detail: the March 27 2013 Nantou (Mw=6.0), the June 2 2013 Nantou (Mw=6.3) , the October 31 2013 Ruisui (Mw=6.3), and the March 31 2002 Hualien (ML=6.8) earthquakes. All these events were recorded by the Taiwan continuous GPS network with data sampling rates of 30-second and 1 Hz, where the Mw6.3 Ruisui earthquake was additionally recorded by another local GPS network with a sampling rate of 20 Hz. Our inverted focal mechanisms of all these earthquakes are consistent with the results of GCMT and USGS that evaluates source parameters by dynamic information from seismic waves. We also successfully resolved source parameters of the Mw6.3 Ruisui earthquake within only 10 seconds following the earthquake occurrence, demonstrating the potential of high-rate GPS data on earthquake early warning and real-time determination of earthquake source parameters.

  8. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan: a time trend analysis, 1987-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael; Konradsen, Flemming; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lin, Jin-Jia; Gunnell, David

    2012-07-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-third of suicides worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a commonly used method. We investigated trends in pesticide suicide, and factors associated with such trends, in Taiwan, a rapidly developing East Asian country. We conducted an ecological study using graphical approaches and Spearman's correlation coefficients to examine trends in pesticide suicide (1987-2010) in Taiwan in relation to pesticide sales, bans on selected pesticides, the proportion of the workforce involved in agriculture and unemployment. We compared pesticide products banned by the Taiwanese government with products that remained on the market and pesticides that accounted for the most poisoning deaths in Taiwan. Age-standardised rates of pesticide suicide showed a 67% reduction from 7.7 per 100,000 (42% of all suicides) in 1987 to 2.5 per 100,000 (12% of all suicides) in 2010, in contrast to a 69% increase in suicide rates by other methods. Pesticide poisoning was the most commonly used method of suicide in 1987 but had become the third most common method by 2010. The reduction was paralleled by a 66% fall in the workforce involved in agriculture but there was no strong evidence for its association with trends in pesticide sales, bans on selected pesticide products or unemployment. The bans mostly post-dated the decline in pesticide suicides; furthermore, they did not include products (e.g. paraquat) that accounted for most deaths and were mainly restricted to selected high-strength formulated products whilst their equivalent low-strength products were not banned. Access to pesticides, indicated by the size of agricultural workforce, appears to influence trends in pesticide suicide in Taiwan. Targeted bans on pesticides should focus on those products that account for most deaths.

  9. Myxomycetes of Taiwan (XX: A New Species of Cribraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hui Liu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cribraria angulospora C.H. Liu & J.H. Chang sp. Nov. is described and illustrated. It is characterized by crowded, tubular sporangia with conspicuous peridial net, and angular spores marked by warts or spines confined in large reticula. Key to the Cribraria species of Taiwan is also provided.

  10. Myxomycetes of Taiwan (XX): A New Species of Cribraria

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Hui Liu; Jong-How Chang

    2007-01-01

    Cribraria angulospora C.H. Liu & J.H. Chang sp. Nov. is described and illustrated. It is characterized by crowded, tubular sporangia with conspicuous peridial net, and angular spores marked by warts or spines confined in large reticula. Key to the Cribraria species of Taiwan is also provided.

  11. Policy Analysis of the English Graduation Benchmark in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Min

    2012-01-01

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…

  12. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  13. Characteristics of the First Human Milk Bank in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Proper management and operation of a human milk bank can support breastfeeding, and provide a safe alternative to artificial formula for feeding preterm or ill infants in Taiwan. Sustainability of the milk bank needs more propagation and financial support by health authorities.

  14. An investigation of snakebite antivenom usage in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The results partially support Taiwan Poison Control Center guidelines for treating the hemorrhagic-type venom snakebite. However, deficit in the guidelines for treatment of neurotoxic-type venom snakebite is obvious and new guidelines for treatment of neurotoxic-type venom snakebite and diagnosis should be developed.

  15. Microzonation of Seismic Hazard Potential in Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. S.; Lin, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Taiwan lies at the boundary between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasia plate. Accordingly, the majority of seismic energy release near Taiwan originates from the two subduction zones. It is therefore not surprising that Taiwan has repeatedly been struck by large earthquakes such as 1986 Hualien earthquake, 1999 Chi Chi and 2002 Hualien earthquake. Microzonation of seismic hazard potential becomes necessary in Taipei City for the Central Geological Survey announced the Sanchiao active fault as Category II. In this study, a catalog of more than 2000 shallow earthquakes occurred from 1900 to 2015 with Mw magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 8.2, and 11 disastrous earthquakes occurred from 1683-1899, as well as Sanchiao active fault in the vicinity are used to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taipei City for seismic microzonation. Furthermore, the probabilities of seismic intensity exceeding CWB intensity 5, 6, 7 and MMI VI, VII, VIII in 10, 30, and 50-year periods in the above areas are also analyzed for the seismic microzonation. Finally, by comparing with the seismic zoning map of Taiwan in current building code that was revised after 921 earthquakes, Results of this study will show which areas with higher earthquake hazard potential in Taipei City. They provide a valuable database for the seismic design of critical facilities. It will help mitigate Taipei City earthquake disaster loss in the future, as well as provide critical information for emergency response plans.

  16. Configuring School Image Assets of Colleges in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia Kun; Chen, Hsin Chu

    2018-01-01

    Higher education in Taiwan faces various challenges, such as the low-birth rate, blurred positioning, and lack of marketing concepts. In order to sustain, more effect strategies and actions resource should be implemented to enhance service of the colleges and universities. Therefore, image asset management becomes a critical start. This study aims…

  17. The Technology Transfer of the ICT Curriculum in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the process of "technology transfer", this paper aims to critically examine the production and usage of the information and communication technology (ICT) curriculum, and discusses its possibilities. It is found that the goals in both of the two stages of the ICT curriculum in Taiwan were rather "rhetorical". Three…

  18. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-tsao Shao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw, FishBase and GBIF (website see below. This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  19. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  20. Vocational Training for the Disabled in Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    For Taiwan, Republic of China, a nation with limited natural resources and a population of 22 million people in an area of only 36,000 square kilometers, the development and use of human resources plays a pivotal role in sustainable economic growth. Vocational education and training are two major human development methods. Since persons with…

  1. Molecular and epidemiological study of enterovirus D68 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, Tsuey-Li; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    As an immunofluorescence assay for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is not available in the enteroviruses surveillance network in Taiwan, EV-D68 may be the actual pathogen of untypeable enterovirus-suspected isolates. The untypeable isolates collected from 2007 through 2014 were identified by nucleic acid amplification-based methods and sequencing of the VP1 region to analyze the phylogeny and epidemiology of EV-D68 in Taiwan. Twenty-nine EV-D68 isolates were sequenced, including 15 Cluster 3 and 14 Cluster 1 viruses. Approximately 41% of the patients were children under 5 years of age and their infections peaked in August. The ratio of male to female patients was 1.5 and 3.67 for Cluster 3 and Cluster 1, respectively. Fever and respiratory symptoms were commonly reported in EV-D68-infected patients. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that EV-D68 isolates between 2007 and 2014 belonged to different clusters and existed for years, indicating that endemic circulation of EV-D68 existed in Taiwan. This study showed that EV-D68 has been endemic in Taiwan for some years despite a small number of positive cases. The continuous monitoring and efforts towards the improvement of diagnostic techniques are required to complete the surveillance system. This study provided the genetic and epidemiological information which could contribute to understanding the etiology and epidemiology of EV-D68. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ideal Careers Perceived by Education Major Undergraduates in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The higher educational institutions produce several times as many college graduates each year as there are jobs available recently in Taiwan. This coupled with the deep recession of economy in recent years have contributed to the intensified competition for jobs. The fierce unemployment among young people has revived the demand on the contribution…

  3. Notes on Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloris divaricata R. Br. var. cynodontoides (Bal. Lazarides, Boerhavia coccinea Mill., and Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit. are recently found naturalized in Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the three species. In addition, their distribution and notes on ecology and taxonomy are provided.

  4. Technological Literacy Education and Technological and Vocational Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2010-01-01

    Technology education in Taiwan is categorized into the following two types: (1) technological literacy education (TLE)--the education for all people to become technological literates; and (2) technological specialty education (TSE)--the education for specific people to become technicians and professionals for technology-related jobs. This paper…

  5. [The parenting practices of transnational marriage mothers in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Yu; Shu, Bih-Ching; Huang, Chiung-Chen

    2013-02-01

    Childhood experience is a cornerstone of personality development. A child's cognitive function, self-concept, and behavioral development relate significantly to parental attitudes as well as to the way they were treated during childhood. The literature suggests a significant association between parenting practices and the mental health of the parents, temperament of the child, and socio-cultural factors. Raising children is typically central to the life of transnational marriage women living in Taiwan. They view parenting children as a life transforming experience. However, they must invest more effort than local mothers to survive in Taiwan. Thus, it is worth investigating the parenting practices of this significant subset of Taiwan's population. This paper applied parenting concepts to describe the condition and possible problems of immigrant women in parenting children. Based on study results, we summarize transnational marriage and its impact on parenting practices. The authors hope this paper provides information useful to identifying parenting difficulties faced by immigrant mothers so that healthcare professionals can provide relevant information and assistance to improve overall parenting practices and benefit the development of Taiwan's youngest generation.

  6. Greenhouse design for vegetable production in subtropical climate in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Speetjens, S.L.; Wang, D.; Tsay, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan open field vegetable production is threatened by subtropical climatic disasters, such as high wind speeds and heavy rainfall, which can cause the destruction of whole crops. Next to that vegetable production is threatened by pests and diseases resulting a high need for pesticides.

  7. Etiology, Severity and Recurrence of Acute Pancreatitis in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Chen

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: Alcoholic pancreatitis was the major etiology of acute pancreatitis in southern Taiwan, exhibiting a strong male predominance and higher risk of severe CT grading. Abnormal serum triglyceride was independently associated with the severity of acute pancreatitis. Alcoholic pancreatitis had a higher risk of recurrence than other etiologies.

  8. Surface wind energy trends near Taiwan in winter since 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tropical surface wind speed in boreal winter reaches a maximum near Taiwan. This stable wind resource may be used for future clean energy development. How this surface wind energy source has changed in past 141 years is investigated using the 20th century reanalysis dataset and CMIP5 models. Our observational analysis shows that the surface wind speed experienced a weakening trend in the past 141 years (1871 - 2010. The average decreasing rate is around -1.4 m s-1 per century. The decrease is primarily attributed to the relative sea surface temperature (SST cooling in the subtropical North Pacific, which forces a large-scale low-level anti-cyclonic circulation anomaly in situ and is thus responsible for the southerly trend near Taiwan. The relative SST trend pattern is attributed mainly to the greenhouse gas effect associated with anthropogenic activities. The southerly trend near Taiwan is more pronounced in the boreal winter than in summer. Such seasonal difference is attributed to the reversed seasonal mean wind, which promotes more efficient positive feedback in the boreal winter. The CMIP5 historical run analysis reveals that climate models capture less SST warming and large-scale anti-cyclonic circulation in the subtropical North Pacific, but the simulated weakening trend of the surface wind speed near Taiwan is too small.

