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Sample records for leishmaniasis skin lesions

  1. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Gadir, A Fattah A; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the clinical manifestations and treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) have been adequately described before, the pathology received little attention, particularly the African form of PKDL which shows some clinical differences from the disease in India...... leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes....

  2. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Leishmaniasis mucosa y otras lesiones destructivas centrofaciales

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    G. Rodríguez

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias enfermedades producen lesiones del área centrofacial. Una de las más frecuentes en nuestro medio es la leishmaniasis destructivas mucosa. Como el INS es un centro de estudio de leishmaniasis, se atendieron pacientes o sus biopsias con afecciones del macizo centrofacial, primariamente remitidas con el diagnóstico clínico de leihsmaniasis mucosa. En un período de 7 años (1987-1993, se estudiaron 134 biopsias de estos pacientes. El diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucosa fue definitivo en 26 casos, por demostración del amastigote con la coloración de hematoxilina eosina y el mismo diagnóstico se estableció por patrón histopatológico solamente, en 27 casos. Una técnica inmunoenzimática para demostrar los amastigotes no fue satisfactoria. La perforación banal del tabique nasal (52 biopsias es la entidad que el clínico y el patólogo confunden con mayor frecuencia con la leishmaniasis mucosa. Otras entidades demostradas fueron la paracoccidioidomicosis (3, histoplasmosis (2, rinosporidiosis (2. esporotricosis (l, tuberculosis bucal (3, lepra leprornatosa (l, escleroma nasal (2, granulomatosis de Wegener (2, linfomas angiocéntricos (4, aspiración crónica de cocaína (l, y carcinoma escamocelular palatino (1. La biopsia, luego de la historia clínica, es el pilar esencial para identificar y manejar adecuadamente estas lesiones, que pueden originar destrucción facial grave, a veces letal, si no se dispone del diagnóstico preciso y del tratamiento oportuno.

  4. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

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    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Local increase of arginase activity in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia.

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    Tamrat Abebe

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is in Ethiopia mainly caused by the parasite Leishmania aethiopica. This neglected tropical disease is common in rural areas and causes serious morbidity. Persistent nonhealing cutaneous leishmaniasis has been associated with poor T cell mediated responses; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood.We have recently shown in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis that arginase-induced L-arginine metabolism suppresses antigen-specific T cell responses at the site of pathology, but not in the periphery. To test whether these results translate to human disease, we recruited patients presenting with localized lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis and assessed the levels of arginase activity in cells isolated from peripheral blood and from skin biopsies. Arginase activity was similar in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients and healthy controls. In sharp contrast, arginase activity was significantly increased in lesion biopsies of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis as compared with controls. Furthermore, we found that the expression levels of CD3ζ, CD4 and CD8 molecules were considerably lower at the site of pathology as compared to those observed in paired PBMCs.Our results suggest that increased arginase in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis might play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease by impairing T cell effector functions.

  6. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  7. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Induces a Transmissible Dysbiotic Skin Microbiota that Promotes Skin Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimblet, Ciara; Meisel, Jacquelyn S; Loesche, Michael A; Cole, Stephen D; Horwinski, Joseph; Novais, Fernanda O; Misic, Ana M; Bradley, Charles W; Beiting, Daniel P; Rankin, Shelley C; Carvalho, Lucas P; Carvalho, Edgar M; Scott, Phillip; Grice, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-12

    Skin microbiota can impact allergic and autoimmune responses, wound healing, and anti-microbial defense. We investigated the role of skin microbiota in cutaneous leishmaniasis and found that human patients infected with Leishmania braziliensis develop dysbiotic skin microbiota, characterized by increases in the abundance of Staphylococcus and/or Streptococcus. Mice infected with L. major exhibit similar changes depending upon disease severity. Importantly, this dysbiosis is not limited to the lesion site, but is transmissible to normal skin distant from the infection site and to skin from co-housed naive mice. This observation allowed us to test whether a pre-existing dysbiotic skin microbiota influences disease, and we found that challenging dysbiotic naive mice with L. major or testing for contact hypersensitivity results in exacerbated skin inflammatory responses. These findings demonstrate that a dysbiotic skin microbiota is not only a consequence of tissue stress, but also enhances inflammation, which has implications for many inflammatory cutaneous diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  9. Chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in the lesions of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Nilka Luisa Diaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL presents distinct active clinical forms with different grades of severity, known as localised (LCL, intermediate (ICL and diffuse (DCL cutaneous leishmaniasis. LCL and DCL are associated with a polarised T-helper (Th1 and Th2 immune response, respectively, whereas ICL, or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis, is associated with an exacerbated immune response and a mixed cytokine expression profile. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in cellular migration and are critical in the inflammatory response. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of the chemokines CXCL10, CCL4, CCL8, CCL11 and CXCL8 and the chemokine receptors CCR3, CXCR3, CCR5 and CCR7 in the lesions of patients with different clinical forms of ACL using immunohistochemistry. LCL patients exhibited a high density of CXCL10+, CCL4+ and CCL8+ cells, indicating an important role for these chemokines in the local Th1 immune response and the migration of CXCR3+ cells. LCL patients showed a higher density of CCR7+ cells than ICL or DCL patients, suggesting major dendritic cell (DC migration to lymph nodes. Furthermore, DCL was associated with low expression levels of Th1-associated chemokines and CCL11+ epidermal DCs, which contribute to the recruitment of CCR3+ cells. Our findings also suggest an important role for epidermal cells in the induction of skin immune responses through the production of chemokines, such as CXCL10, by keratinocytes.

  10. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis

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    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  11. Unbalanced inflammatory reaction could increase tissue destruction and worsen skin infectious diseases - a comparative study of leishmaniasis and sporotrichosis.

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    Morgado, F N; de Carvalho, L M V; Leite-Silva, J; Seba, A J; Pimentel, M I F; Fagundes, A; Madeira, M F; Lyra, M R; Oliveira, M M; Schubach, A O; Conceição-Silva, F

    2018-02-13

    The clinical presentations of skin diseases produced by different pathogens, as American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and sporotrichosis can be similar and possibly influenced by the skin immune system (SIS). The aim of the study was to understand the underlying mechanisms of skin inflammation produced by different pathogens. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze 96 patients: a- localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL-ATL); b- sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis (SCL-ATL); c-lymphocutaneous (LC-SP); d- fixed (F-SP) sporotrichosis. LCL-ATL and SCL-ATL had a significantly higher percentage of CD8, FasL and NOS2 than sporotrichosis. In contrast, LC-SP had a substantially higher percentage of CD4, BCl2 and neutrophils than ATL lesions. These results indicated some differences in the profile of the in situ immune response suggesting that SIS is a complex, adaptable system capable of different responses to intracellular or extracellular pathogens. However, regardless of the etiological agents, the inflammatory reaction and clinical manifestations can be similar. SCL-ATL and LC-SP presented similarities in both clinical presentation and in situ inflammatory profile (CD3, CD22, neutrophils, macrophages). The clinical presentation of ATL and sporotrichosis could be explained by a combination of factors both of the host SIS and the etiological agent. The unbalanced host parasite relationship could result in atypical manifestations of skin disease.

  12. The frequency of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis in skin ulcers in Peshawar

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    Rahman, S; Abdullah, F H [Khyber Girls Medical College, Peshawar (Pakistan). Department of Pathology; Khan, J A [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Pharmacy

    2009-07-15

    Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (OWCL) is a preventable skin infection that leads to morbidity and social isolation. It is spreading rapidly. The sore of OWCL may be a non-ulcerative red papule, nodule or a large mutilating ulcer. The ulcer is typically painless and can leave a disfiguring scar. Methods: This was a descriptive study. The diagnosis of OWCL was established by finding LD bodies in skin smear preparation. Results: This study identified 1680 cutaneous leishmaniasis in 1767 skin ulcers. Children (n=924) were infected more than other age groups (n=756). There were typical skin sore of OWCL in 1512 cases while 168 patients had atypical presentation. The ulcers were painless in 1603 patients. History of insect bite was present in 1366 cases, thorn prick in 156 patients, religious visit to endemic areas in 256 patients, and 4 patients had post surgical non healing wound. Lesions with 4 to 6 months of age had a maximum yield of LD bodies. There were 498 patients from different areas of Peshawar; 688 cases from leishmania endemic belt of FATA while 89 patients came from other urban and rural areas of NWFP. Conclusions: There is a tremendous increase in cases of OWCL and the disease became endemic in many regions of Pakistan. The bordering areas along Afghanistan have constituted an endemic belt that had invaded the neighboring urban and rural areas. Several chronic non healing ulcers had been diagnosed as OWCL. Many cases have been detected in Peshawar. People need education about the nature of the diseases and the efficacy of personal protective measures. Spray with suitable insecticides is required in all residential areas. (author)

  13. The frequency of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis in skin ulcers in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Abdullah, F.H.; Khan, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (OWCL) is a preventable skin infection that leads to morbidity and social isolation. It is spreading rapidly. The sore of OWCL may be a non-ulcerative red papule, nodule or a large mutilating ulcer. The ulcer is typically painless and can leave a disfiguring scar. Methods: This was a descriptive study. The diagnosis of OWCL was established by finding LD bodies in skin smear preparation. Results: This study identified 1680 cutaneous leishmaniasis in 1767 skin ulcers. Children (n=924) were infected more than other age groups (n=756). There were typical skin sore of OWCL in 1512 cases while 168 patients had atypical presentation. The ulcers were painless in 1603 patients. History of insect bite was present in 1366 cases, thorn prick in 156 patients, religious visit to endemic areas in 256 patients, and 4 patients had post surgical non healing wound. Lesions with 4 to 6 months of age had a maximum yield of LD bodies. There were 498 patients from different areas of Peshawar; 688 cases from leishmania endemic belt of FATA while 89 patients came from other urban and rural areas of NWFP. Conclusions: There is a tremendous increase in cases of OWCL and the disease became endemic in many regions of Pakistan. The bordering areas along Afghanistan have constituted an endemic belt that had invaded the neighboring urban and rural areas. Several chronic non healing ulcers had been diagnosed as OWCL. Many cases have been detected in Peshawar. People need education about the nature of the diseases and the efficacy of personal protective measures. Spray with suitable insecticides is required in all residential areas. (author)

  14. Transmission potential, skin inflammatory response, and parasitism of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

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    Goto H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and it is transmitted by sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. Dogs are an important domestic reservoir, and control of the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL to humans includes the elimination of infected dogs. However, though dogs are considered to be an important element in the transmission cycle of Leishmania, the identification of infected dogs representing an immediate risk for transmission has not been properly evaluated. Since it is not possible to treat infected dogs, they are sacrificed when a diagnosis of VL is established, a measure that is difficult to accomplish in highly endemic areas. In such areas, parameters that allow for easy identification of reservoirs that represents an immediate risk for transmission is of great importance for the control of VL transmission. In this study we aimed to identify clinical parameters, reinforced by pathological parameters that characterize dogs with potential to transmit the parasite to the vector. Results The major clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic area were onicogriphosis, skin lesions, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. The transmission potential of these dogs was assessed by xenodiagnosis using Lutzomyia longipalpis. Six of nine symptomatic dogs were infective to Lutzomyia longipalpis while none of the five asymptomatic dogs were infective to the sandfly. Leishmania amastigotes were present in the skin of all clinically symptomatic dogs, but absent in asymptomatic dogs. Higher parasite loads were observed in the ear and ungueal region, and lower in abdomen. The inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the ears and ungueal regions of both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In clinically affected dogs in which few or none Leishmania amastigotes were observed, the inflammatory infiltrate was constituted mainly of lymphocytes

  15. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from the infe......Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

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    Ara, M; Maillo, C; Peón, G; Clavel, A; Cuesta, J; Grasa, M P; Carapeto, F J

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous papules on the legs. Biopsy of one lesion showed abundant Leishmania amastigotes within epithelial cells of an eccrine sweat gland in the dermis. Leishmania organisms were also found in a blood smear. Rapid and complete clearance of the cutaneous lesions was achieved after antimony therapy. Cutaneous lesions in VL are being reported increasingly frequently in patients with HIV infection and their significance remains in discussion.

  17. Infrared imaging of skin lesions

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    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Jackson, Michael; Crowson, A. Neil; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2002-02-01

    IR spectroscopy produces spectra in which detailed information concerning chemical structure is inherent. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the most useful IR methods for analysis of biological tissues are microscopic image-based techniques in which fine-scaled spatial and high-quality spectral information is integrated. Unlike traditional visible microscopic methods, the contrast in IR imaging is gained by differences in spectra and the spatial heterogeneity of biochemical components, not by the addition of stains. In order for IR imaging to be more broadly accepted, non-subjective data processing methods are being developed to extract the most out of the large spectral images that are acquired. This paper demonstrates data processing techniques that have been extremely useful in the analysis of normal and abnormal skin. Analysis of skin specimens is of particular clinical importance due to the difficulty in rendering a differential diagnosis. Unstained frozen skin sections were mapped using an IR microscope. Functional group mapping, clustering routines and linear discriminant analysis were used to process the data. Functional group mapping and clustering routines were useful in the initial interpretation of images and to research for trends in uncharacterized spectral images. LDA was useful for differentiating normal from abnormal tissue once a well- defined training spectral set was established. Representative spectroscopic images are shown that demonstrate the power of IR imaging.

  18. Inflammation in disseminated lesions: an analysis of CD4+, CD20+, CD68+, CD31+ and vW+ cells in non-ulcerated lesions of disseminated leishmaniasis

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    Dayana Santos Mendes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL differs from other clinical forms of the disease due to the presence of many non-ulcerated lesions (papules and nodules in non-contiguous areas of the body. We describe the histopathology of DL non-ulcerated lesions and the presence of CD4-, CD20-, CD68-, CD31- and von Willebrand factor (vW-positive cells in the inflamed area. We analysed eighteen biopsies from non-ulcerated lesions and quantified the inflamed areas and the expression of CD4, CD20, CD68, CD31 and vW using Image-Pro software (Media Cybernetics. Diffuse lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates were found in dermal skin. Inflammation was observed in 3-73% of the total biopsy area and showed a significant linear correlation with the number of vW+ vessels. The most common cells were CD68+ macrophages, CD20+ B-cells and CD4+ T-cells. A significant linear correlation between CD4+ and CD20+ cells and the size of the inflamed area was also found. Our findings show chronic inflammation in all DL non-ulcerated lesions predominantly formed by macrophages, plasmacytes and T and B-cells. As the inflamed area expanded, the number of granulomas and extent of the vascular framework increased. Thus, we demonstrate that vessels may have an important role in the clinical evolution of DL lesions.

  19. Use of FTA cards for direct sampling of patients' lesions in the ecological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Ishimaru, Yuka; Sayed, Amal S M; Fujita, Megumi; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Velez, Lenin N; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-10-01

    The FTA card (Whatman) was assessed for its utility as a molecular epidemiological tool in collecting samples from patients with leishmaniasis in Peru because the card has a variety of merits; it is less invasive for patients and easy to handle for both physicians and other medical personnel for sample collection or diagnosis, in addition to its simplicity and easy countrywide and/or intercountry transportation for analysis. Samples were collected from 132 patients suspected of having leishmaniasis, and Leishmania species were successfully identified in samples from 81 patients in 15 departments of Peru by cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. Of these, 61.7% were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, 22.2% as L. (V.) braziliensis, 12.3% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 2.5% as L. (V.) shawi, and 1.2% as L. (V.) lainsoni. The three predominant species, L. (V.) peruviana, L. (V.) braziliensis, and L. (V.) guyanensis, were mainly found in the Andean highlands, in the tropical rainforest, and in northern and central rainforest regions, respectively. This is the first time L. (V.) shawi has been identified outside Brazil. The present study showed that the FTA card will be a useful tool for the ecological study of different forms of leishmaniasis. Furthermore, collecting samples directly from patients' lesions by using the FTA card eliminates (i) the possibility of contamination of Leishmania isolates during short- and/or long-term passages of culture in vitro in each laboratory and (ii) pain and suffering of patients from taking samples by skin biopsy.

  20. Use of FTA Cards for Direct Sampling of Patients' Lesions in the Ecological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Ishimaru, Yuka; Sayed, Amal S. M.; Fujita, Megumi; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Velez, Lenin N.; Gomez, Eduardo A. L.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    The FTA card (Whatman) was assessed for its utility as a molecular epidemiological tool in collecting samples from patients with leishmaniasis in Peru because the card has a variety of merits; it is less invasive for patients and easy to handle for both physicians and other medical personnel for sample collection or diagnosis, in addition to its simplicity and easy countrywide and/or intercountry transportation for analysis. Samples were collected from 132 patients suspected of having leishmaniasis, and Leishmania species were successfully identified in samples from 81 patients in 15 departments of Peru by cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. Of these, 61.7% were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, 22.2% as L. (V.) braziliensis, 12.3% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 2.5% as L. (V.) shawi, and 1.2% as L. (V.) lainsoni. The three predominant species, L. (V.) peruviana, L. (V.) braziliensis, and L. (V.) guyanensis, were mainly found in the Andean highlands, in the tropical rainforest, and in northern and central rainforest regions, respectively. This is the first time L. (V.) shawi has been identified outside Brazil. The present study showed that the FTA card will be a useful tool for the ecological study of different forms of leishmaniasis. Furthermore, collecting samples directly from patients' lesions by using the FTA card eliminates (i) the possibility of contamination of Leishmania isolates during short- and/or long-term passages of culture in vitro in each laboratory and (ii) pain and suffering of patients from taking samples by skin biopsy. PMID:20720027

  1. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PAPULOSQUAMOUS SKIN LESIONS

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    Chowdari Balaji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Papulosquamous lesions form the largest group of skin diseases. Since, they are all characterized by scaling papules or plaques, clinical confusion may result in their diagnosis, hence definitive histopathological analysis is important for their differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study includes skin biopsies from 108 clinically diagnosed /suspected non-infectious, erythematous, papulosquamous skin diseases which were received in the Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam for a period of two years from January 2016 to December 2017. The specimens obtained were subjected to formalin fixation and was subjected to routine processing and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The lesions were classified as Lichen Planus, Psoriasis, along with rare conditions like Pityriasis Rosea, Parapsoriasis, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris, Prurigo Nodularis and Lichen Simplex chronicus and clinicopathological correlation was done. RESULTS A total of 108 cases were studied. Lichen planus (51 cases- 47.22% was the most common lesions followed by Psoriasis (34 cases - 31.48% and with majority of cases in the age group of 21 to 30 years (25 cases– 23.15%. Females were more commonly affected with a male to female ratio of 0.89:1. Out of 108 cases, clinicopathological correlation was seen in 68 cases (62.96%. CONCLUSION The importance of specific histopathological diagnosis lies in distinguishing these lesions into different entities as the treatment and prognosis varies widely and is disease-specific.

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the dorsal skin of hamsters: a useful model for the screening of antileishmanial drugs.

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    Robledo, Sara M; Carrillo, Lina M; Daza, Alejandro; Restrepo, Adriana M; Muñoz, Diana L; Tobón, Jairo; Murillo, Javier D; López, Anderson; Ríos, Carolina; Mesa, Carol V; Upegui, Yulieth A; Valencia-Tobón, Alejandro; Mondragón-Shem, Karina; Rodríguez, Berardo; Vélez, Iván D

    2012-04-21

    Traditionally, hamsters are experimentally inoculated in the snout or the footpad. However in these sites an ulcer not always occurs, measurement of lesion size is a hard procedure and animals show difficulty to eat, breathe and move because of the lesion. In order to optimize the hamster model for cutaneous leishmaniasis, young adult male and female golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were injected intradermally at the dorsal skin with 1 to 1.5 x l0(7) promastigotes of Leishmania species and progression of subsequent lesions were evaluated for up to 16 weeks post infection. The golden hamster was selected because it is considered the adequate bio-model to evaluate drugs against Leishmania as they are susceptible to infection by different species. Cutaneous infection of hamsters results in chronic but controlled lesions, and a clinical evolution with signs similar to those observed in humans. Therefore, the establishment of the extent of infection by measuring the size of the lesion according to the area of indurations and ulcers is feasible. This approach has proven its versatility and easy management during inoculation, follow up and characterization of typical lesions (ulcers), application of treatments through different ways and obtaining of clinical samples after different treatments. By using this method the quality of animal life regarding locomotion, search for food and water, play and social activities is also preserved.

  3. Treatment modalities for hyperpigmented skin lesions: A brief overview

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    Yan Teng Khoo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation involves a broad range of skin conditions, including epidermal pigmented lesions, dermal pigmented lesions, and mixed pigmented lesions. Treatment includes various modalities such as brightening cream, chemical peeling, and laser therapy. Responses to various treatment modalities can be quite varied depending on the type of treatment and the degree of pigmentation. Sometimes a lesion can lighten or even partially disappear, while other lesions may recur. This paper provides a brief overview of treatment modalities available for hyperpigmented skin lesions including the importance of photoprotection, various types of brightening creams, suitable types of chemical peels, specific laser therapies targeted for skin hyperpigmentation, and surgery.

  4. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 in the skin of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Jacintho, Ana Paula Prudente; Melo, Guilherme D; Machado, Gisele F; Bertolo, Paulo Henrique Leal; Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Momo, Claudia; Souza, Thiago A; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira

    2018-06-01

    The skin is the first organ to be infected by the parasite in canine visceral leishmaniasis. The enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) acts towards degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulation of the inflammatory response against many kinds of injuries. The aims of this study were to evaluate the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through immunohistochemistry and zymography on the skin (muzzle, ears, and abdomen) of dogs that were naturally infected by Leishmania spp. and to compare these results with immunodetection of the parasite and with alterations to the dermal ECM. Picrosirius red staining was used to differentiate collagen types I and III in three regions of the skin. The parasite load, intensity of inflammation, and production of MMP-2 (latent) and MMP-9 (active and latent) were higher in the ear and muzzle regions. MMP-9 (active) predominated in the infected group of dogs and its production was significantly different to that of the control group. Macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells predominated in the dermal inflammation and formed granulomas in association with degradation of mature collagen (type I) and with discrete deposition of young collagen (type III). This dermal change was more pronounced in dogs with high parasite load in the skin. Therefore, it was concluded that the greater parasite load and intensity of inflammation in the skin led consequently to increased degradation of mature collagen, caused by increased production of MMPs, particularly active MMP-9, in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. This host response profile possibly favors systemic dissemination of the parasite.

  5. American cutaneous leishmaniasis triggered byelectrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sales Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites that initiate local cutaneous lesions. Few reports in the literature describe other modes of transmission. We report a case of a previously healthy 59-year-old woman who underwent electrocoagulation to remove seborrheic keratosis confirmed by dermatoscopy. Three months later, a skin fragment tested positive for Leishmania culture; the parasite was identified as L. (V. braziliensis. Trauma may generate inflammatory cascades that favor Leishmania growth and lesion formation in previously infected patients. American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a dynamic disease with unclear pathophysiology because of continually changing environments, demographics, and human behaviors.

  6. Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Convit

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe mucocutaneous (MCL and diffuse (DCL forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL are infrequent in Venezuela. Chemotherapy produces only transitory remission in DCL, and occasional treatment failures are observed in MCL. We have evaluated therapy with an experimental vaccine in patients with severe leishmaniasis. Four patients with MCL and 3 with early DCL were treated with monthly intradermal injections of a vaccine containing promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis killed by pasteurization and viable Bacillus Calmette- Guerin. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Integrity of protein constituents in extracts of pasteurized promastigotes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Complete remission of lesions occurred after 5-9 injections in patients with MCL or 7-10 injections in patients with early DCL. DCL patients developed positive skin reactions, average size 18.7 mm. All have been free of active lesions for at least 10 months. Adverse effects of the vaccine were limited to local reactivity to BCG at the injection sites and fever in 2 patients. Extracts of pasteurized and fresh promastigotes did not reveal differences in the integrity of protein components detectable by gel electrophoresis. Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy .

  7. Acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarana, M; Nucci, M

    2018-03-01

    Neutropenic patients developing acute disseminated candidiasis may present with skin lesions. To evaluate the epidemiology of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients, taking into consideration changes caused by different prophylactic strategies. A systematic review of English-language articles found via PubMed (1963-2016) was performed. We asked the following questions: (a) What Candida species are more frequently involved in this syndrome? (b) Has antifungal prophylaxis changed the species causing skin lesions? (c) What are the typical patterns of skin lesions? (d) What is the frequency of skin lesions in neutropenic patients with candidaemia or acute disseminated candidiasis? (e) Has antifungal prophylaxis decreased the incidence of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions? Among 183 studies, 33 were selected, reporting 100 cases of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients. It occurred more frequently in the setting of induction therapy for de novo or relapsed acute leukaemia, and the most frequent Candida species were C. tropicalis (68%) and C. krusei (15%). Diffuse maculopapular lesions predominated in cases caused by C. tropicalis and nodular and papular lesions in cases caused by C. krusei. Prophylaxis with fluconazole was reported in six cases, C. krusei in five and C. ciferrii in one. The death rate was 45.4%. Two patterns were recognized: disseminated maculopapular lesions caused by C. tropicalis in patients not receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring in 39% to 44% of neutropenic patients with acute disseminated candidiasis, and nodular lesions caused by C. krusei in patients receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring less frequently. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of some biophysical parameters in skin lesions of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Gupta

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Transepidermal water loss (TEWL, high frequency electrical conductance (HFC and the hydration state index (HSI were measured in sldn lesions of 30 paucibacillary leprosy patients and compared with the contralateral uninvolved skin. While the TEWL, HFC and HSI all showed lower values in the lesion site, as compared to the contralateral skin sites, the differences between the two sets of values significant in HFC and. HSI only at 2% and 1% level respectively. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.69 was found to eidst between these two parameters. The parameters correlate well with the known reduced sweating in skin lesions of TT and BT leprosy and may therefore be considered as good objective parameters to confirm hypohydrosis in suspected skin lesions ofleprosy.

  9. Open season: select the best 'beast' for each skin lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Marjorie; Robl, Renata; Carvalho, Vania Oliveira; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Valério, Talita Sana; Marinoni, Leide Parolin; Cosechen Rosvailer, Mayara Schulze

    2015-10-01

    Animal bites can cause skin lesions that suggest other conditions, and therefore diagnosis can be a challenge. Four cases of skin injuries caused by arthropods are presented below. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexiang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1, lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2 and lesion classification (task 3. A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  11. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuexiang; Shen, Linlin

    2018-02-11

    Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1), lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2) and lesion classification (task 3). A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN) is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU) is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  12. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1), lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2) and lesion classification (task 3). A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN) is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU) is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved. PMID:29439500

  13. Epidermal hydrogen peroxide is not increased in lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailaie, Mohammad Z

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that the loss of the epidermal melanocytes in vitiligo is basically due to excessive oxidative stress. Previous research work described abnormal elevation of the absolute concentration of the epidermal hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo. Based on this finding, our primary research objective was to use this feature as a screening marker in individuals at a great risk of developing vitiligo. Ninety-six patients of non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) of varying durations, skin phototypes, and treatment modalities (psoralen UVA-, narrow band UVB-treated) were recruited for this study. Raman spectroscopic measurements, using an external probehead, of the lesional and non-lesional skin were obtained, and the resulting spectra were analyzed using the Opus software package of the MultiRam spectrometer and the intensity of the peak at 875 cm -1 that represents the absolute concentration of H 2 O 2 was calculated. Contrary to previous reports, in patients of skin phototype IV, the absolute concentrations of H 2 O 2 in non-lesional and lesional NSV of all groups were non-significantly decreased compared to normal control. In patients of NSV of skin phototype V, the decrease in the absolute concentrations of H 2 O 2 was not significant in the untreated group, and a slight non-significant increase in the NBUVB-treated group was noted. However, in the PUVA-treated group, the non-lesional skin demonstrated significant increase in the absolute concentration of H 2 O 2 , whereas the lesional skin showed only a slight non-significant increase compared to normal control. In NSV patients of skin phototype VI who were previously treated with PUVA, the non-lesional skin showed a slight non-significant increase in the absolute concentration of H 2 O 2 ; however, the lesional skin showed a marked significant decrease compared to normal control and the non-lesional skin. Thereof, one can conclude that the epidermal H 2 O 2 is not

  14. Skin reactions to thimerosal and Leishmania in dogs from a leishmaniasis endemic area: it is better to keep them apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Paranhos-Silva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive Montenegro's skin test is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction widely used as indicative of previous infection with Leishmania in both humans and dogs. Montenegro's antigen consists of a crude Leishmania antigen solution, usually containing thimerosal as preserving agent. In this work it is shown that a large proportion of dogs (11 out of 56 examined in an endemic area of leishmaniasis presented induration at the site of injection of a diluent containing thimerosal alone. This clearly demonstrates that thimerosal leads to a high number of false positive skin reactions in dogs and that its use in Montenegro's skin test antigenic preparations should be avoided.

  15. Automated segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in multispectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, Mauro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bono, Aldo; Bartoli, Cesare; Moglia, Daniele; Lualdi, Manuela; Colombo, Ambrogio; Santinami, Mario; Marchesini, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of multispectral images of pigmented skin lesions. The study involved 1700 patients with 1856 cutaneous pigmented lesions, which were analysed in vivo by a novel spectrophotometric system, before excision. The system is able to acquire a set of 15 different multispectral images at equally spaced wavelengths between 483 and 951 nm. An original segmentation algorithm was developed and applied to the whole set of lesions and was able to automatically contour them all. The obtained lesion boundaries were shown to two expert clinicians, who, independently, rejected 54 of them. The 97.1% contour accuracy indicates that the developed algorithm could be a helpful and effective instrument for the automatic segmentation of skin pigmented lesions. (note)

  16. Artefactual skin lesions in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Miller, Iben M; Benfeldt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self harm is a great diagnostic and treatment challenge. In addition, psychocutaneous conditions are rare in the pediatric population and may therefore be misdiagnosed. Dermatitis artefacta is a psychocutaneous syndrome, which is a subgroup of the general spectrum of self-inflicted skin...

  17. American cutaneous leishmaniasis triggered by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sofia Sales; Santos, Adriana de Oliveira; Lima, Beatriz Dolabela; Gomes, Ciro Martins; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites that initiate local cutaneous lesions. Few reports in the literature describe other modes of transmission. We report a case of a previously healthy 59-year-old woman who underwent electrocoagulation to remove seborrheic keratosis confirmed by dermatoscopy. Three months later, a skin fragment tested positive for Leishmania culture; the parasite was identified as L. (V.) braziliensis. Trauma may generate inflammatory cascades that favor Leishmania growth and lesion formation in previously infected patients. American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a dynamic disease with unclear pathophysiology because of continually changing environments, demographics, and human behaviors.

  18. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  19. Skin lesions in hospitalized cases of dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Khawer; Shaikh, Irfan

    2008-10-01

    To determine the frequency and types of skin lesions in cases of dengue fever in patients admitted in three hospitals of Karachi. Case series. Three tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, from November 2006 to February 2007. One hundred patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue Immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in the study. The admitted patients in PNS Shifa Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) and Civil Hospital, Karachi were selected for the study. Presenting features were noted. The patients were physically examined for the presence of skin and mucosal lesions and findings were recorded. Total and Differential Leukocyte Count (TLC and DLC), platelet count and Liver Function Tests (LFTs) were done in all the patients. All the patients had low leukocyte and low platelet counts. The common presenting symptoms were high-grade fever with or without rigors, headache, body aches, backache, vomiting, sore throat with cough and generalized weakness (seen in 86% patients). The uncommon presenting features were diarrhea, abdominal pain, bleeding from gums and nosebleeds (seen in 14% patients). Sixty-eight (68%) patients had skin lesions. The most common skin presentation was generalized macular blanchable erythema involving trunk and limbs, seen in 44 (65%) cases. Discrete petechial lesions were seen on various body areas in 24 (35%) cases. Palmer erythema was seen in 20 (30%) patients. Generalized itching was seen in 16 (23%) cases. Isolated itching of palms and soles was seen in 20 (30%) cases. Twenty-eight (28%) patients had deranged LFTs. Out of those, 4 patients had raised serum bilirubin level whereas rest of the 24 had raised ALT. Dengue fever commonly presents with specific skin lesions. The skin lesions can be a clue to the diagnosis in difficult cases.

  20. Skin lesions in hospitalized cases of dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Shaikh, I.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency and types of skin lesions in cases of dengue fever in patients admitted in three hospitals of Karachi. One hundred patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue Immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in the study. The admitted patients in PNS Shifa Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) and Civil Hospital, Karachi were selected for the study. Presenting features were noted. The patients were physically examined for the presence of skin and mucosal lesions and findings were recorded. Total and Differential Leukocyte Count (TLC and DLC), platelet count and Liver Function Tests (LFTs) were done in all the patients. All the patients had low leukocyte and low platelet counts. The common presenting symptoms were high-grade fever with or without rigors, headache, body aches, backache, vomiting, sore throat with cough and generalized weakness (seen in 86% patients). The uncommon presenting features were diarrhea, abdominal pain, bleeding from gums and nosebleeds (seen in 14% patients). Sixty-eight (68%) patients had skin lesions. The most common skin presentation was generalized macular blanchable erythema involving trunk and limbs, seen in 44 (65%) cases. Discrete petechial lesions were seen on various body areas in 24 (35%) cases. Palmer erythema was seen in 20 (30%) patients. Generalized itching was seen in 16 (23%) cases. Isolated itching of palms and soles was seen in 20 (30%) cases. Twenty-eight (28%) patients had deranged LFTs. Out of those, 4 patients had raised serum bilirubin level whereas rest of the 24 had raised ALT. Dengue fever commonly presents with specific skin lesions. The skin lesions can be a clue to the diagnosis in difficult cases. (author)

  1. Skin lesions in hospitalized cases of dengue fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, K; Shaikh, I [Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2008-10-15

    To determine the frequency and types of skin lesions in cases of dengue fever in patients admitted in three hospitals of Karachi. One hundred patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue Immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in the study. The admitted patients in PNS Shifa Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) and Civil Hospital, Karachi were selected for the study. Presenting features were noted. The patients were physically examined for the presence of skin and mucosal lesions and findings were recorded. Total and Differential Leukocyte Count (TLC and DLC), platelet count and Liver Function Tests (LFTs) were done in all the patients. All the patients had low leukocyte and low platelet counts. The common presenting symptoms were high-grade fever with or without rigors, headache, body aches, backache, vomiting, sore throat with cough and generalized weakness (seen in 86% patients). The uncommon presenting features were diarrhea, abdominal pain, bleeding from gums and nosebleeds (seen in 14% patients). Sixty-eight (68%) patients had skin lesions. The most common skin presentation was generalized macular blanchable erythema involving trunk and limbs, seen in 44 (65%) cases. Discrete petechial lesions were seen on various body areas in 24 (35%) cases. Palmer erythema was seen in 20 (30%) patients. Generalized itching was seen in 16 (23%) cases. Isolated itching of palms and soles was seen in 20 (30%) cases. Twenty-eight (28%) patients had deranged LFTs. Out of those, 4 patients had raised serum bilirubin level whereas rest of the 24 had raised ALT. Dengue fever commonly presents with specific skin lesions. The skin lesions can be a clue to the diagnosis in difficult cases. (author)

  2. Polymorphous light eruption. Experimental reproduction of skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzle, E.; Plewig, G.; Hofmann, C.; Roser-Maass, E.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical features of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are reviewed from the literature with special emphasis on the experimental reproduction of skin lesions. Our clinical experience with 180 patients is reported. In forty-three patients a newly developed UVA provocation test was performed. UVA, free of sunburn radiation (50-100 J/cm2), was administered, sometimes repeatedly up to four times, to large sites of previously involved skin. With this technic the reproduction of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions was possible in 90% of this group of forty-three patients. The diagnosis was substantiated by microscopic examination of genuine and experimentally induced lesions. Characteristic histologic features of PLE are described. Phototesting with large doses of UVA aids in confirming the diagnosis of PLE. Hitherto, this diagnosis depended often on exclusion of other dermatoses. Eusolex 8021, a UVA-effective sunscreen, blocked eruptions of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions. An effective means of treatment is offered by PUVA therapy

  3. Neoplastic Multifocal Skin Lesions: Biology, Etiology, and Targeted Therapies for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana R; Santos, Ana C; Sanchez-Lopez, Elena; Kovačević, Andjekla B; Espina, Marta; Calpena, Ana C; Veiga, Francisco J; Garcia, Maria L; Souto, Eliana B

    2018-01-01

    Neoplastic skin lesions are multifocal, diffuse skin infiltrations of particular relevance in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative, nodular, or crusting skin lesions. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), namely, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and also actinic keratosis (AK), are the most common malignant tumors in humans. BCCs do not proliferate rapidly and most of the times do not metastasize, while SCCs are more infiltrative, metastatic, and destructive. AKs are precursor lesions of cutaneous SCCs. The classical therapy of NMSCs makes use of photodynamic therapy associated with chemotherapeutics. With improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and differentiation, a case is made towards the use of targeted chemotherapy with the intent to reduce the cytotoxicity of classical treatments. The present review aims to describe the current state of the art on the knowledge of NMSC, including its risks factors, oncogenes, and skin carcinogenesis, discussing the classical therapy against new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an American Adolescent Returning From Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjaei, Kimia G; Lawton, Kira; Gaur, Sunanda

    2018-06-06

    We present here the case of a healthy 16-year-old American girl who returned from an organized trip to Israel with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major; the infection was treated successfully with paromomycin-gentamicin ointment. She was initially misdiagnosed with staphylococcal and pseudomonal cellulitis. Although cutaneous leishmaniasis is seen only rarely in the United States, it should be considered when diagnosing new skin lesions after travel to affected countries.

  5. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions

  6. Radiation-induced vascular lesions of the skin: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Requena, L.; Mentzel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced cutaneous vascular neoplasms occur infrequently and comprise benign, so-called atypical vascular lesions (AVL) and angiosarcomas (AS), often being high-grade malignant tumors. Both arise most frequently within previously irradiated skin in breast-conserving-treated mammary cancer

  7. Social networks of patients with chronic skin lesions: nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Luciana Alves; Santos, Maxuel Cruz Dos; Duarte, Êrica Rosalba Mallmann; Bandeira, Andrea Gonçalves; Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Vieira, Letícia Becker

    2018-01-01

    To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network. The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.

  8. Social networks of patients with chronic skin lesions: nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alves Bandeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. Method: A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola’s Social Network. Results: The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Final considerations: Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Markers of Aberrantly Activated Innate Immunity in Vitiligo Lesional and Non-Lesional Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanshen; Wang, Yang; Yu, Jie; Gao, Min; Levings, Megan; Wei, Shencai; Zhang, Shengquan; Xu, Aie; Su, Mingwan; Dutz, Jan; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhou, Youwen

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is characterized by the death of melanocytes in the skin. This is associated with the presence of T cell infiltrates in the lesional borders. However, at present, there is no detailed and systematic characterization on whether additional cellular or molecular changes are present inside vitiligo lesions. Further, it is unknown if the normal appearing non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients is in fact normal. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the molecular and cellular characteristics of the lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Methods and Materials Paired lesional and non-lesional skin biopsies from twenty-three vitiligo patients and normal skin biopsies from sixteen healthy volunteers were obtained with informed consent. The following aspects were analyzed: (1) transcriptome changes present in vitiligo skin using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR; (2) abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin explant cultures using flow cytometry; and (3) distribution of the abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Compared with normal skin, vitiligo lesional skin contained 17 genes (mostly melanocyte-specific genes) whose expression was decreased or absent. In contrast, the relative expression of 13 genes was up-regulated. The up-regulated genes point to aberrant activity of the innate immune system, especially natural killer cells in vitiligo. Strikingly, the markers of heightened innate immune responses were also found to be up-regulated in the non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Conclusions and Clinical Implications As the first systematic transcriptome characterization of the skin in vitiligo patients, this study revealed previously unknown molecular markers that strongly suggest aberrant innate immune activation in the microenvironment of vitiligo skin. Since these changes involve both lesional and non-lesional skin, our results suggest that therapies targeting

  10. Skin lesions in Lorestan province chemically wounded combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghaye Jebraili

    2004-01-01

    Findings: All of the studied cases with mean age of 39.26 years old had skin manifestations among which the most common symptoms were itching , burning ,dry skin , scaling. From view point of lesions, the most common signs were erythema (81% , excoriation (87.9% and pruritic papules (49.5%. Final diagnosis in 78% of the patients was chronic dermatitis and in 7.7% of them was seborrhoeic dermatitis and in 8.8% both chronic and seborrhoeic dermatitis were observed .During exposure to chemical gases only 37.9% of these combatants had used special masks and 40% had properly worn special clothes to protect themselves which covered their body completely , but rest of them had either used protection instruments improperly or had not used them at all. Most of the lesions were in trunk , lower extremities , abdomen , head and neck .78% of the cases had multiple lesions Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study all of the chemical wounded combatants of Lorestan province suffer from different degrees of skin lesions , although more than half of them were not aware of kind and nature of the chemical gases , but it is suggested to do further studies on long-term effects of these chemical gases.

  11. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  12. When Are Circular Lesions Square? A National Clinical Education Skin Lesion Audit and Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H Miranda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSkin cancer is the most prevalent cancer by organ type and referral accuracy is vital for diagnosis and management. The British Association of Dermatologists (BAD and literature highlight the importance of accurate skin lesion examination, diagnosis and educationally-relevant studies.MethodsWe undertook a review of the relevant literature, a national audit of skin lesion description standards and a study of speciality training influences on these descriptions. Questionnaires (n=200, with pictures of a circular and an oval lesion, were distributed to UK dermatology/plastic surgery consultants and speciality trainees (ST, general practitioners (GP, and medical students (MS. The following variables were analysed against a pre-defined 95% inclusion accuracy standard: site, shape, size, skin/colour, and presence of associated scars.ResultsThere were 250 lesion descriptions provided by 125 consultants, STs, GPs, and MSs. Inclusion accuracy was greatest for consultants over STs (80% vs. 68%; P<0.001, GPs (57% and MSs (46% (P<0.0001, for STs over GPs (P<0.010 and MSs (P<0.0001 and for GPs over MSs (P<0.010, all falling below audit standard. Size description accuracy sub-analysis according to circular/oval dimensions was as follows: consultants (94%, GPs (80%, STs (73%, MSs (37%, with the most common error implying a quadrilateral shape (66%. Addressing BAD guidelines and published requirements for more empirical performance data to improve teaching methods, we performed a national audit and studied skin lesion descriptions. To improve diagnostic and referral accuracy for patients, healthcare professionals must strive towards accuracy (a circle is not a square.ConclusionsWe provide supportive evidence that increased speciality training improves this process and propose that greater focus is placed on such training early on during medical training, and maintained throughout clinical practice.

  13. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Koçinaj, Allma; Gërçari, Antigona; Ferizi, Mybera; Lashi, Edlira; Gjunkshi, Lorela; Fida, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute), or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-...

  14. The spectrum of non- neoplastic skin lesions in Ibadan, Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other common specific skin lesions were lichen planus/lichenoid dermatitis 27(12.9% of 209 cases), verruca vulgaris 25 (12% of 209 cases). Conclusion: The number of histologically diagnosed non-neoplastic skin lesions is relatively small. There is a very wide spectrum of non-neoplastic skin lesions diagnosed within ...