  9. A Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kae

    2018-01-01

    Parent-to-parent programs provide emotional and informational support to parents of children with special needs by matching trained and experienced parents with parents needing support. This study examined the implementation and effects of a Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan that supported 3 families of youngsters with special needs. Based on the…

  10. Cyperus surinamensis Rottb., A Newly Naturalized Sedge Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus surinamensis Rottb., a sedge species of tropical and subtropical American origins, has recently been naturalized in the northern part of Taiwan. The present study provides taxonomic description, line drawings and other relevant information. In addition, a comparison with similar species C. eragrostis Lam. is given.

  11. Couple Relationship Quality, Coparenting, and Fathering in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study examined connections among couple relationship quality, coparenting, and mother and father involvement in 100 families from urban Central Taiwan. Fathers and mothers with at least one school-age child completed questionnaires regarding their couple satisfaction and consensus, coparenting techniques and consistency, and involvement in…

  12. Human sex ratio at amniocentesis and at birth in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Wen Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that sex ratio was already skewed toward male at midtrimester. Our data imply that artificial sex selection, if it were present, might have already emerged prior to the timing of amniocentesis. However, more large nationwide studies on sex ratios in Taiwan are warranted.

  13. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan

    KAUST Repository

    Maharjan, Sumit

    2016-10-01

    In Taiwan, due to the limited capacity of waste cooking oil, palm oil has been viewed as the potential low-cost imported feedstock for producing biodiesel, in the way of obtaining oil feedstock in Malaysia and producing biodiesel in Taiwan. This study aims to evaluate the cradle-to-grave life cycle environmental performance of palm biodiesel within two different Asian countries, Malaysia and Taiwan. The phases of the life cycle such as direct land-use-change impact, plantation and milling are investigated based on the Malaysia case and those of refining, and fuel production as well as engine combustion is based on Taiwan case. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption for the whole life cycle were calculated as −28.29 kg CO2-equiv. and +23.71 MJ/kg of palm-derived biodiesel. We also analyze the impacts of global warming potential (GWP) and the payback time for recovering the GHG emissions when producing and using biodiesel. Various scenarios include (1) clearing rainforest or peat-forest; (2) treating or discharging palm-oil-milling effluent (POME) are further developed to examine the effectiveness of improving the environmental impacts © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  14. Preschool Principal's Curriculum Leadership Indicators: A Taiwan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fen; Lee, John Chi-Kin

    2013-01-01

    The role of a principal's curriculum leadership has become an educational issue in Taiwan's early childhood education. This study represents a pioneering attempt in adopting a target school interview, fuzzy Delphi, and analytic hierarchy process for constructing preschool principal's curriculum leadership indicators. Fifteen experts and…

  15. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan

    KAUST Repository

    Maharjan, Sumit; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Teah, Heng Yi

    2016-01-01

    . This study aims to evaluate the cradle-to-grave life cycle environmental performance of palm biodiesel within two different Asian countries, Malaysia and Taiwan. The phases of the life cycle such as direct land-use-change impact, plantation and milling

  16. Effective Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Yuan, C.; Fan, S.; Su, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the incident of radioactively contaminated buildings first surfaced in Taiwan in 1992, efforts have been made by AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan to prevent recurrence of similar incidents involving radioactive materials and to achieve effective regulatory control over radioactive sources. The most important milestone is when AEC began to enforce IRPA he Ionizing Radiation Protection Act with the promulgation of 18 relevant regulations on Feb. 1, 2003. In order to enhance accountability of radioactive material and equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation, AEC develops and begins implementing a RPCS Radiation Protection Control System which is a powerful tool in controlling radiation safety and security. In addition, AEC develops a monthly registration program via internet, an o n-line reporting system f or owners/operators of radioactive sources, to improve monitoring of sealed sources (in-use and not-in-use). The registration requirement applies to 469 licensees possessing about 3,000 sealed sources in Taiwan. Because of the threat of orphan sources, AEC has made great efforts in preventing their contamination of construction steel material by establishing and enforcing the RPMMPIRCB Regulation for Preventive Measures and Management Plans for Incident of Radioactively Contaminated Buildings. To comply with this regulation, all 19 of Taiwan's steel factories with melting furnace have installed portal-type radiation detection system to monitor incoming scrap metal. (Author)

  17. Energy Usage of Residents on Offshore Islands in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Cheng Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted through interviews on offshore islands in Taiwan to investigate the energy usage of local residents. A comparison of household appliance usage in mainland Taiwan with that on the offshore islands revealed that, overall, the most commonly used household appliances are steam cookers/rice cookers, water dispensers, and washing machines. For other household appliances, Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles have lower use penetration rates compared with those in mainland Taiwan and on Level 1 offshore isles, particularly for the use of computers. By contrast, the use penetration rate for chest freezers on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles is high, and each household has one or more freezers on average. This appliance is not a commonly observed household product in mainland Taiwan or on Level 1 offshore isles. Furthermore, because of the government policy, every household on parts of Level 2 offshore isles and on all Level 3 offshore isles has a fixed monthly charge of electricity. The transportation of liquefied petroleum gas is also inconvenient, and the gas price is slightly higher, leading to the tendency of residents to consume excessive amounts of electrical energy, which does not correspond with the aim of the government to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions; thus, the relevant authorities’ review and improvement on energy consumption on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles are required.

  18. Prevalence of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ching Hwang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of obesity and MS in Taiwan. The definitions of MS by the modified ATP III and MS-TW criteria were better able to detect high CVD risk than the MS-IDF(C criteria.

  19. Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Bai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is an important psychiatric disorder with different disease phases. The pharmacological treatment is complicated, and is updated frequently as new research evidence emerges. For the purpose of international collaboration, research, and education, the Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorders was initiated by the Taiwanese Society of Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (TSBPN – the Bipolar Chapter, which was established in August 2010 and approved as a member of International Society of Bipolar Disorder. TSBPN is the country member of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP. The development of the Taiwan consensus for bipolar disorder was mainly based on the template of WFSBP Guidelines, with references to other international guidelines including the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments, and British Association for Psychopharmacology. We have also added Taiwanese experts’ experience, Taiwan national health insurance data, and the indications for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder given by the Taiwan Department of Health, to emphasize the balance between efficacy and safety, and to make this consensus a concise, empirical, and important reference for clinical psychiatric practice.

  20. A Newly Naturalized Species in Taiwan: Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Nan Ko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized plant, Rauvolfia tetraphylla L., a native species of the Apocynaceae distributed in the tropical Americas, has recently been found in southern Taiwan. It is a new record for this species to the flora of this island. A detailed description, line-drawings, photographs and geographic distribution are provided for identification of this species.

  1. A Newly Naturalized Species in Taiwan: Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. (Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Nan Ko; Fu-Shan Chou; Chun-Kuei Liao

    2011-01-01

    A newly naturalized plant, Rauvolfia tetraphylla L., a native species of the Apocynaceae distributed in the tropical Americas, has recently been found in southern Taiwan. It is a new record for this species to the flora of this island. A detailed description, line-drawings, photographs and geographic distribution are provided for identification of this species.

  2. Policy analysis of the English graduation benchmark in Taiwan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author ...

  3. Quercetin modulates activities of Taiwan cobra phospholipase A 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 37; Issue 2. Quercetin modulates activities of Taiwan cobra phospholipase A2 via its effects on membrane structure and membrane-bound mode of phospholipase A2. Yi-Ling Chiou Shinne-Ren Lin Wan-Ping Hu Long-Sen Chang. Articles Volume 37 Issue 2 June 2012 pp ...

  4. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig ( Sus Scrofa ) | Chen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Taiwan Lanyu pig (Sus scrofa) and its phylogenetic relationships with other pig breeds. Thirty-four forward and reverse primers were designed. Sequencing was performed in both directions. The results showed ...

  5. The Ranking Phenomenon and the Experience of Academics in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the paper is to examine how global university rankings have influenced the higher education sector in Taiwan from the perspective of academics. A qualitative case study method was used to examine how university ranking influenced the Taiwanese higher education at institutional and individual levels, respectively, thereby…

  6. A Newly Naturalized Species in Taiwan: Phytolacca icosandra L. (Phytolaccaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytolacca icosandra L. (Phytolaccaceae, native to the South America has been found recently in central Taiwan. This newly naturalized species is distinguished by its erect spike-like racemes and 12–20 stamens. This paper describes the morphology of the species and provides line drawing and photographs for identification.

  7. Consolidating the University Career Service System in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hu, Tien-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The university graduate unemployment rate reached a record high of 6% in 2009 in Taiwan; paradoxically, business managers complained that they could not find enough qualified employees. The mismatch between knowledge taught in universities and the requests of the job market has been criticized as the main reason for the escalation of the…

  8. The status of energy conservation in Taiwan's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Te-Li; Chan, David Yih-Liang; Hung, Ching-Yuan; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry represents one of the most energy intensive sectors in Taiwan. Energy audits are the direct tools which are employed to help reduce energy consumption. The objectives of energy audits are to establish energy audit systems, provide on-site energy audit service and reduce production cost. This study summarized the energy savings implemented in Taiwan's cement industry; the data were obtained from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2010. The total implemented energy savings amounted to 68,512 kilo liter of crude oil equivalent (KLOE). The energy audit group audited seven Taiwanese cement plants in 2011 and revealed an energy saving potential of 2571.6 MWh of electricity and 1002.8 KLOE of thermal energy. The total potential energy saving was 1708.5 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), equivalent to a 4560 t reduction in CO 2 emissions, representing the annual CO 2 absorption capacity of a 122 ha forest plantation. - Highlights: • This study summarizes the energy savings implemented in Taiwan's cement industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System. • The energy audit group audited seven Taiwanese cement plants in 2011 and revealed energy saving potential was 1708.5 KLOE. • This work aims to examine what Taiwan has done and also describes the current status in cement industry. • In addition, some potential energy conservation opportunities or measures are revealed in this paper

  9. Stemodia L. (Scrophulariaceae, a Newly Naturalized Genus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shou Liang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stemodia verticillata (Mill. Hassl. (Scrophulariaceae was found in the lowlands of northern Taiwan. This represents a new naturalization not only for this species but also for the genus on this island. A taxonomic account of S. verticillata is treated in this study. A line-drawing, distribution map and photographs of this species are also provided to aid in identification.

  10. Educational expansion and inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, S. L.; Matějů, P.; Huang, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2016), s. 339-374 ISSN 0010-4086 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP404/12/J006 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : educational inequality * Taiwan * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.231, year: 2016

  11. Exploring "Gift" Theories for New Immigrants' Literacy Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Ho-Chia

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses "the gift" as the central concept in a discussion about the literacy education for new immigrants that has been developing in Taiwan since the early 1990s. The point of departure for this discussion is the advent of international marriages that are the consequence of new arrivals from Southeast Asia and China, and…

  12. Environment-adjusted regional energy efficiency in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jin-Li; Lio, Mon-Chi; Yeh, Fang-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the four-stage DEA procedure to calculate the energy efficiency of 23 regions in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007. After controlling for the effects of external environments, only Taipei City, Chiayi City, and Kaohsiung City are energy efficient. Note that Kaohsiung City reaches the efficiency frontier due to the adjustment via partial environmental factors such as higher education attainment and transport vehicles. We also find a worsening trend for Taiwan's energy efficiency. Not only is there a gap of energy efficiency between Taiwan's metropolitan areas and the other regions, but the gap has also widened in recent years. Those inefficient counties should be given priority and the savings potential. Except for road density, the evidence indicates that each environmental factor has partial incremental effects on input slacks. As more cars and motorcycles are unfavorable externalities affecting partial energy efficiency, the central government should help local governments retire inefficient old motor vehicles, encourage energy-saving vehicle models, and provide convenient mass transportation systems. Besides, people with higher education cause industrial energy inefficient in Taiwan. The conscious of effective energy saving is necessary to schools, communities, and employee accordingly.

  13. A trend analysis of ergonomic research themes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of ergonomics in Taiwan by analysing 1404 scientific articles published by 113 permanent members of the Ergonomics Society of Taiwan (EST). Each article was classified by key words and abstract content. Each article was also coded by period of publication (1971-1992 (first period), 1993-1997 (second period), 1998-2002 (third period), 2003-2007 (fourth period), and 2008-2012 (fifth period), and against 13 topic categories. The results show that rate of publication has increased by approximately 100 articles every five years since 1993.The most popular topic was ergonomics assessment and analysis techniques in the first period, force exertion-related research in the second period, product design and evaluation in the third period, occupational safety and health in the fourth period and human-computer interface in the fifth period. Each of these is highly relevant to current contemporary issues around the world. Finally, potential areas for future ergonomics research in Taiwan are discussed. This study investigates the trends in academic papers published by members of the EST. Over time, topics have shifted from ergonomics evaluation methods to occupational safety and health, and human–computer interaction. The findings should be considered as important references for planning the future of ergonomics in Taiwan.

  14. Essays on the IT Industry in Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three studies on the development of information technology (IT) industry in Korea and Taiwan. Using industry-level data from those countries, I would like to investigate why similar economies would take different paths toward developing their industries. The first chapter, "Span of Control and Production…

  15. A Critical Study of Vocational-Industrial Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Po-Ken

    This study was concerned with determining the kind of vocational-industrial educational programs that would best suit the needs of Taiwan. The general conditions and provisions of 27 existing vocational-industrial programs were studied to determine their strengths and weaknesses and to provide a set of principles that would serve as guideposts for…

  16. Tide-surge Interaction Intensified by the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhou; Shi, Fengyan; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Shang, Shao-Ping; Kirby, James T.

    2010-06-01

    The Taiwan Strait is a long and wide shelf-channel where the hydrodynamics is extremely complex, being characterized by strong tides, and where storm surges frequently occur during the typhoon season. Obvious oscillations due to tide-surge interaction were observed by tide gauges along the northern Fujian coast, the west bank of the Taiwan Strait, during Typhoon Dan (1999). Numerical experiments indicate that nonlinear bottom friction (described by the quadratic formula) is a major factor to predict these oscillations while the nonlinear advective terms and the shallow water effect have little contribution. It is found that the tide-surge interaction in the northern portion of the Taiwan Strait is intensified by the strait. Simulations based on simplified topographies with and without the island of Taiwan show that, in the presence of the island, the channel effect strengthens tidal currents and tends to align the major axes of tidal ellipses along the channel direction. Storm-induced currents are also strengthened by the channel. The pattern of strong tidal currents and storm-induced currents along the channel direction enhances tide-surge interaction via the nonlinear bottom friction, resulting in the obvious oscillations along the northern Fujian coast.

  17. On summer stratification and tidal mixing in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Zhiyu

    2013-06-01

    On continental shelves, a front that separates the sea into well-mixed and stratified zones is usually formed in warm seasons due to spatial variations of tidal mixing. In this paper, using eight years of in situ hydrographic observations, satellite images of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration, and results of a tidal model, we investigate summer stratification in the Taiwan Strait and its dependence on tidal mixing, upwelling, and river diluted water plumes. In most regions of the strait the dominant role of tidal mixing in determining the thermohaline structure is confirmed by the correlation between the two; there are some regions, however, where thermohaline structure varies in different ways owing to significant influences of upwelling and river diluted water plumes. The well-mixed regions are mainly distributed on the Taiwan Bank and in the offshore regions off the Dongshan Island, Nanao Island, and Pingtan Island, while the northern and central Taiwan Strait and the region south of the Taiwan Bank are stratified. The critical Simpson-Hunter parameter for the region is estimated to be 1.78.

  18. Policies and Practices in Educational Gerontology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Huang, Chin-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Policy on educational gerontology seems a relatively recent subfield in most countries' social policies. The concept of education for older adults did not appear in Taiwan's political discourse until 1980. The purposes of this paper are to provide an overall introduction to the development of educational gerontology policies and practices in…

  19. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES AND PROSPECTS - TAIWAN MIRACLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, B

    1990-01-01

    Energy use in Taiwan has grown exponentially at rates of 8-10%/year between 1952 and 1988. Official scenarios, based on an average of 6.5%/year economic growth, extrapolate another doubling to tripling of energy and electricity use for the beginning of the next century. With help of a simple model,

  20. Internationalization versus Localization: "The Case of Primary Education in Taiwan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Ho, Hsuan-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Internationalization is receiving increasing attention at academic institutions all over the world. Taiwan is no exception, where the government is promoting internationalization not only in higher education, but also at the primary education level. In this research we identified the key factors of the internationalization of primary education in…

  1. Parents' Perspectives on Adopting English Names in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Yen; Ke, I-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of English names in Taiwan through questionnaires and interviews with parents of junior high school students. In total, 564 parents filled out a questionnaire regarding their adoption of an English name, reasons for needing an English name, and their perspectives about their child's English name. We interviewed…

  2. Comparing PETS and GEPT in China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the Public English Test System (PETS) administered in mainland, China and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) administered in Taiwan, from the aspects of test levels, test contents and scoring weight. Compared with the PETS, the GEPT is found to value the English productive skills more, and have a greater ability to…

  3. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  4. Exploring the Mechanism of Tonal Contraction in Taiwan Mandarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, C.; Xu, Y.; Gubian, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the mechanism of tonal contraction when a disyllabic unit is merged into a monosyllable at fast speech rate in Taiwan Mandarin. Various degrees of contraction of bi-tonal sequences were elicited by manipulating speech rates. Functional Data Analysis was performed to compare

  5. Learning Vietnamese as a Heritage Language in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Ching; Ho, Hsiang-Ju; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Taiwanese Government began a campaign to encourage new immigrants to teach their native languages (heritage languages) to their children. However, these heritage languages are seldom used in cross-national families and the effectiveness of formal heritage language courses in Taiwan has yet to be explored. The present study examines…

  6. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Sedation: A 2010 Nationwide Survey in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hon Chen

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: A majority of pediatric EGD in Taiwan was performed under sedation and applied more often to younger children. Endoscopists were more satisfied during EGD when practicing sedation. This survey should help formulate updated practice guidelines and policies regarding endoscopic sedation.

  7. Orchidaceous Additions to the Floras of China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Taiwanese orchids has revealed a variety of new and noteworthy data pertinent to the floras of China and Taiwan. Three new combinations are proposed, viz. Anoectochilus baotingensis, Oberonia sinica and Odontochilus nanlingensis.

  8. Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

    A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,…

  9. Use of Facebook by Hospitals in Taiwan: A Nationwide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media advertising has become increasingly influential in recent years. Because Facebook has the most active users worldwide, many hospitals in Taiwan have created official Facebook fan pages. Our study was to present an overview of official Facebook fan pages of hospitals in Taiwan. Methods: All 417 hospitals were surveyed about their use of Facebook fan pages in December 2017. The last update time, posts in the past 30 days, number of “Likes”, and other features were analyzed and stratified according to the accreditation statuses of the hospitals. Results: In Taiwan, only 51.1% (n = 213 of the hospitals had an official Facebook fan page. Among these hospitals, 71.8% (n = 153 had updated their pages in the past 30 days, although 89.2% (n = 190 provided online interactions. Academic medical centers tended to have more “Likes” than regional and local community hospitals (on average 5947.4, 2644.8, and 1548.0, respectively. Conclusions: In spite of the popularity of Facebook among the general population, most hospitals in Taiwan do not seem to make good use of this kind of social media. The reasons for the use and nonuse of Facebook on the part of both hospitals and patients deserve further investigation.

  10. Use of Facebook by Hospitals in Taiwan: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Chin; Lee, Wui-Chiang; Liu, Hao-Yen; Shih, Mei-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2018-06-06

    Background : Social media advertising has become increasingly influential in recent years. Because Facebook has the most active users worldwide, many hospitals in Taiwan have created official Facebook fan pages. Our study was to present an overview of official Facebook fan pages of hospitals in Taiwan. Methods : All 417 hospitals were surveyed about their use of Facebook fan pages in December 2017. The last update time, posts in the past 30 days, number of “Likes”, and other features were analyzed and stratified according to the accreditation statuses of the hospitals. Results : In Taiwan, only 51.1% ( n = 213) of the hospitals had an official Facebook fan page. Among these hospitals, 71.8% ( n = 153) had updated their pages in the past 30 days, although 89.2% ( n = 190) provided online interactions. Academic medical centers tended to have more “Likes” than regional and local community hospitals (on average 5947.4, 2644.8, and 1548.0, respectively). Conclusions : In spite of the popularity of Facebook among the general population, most hospitals in Taiwan do not seem to make good use of this kind of social media. The reasons for the use and nonuse of Facebook on the part of both hospitals and patients deserve further investigation.

  11. Traditional Chinese Celebrations: Continuity and Change in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wendy L.

    This teaching unit is designed to introduce elementary school students to traditional Chinese celebrations in Taiwan. An introductory activity asks students to distinguish between various kinds of celebrations (traditional or modern; religious or secular), and to identify U.S. and Chinese examples of each kind. The body of the unit concerns four…

  12. Analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Yeh, Tai-Her; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2010-01-01

    ) and load tap changers on power-quality improvement of the studied WF. With 23 2-MW DFIG-type wind turbine generators, this WF is connected to the 161-kV extra high-voltage substation of Taiwan Power System through a 23/161-kV 60-MVA step-up main transformer from six feeders with CLRs. Through comparing...

  13. Analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Yeh, Tai-Her; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2009-01-01

    wind farm. With twenty-three 2-MW DFIG-type wind turbine generators, this wind farm is connected to the 161-kV extra high-voltage substation of Taiwan Power System through a 23/161-kV, 60-MVA step-up main transformer from six feeders. Through comparing field measured results, this paper establishes...

  14. Management of Poisonous Snake Bites in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Ping Chang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomation is not uncommon in Taiwan. This study focuses on the pattern of poisonous snake bites and their management in southern Taiwan over a 5-year period. The case histories of 37 patients with poisonous snake bites admitted to the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between June 2001 and July 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Three patients, bitten by unknown species of venomous snakes, were excluded from this study. The frequency of snake bites from each species of snake, the local and systemic manifestations of snake bite, treatment of complications and final outcomes were analyzed. Of the remaining 34 patients, 11 (32.4% were bitten by bamboo vipers, 10 (29.4% by Russell's pit vipers, 8 (23.5% by Taiwan cobras and 5 (14.7% by Taiwan Habu. The majority of snake bites (28 occurred between May and November. Those affected were mainly outdoor hikers (14 and workers (9. The antivenin requirements for treatment in the emergency room were in accordance with standard procedures. No mortality was noted among those envenomed by poisonous snakes. Although poisonous snake bite is not a common life-threatening emergency in the study area, we observed both an environmental risk and a seasonal incidence of snake bite. Keeping the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite in mind is important for effective management. Ready availability and appropriate use of antivenin, close monitoring of patients, institution of ventilatory support and early referral to a larger hospital when required, all help reduce mortality.