  15. Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Daniel C.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmilla; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey; Lee, Tim K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the design of a prototype in-vivo Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation, and preliminary results from skin phantom and clinical trials of this device. The probe releases a single millisecond-long pulse from a laser diode with either linear or circular polarization. It then captures the resulting backscattered far-field polarization speckle and calculates the Stokes parameters. This probe was designed with three novel innovations in mind. First, the Stokes vector is captured quickly, using low-cost components without the use of moving parts. Second, a compact collimated laser diode was used as the light source. Third, the device and detector geometry were designed to produce and capture a uniform speckle field. In the first clinical trial of this device, measurements were taken from a variety of skin lesions, both cancerous and benign. The Stokes vector was measured and used to calculate the degree of polarization (DOP), the azimuth angle, and the ellipticity angle of the polarization ellipse for two input light polarizations. Among other findings, the DOP for circular polarized input light was consistently lower than the DOP for linear polarized input light. These findings indicate the potential for a fast and low-cost in-vivo skin cancer screening tool, and encourages the continuing development of this probe's techniques.

  16. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  17. Skin lesions caused by orthopoxvirus infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K C; Bennett, M; Garrett, D C

    1999-10-01

    A seven-year-old male dobermann was presented for examination of a non-pruritic ulcerated lesion occurring at the site of a suspected rat bite on the muzzle. Biopsy revealed focal ulcerative dermatitis, with cells in the epidermis, follicular infundibula and interposed sebaceous glands undergoing ballooning degeneration and containing large acidophilic intracytoplasmic structures resembling poxvirus inclusion bodies. The diagnosis of orthopoxvirus infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The biopsy site healed uneventfully, without evidence of recurrence or development of further cutaneous or internal lesions, and a serum sample collected eight weeks after first presentation had a low titre of poxvirus antibodies. This report demonstrates that orthopoxvirus infection should be considered as a cause of ulcerative skin lesions in dogs, particularly if there has been recent contact with rodents or other small mammals.

  18. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasinzai, Masoom; Khan, Momin; Nadhman, Akhtar; Shahnaz, Gul

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases with numerous clinical manifestations for instance harshness from skin lesions to severe disfigurement and chronic systemic infection in the liver and spleen. So far, the most classical leishmaniasis therapy, despite its documented toxicities, remains pentavalent antimonial compounds. The arvailable therapeutic modalities for leishmaniasis are overwhelmed with resistance to leishmaniasis therapy. Mechanisms of classical drug resistance are often related with the lower drug uptake, increased efflux, the faster drug metabolism, drug target modifications and over-expression of drug transporters. The high prevalence of leishmaniasis and the appearance of resistance to classical drugs reveal the demand to develop and explore novel, less toxic, low cost and more promising therapeutic modalities. The review describes the mechanisms of classical drug resistance and potential drug targets in Leishmania infection. Moreover, current drug-delivery systems and future perspectives towards Leishmaniasis treatment are also covered.

  19. The pathogenesis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis from the field to the molecule: does ultraviolet light (UVB) radiation play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M

    2006-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatosis caused by persistence of Leishmania donovani parasites in the skin following apparently successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. The distribution of PKDL lesions in Sudanese patients often mirrors the clothing habits of those...

  20. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: a comparison with direct microscopy of smears and sections from lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Gaafar, A; El-Hassan, A M

    1996-01-01

    We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed by microscopi......We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed......%, respectively. The PCR should be considered as a valuable and sensitive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis; it has the added advantage of identification of the species of Leishmania causing the lesion....

  1. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Anke C; Blahak, Silvia; Heckers, Kim O; Wiechert, Jutta; Behncke, Helge; Mathes, Karina; Günther, Pascale; Zwart, Peer; Ball, Inna; Rüschoff, Birgit; Marschang, Rachel E

    2013-09-27

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards.

  2. Reactivation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mortazavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man with reactivation of previously existing and subsiding cutaneous leishmaniasis on his wrist and lower leg (shin after renal transplantation was admitted to our dermatology service on March 2008. He presented to us with two huge tumoral and cauliflower-like lesions. Skin smear and histopathology of skin showed leishman bodies and confirmed the diagnosis. After renal transplantation, he received cyclosporine plus prednisolone to induce immunosuppression and reduce the probability of transplant rejection. After immunosuppressive therapy, reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis with the above presentation took place. The patient responded to 800 mg/day intravenous sodium stibogluconate for 3 weeks plus local cryotherapy. Systemic plus local therapy along with reducing the doses of immunosuppressive drugs led to improvement of lesions. Reactivation of leishmaniasis after immunosuppression has been rarely reported.

  3. Interventions for preventing and managing of skin lesions after radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Bafe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiotherapy has a pivotal role in the fight against cancer. However 85% of patients, who undergo radiotherapy, will face moderate to severe skin reactions, for the treatment of which various local products, available in the market, are used. Aim: The aim of this systematic literature review was to investigate the prevention and treatment of these skin lesions induced by radiation. Methods: For this purpose 34 articles were collected concerning materials, approved by the FDA, for the prevention and treatment of skin damage due to radiation, preclinical factors tested in animal models, factors involved in the prevention and treatment of moist desquamation and unauthorized agents or with little information about them. Results: According to the study results, the moisturizing and hydrophilic creams, herbal preparations, gels based on hyaluronic acid, and Vitamin E, heparinoid creams and formulations based on oils appear to have a positive effect in preventing dermatitis as well as in providing symptom relief. Patches are suitable for the case of moist desquamation. Vasculotide, agent EUK-207, agent RTA 408, agent ALDH2 and the agent Celecoxib are still in the preclinical stage but may become future therapeutic targets. Conclusion: Skin reactions due to radiation remain a significant problem for patients undergoing radical treatment. However, thanks to the multitude of formulations available in the market and several clinical trials it is possible that early prevention and treatment for actinic dermatitis could be achieved. In conclusion, it is crucial that health professionals are aware of the formulations indicated and contraindicated in case of skin reactions induced by radiation and adjust the treatment for the prevention and management of skin reactions in patients receiving radiation therapy.

  4. A Case Report: Krukenberg Tumour with Nodular Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krukenberg tumor is a rare variety of metastatic cancer to the ovary. The stomach is the most common site for the primary tumor, followed by the breast, gall bladder, colon and pancreas. It is not always possible to distinguish ovarian metastasis from primary ovarian masses in patients in whom the malignancy center is unidentified. This case report firstly aims to present a patient who presented with common nodular skin lesions, migrating arthritis and severe clinical characteristics, and diagnosed with Krukenberg tumor with further examinations.

  5. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allma Koçinaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute, or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-year-old female and review the patient’s clinical and laboratory features, the causes of the disease, diagnosis as well as treatment.

  6. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  7. Topical retapamulin in the management of infected traumatic skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribhi Shawar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribhi Shawar1, Nicole Scangarella-Oman1, MaryBeth Dalessandro2, John Breton2, Monique Twynholm3, Gang Li4, Harmony Garges51Infectious Disease Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 2Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 3Infectious Diseases Medicine Development Centre Europe, GlaxoSmithKline, Greenford, Middlesex, UK; 4MDC BDS – Infectious Disease, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 5Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: Retapamulin is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic specifically designed for use as a topical agent. The unique mode of action by which retapamulin selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis differentiates it from other nonpleuromutilin antibacterial agents that target the ribosome or ribosomal factors, minimizing the potential for target-specific cross-resistance with other antibacterial classes in current use. In vitro studies show that retapamulin has high potency against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and coagulase-negative staphylococci commonly found in skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs, including S. aureus strains with resistance to agents such as macrolides, fusidic acid, or mupirocin, and other less common organisms associated with SSSIs, anaerobes, and common respiratory tract pathogens. Clinical studies have shown that twice-daily topical retapamulin for 5 days is comparable to 10 days of oral cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions. A 1% concentration of retapamulin ointment has been approved for clinical use as an easily applied treatment with a short, convenient dosing regimen for impetigo. Given the novel mode of action, low potential for cross-resistance with established antibacterial agents, and high in vitro potency against many bacterial pathogens

  8. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  9. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  10. HLA-DPDQDR is expressed in all lesional skin from patients with autoimmune skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human genes responsible for human antigen presentation and transplant rejection functions are located on the short arm of Chromosome 6 and are called the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC. Moreover, the primary physiologic function of MHC molecules is to present peptides to T lymphocytes. MHC molecules are integral components of the ligands that most T cells recognize, since the T cell receptor (TCR has specificity for complexes of foreign antigenic peptides, as well as self-MHC molecules. Aim: Our investigation attempts to investigate the presence of HLA-DPDQDR within lesional skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs. Materials and Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC to evaluate the presence of HLA-DPDQDR in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by ABDs. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABDs, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF, 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 2 with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA. Results: Most ABD biopsies stained positive for HLA-DPDQDR in the lesional blisters and/or inflamed neurovascular plexus in the superficial dermis, and also at mesenchymal-endothelial like-cell junctions in the dermis. In BP, EBA and EPF, the HLA-DPDQDR staining was also seen in the dermal eccrine sweat gland coils and and ducts. Conclusion: Here, we document that HLA-DPDQDR is expressed in several anatomic areas of lesional skin in patients with ABDs. Notably, HLA-DPDQDR positivity was also consistently present in areas of the classic immune response in pemphigus epidermal keratinocytic intercellular junctions, and at basement membrane sites in bullous pemphigoid and other subepidermal blistering diseases.

  11. Ectoparasites are the major causes of various types of skin lesions in small ruminants in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanie, Mersha; Negash, Tamiru; Sirak, Asegedech

    2010-08-01

    Ectoparasites are the major causes of skin lesions in animals. Clinical, skin scraping examination, and histopathological studies were conducted to identify and characterize skin lesions in small ruminants caused by ectoparasites. Mange mites, lice, sheep keds, and ticks were collected from the skin of affected animals for species identification. Skin biopsies were collected from affected part of the skin and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. Of 1,000 sheep and 600 goats examined, 815 (81.50%) sheep and 327 (54.5%) goats were infested with one or more types of ectoparasites. Sarcoptes scabiei var ovis, Demodex ovis, Psoroptes ovis, Bovicola ovis, Melophagus ovinus, and Amblyomma variegatum and other tick species were identified from sheep. S. scabiei var caprae, Demodex caprae, Linognathus stenopsis, and A. variegatum and other tick species were identified from goats. Gross skin lesions or defects observed on the skin include stained and ragged wool, loss of wool/hair, nodules, crusts, lichenification, and fissuring. Microscopic evaluation of H and E stained skin sections revealed lesions in the epidermal layer such as hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and melanin inconsistency on the basal cells of the epidermis. Follicular keratosis, perifolliculitis, frunculosis, perivasculitis, and aggregates of inflammatory cells (of acute and chronic type) with fibrosis were experiential in the dermal layer of the skin. Most of the skin lesions caused by ectoparasites are overlapping. Thus, ectoparasites control program should be executed to reduce skin lesions as skins are the major export commodity of the country.

  12. A Comparison between the Effects of Glucantime, Topical Trichloroacetic Acid 50% plus Glucantime, and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser plus Glucantime on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Pentavalent antimonial drugs have been the first line of therapy in cutaneous leishmaniasis for many years. However, the cure rate of these agents is still not favorable. This study was carried out to compare the efficacies of intralesional glucantime with topical trichloroacetic acid 50% (TCA 50% + glucantime and fractional carbon dioxide laser + glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods. A total of 90 patients were randomly divided into three groups of 30 to be treated with intralesional injection of glucantime, a combination of topical TCA 50% and glucantime, or a combination of fractional laser and glucantime. The overall clinical improvement and changes in sizes of lesions and scars were assessed and compared among three groups. Results. The mean duration of treatment was 6.1±2.1 weeks in all patients (range: 2–12 weeks and 6.8±1.7, 5.2±1.0, and 6.3±3.0 weeks in glucantime, topical TCA plus glucantime, and fractional laser plus glucantime groups, respectively (P=0.011. Complete improvement was observed in 10 (38.5%, 27 (90%, and 20 (87% patients of glucantime, glucantime + TCA, and glucantime + laser groups, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Compared to glucantime alone, the combination of intralesional glucantime and TCA 50% or fractional CO2 laser had significantly higher and faster cure rate in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  13. Nested PCR Assay for Detection of Leishmania donovani in Slit Aspirates from Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Gannavaram; Ansari, N. A.; Kataria, Joginder; Salotra, Poonam

    2004-01-01

    A nested PCR assay to detect parasite DNA in slit aspirates from skin lesions of patients with post-kala-azar dermal lesihmaniasis (PKDL) is described. PCR results were positive in 27 of 29 (93%) samples by nested PCR assay, while only 20 of 29 (69%) were positive in a primary PCR assay. The nested PCR assay allowed reliable diagnosis of PKDL in a noninvasive manner. PMID:15071047

  14. Nested PCR Assay for Detection of Leishmania donovani in Slit Aspirates from Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivas, Gannavaram; Ansari, N. A.; Kataria, Joginder; Salotra, Poonam

    2004-01-01

    A nested PCR assay to detect parasite DNA in slit aspirates from skin lesions of patients with post-kala-azar dermal lesihmaniasis (PKDL) is described. PCR results were positive in 27 of 29 (93%) samples by nested PCR assay, while only 20 of 29 (69%) were positive in a primary PCR assay. The nested PCR assay allowed reliable diagnosis of PKDL in a noninvasive manner.

  15. Goltz syndrome: A newborn with ectrodactyly and skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatanik Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Goltz syndrome or Focal Dermal Hypoplasia is a rare multisystem disorder, involving all the three germ cell layers. The disease is thought to be inherited in X-linked dominant fashion with heterogeneous mutations of the PORCN gene at Xp11.23 locus. Majority of the cases are sporadic, mainly due to postzygotic somatic mutations. The clinical spectrum includes characteristic cutaneous manifestations, multiple skeletal anomalies, and involvement of the eyes, hair, nails, kidneys, and so on. Considerable variability is noted in the clinical expression of the disease probably due to genomic mosaicism. Around 300 cases of Goltz syndrome have been reported in the literature. Here, we report such a case with characteristic skin lesions, multiple bony defects, distinctive facial features, coloboma of iris, and bilateral hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was evident immediately after birth due to the characteristic clinical picture of the baby.

  16. Accuracy of qPCR for quantifying Leishmania kDNA in different skin layers of patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilha-Santos, L; Dos Santos Júnior, A C M; Medeiros-Silva, V; Bergmann, J O; da Silva, E F; Segato, L F; Arabi, A Y M; de Paula, N A; Sampaio, R N R; Lima, B D; Gomes, C M

    2018-05-03

    Superficial swab sampling of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) lesions shows higher amounts of Leishmania than those from biopsy. Subcutaneous involvement is also important in ATL, but parasite quantification according to lesion depth has not been evaluated. We aim to present the best depth at which sampling should be performed for molecular exams of ATL. Patients with a clinical presentation compatible with ATL were allocated to ATL and control groups. Qualitative and quantitative qPCR assays were performed using SYBR Green and primers amplifying the kDNA minicircle of Leishmania spp. in different skin layers, including the epidermis, the superior dermis, the inferior dermis, and the hypodermis. Fifty-nine patients were included in this study, including 40 who had been diagnosed with ATL and 19 controls. The number of parasites was greater in samples of the epidermis and superior dermis (159.1 × 10 6 , range 4.0-781.7, and 75.4 × 10 6 , range 8.0-244.5, mean Leishmania parasite equivalents per μg of tissue DNA, respectively) than those in samples of the inferior dermis and hypodermis (54.6, range 8.0-256.6, and 16.8 × 10 6 , range 8.0-24.1, mean Leishmania parasite equivalents per μg of tissue DNA, respectively). The best diagnostic accuracy was achieved in the superior dermis (77.9%) and was significantly greater than that in the hypodermis (63.3%; p 0.039). We conclude that superficial sampling can retrieve a greater quantity of parasites. Future studies of the role of transepidermal elimination as a mechanism of host defence in ATL must be performed as there is a considerable quantity of Leishmania kDNA in the epidermis. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and premalignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Helen R; Jones, Peter W; Harden, Paul N; Ramsay, Helen M; Hawley, Carmel M; Nicol, David L; Fryer, Anthony A

    2009-06-15

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and associated premalignant lesions represent a major complication after transplantation, particularly in areas with high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. The American Society of Transplantation has proposed annual NMSC screening for all renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive index (PI) that could be used in targeted screening. Data on patient demographics, UVR exposure, and other clinical parameters were collected on 398 adult recipients recruited from the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane. Structured interview, skin examination, biopsy of lesions, and review of medical/pathologic records were performed. Time to presentation with the first NMSC was assessed using Cox's regression models and Kaplan-Meier estimates used to assess detection of NMSC during screening. Stepwise selection identified age, outdoor UVR exposure, living in a hot climate, pretransplant NMSC, childhood sunburning, and skin type as predictors. The PI generated was used to allocate patients into three screening groups (6 months, 2 years, and 5 years). The survival curves of these groups were significantly different (PPI to enable development of targeted NMSC surveillance strategies.

  18. Cylindrical SUV distribution model for detecting skin lesions in body trunk FDG-PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Hanaoka, Shouhei

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a computerized detection method for skin lesions in body trunk fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT images. Spots on the skin with a high standard uptake value (SUV) are due not only to glucose metabolism in skin lesions but also to the physiological metabolism of organs near the skin. The distribution pattern of regional SUV on the skin is important information for the differential diagnosis of such high-SUV spots. In this study, we have developed a new skin lesion detection method based on a cylindrical SUV distribution model of the skin. The shape of the SUV distribution model is an approximation of the body trunk, and the SUV distribution model includes standard values for regional skin SUV. Classifier ensembles based on CT image features, SUV features, and subtraction features between the SUVs in FDG-PET images and the values in the SUV distribution model are used to extract and classify candidate regions for skin lesions. In a study of skin lesion detection using FDG-PET/CT images in 36 clinical cases, the true-positive rate was 61.7%, with 11.7 false-positive regions per case. The training results of the classifier ensemble for extracting and classifying candidate regions showed the effective features for detecting skin lesions in the study. (author)

  19. An ICA-based method for the segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in macroscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Pablo G; Scharcanski, Jacob; Di Persia, Leandro E; Milone, Diego H

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step in computer-aided diagnostic systems for pigmented skin lesions, since that a good definition of the lesion area and its boundary at the image is very important to distinguish benign from malignant cases. In this paper a new skin lesion segmentation method is proposed. This method uses Independent Component Analysis to locate skin lesions in the image, and this location information is further refined by a Level-set segmentation method. Our method was evaluated in 141 images and achieved an average segmentation error of 16.55%, lower than the results for comparable state-of-the-art methods proposed in literature.

  20. CD3+CD4negCD8neg (double negative) T lymphocytes and NKT cells as the main cytotoxic-related-CD107a+ cells in lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Raquel; Cunha, Clarissa F; Pimentel, Maria Inês F; Lyra, Marcelo R; Pereira-Da-Silva, Tatiana; Schubach, Armando O; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bertho, Alvaro Luiz

    2017-05-03

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which infects dermal macrophages and dendritic cells, causing an intense immune-mediated-tissue inflammation and a skin ulcer with elevated borders that can heal spontaneously or after antimonial therapy. The resolution of lesions depends on an adaptive immune response, and cytotoxic cells seem to have a fundamental role in this process. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of cytotoxicity mediated mechanisms that occur during the immune response in the CL lesion milieu, considering distinct cytotoxic-related CD107a + cells, such as CD8 + , CD4 + , CD4 neg CD8 neg (double-negative, DN) and CD4 + CD8 + (double-positive, DP) T lymphocytes, as well as NK and NKT cells. Lesion derived cells were assessed for T cell subpopulations and NK cells, as well as CD107a expression by flow cytometry. In addition, cytometric bead array (CBA) was used to quantify cytokines and granzyme B concentrations in supernatants from macerated lesions. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that NKT cells are the major CD107a-expressing cell population committed to cytotoxicity in CL lesion, although we also observed high frequencies of CD4 + and DN T cells expressing CD107a. Analysing the pool of CD107a + -cell populations, we found a higher distribution of DN T cells (44%), followed by approximately 25% of NKT cells. Interestingly, NK and CD8 + T cells represented only 3 and 4% of the total-CD107a + -cell pool, respectively. The cytotoxicity activity that occurs in the lesion milieu of CL patients seems to be dominated by DN T and NKT cells. These findings suggest the need for a reevaluation of the role of classical-cytotoxic NK and CD8 + T cells in the pathogenesis of CL, implicating an important role for other T cell subpopulations.

  1. Evaluation Methodology between Globalization and Localization Features Approaches for Skin Cancer Lesions Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H. M.; Al-azawi, R. J.; Abdulhameed, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Huge efforts have been put in the developing of diagnostic methods to skin cancer disease. In this paper, two different approaches have been addressed for detection the skin cancer in dermoscopy images. The first approach uses a global method that uses global features for classifying skin lesions, whereas the second approach uses a local method that uses local features for classifying skin lesions. The aim of this paper is selecting the best approach for skin lesion classification. The dataset has been used in this paper consist of 200 dermoscopy images from Pedro Hispano Hospital (PH2). The achieved results are; sensitivity about 96%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 97% for globalization approach while, sensitivity about 100%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 100% for Localization Approach, these results showed that the localization approach achieved acceptable accuracy and better than globalization approach for skin cancer lesions classification.

  2. Variability of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions Is Not Associated with Genetic Diversity of Leishmania tropica in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazma Habib; Llewellyn, Martin S; Schönian, Gabriele; Sutherland, Colin J

    2017-11-01

    Leishmania tropica is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan. Here, intraspecific diversity of L. tropica from northern Pakistan was investigated using multilocus microsatellite typing. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were typed in 34 recently collected L. tropica isolates from Pakistan along with 158 archival strains of diverse Afro-Eurasian origins. Previously published profiles for 145 strains of L. tropica originating from different regions of Africa, Central Asia, Iran, and Middle East were included for comparison. Six consistently well-supported genetic groups were resolved: 1) Asia, 2) Morroco A, 3) Namibia and Kenya A, 4) Kenya B/Tunisia and Galilee, 5) Morocco B, and 6) Middle East. Strains from northern Pakistan were assigned to Asian cluster except for three that were placed in a geographically distant genetic group; Morocco A. Lesion variability among these Pakistani strains was not associated with specific L. tropica genetic profile. Pakistani strains showed little genetic differentiation from strains of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria (F ST = 0.00-0.06); displayed evidence of modest genetic flow with India (F ST = 0.14). Furthermore, genetic structuring within these isolates was not geographically defined. Pak-Afghan cluster was in significant linkage disequilibrium (I A = 1.43), had low genetic diversity, and displayed comparatively higher heterozygosity (F IS = -0.62). Patterns of genetic diversity observed suggest dominance of a minimally diverse clonal lineage within northern Pakistan. This is surprising as a wide clinical spectrum was observed in patients, suggesting the importance of host and other factors. Further genotyping studies of L. tropica isolates displaying different clinical phenotypes are required to validate this potentially important observation.

  3. Application of principal component analysis to multispectral imaging data for evaluation of pigmented skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Lihacova, Ilze; Kuzmina, Ilona; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive and fast primary diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions is required due to frequent incidence of skin cancer - melanoma. Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical multi-spectral images (31 melanomas and 94 nonmalignant pigmented lesions) in the wavelength range of 450-950 nm by means of PCA resulted in 87 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity for separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  4. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – Dermoscopic Findings And Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev Hristo P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year-old male patient who, three months after a holiday in Southern Greece, found a small ‘pimple’ on his back, which gradually got as big as a small walnut, the central part becoming ulcerated and scabby. Dermatological examination found an erythematous-to-livid nodular lesion on the right shoulder; it was 16 mm in diameter with central ulceration, covered with brownish crust which discharged pus-like secretion upon pressure. Microscope examination of Romanowsky-Giemsa stained lesion material detected amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica. The culture investigation and serological tests for leishmaniasis were negative. Dermoscopy of the lesion found the following features: erythema, hyperkeratosis, central ulceration covered with brownish crust, “yellow tears-like” structures and “white starburst-like” patterns, and various vascular structures (including dotted vessels, comma-shaped vessels, hairpin- and glomerular-like vessels. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and underwent four cryotherapy sessions every other week with excellent therapeutic results - complete resolution of infiltrate with subsequent gentle hypopigmented scarring. In conclusion, dermoscopy is an easily accessible non-invasive method which can be useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cryotherapy is the treatment of choice for single skin lesions.

  5. Clinical analysis of skin lesions in 796 Chinese HIV- positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-jie; Li, Hai-ying; Chen, De-xi; Wang, Xi-cheng; Li, Zai-chun; Wu, Ya-song; Zhang, Tong; Gao, Yan-qing; Wu, Hao

    2011-09-01

    Skin lesions are often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, reflecting the immunocompromised status of the individual. We investigated the relationship between skin lesions and immune function in a retrospective study of 796 Chinese HIV patients with and without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Of the 651 patients who had not received HAART, we found that 531 (81.6%) had apparent skin lesions. The incidence of infectious skin diseases (fungi, viruses, bacteria, spirochetes and parasites) and non-infectious skin diseases (excluding skin cancer) was 68.8% and 34.9%, respectively. Mean CD4(+) T-cell counts and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios were lower in patients with skin lesions than in patients without lesions (178 ± 96/µl vs. 306 ± 189/µl (p Candidiasis (25.8%), eczema (19.2%), nodular prurigo (13.8%), dermatophyte infections (10.6%) and herpes zoster (9.4%) were most common in Chinese patients with HIV. Among the 145 patients who had started HAART, there was a significantly lower prevalence of skin diseases (29.0%), although drug eruptions (12.4%) were more commonly observed. These findings indicate that HAART often reduces the incidence of infectious and non-infectious skin lesions in patients with HIV, but can itself be the cause of drug eruptions.

  6. Protective Effect of Vitamin D3 and Gp63 Conjugated with Tetanus Toxoid on Outcome of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions in Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soudi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: GP63 is a major surface protease of Leishmania promastigotes that plays an important role in its virulance. As GP63 on its own can not develop an effective protection against leishmaniasis, the goal of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of GP63 conjugated with tetanus toxoid (TT and Vitamin D3 in susceptible BALB/c mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: This study was a basic-applied experimental study performed in Tarbiat Modarres University from September 2002 to April 2005. Cloned virulant Leishmania (L. major [MRHO / IR / 75 / ER] strain was cultured and 5109 cells were harvested. GP63 Molecule was purified and conjugated with TT and conjugated molecule was used for immunization of 8 groups of female BALB/c mice. Results: Results showed that the group of mice receiving conjugated molecule with Vitamin D3 had significant differences from other groups regarding lesion progression (P0.05. The culture of spleen cells showed that the disease did not become systemic in this group. Conclusion: Conjugation of GP63 with TT strengthens cell immunity and its use along with vitamin D3 provokes macrophages activity. This basis can be used for production of an appropriate preparation for protection against Leishmaniasis.

  7. Diospyros lotus leaf and grapefruit stem extract synergistically ameliorate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion in mice by suppressing infiltration of mast cells in skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong Hua; Shin, Jae Young; Jang, Seon Il

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing and pruritic inflammation of the skin also thought to be involved in, or caused by immune system destruction is an upsetting health problem due to its continuously increasing incidence especially in developed countries. Mast cell infiltration in atopic dermatitis skin lesions and its IgE-mediated activation releases various cytokines and chemokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This study was aimed at investigating synergistic anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and anti-atopic dermatitis effects of Diospyros lotus leaf extract (DLE) and Muscat bailey A grapefruit stem extract (GFSE) in atopic dermatitis-like induced skin lesions in mice. Combinations of DLE and GFSE inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 production more than DLE or GFSE in PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. DLE and GFSE synergistically inhibited compound 48/80-induced dermal infiltration of mast cells and reduced scratching behavior than DLE or GFSE. Furthermore, DLE and GFSE synergistically showed a stronger ameliorative effect in skin lesions by reducing clinical scores; dermal infiltration of mast cells; ear and dorsal skin thickness; serum IgE and IL-4 production in atopic dermatitis-like mice. Collectively, these results suggest that DLE and GFSE synergistically exhibit anti-atopic dermatitis effects in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Alam, Md Zahidul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2014-05-02

    Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women's reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. We compared menopausal age in two groups of women--with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies--participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups' age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure.

  9. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  10. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria | Oseni | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 ... Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower ... Conclusion: skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country.

  11. Tegumentary leishmaniasis and coinfections other than HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Y Martínez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL is a disease of skin and/or mucosal tissues caused by Leishmania parasites. TL patients may concurrently carry other pathogens, which may influence the clinical outcome of TL.This review focuses on the frequency of TL coinfections in human populations, interactions between Leishmania and other pathogens in animal models and human subjects, and implications of TL coinfections for clinical practice. For the purpose of this review, TL is defined as all forms of cutaneous (localised, disseminated, or diffuse and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection, superinfection with skin bacteria, and skin manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis are not included. We searched MEDLINE and other databases and included 73 records: 21 experimental studies in animals and 52 studies about human subjects (mainly cross-sectional and case studies. Several reports describe the frequency of Trypanosoma cruzi coinfection in TL patients in Argentina (about 41% and the frequency of helminthiasis in TL patients in Brazil (15% to 88%. Different hypotheses have been explored about mechanisms of interaction between different microorganisms, but no clear answers emerge. Such interactions may involve innate immunity coupled with regulatory networks that affect quality and quantity of acquired immune responses. Diagnostic problems may occur when concurrent infections cause similar lesions (e.g., TL and leprosy, when different pathogens are present in the same lesions (e.g., Leishmania and Sporothrix schenckii, or when similarities between phylogenetically close pathogens affect accuracy of diagnostic tests (e.g., serology for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Some coinfections (e.g., helminthiasis appear to reduce the effectiveness of antileishmanial treatment, and drug combinations may cause cumulative adverse effects.In patients with TL, coinfection is frequent, it can lead to diagnostic errors and delays, and it

  12. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-03-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  13. Nonhealing skin lesions in a sailor and a journalist returning from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesho, Emil P; Wortmann, Glenn; Neafie, Ronald; Aronson, Naomi

    2005-02-01

    US health care providers who are not familiar with cutaneous leishmaniasis may now begin to encounter more patients with this challenging entity as military personnel return from rotations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Diagnosis requires a skin scraping, aspiration, or biopsy, followed by examination by an experienced microscopist or pathologist. Demonstration of the parasite DNA by PCR or culture in special media can also be used to confirm the diagnosis. Sodium stibogluconate is the mainstay of therapy, but other options for selected cases include topical thermal or cryotherapy treatment and oral triazole compounds. Assistance is available through the CDC and, for Department of Defense beneficiaries, certain military facilities.

  14. Clinicopathologic review of 19 patients with systemic candidiasis with skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Gee Young; Lee, Hae Woong; Chang, Sung Eun; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Koh, Jai Kyoung

    2005-07-01

    A diagnosis of systemic candidiasis is often delayed or missed owing to the absence of sensitive, specific, and timely diagnostic tools. Skin lesions are not common, but they can help to rapidly establish a diagnosis. We report on a 14-year experience of systemic candidiasis with skin lesions in our institution. We report the prevalence, clinical findings, histologic findings, etiologic Candida species, underlying conditions, treatment modalities, and outcomes of the cases and compare them with the previous reports. We reviewed the medical records and laboratory data of patients diagnosed with systemic candidiasis from June 1989 to September 2002 at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. We thoroughly reviewed the data on those patients with characteristic skin lesions. We included the cases in which Candida organisms were either shown or cultured from the skin. We also included the patients who had developed the characteristic rash at the onset of infection if there was no other possible explanation for the rash. Of 53 documented systemic candidiasis cases, 19 (35.8%) had the characteristic skin lesions. Fifteen patients (78.9%) had hematologic problems and were neutropenic. The skin lesions were a maculopapular or nodular rash and plaques. In addition to the trunk and proximal extremities, the rash also involved the face and distal extremities. The rashes were mostly purpuric, not consistently associated with underlying thrombocytopenia but also associated with underlying vascular damage as a result of Candida organisms. The underlying vascular damage also caused intraepidermal necrotic and vesicular change. One case of transepidermal elimination of organisms was newly found. The most common causative species was Candida tropicalis in the 19 patients with skin lesions, in contrast with Candida albicans in a total of 53 patients. The mortality rate was 84.2%. The prevalence of systemic candidiasis-associated skin lesions may be higher than previously reported

  15. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants for the development of visceral leishmaniasis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Isobel McCall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. Among the most important questions in Leishmania research is why some species like L. donovani infect visceral organs, whereas other species like L. major remain in the skin. The determinants of visceral leishmaniasis are still poorly understood, although genomic, immunologic, and animal models are beginning to provide important insight into this disease. In this review, we discuss the vector, host, and pathogen factors that mediate the development of visceral leishmaniasis. We examine the progression of the parasite from the initial site of sand fly bite to the visceral organs and its ability to survive there. The identification of visceral disease determinants is required to understand disease evolution, to understand visceral organ survival mechanisms, and potentially to develop better interventions for this largely neglected disease.

  17. Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Showing Vascular Skin Lesions Predominantly on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Korekawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old Japanese man presented with dark blue papules and nodules on his face. There were multiple soft papules and nodules, dark blue in color, compressive, and ranging in size from 2 to 10 mm. A few similar lesions were seen on the patient's right dorsal second toe and right buccal mucosa. There were no skin lesions on his trunk and upper limbs. The patient's past history did not include gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia. Histopathological examination showed dilated vascular spaces lined by the normal epithelium extending beneath the dermis and into the subcutaneous fat. Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract to check for colon involvement was not performed. X-ray images of the limbs revealed no abnormalities in the bones or joints. Laboratory investigations did not show anemia. Although we failed to confirm a diagnosis by endoscopy, the skin lesions, histopathological findings, lack of abnormal X-ray findings, and the presence of oral lesions as a part of gastrointestinal tract guided the diagnosis of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS. Skin lesions of BRBNS occur predominantly on the trunk and upper limbs. However, the present case showed multiple skin lesions predominantly on the face. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to know about a possible atypical distribution of skin lesions in BRBNS.

  18. Traumatic degloving lesion of penile and scrotal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Zanettini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avulsions of penile and scrotal skin are uncommon events and are caused mainly by accidents with industrial machines and agricultural machine belts. We report the case of a 30-year old patient with avulsion and traumatic degloving of the penile and scrotal skin, with exposure of the cavernous bodies, spongy body, and testes due to an industrial machine accident. Reconstruction was performed in steps, achieving a satisfactory esthetic result, normal voiding and reestablished sexual function.

  19. Independent histogram pursuit for segmentation of skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, D.D.; Butakoff, C.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an unsupervised algorithm, called the Independent Histogram Pursuit (HIP), for segmenting dermatological lesions is proposed. The algorithm estimates a set of linear combinations of image bands that enhance different structures embedded in the image. In particular, the first estima...... to deal with different types of dermatological lesions. The boundary detection precision using k-means segmentation was close to 97%. The proposed algorithm can be easily combined with the majority of classification algorithms....

  20. Use of FTA Cards for Direct Sampling of Patients' Lesions in the Ecological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Ishimaru, Yuka; Sayed, Amal S. M.; Fujita, Megumi; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Velez, Lenin N.; Gomez, Eduardo A. L.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    The FTA card (Whatman) was assessed for its utility as a molecular epidemiological tool in collecting samples from patients with leishmaniasis in Peru because the card has a variety of merits; it is less invasive for patients and easy to handle for both physicians and other medical personnel for sample collection or diagnosis, in addition to its simplicity and easy countrywide and/or intercountry transportation for analysis. Samples were collected from 132 patients suspected of having leishma...

  1. Etiology of chronic skin lesions in subjects with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, G; Chisari, E M; Borzì, A M; Grasso, A; Chisari, C G

    2018-01-01

    Skin lesions can be defined as lesions that result in loss of tissues and their joints, and often this cutaneous skin process is a primary or secondary consequence of the structural changes in the skin itself. Subjects with peripheral arteripathies that develop chronic skin lesions in the lower extremities of the Western world are constantly increasing. We conducted a study on the etiologic incidence of chronic skin lesions in peripheral arterial disease CSLpa subjects in the lower limbs compared to subjects with chronic skin lesions CSL (controls). 30 subjects with peripheral atheropathies PA (22 F - 8 M mean age 74,5 ± 4,9) and with chronic skin lesions (CSLpa) in the lower limbs "A" group were admitted to our study according to a randomized and compared to 30 no peripheral atheropathies subjects (19 F-11 M, mean age 81,5 ± 7,3 - controls) group B with chronic skin lesions (CSL). These two groups "A" and "B" have been studied and compared on the basis of infectious etiology responsible for the infectious skin process. In the subjects of the "A" group we found a 12 positive assay of 40.0% of the examinations, while in the group "B" we achieved a total cultured positivity of 9 cases corresponding to 30.0% of the examinations . For the number of bacterial species identified for "A" group we obtained 3 mono microbial and 6 poly microbial bacteriological tests and for group "B" we observed 7 mono microbial and 2 poly microbial tests. All bacteriological isolates showed "in vitro" sensitivity to satisfactory ciprofloxacin with MICs range of 0.78-1.56mg/L. The data observed after 4 weeks after the amniotic membrane (MA) in the two study groups A and B were respectively the following: and for group A 50% scarring, 46.6% partial resolution and in one case worsening for the B-healing group in 63.3%, the partial resolution in the remaining 36.6. The data from this study show a different etiology between subjects with CSLpa than subjects with CSL. This phenomenon confirms

  2. Leishmaniasis difusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerzaín Rodríguez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan cuatro pacientes con leishmaniasis difusa, procedentes de cuatro regiones de Colombia, diagnosticados inicialmente mediante el estudio histopatológico. Dos casos tenían lesiones diseminadas, en una niña de 10 años y en un hombre de 80 años. Los otros dos casos, hombres de 33 y 62 años, presentaron lesiones nodulares iniciales que curaron con calor local y Glucantime. Todos tuvieron leishmaninas negativas. Se confirma que la entidad puede curar cuando no está diseminada. El calor local fue muy útil en un caso con lesión única inicial. La inoculación al hamster con macerados de biopsias de dos de los pacientes les originó prominentes "histiocitomas" en el hocico y las almohadillas plantares. En un caso no diseminado se identificó el parásito como L. m. amazonensis mediante isoenzimas. En el paciente de 80 años, el agente causal fue una cepa de L. mexicana. llustramos las lesiones clínicas, enfatizamos el aspecto típico de la imagen histopatológica e ilustramos y discutimos la relación leishmaniamacrófago mediante imágenes de microscopía electrónica. Las características de la enfermedad y la literatura sobre la misma se revisa ampliamente.

  3. Detection of Leishmania parasites in the blood of patients with isolated cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash-Chmaisse, Hania; Makki, Raja; Nahhas, Georges; Knio, Khouzama; Nuwayri-Salti, Nuha

    2011-07-01

    The consequences of the spread of Leishmania parasites to the blood from lesions in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis are numerous. To assess the magnitude of this invasion we conducted the present study on patients referred to the American University of Beirut Medical Center for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients referred for the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included in the study. Skin and blood cultures for Leishmania were taken from these patients. One hundred sixty-two patients were proven to have cutaneous leishmaniasis by pathology; 52% were males and 44% females (gender information was missing for 4%). Patient age ranged from 5 months to 70 years. None of the patients had received treatment for Leishmania. We obtained parasite isolates from 85 patients (52.5%), proven by cultures from skin and blood/blood components. Interestingly, the parasite was isolated in the blood and blood components of 50 patients (30.9%). Isoenzyme analysis confirmed the fact that the organisms in blood and skin were the same; from the 28 isolates that were positive in both skin and blood, eight isolates were Leishmania major and two were Leishmania tropica. The remaining isolates, whether positive in both blood and skin or in either of these tissues, skin or blood and its products, were Leishmania infantum sensu lato. In the current study, the detection rate of parasites in the blood of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis was high. This illustrates the invasive characteristic of the parasite that has escaped the skin. Testing should be considered in areas other than Lebanon, especially around the Mediterranean basin. Whether these findings support the administration of systemic treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis or not needs to be confirmed in larger prospective studies. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  5. Characterization of the local and systemic immune responses in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Veress, B; Permin, H

    1999-01-01

    In this study skin biopsies and peripheral blood samples were obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Samples were obtained at diagnosis and during healing when the lesions had regressed to half the original size. At diagnosis most of the cells expressed HLA...

  6. The Impact of Quantitative Data Provided by a Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device on Dermatologists'Decisions to Biopsy Pigmented Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farberg, Aaron S; Winkelmann, Richard R; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of melanoma is critical to survival. New technologies, such as a multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis (MSDSLA) device [MelaFind, STRATA Skin Sciences, Horsham, Pennsylvania] may be useful to enhance clinician evaluation of concerning pigmented skin lesions. Previous studies evaluated the effect of only the binary output. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine how decisions dermatologists make regarding pigmented lesion biopsies are impacted by providing both the underlying classifier score (CS) and associated probability risk provided by multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis. This outcome was also compared against the improvement reported with the provision of only the binary output. METHODS: Dermatologists attending an educational conference evaluated 50 pigmented lesions (25 melanomas and 25 benign lesions). Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, and were asked this question again after being shown multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis data that included the probability graphs and classifier score. RESULTS: Data were analyzed from a total of 160 United States board-certified dermatologists. Biopsy sensitivity for melanoma improved from 76 percent following clinical evaluation to 92 percent after quantitative multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided ( p quantitative data were provided. Negative predictive value also increased (68% vs. 91%, panalysis (64% vs. 86%, p data into physician evaluation of pigmented lesions led to both increased sensitivity and specificity, thereby resulting in more accurate biopsy decisions.

  7. Epidemiological investigation of tattoo-like skin lesions among bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah N; Wallen, Megan M; Bansal, Shweta; Mann, Janet

    2018-07-15

    Bottlenose dolphins are excellent bioindicators of ocean ecosystem health for three reasons: (a) as long-lived apex predators they accumulate biotoxins and contaminants; (b) they are visible, routinely appearing at the water's surface in coastal areas, often coming into close contact with humans; and, (c) they exhibit a range of pathogenic lesions attributable to environmental degradation. In this study, we analyzed tattoo-like skin lesions in a population of Tursiops aduncus studied for 30+years in Shark Bay, Australia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. We provide important baseline data by documenting epidemiological patterns of tattoo-like skin lesions in a healthy, free-ranging population that builds on the previous data of tattoo skin disease (TSD) derived from free ranging, stranded, and dead dolphins. Individual dolphins were classified as symptomatic with tattoo-like skin disease if at least one photograph showed a lesion similar to TSD. The average age of infection was 26.6months (±34.8months) with the symptomatic period lasting 137±29.8days. Overall prevalence of tattoo-like skin disease in the population was 19.4%. Age, but not sex, was significant, with yearlings (1-2years) exhibiting tattoo-like lesions more than younger and older calves. Tattoo-like lesions were rare among juvenile and adult dolphins (N=68 calves, 4 juveniles, and 3 adults). We hypothesize that the lower prevalence in youngest calves (2years) have infection-acquired immunity, as reported for other small cetaceans. The low prevalence of tattoo-like lesions in Shark Bay compared to other populations with poxvirus is consistent with reproductive and demographic viability analyses. Furthermore, by documenting the demography of the disease, we can monitor changes in the prevalence of tattoo-like lesions as a sentinel indicator of ecosystem health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations among immunological, parasitological and clinical parameters in canine visceral leishmaniasis: Emaciation, spleen parasitism, specific antibodies and leishmanin skin test reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, W L C; Jesus, E E; Paranhos-Silva, M; Pereira, A M; Santos, J C; Baleeiro, C O; Nascimento, E G; Moreira, E D; Oliveira, G G S; Pontes-de-Carvalho, L C

    2008-06-15

    Associations among parameters commonly used as markers of infection by Leishmania sp., or of susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis, were investigated in 325 stray dogs from an area where this disease is endemic. Evidence of infection (presence of Leishmania in splenic cultures, positive leishmanin skin test (LST) or detection of anti-Leishmania antibody activity in the serum) was found in 57% of the animals. Both evidence of weight loss (chi(2)-test, P=0.0005) and presence of specific antibody activity in the serum (chi(2)-test, Ptest results and emaciation (chi(2), P=0.0089). Furthermore, animals with positive splenic cultures and negative leishmanin skin test results had higher levels of total serum IgG (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.001) and IgG2 (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.05) than animals with negative splenic cultures, and were more emaciated than animals with negative LST results and positive splenic cultures. The data presented herein suggest that associating these common parameters may improve their performance in predicting susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishya B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is being reported from Assam, a North Eastern state of India. Clinical feature and direct smear examination of the case confirmed the diagnosis. Dramatic resolution of the lesions with sodium antimony gluconate during 10 days of therapy was achieved.

  10. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by neotropical Leishmania infantum despite of systemic disease: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Amanda; Lobo, Rogério; Cupolillo, Elisa; Bustamante, Fábio; Porrozzi, Renato

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a protozoan Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Here, we report a typical case of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum infection without any other systemic symptom in one dog in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A mongrel female dog was admitted in a veterinary clinic with reports of chronic wounds in the body. Physical examination revealed erosive lesions in the limbs, nasal ulcers, presence of ectoparasites and seborrheic dermatitis. Blood samples and fragments of healthy and injured skin were collected. The complete hemogram revealed aregenerative normocytic normochromic anemia and erythrocyte rouleaux, and biochemical analysis revealed normal renal and hepatic functions. Cytology of the muzzle and skin lesions suggested pyogranulomatous inflammatory process. The histopathology of a skin fragment was performed and revealed suspicion of protozoa accompanied by necrotizing dermatitis. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was accomplished by positive serology, isolation of Leishmania from the skin lesion, and also by molecular test (PCR targeting the conserved region of Leishmania kDNA). Culture was positive for damaged skin samples. PCR targeting a fragment of Leishmania hsp70 gene was performed employing DNA extracted from damaged skin. RFLP of the amplified hsp70 fragment identified the parasite as L. infantum, instead of Leishmania braziliensis, the main agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro. Characterization of isolated promastigotes by five different enzymatic systems confirmed the species identification of the etiological agent. Serology was positive by ELISA and rapid test. This case warns to the suspicion of viscerotropic Leishmania in cases of chronic skin lesions and brings the discussion of the mechanisms involved in the parasite tissue tropism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Interpretation of laboratory data during cryptic leishmaniasis in dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravino, A E

    2004-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by an intracellular parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. In Europe, Africa, South America and China, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by L. infantum. The vectors of leishmaniasis are phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genera Phlebotomus. According to the World Health Organization there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. Leishmaniasis is considered a zoonosis and human are generally accidental hosts. The animal reservoir includes rodents, dog and other mammals. Several studies have indicate that half of the dogs with antileishmanial antibodies have no signs of disease although, animal with subclinical infections are potentially infectious to sand flies. The factors determining susceptibility or resistence to visceral leishmaniasis remain unclear, but the genetics of the host may play a major role. Clinical signs are: intermittent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, skin lesions and ulcers, alopecia, onychogryphosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In mice, the outcome of infection depends on the polarized activation of one of two subsets of CD4+ T cells, Th1 or Th2, the subdivision into Th1 and Th2 cells is based on the pattern of cytokines that they produce. Th1 cells produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin -2 (IL-2), whereas Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. An important difference between susceptible and resistant mice is that the resistant mice are able to switch to a Th1 profile and control the disease. An important factor in the "decision" to form a Th1 or Th2 phenotype is the early cytokine environment, and IL-12 is one of the cytokines that contributes significantly to the establishment of the Th1 phenotype. Canine leishmaniosis is endemic in the Mediterranean basin and, in most cases is caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum. The main clinical findings are skin lesions, local or generalized lymphoadenopathy, loss of

  12. Treatment of skin lesions in newborn children: meeting the needs of nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vidal Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To understand, together with nursing staff, the care needed to treat skin lesions in newborn children hospitalized in a neonatal unit. Method Qualitative research, of the convergent care type. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were conducted from November to December 2012, in the neonatal unit of a hospital in southern Brazil. The participants were four auxiliary nurses, six nursing technicians and four nurses. Results The following three categories were designated: questions about what can be used in relation to newborn children; hospitalization can cause lesions on the skin of newborn children; and knowledge about care promotes professional autonomy. Conclusion There is an urgent need for staff to know more about the treatment of skin lesions, which would provide safer care for newborn children and would also support the autonomy of professional nurses in providing that care.

  13. The role of CD4 and CD8 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ida Brodskyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, caused by infection with parasites of the Leishmania genus, affects millions of individuals worldwide. This disease displays distinct clinical manifestations ranging from self-healing skin lesions to severe tissue damage. The control of Leishmania infection is dependent on cellular immune mechanisms, and evidence has shown that CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes play different roles in the outcome of leishmaniasis. Although the presence of CD4 T cells is important for controlling parasite growth, the results in the literature suggest that the inflammatory response elicited by these cells could contribute to the pathogenesis of lesions. However, recent studies on CD8 T lymphocytes show that these cells are mainly involved in tissue damage through cytotoxic mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the study of the human adaptive immunological response in the pathogenesis of tegumentary leishmaniasis.

  14. First case report of atypical disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in an opium abuser in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Hashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a worldwide tropical infectious disease caused by different species of intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania . Herein, we report a 78-year-old man with unusual diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL who had a history of opium abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. He had multiple papular, crusted and severely ulcerated lesions extended to his arm and chest. Direct smears and skin punch biopsy of the lesions were suggestive of leishmaniasis. Parasite DNA was amplified from ulcers, and identified as Leishmania major by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing analyses. The aim of the current study was to bring to attention this atypical form of disease in CL endemic countries. Thus, this is the first case of DCL in an opium abuser with COPD due to L. major in Northeastern Iran indicating that atypical and extensive forms of CL (DCL owing to L. major are increasing in Iran.

  15. A Prospective Study of Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Incidence of Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Pierce, Brandon L.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Hasan, Khaled; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide. The authors aimed to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesion incidence among participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). The analyses used data on 10,182 adults free of skin lesions at baseline through the third biennial follow-up of the cohort (2000–2009). Discrete-time hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident skin lesions. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for incident skin lesions comparing 10.1–50.0, 50.1–100.0, 100.1–200.0, and ≥200.1 μg/L with ≤10.0 μg/L of well water arsenic exposure were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.49), 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.14), 1.97 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.46), and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.40, 3.71), respectively (Ptrend = 0.0001). Results were similar for the other measures of arsenic exposure, and the increased risks remained unchanged with changes in exposure in recent years. Dose-dependent associations were more pronounced in females, but the incidence of skin lesions was greater in males and older individuals. Chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was associated with increased incidence of skin lesions, even at low levels of arsenic exposure (<100 μg/L). PMID:21576319

  16. Association of AS3MT polymorphisms and the risk of premalignant arsenic skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Drobna, Zuzana; Hernandez-Castellanos, Erika; Sanchez-Pena, Luz C.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Styblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic (iAs), primarily from contaminated drinking water, is considered one of the top environmental health threats worldwide. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the key enzyme in the biotransformation pathway of iAs. AS3MT catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to trivalent arsenicals, resulting in the production of methylated (MAs) and dimethylated arsenicals (DMAs). MAs is a susceptibility factor for iAs-induced toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the association of the polymorphism in AS3MT gene with iAs metabolism and with the presence of arsenic (As) premalignant skin lesions. This is a case-control study of 71 cases with skin lesions and 51 controls without skin lesions recruited from a iAs endemic area in Mexico. We measured urinary As metabolites, differentiating the trivalent and pentavalent arsenical species, using the hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, the study subjects were genotyped to analyze three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), A-477G, T14458C (nonsynonymus SNP; Met287Thr), and T35587C, in the AS3MT gene. We compared the frequencies of the AS3MT alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in individuals with and without skin lesions. Marginal differences in the frequencies of the Met287Thr genotype were identified between individuals with and without premalignant skin lesions (p = 0.055): individuals carrying the C (TC+CC) allele (Thr) were at risk [odds ratio = 4.28; 95% confidence interval (1.0-18.5)]. Also, individuals with C allele of Met287Thr displayed greater percentage of MAs in urine and decrease in the percentage of DMAs. These findings indicate that Met287Thr influences the susceptibility to premalignant As skin lesions and might be at increased risk for other adverse health effects of iAs exposure.

  17. Visualization of dermal alteration in skin lesions with discoid lupus erythematosus by multiphoton microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L H; Yu, H B; Zhu, X Q; Zhuo, S M; Chen, J X; Wang, Y Y; Yang, Y H

    2013-01-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic dermatological disease which lacks valid methods for early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Considering the collagen and elastin disorder due to mucin deposition of DLE, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging techniques were employed to obtain high-resolution collagen and elastin images from the dermis. The content and distribution of collagen and elastin were quantified to characterize the dermal pathological status of skin lesions with DLE in comparison with normal skin. Our results showed a significant difference between skin lesions with DLE and normal skin in terms of the morphological structure of collagen and elastin in the dermis, demonstrating the possibility of MPM for noninvasively tracking the pathological process of DLE even in its early stages and evaluating the therapeutic efficacy at the molecular level. (paper)

  18. Precision Diagnosis Of Melanoma And Other Skin Lesions From Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Young, Albert; Wong, Andrew; Stalling, Simone; Wei, Maria; Hadley, Dexter

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma will affect an estimated 73,000 new cases this year and result in 9,000 deaths, yet precise diagnosis remains a serious problem. Without early detection and preventative care, melanoma can quickly spread to become fatal (Stage IV 5-year survival rate is 20-10%) from a once localized skin lesion (Stage IA 5- year survival rate is 97%). There is no biomarker for melanoma in clinical use, and the current diagnostic criteria for skin lesions remains subjective and imprecise. Accurate diagnosis of melanoma relies on a histopathologic gold standard; thus, aggressive excision of melanocytic skin lesions has been the mainstay of treatment. It is estimated that 36 biopsies are performed for every melanoma confirmed by pathology among excised lesions. There is significant morbidity in misdiagnosing melanoma such as progression of the disease for a false negative prediction vs the risks of unnecessary surgery for a false positive prediction. Every year, poor diagnostic precision adds an estimated $673 million in overall cost to manage the disease. Currently, manual dermatoscopic imaging is the standard of care in selecting atypical skin lesions for biopsy, and at best it achieves 90% sensitivity but only 59% specificity when performed by an expert dermatologist. Many computer vision (CV) algorithms perform better than dermatologists in classifying skin lesions although not significantly so in clinical practice. Meanwhile, open source deep learning (DL) techniques in CV have been gaining dominance since 2012 for image classification, and today DL can outperform humans in classifying millions of digital images with less than 5% error rates. Moreover, DL algorithms are readily run on commoditized hardware and have a strong online community of developers supporting their rapid adoption. In this work, we performed a successful pilot study to show proof of concept to DL skin pathology from images. However, DL algorithms must be trained on very large labelled datasets of

  19. Skin lesions simulating blue toe syndrome caused by prolonged contact with a millipede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Scardazan Heeren Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals are those that, by means of a hunting and defense mechanism, are able to inject their prey with a toxic substance produced in their bodies, directly from specialized glands (e.g., tooth, sting, spur through which the poison passes. Millipedes are poisonous animals; they can be harmful to humans, and their effects usually manifest as erythematous, purpuric, and cyanotic lesions; local pain; and paresthesia. Here, we report a case of skin contact with a millipede for 6h resulting in skin lesions similar to blue toe syndrome.

  20. [Healing of skin lesions in diabetic foot syndrome during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkovská, A

    2006-05-01

    Wound healing during the diabetic foot disease is indicated to in-patient treatment in case of non-healing wound, in case of serious infection and/or critical ischemia and in case of necessity of surgical treatment. Diabetic foot disease is the main reason for in-patient treatment of people with diabetes, which our experience confirms. Chronic wound is characterised by non-healing for at least 4 weeks. Ischemia and recurrent trauma caused by incomplete off-loading, prolong inflammation and infection are the main reasons for difficult healing of chronic wound. Infection is also leading cause for prolonged hospitalisation of patients with diabetic foot disease. Local decrease of grow factors and increase of tissue protease are characteristics of chronic wound. The process of wound healing is characterized by a cascade of interrelated events involving infection and inflammatory factors. The results of these investigations led to the moist wound healing concept and use of growth factors and bioengineered skin substitutes. We have good experience with the use of xenotransplant skin substitues in the treatment of diabetic foot. Off loading techniques including total contact casting, local therapy by debridement and skin substitutes had the best evidence based efficacy. We are introducing new method of the treatment of diabetic foot--VAC--vacuum assisted closure. The fundamental principle in the therapy during in-patient period, is comprehensive approach; the omitting of any of the principle of the therapy--e.g. the off-loading of the ulcers, the infection and ischemia control, may contribute to its failure.

  1. Histological grading patterns in patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Ayaz, B.; Shaikh, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the histological grading patterns in a cohort of hospitalized patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis. One hundred patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), admitted in dermatology wards at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, were examined. Only admitted patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study. Patients of CL, who had received or were receiving systemic treatment were excluded. The lesions having marked secondary bacterial infection were also excluded. Initial diagnosis was clinical. History of being to an endemic area supported the diagnosis. The lesions were divided in two groups. Early, with duration less than 03 months and late, with duration between 3 and 12 months. The clinical lesions were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers, crusted ulcers, lupoid lesions and plaques with scarring. Three types of skin smears (slit skin smear, saline aspirate smear and dab smear) were taken and examined with Giemsa stain. Cultures were performed on Nicolle-Novy-MacNeal (NNN) culture medium from Defense Scientific and Technology Organization (DESTO) Lab., Pakistan. Incisional skin biopsies were done. The biopsy specimens were examined by hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E stain). The number of Leishmania Tropica (LT) bodies was graded according to modified Ridley's parasitic index 1983. Clinical features were correlated with the histological patterns. Five histological patterns were identified in current study: 1) diffuse dermal infiltration without necrosis, 2) patchy dermal infiltration, 3) diffuse dermal infiltration with necrosis, 4) early reactive granuloma formation and 5) established epithelioid granuloma formation. LT bodies were identified in 75% of cases. Epidermal features were non-specific. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions showed granuloma formation. Five distinct types of histological patterns of CL have been recognized in this study. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions

  2. The case of diagnosis of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Savelyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Article presents the current data on the clinical and epidemiological issue of leishmaniasis. Methods and results. Leishmaniasis is endemic disease in 88 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Probability of importation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in our country is practically zero, but, given the rarity of this disease, we present own clinical observation of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye. At the beginning of the third millennium has greatly increased the urgency of tropical parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. According to WHO, the world's 14 million people are infected each year there is about 2 million new cases and about 350 million live in areas at risk. Leishmaniasis - a group of vector-borne protozoal disease in humans and animals characterized by lesions of the internal organs (visceral leishmaniasis or the skin and mucous membranes (cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is the vector mosquitoes. We present their own clinical observations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis imported. Patient S., 41 years was hospitalized in Zaporozhye Regional Clinical Hospital infectious on 07.17.2013, with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis. From the history of the disease is known that for the first time in February 2013 the patient have got relative to blade area redness and bump that appeared above the skin, and had a magnitude of 2,3 mm brownish-red. To the doctor the patient has not addressed. After 1,5-2 months bump grew and he began to stand out ichor, which dries and formed a crust on top of the hump. Further small ulcers that did not bring discomfort and pain to the patient appeared. However, every month ulcer increased. In July, after vacation at sea, rose weeping sores and perifocal inflammation appeared. Ulcer size reached 2 cm in diameter. The patient first applied to the dermatologist at the beginning of July 2013. Dermatologist excluded secondary syphilis and tuberculosis skin and sent to an

  3. Dermoscopic features of skin lesions in patients with mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano-Galvan, Sergio; Alvarez-Twose, Iván; De las Heras, Elena; Heras, Elena De Las; Morgado, J M; Matito, Almudena; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Plana, Maria N; Planas, Maria Nieves; Jaén, Pedro; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate dermoscopic features in a group of 127 patients with mastocytosis in the skin and to investigate the relationship between different dermoscopic patterns and other clinical and biological characteristics of the disease. Clinical and laboratory data were compared among patients with mastocytosis grouped according to the different dermoscopic patterns. Patients were selected from the Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla La Mancha and the Department of Dermatology of Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal from April 1 through September 30, 2009. Patients Overall, 127 consecutive patients (70 females [55.1%] and 57 males [44.9%]; median age, 17 years; range, 0-81 years) with mastocytosis in the skin were included in the study. Evaluation of dermoscopic patterns and investigation of potential predictive factors for more symptomatic forms of the disease according to the need for daily antimediator therapy. Four distinct dermoscopic patterns were observed: yellow-orange blot, pigment network, reticular vascular pattern, and (most frequently) light-brown blot. A reticular vascular pattern was identified in all telangiectasia macular eruptiva and some maculopapular mastocytosis. In turn, all patients with mastocytoma displayed the yellow-orange blot pattern. The reticular vascular dermoscopic pattern was associated with the need for daily antimediator therapy; this pattern, together with serum tryptase levels and plaque-type mastocytosis, represented the best combination of independent factors to predict the need for maintained antimediator therapy. Dermoscopy is a feasible method for the subclassification of mastocytosis. Of note, a reticular vascular pattern is more frequently associated with the need for antimediator therapy.

  4. [The morphological characteristic of the skin lesions inflicted by plastic knives with four cutting edges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, S V; Finkel'shtein, V T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the morphological features of the skin lesions inflicted by the blades of the Fgx Boot Blade I knives having four cutting edges. The study revealed the signs that can be used to distinguish between morphological characteristics of the stab and lacerated wounds having the primary and secondary incisions made by the four-edge blade.

  5. Defects of filaggrin-like proteins in both lesional and nonlesional atopic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Laurence; Henry, Julie; Hsu, Chiung-Yueh; Balica, Stéfana; Jean-Decoster, Catherine; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Hansmann, Britta; Rodriguez, Elke; Weindinger, Stefan; Schmitt, Anne-Marie; Serre, Guy; Paul, Carle; Simon, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a disturbed epidermal barrier. In a subset of patients, this is explained by nonsense mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG). We sought to evaluate the respective role of FLG mutations and proinflammatory cytokines and to assess the expression of FLG, hornerin (HRNR), and FLG2, 2 FLG-like proteins, which are involved in epidermal barrier functions, in normal skin and both lesional and nonlesional skin of patients with AD. An FLG-genotyped cohort of 73 adults with AD and 73 aged-matched control subjects was analyzed by using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Normal primary human keratinocytes were differentiated in either the absence or presence of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-25. Compared with control subjects, FLG, HRNR, and FLG2 were detected at significantly lower levels in the skin of patients with AD, irrespective of their FLG genotype. The reduction was greater in lesional compared with nonlesional skin. In addition, the proFLG/FLG ratio was found to be higher in the skin of wild-type patients than in control subjects. Cytokine treatment of keratinocytes induced a dramatic reduction in FLG, FLG2, and HRNR expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. The stratum corneum of lesional but also clinically unaffected skin of adults with AD is abnormal, with reduced expression of FLG and FLG-like proteins. In addition to nonsense mutations, proinflammatory cytokines and some defects in the proFLG processing can contribute to the FLG downregulation. Our study suggests that skin inflammation reduces the expression of FLG-like proteins, contributing to the AD-related epidermal barrier dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Longitudinal study of dogs living in an area of Spain highly endemic for leishmaniasis by serologic analysis and the leishmanin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Llull, Joan; Ramis, Antonio; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Rodríguez, Alhelí; Ferrer, Lluís; Alberola, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    The literature contains few longitudinal studies that have assessed areas endemic for canine leishmaniasis and over the same time interval Leishmania-specific cellular and humoral immunity in healthy dogs. Fourteen dogs, three mixed breed and 11 Ibizian hounds, living in an area of Spain that was highly endemic for leishmaniasis were followed-up over a three-year period by serologic analysis and the leishmanin skin test (LST). All but one of these dogs remained clinically healthy during the study period. Seroconversion was observed in four dogs. The three mixed breed dogs had a negative reaction in the LST in the first and third years. The general trend in the Ibizian hounds was an increase in the diameter of the LST reaction at both the 48- and 72-hour readings in the third year. This study demonstrates that in addition to an increase in Leishmania-specific humoral immune response in Ibizian hounds, a parallel increase in cellular immune response was observed.

  7. KIT D816V mutation-positive cell fractions in lesional skin biopsies from adults with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized.......Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized....

  8. An Improved Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis and Suppression of Skin Lesions by an Inhibitor of Tec Family Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kawakami

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: We established a highly efficient, highly reproducible protocol to induce skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and successfully applied it to show the efficacy of terreic acid in treating skin lesions. This mouse model of atopic dermatitis will be useful to study the pathogenetic processes of atopic dermatitis and to evaluate the efficacy of drug candidates.

  9. Molecular characterization of poxviruses associated with tattoo skin lesions in UK cetaceans.

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    Barbara A Blacklaws

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern for the well-being of cetacean populations around the UK. Tattoo skin disease (characterised by irregular, grey, black or yellowish, stippled cutaneous lesions caused by poxvirus infection is a potential health indicatora potential health indicator for cetaceans. Limited sequence data indicates that cetacean poxviruses (CPVs belong to an unassigned genus of the Chordopoxvirinae. To obtain further insight into the phylogenetic relationships between CPV and other Chordopoxvirinae members we partially characterized viral DNA originating from tattoo lesions collected in Delphinidae and Phocoenidae stranded along the UK coastline in 1998-2008. We also evaluated the presence of CPV in skin lesions other than tattoos to examine specificity and sensitivity of visual diagnosis. After DNA extraction, regions of the DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase I genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared with other isolates. The presence of CPV DNA was demonstrated in tattoos from one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, eight harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena and one short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis and in one 'dubious tattoo' lesion detected in one other porpoise. Seventeen of the 18 PCR positive skin lesions had been visually identified as tattoos and one as a dubious tattoo. None of the other skin lesions were PCR positive. Thus, visual identification had a 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The DNA polymerase PCR was most effective in detecting CPV DNA. Limited sequence phylogeny grouped the UK samples within the odontocete poxviruses (CPV group 1 and indicated that two different poxvirus lineages infect the Phocoenidae and the Delphinidae. The phylogenetic tree had three major branches: one with the UK Phocoenidae viruses, one with the Delphinidae isolates and one for the mysticete poxvirus (CPV group 2. This implies a radiation of poxviruses according to the host suborder and the families within

  10. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra A; Rousing, Tine

    2016-01-01

    in management procedures and production system might be needed. Elements from the organic pig production system might be beneficial in this aspect. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of grouping strategy including social mixing and group size on levels of mounting behaviour and skin lesions...... at weaning. A second mixing occurred at insertion to fattening pens for pigs being regrouped. Counting of skin lesions (1348 or 1124 pigs) and registration of mounting behaviour (1434 or 1258 pigs) were done on two occasions during the experimental period. No interactive effects were found between social...... mixing and group size on either skin lesions or mounting frequency. Herd differences were found for both mounting frequency and number of skin lesions. No association between skin lesions and mounting were revealed. Social mixing and group size were shown as interacting effects with herds on mounting...

  11. Communicating the location of potential skin neoplasms for excision between the referring and the operating doctor--an audit of skin lesion referrals in Whanganui, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Fraser; Bullen, Naomi; Aiono, Semisi

    2013-08-30

    The importance of correctly defining the location of potential skin cancer when surgical treatment may be required is self-evident. Clear communication is essential if the professional diagnosing potential skin cancer is not the same professional providing treatment. We aimed to assess the nature of the localising information provided in referrals to the local anaesthetic skin lesion theatre in our institution. Information localising target lesions for new patients seen in our local anaesthetic skin excision theatre was recorded during a 2-month period April to May 2012 inclusive 100 patients were seen in our skin excision theatre during the study period; 16 patients were not able to identify the target skin lesion at the time they entered the operating theatre. The target lesion could not be determined from the referral text in 30/100 cases. Diagrams were provided in 19/100 cases. Photographs were provided in 3/100 cases. Pictorial and photographic means of communicating the location of suspicious lesions are under-utilised in our service. Relying on the patient or the referral text to correctly identify the lesion leaves considerable room for error. We suggest that photographic information for skin lesion referrals is adopted as a minimum standard.

  12. Higher expression of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21, and CXCL8 chemokines in the skin associated with parasite density in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Menezes-Souza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immune response in the skin of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum is poorly understood, and limited studies have described the immunopathological profile with regard to distinct levels of tissue parasitism and the clinical progression of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A detailed analysis of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages as well as the expression of chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL13, CCL17, CCL21, CCL24, and CXCL8 was carried out in dermis skin samples from 35 dogs that were naturally infected with L. infantum. The analysis was based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the context of skin parasitism and the clinical status of CVL. We demonstrated increased inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of mononuclear cells in the skin of animals with severe forms of CVL and high parasite density. Analysis of the inflammatory cell profile of the skin revealed an increase in the number of macrophages and reductions in lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells that correlated with clinical progression of the disease. Additionally, enhanced parasite density was correlated with an increase in macrophages and decreases in eosinophils and mast cells. The chemokine mRNA expression demonstrated that enhanced parasite density was positively correlated with the expression of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21, and CXCL8. In contrast, there was a negative correlation between parasite density and CCL24 expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings represent an advance in the knowledge about skin inflammatory infiltrates in CVL and the systemic consequences. Additionally, the findings may contribute to the design of new and more efficient prophylactic tools and immunological therapies against CVL.

  13. Detection and characterization of Leishmania in tissues of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis using a specific monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; Kharazmi, A; Permin, H

    1997-01-01

    Sections from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis were examined using an immunoperoxidase method and a monoclonal antibody directed against Leishmania donovani. Parasites were detected in 22 of 25 biopsies (88%). In parallel sections stained...

  14. Improved detection reveals active β-papillomavirus infection in skin lesions from kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Lanfredini, Simone; Peretti, Alberto; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Colombo, Enrico; Quaglia, Marco; Boldorini, Renzo; Miglio, Umberto; Doorbar, John; Bavinck, Jan N Bouwes; Quint, Koen D; de Koning, Maurits N C; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether detection of β-HPV gene products, as defined in epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancer, could also be observed in lesions from kidney transplant recipients alongside the viral DNA. A total of 111 samples, corresponding to 79 skin lesions abscised from 17 kidney transplant recipients, have been analyzed. The initial PCR analysis demonstrated that β-HPV-DNA was highly present in our tumor series (85%). Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize productive infection in 4 out of 19 actinic keratoses, and in the pathological borders of 1 out of 14 squamous cell carcinomas and 1 out of 31 basal cell carcinomas. Increased expression of the cellular proliferation marker minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7), that extended into the upper epithelial layers, was a common feature of all the E4-positive areas, indicating that cells were driven into the cell cycle in areas of productive viral infections. Although the present study does not directly demonstrate a causal role of these viruses, the detection of E4 and L1 positivity in actinic keratosis and the adjacent pathological epithelium of skin cancer, clearly shows that β-HPV are actively replicating in the intraepidermal precursor lesions of kidney transplant recipients and can therefore cooperate with other carcinogenic agents, such as UVB, favoring skin cancer promotion.

  15. The effect of hydroxychloroquine on lupus erythematosus-like skin lesions in MRL/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomatsu, Tatsuya; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Mikita, Naoya; Nakatani, Yumi; Li, Hong-Jin; Inaba, Yutaka; Ikeda, Takaharu; Kondo, Toshikazu; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effect and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on lupus erythematosus (LE)-like skin lesions in the MRL/lpr mouse, a model for systemic LE (SLE). We divided the MRL/lpr mice into three groups that were given: (1) drinking water, (2) HCQ at a dose of 4 mg/kg/d, or (3) HCQ at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d. The HCQ was administered to examine the effect and safety of HCQ on skin lesions and the number of infiltrating cells including mast cells in the dermis. Six of 13 mice in the group given drinking water, 3 of 11 mice in the group administered low-dose HCQ (4 mg/kg/d), and 1 of 10 mice in the group administered high-dose HCQ (40 mg/kg/d) presented the skin lesions. The average number of mast cells was 81, 50, and 12 (magnification, ×100), the mortality rate was 24%, 8%, and 9% and the mean body weight gain was 4.6 g, 8.0 g and 5.1 g, respectively. HCQ was demonstrated to decrease the appearance of LE-like lesions and the number of mast cells in the dermis. Furthermore, there were no obvious systemic adverse effects. This study provides evidence that suggests benefits in human patients.

  16. Mast cell heterogeneity and anti-inflammatory annexin A1 expression in leprosy skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maurício B; Mimura, Kallyne K O; Freitas, Aline A; Hungria, Emerith M; Sousa, Ana Lúcia O M; Oliani, Sonia M; Stefani, Mariane M A

    2018-03-29

    Mast cells (MCs) have important immunoregulatory roles in skin inflammation. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory protein that can be expressed by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, epithelial and T cells. This study investigated MCs heterogeneity and ANXA1 expression in human dermatoses with special emphasis in leprosy. Sixty one skin biopsies from 2 groups were investigated: 40 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy patients (18 reaction-free, 11 type 1 reaction/T1R, 11 type 2 reaction/T2R); 21 patients with other dermatoses. Tryptase/try+ and chymase/chy + phenotypic markers and toluidine blue stained intact/degranulated MC counts/mm 2 were evaluated. Try + /chy + MCs and ANXA1 were identified by streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunostaining and density was reported. In leprosy, degranulated MCs outnumbered intact ones regardless of the leprosy form (from tuberculoid/TT to lepromatous/LL), leprosy reactions (reactional/reaction-free) and type of reaction (T1R/T2R). Compared to other dermatoses, leprosy skin lesions showed lower numbers of degranulated and intact MCs. Try + MCs outnumbered chy + in leprosy lesions (reaction-free/reactional, particularly in T2R), but not in other dermatoses. Compared to other dermatoses, ANXA1 expression, which is also expressed in mast cells, was higher in the epidermis of leprosy skin lesions, independently of reactional episode. In leprosy, higher MC degranulation and differential expression of try + /chy + subsets independent of leprosy type and reaction suggest that the Mycobacterium leprae infection itself dictates the inflammatory MCs activation in skin lesions. Higher expression of ANXA1 in leprosy suggests its potential anti-inflammatory role to maintain homeostasis preventing tissue and nerve damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Approaches for Diagnosing Melanoma Skin Lesions Through Supervised and Deep Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaladha, J; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-04-01

    Dermoscopy is a technique used to capture the images of skin, and these images are useful to analyze the different types of skin diseases. Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer whose severity even leads to death. Earlier detection of melanoma prevents death and the clinicians can treat the patients to increase the chances of survival. Only few machine learning algorithms are developed to detect the melanoma using its features. This paper proposes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system which equips efficient algorithms to classify and predict the melanoma. Enhancement of the images are done using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique (CLAHE) and median filter. A new segmentation algorithm called Normalized Otsu's Segmentation (NOS) is implemented to segment the affected skin lesion from the normal skin, which overcomes the problem of variable illumination. Fifteen features are derived and extracted from the segmented images are fed into the proposed classification techniques like Deep Learning based Neural Networks and Hybrid Adaboost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. The proposed system is tested and validated with nearly 992 images (malignant & benign lesions) and it provides a high classification accuracy of 93 %. The proposed CAD system can assist the dermatologists to confirm the decision of the diagnosis and to avoid excisional biopsies.

  18. Molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis: a comparative study of three methods using skin and spleen from dogs with natural Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Bouillet, Leoneide Érica Maduro; Ker, Henrique Gama; Fortes de Brito, Rory Cristiane; Resende, Daniela de Melo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Marques, Marcos José; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-11-08

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations represent highly sensitive and specific methods for Leishmania DNA detection and subsequent canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis. The aim of this work was to compare three different molecular diagnosis techniques (conventional PCR [cPCR], seminested PCR [snPCR], and quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in samples of skin and spleen from 60 seropositive dogs by immunofluorescence antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parasitological analysis was conducted by culture of bone marrow aspirate and optical microscopic assessment of ear skin and spleen samples stained with Giemsa, the standard tests for CVL diagnosis. The primers L150/L152 and LINR4/LIN17/LIN19 were used to amplify the conserved region of the Leishmania kDNA minicircle in the cPCR, and snPCR and qPCR were performed using the DNA polymerase gene (DNA pol α) primers from Leishmania infantum. The parasitological analysis revealed parasites in 61.7% of the samples. Sensitivities were 89.2%, 86.5%, and 97.3% in the skin and 81.1%, 94.6%, and 100.0% in spleen samples used for cPCR, snPCR, and qPCR, respectively. We demonstrated that the qPCR method was the best technique to detect L. infantum in both skin and spleen samples. However, we recommend the use of skin due to the high sensitivity and sampling being less invasive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dermatitis Herpetiformis: From the Genetics to the Development of Skin Lesions

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    Diletta Bonciani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is a rare autoimmune disease linked to gluten sensitivity with a chronic-relapsing course. It is currently considered to be the specific cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease (CD. Both conditions are mediated by the IgA class of autoantibodies, and the diagnosis of DH is dependent on the detection of granular deposits of IgA in the skin. There is an underlying genetic predisposition to the development of DH, but environmental factors are also important. This paper describes these different factors and discusses the known mechanism that lead to the development of skin lesions.

  20. Survey on the importance of mange in the aetiology of skin lesions in goats in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Van Wyngaarden, T; Vercruysse, J; Symoens, C; Jalia, A

    1994-05-01

    A survey on mange mite infestations in the aetiology of skin lesions in goats in Peninsular Malaysia is described. Skin lesions were observed in 25 (93%) of the 27 goat farms investigated. Mange mites were found in 22 (88%) of these goat herds. Chorioptes texanus was found in 20.7%, Psoroptes cuniculi in 19.3%, Sarcoptes scabiei in 18.6% and Demodex canis var. caprae in 0.4% of the samples, taken from the skin lesions. Thirteen cases of generalised manage were diagnosed, from which 9 were caused by S. scabiei, 2 by P. cuniculi and one by C. texanus. All other cases had more or less localised lesions. No significant differences could be found in incidence and distribution of skin lesions between age classes.

  1. Is there just one lesion? The need for whole body skin examination in patients presenting with non-melanocytic skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Patricia Jane; Fairbanks, Sian; Bailey, Michael

    2009-10-01

    In patients presenting with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) the frequency of concurrently presenting tumours is poorly documented. Whole body skin examination is recommended but in a recent survey of Australian General Practitioners and skin cancer clinics doctors it was infrequently performed. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of concurrent skin cancer at initial presentation and therefore to examine the need for whole body skin examination for NMSC presentations. One hundred consecutive patients with a referral diagnosis indicative of NMSC were examined. Data was analysed as to the referring doctor's diagnosis, whole body skin examination findings and histology of excised lesions. Epidemiological data was obtained by patient questionnaire. One hundred patients, 41 males and 59 females, with a mean age of 70 years (range 39-91 years) underwent whole body skin examination. Sixty-seven per cent of patients were found to have additional lesions requiring treatment, 46% sin cancers (30 patients basal cell carcinomas, five squamous cell carcinomas, seven basal and squamous cell carcinomas, two lentigo maligna, two adenexal tumours) and 21% solar keratoses. Thirty-four of the additional lesions detected were in areas covered by clothing. Sixty-eight patients had a past history of skin cancer excision. In the Australian patient population, the need for whole body skin examination is essential to avoid missing concurrent lesions. Ongoing surveillance is also essential as these patients have a high risk of developing future NMSC.

  2. A new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Kaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in India is mainly confined to the deserts of Rajasthan; some cases have been reported from the dry north-western half of the Indo-Gangetic plain, including Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Varanasi. Aims: To highlight a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, previously a non-endemic area. This report presents the clinico-epidemiological and investigative results of 120 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis detected between November 2012 and October 2013. Methods: The clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was made using criteria proposed by Bari and Rahman. It was further confirmed by the demonstration of Leishman-Donovan bodies in Leishman stained slit skin smears and skin biopsy specimens, and/or by a satisfactory response to intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate given weekly for 4 weeks. Serial clinical photographs were taken before giving injections and at the end of the 6 th week. Results: There were 67 females and 53 males with an age range of 8 months to 80 years. The most frequently affected site was the face. Lesions were most commonly of the nodulo-ulcerative type. The number of lesions ranged from 1 to 4. Farmers (28.1%, homemakers (27.2% and students (27.2% were significantly over-represented among the occupations (P < 0.001. Skin smears and biopsies were positive for Leishman-Donovan bodies in 50.8% and 44.2% cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division which deserves urgent attention from the public health angle. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to establish the identity of the vector and the strain of Leishmania involved.

  3. Self-inflicted skin lesions: the importance of a proper diagnostic and therapeutic approach

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    Dimitre Dimitrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Patients with self-inflicted skin lesions (SISL are most often referred to dermatologists. Since psychological and psychiatric conditions might be the underlying reasons for the behavior of these patients, the psychology-associated component should always be kept in mind when approaching such individuals. Objective. To discuss distinctive aspects of the approach towards patients with SISL and emphasize the most relevant issues concerning the management of psychodermatoses. Case report. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl with a 6-month history of skin lesions misdiagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis. Conscientious history taking and physical examination enabled the diagnosis of SISL. Conclusions. The proper approach to patients presenting with psychodermatoses differs from that for other dermatological patients and requires considering several additional aspects. We would like to emphasize the distinguishing aspects and importance of the proper approach to patients with SISL that might aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating these individuals in the future.

  4. Implementation and analysis of relief patterns of the surface of benign and malignant lesions of the skin by microtopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Pacheco, Maria del Carmen Lopez; Martins-Costa, Manuel Filipe Pereira da Cunha; Zapata, Aura Judith Perez; Cherit, Judith DomInguez; Gallegos, Eva Ramon

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to be able to distinguish between healthy skin tissue and malignant ones, furthermore determining a unique pattern of roughness for each skin lesion by microtopographic analysis of the skin surface of Mexican patients during the period from April to October 2002. The standard technique used in this study for the diagnosis of skin cancer and the comparison of the results was the haematoxylin-eosin histopathological technique. Latex impressions were taken from skin lesions as well as from the healthy skin of each patient to serve as control samples. These impressions were analysed by the MICROTOP.03.MFC microtopographic system inspection. It was observed that when the tumour becomes rougher, more malign will be the lesion. On average, the melanoma present an increase of roughness of 67% compared to healthy skin, obtaining a roughness relation of 1:2.54. The percentage decreases to 49% (49%, 1:60) in the case of basal cell carcinoma and to 40% in pre-malignant lesions such as melanocytic nevus (40%, 1:150). In benign lesions such as the seborrhoea keratosis only a small increase in roughness was noted (4%, 1:0.72). Microtopographic inspection of the skin surface can be considered as a complementary diagnostic technique for skin cancer

  5. Implementation and analysis of relief patterns of the surface of benign and malignant lesions of the skin by microtopography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Pacheco, Maria del Carmen Lopez [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico); Martins-Costa, Manuel Filipe Pereira da Cunha [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad do Minho, Escola de Ciencias Campus de Gualtar-PT-4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Zapata, Aura Judith Perez [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico); Cherit, Judith DomInguez [Departamento de DermatologIa, Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Calzada de Tlalpan No 4800, 14000 (Mexico); Gallegos, Eva Ramon [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico)

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this study was to be able to distinguish between healthy skin tissue and malignant ones, furthermore determining a unique pattern of roughness for each skin lesion by microtopographic analysis of the skin surface of Mexican patients during the period from April to October 2002. The standard technique used in this study for the diagnosis of skin cancer and the comparison of the results was the haematoxylin-eosin histopathological technique. Latex impressions were taken from skin lesions as well as from the healthy skin of each patient to serve as control samples. These impressions were analysed by the MICROTOP.03.MFC microtopographic system inspection. It was observed that when the tumour becomes rougher, more malign will be the lesion. On average, the melanoma present an increase of roughness of 67% compared to healthy skin, obtaining a roughness relation of 1:2.54. The percentage decreases to 49% (49%, 1:60) in the case of basal cell carcinoma and to 40% in pre-malignant lesions such as melanocytic nevus (40%, 1:150). In benign lesions such as the seborrhoea keratosis only a small increase in roughness was noted (4%, 1:0.72). Microtopographic inspection of the skin surface can be considered as a complementary diagnostic technique for skin cancer.

  6. Herpes Zoster Lesions on Reconstructed Breast Skin: Rare Objective Proof of Reinervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenz Weitgasser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blazed up Herpes zoster lesions have been described in very few patients after free and pedicled flap transfer for reconstructive purpose. Although sensory recovery after flap reconstructions has been studied extensively most studies addressed subjective perceptions of sensation. Objective investigations of spontaneous reinervation of free and pedicled flaps are rare. We would like to present a witnessed herpes zoster infection of a latissimus dorsi skin flap 2 years after breast reconstruction.

  7. Aerobic bacteria and fungi from skin lesions of fish in Khartoum state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hassan Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Fishes with skin lesions are harboring many pathogenic bacteria and fungi and may act as a source of zoonotic infections and can transmit several pathogens to workers in fish industry and consumers. Therefore, thorough and strict routine inspection of fish is recommended to ensure safety and that there are no serious risks to consumers. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 375-385

  8. Self-inflicted skin lesions: the importance of a proper diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitre Dimitrov; Radomir Reszke; Jacek Szepietowski

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Patients with self-inflicted skin lesions (SISL) are most often referred to dermatologists. Since psychological and psychiatric conditions might be the underlying reasons for the behavior of these patients, the psychology-associated component should always be kept in mind when approaching such individuals. Objective. To discuss distinctive aspects of the approach towards patients with SISL and emphasize the most relevant issues concerning the management of psychodermatose...

  9. Mycotic skin lesions in an adult reindeer caused by Debaryomyces bansenii. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This report apparently is the first to describe candidosis in reindeer. It is imperative that reindeer kept in corrals during winter and spring for supplementary feeding, are provided clean, dry conditions and that strict hygenic measures are followed. If reindeer on the other hand are kept in dirty, wet and muddy corrals, among other things, skin lesions due to fungal infections may possibly appear rather frequently.

  10. Intralesional autotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with buffy coat cells: cytological findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabiri, S; Meymandi, S S; Hayes, M M

    2000-01-01

    The skin lesions of five patient volunteers with dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated by intralesional injection of auto-leukocytes prepared from buffy coat of the patient's own blood. Giemsa stained, air-dried cytological smear preparations were prepared from scrapings taken from...... the margins of the lesions. The cellular interaction between the organism and the inflammatory response of the host was studied. All lesions showed clinical evidence of regression. The cytological findings suggested progressive degradation of the Leishman donovan (LD) bodies within the parasitophorous...