  15. New Energy Villages in Taiwan and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Wang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan locates in the active tectonic subdution and collision belts, therefore, the geothermal gradient is very high and have found 128 sites of high geothermal areas; 20% of them have the temperature between 75 - 200 degree C in which they can be directly used for the electricity generation; 50% of them are in 50 - 74 degree C and the rest 30% are below 50 degree C. These areas need the deep drillings to get into higher temperature for power energy. The first 20% high temperature areas are mostly located in the coastal or mountain regions. The government is interesting to develop these areas as the "New Energy Villages" so that they can not only become self-energy sufficient sites, but also to protect themself from being the loss of electricity and water during the typhoon and earthquake hazards. The multiple usages of hot water (such as the first power generation and then the hot spring utilization) have its merits. China, in the other hand, is not within the present-day active tectonic zone. However, the recent Sino Probe Experiments (Deep Exploration in China) have mapped the Cetaceous plate boundaries in the coast of China. The heat is still possibly migrating to near the surface through the existing structures. For example, the Feng Shun Geothermal Power Station in north of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, used the 96 degree C hot water from a well of 800 m producing a small amount of 300 KW power since 1984. The Guangdong Province is located in the edge of Mesozoic South China Plate. Further in land, the Huang Mountain, one of the world heritage sites, is located at the boundary of another Mesozoic Yangtze River Plate. There is not a geothermal power plant; however, a number of hot springs are in a booming tour business at the foot hill of the mountain. The electricity has to come from a long way of net working. If China develops the local, small, but sufficient power plants by using the modern geothermal exploration and drilling techniques. The "New Energy

  16. Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Un-In; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Chen, Mei-Chen; Li, Shu-Ying; Hsu, Le-Yin; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1135 carbapenem-resistant (nonsusceptible) Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates were recovered between November 2010 and July 2012 (517 from 2010-2011 and 618 from 2012) from 4 hospitals in Taiwan. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) comprised 5.0% (57 isolates), including 17 KPC-2 (16 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1 Escherichia coli), 1 NDM-1 (K. oxytoca), 37 IMP-8 (26 Enterobacter cloacae, 4 Citrobacter freundii, 4 Raoultella planticola, 1 K. pneumoniae, 1 E. coli and 1 K. oxytoca), and 2 VIM-1 (1 E. cloacae, 1 E. coli). The KPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae were highly clonal even in isolates from different hospitals, and all were ST11. IMP-8 positive E. cloacae from the same hospitals showed higher similarity in PFGE pattern than those from different hospitals. A total of 518 CRE isolates (45.6%) were positive for bla ESBL, while 704 (62.0%) isolates were bla AmpC-positive, 382 (33.6% overall) of which carried both bla ESBL and bla AmpC. CTX-M (414, 80.0%) was the most common bla ESBL, while DHA (497, 70.6%) and CMY (157, 22.3%) were the most common bla AmpC. Co-carriage of bla ESBL and bla AmpC was detected in 31 (54.4%) and 15 (26.3%) of the 57 CPE, respectively. KPC-2 was the most common carbapenemase detected in K. pneumoniae (2.8%), while IMP-8 was the most common in E. cloacae (9.7%). All KPC-2-positive CRE were resistant to all three tested carbapenems. However, fourteen of the 37 IMP-8-positive CRE were susceptible to both imipenem and meropenem in vitro. Intra- and inter-hospital spread of KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae and IMP-8-producing E. cloacae likely occurred. Although the prevalence of CPE is still low, careful monitoring is urgently needed. Non-susceptibility to ertapenem might need to be considered as one criterion of definition for CRE in areas where IMP type carbapenemase is prevalent. PMID:25794144

  17. Photochemical production of ozone and control strategy for Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Chein-Jung; Liu, Shaw Chen; Chang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chou, Charles C. K.; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Young, Chea-Yuan

    An observation-based method (OBM) is developed to evaluate the ozone (O 3) production efficiency (O 3 molecules produced per NO x molecule consumed) and O 3 production rate ( P(O 3)) during a field campaign in southern Taiwan. The method can also provide an estimate of the concentration of OH. A key step in the method is to use observed concentrations of two aromatic hydrocarbons, namely ethylbenzene and m, p-xylene, to estimate the degree of photochemical processing and amounts of photochemically consumed NO x and NMHCs by OH. In addition, total oxidant (O 3+NO 2) instead of O 3 itself turns out to be very useful for representing ozone production in the OBM approach. The average O 3 production efficiency during the field campaign in Fall (2003) is found to be about 10.2±3.9. The relationship of P(O 3) with NO x is examined and compared with a one-dimensional (1D) photochemical model. Values of P(O 3) derived from the OBM are slightly lower than those calculated in the 1D model. However, OH concentrations estimated by the OBM are about a factor of 2 lower than the 1D model. Fresh emissions, which affect the degree of photochemical processing appear to be a major cause of the underestimate. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) OBM O 3 production diagram that resembles the EKMA ozone isopleth diagram to study the relationship of the total oxidant versus O 3 precursors. The 3D OBM O 3 production diagram suggests that reducing emissions of NMHCs are more effective in controlling O 3 than reducing NO x. However, significant uncertainties remain in the OBM, and considerable more work is required to minimize these uncertainties before a definitive control strategy can be reached. The observation-based approach provides a good alternative to measuring peroxy radicals for evaluating the production of O 3 and formulating O 3 control strategy in urban and suburban environments.

  18. Characteristics of Broadband Seismic Noise in Taiwan and Neighboring Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wei; Rau, Ruey-Juin

    2017-04-01

    We used seismic waveform data from 115 broad-band stations of BATS (Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica) and Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network from 2012 to 2016 for noise-level mapping in Taiwan and neighboring islands. We computed Power Spectral Density (PSD) for each station and analyzed long-term variance of microseism energy and polarizations of noise for severe weather events. The island of Taiwan is surrounded by ocean and the Central Range which has the highest peak Jade Mountain at 3,952 meters height occupies more than 66% of the island and departs it into the east and west coasts. The geographic settings then result in the high population density in the western plain and northern Taiwan. The dominant noise source in the microseism band (periods from 4-20 seconds) is the coupling between the near-coast ocean and sea floor which produces the high noise of averaging -130 dB along the west coastal area. In the eastern volcanic-arc coastal areas, the noise level is about 7% smaller than the west coast due to its deeper offshore water depth. As for the shorter periods (0.1-0.25 seconds) band, the so-called culture noise, an anthropic activity variance with the highest -103 dB can be identified in the metropolitan areas, such as the Taipei city and the noise level in the Central Range area is averaging -138 dB. Moreover, the noise also shows a daily and temporal evolution mainly related to the traffic effect. Furthermore, we determined the noise level for the entire island of Taiwan during 26-28 September, 2016, when the typhoon Megi hit the island and retrieved the enhancement of secondary microseism energy for each stations. Typhoon Megi landed in eastern and central Taiwan and reached the maximum wind speed of 45m/s in the surrounded eyewall. The Central Range, as a barrier, decreased the wind speed in southern Taiwan making an enhancement less than 10 dB, while in northern Taiwan where the direction the typhoon headed to, can reach more than 35

  19. Physician supply and demand in anatomical pathology in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Yi; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2011-02-01

    Anatomical pathology was not popular in Taiwan a few decades ago, with a severe shortage of pathologists. However, there has been a steady increase in recent years, and now there is a threat of oversupply We evaluated supply and demand over the past three decades and compared the findings with other countries. We collected the enrollment data of pathologists and physicians from the Taiwan Society of Pathology, the Department of Health, Executive Yuan, and Taiwan Medical Association, and analyzed equivalent data from other countries. We sent questionnaires to pathology chiefs to inquire about future job vacancies. The number of pathologists has increased at an annual rate of 4.93% between 2004 and 2008, in contrast to 3.7% for all physicians. There has been a net annual increase of 12 pathologists in the past 13 years. The estimated average number of consultant posts per year was nine, which was only one-third of the average number of first-year residents (R1s). The number of pathologists/million population in Taiwan was 14.83, which was comparable to that in Japan and South Korea but much smaller than that in Canada and the United States. The ratio of pathologists to physicians in Taiwan was 0.97%, which was higher than that in Japan (0.68%) and South Korea (0.64%), but lower than in Canada (1.32%) and the United States (1.46%). On average, 1.79% of medical graduates chose pathology for their R1 training in Taiwan, which was higher than that in the United States (1.50%) and Canada (1.10-1.20%). Anatomical pathology is no longer a specialty that is facing a physician shortage in Taiwan, and there is now a relatively high pathologist/physician ratio among Asian countries. We suggest that a decrease in the number of R1s in pathology is needed to maintain a balance between supply and demand. Copyright © 2011 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Case Study of the Activity Gravitational Deformation Slate Slope on One Newly Rebuild Highway Bridge in Taitung Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Chen; Weng, Cheng-Hsueh; Lu, An; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2017-04-01

    There are many landslide hazards induced by typhoon and earthquake in Taiwan because Taiwan is located in active orogen zone, where the Taitung Longitudinal Valley is the plate boundary, and also many typhoons hit Taiwan and bring much precipitation. In Japan, where also is located in orogen zone, the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake caused a large landslide which destroyed the Great Aso Bridge. It shows that landslides might have huge influence on the safety of bridges. In Sep. 2016, Typhoon No.14 (Meranti) hit Taiwan and caused a slate slope failure which located in Taitung Longitudinal Valley. It cut the approach road of a highway bridge called Songfeng Bridge and the maximum displacement is about 2 meters. The landslide body might include the bridge, and if this landslide continued move the bridge structure might be destroyed. The attitude of cleavage and joints measured in site investigation are complex and confused, it imply that this landslide event is not only controlled by gravitational deformation, but also affected by release joint and river erosion because the site is located on confluence of two river. The target of site investigation in this research includes finding the border of failure surface and the measurement of cleavage and joints. In this research, we compare the result of site investigation and numerical model to find the mechanism of failure, and try to analysis the possible influence on the bridge structure.

  1. Case Experience of Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: From an Ex Vivo Animal Study to an Initial Ablation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsang Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is a minimally invasive technique, used with ultrasound or computed tomography guidance, which can produce tissue coagulation necrosis in various kinds of tumors in the human body. In the past 10 years, numerous studies about RFA in benign thyroid nodules have been published. Reviewing these studies, we noticed that the effectiveness of ablation was higher when it was performed with the “moving-shot technique” via an internally cooled electrode. A consensus statement published from the Korean Society of Radiology also suggested the moving-shot technique as a standard ablation procedure for benign thyroid nodule ablation in Korea. In Taiwan, most symptomatic benign nodules are currently treated with surgical removal. RFA for mass lesions is primarily performed for the treatment of metastatic hepatic tumors. In our case, we have attempted to introduce RFA for benign thyroid nodules in Taiwan. Because endocrinologists in Taiwan were not familiar with this technique, we adopted a stepwise approach in learning how to perform RFA. We conducted ex vivo animal ablation exercises to gain experience in setting the radiofrequency generator for the right ablation mode and appropriate power output. The thyroid nodule volume reduction rate after 1 year of follow up was approximately 50% in this case. The most important thing we learned from this trial is that we confirmed the safety of thyroid nodule ablation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study of RFA of a thyroid nodule in Taiwan.