  11. Prevalence of skin lesions and need for treatment in a cohort of 90 880 workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, M; Herberger, K; Hintzen, S; Heigel, H; Franzke, N; Schäfer, I

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare planning requires robust data on the prevalence and need for care of dermatological diseases. To date, no systematic data in population-based samples are available for Germany. Determination of the prevalence of skin lesions and of the need for care based on dermatological examinations in working adults in Germany. From 2004 to 2009, workers aged between 16 and 70years from different branches of industry throughout Germany underwent a single dermatological whole-body examination on the occasion of company screening for skin cancer. The data were recorded electronically and evaluated descriptively. In addition to the clinical findings, case history data on previous skin diseases were documented and the need for further clarification or treatment was determined on the basis of the dermatologist's assessment. Data from n=90 880 persons from a total of 312 companies were evaluated. Of the pigmented skin lesions, dermal naevi were found in 25·1% of the cohort, and 16·7% displayed more than 40 each. The most frequent inflammatory skin diseases were acne vulgaris (3·9%), psoriasis (2·0%), rosacea (2·3%) and atopic eczema (1·3%). Examination of the case histories showed that the most frequent condition was allergic sensitizations (41·1%); of these, pollen accounted for the biggest group (21·4%), followed by contact allergens (8·0%). In total, 26·8% of the cohort exhibited a dermatological finding in need of treatment or further clarification. Dermatological lesions and diseases requiring clarification are frequent and indicate a high demand for treatment in the adult population. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Segmentation of skin lesions in chronic graft versus host disease photographs with fully convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Chen, Fuyao; Dellalana, Laura E.; Jagasia, Madan H.; Tkaczyk, Eric R.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2018-02-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and commonly affects the skin, resulting in distressing patient morbidity. The percentage of involved body surface area (BSA) is commonly used for diagnosing and scoring the severity of cGVHD. However, the segmentation of the involved BSA from patient whole body serial photography is challenging because (1) it is difficult to design traditional segmentation method that rely on hand crafted features as the appearance of cGVHD lesions can be drastically different from patient to patient; (2) to the best of our knowledge, currently there is no publicavailable labelled image set of cGVHD skin for training deep networks to segment the involved BSA. In this preliminary study we create a small labelled image set of skin cGVHD, and we explore the possibility to use a fully convolutional neural network (FCN) to segment the skin lesion in the images. We use a commercial stereoscopic Vectra H1 camera (Canfield Scientific) to acquire 400 3D photographs of 17 cGVHD patients aged between 22 and 72. A rotational data augmentation process is then applied, which rotates the 3D photos through 10 predefined angles, producing one 2D projection image at each position. This results in 4000 2D images that constitute our cGVHD image set. A FCN model is trained and tested using our images. We show that our method achieves encouraging results for segmenting cGVHD skin lesion in photographic images.

  13. Treatment of radiation skin lesions in various stages with different preparations of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Hui; Chen Qiang; Yang Xiaohong

    1989-01-01

    Since the aqueous solution of Vit. B 12 was firstly used to treat efficaciously the acute radiation injury of skin and superficial second-degree skin burn, we have successfully treated radiation skin lesions in acute, chronic and recovering stages with the cream or oil preparation of Vit. B 12 . In the period of ten years (1979-1988), altogether 418 cases of radiation or non-radiation skin injury were observed and 48 out of 49 cases with acute radiation skin ulcer treated with aqueous solution of Vit. B 12 were healed with an effective rate of 97.95% and average healing time of 12.6 days. All of 37 cases with chronic radiation skin injury treated with oil preparation of Vit. B 12 were healed or improved with an effective rate of 100% and average healing time of 21.49 days. However, in the control group, of 18 cases treated with conventional drugs only 13 were healed, the effective rate being 72.22% and healing time 63.5 days, and both of these indices were of significant difference, as compared with those treated with Vit. B 12

  14. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, P [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hospital L. Sacco Unit, University of Milan, Via G B Grassi, 74-20157 Milan (Italy); Lualdi, M [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Colombo, A [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Carrara, M [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Tomatis, S [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Marchesini, R [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-05-21

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. (note)

  15. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P; Lualdi, M; Colombo, A; Carrara, M; Tomatis, S; Marchesini, R

    2007-01-01

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al 2 O 3 particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. (note)

  16. Association of malignancy with rapid growth in early lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin were studied to determine (a) the relationship of malignancy to dose, (b) the types of lesions and circumstances leading to overt malignancy, and (c) the growth rates of lesions progressing to malignancy versus those of lesions remaining benign. High doses of radiation were shown to be associated with the production of epidermal cancers, the maximum yield being obtained at 6,400 rads. Conversely, a peak yield of noncancerous lesions was obtained at 1,600 rads. This association between malignancy and high dose was consistent for cancers evolving from warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers. Although the proportion of warts among the induced lesions was much higher than that of the cysts or chronic ulcers (76, 14, and 10%, respectively), the likelihood of warts becoming cancerous was substantially lower (14, 23, and 21%). The combined data for all doses showed that the latency period of the epidermal cancers was significantly (P = 0.015) shorter than that of the benign tumors. Rapid growth rates were observed for warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers progressing to overt cancer, and these did not overlap at any point on the growth scale with rates for benign tumors. This finding suggested that the potential for malignant development had been established early in the carcinogenic process, very likely at induction

  17. Investigation of relations between skin cancer lesions' images and their fluorescent spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.; Petkova, El.; Troyanova, P.

    2010-03-01

    This investigation is based on images obtained from healthy tissue and skin cancer lesions and their fluorescent spectra of cutaneous lesions derived after optical stimulation. Our analyses show that the lesions’ spectra of are different of those, obtained from normal tissue and the differences depend on the type of cancer. We use a comparison between these “healthy” and “unhealthy” spectra to define forms of variations and corresponding diseases. However, the value of the emitted light varies not only between the patients, but also depending on the position of the tested area inside of one lesion. These variations could be result from two reasons: different degree of damaging and different thickness of the suspicious lesion area. Regarded to the visible image of the lesion, it could be connected with the chroma of colour of the tested area and the lesion homogeneity that corresponds to particular disease. For our investigation, images and spectra of three non-melanoma cutanous malignant tumors are investigated, namely—basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and keratoacanthoma. The images were processed obtaining the chroma by elimination of the background—healthy tissue, and applying it as a basic signal for transformation from RGB to Lab colorimetric model. The chroma of the areas of emission is compared with the relative value of fluorescence spectra. Specific spectral features are used to develop hybrid diagnostic algorithm (including image and spectral features) for differentiation of these three kinds of malignant cutaneous pathologies.

  18. Elemental concentration in normal skin and fibroepithelial polip lesions by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.R.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analysed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X- ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them. (author)

  19. Lésion ulcérocroûteuse de l’angle interne de l’œil droit: a leishmaniose cutanée en est une cause [A crushing ulcerous lesion of the internal angle of the right eye: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laouali Salissou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Niger is a tropical country where leishmaniasis is endemic. The first case was reported in 1911. Leishmania major is practically the pathogen found in Niger, a country lying between 8° and 20° north latitudes from the Atlantic to the Chadian border. We report a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the type of ulcerative lesion, characterized by its localization at the internal angle of the right eye posing a diagnostic problem. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by parasitological examination. Anatomipathologic examination eliminated cutaneous tuberculosis, pyogenic granuloma, molluscum contagiosum and basal cell epithelioma. Metronidazole management has accelerated healing. Thus in a tropical country, in front of any chronic, painless ulcerative lesion and resistant to all therapeutics, the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis must be evoked, for a consequent management after confirmation.

  20. Prevalence of Oral, Skin, and Oral and Skin Lesions of Lichen Planus in Patients Visiting a Dental School in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omal, PM; Jacob, Vimal; Prathap, Akhilesh; Thomas, Nebu George

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common among adult population. LP can present as skin and oral lesions. This study highlights the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP from a population of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiodiagnosis, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Tiruvalla, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. This is a ongoing prospective study with results of 2 years being reported. LP was diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathological analysis of mucosal and skin biopsy done for all patients suspected of having LP. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) software version 14. To test the statistical significance, chi-square test was used. Results: Out of 18,306 patients screened, 8,040 were males and 10,266 females. LP was seen in 118 cases (0.64%). Increased prevalence of LP was observed in middle age adults (40–60 years age group) with lowest age of 12 years and highest age of 65 years. No statistically significant differences were observed between the genders in skin LP group (P=0.12) and in oral and skin LP groups (P=0.06); however, a strong female predilection was seen in oral LP group (P=0.000036). The prevalence of cutaneous LP in oral LP patients was 0.06%. Conclusion: This study showed an increased prevalence of oral LP than skin LP, and oral and skin LP with a female predominance. PMID:22615505

  1. Comparison of oral itraconazole and intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Rahman, A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral itraconazole against intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Two hundred eligible and consenting patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) were divided in two groups with 100 patients in each. The number and location of the lesions were documented and clinical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis were noted. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin slit smear and histopathology of the lesional skin. Culture on Nicolle Novy MacNeal (NNN) medium and Leishmanin test was done in all patients. All the patients in both groups were subjected to complete blood picture, urine examination, serum urea and creatinine levels and ECG examination. One group was given itraconazole 100 mg twice daily orally for a duration of 6-8 weeks. The other group was given meglumine antimoniate 10 cc in the form of deep intramuscular injections for 15-30 days. The efficacy of the treatment was judged by clinical and parasitological response. Side effects of the agents were also noted during treatment. Out of 200 patients studied, 185 were males and 15 were females. The mean age of presentation was 30 + 6.6 years. Single lesion was seen in 132 (66%) subjects whereas 68 (34%) subjects had multiple lesions. Slit skin smears were positive in 50 (25%) of the patients. Skin biopsy yielded the presence of LT bodies in 150 (75%) subjects. The culture was positive in 102 (51%) cases. Leishmanin test was positive in 94% subjects. Seventy-five (75%) patients on itraconazole therapy showed complete clinical and parasitological cure in 4-8 weeks duration. A rise in ALT was seen in 12% subjects. Five (5%) subjects did not show any improvement till the end of therapy. Sixty-five (65%) subjects on meglumine antimoniate showed complete healing in 15-30 days. In 35 (35%) of the patients, the treatment had to be stopped due to intolerable side-effects. Four cases of lupoid leishmaniasis and 4 cases of sporotrichoid leishmaniasis

  2. Effect of rubber flooring on group-housed sows' gait and claw and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E-J; van Riet, M M J; Maes, D; Millet, S; Ampe, B; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare in terms of lameness, claw lesions, and skin lesions. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, we have investigated the effect of rubber coverings on concrete floors and the effect of 3 levels of dietary zinc supplementation on locomotion and claw and skin lesions in group-housed sows. Six groups of 21 ± 4 hybrid sows were monitored during 3 successive reproductive cycles. The sows were group housed from d 28 after insemination (d 0) until 1 wk before expected farrowing date (d 108) in pens with either exposed concrete floors or concrete floors covered with rubber in part of the lying area and the fully slatted area. During each reproductive cycle, locomotion and skin lesions were assessed 4 times (d 28, 50, 108, and 140) and claw lesions were assessed twice (d 50 and 140). Results are given as least squares means ± SE. Locomotion and claw scores were given in millimeters, on analog scales of 150 and 160 mm, respectively. Here, we report on the effect of floor type, which did not interact with dietary zinc concentration ( > 0.10 for all variables). At move to group (d 28) and mid gestation (d 50), no differences between floor treatments were seen in locomotion ( > 0.10). At the end of gestation (d 108), sows housed on rubber flooring scored 9.9 ± 4.1 mm better on gait ( flooring at mid gestation (d 50). However, sows on rubber flooring scored worse for "vertical cracks in the wall horn" (difference of 3.4 ± 1.7 mm; = 0.04). At the end of lactation (d 140), both "white line" (difference of 2.9 ± 1 mm; = 0.02) and "claw length" (difference of 4.7 ± 1.4 mm; flooring. No differences for skin lesions were observed between floor treatments. The improved scores for gait toward the end of gestation and some types of claw disorders at mid gestation suggest that rubber flooring in group housing has a beneficial effect on the overall leg health of sows. The documented increase in vertical cracks in the wall horn at d

  3. The value of Tzanck smear test in diagnosis of erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2008-12-01

    Tzanck smear is generally used for the diagnosis of the pemphigus group of autoimmune bullous diseases and mucocutaneous herpesvirus infections. There are only a few studies in the literature investigating its diagnostic value. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings and to determine the diagnostic value of this test in moist (erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular) skin lesions. We also aimed to develop an algorithmic approach for the diagnosis of these types of skin lesions according to the Tzanck smear findings. Samples were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and evaluated by the same dermatologist. In some patients, methylene blue and Gram staining or direct immunofluorescence examinations were additionally performed. In all of the study cases, after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; viral serology; bacterial and fungal cultures; histopathology; direct and indirect immunofluorescence; patch testing), the definite diagnosis was established. We also determined the sensitivity and the specificity of certain Tzanck smear findings. Tzanck smear was performed in a total of 400 patients with moist skin lesions. The sensitivities of multinucleated giant cells and acantholytic cells in herpetic infections, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells and cocci in bullous impetigo, pseudohyphae in candidiasis, acantholytic cells in pemphigus and more than 10 tadpole cells (magnification x100) in spongiotic dermatitis were 84.7%, 92%, 100%, 100%, and 81.5%, respectively. Because Tzanck smears were evaluated by the same dermatologist, no comment could be made regarding the interobserver reliability of this test and how the level of experience with this technique might affect the results. Also, the sensitivity and the specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for certain diseases could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. The Tzanck smear test is an inexpensive, useful

  4. Pigmented skin lesion detection using random forest and wavelet-based texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Yang, Tie-jun

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, a disease of worldwide distribution and is the deadliest form of skin cancer, has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Because advanced cutaneous melanoma is still incurable, early detection is an important step toward a reduction in mortality. Dermoscopy photographs are commonly used in melanoma diagnosis and can capture detailed features of a lesion. A great variability exists in the visual appearance of pigmented skin lesions. Therefore, in order to minimize the diagnostic errors that result from the difficulty and subjectivity of visual interpretation, an automatic detection approach is required. The objectives of this paper were to propose a hybrid method using random forest and Gabor wavelet transformation to accurately differentiate which part belong to lesion area and the other is not in a dermoscopy photographs and analyze segmentation accuracy. A random forest classifier consisting of a set of decision trees was used for classification. Gabor wavelets transformation are the mathematical model of visual cortical cells of mammalian brain and an image can be decomposed into multiple scales and multiple orientations by using it. The Gabor function has been recognized as a very useful tool in texture analysis, due to its optimal localization properties in both spatial and frequency domain. Texture features based on Gabor wavelets transformation are found by the Gabor filtered image. Experiment results indicate the following: (1) the proposed algorithm based on random forest outperformed the-state-of-the-art in pigmented skin lesions detection (2) and the inclusion of Gabor wavelet transformation based texture features improved segmentation accuracy significantly.

  5. Prehistological evaluation of benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions with optical computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokolakis, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis; Krasagakis, Konstantin; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Favicchio, Rosy; Spiliopoulos, George; Giannikaki, Elpida; Ripoll, Jorge; Tosca, Androniki

    2012-06-01

    Discrimination of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions is a major issue in clinical dermatology. Assessment of the thickness of melanoma is critical for prognosis and treatment selection. We aimed to evaluate a novel optical computed tomography (optical-CT) system as a tool for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of melanocytic lesions and its ability to discriminate benign from malignant melanocytic lesions while simultaneously determining the thickness of invasive melanoma. Seventeen melanocytic lesions, one hemangioma, and normal skin were assessed immediately after their excision by optical-CT and subsequently underwent histopathological examination. Tomographic reconstructions were performed with a back-propagation algorithm calculating a 3-D map of the total attenuation coefficient (AC). There was a statistically significant difference between melanomas, dysplastic nevi, and non-dysplastic nevi, as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis test. Median AC values were higher for melanomas compared with dysplastic and non-dysplastic nevi. No statistically significant difference was observed when thickness values obtained by optical-CT were compared with histological thickness using a Wilcoxon sighed rank test. Our results suggest that optical-CT can be important for the immediate prehistological evaluation of biopsies, assisting the physician for a rapid assessment of malignancy and of the thickness of a melanocytic lesion.

  6. Clinical studies of pigmented lesions in human skin by using a multiphoton tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Kelly, Kristen M.; Zachary, Christopher B.; Harris, Ronald M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; König, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-02-01

    In vivo imaging of pigmented lesions in human skin was performed with a clinical multiphoton microscopy (MPM)-based tomograph (MPTflex, JenLab, Germany). Two-photon excited fluorescence was used for visualizing endogenous fluorophores such as NADH/FAD, keratin, melanin in the epidermal cells and elastin fibers in the dermis. Collagen fibers were imaged by second harmonic generation. Our study involved in vivo imaging of benign melanocytic nevi, atypical nevi and melanoma. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify in vivo the characteristic features and their frequency in pigmented lesions at different stages (benign, atypical and malignant) and to evaluate the ability of in vivo MPM to distinguish atypical nevi from melanoma. Comparison with histopathology was performed for the biopsied lesions. Benign melanocytic nevi were characterized by the presence of nevus cell nests at the epidermal-dermal junction. In atypical nevi, features such as lentiginous hyperplasia, acanthosis and architectural disorder were imaged. Cytological atypia was present in all the melanoma lesions imaged, showing the strongest correlation with malignancy. The MPM images demonstrated very good correlation with corresponding histological images, suggesting that MPM could be a promising tool for in vivo non-invasive pigmented lesion diagnosis, particularly distinguishing atypical nevi from melanoma.

  7. The Effect of The Pesticides Chlorpyrifos and Alphacypermethrin on The Development of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion in BALB/c Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlDawood, Asya N; Khalil, Galila M; AlJaser, May H

    2008-01-01

    Three groups of BALB/c mice were treated orally with 0.6, 1.0 and 6.0mg/kg body weight of chlorpyrifos (CPF), and 3 other groups were treated with 2.5, 6.25 and 25mg/kg bodyweight of alphacypermethrin (ACM), respectively, every other day for 1 week. Six other groups were treated similarly for 2 weeks. The treated groups and a control group for each pesticide were inoculated in the dorsum with Leishmania major promastigotes at their stationary phase. Lesions started to appear 2-3 weeks post-inoculation and their diameters were measured in all groups 1, 5, 9 and 14 days post-appearance (PA). The mean diameter of lesions (MDL) only in the 6.0mg group treated with CPF for 1 week was larger than that of the control group. In the groups treated for 2 weeks, the MDL of the 1.0 and 6.0mg groups were larger than those of the control group 5, 9 and 14 days PA while MLD of the 0.6mg group was larger than that of the control group only 5 days PA. MLD was larger in the 0.6mg group treated for 2 weeks than that in the group treated for 1 week 1 and 5 days PA. MLD was larger in the 1.0mg group treated for 2 weeks than that treated for 1 week 9 days PA. MLD was similar in the 6.0mg group treated for 1 and 2 weeks. The MDL only in the 25mg group treated with ACM for 1 week was larger than that of the control group 9 and 14 days PA. The MDL of the 6.25 and 25mg groups treated for 2 weeks were larger than those of the control groups 5 days PA and the MLD of the 25mg group was larger than that of the control group 9 and 14 days PA. The MLD was larger in the 2.5mg group treated for 2 weeks than that in the group treated for 1 week 5 days PA. The MLD was larger in the 6.25 and 25.0mg groups treated for 2 weeks than those treated for 1 week 1 and 5 days PA. Immunotoxicity and/or peripheral neurotoxicity caused by CPF and ACM might have caused aggravation of lesions in mice particularly those treated with the pesticides for 2 weeks. (author)

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis in selected communities of Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts in Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia: Sero-epidemological and Leishmanin Skin Test Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitsum Bekele

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis [VL] is a debilitating parasitic disease which invariably kills untreated patients. The disease is caused by Leishmania (L. donovani or L. infantum, and transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies. VL often remains subclinical but can become symptomatic with an acute/subacute or chronic course. Globally, the Eastern Africa region is one of the main VL endemic areas. The disease is prevalent in numerous foci within Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan South Sudan, and Uganda. In Ethiopia, the Lower Omo plain is one of the many VL endemic regions.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasisin Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts of the South Omo plains where VL is becoming an emerging health problem of neglected communities.A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 between 25th of July and 14th of August. A total of 1682 individuals living in 404 households were included in the study. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from each of the participants and venous blood was also collected for the detection of antibodies to visceral leishmaniasis using Direct Agglutination Test. Leishmanin Skin Test was performed to detect the exposure to the parasite.The surveys included 14 villages located in areas where VL had been reported. In a study population of 1682 individuals, the overall positive leishmanian skin test and sero-prevalence rates respectively were 8.6% and 1.8%. A statistically significant variation in the rate of positive LST response was observed in different study sites and age groups. Positive LST response showed an increasing trend with age. The sero-prevalence rate also showed a statistically significant variation among different study sites. Higher rates of sero-prevalence were observed in children and adolescents. The LST and sero-prevalence rates in Hamar District exceeded significantly that of Banna

  9. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  10. The use of tissue expander in repairing skin and hair lesions of the head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatir A

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Of 14 cases who underwent this operation only in one of them because of infection in operation site, we had to extract the expander. Also, in the first day of the operation that we injected serum inside the expander of two other patients, the wound opened up and the expander appeared and came out automatically. The remaining ten patients have tolerated the operation after treatment period without any complications and good result was achieved. This method in covering up skin lesions and in eliminating burn as well as old wound scars was very effective and the patient become satisfied because there was no need to remove skin from other parts of the body and thus no new scars would have been created. The only problems in this method of treatment were its duration which is needed for injection inside the expander as well as bad appearance in operation region and these problems cause the patients to become depressed and to become isolated from the public for a long period. For the past three years that we used this method for covering skin lesions in different parts of the body and even in treating extensive spots and the hemantrium we achieved excellent results and the report will subsequently be submitted.

  11. Autofluorescence of pigmented skin lesions using a pulsed UV laser with synchronized detection: clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haynes P. H.; Svenmarker, Pontus; Xie, Haiyan; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Jensen, Ole B.; Bendsoe, Niels; Svanberg, Katarina; Petersen, Paul Michael; Pedersen, Christian; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Andersen, Peter E.

    2010-04-01

    We report preliminary clinical results of autofluorescence imaging of malignant and benign skin lesions, using pulsed 355 nm laser excitation with synchronized detection. The novel synchronized detection system allows high signal-tonoise ratio to be achieved in the resulting autofluorescence signal, which may in turn produce high contrast images that improve diagnosis, even in the presence of ambient room light. The synchronized set-up utilizes a compact, diode pumped, pulsed UV laser at 355 nm which is coupled to a CCD camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter. The excitation and image capture is sampled at 5 kHz and the resulting autofluorescence is captured with the liquid crystal filter cycling through seven wavelengths between 420 nm and 580 nm. The clinical study targets pigmented skin lesions and evaluates the prospects of using autofluorescence as a possible means in differentiating malignant and benign skin tumors. Up to now, sixteen patients have participated in the clinical study. The autofluorescence images, averaged over the exposure time of one second, will be presented along with histopathological results. Initial survey of the images show good contrast and diagnostic results show promising agreement based on the histopathological results.

  12. Prevention and treatment of skin lesions associated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Recommendations of experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raurell-Torredà, M; Romero-Collado, A; Rodríguez-Palma, M; Farrés-Tarafa, M; Martí, J D; Hurtado-Pardos, B; Peñarrubia-San Florencio, L; Saez-Paredes, P; Esquinas, A M

    In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients. To identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. Review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10years to reach consensus through an expert panel. Knowledge about how to measure correct mask size and protection of the skin with foam or hydrocolloids dressings are factors related to the incidence of LESADIC, as it conditions the degree of pressure-friction and shear that the interface exerts on the skin. The interface that causes fewer LESADIC and is better tolerated is the face mask. When there are injuries, the first thing is to remove the interface that causes pressure on damaged skin, recommending a Helmet ® hood as an alternative, treating the infection, managing the exudate and stimulating perilesional skin. The mask of choice is the facial, always using foam or hydrocolloid dressings on the nasal bridge. Evaluate the condition of the skin under the interface and harness every 4hours (recommended) and 11hours (maximum). Evaluate the rotation strategy of the interface at 24hours if the NIV is still needed on an ongoing basis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons ≥15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among ≥15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI 2 . Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further investigations and

  14. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  15. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  16. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Deepak M W; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Spitzer-Naaijkens, Juliette M J; Hulshof, Mieke M

    2017-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients.

  17. Halting angiogenesis by non-viral somatic gene therapy alleviates psoriasis and murine psoriasiform skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Wallbrecht, Katrin; Schön, Margarete

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated angiogenesis is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, a common skin disorder that affects approximately 2% of the population. Studying both human psoriasis in 2 complementary xenotransplantation models and psoriasis-like skin lesions in transgenic mice......-15) by in vivo electroporation reduced cutaneous angiogenesis and vascularization in all 3 models. As demonstrated using red fluorescent protein-coupled RDD, the treatment resulted in muscular expression of the gene product and its deposition within the cutaneous hyperangiogenic connective tissue....... High-resolution ultrasound revealed reduced cutaneous blood flow in vivo after electroporation with RDD but not with control plasmids. In addition, angiogenesis- and inflammation-related molecular markers, keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal thickness, and clinical disease scores were downregulated...

  18. Autofluorescence of pigmented skin lesions using a pulsed UV laser with synchronized detection: clinical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Svenmarker, Pontus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    signal, which may in turn produce high contrast images that improve diagnosis, even in the presence of ambient room light. The synchronized set-up utilizes a compact, diode pumped, pulsed UV laser at 355 nm which is coupled to a CCD camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter. The excitation and image......We report preliminary clinical results of autofluorescence imaging of malignant and benign skin lesions, using pulsed 355 nm laser excitation with synchronized detection. The novel synchronized detection system allows high signal-to-noise ratio to be achieved in the resulting autofluorescence...

  19. Initial evaluation of an ultrasound measure for assessing the activity of skin lesions in juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S C; Liebling, M S; Haines, K A; Weiss, J E; Prann, A

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the construct validity of 2 proposed measures (the Ultrasound Disease Activity [U-DA] and the Tissue Thickness Score [TTS]) for evaluating sonographic differences in juvenile localized scleroderma skin lesions. We conducted a retrospective review of juvenile localized scleroderma patients who had ultrasound scans of their skin lesions between October 2005 and February 2009. Imaged lesions were classified as active or inactive based upon clinical assessment. Lesions had to have been imaged within 1 month of a clinic visit or have the same clinical assessment during both the visit before and the visit after the scan. Two physicians scored the scans using the U-DA, which scores for differences in lesion echogenicity and vascularity compared with normal tissue. Tissue thickness differences were evaluated by percent differences and by using the TTS. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was performed to assess differences. We studied 52 scans from 21 patients, 32 scans of active skin lesions and 20 scans of inactive skin lesions. Features reported by clinicians as indicative of active disease included erythema, warmth, violaceous color, new lesion, expansion of lesion, and induration. The U-DA was significantly different between active and inactive skin lesions (P = 0.0010) with significant differences found for the parameters of total echogenicity, hypodermis echogenicity, and deep tissue layer vascularity (P = 0.0014, P = 0.0023, and P = 0.0374, respectively). No significant differences were found for tissue layer thickness or TTS. The U-DA may be a useful tool in the identification of localized scleroderma activity. Further study is needed to prospectively evaluate the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of this potential monitoring tool. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: {yields} Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological

  1. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: → Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological matrices

  2. Large Morel-Lavallée lesion presenting as fungating mass with skin ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christine E; Wachtel, Sarah; Leef, George; Ozdalga, Errol

    2016-01-01

    A Morel-Lavallée lesion, a type of soft tissue degloving injury that has also been referred to as a chronic expanding hematoma, is a relatively rare condition that usually develops following traumatic injury. Here, we present a case of a 60-year-old male with a Morel-Lavallée lesion diagnosed over 5 years after a traumatic injury of the hip. He presented with a large fungating mass and overlying skin ulceration, which was highly suspicious for sarcoma. However, lack of other systemic findings and constitutional complaints, as well as negative imaging studies, did not support a diagnosis of malignancy. This information, combined with the history of remote trauma to the affected area, instead led us to suspect the alternative diagnosis of a Morel-Lavallée lesion. The diagnosis was later confirmed by pathology showing a chronic expanding hematoma. To our knowledge, a Morel-Lavallée lesion presenting as a fungating mass has not been previously described.

  3. Skin lesions in the tail of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A D

    1982-01-01

    There are numerous reports of diseases and lesions of the major organs of a wide spectrum of bony fishes. By contrast, very few cases have been reported from elasmobranchs. This lack of information may reflect the fact that commercial exploitation of elasmobranch populations has been limited, although for several decades there have been fisheries for the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., in European waters. In both cases, many thousands of spiny dogfish have been sampled for population analysis. Further, the spiny dogfish has been dissected in senior biology courses in the UK for about 30 years and probably 5000 students take these courses annually. It is remarkable, with these numbers dissected, that so few lesions have been recorded. During the summer of 1980, whilst working at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Maine, researchers sampled a large spiny dogfish which had a prominently engorged tail with numerous skin lesions. The fish was a mature female 100 cm long, weighing 6.5 kg, which was carrying 16 embryos in their second year of development. The dogfish was also remarkable in that one of the embryos had a marked developmental abnormality, its spinal column being severely twisted. Developmental damage appears to be unusual in dogfish and the embryo was examined further to see whether the damage might be related to the lesion of the mother.

  4. A novel papillomavirus isolated from proliferative skin lesions of a wild American beaver (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Baszler, Timothy V; Bradway, Daniel S; Bruning, Darren L; Davitt, Christine M; Evermann, James F; Burk, Robert D; Chen, Zigui; Mansfield, Kristin G; Haldorson, Gary J

    2012-07-01

    Cutaneous papillomatosis was diagnosed in an adult American beaver (Castor canadensis). Gross lesions included numerous exophytic, roughly circular, lightly pigmented lesions on hairless areas of fore and hind feet and the nose. The most significant histopathologic findings were multifocal papilliform hyperplasia of the superficial stratified squamous epithelium, with multifocal koilocytes, and multiple cells with large, darkly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. A virus with properties consistent with papillomavirus (PV) was recovered by virus isolation of skin lesions, utilizing rabbit and feline kidney cell lines. The presence of the virus was confirmed by PV-specific polymerase chain reaction. The partial sequences of E1 and L1 genes did not closely match those of any PVs in GenBank, suggesting that this might be a new type of PV. Partial E1 and L1 nucleotide sequences of the beaver papillomavirus (hereafter, ARbeaver-PV1) were used to create a phylogenetic tree employing the complete E1 and L1 open reading frame nucleotide sequences of 68 PVs. The phylogenetic tree placed the ARbeaver-PV1 in a clade that included the Mupapillomavirus (HPV1 and HPV63) and Kappapapillomavirus (OcPV1 and SfPV1) genera. The present article confirms the papillomaviral etiology of cutaneous exophytic lesions in the beaver.

  5. Non-rinse skin cleansers: the way forward in preventing incontinence related moisture lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, F J; Begg, P A

    2016-05-01

    The use of non-rinse skin cleansers in the care of patients who are at risk of tissue breakdown is not new within the National Health Service (NHS). Back to the Floor Continence Care Rounds (introduced in 2012 to facilitate bedside continence care education) at University Hospitals Birmingham had identified that in the current climate of austerity and efficiency savings, the use of non-rinse cleanser was being randomly rationed. Our objective was to determine whether the introduction of a smaller tube of non-rinse cleanser with targeted education would improve usage and ultimately improve the skin of incontinent patients. There were five clinical areas randomised into two groups. In group 1 three clinical areas were provided with targeted education and new sizes of tubes of non-rinse skin cleanser. In group 2, the two remaining clinical areas acted as control groups, one receiving targeted education only and the remaining had no education or new sized tubes. The incidence of incontinence associated moisture lesions from each clinical area was monitored for 13 weeks pre and post study period. The in-depth study undertaken at University Hospitals Birmingham, over a 6-month period, confirmed a trend in staff committing to the ethos of prudency, and in turn compromising the use of the most effective treatment and prevention of incontinence associated moisture lesions. The ability of the Trust staff to recognise and respond to a change in practice and the responsiveness of a commercial provider to the proposed new methodology has resulted in a significant reduction in incontinence associated moisture lesions across the trust. The clinical areas included in the study demonstrated a 70-76.9% reduction in moisture lesion incidence compared to an 8.3-13.6% reduction in the control groups. The results strongly suggest that a reduction in incontinence associated moisture lesions can be achieved by a simple change in nursing regime. The combination of solid education provision

  6. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  7. Dermatoses em pacientes com diabetes mellitus Skin lesions in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N T Foss

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Ainda é desconhecida a relação do diabetes com fatores determinantes ou precipitantes de lesões dermatológicas em pacientes diabéticos. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi investigar a presença de lesões cutâneas, não referidas pelo paciente diabético e sua relação com o controle metabólico da doença. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 403 pacientes, dos quais 31% eram diabéticos do tipo 1 e 69% do tipo 2. Em ambulatório de um hospital universitário, os pacientes foram atendidos por endocrinologista para a avaliação endócrino-metabólica e por dermatologista para a avaliação dermatológica. O grau de controle metabólico foi documentado em 136 pacientes por meio da dosagem de hemoglobina glicada. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de dermatofitoses (82,6%, seguido de grupo de dermatoses como acne e degeneração actínica (66,7%, piodermites (5%, tumores cutâneos (3% e necrobiose lipoídica (1%. Entre as dermatoses mais comuns em diabéticos, foram confirmados com exame histológico: dois diagnósticos de necrobiose (0,4%, cinco de dermopatia diabética (1,2% e três casos de mal perfurante plantar (0,7%. Os valores da hemoglobina glicada foram: 7,2% em pacientes com controle metabólico adequado nos dois tipos de diabetes e de 11,9% e 12,7% nos tipos 1 e 2, respectivamente, com controle inadequado. Nos pacientes com controle metabólico inadequado foi observada freqüência maior de dermatofitoses, em ambos os tipos de diabetes. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados revelaram freqüência elevada de lesão dermatológica nos pacientes diabéticos, especialmente dermatofitoses. Dessa forma, o descontrole metabólico do diabético propicia maior suscetibilidade a infecções cutâneas.OBJECTIVE: It is yet unknown the relationship between diabetes and determinants or triggering factors of skin lesions in diabetic patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of unreported skin lesions in diabetic patients and their

  8. [Study of relationship between arsenic methylation and skin lesion in a population with long-term high arsenic exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liqin; Cheng, Yibin; Lin, Shaobin; Wu, Chuanye

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the difference of arsenic metabolism in populations with long-term high arsenic exposure and explore the relationship between arsenic metabolism diversity and skin lesion. 327 residents in an arsenic polluted village were voluntarily enrolled in this study. Questionnaire survey and medical examination were carried out to learn basic information and detect skin lesions. Urinary inorganic and methylated arsenic were speciated by high performance liquid chromatography combined with hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total arsenic concentration in hair was determined with DDC-Ag method. Hair arsenic content of studied polutions was generally high, but no significant difference were found among the studied four groups. MMA and DMA concentration in urine increased with studied polution age, and were positively related with skin lesion grade. The relative proportion of MMA in serious skin lesion group was significantly higher than in other 3 groups, while DMA/MMA ratio was significantly lower than control and mild group. The relative proportion of MMA was positively related with skin lesion grade, DMA/ MMA ratio was negatively related with skin lesion grade. Males could have higher arsenic cumulation and lower methylation capacity than those of females. The population of above 40 years old may have higher methylation capacity than those of adults below 40yeas old. Smokers and drinkers seemed lower methylation capacity than those of non-smokers and non-drinkers respectively. The methylation of arsenic could affect by several factors, including age gender, smoking and drinking. Arsenic methylation copacity mey be associated with skin lesion induced by arsenic exposure.

  9. Calciphylaxis: Temporal Artery Calcification Preceding Widespread Skin Lesions and Penile Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal artery calciphylaxis has rarely been described in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. We report a case of 72-year-old Caucasian man with multiple comorbidities and end-stage renal disease on dialysis who presented with temporal artery calcification leading to bilateral loss of vision followed by extensive skin lesions including one on glans penis. While on peritoneal dialysis, he developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, had no improvement on high dose steroids, and temporal artery biopsy showed marked calcification without any evidence of vasculitis. Few weeks later on hemodialysis, he developed widespread cutaneous lesions on extremities and penile necrosis with skin biopsy revealing calciphylaxis. On literature review of calciphylaxis in chronic kidney disease, we found only four cases of temporal artery calciphylaxis leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and blindness. We believe this is the first case in which the rare temporal artery calciphylaxis and the uncommon penile necrosis are being described together. The objective is to emphasize the need to recognize this condition early in the CKD patients on dialysis presenting with visual symptoms as the different treatment strategies may help prevent complete loss of vision and also modify or prevent a full blown calciphylaxis.

  10. Low selenium status affects arsenic metabolites in an arsenic exposed population with skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Pei, Qiuling; Sun, Guifan; Zhang, Sichum; Liang, Jiang; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xinrong

    2008-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low selenium status plays important roles in arsenism development. However, no study has been reported for humans suffering from chronic arsenic exposure with low selenium status. Sixty-three subjects were divided into 2 experimental groups by skin lesions (including hyperkeratosis, depigmentation, and hyperpigmentation). Total urine and serum concentrations of arsenic and selenium were determined by ICP-MS with collision/reaction cell. Arsenic species were analysed by ICP-MS coupled with HPLC. The mean concentration of As in the drinking waters was 41.5 microg/l. The selenium dietary intake for the studied population was 31.7 microg Se/d, and which for the cases and controls were 25.9 and 36.3 microg Se/d, respectively. Compared with the controls, the skin lesions cases had lower selenium concentrations in serum and urine (41.4 vs 49.6 microg/l and 71.0 vs 78.8 microg/l, respectively), higher inorganic arsenic (iAs) in serum (5.2 vs 3.4 microg/l, PiAs in serum and urine (20.2) vs 16.9% and 18.3 vs 14.5%, respectively, PiAs and its inhibition to be biotransformed to DMA occurred in human due to chronic exposure of low selenium status.

  11. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess the diagn......BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...

  12. Polymorphisms in XPD (Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln) genes, sunburn and arsenic-related skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kathleen M; Smith, Thomas J; Zhou, Wei; Gonzalez, Ernesto; Quamruzzaman, Quazzi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Ryan, Louise; Su, Li; Christiani, David C

    2007-08-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair capacity and ultraviolet exposure have not been well investigated in relation to skin lesions associated with arsenic exposure. This population based case-control study, of 600 cases and 600 controls, frequency matched on age and gender in Pabna, Bangladesh, in 2001-2002, investigated the association and potential effect modification between polymorphisms in Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn) genes, tendency to sunburn and arsenic-related skin lesions. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). No significant association was observed between skin lesions and the XPD 312 Asp/Asn (adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.65-1.15) Asn/Asn (adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.50-1.15) (referent Asp/Asp); XPD 751 Lys/Gln (adjusted OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.69-1.23) Gln/Gln (adjusted OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.66-1.45) (referent Lys/Lys). While we did not observe any evidence of effect modification of these polymorphisms on the association between well arsenic concentration and skin lesions, we did observe effect modification between these polymorphisms and sunburn tendency and arsenic-related skin lesions. Individuals with the heterozygote or homozygote variant forms (Asp/Asn or Asn/Asn) had half the risk of skin lesions (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29-0.68) compared with those with the wild-type XPDAsp312Asn genotype (Asp/Asp) and individuals with heterozygote or homozygote variant forms (Lys/Gln or Gln/Gln) had half the risk of skin lesions (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.31-0.72) compared with those with the wild-type XPDLys751Gln genotype (Lys/Lys), within the least sensitive strata of sunburn severity. We observed effect modification on the multiplicative scale for XPD 751 and XPD 312. XPD polymorphisms modified the relationship between tendency to sunburn and skin lesions in an arsenic exposed population. Further study is necessary

  13. Skin tags: A link between lesional mast cell count/tryptase expression and obesity and dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Abdallah M Salem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The etiology of skin tags (STs is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG, postprandial blood glucose (PPBG, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control. Results:All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%. STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin ( P < 0.001, with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions:STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting.

  14. Adaptive technique for matching the spectral response in skin lesions' images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, P; Borisova, E; Avramov, L; Pavlova, E

    2015-01-01

    The suggested technique is a subsequent stage for data obtaining from diffuse reflectance spectra and images of diseased tissue with a final aim of skin cancer diagnostics. Our previous work allows us to extract patterns for some types of skin cancer, as a ratio between spectra, obtained from healthy and diseased tissue in the range of 380 – 780 nm region. The authenticity of the patterns depends on the tested point into the area of lesion, and the resulting diagnose could also be fixed with some probability. In this work, two adaptations are implemented to localize pixels of the image lesion, where the reflectance spectrum corresponds to pattern. First adapts the standard to the personal patient and second – translates the spectrum white point basis to the relative white point of the image. Since the reflectance spectra and the image pixels are regarding to different white points, a correction of the compared colours is needed. The latest is done using a standard method for chromatic adaptation. The technique follows the steps below: –Calculation the colorimetric XYZ parameters for the initial white point, fixed by reflectance spectrum from healthy tissue; –Calculation the XYZ parameters for the distant white point on the base of image of nondiseased tissue; –Transformation the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum by obtained matrix; –Finding the RGB values of the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum according sRGB; Finally, the pixels of the lesion's image, corresponding to colour from the test-spectrum and particular diagnostic pattern are marked with a specific colour

  15. Differences of Urinary Arsenic Metabolites and Methylation Capacity between Individuals with and without Skin Lesions in Inner Mongolia, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete arsenic (As methylation has been considered a risk factor of As-related diseases. This study aimed to examine the difference of urinary As metabolites and the methylation capacity between subjects with and without skin lesions. Urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were analyzed. The percentage of each As species (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, the primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated. The results showed that subjects with skin lesions have higher levels of urinary iAs (99.08 vs. 70.63 μg/g Cr, p = 0.006 and MMA (69.34 vs. 42.85 μg/g Cr, p = 0.016 than subjects without skin lesions after adjustment for several confounders. Significant differences of urianry MMA% (15.49 vs. 12.11, p = 0.036 and SMI (0.74 vs. 0.81, p = 0.025 were found between the two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that subjects with skin lesions may have a lower As methylation capacity than subjects without skin lesions.

  16. Differences of urinary arsenic metabolites and methylation capacity between individuals with and without skin lesions in Inner Mongolia, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Yongfang; Liu, Juan; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2014-07-18

    Incomplete arsenic (As) methylation has been considered a risk factor of As-related diseases. This study aimed to examine the difference of urinary As metabolites and the methylation capacity between subjects with and without skin lesions. Urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analyzed. The percentage of each As species (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%), the primary methylation index (PMI) and secondary methylation index (SMI) were calculated. The results showed that subjects with skin lesions have higher levels of urinary iAs (99.08 vs. 70.63 μg/g Cr, p = 0.006) and MMA (69.34 vs. 42.85 μg/g Cr, p = 0.016) than subjects without skin lesions after adjustment for several confounders. Significant differences of urianry MMA% (15.49 vs. 12.11, p = 0.036) and SMI (0.74 vs. 0.81, p = 0.025) were found between the two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that subjects with skin lesions may have a lower As methylation capacity than subjects without skin lesions.

  17. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in footpad skin lesions with diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Up Noh, Sun; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Yong-Taek; Jae Yoon, Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy originating in distal lower extremities is associated with pain early in the disease course, overwhelming in the feet. However, the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor has been implicated in the onset of neuropathic pain and the development of diabetes. Objective of this study was to observe pain syndromes elicited in the footpad of diabetic neuropathy rat model and to assess the contributory role of migration inhibitory factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Methods Diabetic neuropathy was made in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin. Pain threshold was evaluated using von Frey monofilaments for 24 weeks. On comparable experiment time after streptozotocin injection, all footpads were prepared for following procedures; glutathione assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling staining, immunohistochemistry staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. Additionally, human HaCaT skin keratinocytes were treated with methylglyoxal, transfected with migration inhibitory factor/control small interfering RNA, and prepared for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results As compared to sham group, pain threshold was significantly reduced in diabetic neuropathy group, and glutathione was decreased in footpad skin, simultaneously, cell death was increased. Over-expression of migration inhibitory factor, accompanied by low expression of glyoxalase-I and intraepidermal nerve fibers, was shown on the footpad skin lesions of diabetic neuropathy. But, there was no significance in expression of neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, mas-related G protein coupled receptor D, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 between diabetic neuropathy group and sham group. Intriguingly

  18. Early burn wound excision and skin grafting postburn trauma restores in vivo neutrophil delivery to inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchervenkov, J.I.; Epstein, M.D.; Silberstein, E.B.; Alexander, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of early vs delayed postburn wound excision and skin grafting on the in vivo neutrophil delivery to a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and a bacterial skin lesion (BSL). Male Lewis rats were presensitized to keyhole-limpet hemocyanin. Group 1 comprised sham controls. Groups 2 through 4 were given a 30% 3 degrees scald burn, but the burn wounds were excised, and skin was grafted on days 1, 3, and 7, respectively, after the burn. Group 5 comprised burn controls. Twelve days after burn trauma, all rats were injected at different intervals (during a 24-hour period) with a trio of intradermal injections of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin, Staphylococcus aureus 502A, and saline at different sites. In vivo neutrophil delivery to these dermal lesions was determined by injecting indium in 111 oxyquinoline-labeled neutrophils isolated from similarly treated groups of rats. Neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions was restored to normal by excision and skin grafting of the burn wound one day after burn trauma. Waiting three days after burn trauma to excise and skin graft the wound partially, but not completely, restored the in vivo neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions. Waiting one week to excise and skin graft a burn wound resulted in no improvement in neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL dermal lesions. It was concluded that burn wound excision and skin grafting immediately after burn trauma restored in vivo neutrophil delivery to a BSL and DTH dermal lesion. This may, in part, explain the beneficial effect of early aggressive burn wound debridement in patients with burn injuries

  19. Clay jojoba oil facial mask for lesioned skin and mild acne--results of a prospective, observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Larissa; Stange, Rainer; Michalsen, Andreas; Uehleke, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    External application of clay facial masks is a cosmetic procedure generally used to reduce skin lesions and to improve overall skin condition. Collecting pilot data about self-treatment with clay jojoba oil masks on participants with acne-prone, lesioned skin and acne. Open, prospective, observational pilot study: Participants received written information, instructions, and questionnaires without direct contact with the study physician. For 6 weeks, they applied the masks 2-3 times per week. The primary outcome is the difference of skin lesions: baseline vs. after 6 weeks. 194 participants (192 female, 2 male, mean age (± SE) (32.3 ± 0.7 years) returned questionnaires and diaries. 133 of these participants returned complete and precise lesion counts (per-protocol (PP) collective). A 54% mean reduction in total lesion count was observed after 6 weeks of treatment with clay facial mask. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory skin lesions were reduced significantly after treatment compared to baseline: Median counts (MC) of pustules per affected participant were reduced from 7.0 ± 0.9 to 3.0 ± 0.5 (mean individual reduction (MIR) = 49.4%), the MC of the papules from 3.5 ± 2.2 to 1.0 ± 0.4 (MIR = 57.3%), the MC of cysts from 2.0 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.4 (MIR = 68.6%) and the MC of comedones from 26.5 ± 6.3 to 16.0 ± 4.0 (MIR = 39.1%). DLQI-average score decreased from 5.0 ± 4.5 (mean ± SE) before to 2.1 ± 2.8 after treatment. The present study gives preliminary evidence that healing clay jojoba oil facial masks can be effective treatment for lesioned skin and mild acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Leprosy Associated with Atypical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nicaragua and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Lucrecia Acosta; Caballero, Nelson; Fuentes, Lesny Ruth; Muñoz, Pedro Torres; Gómez Echevarría, Jose Ramón; López, Montserrat Pérez; Bornay Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Stanford, John L; Stanford, Cynthia A; Donoghue, Helen D

    2017-10-01

    In Central America, few cases of leprosy have been reported, but the disease may be unrecognized. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and histology. Preliminary field work in Nicaragua and Honduras found patients, including many children, with skin lesions clinically suggestive of atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis or indeterminate leprosy. Histology could not distinguish these diseases although acid-fast organisms were visible in a few biopsies. Lesions healed after standard antimicrobial therapy for leprosy. In the present study, patients, family members, and other community members were skin-tested and provided nasal swabs and blood samples. Biopsies were taken from a subgroup of patients with clinical signs of infection. Two laboratories analyzed samples, using local in-house techniques. Mycobacterium leprae , Leishmania spp. and Leishmania infantum were detected using polymerase chain reactions. Mycobacterium leprae DNA was detected in blood samples and nasal swabs, including some cases where leprosy was not clinically suspected. Leishmania spp. were also detected in blood and nasal swabs. Most biopsies contained Leishmania DNA and coinfection of Leishmania spp. with M. leprae occurred in 33% of cases. Mycobacterium leprae DNA was also detected and sequenced from Nicaraguan and Honduran environmental samples. In conclusion, leprosy and leishmaniasis are present in both regions, and leprosy appears to be widespread. The nature of any relationship between these two pathogens and the epidemiology of these infections need to be elucidated.

  1. Comparison of the immune profile of nonhealing cutaneous Leishmaniasis patients with those with active lesions and those who have recovered from infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajdary, S; Alimohammadian, M H; Eslami, M B

    2000-01-01

    Th1-type cellular immune responses play a critical role in protection against infection with Leishmania parasites, whereas activation of Th2-type cells results in progressive disease. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is often a self-healing disease; however, persistent nonhealing...

  2. Synthetic Peptide Drugs for Targeting Skin Cancer: Malignant Melanoma and Melanotic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Alex N; Rout, Bhimsen; Qi, Mei Bigliardi; Bigliardi, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Peptides play decisive roles in the skin, ranging from host defense responses to various forms of neuroendocrine regulation of cell and organelle function. Synthetic peptides conjugated to radionuclides or photosensitizers may serve to identify and treat skin tumors and their metastatic forms in other organs of the body. In the introductory part of this review, the role and interplay of the different peptides in the skin are briefly summarized, including their potential application for the management of frequently occurring skin cancers. Special emphasis is given to different targeting options for the treatment of melanoma and melanotic lesions. Radionuclide Targeting: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the most prominent peptide for targeting of melanoma tumors via the G protein-coupled melanocortin-1 receptor that is (over-)expressed by melanoma cells and melanocytes. More than 100 different linear and cyclic analogs of α-MSH containing chelators for 111In, 67/68Ga, 64Cu, 90Y, 212Pb, 99mTc, 188Re were synthesized and examined with experimental animals and in a few clinical studies. Linear Ac-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH2 (NAP-amide) and Re-cyclized Cys- Cys-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2 (Re[Arg11]CCMSH) containing different chelators at the N- or C-terminus served as lead compounds for peptide drugs with further optimized characteristics. Alternatively, melanoma may be targeted with radiopeptides that bind to melanin granules occurring extracellularly in these tumors. Photosensitizer targeting: A more recent approach is the application of photosensitizers attached to the MSH molecule for targeted photodynamic therapy using LED or coherent laser light that specifically activates the photosensitizer. Experimental studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach as a more gentle and convenient alternative compared to radionuclides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Development and psychometric testing of the 'Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Judith; Cowdell, Fiona

    2014-12-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index. Skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. The primary strategy used to prevent skin cancer is promotion of sun avoidance and the use of sun protection. However, despite costly and extensive campaigns, cases of skin cancer continue to increase. If found and treated early, skin cancer is curable. Early detection is, therefore, very important. The study was conducted in 2013. Instrument Development. A literature review and a survey identified barriers (factors that hinder) and levers (factors that help) to skin self-examination. These were categorized according to a the Theoretical Domains Framework and this formed the basis of an instrument, which was tested for validity and reliability using confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha respectively. A five-factor 20-item instrument was used that tested well for reliability and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was good for all items and domains. The five factors were: (i) Outcome expectancies; (ii) Intention; (iii) Self-efficacy; (iv) Social influences; (v) Memory. The Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index provides a reliable and valid method of assessing barriers and levers to skin self-examination. The next step is to design a theory-based intervention that can be tailored according to individual determinants to behaviour change identified by this instrument. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The effect of association between inefficient arsenic methylation capacity and demographic characteristics on the risk of skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hifza; Kay, Paul; Slack, Rebecca; Gong, Yun Yun

    2018-01-15

    This study was conducted in rural Pakistan to assess the dose-response relationship between skin lesions and arsenic exposure and their variation by demographic characteristics. The study included 398 participants (66 participants with skin lesions and 332 without) residing in six previously unstudied villages exposed to ground water arsenic in the range of iAs), total arsenic (tAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analysed to determine methylation capacity, methylation efficiency and the dose-response relationship with skin lesions. Study participants with skin lesions were found to be exposed to arsenic >10μgL -1 with a daily arsenic intake of 3.23±3.75mgday -1 from household ground water sources for an exposure duration of 10-20years. The participants with skin lesions compared to those without skin lesions showed higher levels of urinary iAs (133.40±242.48 vs. 44.24±86.48μgg -1 Cr), MMA (106.38±135.04 vs. 35.43±39.97μgg -1 Cr), MMA% (15.26±6.31 vs.12.11±4.68) and lower levels of DMA% (66.99±13.59 vs. 73.39±10.44) and secondary methylation index (SMI) (0.81±0.11 vs. 0.86±0.07). Study participants carrying a lower methylation capacity characterized by higher MMA% (OR 5.06, 95% CI: 2.09-12.27), lower DMA% (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33-1.26), primary methylation index (PMI) (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.28-1.12) and SMI (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.88) had a significantly higher risk of skin lesions compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for occupation categories. The findings confirmed that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was significantly associated with increased skin lesion risks and the effect might be modified by labour intensive occupations. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In Situ complement activation and T-cell immunity in leprosy spectrum: An immunohistological study on leprosy lesional skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Bahia El Idrissi

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae infection causes nerve damage and the condition worsens often during and long after treatment. Clearance of bacterial antigens including lipoarabinomannan (LAM during and after treatment in leprosy patients is slow. We previously demonstrated that M. leprae LAM damages peripheral nerves by in situ generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC. Investigating the role of complement activation in skin lesions of leprosy patients might provide insight into the dynamics of in situ immune reactivity and the destructive pathology of M. leprae. In this study, we analyzed in skin lesions of leprosy patients, whether M. leprae antigen LAM deposition correlates with the deposition of complement activation products MAC and C3d on nerves and cells in the surrounding tissue. Skin biopsies of paucibacillary (n = 7, multibacillary leprosy patients (n = 7, and patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL (n = 6 or reversal reaction (RR (n = 4 and controls (n = 5 were analyzed. The percentage of C3d, MAC and LAM deposition was significantly higher in the skin biopsies of multibacillary compared to paucibacillary patients (p = <0.05, p = <0.001 and p = <0.001 respectively, with a significant association between LAM and C3d or MAC in the skin biopsies of leprosy patients (r = 0.9578, p< 0.0001 and r = 0.8585, p<0.0001 respectively. In skin lesions of multibacillary patients, MAC deposition was found on axons and co-localizing with LAM. In skin lesions of paucibacillary patients, we found C3d positive T-cells in and surrounding granulomas, but hardly any MAC deposition. In addition, MAC immunoreactivity was increased in both ENL and RR skin lesions compared to non-reactional leprosy patients (p = <0.01 and p = <0.01 respectively. The present findings demonstrate that complement is deposited in skin lesions of leprosy patients, suggesting that inflammation driven by complement activation might contribute to nerve damage in the lesions

  6. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy.

  7. Effect of Acer tegmentosum bark on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gabsik; An, Duckgun; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Bumjung; Suman, Chinannai Khanita; Ham, Inhye; Choi, Ho-Young

    2016-01-11

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory condition characterized by pruritic and eczematous skin lesions that requires safe and effective pharmacological therapy. The bark of Acer tegmentosum Maxim trees has been used in Korean folk and traditional medicine to treat abscesses, surgical bleeding, liver diseases, and AD. To investigate the therapeutic effect of A. tegmentosum, on a mouse model of Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced AD. Development of AD-like skin lesions was induced by repetitive skin contact with barrier-disrupted backs of NC/Nga mice with Df body ointment, and the effects of A. tegmentosum were evaluated on the basis of histopathological skin assessment results, ear swelling, and cytokine production in the dorsal skin. The component of A. tegmentosum, salidroside, inhibited the production of TSLP in KCMH-1 cells, which indicated that its production could be pharmacologically regulated. Topical application of A. tegmentosum for 1 week after Df body ointment challenge significantly reduced ear swelling and improved dorsal skin lesions. Suppression of dermatitis by combined therapy was accompanied by a decrease in the skin level of Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, plasma levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and IgE. Induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which leads to a systemic Th2 response, was also reduced in in vivo and in vitro by A. tegmentosum and salidroside. Our findings suggest that A. tegmentosum treatment has a significant therapeutic effect on Df-induced AD-like skin lesions on NC/Nga mice through inhibition of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IgE via a mechanism that may inhibit Th2-mediated immune responses. These results suggest that A. tegmentosum and salidroside may be useful tools for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.mouret@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Dorandeu, Frédéric [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, 1 place Alphonse Laveran, Paris (France); Boudry, Isabelle [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France)

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage.

  9. A fractal analysis of skin pigmented lesions using the novel tool of the variogram technique

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    Mastrolonardo, Mario [Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, Unit of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' Ospedali Riuniti' di Foggia (Italy)]. E-mail: mariomastrolonardo@libero.it; Conte, Elio [Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, Unit of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' Ospedali Riuniti' di Foggia (Italy); Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology, TIRES-Center for Innovative Technology for Signal Detection and Processing, Bari University, 70100 Bari (Italy); Zbilut, Joseph P. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The incidence of the cutaneous malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly in the world [Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, et al. GLOBOCAN 2000: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, Version 1.0 IARC Cancer Base no. 5. Lyon: IARC Press, 2001]. The therapeutic address requires a method having high sensitivity and capability to diagnose such disease at an early stage. We introduce a new diagnostic method based on non-linear methodologies. In detail we suggest that fractal as well as noise and chaos dynamics are the most important components responsible for genetic instability of melanocytes. As consequence we introduce the new technique of the variogram and of fractal analysis extended to the whole regions of interest of skin in order to obtain parameters able to identify the malignant lesion. In a preliminary analysis, satisfactory results are reached.

  10. Properties of films obtained from biopolymers of different origins for skin lesions therapy

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    Márcia Zilioli Bellini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the origin of xanthan used, in combination with chitosan, to prepare films for the treatment of skin lesions were evaluated. The characteristics of the films obtained with xanthan commercially available for the food industry sector and xanthan originated from a fermentation process conducted in a pilot plant were compared. Results showed that the source did not strongly interfere in many of the properties of the films, such as the mechanical properties, cytotoxicity to L929 cells, absorption of simulated body fluid and culture medium, stability in water and saline solution. Hence, even though the properties of biopolymers of different sources might vary, the films prepared with two distinct types of xanthan gum could be considered as potentially safe and similar in terms of relevant characteristics considering the aimed application.

  11. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    thosis, and intraepidermal abscesses (Figs 4.23 to 4.26). In the dermis, where the inflammatory infiltrate consists of histiocytes, lymphocytes...intraepidermal abscess . See also Figures 4.39, 4.51, 4.53, and 4.54. x24 Figure 4.26 Higher magnification of intraepidermal abscess in patient described in...patient. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1992;11:820-823. 41. Azadeh B, Samad A, Ardehali S. Histological spectrum of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to

  12. Evaluation of generalized pruritus in patients without primary skin lesions in Razi Hospital

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    Jomhori P

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation that provokes the desire to scratch. It has long been recognized as a presenting or concomitant symptom of many systemic diseases. Indeed, generalized pruritus is reported to be associated with underlying diseases in 10-50 percent of cases. This study was conducted to investigate the underlying diseases in pruritic patients without primary skin lesion. Seventy-five patients with at least one-month history of pruritus with no primary skin lesions, presenting to dermatological clinics of Razi Hospital, from April 97 until December 99 were evaluated. The work up procedure consisted of medical history, physical examination, laboratory findings (CBC, ESR, blood chemistry, thyroid function tests, urinalysis, stool exam, chest X-ray and in selected cases, additional specific tests. Fifty-four patients were female, and 21 male the mean age was 45.7y±16.41, and the mean duration of pruritus, 21.8m±21. In 43 patients (75.4 percent, no abnormal finding was detected. Five patients (6.66 percent had atopy. In the remaining 27 patients (36 percent, the following abnormalities were found: Iron deficiency in 6 patients (8 percent, diabetes mellitus in 6 patients (8 percent, hyperthyroidism in 4 patients (5.33 percent, hypothyroidism in 2 patients (2.66 percent, lymphoma in 3 patients (4 percent, chronic hepatitis, hypocalcaemia, cholelithiasis, psychosis and chronic renal failure each in one patient (1.3 percent. Evaluation of patients with pruritus may be a valuable tool for early detection of underlying systemic diseases.

  13. Increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; van Kooten, P J; Thepen, T; Bihari, I C; Rutten, V P; Koeman, J P; Willemse, T

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize T cells in the skin of cats with an allergic dermatitis histologically compatible with atopic dermatitis, since T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in humans. We observed a significantly greater number of T cells in lesional skin of domestic short-haired cats with allergic dermatitis (n = 10; median age 5.8 years) than in the skin of healthy control animals (n = 10; median age 5.0 years). In the skin of the healthy control animals, one or two CD4+ cells and no CD8+ cells were found. A predominant increase of CD4+ T cells and a CD4+/CD8+ ratio (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 2.0) was found in the lesional skin of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the skin of healthy control animals could not be determined because of the absence of CD8+ cells. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis (mean +/- SD: 1.9 +/- 0.4) did not differ significantly from that in 10 healthy control animals (2.2 +/- 0.4). The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and predominance of CD4+ T cells in the lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis is comparable to that found in atopic dermatitis in humans. In addition, the observed increase of CD4+ T cells in the nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis compared to the skin of healthy cats is similar to what is seen in humans. Cytokines produced by T cells and antigen-specific T cells are important mediators in the inflammatory cascade resulting in atopic dermatitis in humans. This study is a first step to investigate their role in feline allergic dermatitis.

  14. The Histological and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S.; Ramot, Yuval; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous and often annular, cutaneous eruption. While the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 CANDLE syndrome patients by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder as well as further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe, life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  15. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy

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    Deepak M.W. Balak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. Methods: We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Results: Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Conclusions: Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients.

  16. Skin Lesions Associated with Nutritional Management of Maple Syrup Urine Disease

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    Jaraspong Uaariyapanichkul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an inborn error of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs metabolism. We report an infant with MSUD who developed 2 episodes of cutaneous lesions as a result of isoleucine deficiency and zinc deficiency, respectively. Case Presentation. A 12-day-old male infant was presented with poor milk intake and lethargy. The diagnosis of MSUD was made based on clinical and biochemical data. Management and Outcome. Specific dietary restriction of BCAAs was given. Subsequently, natural protein was stopped as the patient developed hospital-acquired infections which resulted in an elevation of BCAAs. Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica developed and was confirmed to be from isoleucine deficiency. At the age of 6 months, the patient developed severe lethargy and was on natural protein exclusion for an extended period. Despite enteral supplementation of zinc sulfate, cutaneous manifestations due to zinc deficiency occurred. Discussion. Skin lesions in MSUD patients could arise from multiple causes. Nutritional deficiency including isoleucine and zinc deficiencies can occur and could complicate the treatment course as a result of malabsorption, even while on enteral supplementation. Parenteral nutrition should be considered and initiated accordingly. Clinical status, as well as BCAA levels, should be closely monitored in MSUD patients.

  17. [Linoleic acid emulsion on the peri-lesion skin of venal ulcers. Action and cicatrizant effect. Corpus study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicas, Vicente Tormo; Rochina, Iván Julián

    2008-04-01

    The authors present a clinical and documented follow up on the peri-lesion skin in 44 venal blood vessel ulcers which were treated by a hyper-oxygenized fatty acid emulsion. All the elderly in this study belonged to the Number 3 Health Department of the Valencia Sanitary Council. This study's protocol and its data collection register received a favourable report from the Committee on Research Ethics at the "La Plana" Hospital. With a total percentage of 60 in essential linoleic fatty acid, CORPITOLINOL 60, is the emulsion which has the greatest quantity of this element so necessary for human skin. In effect, this is the essential fatty acid which has the greatest presence in human skin, besides being a vital element for skin hydration and its viability to form part of a fundamental structure: intercellular layers in the corneum layer of the epidermis. On the other hand, in the hyper-oxygenation process, this product helps the skin to obtain molecules very similar to prostaglandins land 2 which favour tissue perfusion. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate, after the application of this emulsion over a four week time period, the reduction of erythema and peri-lesion hyperkeratosis in venal blood vessel ulcers. But at the same time, as a secondary objective, this study evaluated peri-lesion skin based on other criteria such as pruritus, lesions due to scratching, or edema; this study verified whether treatment of peri-lesion skin influences the cicatrisation of wounds, as well as treatment acceptance by health professionals and patients. Incidences of erythemas and hyperkeratosis totally disappeared in 40% and 50% of those cases, respectively; in those lesions where these symptoms continued after four weeks of treatment there was a significant reduction in the degree of both erythemas and hyperkeratosis, 25% in each case. These researchers consider that good treatment of peri-lesion skin combined with a standard cure protocol, using "Urgotul" as the

  18. Standard guidelines of care: CO2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupashankar, D S

    2008-01-01

    Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. MACHINES: Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. INDICATIONS FOR CO 2 LASER: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. AESTHETIC INDICATIONS: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD) may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer's facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist's minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be discussed with the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and

  19. Standard guidelines of care: CO 2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupashankar D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. Machines : Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. Indications for CO 2 laser: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. Aesthetic indications: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. Physicians′ qualifications: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer′s facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. Facility: CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be

  20. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Marcelo Rosandiski LYRA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL are caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L. infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L. infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement. We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.

  1. Location of skin lesions in Henoch-Schönlein purpura and its association with significant renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Jessica; Vedak, Priyanka; Garza-Mayers, Anna Cristina; Hoang, Mai P; Nigwekar, Sagar U; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel IgA-predominant vasculitis. To describe adult patients with HSP and determine if the distribution of skin lesions (ie, purpura above the waist or purpura below the waist only), is a predictor of significant renal involvement at the time of the skin biopsy and the months following. A retrospective study on renal function from 72 adult patients with skin-biopsy proven HSP. Longitudinal renal data were analyzed after HSP diagnosis by using baseline renal function for comparison. Statistical analysis adjusted for sex, age, and baseline creatinine revealed a trend between HSP lesions only on the upper and lower extremities and long-term renal involvement (4.767, P = .067). Moreover, in another analysis adjusted for age and baseline creatinine, lesions located only on the upper and lower extremities significantly increased the odds of having long-term significant renal involvement (6.55, P = .049) in men. This retrospective study used patient information that was subject to selection bias. In patients with HSP, skin lesion distribution on the extremities might be predictive of significant long-term renal involvement and might be critical for risk stratification and development of personalized diagnostics and therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of thymus-dependent T cells in hexachlorobenzene-induced inflammatory skin and lung lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, CCPPC; Bloksma, N; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J; Vos, JG; van Dijk, JE

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of thymus-dependent T cells in the inflammatory skin and lung lesions and spleen effects induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated by using genetically athymic and euthymic WAG/Rij rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats with or without depletion of T cells by adult thymectomy,

  3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia masquerading as cutaneous indeterminate dendritic cell tumor: Expanding the spectrum of skin lesions in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghavi, Sanam; Curry, Jonathan L; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Patel, Keyur P; Xu, Jie; Khoury, Joseph D; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Aung, Phyu P; Gibson, Bernard R; Goodwin, Brandon P; Kelly, Brent C; Korivi, Brinda R; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Prieto, Victor G; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Tetzlaff, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematopoietic stem cell neoplasm exhibiting both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features. Cutaneous involvement by CMML is critical to recognize as it typically is a harbinger of disease progression and an increased incidence of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Cutaneous lesions of CMML exhibit heterogeneous histopathologic features that can be challenging to recognize as CMML. We describe a 67-year-old man with a 3-year history of CMML who had been managed on single-agent azacitidine with stable disease before developing splenomegaly and acute onset skin lesions. Examination of these skin lesions revealed a dense infiltrate of histiocytic cells morphologically resembling Langerhans type cells (lacking frank histopathologic atypia), and with the immunophenotype of an indeterminate cell histiocytosis (S100+ CD1a+ and langerin-). Given the history of CMML, next-generation sequencing studies were performed on the skin biopsy. These revealed a KRAS (p.G12R) mutation identical to that seen in the CMML 3 years prior, establishing a clonal relationship between the 2 processes. This case expands the spectrum for and underscores the protean nature of cutaneous involvement by CMML and underscores the importance of heightened vigilance when evaluating skin lesions of CMML patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Accuracy of SIAscopy for pigmented skin lesions encountered in primary care: development and validation of a new diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Jon D; Hunter, Judith; Hall, Per N; Watson, Anthony J; Moncrieff, Marc; Walter, Fiona M

    2010-09-25

    Diagnosing pigmented skin lesions in general practice is challenging. SIAscopy has been shown to increase diagnostic accuracy for melanoma in referred populations. We aimed to develop and validate a scoring system for SIAscopic diagnosis of pigmented lesions in primary care. This study was conducted in two consecutive settings in the UK and Australia, and occurred in three stages: 1) Development of the primary care scoring algorithm (PCSA) on a sub-set of lesions from the UK sample; 2) Validation of the PCSA on a different sub-set of lesions from the same UK sample; 3) Validation of the PCSA on a new set of lesions from an Australian primary care population. Patients presenting with a pigmented lesion were recruited from 6 general practices in the UK and 2 primary care skin cancer clinics in Australia. The following data were obtained for each lesion: clinical history; SIAscan; digital photograph; and digital dermoscopy. SIAscans were interpreted by an expert and validated against histopathology where possible, or expert clinical review of all available data for each lesion. A total of 858 patients with 1,211 lesions were recruited. Most lesions were benign naevi (64.8%) or seborrhoeic keratoses (22.1%); 1.2% were melanoma. The original SIAscopic diagnostic algorithm did not perform well because of the higher prevalence of seborrhoeic keratoses and haemangiomas seen in primary care. A primary care scoring algorithm (PCSA) was developed to account for this. In the UK sample the PCSA had the following characteristics for the diagnosis of 'suspicious': sensitivity 0.50 (0.18-0.81); specificity 0.84 (0.78-0.88); PPV 0.09 (0.03-0.22); NPV 0.98 (0.95-0.99). In the Australian sample the PCSA had the following characteristics for the diagnosis of 'suspicious': sensitivity 0.44 (0.32-0.58); specificity 0.95 (0.93-0.97); PPV 0.52 (0.38-0.66); NPV 0.95 (0.92-0.96). In an analysis of lesions for which histological diagnosis was available (n = 111), the PCSA had a significantly

  5. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, F W; Wallace, D B; Putterill, J F; Gerdes, G H

    2009-09-01

    When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin prick-like holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called "classical crocodile pox" and the newly discovered form "atypical crocodile pox". The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  6. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus

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    F.W. Huchzermeyer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin pricklike holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called ''classical crocodile pox'' and the newly discovered form ''atypical crocodile pox''. The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  7. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  8. Protective effects of B vitamins and antioxidants on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Chen, Yu; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-08-01

    An estimated 25-40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), 2000-2002, with individual-level, time-weighted measures of arsenic exposure from drinking water. A total of 14,828 individuals meeting a set of eligibility criteria were identified among 65,876 users of all 5,996 tube wells in the 25-km(2) area of Araihazar, Bangladesh; 11,746 were recruited into the study. This analysis is based on 10,628 subjects (90.5%) with nonmissing dietary data. Skin lesions were identified according to a structured clinical protocol during screening and confirmed with further clinical review. Riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E significantly modified risk of arsenic-related skin lesions. The deleterious effect of ingested arsenic, at a given exposure level, was significantly reduced (ranging from 46% reduction for pyridoxine to 68% for vitamin C) for persons in the highest quintiles of vitamin intake. Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

  9. Chemotherapeutic potential of 17-AAG against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diego M; Petersen, Antonio L O A; Celes, Fabiana S; Borges, Valeria M; Veras, Patricia S T; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2014-10-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a worldwide public health problem. The limited therapeutic options, drug toxicity and reports of resistance, reinforce the need for the development of new treatment options. Previously, we showed that 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90)-specific inhibitor, reduces L. (L.) amazonensis infection in vitro. Herein, we expand the current knowledge on the leishmanicidal activity of 17-AAG against cutaneous leishmaniasis, employing an experimental model of infection with L. (V.) braziliensis. Exposure of axenic L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes to 17-AAG resulted in direct dose-dependent parasite killing. These results were extended to L. (V.) braziliensis-infected macrophages, an effect that was dissociated from the production of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O(-2)) or inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1. The leishmanicidal effect was then demonstrated in vivo, employing BALB/c mice infected with L. braziliensis. In this model, 17-AAG treatment resulted in smaller skin lesions and parasite counts were also significantly reduced. Lastly, 17-AAG showed a similar effect to amphotericin B regarding the ability to reduce parasite viability. 17-AAG effectively inhibited the growth of L. braziliensis, both in vitro and in vivo. Given the chronicity of L. (V.) braziliensis infection and its association with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, 17-AAG can be envisaged as a new chemotherapeutic alternative for cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

  10. Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseased patients attending a dermatologic clinic: a cross-sectional study in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hussein

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far there have been no studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is noteworthy as skin lesions are strongly associated with oral lesions and could easily be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and socio-behavioural correlates of OML in skin diseased patients attending outpatient's facility of Khartoum Teaching Hospital - Dermatology Clinic, Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in Khartoum from October 2008 to January 2009. A total of 588 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 16 years, 50.3% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview of which 544 patients (mean age 37.1 ± 15.9 years, 50% females with confirmed skin disease diagnosis were included for further analyses. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria (WHO. Biopsy and smear were used as adjuvant techniques for confirmation. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher's exact test were used. Results A total of 438 OML were registered in 315 (57.9%, males: 54.6% versus females: 45.6%, p Tongue lesions were the most frequently diagnosed OML (23.3%, followed in descending order by white lesions (19.1%, red and blue lesions (11% and vesiculobullous diseases (6%. OML in various skin diseases were; vesiculobullous reaction pattern (72.2%, lichenoid reaction pattern (60.5%, infectious lesions (56.5%, psoriasiform reaction pattern (56.7%, and spongiotic reaction pattern (46.8%. Presence of OML in skin diseased patients was most frequent in older age groups (62.4% older versus 52.7% younger, p Conclusions OML were frequently diagnosed in skin diseased patients and varied systematically with age, gender, systemic condition and use of toombak. The high prevalence of OML emphasizes the importance of routine examination

  11. Treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis with intralesional injection of meglumine antimoniate: comparison of conventional technique with mesotherapy gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Mansour Nassiri; Sadr, Bardia; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Mahfar; Babakoohi, Shahab; Firooz, Alireza

    2010-09-01

    The gold standard treatment of Old World leishmaniasis, a common tropical parasitic infestation, is intralesional meglumine antimoniate injection. Mesotherapy is a new minimally invasive method of administration of variable substances to the skin. Comparison of the efficacy and adverse effects of treatment of leishmaniasis with intralesional injection of meglumine antimoniate using conventional method and mesotherapy method. Eighty-five patients with proven leishmaniasis were recruited and randomly treated by one of the two methods, either by conventional injection or by mesotherapy administration weekly. Lesion characteristics were evaluated at every treatment session as well as 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after cessation of treatment. The improvement in lesions was similar in both groups, while it was noted sooner in mesotherapy group with less amount of drug usage (P = 0.005 and 0.016 respectively). Also, patients treated with mesotherapy experienced less pain severity (P = 0.005). Mesotherapy is a safe and effective method of meglumine antimoniate injection for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and is less painful. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. CYCLO-OXYGENASE 2 IS PRESENT IN THE MAJORITY OF LESIONAL SKIN FROM PATIENTS WITH AUTOINMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The in situ immune response within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs is not well characterized. Aim: Based on the fact that the ABD immune response is considered an adaptive immune response, both an innate immune response and inflammation would be expected in these diseases. Our investigation investigates the presence of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, since this enzyme is commonly involved in innate immune responses. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC to evaluate the presence of COX-2 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by ABDs. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABDs, including 20 patients with bullous pemphigoid, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus and 12 with dermatitis herpetiformis. Results: Most ABD biopsies stained positive for COX-2 in the lesional blister and/or the dermal inflammatory infiltrate, accentuated in the upper neurovascular plexus. In BP and EPF, the COX-2 staining was also seen in the sweat glands. All controls were negative. Conclusions: We document that COX-2 is expressed in lesional skin of patients with ABDs.

  13. In Situ complement activation and T-cell immunity in leprosy spectrum: An immunohistological study on leprosy lesional skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Iyer, Anand M; Ramaglia, Valeria; Rosa, Patricia S; Soares, Cleverson T; Baas, Frank; Das, Pranab K

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection causes nerve damage and the condition worsens often during and long after treatment. Clearance of bacterial antigens including lipoarabinomannan (LAM) during and after treatment in leprosy patients is slow. We previously demonstrated that M. leprae LAM damages peripheral nerves by in situ generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Investigating the role of complement activation in skin lesions of leprosy patients might provide insight into the dynamics of in situ immune reactivity and the destructive pathology of M. leprae. In this study, we analyzed in skin lesions of leprosy patients, whether M. leprae antigen LAM deposition correlates with the deposition of complement activation products MAC and C3d on nerves and cells in the surrounding tissue. Skin biopsies of paucibacillary (n = 7), multibacillary leprosy patients (n = 7), and patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) (n = 6) or reversal reaction (RR) (n = 4) and controls (n = 5) were analyzed. The percentage of C3d, MAC and LAM deposition was significantly higher in the skin biopsies of multibacillary compared to paucibacillary patients (p = leprosy patients (r = 0.9578, pleprosy patients (p = leprosy patients, suggesting that inflammation driven by complement activation might contribute to nerve damage in the lesions of these patients. This should be regarded as an important factor in M. leprae nerve damage pathology.

  14. The causes of skin lesions in the returning travelers: with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-04-01

    Often people yearn of a greater travel adventure like a year in Africa to get away from their routine situations and locations, for a quick vacation or as a means of finding one's self, to enjoy new experiences, to learn and experience new languages, new food, and new cultures. While most people associate Sub-Saharan Africa with safaris, there are endless other possibilities for adventure. Some African countries have actual entry requirements and won't let you in unless you have proof you've been vaccinated against a specific disease. Every African country is unique in the quality of its parks and reserves, roads and other infrastructure, visitor accommodations and receptivity to tourists. Creating an itinerary and arranging travel logistics can intimidate even the most enthusiastic tourist. Others travel more nowadays for the better economy and the advancements in transportation make it easier to do so. If family members do not reside in the same country or are probably working abroad, other family members would want to visit them and would do so as frequently as their resources would allow. Visiting families and friends in different states or countries are probably the most important reasons for taking time off to travel. No doubt, travelling to different climates, cultures and environments abroad can expose to tropical infectious diseases and health risks. This review dealt with skin lesions in the returning travelers.

  15. Runaway Train: A Leaky Radiosensitive SCID with Skin Lesions and Multiple Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Børre Fevang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclease Artemis is essential for the development of T-cell and B-cell receptors and repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and a loss of expression or function will lead to a radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency with no functional T-cells or B-cells (T-B-SCID. Hypomorphic mutations in the Artemis gene can lead to a functional, but reduced, T-cell and B-cell repertoire with a more indolent clinical course called “leaky” SCID. Here, we present the case of a young man who had increasingly aggressive lymphoproliferative skin lesions from 2 years of age which developed into multiple EBV+ B-cell lymphomas, where a hypomorphic mutation in the Artemis gene was found in a diagnostic race against time using whole exome sequencing. The patient was given a haploidentical stem cell transplant while in remission for his lymphomas and although the initial course was successful, he succumbed to a serious Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 5 months after the transplant. The case underscores the importance of next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of patients with suspected severe immunodeficiency.

  16. Risk factors for saddle-related skin lesions on elephants used in the tourism industry in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Scarlett; Spohn, Olivia; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Smith, Dale A; Pearl, David L

    2015-05-19

    Lesions related to working conditions and improper saddle design are a concern for a variety of working animals including elephants. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of cutaneous lesions in anatomic regions (i.e., neck, girth, back, tail) in contact with saddle-related equipment among elephants in Thailand working in the tourism industry, and to identify potential risk factors associated with these lesions. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected between May 2007 and July 2007 on 194 elephants from 18 tourism camps across Thailand. There was a high prevalence (64.4 %; 95 % CI 57.3 - 71.2) of active lesions, most often located on the back region. Using multilevel multivariable logistic regression modelling containing a random intercept for camp we identified the following risk factors: increasing elephant age, the use of rice sacks as padding material in contact with the skin, and the provision of a break for the elephants. Working hours had a quadratic relationship with the log odds of an active lesion where the probability of an active lesion initially increased with the number of working hours per day and then declined possibly reflecting a "healthy worker" bias where only animals without lesions continue to be able to work these longer hours. While we recognize that the cross-sectional nature of the study posed some inferential limitations, our results offer several potential intervention points for the prevention of these lesions. Specifically, we recommend the following until longitudinal studies can be conducted: increased monitoring of older elephants and the back region of all elephants, working less than 6 hours per day, and the avoidance of rice sacks as padding material in contact with skin.

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in children: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a protozoal disease usually caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica and transmitted by the bite of a sandfly. It is usually characterized by a single, polymorphous lesion located in an uncovered area. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of CL among children. Materials and Methods: It was a retro-prospective study carried out over a period of 18 months in our center, in which the clinico-epidemiological features of children presenting with CL were assessed. Results: A total of 10 children (male:female - 7:3 were included in the study with the age range of 1–15 years, with a mean age of 8.8 years. Face was the most commonly affected site (n = 8, followed by neck and hands (1 each, and nodulo-ulcerative was the most common clinical type seen in nine patients. Skin smears for Leishman–Donovan (LD bodies were positive in five patients while the skin biopsy, which was done in four cases, showed the presence of LD bodies in only one patient. Conclusion: CL is a common presentation among children, especially in the endemic areas, and the clinical features are similar to the adult onset disease.

  18. Reactivity of various leishmanial antigens in a direct agglutination test and their value in differentiating post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis from leprosy and other skin conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harith, A.; Chowdhury, S.; Al-Masum, A.; Semião-Santos, S.; Das, P. K.; Akhter, S.; Vetter, J. C.; Haq, I.

    1996-01-01

    A direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) was evaluated in conditions that simulate the disease clinically or immunologically. A reference strain of Leishmania donovani (LEM 1399), and antigen preparations from Leishmania isolates from

  19. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  20. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  1. An improved strategy for skin lesion detection and classification using uniform segmentation and feature selection based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Attique Khan, Muhammad; Sharif, Muhammad; Lali, Ikram Ullah; Saba, Tanzila; Iqbal, Tassawar

    2018-02-21

    Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer with highest mortality rate. However, the annihilation in early stage implies a high survival rate therefore, it demands early diagnosis. The accustomed diagnosis methods are costly and cumbersome due to the involvement of experienced experts as well as the requirements for highly equipped environment. The recent advancements in computerized solutions for these diagnoses are highly promising with improved accuracy and efficiency. In this article, we proposed a method for the classification of melanoma and benign skin lesions. Our approach integrates preprocessing, lesion segmentation, features extraction, features selection, and classification. Preprocessing is executed in the context of hair removal by DullRazor, whereas lesion texture and color information are utilized to enhance the lesion contrast. In lesion segmentation, a hybrid technique has been implemented and results are fused using additive law of probability. Serial based method is applied subsequently that extracts and fuses the traits such as color, texture, and HOG (shape). The fused features are selected afterwards by implementing a novel Boltzman Entropy method. Finally, the selected features are classified by Support Vector Machine. The proposed method is evaluated on publically available data set PH2. Our approach has provided promising results of sensitivity 97.7%, specificity 96.7%, accuracy 97.5%, and F-score 97.5%, which are significantly better than the results of existing methods available on the same data set. The proposed method detects and classifies melanoma significantly good as compared to existing methods. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  3. Verrucous lesions arising in lymphedema and diabetic neuropathy: Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa or verrucous skin lesions on the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Eri; Asai, Jun; Okuzawa, Yasutaro; Hanada, Keiji; Nomiyama, Tomoko; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-03-01

    Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy (VSLDN) develop in areas with sensory loss in diabetic patients. Although various types of chronic stimulation, such as pressure or friction, are considered an important factor in the development of such lesions, the precise pathogenesis of VSLDN remains obscure, and there is currently no established treatment for this disease. Here, we present a case of VSLDN on the dorsum of the right foot. However, because lymphedema was also observed at the same site, this lesion could also be diagnosed as elephantiasis nostras verrucosa arising in diabetic neuropathy. The lesion was successfully treated with a combination of elastic stocking and mixed killed bacterial suspension and hydrocortisone ointment, which suggested that VSLDN might have been exacerbated by the pre-existing lymphedema. Because various types of chronic stimulation can trigger VSLDN, treatment plans should be devised on a case-by-case basis. Therefore, it is important to investigate the presence of factors that can induce or exacerbate chronic inflammatory stimulation, such as lymphedema in our case, in each patient with VSLDN. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Topical treatment of malignant and premalignant skin lesions by very low concentrations of a standard mixture (BEC) of solasodine glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, B E; Daunter, B; Evans, R A

    1991-09-01

    A cream formulation containing high concentrations (10%) of a standard mixture of solasodine glycosides (BEC) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of malignant and benign human skin tumours. We now report that a preparation (Curaderm) which contains very low concentrations of BEC (0.005%) is effective in the treatment of keratoses, basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin of humans. In an open study, clinical and histological observations indicated that all lesions (56 keratoses, 39 BCCs and 29 SCCs) treated with Curaderm had regressed. A placebo formulation had no effect on a smaller number of treated lesions. Curaderm had no adverse effect on the liver, kidneys or haematopoietic system.

  5. How accurate are measurements of skin-lesion depths on prebiopsy supine chest computed tomography for transthoracic needle biopsies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Joo Yeon; Kim, Yookyung; Shim, Sung Shine; Lee, Jin Hwa; Chang, Jung Hyun; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Rena J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of depth measurements on supine chest computed tomography (CT) for transthoracic needle biopsy (TNB). Materials and methods: We measured skin-lesion depths from the skin surface to nodules on both prebiopsy supine CT scans and CT scans obtained during cone beam CT-guided TNB in the supine (n = 29) or prone (n = 40) position in 69 patients, and analyzed the differences between the two measurements, based on patient position for the biopsy and lesion location. Results: Skin-lesion depths measured on prebiopsy supine CT scans were significantly larger than those measured on CT scans obtained during TNB in the prone position (p < 0.001; mean difference ± standard deviation (SD), 6.2 ± 5.7 mm; range, 0–18 mm), but the differences showed marginal significance in the supine position (p = 0.051; 3.5 ± 3.9 mm; 0–13 mm). Additionally, the differences were significantly larger for the upper (mean ± SD, 7.8 ± 5.7 mm) and middle (10.1 ± 6.5 mm) lung zones than for the lower lung zones (3.1 ± 3.3 mm) in the prone position (p = 0.011), and were larger for the upper lung zone (4.6 ± 5.0 mm) than for the middle (2.4 ± 2.0 mm) and lower (2.3 ± 2.3 mm) lung zones in the supine position (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Skin-lesion depths measured on prebiopsy supine chest CT scans were inaccurate for TNB in the prone position, particularly for nodules in the upper and middle lung zones.