  2. Free-Air Gravity Map of Taiwan and Its Applications

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    Horng-Yuan Yen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available An island-wide gravity in Taiwan was conducted by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, between 1980 and 1987. The 603 stations at which the gravity values were determined included 308 points in the 500 m or higher mountain range where few readings were available previously. The average spacing of the stations in the present survey is about 7 km apart. A new Free-air gravity anomaly map has been constructed based on these values. The map is dominated by a NNE-SSW gravity high trend with a maximum value of 300 mgal, that follows closely the Central Range, a folded and faulted mountain belt with many peaks 3000 m or higher. The magnitude of the Free-air anomaly in the Taiwan area is quite large compared to that elsewhere in the world. The good correlation between the Free-air anomaly and elevation suggests that the Taiwan area is not in isostatic equilibrium. An average surface rock density of 2.57 g cm-3 is estimated from the Free-air gravity data by using the least-squares method. This value can be used for both terrain and Bouguer corrections. The undulation of the geoid and the deflections of the vertical in the Taiwan area are also calculated by using the Free-air anomaly data. The geoid undulation is not rugged over the Taiwan area. The maximum difference is about 5 m. And the deflection of the vertical seems mainly to be affected by both land and submarine topographies.

  3. Seasonal Prediction of Taiwan's Streamflow Using Teleconnection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Jeng; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal streamflow as an integrated response to complex hydro-climatic processes can be subject to activity of prevailing weather systems potentially modulated by large-scale climate oscillations (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO). To develop a seamless seasonal forecasting system in Taiwan, this study assesses how significant Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow in different seasons correlate with selected teleconnection patterns. Long-term precipitation and streamflow data in three major precipitation seasons, namely the spring rains (February to April), Mei-Yu (May and June), and typhoon (July to September) seasons, are derived at 28 upstream and 13 downstream catchments in Taiwan. The three seasons depict a complete wet period of Taiwan as well as many regions bearing similar climatic conditions in East Asia. Lagged correlation analysis is then performed to investigate how the precipitation and streamflow data correlate with predominant teleconnection indices at varied lead times. Teleconnection indices are selected only if they show certain linkage with weather systems and activity in the three seasons based on previous literature. For instance, the ENSO and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, proven to influence East Asian climate across seasons and summer typhoon activity, respectively, are included in the list of climate indices for correlation analysis. Significant correlations found between Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow and teleconnection indices are further examined by a climate regime shift (CRS) test to identify any abrupt changes in the correlations. The understanding of existing CRS is useful for informing the forecasting system of the changes in the predictor-predictand relationship. To evaluate prediction skill in the three seasons and skill differences between precipitation and streamflow, hindcasting experiments of precipitation and streamflow are conducted using stepwise linear regression models. Discussion and suggestions for coping

  4. Religiosity influences on bereavement adjustments of older widows in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shaw-Nin; Turale, Sue; Shih, Fu-Jin; Tsai, Jen-Chen

    2010-03-01

    To describe difficulties encountered by older widows in Taiwan and the impact of intrinsic or extrinsic religiosity on their coping strategies during early widowhood. There is very limited information about how Taiwan's widows cope with their bereavement and no studies reporting the relationship between religious beliefs and healthy adjustment during this distressing period. Between-method qualitative and quantitative triangulation was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed data were analysed by critical thematic analysis. Twenty women in Taiwan, >65 years old, (mean = 72.95) were interviewed within three years of being widowed. There were two informant groups: those with intrinsic religious beliefs and those with extrinsic religious beliefs. They all reported intrapersonal and interpersonal problems. Several major coping strategies arose: 'practising positive or negative attitudes for adaptation'; 'using person-focused actions'; and 'taking the initiative or passively seeking help from others or helping others'. Informants with intrinsic religious beliefs reported fewer coping problems by holding positive attitudes and taking multiple actions for adaptation. The extrinsic religious group had more negative adaptation attitudes, such as withdrawal and low self-esteem and practised less faith religious activities in worshipping ancestors, experiencing fatalism and using divination. They reported more coping problems than the intrinsic religious group. Widows in Taiwan have different coping problems and strategies in postbereavement adjustment, affected by their different religious beliefs systems. More research is required to establish the generalisabilty of these findings. Widows in Taiwan need to be assessed for their religious belief systems and how this affects their ability to cope during bereavement. Clinicians should actively provide grief support and encourage new methods of social adaptation, especially with widows with extrinsic

  5. Grey forecasting model for CO2 emissions: A Taiwan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiun-Sin; Liou, Fen-May; Huang, Chih-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. → The CARMA indicates that the Taichung coal-fired power plants had the highest CO 2 emissions in the world. → GM(1,1) prediction accuracy is fairly high. → The results show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. -- Abstract: Among the various greenhouse gases associated with climate change, CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. The latest data from Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA) shows that the coal-fired power plant in Taichung, Taiwan emitted 39.7 million tons of CO 2 in 2007 - the highest of any power plant in the world. Based on statistics from Energy International Administration, the annual CO 2 emissions in Taiwan have increased 42% from 1997 until 2006. Taiwan has limited natural resources and relies heavily on imports to meet its energy needs, and the government must take serious measures control energy consumption to reduce CO 2 emissions. Because the latest data was from 2009, this study applied the grey forecasting model to estimate future CO 2 emissions in Taiwan from 2010 until 2012. Forecasts of CO 2 emissions in this study show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. Overall, the GM(1,1) predicted further increases in CO 2 emissions over the next 3 years. Although Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations and is not bound by the Kyoto Protocol, the findings of this study provide a valuable reference with which the Taiwanese government could formulate measures to reduce CO 2 emissions by curbing the unnecessary the consumption of energy.

  6. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

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    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future water needs, regional reservoir effective capacity and renewable water resource volume. This paper uses three water resource assessment indicators: the annual water utilization ratio indicator, the water shortage indicator and the extreme event occurrence indicator. Through fuzzy comprehensive assessment, we divide the evaluation set into five levels: very good (L1, good (L2, fair (L3, poor (L4 and very poor (L5. Results indicate that, given the effects of future climate change (2080 - 2099 and the increase in water demand, future water resources conditions in northern and eastern Taiwan will not be significantly different from historical levels (1979 - 1998 and will maintain a ¡§good¡¨ level (L2, while the conditions in southern Taiwan will visibly deteriorate from its historical ¡§fair¡¨ level (L3 to ¡§poor¡¨ (L4; and the future conditions for central Taiwan will be ¡§poor¡¨ (L4. The initiation of adaptation options for water management in southern and central Taiwan would be needed by increasing reservoir capacity and reducing overall water use.

  7. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.

  8. The Deep Electrical Structure of Southern Taiwan and Its Tectonic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan orogen has formed as a result of the arc-continent collision between the Eurasian continental margin and the Luzon volcanic arc over the last 5 million years and is the type example of an arc-continent collision. The tectonic processes at work beneath Taiwan are still debated; the available data have been interpreted with both thin-skinned and lithospheric collision models. In 2004, the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamical Research (TAIGER project began a systematic investigation of the crustal and upper mantle structure beneath Taiwan. TAIGER magnetotelluric (MT data from central Taiwan favor a thick-skinned model for that region. The Taiwan orogen becomes younger to the south, so the earlier stages of collision were investigated with a 100-km-long MT profile in southern Taiwan at latitude of 23.3¢XN. Data were recorded at 15 MT sites and tensor decomposition and two-dimensional inversion were applied to the MT data. The shallow electrical resistivity structure is in good agreement with surface geology. The deeper structure shows a major conductor in the mid-crust that can be explained by fluid content of 0.4 - 1.4%. A similar feature was observed in central Taiwan, but with a higher fluid content. The conductor in southern Taiwan extends to lower crustal depths and is likely caused by fluids generated by metamorphic reactions in a thickened crust. Together the central and southern Taiwan MT profiles show a crustal root beneath the Central Range.

  9. Quality of Care for Lung Cancer in Taiwan: A Pattern of Care Based on Core Measures in the Taiwan Cancer Database Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ru Chien

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: It is very likely that significant variation in QOC for lung cancer in Taiwan exists among different types but not locations of hospitals, at least in the diagnostic domain. The introduction of internal benchmarking (TCDB and core measures was associated with some changes, at least in some diagnostic domains, which may lead to improvement in QOC for lung cancer in Taiwan.

  10. Nurses' beliefs, experiences and practice regarding complementary and alternative medicine in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme D; Wu, Shu-Chen

    2012-09-01

    To gain an insight into this issue, this study used a qualitative approach and aims to explore and describe nurses' beliefs, experiences and practice regarding complementary and alternative medicine in Taiwan. The integration of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional medicine has become more common worldwide in recent years. An increase in patient use and an expansion of nurses using complementary and alternative medicine has spawned further investigation. Most published studies have concentrated on the usage of complementary and alternative medicine in western societies and have focused principally on physicians' attitudes and practice patterns in this regard. Despite the large amount of time and the unique relationship that nurses share with their patients, little research has investigated the nurse's attitudes and practice regarding complementary and alternative medicine. Moreover, there has been no previous research into understanding this issue from the Taiwanese nursing perspective. A qualitative research design. By using an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative approach, data were collected from 11 registered nurses. The methods of the data collection were in-depth, semi-structured interviews, field notes and memos and the data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Three major categories emerged from the data; namely, a 'lack of clear definition', 'limited experience' and 'high interest' towards complementary and alternative medicine. These results suggest that the definition of complementary and alternative medicine is often unclear for nurses in Taiwan. Due to the organisational policies and personal knowledge base, very few nurses integrate complementary and alternative medicine into their daily practice. However, the nurses in Taiwan show a great desire to participate in complementary and alternative medicine continuing education programmes. This study is not only significant in filling the gap in the existing literature

  11. The occurrence and geochemistry of arsenic in groundwaters of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Lu, H.; Liu, T.

    2008-12-01

    Blackfoot disease caused by digesting water with high concentration (>0.3 mg/L) of arsenic from deep wells affected thousands of people in Chianan of Taiwan during 1930 to 1960. Drinking water with arsenic, even in a lower concentration (0.1-0.01 mg/L) increase risk of cancer that had been demonstrated by a number of studies on Taiwan. By concerning the effects of long-term chronic exposure to arsenic, the EPA of United States had revised the regulatory limit of arsenic for drinking water from 0.05 to 0.01 mg/L in 2006. Many researches have investigated on the occurrence and chemistry of the arsenic-contained groundwater and its health effects in Chianan of Taiwan. However, there are only a few studies on the other groundwater basins of Taiwan that providing about one third of water supplies for a population of 21 million. In this study, we investigate the occurrence and redox geochemistry of arsenic in nine major groundwater basins of Taiwan. The values and concentrations of pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, iron, methane, sulfide, bicarbonate and ammonium in groundwaters were determined with a total of 610 monitoring wells in 2006. More than 60% of wells in the GW6 basin with a concentration of arsenic exceed 0.05 mg/L. The groundwaters in GW6 basin also have the highest average arsenic concentration. The exceeding percent (>0.05 mg/L) of wells for GW7, GW5, GW9 and GW8 basins are 30%, 20%, 18% and 8%, respectively. All of arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of GW1 to GW4 basins are lower than 0.05 mg/L, but some samples are higher than 0.01 mg/L. The exceeding percent of samples for arsenic 0.01 mg/L in GW3, GW1, GW2 and GW4 basins are 28%, 24%, 23% and 6%, respectively. Our results suggest that the concentrations of arsenic as well as iron in groundwaters of Taiwan were elevated by the iron-reducing process in aquifers. Samples, especially those with higher concentration of bicarbonate (> 400 mg/L) and oversaturated methane, mostly in the GW6 basin

  12. Cosmic-ray neutron simulations and measurements in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Lin; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2014-01-01