  6. Skin Lesions in European Hibernating Bats Associated with Geomyces destructans, the Etiologic Agent of White-Nose Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, S?bastien J.; Ohlendorf, Bernd; M?hldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; G?rf?l, Tam?s; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Fr?d?ric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with si...

  7. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Sarasin, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis

  8. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daya@igr.fr; Sarasin, Alain [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis.

  9. A case of stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) with lobomycosis-like skin lesions in Kinko-wan, Kagoshima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yuko; Sasaki, Kyoko; Kashiwagi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-08-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic fungal disease caused by the etiologic agent, Lacazia loboi, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues in humans and dolphins in tropical and transitional tropical climates. An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) stranded in Kagoshima, Japan, had severe skin lesions characterized by granulomatous reactions and hyperkeratosis that were similar to those of the lobomycosis, but no fungal organism was observed in the skin lesion. In this paper, we report a stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin with lobomycosis-like lesions based on pathological examinations in Japan.

  10. A case of stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) with lobomycosis-like skin lesions in Kinko-wan, Kagoshima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Yuko; SASAKI, Kyoko; KASHIWAGI, Nobuyuki; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2015-01-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic fungal disease caused by the etiologic agent, Lacazia loboi, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues in humans and dolphins in tropical and transitional tropical climates. An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) stranded in Kagoshima, Japan, had severe skin lesions characterized by granulomatous reactions and hyperkeratosis that were similar to those of the lobomycosis, but no fungal organism was observed in the skin lesion. In this paper, we report a stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin with lobomycosis-like lesions based on pathological examinations in Japan. PMID:25866402

  11. A novel non-invasive diagnostic sampling technique for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Taslimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is important for chemotherapy and epidemiological studies. Common approaches for Leishmania detection involve the invasive collection of specimens for direct identification of amastigotes by microscopy and the culturing of promastigotes from infected tissues. Although these techniques are highly specific, they require highly skilled health workers and have the inherent risks of all invasive procedures, such as pain and risk of bacterial and fungal super-infection. Therefore, it is essential to reduce discomfort, potential infection and scarring caused by invasive diagnostic approaches especially for children. In this report, we present a novel non-invasive method, that is painless, rapid and user-friendly, using sequential tape strips for sampling and isolation of DNA from the surface of active and healed skin lesions of CL patients. A total of 119 patients suspected of suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis with different clinical manifestations were recruited and samples were collected both from their lesions and from uninfected areas. In addition, 15 fungal-infected lesions and 54 areas of healthy skin were examined. The duration of sampling is short (less than one minute and species identification by PCR is highly specific and sensitive. The sequential tape stripping sampling method is a sensitive, non-invasive and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic assays and it is suitable for field studies as well as for use in health care centers.

  12. [Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Torres, V A; Silva, C A; Correia, D; Carvalho, E M; Magalhães, A V; Macêdo, V de O

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250 mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), 20 mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

  13. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high.

  14. Fungi isolated from the skin lesions of Ghezel and Makui sheep with suspected ringworm in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Araghi – Sooreh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-dermatophytic fungi are frequently isolated on the cultures used in surveys of animals suspected of having ringworm. The present study was conducted to identify of saprophytic fungi and dermatophyte isolated from sheep with suspected ringworm in Urmia, Iran. A total of 1323 sheep from two breeds of Ghezel (n = 727 and Makui (n = 596 were examined for skin lesions. Only 4(0.035 % lesions with hair loss and scaling were found on ears of Ghezel sheep. Samples were examined microscopically by KOH and cultured ontoSabouraud’s dextrose agar and Sabouraud’s dextrose with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide, incubated at 25 and 37 ° C and examined for 4weeks. All (100% of the specimens yielded positive culture. Fungal isolates were Alternariaspp. (3 cases, 75 % and Mucor spp. (2 cases, 50%. No dermatophyte fungi were cultured from suspected ringworm lesions. Saprophytic fungi isolated in the present study may not be considered as cause of skin lesions in Ghezel sheep.

  15. T lymphocytes in the lesional skin and the levels of peripheral blood cytokines in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kökçam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the roles of tissue cellular immunity and serum levels of cytokines in the patients with plaque psoriasis treated with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate.Materials and methods: The study included 20 patients with psoriasis. Peripheral blood and biopsy samples were collected from lesional and normal skins before and after treatment. The results were compared with each other.Results: Immunohistochemical examination revealed significant elevations of CD4+, CD8+ and CD25+ T lymphocytes in the lesional tissues when compared to that in the healthy tissues and post treatment tissue (p0.05. The levels of IL–4, IL–10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 in serum were not significantly different between before and after treatment periods (p>0.05.Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there were infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ cell in the lesional skin and CD8+ T-lymphocytes were the dominant cell types. The improvement of the lesions and significant decreases in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in accordance with the treatment strongly support the hypothesis that Th lymphocytes may have prominent roles in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. However, our findings showed that sufficient T-cells still remains in the tissue, which is consistent with the chronic characteristic of the disease, and the topical treatment could not be able to prevent the activation of the disease.

  16. Late occurring lesions in the skin of rats after repeated doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Late radiation damage, characterized by atrophy and necrosis in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, has been demonstrated in both the tail and feet of rats. The incidence of necrosis increased with total dose. These total doses, in the range 72-144 Gy, were given as 4-8 treatment of 18 Gy, each dose separated from the next by an interval of 28 days. This treatment protocol minimized acute epithelial skin reactions. The same regime applied to the skin on the back of rats resulted in a very severe acute reaction occurring after the second to fifth dose of 18 Gy. This was surprising since back skin, like tail skin, is less sensitive to large single doses of radiation than that of the foot. The late radiation reaction in the foot and tail of rats are compared and contrasted with other attempts to assess late effects in rodent skin and with late changes seen in pig skin. (author)

  17. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We...... report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected...

  18. Immune Checkpoint Targets for Host-Directed Therapy to Prevent and Treat Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis encompasses a group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. These diseases range from life threatening visceral forms to self-healing cutaneous lesions, and each disease manifestations can progress to complications involving dissemination of parasites to skin or mucosal tissue. A feature of leishmaniasis is the key role host immune responses play in disease outcome. T cells are critical for controlling parasite growth. However, they can also contribute to disease onset and progression. For example, potent regulatory T cell responses can develop that suppress antiparasitic immunity. Alternatively, hyperactivated CD4+ or CD8+ T cells can be generated that cause damage to host tissues. There is no licensed human vaccine and drug treatment options are often limited and problematic. Hence, there is an urgent need for new strategies to improve the efficacy of current vaccine candidates and/or enhance both antiparasitic drug effectiveness and subsequent immunity in treated individuals. Here, we describe our current understanding about host immune responses contributing to disease protection and progression in the various forms of leishmaniasis. We also discuss how this knowledge may be used to develop new strategies for host-directed immune therapy to prevent or treat leishmaniasis. Given the major advances made in immune therapy in the cancer and autoimmune fields in recent years, there are significant opportunities to ride on the back of these successes in the infectious disease domain. Conversely, the rapid progress in our understanding about host immune responses during leishmaniasis is also providing opportunities to develop novel immunotherapy strategies that could have broad applications in diseases characterized by inflammation or immune dysfunction.

  19. mHealth App for Risk Assessment of Pigmented and Nonpigmented Skin Lesions-A Study on Sensitivity and Specificity in Detecting Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, Monique; Udrea, Andreea; Hacking, Michelle; von Braunmuehl, Tanja; Ruzicka, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    With the advent of smartphone devices, an increasing number of mHealth applications that target melanoma identification have been developed, but none addresses the general context of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer identification. In this study a smartphone application using fractal and classical image analysis for the risk assessment of skin lesions is systematically evaluated to determine its sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer along with actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease. In the Department of Dermatology, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 341 melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions were imaged using SkinVision app; 239 underwent histopathological examination, while the rest of 102 lesions were clinically diagnosed as clearly benign and not removed. The algorithm has been calibrated using the images of the first 233 lesions. The calibrated version of the algorithm was used in a subset of 108 lesions, and the obtained results were compared with the medical findings. On the 108 cases used for evaluation the algorithm scored 80% sensitivity and 78% specificity in detecting (pre)malignant conditions. Although less accurate than the dermatologist's clinical eye, the app may offer support to other professionals who are less familiar with differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. An mHealth application for the risk assessment of skin lesions was evaluated. It adds value to diagnosis tools of its type by taking into consideration pigmented and nonpigmented lesions all together and detecting signs of malignancy with high sensitivity.

  20. A cluster of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with human smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Anthony P; Nguyen, Bichchau M; Piggott, Caroline D; Lee, Robert A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2011-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is rarely seen in the United States, and the social and geographic context of the infection can be a key to its diagnosis and management. Four Somali and one Ethiopian, in U.S. Border Patrol custody, came to the United States by the same human trafficking route: Djibouti to Dubai to Moscow to Havana to Quito; and then by ground by Columbia/Panama to the United States-Mexico border where they were detained. Although traveling at different times, all five patients simultaneously presented to our institution with chronic ulcerative skin lesions at different sites and stages of evolution. Culture of biopsy specimens grew Leishmania panamensis. Soon thereafter, three individuals from East Africa traveling the identical route presented with L. panamensis CL to physicians in Tacoma, WA. We document here the association of a human trafficking route and new world CL. Clinicians and public health officials should be aware of this emerging infectious disease risk.

  1. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; Görföl, Tamás; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011) revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated.

  2. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Wibbelt

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011 revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated.

  3. Problems and complications of full-face carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for pathological lesions of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read-Fuller, Andrew M; Yates, David M; Vu, David D; Hoopman, John E; Finn, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Facial resurfacing with a CO 2 laser has been used for treatment of pathologic lesions and for cosmetic purposes. Postoperative complications and problems after laser resurfacing include infections, acneiform lesions, and pigment changes. This retrospective study describes the most common problems and complications in 105 patients and assesses postoperative pain in 38 patients. All patients received CO 2 laser resurfacing for treatment of malignant/premalignant lesions and had postoperative follow-up to assess problems and complications. Some had follow-up to assess postoperative pain. All patients had Fitzpatrick I-III skin types and underwent the same perioperative care regimen. There were 11 problems and 2 complications. Problems included infection, acneiform lesion/milia, and uncontrolled postoperative pain. Complications included hyperpigmentation. Among the postoperative pain group, 53% reported no pain and the rest had mild or moderate pain. Complications are rare. Infection and acneiform lesions/milia were the most common problems, as previously reported. Most patients do not experience postoperative pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in skin lesions, blood, nasal swabs and milk following preventive vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedeković, T; Šimić, I; Krešić, N; Lojkić, I

    2018-04-01

    Lumpy skin disease caused by Capripoxvirus is at the moment the most important threat to European cattle industry. The only way for successful control of disease is fast and efficient diagnosis and vaccination. According to EU legislation, vaccination against LDS can be conducted only after confirmation of the disease. Croatia has a special position regarding LSD-in 2016, for the first-time vaccination of the entire cattle population was conducted without an index case. The presence of vaccine viral particles was detected in milk, skin nodules, blood and nasal swabs in seven from total of eight herds. The presence of virus genome was detected in five cows from 10 up to 21-day post-vaccination. The virus was successfully isolated on cell culture from 10 up to 21-day post-vaccination from three animals. The obtained results support the need for further efforts to develop safer vaccines against LSDV. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Influence of the nutritional status in the clinical and therapeutical evolution in adults and elderly with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A G L; Brito, P D; Schubach, A O; Oliveira, R V C; Saheki, M N; Lyra, M R; Salgueiro, M M; Terceiro, B F; Pimentel, M I F; Vasconcellos, E C; Valete-Rosalino, C M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the nutritional status of adult and elderly patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL). It was conducted a longitudinal study in 68 adult and elderly patients with ATL treating at the Surveillance Leishmaniasis Laboratory at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), from 2009 to 2012. The nutritional assessment included the body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels. The clinical evolution (epithelialization and wound healing) was measured up to two years after ATL treatment. Most of the sample was composed of men (71%), adults (73%), with household income of 1-5 minimum wages (79%), and incomplete elementary school (48.5%). The predominant ATL form was cutaneous (72%), and 39% presented comorbidities, the most frequent was hypertension (30.8%). The most prevalent clinical and nutritional events were: recent decrease in food intake (23.9%); nasal obstruction (22.1%); oral ulcer (14.7%), anorexia and dysphagia (13.2% each) and odynophagia (10.3%). The total healing time was 115.00 (IR=80-230) days for skin lesions, and 120.00 (IR=104.50-223.50) days for mucous membrane lesions. Low body weight in 10%, and hypoalbuminemia in 12% of the patients have been observed. Low body weight was associated with age, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), nasal obstruction, recent decrease in food intake and hypoalbuminemia. As for serum albumin depletion, association with the ML, dyspnea, dysphagia, odynophagia, recent decrease in food intake, absence of complete healing of the skin lesions, and increased healing time for mucous membrane lesions, was observed. The ML and their events that affect the alimentary intake have been related to the impairment of the nutritional status. Additionally, serum albumin depletion negatively affected the healing of the lesions, suggesting that a nutritional intervention can increase the effectiveness of the ATL treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors

  6. A Luciferase-Expressing Leishmania braziliensis Line That Leads to Sustained Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice and Allows Monitoring of Miltefosine Treatment Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano C Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania braziliensis is the most prevalent species isolated from patients displaying cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. However, there are difficulties for studying L. braziliensis pathogenesis or response to chemotherapy in vivo due to the natural resistance of most mouse strains to infection with these parasites. The aim of this work was to develop an experimental set up that could be used to assess drug efficacy against L. braziliensis. The model was tested using miltefosine.A L. braziliensis line, originally isolated from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient, was passaged repeatedly in laboratory rodents and further genetically manipulated to express luciferase. Once collected from a culture of parasites freshly transformed from amastigotes, 106 wild type or luciferase-expressing stationary phase promastigotes were inoculated subcutaneously in young BALB/c mice or golden hamsters. In both groups, sustained cutaneous lesions developed at the site of inoculation, no spontaneous self- healing being observed 4 months post-inoculation, if left untreated. Compared to the wild type line features, no difference was noted for the luciferase-transgenic line. Infected animals were treated with 5 or 15 mg/kg/day miltefosine orally for 15 days. At the end of treatment, lesions had regressed and parasites were not detected. However, relapses were observed in animals treated with both doses of miltefosine.Here we described experimental settings for a late-healing model of cutaneous leishmaniasis upon inoculation of a luciferase-expressing L. braziliensis line that can be applied to drug development projects. These settings allowed the monitoring of the transient efficacy of a short-term miltefosine administration.

  7. Leishmaniasis in Yemen: a clinicoepidemiological study of leishmaniasis in central Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in Yemen. This study was designed to identify clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in Yemen. The study was conducted at the Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center in central Yemen. Data sourced from the medical records of 152 patients with confirmed active leishmaniasis, managed during April-August 2013, were analyzed. A total of 94.1% of patients were rural residents. Al Bayda was the most endemic governorate (59.9%). Children represented the group at highest risk (57.2%), followed by adult females (32.9%); together these groups accounted for 90.1% of all patients. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was the most prevalent form (49.3%), followed by cutaneous leishmaniasis (47.4%), and visceral leishmaniasis (3.3%). The wet ulcer was the most common type of lesion (49.7%) and the single lesion (69.4%) represented the most common presentation. All patients were ignorant of the nature of the disease, and 55.9% had a history of using "popular" treatments. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniases have significant endemicity in Yemen, especially in central areas. Al Bayda is the governorate with the highest endemicity, and rural children and women represent the populations at highest risk. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis seems to be the most prevalent form and a single wet ulcer is the most common presentation. Infected refugees may represent new foci for imported Leishmania species. Ecology, geography, climate change, cultural gender- and age-specific duties, urban night activities, and use of popular treatments are among proven risk factors. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Murine cutaneous leishmaniasis investigated by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Fernanda; de O Rocha, Daniele F; Jaeeger, Caroline F; Rocha, Francisca J S; Eberlin, Marcos N; Giorgio, Selma

    2017-09-26

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is recognized as a powerful tool to investigate the spatial distribution of untargeted or targeted molecules of a wide variety of samples including tissue sections. Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that causes different clinical manifestations in mammalian hosts. Leishmaniasis is a major public health risk in different continents and represents one of the most important neglected diseases. Cutaneous lesions from mice experimentally infected with Leishmania spp. were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS using the SCiLS Lab software for statistical analysis. Being applied to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) for the first time, MALDI-IMS was used to search for peptides and low molecular weight proteins (2-10 kDa) as candidates for potential biomarkers. Footpad sections of Balb/c mice infected with (i) Leishmania amazonensis or (ii) Leishmania major were imaged. The comparison between healthy and infected skin highlighted a set of twelve possible biomarker proteins for L. amazonenis and four proteins for L. major. Further characterization of these proteins could reveal how these proteins act in pathology progression and confirm their values as biomarkers.

  9. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

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    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  10. A case of multiple metastatic malignant melanoma with the largest lesion in the ileum and no skin lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with malignant melanoma and multiple metastases; the largest tumor was in the ileum. The patient experienced general fatigue and bloody feces for 1 month before consulting a nearby clinic. Blood tests revealed anemia, and fecal occult blood was positive, but no abnormalities were detected using gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy or the skin of the entire body. Computed tomography images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvic region, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography images of the entire body revealed multiple nodules in the ileum, left mammary gland, left thyroid, right inguinal lymph node, and on the fascia of the right thoracic area and right buttocks. The tumor in the left mammary gland was excised and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the excised tissue was positive for HMB45, melan-A, and MITF, but negative for S-100 protein. Diagnosed with melanoma with multiple metastases, the patient underwent four cycles of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV plus interferon beta chemotherapy and one cycle of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and tamoxifen (DAC-Tam chemotherapy. Two series of embolizations of the artery feeding the ileum tumors, as well as a series of plasma and red blood cell transfusions, were performed for ileum tumor hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized eight times, for a total of 204 days during the 1-year survival period before her death from respiratory failure.

  11. An overlap of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and Kimura′s disease: Successful treatment of skin lesions with cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar S Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kimura′s disease is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous masses, eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and in tissues with marked increase in Serum Ig E. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE manifests with the presence of dermal papules and nodules. Unique clinical, histopathological, and biochemical findings are noted in these individual entities. A 32-year-female presented with multiple nodules in the axillae for 2 years. Peripheral smear showed eosinophilia with AEC of 6080. Histopathological examination showed features of overlap. Antinuclear antibody immunoflorescence was was negative. CD31, CD34, and FVIII were positive in vascular component. A CT chest revealed left axillary lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated with Cryotherapy and there was complete regression of skin lesions, with no recurrence after 1 year of follow-up. ALHE and KD are common in the head and neck region, but no reports of an overlap, presenting with lesions in the axillae are available to date, to the best of our knowledge. Response of skin lesions to cryotherapy is highlighted.

  12. Miltefosine in cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.B.; Mumtaz, N.; Bari, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of oral Miltefosine in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and its comparison with the most effective standard treatment, pentavalent antimony compound. Thirty patients, 12 years of age or older clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected. Fifteen patients received orally administered Miltefosine 2.5mg/kg/day for 28 days and remaining 15 received injectable pentavalent antimony 20mg/kg/day for 28 days. Pre-treatment complete physical examination was done along with necessary laboratory investigations in all cases. These were repeated again after 2 weeks and at the end of treatment to note any deviation from the normal limits. Groups were almost matched in terms of age, weight, parasitological score. The efficacy was evaluated by ulcer size, before therapy, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Patients were followed-up at 3 and 6 months. Efficacy of two groups was statistically compared by calculating p-value by z-test. All patients completed the study without any serious complication. Lesions improved significantly and only scarring and post-inflammatory pigmentation was left. At 3 months, cure rate was 93% in group A and it was 73.33% in group B while at the end of 6 months, it was 86% and 66.6% respectively. This difference between efficacies of two groups was not found to be statistically significant (p-value >0.5). Miltefosine appears to be a safe and effective alternative to currently used therapies. The striking advantage of Miltefosine is its oral administration and it may also be helpful in regions where parasites are resistant to current agents. (author)

  13. Reappraisal of in situ immunophenotypic analysis of psoriasis skin: interaction of activated HLA-DR+ immunocompetent cells and endothelial cells is a major feature of psoriatic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, O. J.; van der Loos, C. M.; Hamerlinck, F.; Bos, J. D.; Das, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease of unknown aetiology. Many observations indicate that T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Upregulation of MHC class-II molecules on immunocompetent cells, endothelial cells and keratinocytes on lesional psoriatic skin has been

  14. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Alleviate House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by the CD206 Mannose Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Dasom Shin; Won Choi; Hyunsu Bae

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic, erythematous, and eczematous skin plaques. We previously reported that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from bee venom alleviates AD-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. However, the underlying mechanisms of PLA2 action in actopic dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that PLA...

  15. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement.

  16. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z M; Zhong, H Q; Zhai, J; Wang, C X; Xiong, H L; Guo, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo. (paper)

  17. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Jung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg, and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  18. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Baek, Hyunjung; Kang, Manho; Kim, Namsik; Lee, Seung Young; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-02-18

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE) in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  19. Acral melanocytic lesions in the United States: Prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madankumar, Reshmi; Gumaste, Priyanka V; Martires, Kathryn; Schaffer, Panta R; Choudhary, Sonal; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Arora, Harleen; Kallis, Penelope J; Patel, Shailee; Damanpour, Shadi; Sanchez, Margaret I; Yin, Natalie; Chan, Aegean; Sanchez, Miguel; Polsky, David; Kanavy, Holly; Grichnik, James M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States. We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. We prospectively examined the palms and soles of 1052 patients presenting to dermatology clinics in New York, NY, and Miami, FL, from October 2013 to April 2015. Acral melanocytic lesions were observed in 36% of our cohort. Skin-of-color patients were more likely to have acral melanocytic lesions than non-Hispanic white patients (P < .01). Acral melanocytic lesions correlated with increased mole counts, particularly on non-Hispanic white patients. The majority of lesions demonstrated benign dermoscopic patterns. We observed 2 lesions with the parallel ridge pattern in our cohort, both found to be atypical nevi on biopsy specimen. Patients often lacked awareness of the presence of their lesions. Interobserver variability in assessing dermoscopic patterns is a limitation. Melanocytic lesions of the palms and soles are common, particularly in a cohort of multiple ethnicities from the United States. Dermoscopy of acral lesions is an important clinical tool for diagnosis and management of these lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Artefactual skin lesions in children and adolescents: review of the literature and two cases of factitious purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Miller, Iben M; Benfeldt, Eva; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-01-01

    Self harm is a great diagnostic and treatment challenge. In addition, psychocutaneous conditions are rare in the pediatric population and may therefore be misdiagnosed. Dermatitis artefacta is a psychocutaneous syndrome, which is a subgroup of the general spectrum of self-inflicted skin lesions. Dermatitis artefacta encompasses an array of different clinical manifestations, including purpura. Factitious purpura has rarely been reported in children. Case report and review of the literature. We describe two Caucasian patients (9-year-old boy and 10-year-old girl) with striking purpuric lesions diagnosed as factitious purpura. The clinical lesions were similar, but the underlying psychological problems differed significantly (depression and stress). The current state of knowledge of dermatitis artefacta in children and adolescents was reviewed. The presence of purpura in children and adolescents typically causes extensive intervention programs due to the possible serious pathological consequences. The two cases demonstrate a need for a high degree of attention to psychological disturbances, lesional evolution, and distribution once the suspicion is established. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Development of Protective Agent Against Sulfur Mustard-Induced Skin Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wormser, Uri

    2001-01-01

    .... Toxicokinetic studies with male, fur-covered and hairless guinea pigs showed that SM disappeared from the skin 60 min after exposure whereas in the female, fur-covered guinea pig SM disappeared after 3 hours...

  2. Development of Protective Agent Against Sulfur Mustard-Induced Skin Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wormser, Uri

    2002-01-01

    The present study is a final report of the project. During the project we developed iodine formulation proved to be efficacious against SM in the guinea pig skin model at intervals of 15 and 30 rain between exposure and treatment...

  3. The role of skin trauma in the distribution of morphea lesions: a cross-sectional survey of the Morphea in Adults and Children cohort IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Daniel; Hsieh, Clifford; Andrew, Rachel; Martires, Kathryn; Kim, Andrew; Vasquez, Rebecca; Jacobe, Heidi

    2014-09-01

    Skin trauma may play a role in the development of morphea lesions. The association between trauma and the distribution of cutaneous lesions has never been examined to our knowledge. We sought to determine whether patients enrolled in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort exhibit skin lesions distributed in areas of prior (isotopic) or ongoing (isomorphic) trauma. This was a cross-sectional analysis of the MAC cohort. Of 329 patients in the MAC cohort, 52 (16%) had trauma-associated lesions at the onset of disease. Patients with lesions in an isotopic distribution had greater clinical severity as measured by a clinical outcome measure (mean modified Rodnan Skin Score of 13.8 vs 5.3, P = .004, 95% confidence interval 3.08-13.92) and impact on life quality (mean Dermatology Life Quality Index score 8.4 vs 4.1, P = .009, 95% confidence interval 1.18-7.50) than those with an isomorphic distribution. Most frequent associated traumas were chronic friction (isomorphic) and surgery/isotopic. Recall bias for patient-reported events is a limitation. Of patients in the MAC cohort, 16% developed initial morphea lesions at sites of skin trauma. If these findings can be confirmed in additional series, they suggest that elective procedures and excessive skin trauma or friction might be avoided in these patients. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of skin trauma in the distribution of morphea lesions: a cross-sectional survey of the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Daniel; Hsieh, Clifford; Andrew, Rachel; Martires, Kathryn; Kim, Andrew; Vasquez, Rebecca; Jacobe, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin trauma may play a role in the development of morphea lesions. The association between trauma and the distribution of cutaneous lesions has never been examined. Objective Determine whether patients enrolled in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort exhibit skin lesions distributed in areas of prior (isotopic) or ongoing (isomorphic) trauma. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of the MAC cohort. Results Of 329 patients in the MAC cohort, 52 (16%) had trauma associated lesions at the onset of disease. Patients with lesions in an isotopic distribution had greater clinical severity as measured by a clinical outcome measure (mean modified Rodnan Skin Score of 13.8 vs. 5.3, P=0.004, 95% CI=3.08-13.92) and impact on life quality (mean Dermatology Life Quality Index 8.4 vs. 4.1, P=0.009, 95% CI 1.18-7.50) than those with an isomorphic distribution. Most frequent associated trauma were chronic friction (isomorphic) and surgery/isotopic. Limitations Recall bias for patient reported events. Conclusion Sixteen percent of patients in the MAC cohort developed initial morphea lesions at sites of skin trauma. If these findings can be confirmed in additional series, they suggest that elective procedures and excessive skin trauma or friction might be avoided in these patients. PMID:24880663

  5. Expression and Localization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Nuclear Factor κB in Normal and Lesional Psoriatic Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Majken; Henningsen, Jeanette; Johansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Abnormal epidermal proliferation and differentiation characterize the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. Here we demonstrate that expression of PPARdelta mRNA and protein is markedly upregulated in psoriatic lesions and that lipoxygenase products accumulating in psoriatic lesions are potent...... activators of PPARdelta. The expression levels of NF-kappaB p50 and p65 were not significantly altered in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin. In the basal layer of normal epidermis both p50 and p65 were sequestered in the cytoplasm, whereas p50, but not p65, localized to nuclei...... in the suprabasal layers, and this distribution was maintained in lesional psoriatic skin. In normal human keratinocytes PPAR agonists neither impaired IL-1beta-induced translocation of p65 nor IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding. We show that PPARdelta physically interacts with the N-terminal Rel homology...

  6. Stereotoracic skin biopsy in non-palpable woman mammary glands lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leborgne, Francisco; Mezzera, Julieta

    1999-01-01

    Seventy stereotactic breast biopsies in non palpable lesions were performed in asintomatic patients, studied with mammography, physical examination and high-resolution ultrasonography. A 14-gauge cutting needle was used with excursion of 2 and 20 mm. in high likelihood probably benign lesions and low likelihood probably malignant lesions, not snographical evident and not less than 4 mm. in diameter. Long term follow-up or surgical correlation is available in only 46 biopsies, with 35 negative results and 11 positive results for cancer. Follow-up mammography was recommended in 34 of 35 negative results and one case showed mammographic lesion progression, a false negative result, with sensitivity 90.9% and NPV 97%. Needle wire localization and open surgery was recommended in 11 positive results, with total agreement between stereotactic core biopsy and open surgery, with specificity 100% and PPV 100%. The indication of stereotactic biopsy in non palpable lesions as an alternative to surgical biopsy in order to decrease the number of surgical biopsies with negative results and in consequence lowering costs of diagnosis of asintomatic malignant lesions, with error of 2.1% and 2.8% minor complications

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of Nonblanching, Palpable Skin Lesions With a Linear Pattern in Children With Henoch-Schönlein Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Ramelli, Vera; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2017-11-01

    Linear nonblanching skin lesions are thought to occur very rarely in patients with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. To examine the prevalence and characteristics of linear nonblanching skin lesions in children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. A prospective case series was conducted at the ambulatory practice of a hospitalist between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015, among 31 consecutive children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Thirty-one consecutive children affected with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome who were from 3.0 to 12.0 years of age (median age, 6.2 years). Children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome underwent a careful, structured skin examination established in advance with emphasis on the presence of palpable lesions with a linear pattern. Among the 31 children in the study (12 girls and 19 boys; median age, 6.2 years [range, 3.0-12.0 years]), 8 (26%) had linear lesions on the legs, groin, waistline, wrists, or forearms. Patients with or without linear lesions did not differ significantly with respect to sex, age, and cutaneous, abdominal, articular, or renal involvement. This study illustrates the prevalence and characteristics of linear skin lesions in patients with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Patients with symptoms suggestive of this vasculitis should be evaluated for the presence of nonblanching, palpable lesions with a linear pattern.

  8. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  9. Leishmaniasis in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leishmaniasis is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis as it is a fatal disease in the absence of treatment. The clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis and control of the infection are influenced by the parasite-host relationship. The role of cellular immune responses of the Th1 type in the protection against disease in experimental and human leishmaniasis is well established. TNF-α has been implicated in cytokine-induced macrophage activation and tissue granuloma formation, two activities linked to control of intracellular visceral infection caused by Leishmania donovani. Anti- tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α strategies have had a marked and substantial impact in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, however the clinical use of TNF-α antagonists has been accompanied by increased reporting of infections. Here we report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis in a patient treated for a long period of time with human anti TNF-α monoclonal antibody, adalimumab. Due to the low incidence rate of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis, a systematic screening for leishmaniasis in all patients treated with biologics may be not recommended. However, for those patients living at high risk of leishmaniasis exposure, a periodical serological monitoring should be performed during therapy with anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies.

  10. Clinical and Demographic Stratification of Test Performance: A Pooled Analysis of Five Laboratory Diagnostic Methods for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K.; Ramos, Ana P.; Espinosa, Diego; Valencia, Braulio M.; Veland, Nicolas; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated performance characteristics of five diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients who came to the Leishmania Clinic of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, were enrolled in the study. Lesion smears, culture, microculture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and leishmanin skin test (LST) were performed. A total of 145 patients with 202 lesions were enrolled: 114 patients with 161 lesions fulfilled criteria for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sensitivity and specificity were 57.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.2–65.4%) and 100.0% for culture, 78.3% (95% CI = 71.9–84.7%) and 100.0% for microculture, 71.4% (95% CI = 64.4–78.4%) and 100.0% for smears, 78.2% (95% CI = 70.6–85.8%) and 77.4% (95% CI = 62.7–92.1%) for LST, and 96.9% (95% CI = 94.2–99.6%) and 65.9% (95% CI = 51.4–80.4%) for PCR. PCR was more sensitive than the other assays (P < 0.001). Sensitivities of culture, smears, and LST varied by lesion duration and appearance. PCR offers performance advantages over other assays, irrespective of patient age, sex, lesion duration, or appearance. That clinical factors influence performance of non-molecular assays offers clinicians a patient-focused approach to diagnostic test selection. PMID:20682880

  11. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  12. Leishmaniasis cutánea difusa en un paciente con sida Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pérez

    2006-12-01

    .Objective: A patient with a leishmaniasis-Aids co-infection was presented and discussed.
    Methods and results: A 29-year -old soldiier, coming from the Province of San José del Guaviare, Colombia, complained of a weight loss of 18 kgs in the previous ten months as well as a two-month-old cutaneous leision. Elisa and Western blot tests were positive for HIV infection. LT CD4 were 92/mm3. He had a generalized erythematous, psoriasiform dermal lesion,which, upon biopsy, revealed an abundance of phagocytosed microorganisms that stained black with Gomory's technique. Disseminated histoplasmosis was diagnosed. The patient received anti-retroviral therapy and itraconazole, without regression of the lesions. Amphotericin B was beneficial but the lesions recurred several months later, more numerous, nodular and with occurrence in the oral mucosa. Nine months after the initial diagnosis additional skin biopsies and review of the previous biopsies established that the patient had diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. The leishmania parasite did not grow in culture. Miltefosine produced marked improvement, but the lesions recurred and were cured finally with 52 Glucantime® injections administered for two months. Presently, the patient remains in good condition 21 months after diagnosis of leishmaniasis.
    Conclusions: Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis may be a common clinical manifestation when leishmaniasis and AIDS co-occur. Its treatment is difficult and must include an antiparasitic drug as well as prophylactic,and anti-retroviral therapy. Leishmania amastigotes typically are not Gomory-positive and can be differentiated from Histoplasma by morphology, immunohistochemistry, culture, antibody-specific response and PCR. The leishmaniasis-AIDS co-infection enhances invasive capacity for both causal microorganisms. Increasing case numbers can be expected in Colombia, due to the high frequency of both diseases.

  13. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer: reluctant response to antimonial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac-Márquez Angélica Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the bacterial flora present in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico using conventional culture methods (11 patients, and an immunocolorimetric detection of pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (15 patients. Prevalence of bacteria isolated by culture methods was 90.9% (10/11. We cultured, from chiclero's ulcers (60%, pathogenic bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus (20%, S. pyogenes (1.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.6%, Morganella morganii (1.6%, and opportunist pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. (20.0%, Enterobacter spp. (20%, and Enterococcus spp. (20%. We also cultured coagulase-negative staphylococci in 40% (4/10 of the remaining patients. Micrococcus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted the bacterial genuses more frequently isolated in the normal skin of patients with chiclero's ulcer and healthy individuals used as controls. We also undertook another study to find out the presence of S. pyogenes by an immunocolorimetric assay. This study indicated that 60% (9/15 of the ulcerated lesions, but not normal controls, were contaminated with S. pyogenes. Importantly, individuals with purulent secretion and holding concomitant infections with S. pyogenes, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. morganii, and E. durans took longer to heal Leishmania (L. mexicana infections treated with antimonial drugs. Our results suggest the need to eliminate bacterial purulent infections, by antibiotic treatment, before starting antimonial administration to patients with chiclero's ulcer.

  14. Porcine skin visible lesion thresholds for near-infrared lasers including modeling at two pulse durations and spot sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, C P; Polhamus, G D; Roach, W P; Stolarski, D J; Schuster, K J; Stockton, K L; Rockwell, B A; Chen, Bo; Welch, A J

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of such systems as the airborne laser and advanced tactical laser, high-energy lasers that use 1315-nm wavelengths in the near-infrared band will soon present a new laser safety challenge to armed forces and civilian populations. Experiments in nonhuman primates using this wavelength have demonstrated a range of ocular injuries, including corneal, lenticular, and retinal lesions as a function of pulse duration. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) laser safety standards have traditionally been based on experimental data, and there is scant data for this wavelength. We are reporting minimum visible lesion (MVL) threshold measurements using a porcine skin model for two different pulse durations and spot sizes for this wavelength. We also compare our measurements to results from our model based on the heat transfer equation and rate process equation, together with actual temperature measurements on the skin surface using a high-speed infrared camera. Our MVL-ED50 thresholds for long pulses (350 micros) at 24-h postexposure are measured to be 99 and 83 J cm(-2) for spot sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 mm diam, respectively. Q-switched laser pulses of 50 ns have a lower threshold of 11 J cm(-2) for a 5-mm-diam top-hat laser pulse.

  15. Skin lesions over the pocket area that may mimic cardiac implantable electronic device infection: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Plakoutsi, Sofia; Florou, Elizabeth; Bechlioulis, Aris

    2018-05-21

    The early and correct diagnosis of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is critical given that early aggressive treatment with complete removal of the system along with antimicrobial therapy dramatically improves outcomes. Pocket infection manifested by local signs of inflammation is the most common form of CIED infections. Conditions mimicking pocket infection have been described in the literature. These include various types of malignancy and rarely allergic reactions/contact dermatitis to pacemaker compounds. We aimed to describe skin lesions and disorders over the pocket area that mimic CIED infection. We present a series of 5 cases with skin lesions that mimic pocket infection. We document these cases with corresponding photographs. Most of them have not been described in this setting. We report the following cases of conditions that proved not to be CIED infection: One case of superficial cellulitis, one case of herpes zoster over the pocket area, one case of spontaneous bruising over the pocket a long time after implantation in a patient taking oral anticoagulation, and 2 cases of contact dermatitis due to prolonged postoperative application of povidone iodine. All cases had favorable outcome after conservative treatment and no CIED infection was developed during follow-up. Clinicians should be aware of rare conditions that mimic CIED infection. Incorrect diagnosis of these disorders may falsely lead to CIED extraction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin lesions diagnostics by on diffuse reflection spectres using computational algorithms: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Guillen, E.E.; Delgado-Atencio, J.A.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Villanueva-Luna, E.; Gutierrez-Delgado, F.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of diffuse reflection spectrum on human skin in the spectral range from 400nm-1000nm using an optical fiber spectrometers is a non-invasive technique widely used to study the optical parameters of this tissue, provides information about the absorption and scattering properties of light that can be employed to study the morphology and physiology of the tissue and to detect and diagnose skin diseases in early stages. In this paper a computational algorithm for the selection of the most important attributes of diffuse reflection spectra of human skin obtained with an experimental system that basically consists of a spectrometer, a white light source and bifurcated fiber optic probe that allows send and collect light. To classify the spectral signal was designed a Matlab2006 graphical interface which use support vector machines and algorithm for selecting attributes that allows to achieve a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 80% and 85% of accuracy in the classification. (Author)

  17. Skin and skeletal system lesions of european pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) from natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić-Kovačević, Sanja; Ozvegy, József; Krstić, Nikola; Rusvai, Miklós; Jakab, Csaba; Stanimirović, Zoran; Becskei, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals.

  18. Upregulation of proinflammatory genes in skin lesions may be the cause of keloid formation (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DONG, XIANGLIN; MAO, SHAOLIN; WEN, HAO

    2013-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that the main cause behind keloid formation may be keloid fibroblast abnormalities, which are closely associated with the microenvironment of the keloid lesion. The post-traumatic and chronic inflammation of the keloid lesion area suggest that inflammatory mediators play an important role in the keloid microenvironment and are crucial for keloid fibroblast abnormalities. In this study, we hypothesized that the mechanism underlying keloid formation may involve the continuous upregulation of proinflammatory gene expression in keloid lesions. This hypothesis may explain the inflammatory response, invasive growth and recurrence following resection of keloids, as well as the selective localization of keloids in specific parts of a patient’s body and the differences in localization among different patients. PMID:24649037

  19. Improvement of psoriasis-associated arthritis and skin lesions by treatment with molecular hydrogen: A report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Toru; Ichikawa, Miki; Sato, Bunpei; Shibata, Shinji; Hara, Yuichi; Naritomi, Yuji; Okazaki, Ken; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Koyanagi, Samon; Hara, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tetsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is caused by infiltrating lymphocytes and associated cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17. Effective treatments, including pathogenesis-based biological agents against psoriasis, are currently under development. Although the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been investigated, it remains to be fully elucidated; ROS-targeted therapeutic strategies are also lacking at present. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess whether H2, a ROS scavenger, has a therapeutic effect on psoriasis-associated inflammation by reducing hydroxyl radicals or peroxynitrite in the immunogenic psoriasis cascade. Three methods were used to administer H2: Drop infusion of saline containing 1 ppm H2 (H2-saline), inhalation of 3% H2 gas, and drinking of water containing a high concentration (5-7-ppm) of H2 (high-H2 water). Treatment efficacy was estimated using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) system, based on C-reactive protein levels, and the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score, determined at baseline and following each H2 treatment. Furthermore, levels of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-17 were analyzed. The DAS28 and PASI score of the three patients decreased during H2 treatment, regardless of the administration method. The psoriatic skin lesions almost disappeared at the end of the treatment. IL-6 levels decreased during H2 treatment in Case 1 and 2. IL-17, whose concentration was high in Case 1, was reduced following H2 treatment, and TNFα also decreased in Case 1. In conclusion, H2 administration reduced inflammation associated with psoriasis in the three cases examined and it may therefore be considered as a treatment strategy for psoriasis-associated skin lesions and arthritis.

  20. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dina Jarjis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM, a national fast-track referral system (FTRS was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1% were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4% of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5% patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions.

  1. The dependence of skin lesions on the depth-dose distribution from β-irradiation of people in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanova, A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study was made of conditions of exposure of 56 Chernobyl victims who suffered skin radiation lesions. The most typical conditions were experimentally reconstructed to investigate specific characteristics of dose distribution to the skin according to depth for different exposure conditions. Absorbed doses at depths of 7 mg cm -2 and 150 mg cm -2 were calculated on the basis of measurements with multilayer skin dosemeters. Patients were classified into four groups. Dosimetric characteristics for each group were compared with clinical pictures to establish critical factors in the occurrence of lesions. It was demonstrated that depth-dose distribution of β-radiation to the skin is of great influence not only for early effects of radiation but also for later effects. Radiation lesions in the skin led to death if the area of the lesions exceeded about 50% total body surface, and if doses to the skin were about 200-300 Gy at 7 mg cm -2 and more than about 30 Gy at 150 mg cm -2 . (author)

  2. The effects of tungstate on skin lesions caused by PPD in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Gug; Lee, Sang-Il

    2008-04-01

    P-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been used as one of the ingredients in hair dye. The purpose of this study is to investigate the skin toxicity of PPD application in a tungstate-induced xanthine oxidase (XO) deficient animal model. PPD (2.5% PPD in 2% NH4OH) was applied to rat skin (25 mg/16.5 cm2) five times every other day in rats fed a standard diet (SD) or a tungstate supplemented diet (TD). The skin structure in the SD and the TD group was intact, whereas XO activity was not detected in the TD group during experimental periods. Furthermore, there were no differences between the SD and the TD group in dermal reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes. In these experimental conditions, although XO activity was not detected in the applied PPD rats fed a tungstate supplemented diet (PTD) group, it showed more severe tissue damage compared with the applied PPD rats fed a standard diet (PSD) group. In addition, the PTD group showed higher increased rates of ROS scavenging enzyme activity and lipid peroxide (LPO) content, and decreased glutathione (GSH) content than in the PSD group. In conclusion, the increase of PPD dermal toxicity in tungstate-induced XO deficient animals may be due to excessive ROS via ROS imbalance during PPD skin application.