    This study used simulations of galactic cosmic ray in the atmosphere to investigate the neutron background environment in Taiwan, emphasising its altitude dependence and spectrum variation near interfaces. The calculated results were analysed and compared with two measurements. The first measurement was a mobile neutron survey from sea level up to 3275 m in altitude conducted using a car-mounted high-sensitivity neutron detector. The second was a previous measured result focusing on the changes in neutron spectra near air/ground and air/water interfaces. The attenuation length of cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere was estimated to be 163 g cm -2 in Taiwan. Cosmic-ray neutron spectra vary with altitude and especially near interfaces. The determined spectra near the air/ground and air/water interfaces agree well with measurements for neutrons below 10 MeV. However, the high-energy portion of spectra was observed to be much higher than our previous estimation. Because high-energy neutrons contribute substantially to a dose evaluation, revising the annual sea-level effective dose from cosmic-ray neutrons at ground level in Taiwan to 35 μSv, which corresponds to a neutron flux of 5.30 x 10 -3 n cm -2 s -1 , was suggested. The cosmic-ray neutron background in Taiwan was studied using the FLUKA simulations and field measurements. A new measurement was performed using a car-mounted high-efficiency neutron detector, re-coding real-time neutron counting rates from sea level up to 3275 m. The attenuation of cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere exhibited an effective attenuation length of 163 g cm -2 . The calculated neutron counting rates over predicted the measurements by ∼32 %, which leaded to a correction factor for the FLUKA-calculated cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere in Taiwan. In addition, a previous measurement regarding neutron spectrum variation near the air/ground and air/water interfaces was re-evaluated. The results showed that the

  13. Effect of tidal triggering on seismicity in Taiwan revealed by the empirical mode decomposition method

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    H.-J. Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tidal triggering on earthquake occurrence has been controversial for many years. This study considered earthquakes that occurred near Taiwan between 1973 and 2008. Because earthquake data are nonlinear and non-stationary, we applied the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method to analyze the temporal variations in the number of daily earthquakes to investigate the effect of tidal triggering. We compared the results obtained from the non-declustered catalog with those from two kinds of declustered catalogs and discuss the aftershock effect on the EMD-based analysis. We also investigated stacking the data based on in-phase phenomena of theoretical Earth tides with statistical significance tests. Our results show that the effects of tidal triggering, particularly the lunar tidal effect, can be extracted from the raw seismicity data using the approach proposed here. Our results suggest that the lunar tidal force is likely a factor in the triggering of earthquakes.

  14. The safety indicators program in Taiwan, China : a six-year trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Mingte

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents data on the current operating status and the safety indicators (SI) of the six nuclear power units in Taiwan. Analysis of the data collected in a six-year period has been made to obtain trends for each safety indicator. An overview of the trends of the plant operational data during the same period are also provided and discussed. On the whole, the trends of safety indicators are improving during the observed period 1991-1996. The plant operational data have depicted coherent improvement with the safety indicator trends. This result supports the premise that improvements in safety performance and in operational reliability are correspondingly inter-dependent. Both the safety indicators quarterly report and the annual report are available to the public. The public can also approach this information from the AEC's World Wide Web site (http://www.aec.gov.tw). (author)

  15. Health risk perception and betel chewing behavior--the evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we provided an empirical examination of the interaction between people's health risk perception and betel chewing. We hypothesized that a better knowledge of possible health risks would reduce both the number of individuals who currently chew betel and the likelihood of those who do not yet chew betel to begin the habit. We constructed a simultaneous equation model with Bayesian two-stage approach to control the endogeneity between betel chewing and risk perception. Using a national survey of 26,684 observations in Taiwan, our study results indicated that better health knowledge reduced the possibility that people would become betel chewers. We also found that, in general, betel chewers have a poorer health risk perception than other population. Overall, the empirical evidence suggested that health authorities could reduce the odds of people becoming betel chewers by improving their knowledge of betel-chewing's harmful effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost efficiency and optimal scale of electricity distribution firms in Taiwan: An application of metafrontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-J.; Chen, K.-H.; Yang, C.-H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost efficiency and optimal scale of Taiwan's electricity distribution industry. Due to the substantial difference in network density, firms may differ widely in production technology. We employ the stochastic metafrontier approach to estimate the cost efficiency of 24 distribution units during the period 1997-2002. Empirical results find that the average cost efficiency is overestimated using the traditional stochastic frontier model, especially for low density regions. The average cost efficiency of the high density group is significantly higher than that of the low density group as it benefits from network economies. This study also calculates both short-term and long-term optimal scales of electricity distribution firms, lending policy implications for the deregulation of the electricity distribution industry.

  17. Reorganizing the Taiwan Jimin and the Taiwan Huaqiao in South China, 1937-1945: a Global History Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Japan’s influence on the mindset, loyalties and identity-formation among Taiwanese citizens during the colonial period is a highly contested issue among present-day historians. It is commonly argued that sympathy with the Japanese colonialists was an outward posture taken by Taiwanese only because

  18. Improving the Taiwan Military’s Disaster Relief Response to Typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    circulation, are mostly westbound. When they reach the vicinity of Taiwan or the Philippines , which are always at the edge of the Pacific subtropical high...passes directly over Taiwan. The complexity of the Taiwan terrain and the diversity of the typhoon paths have resulted in significant variations in...files from the POM base case model, one set for each design point. To automate the process of running all the GAMS files, a Windows batch file ( BAT

  19. Impacts of Tides and Typhoon Fanapi (2010) on Seas Around Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Dong S. Ko; Shenn-Yu Chao; Chun-Chieh Wu; I-I Lin; Sen Jan

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite data, typhoon-resolving atmospheric forcing and a data assimilating ocean model, the East Asian Seas Nowcast/Forecast System (EASNFS), to investigate circulation and three upwelling regions perturbed by tides and Typhoon Fanapi (2010) in the seas around Taiwan. The three upwelling areas located off northeast Taiwan, off southeast China and over the Penghu Channel off southwest Taiwan are normally limited in expanse before Fanapi. The tidal currents enhance all three. To cope...

  20. Influenza A(H6N1) Virus in Dogs, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Su, Bi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of influenza A virus in dogs in Taiwan and isolated A/canine/Taiwan/E01/2014. Molecular analysis indicated that this isolate was closely related to influenza A(H6N1) viruses circulating in Taiwan and harbored the E627K substitution in the polymerase basic 2 protein, which indicated its ability to replicate in mammalian species. PMID:26583707

  1. Anchoring effect on first passage process in Taiwan financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing; Liao, Chi-Yo; Ko, Jing-Yuan; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2017-07-01

    Empirical analysis of the price fluctuations of financial markets has received extensive attention because a substantial amount of financial market data has been collected and because of advances in data-mining techniques. Price fluctuation trends can help investors to make informed trading decisions, but such decisions may also be affected by a psychological factors-the anchoring effect. This study explores the intraday price time series of Taiwan futures, and applies diffusion model and quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the anchoring effect and price fluctuations during first passage process. Our results indicate that power-law scaling and anomalous diffusion for stock price fluctuations are related to the anchoring effect. Moreover, microscopic price fluctuations before switching point in first passage process correspond with long-term price fluctuations of Taiwan's stock market. We find that microscopic trends could provide useful information for understanding macroscopic trends in stock markets.

  2. Distress risk and leverage puzzles: Evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Cheng Ho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial distress has been invoked in the asset pricing literature to explain the anomalous patterns in the cross-section of stock returns. The risk of financial distress can be measured using indexes. George and Hwang (2010 suggest that leverage can explain the distress risk puzzle and that firms with high costs choose low leverage to reduce distress intensities and earn high returns. This study investigates whether this relationship exists in the Taiwan market. When examined separately, distress intensity is found to be negatively related to stock returns, but leverage is found to not be significantly related to stock returns. The results are the same when distress intensity and leverage are examined simultaneously. After assessing the robustness by using O-scores, distress risk puzzle is found to exist in the Taiwan market, but the leverage puzzle is not

  3. Exotic Amphibians in the Pet Shops of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Lucy Hou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pet trade is an important mechanism for introducing alien species. We surveyed a total of 434 pet shops in major cities of Taiwan and found 49 species of alien amphibians belonging to 14 families and 31 genera. Two of the alien species, Rana catesbeiana and Kaloula pulchra, have established in the fields and the other three, Bufo marinus, Xenopus laevis, and Dendrobates auratus, have invasion records in other countries. There were 16 CITES Appendix II species. The most frequently displayed species were the horned frogs, eratophrys spp. And the most abundant species was the American Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. We urge the authority of Taiwan establishing regulations on pet trade and enforcing the wildlife conservation law to reduce the risks of alien species invasions.

  4. Regulation of Cell and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chu; Wang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Lin, Chien-Liang; Tai, Hsuen-Yung; Lo, Chi-Fang; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Chiang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the rapid and mature development of emerging biotechnology in the fields of cell culture, cell preservation, and recombinant DNA technology, more and more cell or gene medicinal therapy products have been approved for marketing, to treat serious diseases which have been challenging to treat with current medical practice or medicine. This chapter will briefly introduce the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and elaborate regulation of cell and gene therapy medicinal products in Taiwan, including regulatory history evolution, current regulatory framework, application and review procedures, and relevant jurisdictional issues. Under the promise of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products, it is expected the regulation and environment will be more flexible, streamlining the process of the marketing approval of new emerging cell or gene therapy medicinal products and providing diverse treatment options for physicians and patients.

  5. Recent research and development of functional food in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun Hwang, Lucy

    2007-08-01

    As the living standard rises, people are more concerned with the health benefits of foods. Functional foods are, therefore, receiving increasing attention worldwide. The functional food market in Taiwan reached 1.78 billion US dollars in 2005. Only those which have been certified by the Department of Health can claim their health benefits. Until January 2007, only 88 functional foods have received the certificates. In addition to the product development in the food industry, research institutes and universities are also actively engaged in the technology development and basic research of functional foods. Many raw materials harvested in Taiwan, including edible plants, herbs, medicinal mushrooms, and sea foods, are investigated for their health benefits, bioactive components and suitable processing technologies.

  6. Identifying risk factors for victimization among male prisoners in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun

    2014-02-01

    This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment.

  7. Advances in Health Care in Taiwan: Lessons for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Watt

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan's health services, now among the best in the world, were largely developed after 1947 under conditions of epidemiological and political crisis. Its medical, nursing, and public health leaders knew the importance of focusing on preventive health strategies, and its central government leaders knew how important health care was to the achievement of economic goals. Although there were from time to time setbacks and difficulties, the leadership learned from their mistakes and made effective use of international advice and resources. Taiwan's record makes the case that modernization of health care contributes to economic development and should not be viewed solely as a budgetary cost. Its record provides a mine of information for countries seeking to develop health services compatible with sustained economic and social development.

  8. Phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Y Y; Liu, C Y

    2001-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the phenomenology, comorbidities, correlation with depressive disorders, and gender differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in Taiwan. Two hundred outpatients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD according to DSM-IV were included. Patient characteristics, age at onset, symptom profile, and Axis I comorbidity were recorded. Gender differences, age at onset, and comorbidity of depressive disorders among different subtypes of OCD were compared. The most common obsession was contamination, followed by pathological doubt, and need for symmetry. The most common compulsion was checking, followed by washing, and orderliness compulsions. More men than women presented with the obsession of need for symmetry. Eighty-three (41.5%) subjects had comorbid depressive disorders. Women had more major depressive disorder. Patients with somatic obsessions were more likely to have major depressive disorder. Most clinical characteristics of OCD in Taiwan were similar to that of previous studies in other countries.