  3. Non-respiratory tuberculosis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis after penetrating lesions of the skin : five case histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JW; van Altena, R

    2000-01-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily transmitted from person to person via the respiratory route. We describe five cases of patients who developed tuberculosis at the site of a skin injury: three after being treated repeatedly with local corticosteroids via intramuscular injections, and two who cut themselves

  4. Comparative histopathological study of sporotrichosis and American tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs from Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L H M; Quintella, L P; Santos, I B; Oliveira, R V C; Menezes, R C; Figueiredo, F B; Schubach, T M P

    2010-07-01

    Pyogranulomatous lesions from 80 dogs with sporotrichosis and 26 dogs with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) were compared microscopically in order to identify features that would support the diagnostic suspicion and direct the subsequent search for the aetiological agent of either infection. Odds ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated in order to evaluate the impact of the microscopical findings on the diagnosis of either disease. Lesions with well-formed granulomata were 14 times more likely to be due to sporotrichosis than ATL. Marked neutrophil infiltration into granulomata was 12.26 times more likely to be associated with sporotrichosis when compared with lesions having mild neutrophilic infiltration. Absence of lymphocytes and macrophages in the peripheral infiltrate was associated with a 9.71 and 4.93 higher chance, respectively, of being sporotrichosis rather than ATL compared with lesions where these cells were present. Lesions with a perivascular, perifollicular and interstitial peripheral inflammatory infiltrate were 5.48 times more likely to be due to sporotrichosis than ATL when compared with lesions with a diffuse peripheral infiltrate. Histopathological analysis may therefore contribute to the diagnosis of sporotrichosis or ATL skin lesions in dogs since this method permits the identification of features that direct the diagnostic suspicion, thus facilitating the search for the aetiological agent in histological sections, permitting the precise request of subsequent tests and thereby reducing costs and time taken to achieve a definitive diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate therapy. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a Microculture Method for Isolation of Leishmania Parasites from Cutaneous Lesions of Patients in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K.; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Espinosa, Diego; Arevalo, Jorge; Adaui, Vanessa; Tulliano, Gianfranco; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Low, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional culture of Leishmania spp. is labor intensive and has poor sensitivity. We evaluated a microculture method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in consecutive patients presenting to the Leishmaniasis Clinic at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru, for evaluation of skin lesions. Lesion aspirates were cultured in duplicate and parallel in traditional culture tubes containing modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium or Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (10% RPMI) and in 70-μl capillary tubes containing a mixture of lesion aspirate and 10% RPMI. For sensitivity analysis, the consensus standard was considered to be a positive result in any two of the following four tests: Giemsa-stained lesion smear, culture, kinetoplast DNA PCR, or leishmanin skin test. The outcome measures were sensitivity and time to culture positivity. Forty-five patients with 62 skin lesions were enrolled in the study, of which 53 lesions fulfilled the consensus criteria for a final diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Of these 53 lesions, 39 were culture positive: 38 in capillary tubes, 29 in traditional culture tubes with modified NNN medium, and 19 in traditional culture tubes with 10% RPMI medium. The sensitivity of microculture was 71.7%, versus 54.7% for traditional culture with NNN (P, 0.038) and 35.8% with 10% RPMI (P, microculture, 5.2 days in NNN, and 6 days in 10% RPMI (P, 0.009). We have demonstrated that microculture is a more sensitive and time-efficient means of isolating Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions than traditional culture. PMID:17881557

  6. Evaluation of a microculture method for isolation of Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions of patients in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Espinosa, Diego; Arevalo, Jorge; Adaui, Vanessa; Tulliano, Gianfranco; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Low, Donald E

    2007-11-01

    Traditional culture of Leishmania spp. is labor intensive and has poor sensitivity. We evaluated a microculture method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in consecutive patients presenting to the Leishmaniasis Clinic at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru, for evaluation of skin lesions. Lesion aspirates were cultured in duplicate and parallel in traditional culture tubes containing modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium or Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (10% RPMI) and in 70-microl capillary tubes containing a mixture of lesion aspirate and 10% RPMI. For sensitivity analysis, the consensus standard was considered to be a positive result in any two of the following four tests: Giemsa-stained lesion smear, culture, kinetoplast DNA PCR, or leishmanin skin test. The outcome measures were sensitivity and time to culture positivity. Forty-five patients with 62 skin lesions were enrolled in the study, of which 53 lesions fulfilled the consensus criteria for a final diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Of these 53 lesions, 39 were culture positive: 38 in capillary tubes, 29 in traditional culture tubes with modified NNN medium, and 19 in traditional culture tubes with 10% RPMI medium. The sensitivity of microculture was 71.7%, versus 54.7% for traditional culture with NNN (P, 0.038) and 35.8% with 10% RPMI (P, microculture, 5.2 days in NNN, and 6 days in 10% RPMI (P, 0.009). We have demonstrated that microculture is a more sensitive and time-efficient means of isolating Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions than traditional culture.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Valencene (VAL isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD.

  8. Reduction of regulatory T cells in skin lesions but not in peripheral blood of patients with systemic scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Kretz, C C; Ruland, V; Stumpf, C; Haust, M; Hartschuh, W; Hartmann, M; Enk, A; Suri-Payer, E; Oberle, N; Krammer, P H; Kuhn, A

    2011-08-01

    To determine the frequency and suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and their association with clinical parameters in patients with systemic scleroderma (SSc). Peripheral blood from 25 patients with SSc, 15 patients with localised scleroderma (LS) and 29 healthy controls (HC) was studied. Analysis of CD4(+) forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) and CD4(+)CD25(++)Foxp3(+) T(reg) subpopulations was carried out by flow cytometry and cell proliferation was quantified by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Quantitative analysis of T(reg) was further performed in skin biopsies from 17 patients with SSc and 21 patients with LS using anti-CD4 and anti-Foxp3 monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemistry. The frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) and CD4(+)CD25(++)Foxp3(+) T(reg) in peripheral blood from patients with SSc was not significantly different from that of patients with LS or HC. The suppressive capacity of CD4(+)CD25(++) T(reg) in SSc was also found to be similar to that of HC. Phenotypic and functional data revealed no significant difference between the limited or diffuse form of SSc. Moreover, therapy with bosentan showed no significant effect on the frequency of T(reg) during the course of the disease. However, the frequency of T(reg) in skin lesions from patients with SSc or LS, determined as the percentage of CD4(+) cells expressing Foxp3 in the inflammatory infiltrate, was significantly reduced compared with other inflammatory skin diseases. These results indicate that although the authors found no defect in the frequency or function of peripheral T(reg) subpopulations, the reduction of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) in the skin of patients with SSc may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  9. Influence of laser wavelength on the thermal responses of port wine stain lesions in light, moderate and heavy pigmented skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Chen, B.; Wu, W.J.; Ying, Z.X.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser surgery for port wine stain (PWS) was studied by local non-equilibrium theory. • Wavelength selection in laser surgery under various skin pigmentation was explored. • High pigmented skin prefers to 585 nm rather then 595 nm. • Dual-wavelength laser (585/595 + 1064 nm) has better clinic effect than single one. • Deep buried blood vessels can be damaged by 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser. - Abstract: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) in visible band (e.g. 585 or 595 nm) together with cryogen spray cooling has become the golden standard for treatment of vascular malformation such as port wine stain (PWS). However, due to the limited energy penetration depth of the PDL, deeply buried blood vessels are likely to survive from the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG laser in near infrared (1064 nm) has great potential in the laser treatment of PWS due to its deeper penetration depth. In this study, the influence of laser wavelength in treating PWS lesions with various melanin concentrations in epidermis was theoretically investigated by a two-temperature model following the local thermal non-equilibrium theory of porous media. The results showed that deeply buried blood vessels can be coagulated by dual-wavelength laser combing 585 or 595 nm with 1064 nm laser. Furthermore, the therapeutic results by dual-wavelength laser were highly related to the melanin concentration in epidermis. In the light and moderate pigmented skin, the 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser showed better treatment effect in treating PWS with deeply-buried blood vessels than of 585/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser. For a high pigmented skin, the 585/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser showed better treatment effect than 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser.

  10. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  11. [Blunt trauma with bullet-proof vests. Skin lesions are no reliable predictor of injury severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, D; Illert, B; Bohrer, S; Richter, C; Woelfl, C

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that so-called bullet-proof vests offer protection against a wide range of penetrating trauma, but their protection against blunt trauma is less well understood. Fast projectiles may result in hematomas and contusions behind the armour. We report a traffic accident involving a young soldier wearing a ballistic protection vest resulting in a right thoracoabdominal blunt trauma leading to a confined liver compression rupture. As nearly no skin marks were detectable, we point out that every emergency department surgeon should be very suspicious if a patient wore a ballistic vest at the time of the accident--there may be no skin marks despite severe intra-abdominal trauma. Our patient recovered following hypotensive ICU treatment, thrombocyte mobilization, and factor VIIa substitution.

  12. Simulating light transport through skin for color prediction of port wine stain lesions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tom; Wright, Philip A.; Chappell, Paul H.

    2012-11-01

    A survey of the literature is presented regarding the simulation of port wine stain (PWS) skin color. Knowledge of PWS features, such as the depths and diameters of affected vessels, is essential for informing laser treatment. These may be determined through the inverse application of a skin model. The techniques which have been applied to achieve this are analyzed in detail. Radiative transfer (RT) is found to be the preferred method of simulation. By far the most common approximations to RT are the diffusion approximations, which have been applied successfully in the past and Monte Carlo techniques, which are now the methods of choice. As the requirements for improvement of laser treatment on an individual basis continues, the needs for further work towards accurate estimations of individual optical coefficients and robust, flexible simulation techniques are identified.

  13. Proliferation of protease-enriched mast cells in sarcoptic skin lesions of raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviana, D; W Harjanti, D; Otsuka, Y; Horii, Y

    2004-07-01

    Skin sites, tongue, lung, liver, jejunum and rectum from two raccoon dogs with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation and five normal (control) raccoon dogs were examined in terms of the distribution, proteoglycan properties and protease activity of mast cells. Infestation with S. scabiei caused a significant increase in the number of dermal mast cells. While the number of mast cells (average +/- standard deviation) in specimens of skin from the dorsum, dorsal neck, dorsal hind foot and dorsal fore foot was 40.0 +/- 19.8/mm2 in control animals, it was 236.1 +/- 58.9/mm2 in the skin of mange-infested animals. Histochemical analysis revealed the glycosaminoglycan, heparin, within the mast cells of all organs examined in both control and affected animals. Enzyme-histochemical detection of serine proteases demonstrated an increase in mast-cell-specific protease activity (i.e., chymase and tryptase) in the skin of infested animals. The percentage of mast cells demonstrating chymase activity was 53.0 +/- 27.4% in control animals and 73.8 +/- 19.4% in mite-infested animals. The corresponding results for tryptase activity were 53.5 +/- 25.2% and 89.4 +/- 9.8%. Increases in mast cell chymase or tryptase activity, or both, were also observed within other organs of the infected animals, but the total number of mast cells found at such sites (with the exception of liver and ventrolateral pinna) did not differ from those of control animals. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Radiation exposure to patient's skin during percutaneous coronary intervention for various lesions, including chronic total occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furui, Shigeru; Kohtake, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Kozuma, Ken; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Isshiki, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    Radiation skin injuries have been reported as a result of various procedures, so in the present study the patients' entrance skin dose (ESD) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was evaluated. ESDs were assessed during 97 procedures (13 for chronic total occlusion (CTO), 14 for multivessel stenoses, 22 for single-vessel multiple stenoses, and 48 for single stenosis). The patients wore jackets that had 48 or 52 radiosensitive indicators placed on the back during the PCI procedures, with 8 other indicators placed on both upper arms. After the procedure, the color of the indicators was analyzed with a color measuring instrument, and the patients' ESDs were calculated from the color difference of the indicators. The average maximum ESDs of the patients were 4.5±2.8 Gy (median: 4.6 Gy) for CTO, 2.3±0.7 Gy (median: 2.4 Gy) for multi-vessel stenoses, 1.8±1.0 Gy (median: 1.5 Gy) for single-vessel multiple stenoses, and 1.4±0.9 Gy (median: 1.2 Gy) for single stenosis. Skin injury can occur during PCI, especially for CTO, so it is important to estimate each patient's ESD and attempt to reduce it. (author)

  15. A current perspective on leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Clem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many challenges facing the successful control and eradication of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is still endemic in many poverty stricken and war torn areas. Through the use of an extensive literature review, this article examined the global disease burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Surveillance and control measures for leishmaniasis being used by the World Health Organization were also discussed in this article. Finally, potential new treatments and possible vaccines for leishmaniasis were reviewed in this article.

  16. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Talhari, Carolina; García Bustos, María F; Rosales, Tamara; Villamil-Gomez, Wilmer E; Marquez, Marilianna; Pérez Alvarez, Alexandra M; Tálamo Sánchez, Alejandra I; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2017-12-01

    Infant and young child skin diseases are among the most common features of morbidity throughout the tropics. Because the skin is directly exposed to the environment, it is considerably affected by climatic and local conditions such as vectors and microorganisms, as in the case of leishmaniasis. In America the observed magnitude of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children has led to the study of increased risk of exposure of this group due to the possibility of peri- and intradomiciliary transmission. The present review pretends to make a concrete approach all through the broad and main figures of this parasitic disease, including the clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, in order to be used as a practical source of reference for pediatricians leading with tropical cutaneous pathology in the region. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Nonaggressive systemic mastocytosis (SM) without skin lesions associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis shows unique features versus other indolent SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Zanotti, Roberta; González-de-Olano, David; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Vega, Arantza; Matito, Almudena; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Morgado, José Mário; Perbellini, Omar; García-Montero, Andrés; De Matteis, Giovanna; Teodósio, Cristina; Rossini, Maurizio; Jara-Acevedo, María; Schena, Donatella; Mayado, Andrea; Zamò, Alberto; Mollejo, Manuela; Sánchez-López, Paula; Cabañes, Nieves; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) without skin lesions (ISMs(-)) shows a higher prevalence in males, lower serum baseline tryptase levels, and KIT mutation more frequently restricted to bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MCs) than ISM with skin lesions (ISMs(+)). Interestingly, in almost one-half of ISMs(-) patients, MC-mediator release episodes are triggered exclusively by insects. We aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory features of ISMs(-) associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis (insectISMs(-)) versus other patients with ISM. A total of 335 patients presenting with MC activation syndrome, including 143 insectISMs(-), 72 ISMs(-) triggered by other factors (otherISMs(-)), 56 ISMs(+), and 64 nonclonal MC activation syndrome, were studied. Compared with otherISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, insectISMs(-) cases showed marked male predominance (78% vs 53% and 46%; P < .001), a distinct pattern of MC-related symptoms, and significantly lower median serum baseline tryptase levels (22.4 vs 28.7 and 45.8 μg/L; P ≤ .009). Moreover, insectISMs(-) less frequently presented BM MC aggregates (46% vs 70% and 81%; P ≤ .001), and they systematically showed MC-restricted KIT mutation. ISMs(-) patients with anaphylaxis triggered exclusively by insects display clinical and laboratory features that are significantly different from other ISM cases, including other ISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, suggesting that they represent a unique subgroup of ISM with a particularly low BM MC burden in the absence of adverse prognostic factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of skin lesions from sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cassio Porto; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Polarized M2 macrophages in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Montassier, Hélio José; André, Marcos Rogério; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the skin (nasal surface and ear regions), lymph nodes (popliteal and pre-scapular), spleen and liver of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in order to investigate the relationship between the parasite load measured as DNA copy number of Alpha gene of DNA polymerase of Leishmania infantum by quantitative PCR and the number of M2 macrophages by immunohistochemistry. A set of 29 naturally infected dogs from an endemic area for VL were sampled and another set of six dogs negative for VL and from a non-endemic area were analyzed as the control group (C). The spleen presented the highest number of Leishmania DNA copies, with significant differences between the groups G1 and G2 (with and without skin lesions, respectively). The M2 phenotype immunostaining predominated among the macrophages in granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates of samples from the skin, lymph nodes and spleens examined. The presence of M2 macrophages in dogs from infected group differed significantly from the control group, in all organs analyzed, excepted liver. The highest proportion of M2 macrophages coincided with the highest parasitism loads found in more susceptible organs of VL dogs, even in the skin, considered a more resistant organ, while the liver showed low parasitism load and low immunostaining for M2 macrophages with no significant differences between infected and negative groups. It was concluded that the predominance of M2 phenotype in VL dogs favored the multiplication of Leishmania infantum in organs of dogs that are more susceptible to Leishmania infection, as skin, lymph nodes and spleen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K

    1999-01-01

    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...

  1. PDGFRa amplification in multiple skin lesions of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: A clue for intimal sarcoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osio, Amélie; Vignon-Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Pedeutour, Florence; Le Maignan, Christine; Koskas, Fabien; Lebbé, Célèste; Janin, Anne; Battistella, Maxime

    2017-05-01

    A 62-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man was admitted for multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules on his lower limbs, corresponding to an undifferentiated proliferation of spindle and pleomorphic cells, with irregular nuclei and numerous mitoses. The tumor cells were negative for a large panel of immunohistochemical markers, except CD10. MDM2 immunohistochemical staining was also negative, leading to the diagnosis of Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte contre le Cancer grade III undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). Array-comparative genomic hybridization showed a highly complex karyotype, with amplification of the 4q12 region, an area that contains only the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRa) gene. This amplification of PDFGRa, molecular hallmark of intimal sarcoma (IS), led to the diagnosis of skin IS metastasis. A positron emission tomography showed a hypermetabolic mass protruding in the preaortic area, consistent with the diagnosis of aortic IS. Our study shows that a rare differential diagnosis in peripheral UPS can be IS skin metastasis, and underlines the importance of molecular analyses in UPS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Laminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake : skin lesions and biochemical findings : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yeruham

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sudden addition of a large quantity of readily fermentable carbohydrate to the feed ration of pregnant heifers are described. Clinical and pathological changes caused by the resulting disease were confined to the digits and skin. The 4 acutely affected heifers were reluctant to get up or move (group II. They tended to lie down or stand with feet bunched together and the back arched, often shifting weight from limb to limb. They walked stiffly with great tenderness and pain in the digits. Extreme pain was noticed when the digits were examined. In 4 of 8 heifers, separation of the sole at the heel, with leakage of exudate, and under-running of the sole were observed. Necrotic dermatitis of the legs, alopecia and hyperkeratosis of the tail were noticed in all 8 heifers. Skin lesions appeared simultaneously. Four of the heifers (group I recovered, and the other 4 (group II were sent to slaughter. No post mortem examination was performed. The biochemical findings revealed a significantly higher concentration of total serum globulins and sodium, and increased activity, in CK, LDH and AST. A significantly decreasing pattern was noted in blood urea concentration, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and calcium. No significant differences among the various groups were found in the activities of amylase, GGT, and concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and potassium.

  3. Bull's-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, John N.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Yedlin, Victoria; Kortte, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lyme disease is an emerging worldwide infectious disease with major foci of endemicity in North America and regions of temperate Eurasia. The erythema migrans rash associated with early infection is found in approximately 80% of patients and can have a range of appearances including the classic target bull's-eye lesion and nontarget appearing lesions. Methods. A survey was designed to assess the ability of the general public to distinguish various appearances of erythema migrans from non-Lyme rashes. Participants were solicited from individuals who visited an educational website about Lyme disease. Results. Of 3,104 people who accessed a rash identification survey, 72.7% of participants correctly identified the classic target erythema migrans commonly associated with Lyme disease. A mean of 20.5% of participants was able to correctly identify the four nonclassic erythema migrans. 24.2% of participants incorrectly identified a tick bite reaction in the skin as erythema migrans. Conclusions. Participants were most familiar with the classic target erythema migrans of Lyme disease but were unlikely to correctly identify the nonclassic erythema migrans. These results identify an opportunity for educational intervention to improve early recognition of Lyme disease and to increase the patient's appropriate use of medical services for early Lyme disease diagnosis. PMID:23133445

  4. Interface dermatitis in skin lesions of Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease: a histopathological marker of evolution into systemic lupus erythematosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradela, S; Lorenzo, J; Martínez-Gómez, W; Yebra-Pimentel, T; Valbuena, L; Fonseca, E

    2008-12-01

    Kikuchi's disease (KD) is a self-limiting histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL). Cutaneous manifestations are frequent and usually show histopathological findings similar to those observed in the involved lymph nodes. HNL with superposed histological features to KD has been described in patients with lupus erythematosus (LE), and a group of healthy patients previously reported as having HNL may evolve into LE after several months. Up to date, features to predict which HNL patients will have a self-limiting disease and which could develop LE have been not identified. In order to clarify the characteristics of skin lesions associated with KD, we report a case of HNL with evolution into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a review of previous reports of KD with cutaneous manifestations. A 17-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of fever and generalised lymphadenopathy. A diagnosis of HNL was established based on a lymph node biopsy. One month later, she developed an erythematoedematous rash on her upper body, with histopathological findings of interface dermatitis. After 8 months, anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) at titre of 1/320, anti-DNA-ds antibodies and marked decrease of complement levels were detected. During the following 2 years, she developed diagnostic criteria for SLE, with arthralgias, pleuritis, aseptic meningitis, haemolytic anaemia and lupus nephritis. To our knowledge, 27 cases of nodal and cutaneous KD have been reported, 9 of which later developed LE. In all these patients, the skin biopsy revealed interface dermatitis. Skin biopsy revealed a pattern of interface dermatitis in all reviewed KD cases, which evolved into LE. Even this histopathological finding was not previously considered significant; it might be a marker of evolution into LE.

  5. Eighty-two year old female with long term abdominal pain, fever and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz Nicolás, G; Zafar Iqbal-Mirza, S; Gonzáles Carhuancho, J A; Mollejo Villanueva, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an old woman, consulting for fever, abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms one year of evolution. The differential diagnosis is between infectious, tumoral, or inflammatory disease, which may be located at the abdominal level, performing additional tests to rule out abdominal process. The existence of pain in the legs and level scan left thigh of a mass of hard consistency, makes us raise another diagnosis. Finally show on ultrasound soft tissue inflammatory changes regarding panniculitis. From this finding aetiologies of panniculitis are reviewed. Skin biopsy that shows the final diagnosis is made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  6. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  7. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  8. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as the United States reflects travel and immigration patterns. VL is uncommon in US travelers and ... whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_949_eng.pdf . Chapter 3 - Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous Chapter 3 - Leptospirosis File ...

  9. Detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum from Skin Lesions, Serum, and Cerebrospinal Fluid in an Infant with Congenital Syphilis after Clindamycin Treatment of the Mother during Pregnancy▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicová, Vladana; Šmajs, David; Wechsler, Dan; Matějková, Petra; Flasarová, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    We report here a case of congenital syphilis in a newborn after clindamycin treatment in pregnancy. Using PCR detection of tmpC (TP0319) and DNA sequencing of the genes TP0136 and TP0548, DNA sequences identical to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain SS14 were detected in the infant's skin lesions, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:17151205

  10. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those

  11. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis versus dermoscopy for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions: prospective, double-blind study in a secondary reference centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2009-01-01

    Dermoscopy is considered to be the golden standard for the clinical assessment of pigmented skin lesions. In expert hands, this instrument improves both sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of melanoma, however, the outcome is highly dependent on the skills and experience of the examiner...

  12. Spotlight on talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma lesions in the skin and lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orloff M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marlana Orloff Department of Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: On October 27, 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC, a first in class intralesional oncolytic virotherapy, was granted the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of melanoma in the skin and lymph nodes. Its approval has added yet another therapeutic option to the growing list of effective therapies for melanoma. Though the Phase III OPTiM trial has demonstrated its efficacy as a single agent, the target patient population remains narrow. With numerous effective and tolerable treatments available for unresectable and metastatic melanoma, intralesional therapies such as T-VEC are still finding their niche. T-VEC is now widely accepted as option for treatment; however, its combination with various other agents in an effort to expand its use and synergize with other interventions is still being explored. This article will review the pre-clinical and clinical work that eventually led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of this first-in-class agent, as well as address concerns about clinical application and ongoing research. Keywords: T-VEC, talimogene laherparepvec intralesional, melanoma, oncolytic virus, virotherapy, immunotherapy

  13. High-level intuitive features (HLIFs) for intuitive skin lesion description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Glaister, Jeffrey; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2015-03-01

    A set of high-level intuitive features (HLIFs) is proposed to quantitatively describe melanoma in standard camera images. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. With rising incidence rates and subjectivity in current clinical detection methods, there is a need for melanoma decision support systems. Feature extraction is a critical step in melanoma decision support systems. Existing feature sets for analyzing standard camera images are comprised of low-level features, which exist in high-dimensional feature spaces and limit the system's ability to convey intuitive diagnostic rationale. The proposed HLIFs were designed to model the ABCD criteria commonly used by dermatologists such that each HLIF represents a human-observable characteristic. As such, intuitive diagnostic rationale can be conveyed to the user. Experimental results show that concatenating the proposed HLIFs with a full low-level feature set increased classification accuracy, and that HLIFs were able to separate the data better than low-level features with statistical significance. An example of a graphical interface for providing intuitive rationale is given.

  14. [Terbinafine : Drug-induced lupus erythematodes and triggering of psoriatic skin lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P

    2016-09-01

    Based on the technical information that oral terbinafine must be used with caution in patients with pre-existing psoriasis or lupus erythematosus, the literature was summarized. Terbinafine belongs to the drugs able to induce subcutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE)-with a relatively high risk. The clinical picture of terbinafine-induced SCLE may be highly variable and can also include erythema exsudativum multiforme-like or bullous lesions. Thus, differentiation of terbinafine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis may be difficult. Therefore, terbinafine should be prescribed with caution in patients who show light sensitivity, arthralgias, positive antinuclear antibodies or have a history of SLE or SCLE. Case reports include wide-spread, but mostly nonlife-threatening courses, which did not require systemic therapy with steroids or antimalarials in every case. Terbinafine is also able to induce or to aggravate psoriasis. The latency period seems to be rather short (Terbinafine therefore is not first choice if a systemic therapy with antimycotics is indicated in a patient with psoriasis or psoriatic diathesis. Azole derivatives according to the guidelines may be used as an alternative.

  15. Evaluation of Interferon-gamma Application for Recognition of Patients Afflicted by Non-healing Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Different studies undertaken in the animal modeling show that Interferon-gamma deficiency impairs healing process of Leishmania infection. It seems that the level of Interferon-gamma production could also affect the healing duration of Leishmania lesion in humans. The current study aims to investigate the possibility of Interferon-gamma application for recognition of cases afflicted by non-healing Leishmaniasis. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 32 patients, who were afflicted by healing or non-healing Leishmaniasis, were isolated and the levels of interferon-gamma were determined, using ELISA method. Afterwards, the cut-off point of interferon-gamma to identify patients afflicted by non-healing Leishmaniasis was calculated through ROC-Curve analysis. Furthermore, Leishmanin Skin Test (LST was performed for every patient. Results: Levels of Interferon-gamma produced by PBMCs stimulated with Soluble Leishmania Antigen (SLA or Phytohemaglotinine were significantly higher in healing patients, compared with non-healing individuals (p

  16. Unusual presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiry Anup Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leis hmaniasis is endemic in some regions of Saudi Arabia. A case with uncommon hyperkeratotic type of lesion was seen. Being an endemic zone, a slit- skin smear was done and stained with Giemsa′s stain. Smears howed Leishman Donovan bodies within and outside the macrophages. Significant improvement, followed by complete resolution of the lesion was seen with ketoconazole treatment.

  17. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  18. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Alleviate House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by the CD206 Mannose Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dasom; Choi, Won; Bae, Hyunsu

    2018-04-02

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic, erythematous, and eczematous skin plaques. We previously reported that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from bee venom alleviates AD-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract ( Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. However, the underlying mechanisms of PLA2 action in actopic dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that PLA2 treatment inhibited epidermal thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and cytokine levels, macrophage and mast cell infiltration in the ear of an AD model induced by DFE and DNCB. In contrast, these effects were abrogated in CD206 mannose receptor-deficient mice exposed to DFE and DNCB in the ear. These data suggest that bvPLA2 alleviates atopic skin inflammation via interaction with CD206.

  19. Restricted Outbreak of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis with High Microfocal Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.; Gil, José F.; Quipildor, Marcelo; Cajal, Silvana P.; Pravia, Carlos; Juarez, Marisa; Villalpando, Carlos; Locatelli, Fabricio M.; Chanampa, Mariana; Castillo, Gabriela; Oreste, María F.; Hoyos, Carlos L.; Negri, Vanesa; Nasser, Julio R.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Salta, the northwestern province of Argentina. We describe an outbreak involving five recreational hunters whose exposure was limited to several hours in a residual patch of primary forest. All patients presented with typical cutaneous lesions after a mean incubation period of 59 days (range 15–78), and one developed simultaneous mucosal involvement. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of lesions confirmed Leishmania (V.) braziliensis as the etiologic agent in three cases. All patients were cured with anti-Leishmania treatment. Entomologic surveys in the transmission area revealed a predominance of Lutzomyia neivai. This outbreak report confirms a microfocal transmission pattern of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Americas and based on a well-determined exposure, allows the determination of incubation times for leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. PMID:23339200

  20. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: Report of 27 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Vélez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL is a poorly described disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as other clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL such as diffuse CL or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Twenty-seven cases of DL diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 are described. A higher prevalence was observed in men (mean age 32 years. The number of lesions per patient ranged from 12 to 294, distributed mainly in the upper extremities, face and trunk. The lesions were mostly plaques or nodules. Seven patients had nasal mucous damage, 74% of the patients were of mixed race, 92% lived in northwestern Colombia, and Leishmania (Viannia panamensis was identified as the causative agent in 58% of cases. Eighteen patients recovered with pentavalent antimonial. The importance of distinguishing DL from those other clinical presentations is based on the fact that disseminated, diffuse and post-kala-azar CL are very different in etiology, clinical manifestations and response to treatment and prognosis.

  1. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, alleviates allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions via cytokine inhibition by activating the Nrf2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gunhyuk, E-mail: uranos5@kiom.re.kr [The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dal-Seok [The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Gi; Lee, Chang Eon [Major in Cosmeceutical Science, Division of Bio-technology and Convergence, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-ung, E-mail: ykim@dhu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Allergic dermatitis (AD) clinically presents with skin erythematous plaques, eruption, and elevated serum IgE, and T helper cell type 2 and 1 (Th2 and Th1) cytokine levels. 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on AD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether 6-shogaol inhibits AD-like skin lesions and their underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. An AD-like response was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) + IFN-γ in human keratinocytes or by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. In vivo, 6-shogaol inhibited the development of DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior, and showed significant reduction in Th2/1-mediated inflammatory cytokines, IgE, TNF-α, IFN-γ, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-1, 4, 12, and 13, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase levels. In vitro, 6-shogaol inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, and increased the levels of total glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and quinone 1 via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. 6-Shogaol can alleviate AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting immune mediators via regulating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. - Highlights: • 6-Shogaol inhibited Th2/1-mediated inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. • 6-Shogaol regulated ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway. • 6-Shogaol can protect against the development of AD-like skin lesions.

  2. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, alleviates allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions via cytokine inhibition by activating the Nrf2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Dal-Seok; Lee, Mi Gi; Lee, Chang Eon; Kim, Yong-ung

    2016-01-01

    Allergic dermatitis (AD) clinically presents with skin erythematous plaques, eruption, and elevated serum IgE, and T helper cell type 2 and 1 (Th2 and Th1) cytokine levels. 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on AD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether 6-shogaol inhibits AD-like skin lesions and their underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. An AD-like response was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) + IFN-γ in human keratinocytes or by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. In vivo, 6-shogaol inhibited the development of DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior, and showed significant reduction in Th2/1-mediated inflammatory cytokines, IgE, TNF-α, IFN-γ, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-1, 4, 12, and 13, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase levels. In vitro, 6-shogaol inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, and increased the levels of total glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and quinone 1 via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. 6-Shogaol can alleviate AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting immune mediators via regulating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. - Highlights: • 6-Shogaol inhibited Th2/1-mediated inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. • 6-Shogaol regulated ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway. • 6-Shogaol can protect against the development of AD-like skin lesions.

  3. Arsenic-induced skin lesions among Atacameño people in Northern Chile despite good nutrition and centuries of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A H; Arroyo, A P; Mazumder, D N; Kosnett, M J; Hernandez, A L; Beeris, M; Smith, M M; Moore, L E

    2000-07-01

    It has been suggested that the indigenous Atacameño people in Northern Chile might be protected from the health effects of arsenic in drinking water because of many centuries of exposure. Here we report on the first intensive investigation of arsenic-induced skin lesions in this population. We selected 11 families (44 participants) from the village of Chiu Chiu, which is supplied with water containing between 750 and 800 microg/L inorganic arsenic. For comparison, 8 families (31 participants) were also selected from a village where the water contains approximately 10 microg/L inorganic arsenic. After being transported to the nearest city for blind assessment, participants were examined by four physicians with experience in studying arsenic-induced lesions. Four of the six men from the exposed village, who had been drinking the contaminated water for more than 20 years, were diagnosed with skin lesions due to arsenic, but none of the women had definite lesions. A 13-year-old girl had definite skin pigmentation changes due to arsenic, and a 19-year-old boy had both pigmentation changes and keratoses on the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet. Family interviews identified a wide range of fruits and vegetables consumed daily by the affected participants, as well as the weekly intake of red meat and chicken. However, the prevalence of skin lesions among men and children in the small population studied was similar to that reported with corresponding arsenic drinking water concentrations in both Taiwan and West Bengal, India--populations in which extensive malnutrition has been thought to increase susceptibility.

  4. Non tuberculous mycobacterial lesion of the parotid gland and facial skin in a 4year old girl: A proposed treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovic, Juraj; Vanchiere, John A; Gungor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a parotid-facial caseating granulomatous infection caused by atypical mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium) in an immuno-competent child. The size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve present a challenge for a purely surgical treatment strategy. An alternative treatment strategy is developed to avoid severe disfigurement. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the parotid region in a 5 year old girl: timeline and definition of a planned combined treatment strategy with antibiotics and surgical excision. Cervicofacial infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may present surgical challenges due to the size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve and major vascular structures. Even minor scars are highly visible and poorly tolerated. Close clinical monitoring combined with judicious treatment strategies is necessary for successful treatment and good cosmesis. Recent literature provides insufficient guidance in formulating the best treatment strategy for the individual patient. Comparisons of antibiotic therapy with variations of surgical excision are abundant but poorly formulated. Our case presented with a lesion involving skin, superficial and deep lobe of the parotid gland. Lesion was in immediate proximity to the distribution of the facial nerve through the parotid gland. The risk of surgical damage to the facial nerve in the acute phase of the inflammation and the required extent of skin excision were significant. We decided to start treatment with combination antimycobacterial antibiotics in close cooperation with the pediatric infectious disease specialists. We observed and documented the regress and executed a delayed surgical excision when the lesion was reduced to skin only. In our opinion this was the best treatment strategy that helped us avoid extensive dissection in the vicinity of the facial nerve as well as a parotidectomy. Excision of the involved skin with the deep portion

  5. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Clive Richard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control.

  6. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Richard Davies

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control.

  7. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  8. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  9. Efficiency of ablative fractional Er: YAG (Erbium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet laser treatment of epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions: A retrospective study

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    Erol Koç

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Er: YAG lasers are precise ablation systems used in the treatment epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions. In this study, we restrospectively analysed efficiency of Er: YAG laser therapy in the treatment of epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated our clinical records of 116 patients treated with Er: YAG laser between April 2011 and April 2013. The clinical records of 103 patients (47 men, 56 women were included in our study. Of these 103 patients included in the study were xanthelasma, solar lentigo, epidermal nevus, seborrheic keratosis, nevus of ota, syringoma, cafe au lait macules (CALM and other than these. Treatment parameters, demographic features and before and after photographs of the lesions were investigated from patients’ records in order to evaluate efficiency of Er: YAG laser therapy. Results: Of these 103 patients included in the study were evaluated in 8 groups, described as xanthelasma (n=21, syringoma (n=17, solar lentigo (n=16, epidermal nevus (n=11, seborrheic keratosis (n=9, nevus of ota (n=5, CALM (n=3 and other than these (n=21. In the Er: YAG laser treatment, the average energy flow was 3-7 J/cm2, the average pulse duration was 300 ms, the average number of passes was 3-5 repeat, and the average pulse frequency was 3-7 Hz. While 4.9% of the patients showed no improvement, 59.2% showed marked improvement, 26.2% showed moderate improvement and 9.7% showed mild improvement. Treatment responses in xanthelasma, syringoma, epidermal nevus, solar lentigo and CALM lesions were statistically significant. Observed side effects were hyperpigmentation in 4 patients, hypopigmentation in 3 patients, hypertrophic scar in 2 patients and persistent erythema in one patient and the treatment was well tolerated by all the patients. Conclusion: Er: YAG laser is an effective and safe treatment option in the treatment of benign skin lesions especially in epidermal lesions.

  10. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  11. Associations between site of skin lesions and depression, social anxiety, body-related emotions and feelings of stigmatization in psoriasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łakuta, Patryk; Marcinkiewicz, Kamil; Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Słomian, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a link between psoriasis and a multitude of psychological impairments; however, relatively few studies have examined the importance of site of skin lesions for negative psychological outcomes in psoriasis patients. To investigate relationships between anatomical location of psoriatic lesions and experiences of stigmatization, negative emotional attitude towards the body, depression and social anxiety. Adult psoriasis patients ( N = 193) completed the Stigmatization Scale, the Body Emotions Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Social Anxiety Questionnaire. The body surface area index was used to assess the location and extent of psoriasis. Feelings of stigmatization were found to be most closely related to the presence of psoriatic lesions on the chest, and the arms and hands. Higher levels of social anxiety were found to be most closely related to the location of psoriatic lesions on the head and neck. Negative emotional attitude towards the body was found to be most closely related to the location of psoriatic lesions on the arms and hands, and on the head and neck. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were most closely related to the presence of psoriatic lesions on the head and neck, the arms and hands, and the genital area. The presence of psoriatic lesions on the head, neck, and chest, and also on the arms and hands and the genital area, should alert clinicians to a higher risk of psychological impairments. This may help to better recognize and prevent cumulative life course impairment.

  12. Sporotrichosis in Iran: A mini review of reported cases in patients suspected to cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    shahram mahmoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous fungal infection with global distribution. It is a rare fungal infection with nine reported cases in Iran, including eight humans and one animal, within the past 30 years. Among the human cases, seven were of the fixed cutaneous type of sporotrichosis and one had sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous. The reported patients were within the age range of 23-60 years, and six of them were female. The most frequent sites of infection were forearms and hands, as well as the face and legs. In addition, the majority of the cases had previously been suspected of leishmaniasis and received treatment. Sporotrichosis is not a well-known condition in Iran and is often misdiagnosed and erroneously treated for other cutaneous parasitic or bacterial infections with similar clinical manifestations. Therefore, sporotrichosis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of nodular-ulcerative skin lesions.

  13. Sporotrichosis in Iran: A mini review of reported cases in patients suspected to cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, S; Zaini, F

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous fungal infection with global distribution. It is a rare fungal infection with nine reported cases in Iran, including eight humans and one animal, within the past 30 years. Among the human cases, seven were of the fixed cutaneous type of sporotrichosis and one had sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous. The reported patients were within the age range of 23-60 years, and six of them were female. The most frequent sites of infection were forearms and hands, as well as the face and legs. In addition, the majority of the cases had previously been suspected of leishmaniasis and received treatment. Sporotrichosis is not a well-known condition in Iran and is often misdiagnosed and erroneously treated for other cutaneous parasitic or bacterial infections with similar clinical manifestations. Therefore, sporotrichosis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of nodular-ulcerative skin lesions. PMID:28680987

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  15. Assessment of β-lapachone loaded in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles for the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in L. major infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Esther; Schwartz, Juana; Larrea, Esther; Conde, Iosune; Font, Maria; Sanmartín, Carmen; Irache, Juan Manuel; Espuelas, Socorro

    2015-11-01

    Patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis need a topical treatment which cures lesions without leaving scars. Lesions are produced not only by the parasite but also by an uncontrolled and persistent inflammatory immune response. In this study, we proposed the loading of β-lapachone (β-LP) in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (NP) for targeting the drug to the dermis, where infected macrophages reside, and promote wound healing. Although the loading of β-LP in NP did not influence the drug antileishmanial activity it was critical to achieve important drug accumulation in the dermis and permeation through the skin. When topically applied in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice, β-LP NP achieved no parasite reduction but they stopped the lesion progression. Immuno-histopathological assays in CL lesions and quantitative mRNA studies in draining lymph nodes confirmed that β-LP exhibited anti-inflammatory activity leading to the down-regulation of IL-1β and COX-2 expression and a decrease of neutrophils infiltrate. Cutaneous leishmaniasis often leaves patients with unsightly scars due to the body's inflammatory response to the infection. The authors in this paper described topical treatment using β-lapachone (β- LP) loaded in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (NP) in an animal model. Results confirmed the reduction of inflammatory response without affecting the parasite killing efficacy. These findings would pave way for further clinical testing in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dermatologia comparativa: lesão de ataque por caravela portuguesa (Physalia physalis Comparative dermatology: skin lesion produced by attack of jellyfishes (Physalia physalis

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    Maria do Carmo Araújo Palmeira Queiroz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demonstra-se lesão dermatológica, em caprichoso formato de coração, característica de ataque por caravela-portuguesa, em banhista do sexo feminino, 21 anosIt is reported the case of a 21-year-old female bather with a skin lesion, heart-shaped ,characteristic of attack by jellyfish

  17. Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Wilson Mayrink

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac as well as to phenol (PhVac. The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05. The proliferative response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells shows that the stimulation index of mice immunized with both candidate vaccines was higher than the one in control animals (p < 0.05. The ability of the candidate vaccines to induce protection in C57BL/10 mice against a challenge with infective Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was tested and the mice immunized with PhVac developed smaller lesions than the mice immunized with MtVac. Electrophoresis of phenol-preserved antigen revealed a number of proteins, which were better preserved in PhVac. These results do in fact encourage the use of phenol for preserving the immunogenic and biochemical properties of the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  18. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women

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    Molly L. Kile

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association between anemia and arsenic-induced skin lesions. Results We observed that the odds of arsenic-related skin lesions were approximately three times higher among women who were anemic (hemoglobin < 120 g/L compared to women with normal hemoglobin levels [Odds Ratio (OR = 3.32, 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI: 1.29, 8.52] after adjusting for arsenic levels in drinking water and other covariates. Furthermore, 75 % of the women with anemia had adequate iron stores (serum ferritin ≥12 μg/L, suggesting that the majority of anemia detected in this population was unrelated to iron depletion. Conclusions Considering the magnitude of arsenic exposure and prevalence of anemia in Bangladeshi women, additional research is warranted that identifies the causes of anemia so that effective interventions can be implemented while arsenic remediation efforts continue.

  19. Distribución de las lesiones de la piel en la región de cabeza y cuello Distribution of skin lesions on the head and neck region

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    TS Simão

    Full Text Available El cáncer de piel (incluyendo el melanoma y los tipos de cáncer de piel de células basales y de células escamosas es por mucho, el tipo de cáncer más común de todos los cánceres. La mayoría de éstos son cánceres de células basales. Los cánceres de células escamosas ocurren con menos frecuencia. Noventa y seis por ciento de las resecciones de lesiones cutáneas, en la clínica de cirugía plástica del Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de Sao Paulo, están representadas por lesiones en las regiones de la cara, cabeza y cuello. El conocimiento del perfil epidemiológico del servicio, nos ayuda a establecer medidas de prevención y tratamiento de neoplasias cutáneas.Skin cancer (including melanoma and basal cell and squamous cell cancers is by far the most common type of cancer of all cancers. Most of these are basal cell cancers. Squamous cell cancers occur less frequently. Ninety-six percent of resections of skin lesions in the plastic surgery clinic of the Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de Sao Paulo, are represented by lesions in the regions of the face, head and neck. The knowledge of the epidemiological profile of service, helps us to establish prevention and treatment of skin malignancies.