  9. Implementation of the IHR Joint External Evaluation: Taiwan's Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chun

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization developed the Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool to independently assess country capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats as part of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) monitoring and evaluation framework. In light of this, the Taiwan government actively engaged at least 19 government agencies or institutions and voluntarily implemented the JEE. An External Assessment Team consisting of 6 US subject matter experts conducted the external evaluation, including site visits, from June 21 to July 1, 2016. The results, published on October 18, 2016, are useful and will be translated into actions and change in the system. Based on Taiwan's experiences, early stakeholder engagement and an experts' pre-JEE pilot visit would contribute to a successful JEE process.

  10. “Making Connection”: Indonesian Migrant Entrepreneurial Strategies in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf YUNIARTO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the function of network as a tool of problem solving in Indonesian migrant entrepreneurship escaping labor market challenges and social-cultural adjustment process in Taiwan. As the essential key to social mobility of migrant, networks is considered not only used as a migrant strategic survival, but may help them get resources to spur entrepreneurship. By cohesive personal/social networks with local fellow or nationals and using social media, it facilitated the entrepreneur’s to capital, support (mentoring, knowledge (access to sufficient capital and a reliable supply and customer. In case social network Indonesian entrepreneur in Taiwan is formed through personal or group migrant ties, religion, ethnic and hometown, or group association depends home base city where they work.

  11. The Baltic states in Taiwan's post-cold war "flexible diplomacy" / Czeslaw Tubilewicz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tubilewicz, Czeslaw

    2002-01-01

    Balti riikide ja Taiwani poliitilistest sidemetest: Taiwan pole saavutanud diplomaatiliste suhete sõlmimist Baltimaades, kuigi väikesed taasiseseisvunud riigid paistsid olevat sobilikud liitlased. Tabelid

  12. The Distribution and Habitats of the Pteris fauriei Complex in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Moan Huang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a significant mode of speciation in plants. Polyploids often occupy habitats different from those of their diploid parents. In Taiwan, two varieties of Pteris fauriei, one diploid and one triploid, have been identified. The number of spores per sporangium and the size of spores are reliable indicators of ploidy. Diploid P. fauriei have 64-spore sporangia and the spores are significantly smaller than spores of triploid plants, which have 32-spore sporangia. Based on these findings, the distribution and habitats of the two cytotypes in Taiwan are characterized from both living plants and herbarium specimens. Altogether, 516 live plants from 32 locations and 76 herbarium specimens were analyzed. In general, diploid plants occur in warmer habitats than triploid plants. Diploid plants are widely distributed in Taiwan and nearby islands, but do not occur in central Taiwan nor in the Matsu islands. In contrast, triploid plants are not found in southern tip of Taiwan nor on islands west of central Taiwan. In northern Taiwan and on the west-central islands, diploids grow most often in exposed sites and grasslands. However, in southern Taiwan and islands Lanyu and Lutao, diploids also occur in woodlands. Triploids are restricted to grassland and woodland habitats in Taiwan, but grow in exposed sites, grassland and woodland habitats in Matsu islands. In general, triploids grow at higher elevations than the diploids.

  13. Assessment of the feed-in tariff mechanism for renewable energies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on imported energy, and pursuit of sustainable development, renewable energies are extremely important for Taiwan's future energy supply. Since Taiwan's feed-in tariff (FIT) is still in its initial stage, one must examine whether the current system is compatible with a well-designed FIT scheme. This study examines the main features of Taiwan's FIT system and assesses design options using several criteria. Additionally, one of the most important elements of a FIT scheme, namely, a tariff system, is discussed. Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs, and the guaranteed-return tariff system coincides with the spirit underlying leading global FITs; however, many issues, such as setting goals by stages, refinement of the tariff calculation methodology, and elimination of other non-economic barriers, must be addressed to achieve future developmental goals and green industry growth. - Highlights: ► No in-depth study has focused exclusively on Taiwan's FIT design options. ► This study fills this gap in the literature by examining Taiwan's FIT system. ► Assessments demonstrate that Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs. ► Four issues are identified that Taiwan's policy makers should address to achieve future developmental goals and expand green industries.

  14. Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser (Asteraceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We document the naturalization of the New World Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser in central Taiwan. A taxonomic treatment, line drawings, and color photographs of this species from the wild are provided to aid in identification. This represents the first report of Helianthus species in Taiwan. The colony of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius was first observed in Taiwan in 1999. During our field survey in 2007 we witnessed the significant range expansion though the coast of Changhua County. The potential of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius to become an invasive species in Taiwan is worthy of attention.

  15. Analysis of optoelectronic strategic planning in Taiwan by artificial intelligence portfolio tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rang-Seng

    1992-05-01

    Taiwan ROC has achieved significant advances in the optoelectronic industry with some Taiwan products ranked high in the world market and technology. Six segmentations of optoelectronic were planned. Each one was divided into several strategic items, design artificial intelligent portfolio tool (AIPT) to analyze the optoelectronic strategic planning in Taiwan. The portfolio is designed to provoke strategic thinking intelligently. This computer- generated strategy should be selected and modified by the individual. Some strategies for the development of the Taiwan optoelectronic industry also are discussed in this paper.

  16. Shallow Crustal Thermal Structures of Central Taiwan Foothills Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crustal thermal structures are closely related to metamorphism, rock rheology, exhumation processes, hydrocarbon maturation levels, frictional faulting and other processes. Drilling is the most direct way to access the temperature fields in the shallow crust. However, a regional drilling program for geological investigation is usually very expensive. Recently, a large-scale in-situ investigation program in the Western Foothills of Central Taiwan was carried out, providing a rare opportunity to conduct heat flow measurements in this region where there are debates as to whether previous measured heat flows are representative of the thermal state in this region. We successfully collected 28 geothermal gradients from these wells and converted them into heat flows. The new heat flow dataset is consistent with previous heat flows, which shows that the thermal structures of Central Taiwan are different from that of other subduction accretionary prisms. We then combine all the available heat flow information to analyze the frictional parameters of the Chelungpu fault zone that ruptured during the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. The heat flow dataset gave consistent results compared with the frictional parameters derived from another independent study that used cores recovered from the Chelungpu fault zone at depth. This study also shows that it is suitable for using heat-flow data obtained from shallow subsurface to constrain thrusting faulting parameters, similar to what had been done for the strike-slip San Andreas Fault in California. Additional fieldworks are planned to study heat flows in other mountainous regions of Taiwan for more advanced geodynamic modeling efforts.

  17. Gravity Terrain Effect of the Seafloor Topography in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong Tai-Rong Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity terrain correction is used to compensate for the gravitational effects of the topography residual to the Bouguer plate. The seafloor topography off the eastern offshore of Taiwan is extremely rugged, and the depth of the sea bottom could be greater than 5000 m. In order to evaluate the terrain effect caused by the seafloor topography, a modern computer algorithm is used to calculate the terrain correction based on the digital elevation model (DEM.

  18. Is There a Better Semiconductor Firm in Taiwan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen LEE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the firm value of semiconductor industry in Taiwan in order to differentiate between outstanding semiconductor company and weak semiconductor company. The authors use GAP which is analytical tool to perform four steps: the original maps, sorting maps with clustering trees, summary sufficient maps, and sediment maps. The findings offer a good instruction for policymakers to make related policies in semiconductor firms. Additionally, the paper helps to find firms needed to be reformed through classification by GAP.

  19. Policy progress in mitigation of climate change in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang; Chang, Wei Ru

    2011-01-01

    To make an active contribution to the global effort in mitigation of climate change, Taiwan government has implemented the 'Frameworks for Sustainable Energy Policy-An Energy-Saving and Carbon-Reduction Action Plan' in June 2008. It has made a commitment of a stepwise reduction of nationwide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which returns the nationwide GHG emission to 2008 levels by 2020, then reduces to 2000 levels by 2025, and finally cuts 50% of 2000 levels by 2050. The fundamental strategy is to reduce the GHG emission under acceptable economic development and energy security to achieve generation-spanning triple-win in energy, environment and economy. The major policy instruments such as 'Statute for Renewable Energy Development', 'GHG Reduction Law (draft),' 'Regulation for Energy Tax (draft),' and 'Energy Management Act' have been either implemented or scheduled for legislative reviewing. The purpose of this paper is to present an updated review of the outcomes of GHG emission reduction in Taiwan. In addition, the progress and priority of policy instruments in GHG emission reduction are analyzed as well. - Research highlights: →Taiwan has made a commitment of stepwise targets of GHG emission reduction to contribute to the global efforts in combating climate change in 2008. →The near-term target returns the nationwide GHG emissions back to 2008 levels during years of 2016-2020. Then, emission levels are cut to 2000 levels by 2025, and finally 50% of 2000 levels by 2050. →In addition to finish legislative review of the 'GHG Reduction Act', Taiwan has prepared a comprehensive action plan to reduce the national GHG emissions, involving improvement of the efficiency in energy use, development of the sustainable energy, and taxation of carbon on fossils.

  20. Impact of Taiwan open policy on Chinese tourist satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cang, Shuang; Sun, Y.; Li, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Taiwan government has imposed a daily visitation quota with strict regulations on Chinese visitor travel modes, length of stay, and visa authorizations since July 2008. This highly controlled scheme was an attempt to maintain service quality on top of security and political considerations. The purpose of this study is to provide in-depth analysis regarding the Chinese tourist satisfaction over time under different travel modes. The results indicated that package tour (PT) visitors general...

  1. The risks of the Taiwan research reactor spent fuel project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The proposed action is to transport up to 118 spent fuel rods, to include canned spent fuel rod particulates immobilized on filters, from a research reactor in Taiwan by sea to Hampton Roads, Virginia, and then overland by truck to the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At SRS, the spent fuel will be reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium. 55 refs., 8 tabs

  2. Proficiency Testing Activities of Frequency Calibration Laboratories in Taiwan, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    cht.com.tw Abstract In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025 and the demand of TAF (Taiwan Accreditation Foundation) for calibration inter... IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. The proficiency testing results are then important...on-site evaluation, an assessment team is organized to examine the technical competence of the labs and their compliance with the requirements of ISO

  3. Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu-Huey Wang; Hsiu-Yuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimp...

  4. Insight into the Geothermal Structure in Chingshui, Ilan, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lun-Tao Tong; Shoung Ouyang; Tai-Rong Guo; Ching-Ray Lee; Kou-Hsin Hu; Chun-Li Lee; Chun-Jao Wang

    2008-01-01

    The Chingshui geothermal field is the largest known productive geothermal area in Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is to delineate this geothermal structure by integrating geophysical data and borehole information. The existence of a magma chamber in the shallow crust and shallow intrusive igneous rock results in a high heat flow and geothermal gradient; furthermore, the NE deep fault system within the meta-sandstones provides meteoric recharge from a higher elevation to artesianally drive t...

  5. Geographic Variations and Time Trends in Cancer Treatments in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jason C; Chang, Sheng-Mao; Lu, Christine Y

    2017-08-02

    Targeted therapies have become important treatment options for cancer care in many countries. This study aimed to examine recent trends in utilization of antineoplastic drugs, particularly the use of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer, by geographic region in Taiwan (northern, midwestern, southern, and eastern regions and the outer islands). This was a retrospective observational study of antineoplastic agents using 2009-2012 quarterly claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Yearly market shares by prescription volume and costs for targeted therapies among total antineoplastic agents by region were estimated. We used multivariate regression model and ANOVA to examine variations in utilization of targeted therapies between geographic regions and used ARIMA models to estimate longitudinal trends. Population-adjusted use and costs of antineoplastic drugs (including targeted therapies) were highest in the southern region of Taiwan and lowest in the outer islands. We found a 4-fold difference in use of antineoplastic drugs and a 49-fold difference in use of targeted therapies between regions if the outer islands were included. There were minimal differences in use of antineoplastic drugs between other regions with about a 2-fold difference in use of targeted therapies. Without considering the outer islands, the market share by prescription volume and costs of targeted therapies increased almost 2-fold (1.84-1.90) and 1.5-fold (1.26-1.61) respectively between 2009 and 2012. Furthermore, region was not significantly associated with use of antineoplastic agents or use of targeted therapies after adjusting for confounders. Region was associated with costs of antineoplastic agents but it was not associated with costs of targeted therapies after confounding adjustments. Use of antineoplastic drugs overall and use of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer varied somewhat between regions in Taiwan; use was notably low in the outer

  6. Corporate Social Responsibility in Taiwan : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    葉山, 彩蘭; Sairan, Hayama

    2008-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has drawn increased attention from both academics and managers in Taiwan these years. Since it is getting increasingly clear that CSR policies and practices help firms develop favorable images and establish good relationship with their stakeholders, more and more Taiwanese corporations are now aware that there are real benefits to become socially responsible. In this paper, I would like to explore the framework and strategies of corporate social responsib...

  7. Establishing a Cloud Computing Success Model for Hospitals in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Jiunn-Woei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the critical quality-related factors that affect cloud computing success of hospitals in Taiwan. In this study, private cloud computing is the major research target. The chief information officers participated in a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that the integration of trust into the information systems success model will have acceptable explanatory power to understand cloud computing success in the hospital. Moreover, information quality...

  8. Quality Dimension for Elderly Service in Taiwan Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Chieh Lee; Feng-Hua Yang; Chih-Jen Chen

    2013-01-01

    The author conducted a questionnaire survey on randomly selected elderly tourists from three hotel groups in Taiwan: international group, domestic-business group, and domestic-tourist group. Based on the literature, the author developed a questionnaire and asked these tourists to rate the hotels in which they were staying on three quality dimensions: brand awareness, hotel facilities, and hotel services. Through the questionnaire survey, the author wanted to determine the performance of the t...

  9. Smart Cities in Taiwan: A Perspective on Big Data Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shiann Ming Wu; Tsung-chun Chen; Yenchun Jim Wu; Miltiadis Lytras

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the concept of a smart city based on information and communication technology (ICT), analyze the objectives of smart city development in Taiwan, and explain the supporting technologies that make such development possible. Subsequently, we propose a hierarchical structure framework of smart city systems with levels of complexity ranging from low to high and interconnections and interactive relationships in five dimensions: the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing...

  10. Hyphomycetes-Beltrania and Allied Species from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Six hyphomycetous fungi: Beltrania concurvispora; Bispora betulina; Bispora novae-zelandiae; Blastophorum truncatum; Botryosporium pulchrum and Titaea volucriata on decaying leaves or stems were newly recorded from several localities of Taiwan using single or mass spore isolation technique. The morphological traits were closely examined, diagnosed and illustrated, and their distinguished characters for identification and comparison with conspecies from varied geographic regions were also briefly discussed.

  11. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A survey of reptiles and amphibians on Kinmen Island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Heather V. Podlipny; Pei-Yu Tasi; D. Brent Burt; Hsiao-Wei Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the reptiles and amphibians of Kinmen Island, Taiwan. Until recently, Kinmen had been off-limits to outsiders. It wasn’t until the mid 1990’s that civilian travel was allowed to and from the island. We surveyed 8 sites from 19 May through 18 July 2005, using 15 m drift fences with collapsible funnel traps on the ends. We documented encounters with...

  13. Overview analysis of bioenergy from livestock manure management in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China); Lin, Che-I [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the livestock manure are becoming significant energy and environmental issues in Taiwan. However, the waste management (i.e., anaerobic digestion) can produce the biogas associated with its composition mostly consisting of methane (CH{sub 4}), which is now considered as a renewable energy with emphasis on electricity generation and other energy uses. The objective of this paper was to present an overview analysis of biogas-to-bioenergy in Taiwan, which included five elements: current status of biogas sources and their energy utilizations, potential of biogas (methane) generation from livestock manure management, governmental regulations and policies for promoting biogas, benefits of GHGs (i.e., methane) emission reduction, and research and development status of utilizing livestock manure for biofuel production. In the study, using the livestock population data surveyed by the Council of Agriculture (Taiwan) and the emission factors recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the potential of methane generation from livestock manure management in Taiwan during the period of 1995-2007 has been estimated to range from 36 to 56 Gg year{sup -1}, indicating that the biogas (methane) from swine and dairy cattle is abundant. Based on the characteristics of swine manure, the maximum potential of methane generation could reach to around 400 Gg year{sup -1}. With a practical basis of the total swine population (around 4300 thousand heads) from the farm scale of over 1000 heads, a preliminary analysis showed the following benefits: methane reduction of 21.5 Gg year{sup -1}, electricity generation of 7.2 x 10{sup 7} kW-h year{sup -1}, equivalent electricity charge saving of 7.2 x 0{sup 6} US$ year{sup -1}, and equivalent carbon dioxide mitigation of 500 Gg year{sup -1}. (author)

  14. Electric power engineering in the Taiwan Chinese Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    The data charaterizing the status and prospects of development of electric power engineering in the Taiwan Chenese Republic are given. The Tainwan electric power consumptions are covered by operation of 56 large electric power plants (nuclear, thermal, hydroelectric ones). The marginal majority (58.1%) of the registered power is generated at thermal power plants. Electric power generation in 1991 amounted to 89639 million kWxh. At that 33878 million kWxh or about 37.9% were produced at NPPs

  15. Hepatoblastoma incidence in Taiwan: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giun-Yi Hung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of hepatoblastoma is not well known in Taiwan. The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence rates of hepatoblastoma by age and sex. Methods: The data of patients with hepatoblastoma diagnosed from 1995 to 2012 were obtained from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Incidence rates of hepatoblastoma according to sex and age were analyzed. This study employed the published methods of International Agency for Research on Cancer to calculate the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs, standard errors, 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and standardized incidence rate ratios (SIRRs. Results: In total, 211 patients were diagnosed with hepatoblastoma during the 18-year study period. The ASIR was 0.76 per million person-years. Hepatoblastoma was predominantly diagnosed in children (n = 184, 87.2%. By contrast, adolescents/adults (n = 10, 4.7% and elderly people (n = 17, 8.1% were rarely affected. The incidence peaked at ages 0–4 years with corresponding ASIR of 7.3 per million person-years. A significant male predilection was only found in children and elderly people, with male-to-female SIRRs of 1.23 and 1.89, respectively. During 1995–2012, the overall incidence of hepatoblastoma significantly increased only in children (annual percent change: 7.4%, 95% CI 3.9%–11.1%, p < 0.05 and specifically in boys (annual percent change: 6.5%, 95% CI 1.9%–11.2%, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Only 27 patients aged ≥ 15 years with hepatoblastoma were identified in this study, the existence of adult hepatoblastoma still requires novel molecular tools to elucidate. The association between the upward trend of hepatoblastoma incidence in boys and increased survival of prematurity in Taiwan warrants further investigations. Keywords: Hepatoblastoma, Incidence, Taiwan

  16. The association of hospital governance with innovation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Wei; Yan, Yu-Hua; Fang, Shih-Chieh; Inamdar, Syeda Noorein; Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Hospitals in Taiwan are facing major changes and innovation is increasingly becoming a critical factor for remaining competitive. One determinant that can have a significant impact on innovation is hospital governance. However, there is limited prior research on the relationship between hospital governance and innovation. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual framework to hypothesize the relationship between governance mechanisms and innovation and to empirically test the hypotheses in hospital organizations. We examine the relationship between governance mechanisms and innovation using data on 102 hospitals in Taiwan from the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation and Quality Improvement. We model governance mechanisms using board structure, information transparency and strategic decision-making processes. For our modeling and data analysis we use measurement and structural models. We find that in hospital governance, information transparency and strategic decision making did impact innovation. However, governance structure did not. To facilitate innovation, hospital boards can increase information transparency and improve the decision-making process when considering strategic investments in innovative initiatives. To remain competitive, hospital boards need to develop and monitor indices that measure hospital innovation to ensure ongoing progress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Study on occupational safety and health strategy for Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Su, Teh-Sheng; Kuo, Chao-Yin; Lin, Chien-Liang; Lin, Han-Yu; Yu, Yi-Chun

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a set of occupational safety and health (OSH) issues and development policies suitable for adoption in Taiwan. A survey was conducted on a sample of 102 experts and 235 industrial work safety personnel in Taiwan for statistical analysis of the general consensus, with the results showing such consensus in 104 individual policy indicators. Our results reveal that the most appropriate targets were considered to be annual 10% reductions in the 'occupational accident disability rate', 'occupational accident injury rate' and 'occupational diseases before 2010'. Responding to the specific question of the appropriate method of achieving a reduction in the number of accidents in Taiwan, the primary consideration for 13.4% of the experts and 10.6% of the industry personnel was 'promoting OSH awareness and enhancing the overall safety culture'. As regards the current OSH policy focus, 11.2% of the experts considered 'improving OSH legislation, standards and systems' to be the most important, whilst 8.9% of the industry personnel felt that 'recognizing work stress, overwork and emerging OSH issues' were the most important.

  18. Sedimentological characteristics and seafloor failure offshore SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, analysis results reveal two main deposition zones are located at the flank of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon and Lower Fangliao Basin offshore SW Taiwan. The non-event related sediments deposited in past 150 years (i.e., 632 Mt km-2 was delivered and transported from Gaoping River by suspension process with tides and coastal currents and gradually spread out offshore. Meanwhile, the total mass of accumulation sediments is 1922 Mt km-2, accounting for 40% Gaoping River’s sediment load and suggesting that the deposition process is mainly controlled by natural hazards. Sedimentation rates in much of the study area, except in the main deposition zones, are less than 0.5 cm yr-1 (5 m kyr-1. Compared with the studies at the instability seafloor caused by high sedimentation rates (~30 m kyr-1, the offshore southwestern Taiwan is relatively stable. In this study, we also discovered a series of sediment waves located on the upper continental slope between Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons, which is related to the creeping process on seafloor. In summary, our results reveal the fluid activities, existence of weak layers and earthquake triggering are potential factors which might induced seafloor failures offshore southwestern Taiwan.

  19. Smart Cities in Taiwan: A Perspective on Big Data Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiann Ming Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the concept of a smart city based on information and communication technology (ICT, analyze the objectives of smart city development in Taiwan, and explain the supporting technologies that make such development possible. Subsequently, we propose a hierarchical structure framework of smart city systems with levels of complexity ranging from low to high and interconnections and interactive relationships in five dimensions: the Internet of Things (IoT, cloud computing, Big Data, Mobile Network, and smart business. We integrate each key resource of the core operation systems of cities to promote the innovative operation of cities and further optimize city development. We then propose a Big Data platform data flow framework that uses information from ubiquitous sensor networks and information equipment to analyze the Big Data application process of smart cities and determine the resulting advantages and challenges. Additionally, we analyze the current state of development of smart cities in Taiwan. Finally, we discuss a new philosophy of smart city development and provide a practical blueprint for the formation, operation, and development of the smart cities with the aim of creating a bright future for the smart cities of Taiwan.

  20. Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2014-02-01

    Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.