  20. Clinical Case. Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a clinical case of visceral leishmaniasis in 9-month-old girl. There is described in detail the change of clinical symptoms, as well as laboratory and instrumental diagnostic technique in this child. Attention was paid to epidemiological history, which made it possible to make a definitive diagnosis (posthumously.

  1. Vector control in leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, K; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Dinesh, D S; Kumar, A J; Das, P; Bhattacharya, S K

    2006-03-01

    Indoor residual spraying is a simple and cost effective method of controlling endophilic vectors and DDT remains the insecticide of choice for the control of leishmaniasis. However resistance to insecticide is likely to become more widespread in the population especially in those areas in which insecticide has been used for years. In this context use of slow release emulsified suspension (SRES) may be the best substitute. In this review spraying frequencies of DDT and new schedule of spray have been discussed. Role of biological control and environment management in the control of leishmaniasis has been emphasized. Allethrin (coil) 0.1 and 1.6 per cent prallethrin (liquid) have been found to be effective repellents against Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Indian kalaazar. Insecticide impregnated bednets is another area which requires further research on priority basis for the control of leishmaniasis. Role of satellite remote sensing for early prediction of disease by identifying the sandflygenic conditions cannot be undermined. In future synthetic pheromons can be exploited in the control of leishmaniasis.

  2. Toxicological analysis and effectiveness of oral Kalanchoe pinnata on a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, E C; Da Silva, S A G; Costa, S S; Santos, A P P T; Almeida, A P; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2003-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is an extremely difficult disease to treat. Previously, it was shown that oral Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis. Here, it is shown that the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), urea and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in mice orally treated with supraoptimal Kp doses for 30 days, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity to the liver, heart or kidney. Additionally, evidence is presented that human leishmaniasis may also be controlled with oral Kp. A 36-year-old man with an active cutaneous leishmaniasis was orally treated with 30 g wet weight of Kp leaves/day for 14 days. During the Kp treatment, the lesion stopped growing and slightly decreased. No adverse reactions or toxicity was observed. This study reports for the first time that Kalanchoe pinnata contains substances potentially active and safe for the oral treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Antibodies against human cytomegalovirus late protein UL94 in the pathogenesis of scleroderma-like skin lesions in chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastano, Rocco; Dell'Agnola, Chiara; Bason, Caterina; Gigli, Federica; Rabascio, Cristina; Puccetti, Antonio; Tinazzi, Elisa; Cetto, Gianluigi; Peccatori, Fedro; Martinelli, Giovanni; Lunardi, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection and its reactivation correlate both with the increased risk and with the worsening of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Because scleroderma-like skin lesions can occur in chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in allogeneic stem-cell transplant (HCT) patients and hCMV is relevant in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), we evaluated the possible pathogenetic link between hCMV and skin cGVHD. Plasma from 18 HCT patients was tested for anti-UL94 and/or anti-NAG-2 antibodies, identified in SSc patients, by direct ELISA assays. Both donors and recipients were anti-hCMV IgG positive, without autoimmune diseases. Patients' purified anti-UL94 and anti-NAG-2 IgG binding to human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts was performed by FACS analysis and ELISA test. HUVECs apoptosis and fibroblasts proliferation induced by patients' anti-NAG-2 antibodies were measured by DNA fragmentation and cell viability, respectively. About 11/18 patients developed cGVHD and all of them showed skin involvement, ranging from diffuse SSc-like lesions to limited erythema. Eight of eleven cGVHD patients were positive for anti-UL94 and/or anti-NAG-2 antibodies. Remarkably, 4/5 patients who developed diffuse or limited SSc-like lesions had antibodies directed against both UL94 and NAG-2; their anti-NAG-2 IgG-bound HUVECs and fibroblasts induce both endothelial cell apoptosis and fibroblasts proliferation, similar to that induced by purified anti-UL94 and anti-NAG-2 antibodies obtained from SSc patients. In conclusion, our data suggest a pathogenetic link between hCMV infection and scleroderma-like skin cGVHD in HCT patients through a mechanism of molecular mimicry between UL94 viral protein and NAG-2 molecule, as observed in patients with SSc.

  4. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Leishmaniasis in Armenia

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    A.L. Kazinian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the clinical and laboratory characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis according to the data from Clinical hospital of infectious diseases «Nork» in Yerevan for 2013. It is shown that Armenia is a country endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Most patients (81 % were males. About half of the patients were young children (up to 2 years. It was found that the majority of patients had acute onset of the disease with fever up to 40 °C, severe symptoms of intoxication and single hemorrhages on the skin. Enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in all patients. The enlargement of the spleen was more pronounced, and it reached the level of the pelvis. One of the cardinal symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis — anemia — developed in all patients admitted to the hospital, and a significant change in the hemogram was observed in young children.

  5. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of feline leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Luiz da Silveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis are severe and unfortunately common parasitic diseases in Brazil. Among domestic animals, dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of the protozoan parasites, however, there is evidence that infected cats can also contribute towards the disease pool. The number of cats diagnosed with leishmaniasis has greatly increased in the last few years, highlighting the importance of thorough investigations on the role of the cat in the epidemiological cycle of the disease and in public health related issues. The main clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis suffered by cats, even when infected with Leishmania chagasi, a viscerotropic species, are skin abnormalities, which can be confounded with multiple other diseases. Indirect ELISA should be used as a screening test in epidemiological investigations for being a sensitive technique, followed by more specific laboratory tests. The standardization and validation of rapid, economical and reproducible diagnostic methods, to be employed in epidemiological surveillance, are still required

  6. Immunohistological Analysis of In Situ Expression of Mycobacterial Antigens in Skin Lesions of Leprosy Patients Across the Histopathological Spectrum : Association of Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and Mycobacterium leprae Phenolic Glycolipid-I (PGL-I) with Leprosy Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, Claudia; Faber, William; Klatser, Paul; Buffing, Anita; Naafs, Ben; Das, Pranab

    1999-01-01

    The presence of mycobacterial antigens in leprosy skin lesions was studied by immunohistological methods using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Mycobacterium leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) and to cross-reactive mycobacterial antigens of 36 kd, 65 kd, and lipoarabinomannan (LAM). The staining patterns with MAb to 36 kd and 65 kd were heterogeneous and were also seen in the lesions of other skin diseases. The in situ staining of PGL-I and LAM was seen only in ...

  7. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: presentation and problems of patient management

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    Jeffrey D. Chulay

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were infected in Panama (55, Brazil (4 or Colombia (I. Among 35 patients with a 3 week exposure in Panama, the mean maximum incubation period was 33 days (range 4-81 days. Diagnosis was delayed an average of 93 days after onset of skin lesions, due to the patient's delay in seeking medical attention (31 days, medical personnel's delay in considering the diagnosis (45 days, and the laboratory's delay in confirming the diagnosis (17 days. Forty-four patients (73% developed ulcers typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sixteen additional patients (27% had atypical macular, papular, squamous, verrucous or acneiform skin lesions that were diagnosed only because leishmanial cultures were obtained. Of the 59 patients treated with pentavalent antimonial drugs, only 34 (58% were cured after the first course of treatment. Lesions which were at least 2 cm in diameter, ulcerated, or caused by Leishmania braziliensis were less likely to be cured after a single course of treatment than were lesions smaller than 2 cm, nonulcerated or caused by Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania donovani.Relatamos nossa experiência em 60 pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana diagnosticada e tratada entre 1977 e 1982. Cinqüenta e cinco pacientes foram infectados no Panamá, 4 no Brasil, e 1 na Colômbia. Entre 35 pacientes com uma exposição de 3 semanas no Panamá, a média do período de incubação foi 33 dias (limite sobre 4 e 81 dias. O diagnóstico foi feito, em média, 93 dias depois do início das lesões de pele, devido a demora do paciente em procurar o serviço médico (31 dias, a demora do médico em considerar o diagnóstico (45 dias, e a demora do laboratório em confirmar o diagnóstico (17 dias. Quarenta e quatro pacientes (73% desenvolveram úlceras típicas de leishmaniose cutânea. Porém, 16 pacientes (27% tiveram lesões de pele at

  8. Murine HPV16 E7-expressing transgenic skin effectively emulates the cellular and molecular features of human high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

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    Z.K. Tuong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently available vaccines prevent HPV infection and development of HPV-associated malignancies, but do not cure existing HPV infections and dysplastic lesions. Persistence of infection(s in immunocompetent patients may reflect induction of local immunosuppressive mechanisms by HPV, providing a target for therapeutic intervention. We have proposed that a mouse, expressing HPV16 E7 oncoprotein under a Keratin 14 promoter (K14E7 mice, and which develops epithelial hyperplasia, may assist with understanding local immune suppression mechanisms that support persistence of HPV oncogene-induced epithelial hyperplasia. K14E7 skin grafts recruit immune cells from immunocompetent hosts, but consistently fail to be rejected. Here, we review the literature on HPV-associated local immunoregulation, and compare the findings with published observations on the K14E7 transgenic murine model, including comparison of the transcriptome of human HPV-infected pre-malignancies with that of murine K14E7 transgenic skin. We argue from the similarity of i the literature findings and ii the transcriptome profiles that murine K14E7 transgenic skin recapitulates the cellular and secreted protein profiles of high-grade HPV-associated lesions in human subjects. We propose that the K14E7 mouse may be an appropriate model to further study the immunoregulatory effects of HPV E7 expression, and can facilitate development and testing of therapeutic vaccines.

  9. Pseudolaric acid B extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Cortex Pseudolaricis ameliorates DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice

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    Yi-Teng Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pseudolaric acid B (PB is a newly identified diterpenoid isolated from Tujinpi (Cortex Pseudolaricis. In the present study, we aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of PB on atopic dermatitis (AD, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. Methods: BALB/c mice treated with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene were orally administered with PB (10 mg∙kg-1∙d-1. After evaluating the AD score, serum levels of IgE and the mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR respectively. Results: The results showed that PB treatment significantly ameliorated the development of AD-like clinical symptoms and effectively suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, PB inhibited the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β in skin lesions, and downregulated serum IgE levels. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory properties of PB were demonstrated using the 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced mouse model of AD-like skin lesions. Our study highlighted the potential use of PB as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation-associated skin diseases.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Propionibacterium acnes Strains Isolated from Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis Lesions of Human Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rolf; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scholz, Christian F. P.

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that is prevalent on human skin. It has been associated with skin disorders such as acne vulgaris and progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH). Here, we report draft genome sequences of two type III P. acnes strains, PMH5 and PMH7, isolated from...

  11. Examination of skin lesions for cancer : Which clinical decision aids and tools are available in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, Cecile J. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Van der Meer, Klaas; Van der Heide, Wouter K.

    2014-01-01

    Background While skin cancer incidence is rising throughout Europe, general practitioners (GP) feel unsure about their ability to diagnose skin malignancies. Objectives To evaluate whether the GP has sufficient validated clinical decision aids and tools for the examination of potentially malignant

  12. Video education to improve recognition of common benign and malignant cutaneous lesions and skin cancer prevention in the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lenczowski, BS

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we found that a brief, plain-language video was effective at conveying understandable content to help subjects learn to identify common cancerous and benign skin growths while also teaching them strategies to protect against skin cancer.

  13. CD1a, HAM56, CD68 and S-100 are present in lesional skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune blistering diseases

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research on autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABD has primarily focused on the humoral immune response; moreover, little attention has been given to the potential role of the antigen presenting cells (APCs in lesional skin. Aim: The purpose of our study was to immunophenotype selected APC in the lesional skin of ABDs, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC stains. Materials and Methods: We utilized IHC to stain for dendritic cells (DC, staining with CD1a, CD68, HAM56, and S-100 in lesional skin from 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABD, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 2 with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA. Results: Cells stained by CD68, HAM56 and S-100 were present in the majority of the ABD skin biopsies; these cells were located primarily in perivascular infiltrates surrounding dermal vessels subjacent to the blisters. However, these cells were also noted within the blisters, in vessels supplying dermal eccrine glands and ducts, and in areas of dermal endothelial-mesenchymal cell junction-like structures, especially in BP cases. In our CD1a staining, the number and location of positive staining cells varied with each disease, being abundant in most ABD in the epidermis suprajacent to the blisters, or in the epidermis surrounding the blister site if the blister site epidermis was missing. In the control biopsies, most did not display positive IHC staining, with the exception of a few CD1a positive cells in the epidermis Conclusion: Our findings confirm positive IHC staining for APCs in areas of the skin besides the disease blisters. Our findings suggest that the antigen presentation in ABD proceeds in areas distant from the blister site

  14. Risk factors that determine leishmaniasis transmission at Llaucano valley, Chota-Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Zorrilla, Víctor; Agüero, María; Cáceres, Abraham; Tejada, Abelardo; Ticlla, Juan; Martínez, Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar los factores de riesgo asociados con la transmisión de leishmaniasis. Material y Métodos: Se entrevistó 727 personas en 140 viviendas de 8 localidades del valle Llaucano, Chota, Cajamarca. Los factores de riesgo fueron analizados mediante el cálculo del odds ratio, con límites de confianza al 95%, utilizando el pro-grama EpiInfo 2000. Resultados: Se diagnosticó 206 casos de leishmaniasis, 63 lesiones activas y 143 cicatrices. La leishmaniasis se presenta en todos los gru...

  15. Investigation of photon-magnetic therapy efficacy in prevention and treatment of experimental local radiation skin lesions. Communication 1. The peculiarities of the course of radiation dermatitis in rats at spontaneous healing and at application of photon-magnetic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syimonova, L.Yi.; Byilogurova, L.V.; Gertman, V.Z.; Kurov, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Local x-ray exposure of the rats at a dose of 50.0 Gy caused development of radiation dermatitis with imperfect skin healing with scars and incomplete restoration of the fleece as a consequence. Administration of photon-magnetic therapy positively influenced healing of skin radiation lesions in locally irradiated animals

  16. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

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    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  17. Interferon-Gamma and Interlukin-4 Patterns in BALB/c Mice Suffering From Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated With Cantharidin

    OpenAIRE

    Maroufi, Yahya; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Dalimi, Abdolhosein; Sharifi, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a health problem in the world. Lesions should be treated on cosmetically or functionally important sites, such as the face and hands. Cantharidin is a terpenoid compound produced naturally by beetles of Meloidae and Oedemeridae families. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of cantharidin on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) lesions and IFN-γ and IL-4 patterns in infected BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: Infected BALB/c mice were d...

  18. Factores de riesgo para la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea en niños de 0 a 5 años en un área endémica de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in children aged 0 to 5 years in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ampuero

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fue realizado un estudio caso-control pareado en Corte de Pedra, Bahía, Brasil, área endémica de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis para evaluar los diferentes factores de riesgo asociados a la presencia de leishmaniasis cutánea en niños de 0 a 5 años. Fueron considerados como casos, los niños con prueba de leishmanina positiva y que presentaban en el examen físico, una o más lesiones clínicas, activas o cicatrizales, compatibles con leishmaniasis cutánea. Fueron seleccionados 40 casos y 71 controles que fueron pareados por edad y área de residencia. La presencia de algún otro miembro de la familia con antecedente de leishmaniasis cutánea durante el año anterior a la aparición de la enfermedad en el niño demostró ser un importante factor de riesgo (MÔR MH = 17,75; IC95%: 4,08-77,25. No se encontraron evidencias de asociación con otros factores, como hábitos del niño dentro y fuera de casa, características de la vivienda y del peridomicilio, presencia de vectores y animales como probables reservorios. Estos hallazgos apoyan la hipótesis que el ser humano podría comportarse como un posible reservorio y servir de fuente de contagio para este grupo de edad.With the purpose of identifying risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in children from 0 to 5 years, a matched case-control study was carried out in Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Children with a positive leishmanin skin test and one or more active lesions or scars consistent with cutaneous leishmaniasis were defined as cases. Forty cases and 71 controls were selected and matched by age and place of residence. The presence of a family member with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the year prior to the appearance of the disease in the child was found to be an important risk factor (MÔR MH = 17.75; 95%CI: 4.08-77.25. No evidence of association between the disease and other risk factors was found, such

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients attending the Skin and STD department, JLN Hospital, Ajmer. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, demonstration of amastigotes (LT bodies in Giemsa stained smear of the lesion and response to intralesional / local anti-leishmanial drug therapy. In addition, culture of the promastigote forms of L. tropica from the lesion was successfully attempted in four of the smear negatives cases. By retrospective analysis, 23 new indigenous cases of CL have been diagnosed in the same setting during the period January 2004 - December 2005, based on clinical and therapeutic response alone. There was no clear-cut history of sandfly bite and travel outside the district or state to endemic area in any of the cases. However, all of them came from a common residential area (famous dargah of Ajmer and the peak incidence was seen in January, four months after the famous Urs fair of Ajmer, the location was urban and the lesions were characteristic of L. tropica. Therefore, the disease is suspected to be anthroponotic. These features are suggestive of a common mode of transmission, source and/or vector signalling introduction of this infection into a non-endemic area.

  20. The Effect of Sun Radiation on the Course of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice

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    Amir Abas Azarian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sStudies have described immunomedulatory effects of sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation on infectious and neoplastic diseases. Here the effect of exposure to low potency radiation of sun on the course of leishmaniasis in mice was studied. Materials and MethodsFifteen BALB/c mice were exposed to suberythemogenic doses of sun (mean 180 mJ/cm2/day of UVB 2 months before and 4 months after Leishmania major inoculation to food pad. Control group was kept in the sun protected environment. From 2nd to 17th week after inoculation, size of the lesion was recorded in each group weekly and at last week the parasite burden in spleen was detected. Results were compared between two groups. ResultsSeven mice from case group and 9 mice from control group survived up to last week. The mean lesion size was 0.90±0.59 cm in exposed and 4.01±3.59 cm in unexposed mice (P= 0.037. Parasite burden in spleen of case and control groups were 5.5±4.61 and 106.94±279.76 respectively (P= 0.006.ConclusionChronic exposure of BALB/c mice to suberythemogenic doses of sun suppressed skin lesion and decreased the extension of L. major to spleen.

  1. Parasitological diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania b. braziliensis in Bolivia

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    Laure Dimier-David

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological diagnosis, using staned smears, culture and pathological examination of biopsy, was studied in 146 patients infected with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, in Bolivia and Peru. The most efficient parasite detecting technique appeared to be the smear examination in cutaneous lesions (33 % positive and the pathology in case of mucous lesions (28 % positive. In both, cutaneous and mucous lesions, the parasites were found most frequently in old lesions.

  2. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, F.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Abad, E.D. [Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lyra, Y.C. [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M. [Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, D.C. [Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies (Microbial Ecology), Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Programa de Pós Graduação em Odontologia, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, K.R.N. dos [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-08

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD.

  3. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, F.S.; Abad, E.D.; Lyra, Y.C.; Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M.; Ferreira, D.C.; Santos, K.R.N. dos

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD

  4. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, M.; Coppola, A.; Mansilla, E.; Drago, H.; Dubner, D.; Radl, A.; Di Giorgio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial micro-vessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radio-pathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radio-pathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. (authors)

  5. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, M; Mansilla, E; Drago, H; Dubner, D; Radl, A; Coppola, A; Di Giorgio, M

    2016-09-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial microvessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radiopathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radiopathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  6. No evidence for mutations in exons 1, 8 and 18 of the patched gene in sporadic skin lesions of Brazilian patients

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    Granja F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that the patched (PTCH gene is a gene for susceptibility to the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. PTCH has also been shown to mutate in both familial and sporadic basal cell carcinomas. However, mutations of the gene seem to be rare in squamous cell carcinomas. In order to characterize the role of the gene in the broader spectrum of sporadic skin malignant and pre-malignant lesions, we performed a polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP analysis of genomic DNA extracted from 105 adult patients (46 females and 59 males. There were 66 patients with basal cell carcinomas, 30 with squamous cell carcinomas, 2 with malignant melanomas and 7 patients with precancerous lesions. Two tissue samples were collected from each patient, one from the central portion of the tumor and another from normal skin. Using primers that encompass the entire exon 1, exon 8 and exon 18, where most of the mutations have been detected, we were unable to demonstrate any band shift. Three samples suspected to present aberrant migrating bands were excised from the gel and sequenced directly. In addition, we sequenced 12 other cases, including tumors and corresponding normal samples. A wild-type sequence was found in all 15 cases. Although our results do not exclude the presence of clonal alterations of the PTCH gene in skin cancers or mutations in other exons that were not screened, the present data do not support the presence of frequent mutations reported for non-melanoma skin cancer of other populations.

  7. Spontaneous cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania naiffi in two Dutch infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.

    2009-01-01

    We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were

  8. Histopathological characteristics of cutaneous lesions caused by Leishmania Viannia panamensis in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic disease in the Republic of Panama, caused by Leishmania (Viannia parasites, whose most common clinical manifestation is the presence of ulcerated lesions on the skin. These lesions usually present a chronic inflammatory reaction, sometimes granulomatous, with the presence of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. This study describes the histopathological characteristics found in the skin lesions of patients with CL caused by Leishmania (V. panamensis in Panama. We analyzed 49 skin biopsy samples from patients with clinical suspicion of CL, by molecular tests (PCR for subgenus Viannia and HSP-70 and by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Samples were characterized at the species level by PCR-HSP-70/RFLP. From the 49 samples studied, 46 (94% were positive by PCR and were characterized as Leishmania (V. panamensis. Of these, 48% were positive by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining with alterations being observed both, in the epidermis (85% and in the dermis (100% of skin biopsies. The inflammatory infiltrate was characterized according to histopathological patterns: lymphohistiocytic (50%, lymphoplasmacytic (61% and granulomatous (46% infiltration, being the combination of these patterns frequently found. The predominant histopathological characteristics observed in CL lesions caused by L. (V. panamensis in Panama were: an intense inflammatory reaction in the dermis with a combination of lymphohistiocytic, lymphoplasmacytic and granulomatous presentation patterns and the presence of ulcers, acanthosis, exocytosis and spongiosis in the epidermis.

  9. Use of a Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi for the Immunotherapy of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Background A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (rLdccys1) was previously shown to induce protective immune responses against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis. These findings encouraged us to use rLdccys1 in the immunotherapy of naturally infected dogs from Teresina, Piauí, a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty naturally infected mongrel dogs displaying clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis were randomly divided in three groups: one group received three doses of rLdccys1 in combination with the adjuvant Propionibacterium acnes at one month interval between each dose; a second group received three doses of P. acnes alone; a third group received saline. The main findings were: 1) dogs that received rLdccys1 with P. acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-γ and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-γ levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. acnes alone died within 3 to 7 months. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the potential use of rLdccys1 as an additional tool for the immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis and support further studies designed to improve the efficacy of this recombinant

  10. Skin Peeling Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

  11. Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Arissa Felipe; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

    2018-06-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is a causal agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). This protozoan has been poorly investigated; however, it can cause different clinical forms of ATL, ranging from a single cutaneous lesion to severe lesions that can lead to destruction of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. L. (V.) guyanensis and the disease caused by this species can present unique aspects revealing the need to better characterize this parasite species to improve our knowledge of the immunopathological mechanisms and treatment options for ATL. The mechanisms by which some patients develop a more severe form of ATL remain unclear. It is known that the host immune profile and parasite factors may influence the clinical manifestations of the disease. Besides intrinsic parasite factors, Leishmaniavirus RNA 1 (LRV1) infecting L. guyanensis can contribute to ATL immunopathogenesis. In this review, general aspects of L. guyanensis infection in humans and mouse models are presented.

  12. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M

    1998-08-01

    Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These

  13. In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Dhaenens, F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High-definition op......One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High......-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) appears to offer additional structural and cellular information on melanocytic lesions complementary to that of RCM. However, the diagnostic potential of HD-OCT seems to be not high enough for ruling out the diagnosis of melanoma if based on morphology analysis...

  14. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  15. A possible mechanism in the recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 cells through CD163(+) M2 macrophages in the lesional skin of eosinophilic cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Furudate, Sadanori; Kakizaki, Aya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophages play a critical role in the recruitment of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory T cells (Treg). To study the role of M2 macrophages and Treg cells in eosinophilic celulitis. We employed immunohistochemical staining for CD163( )and CD206 (macrophages) as well as FoxP3 (Treg), in lesional skin of four cases of eosinophilic cellulitis. CD163(+) CD206(+) M2 macrophages, which were previously reported to produce CCL17 to induce Th2 cells and Treg cells, were predominantly infiltrating the subcutaneous tissues and interstitial area of the dermis. M2 macrophages derived from PBMC showed significantly increased expression of CCL11, CCL17, CCL24 and CCL26 mRNA and production of CCL17 and CCL24, when stimulated by IL-4 or IL- 13. In addition, CCL17-producing cells and CCL24-producing cells were prominent in the lesional skin of EC. Our study sheds light on one of the possible immunological mechanisms of eosinophilic cellulitis.

  16. A role for b-cell-depleting agents in treating psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A case report and literature review

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    Ancuta Codrina Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding the pathological pathways, clinical pattern and management opportunities for new-onset psoriasis as a paradoxical adverse event in patients receiving TNF inhibitors for their immune-mediated disorder, there is a subset of patients who are either partial responders or non-responders, whatever the therapeutic scenario. We present the case of new-onset psoriasis and severe alopecia development in a case study of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with adalimumab (ADA and leflunomide. Since skin lesions and alopecia are resistant to the classic protocol (topical treatment, ADA discontinuation and RA becomes highly active, rituximab (RTX was started. Dramatic improvement in joint disease, total remission of alopecia and partial remission of pustular psoriasis were described after the first RTX cycle. Although B-cell-depleting agents result in controversial effects on psoriatic skin lesions, this is the first case of ADA-induced psoriasis and alopecia that improved under RTX, suggesting a possible role in treating such a patient population.

  17. Cutaneous infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and T regulatory cells in skin lesions of polymorphic light eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M T; Arisi, M; Lonardi, S; Lorenzi, L; Ungari, M; Serana, F; Fusano, M; Moggio, E; Calzavara-Pinton, P G; Venturini, M

    2018-02-11

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is the most common autoimmune photodermatosis. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are important mediators of innate antimicrobial immunity involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory skin diseases. In addition to PDCs, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in controlling inflammation and adaptive immunity in skin by their immunosuppressive capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of PDCs and Tregs in photoexposed skin from PLE compared to healthy skin. Patients with PLE diagnosis and healthy controls were recruited and underwent a photoprovocative test. A 4-mm punch biopsy was taken from the site of positive photoprovocation test reaction, and immunohistochemistry for BDCA2 as marker for PDCs, CD4 and FOXP3 as markers for Tregs was performed. Double immunostain for FOXP3 and CD4 was performed as well. Absolute counts for CD4, BDCA2 and FOXP3 were performed in at least 5 High Power Fields (HPF). Percentage of CD4-, BDCA2- and CD4FOXP3-positive cells over the total inflammatory infiltrate was assessed for each case. We enrolled 23 patients and controls. BDCA2+ cells were present in 91.3% of PLE skin samples and 100% of healthy volunteer. Both in PLE patients and healthy controls, PDCs distribution was mainly dermic (P PLE patients (P PLE patients and healthy controls, Tregs distribution was mainly dermic (P PLE patients compared to controls (P PLE, and dermal distribution of PDCs in PLE skin biopsies seems to confirm a possible overlap with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P; Thygesen, Sandra K; Nelson, Jeanenne J

    2016-05-03

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997-2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40% of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70% died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6% with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9% with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7% with Bowen's disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8% (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8% (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1% (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen's disease, 0.04% (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0%. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1%; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and non-cuSCC were

  19. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P.; Thygesen, Sandra K.; Nelson, Jeanenne J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997–2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40 % of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70 % died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6 % with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9 % with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7 % with Bowen’s disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8 % (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8 % (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1 % (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen’s disease, 0.04 % (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0 %. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1 %; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and

  20. Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Urbà; Pinart, Mariona; Sinclair, David; Firooz, Alireza; Enk, Claes; Vélez, Ivan D; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Tristan, Mario; Alvar, Jorge

    2015-08-05

    Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals. To assess the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions for cutaneous and for visceral leishmaniasis. We searched the following databases to 13 January 2015: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WHOLIS, Web of Science, and RePORTER. We also searched trials registers for ongoing trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions in leishmaniasis-endemic regions. Two review authors independently searched for trials and extracted data from included RCTs. We resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 14 RCTs that evaluated a range of interventions across different settings. The study methods were generally poorly described, and consequently all included trials were judged to be at high or unclear risk of selection and reporting bias. Only seven trials reported clinical outcome data which limits our ability to make broad generalizations to different epidemiological settings and cultures. Cutaneous leishmaniasisOne four-arm RCT from Afghanistan compared indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and insecticide-treated bedsheets, with no intervention. Over 15 months follow-up, all three insecticide-based interventions had a lower incidence of CL than the control area (IRS: risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.97, 2892 participants, moderate quality

  1. Arnica Tincture Cures Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Golden Hamsters

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    Sara M. Robledo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In search for potential therapeutic alternatives to existing treatments for cutaneous Leishmaniasis, we have investigated the effect of Arnica tincture Ph. Eur. (a 70% hydroethanolic tincture prepared from flowerheads of Arnica montana L. on the lesions caused by infection with Leishmania braziliensis in a model with golden hamsters. The animals were treated topically with a daily single dose of the preparation for 28 days. Subsequently, the healing process was monitored by recording the lesion size in intervals of 15 days up to day 90. As a result, Arnica tincture fully cured three out of five hamsters while one animal showed an improvement and another one suffered from a relapse. This result was slightly better than that obtained with the positive control, meglumine antimonate, which cured two of five hamsters while the other three showed a relapse after 90 days. This result encourages us to further investigate the potential of Arnica tincture in the treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

  2. Evaluation of PCR for cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis and species identification using filter paper samples in Panama, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A; Saldaña, A; González, K; Paz, H; Santamaría, G; Samudio, F; Calzada, J E

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major vectorborne disease in Panama. In this study, the diagnostic performance and usefulness of two DNA extraction procedures from skin scraping samples collected on FTA filter paper for subsequent PCR diagnosis of CL was evaluated. A positive CL laboratory diagnosis was based on a positive parasitological test (Giemsa-stained smears or in vitro culture) and/or positive PCR test performed from skin scrapings collected in TE buffer (PCR-TE). Of 100 patients with skin lesions suggestive of CL, 82 (82%) were confirmed as CL positive. The sensitivity was calculated for each of the PCR approaches from samples collected on filter paper. The highest sensitivity was achieved by PCR-FTA processed by Chelex 100 (PCR-Chelex) (0.94). PCR-FTA extracted using the FTA purification reagent presented a lower sensitivity (0.60). Good concordance between routine PCR-TE and PCR-Chelex was observed (percent agreement=0.88, κ index=0.65). In conclusion, use of FTA filter paper for skin scraping collection combined with PCR is a reliable and convenient method for CL diagnosis in Panama, with comparable performance to the routine PCR method and with improved sensitivity compared with those of conventional parasitological methods. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pomegranate (Punica granatum Juice Shows Antioxidant Activity against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis-Induced Oxidative Stress in Female BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriah Alkathiri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania species are parasites that multiply within phagocytes and cause several clinical diseases characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. One of the complications that can induce tissue damage and the resulting scars is caused by secondary bacterial infections. Studies to find new, effective, and safe oral drugs for treating leishmaniasis are being conducted since several decades, owing to the problems associated with the use of antimonials available. Previously, the antiparasitic and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum (pomegranate, P. granatum have been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the antileishmanial activity of pomegranate aqueous juice in vitro and in female BALB/c mice. A 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in Leishmania major promastigotes and alterations in the antioxidant status, liver function, and skin histological changes in L. major-infected mice orally treated with pomegranate juice alone and in combination with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, were used to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of pomegranate juice, respectively. Oral P. granatum juice treatment significantly reduced the average size of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions compared with that of the untreated mice. This antileishmanial activity of P. granatum was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Histopathological evaluation proved the antileishmanial activity of P. granatum, but did not reveal changes in the treated animals, compared to the positive control. In conclusion, P. granatum shows high and fast antileishmanial activity probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.

  4. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice Shows Antioxidant Activity against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis-Induced Oxidative Stress in Female BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, Badriah; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Metwally, Dina M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Bakhrebah, Muhammed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2017-12-18

    Leishmania species are parasites that multiply within phagocytes and cause several clinical diseases characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. One of the complications that can induce tissue damage and the resulting scars is caused by secondary bacterial infections. Studies to find new, effective, and safe oral drugs for treating leishmaniasis are being conducted since several decades, owing to the problems associated with the use of antimonials available. Previously, the antiparasitic and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum (pomegranate, P. granatum ) have been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the antileishmanial activity of pomegranate aqueous juice in vitro and in female BALB/c mice. A 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in Leishmania major promastigotes and alterations in the antioxidant status, liver function, and skin histological changes in L. major -infected mice orally treated with pomegranate juice alone and in combination with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, were used to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of pomegranate juice, respectively. Oral P. granatum juice treatment significantly reduced the average size of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions compared with that of the untreated mice. This antileishmanial activity of P. granatum was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Histopathological evaluation proved the antileishmanial activity of P. granatum , but did not reveal changes in the treated animals, compared to the positive control. In conclusion, P. granatum shows high and fast antileishmanial activity probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.

  5. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory G; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S

    2014-07-01

    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 366-385 nm) elicits a distinct orange-yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange-yellow wing fluorescence (n=80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n=88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n=22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n=40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS.

  6. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 368–385 nm) elicits a distinct orange–yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange–yellow wing fluorescence (n = 80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n = 88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n = 22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n = 40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS.

  7. Long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser ameliorates LL-37-induced rosacea-like skin lesions through promoting collagen remodeling in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miri; Kim, Jongsic; Jeong, Seo-Won; Jo, Hyunmu; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2018-02-01

    Long-pulsed 1064-nm neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (LPND) effectively treats rosacea, although the underlying mechanism is unclear, to evaluate the histological effects and molecular mechanism of LPND on LL-37-induced rosacea-like skin lesions in mice. Intradermal injection of LL-37 was performed into the dorsal skin of BALB/c mice (n = 30) twice a day for 2 days. Fifteen mice were treated with LPND. After 48 h, the excised skin sample was stained for histology and type I collagen; transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1α mRNA levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Intradermal injection of LL-37 induced rosacea-like clinical features. LPND treatment significantly reduced erythema and increased dermal collagen production. Levels of Type I collagen, TGF-β, and MMP-1 mRNA were significantly higher in LPND-treated mice than in untreated mice. LPND may improve rosacea by ameliorating dermal connective tissue disorganization and elastosis through MMP-mediated dermal collagen remodeling.

  8. Thermotherapy. An alternative for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    López Liliana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentavalent antimonials (Sb5 and miltefosine are the first-line drugs for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia; however, toxicity and treatment duration negatively impact compliance and cost, justifying an active search for better therapeutic options. We compared the efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Method An open randomized Phase III clinical trial was performed in five military health centres. located in northwestern, central and southern Colombia. Volunteers with parasitological positive diagnosis (Giemsa-stained smears of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included. A single thermotherapy session involving the application of 50°C at the center and active edge of each lesion. Meglumine antimoniate was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 20 mg Sb5/kg weight/day for 20 days. Results Both groups were comparable. The efficacy of thermotherapy was 64% (86/134 patients by protocol and 58% (86/149 by intention-to-treat. For the meglumine antimoniate group, efficacy by protocol was 85% (103/121 patients and 72% (103/143 by intention-to-treat, The efficacy between the treatments was statistically significant (p 0.01 and Leishmania species responsible for infection. The side effects of meglumine antimoniate included myalgia, arthralgia, headache and fever. Regarding thermotherapy, the only side effect was pain at the lesion area four days after the initiation of treatment. Conclusion Although the efficacy rate of meglumine antimoniate was greater than that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the side effects were also greater. Those factors, added to the increased costs, the treatment adherence problems and the progressive lack of therapeutic response, make us consider thermotherapy as a first line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Registered ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471705

  9. Thermotherapy. An alternative for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Liliana; Robayo, Martha; Vargas, Margarita; Vélez, Iván D

    2012-05-17

    Pentavalent antimonials (Sb5) and miltefosine are the first-line drugs for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia; however, toxicity and treatment duration negatively impact compliance and cost, justifying an active search for better therapeutic options. We compared the efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. An open randomized Phase III clinical trial was performed in five military health centres. located in northwestern, central and southern Colombia. Volunteers with parasitological positive diagnosis (Giemsa-stained smears) of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included. A single thermotherapy session involving the application of 50°C at the center and active edge of each lesion. Meglumine antimoniate was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 20 mg Sb5/kg weight/day for 20 days. Both groups were comparable. The efficacy of thermotherapy was 64% (86/134 patients) by protocol and 58% (86/149) by intention-to-treat. For the meglumine antimoniate group, efficacy by protocol was 85% (103/121 patients) and 72% (103/143) by intention-to-treat, The efficacy between the treatments was statistically significant (p 0.01 and effects of meglumine antimoniate included myalgia, arthralgia, headache and fever. Regarding thermotherapy, the only side effect was pain at the lesion area four days after the initiation of treatment. Although the efficacy rate of meglumine antimoniate was greater than that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the side effects were also greater. Those factors, added to the increased costs, the treatment adherence problems and the progressive lack of therapeutic response, make us consider thermotherapy as a first line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  10. Genome-wide relatedness of Treponema pedis, from gingiva and necrotic skin lesions of pigs, with the human oral pathogen Treponema denticola.

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    Olov Svartström

    Full Text Available Treponema pedis and T. denticola are two genetically related species with different origins of isolation. Treponema denticola is part of the human oral microbiota and is associated with periodontitis while T. pedis has been isolated from skin lesions in animals, e.g., digital dermatitis in cattle and necrotic ulcers in pigs. Although multiple Treponema phylotypes may exist in ulcerative lesions in pigs, T. pedis appears to be a predominant spirochete in these lesions. Treponema pedis can also be present in pig gingiva. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of T. pedis strain T A4, isolated from a porcine necrotic ear lesion, and compared its genome with that of T. denticola. Most genes in T. pedis were homologous to those in T. denticola and the two species were similar in general genomic features such as size, G+C content, and number of genes. In addition, many homologues of specific virulence-related genes in T. denticola were found in T. pedis. Comparing a selected pair of strains will usually not give a complete picture of the relatedness between two species. We therefore complemented the analysis with draft genomes from six T. pedis isolates, originating from gingiva and necrotic ulcers in pigs, and from twelve T. denticola strains. Each strain carried a considerable amount of accessory genetic material, of which a large part was strain specific. There was also extensive sequence variability in putative virulence-related genes between strains belonging to the same species. Signs of lateral gene-transfer events from bacteria known to colonize oral environments were found. This suggests that the oral cavity is an important habitat for T. pedis. In summary, we found extensive genomic similarities between T. pedis and T. denticola but also large variability within each species.

  11. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  12. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a Chinese family with distinct skin lesions refractory to vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, S H; Sourial, N A; Lu, K C; Hsueh, E J

    1994-01-01

    Two brothers in a Chinese family with selective malabsorption of vitamin B12 associated with proteinuria (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome) presented with widespread mottled skin pigmentation, termed poikiloderma. In contrast to anaemia, this pigmentary disturbance remained unresponsive to vitamin B12 replacement. This is different from the reported hyperpigmentation sometimes seen in vitamin B12 deficiency which is reversible following treatment. As far as is known, an irreversible and persistent...

  13. Fluoxetine ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxi Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4‑dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p. significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic.

  14. Detection of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia: accuracy of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Herintha Coeto Neitzke-Abreu

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL can occur in skin and mucosa, causing disfiguring lesions. The laboratory diagnosis of CL involves immunological methods and optical detection of the parasite, al of which have limitations. There is a need for more effective diagnostic methods for CL which wil allow treatment to be initiated more promptly in order to help prevent the development of severe forms of mucosal disease, and to estimate the prognosis of the infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been widely used to diagnose CL, because of its higher sensitivity. This study estimated the accuracy and compared PCRs of samples from lesion scarification (PCR-L and blood sample-enriched leukocytes (PCR-B with three conventional diagnostic techniques: parasite direct search (DS, Montenegro skin test (MST, and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF. The study included 276 patients under suspicion of CL. We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which patients were selected by convenience sampling. We used MP3H/MP1L primers to generate a Leishmania (Viannia (minicircle kDNA fragment of 70-bp. Of 106 patients with CL, 83.87%, 51.67%, 64.52%, 85.71%, or 96.10% tested positive by PCR-L, PCR-B, DS, IIF, or MST, respectively. Five patients tested positive only by PCR-L, and two other patients only by PCR-B. PCR-L is indicated for use in patients with chronic lesions or Leishmania reinfection, which may progress to mucosal lesion. PCR-B is indicated for use in patients with negative results in conventional tests or for patients with no apparent lesion. PCR is not only useful in diagnosing CL but also helps to identify the infecting species.

  15. Scoring clinical signs can help diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis in a highly endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Mendonça, Vitor Rosa Ramos de; Silva, Kellen Matuzzy; Nascimento, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Pinho, Flaviane Alves de; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires E

    2017-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83.93%), muzzle/ear lesions (55.36%), nutritional status (51.79%), bristle condition (57.14%), pale mucosal colour (48.21%), onychogryphosis (58.93%), skin lesion (39.28%), bleeding (12.50%), muzzle depigmentation (41.07%), alopecia (39.29%), blepharitis (21.43%), and keratoconjunctivitis (42.86%) were more frequent in dogs with CVL than in dogs with ehrlichiosis or without CVL. Moreover, the clinical score increased according to the positivity of all diagnostic tests (ELISA, p muzzle depigmentation (OR: 4.651; 95% CI: 2.218-9.750; p dogs with CVL in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources.

  16. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees

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    Sezen Koçarslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. Materials and Methods: At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients′ medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Results: Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years, consisting of 32 males (59.3% and 22 females (40.7%, were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%. The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%. Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. Conclusion: CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  17. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçarslan, Sezen; Turan, Enver; Ekinci, Turan; Yesilova, Yavuz; Apari, Rabia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients' medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years), consisting of 32 males (59.3%) and 22 females (40.7%), were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%). The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%). Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  18. Identification of Leishmania tropica from micro-foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kenyan Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiwuor, Samwel; Muia, Alfred; Magiri, Charles; Maes, Ilse; Kirigi, George; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Wasunna, Monique; Mbuchi, Margaret; Auwera, Gert Van der

    2012-07-01

    We performed diagnosis and species identification of parasites in lesion samples from suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in four villages, three of which are in a known Leishmania tropica endemic region in Kenya. Samples were analyzed both by microscopy and PCR for Leishmania, and typed by an assay using four ribosomal DNA-based species-identification PCRs. The lesions were demonstrated to be caused by L. tropica, which confirms the re-emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis from this species after a period of reduced incidence in the endemic zone. Our report highlights the importance of an intervention and sustained Leishmania control program.

  19. Evaluation of the histopathological classifications of American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

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    A. L. Bittencourt

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the reliability of histopathological classifications of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis the authors compared the histopathological patterns of two biopsies taken simultaneously from the same patient, and classified the material according to Ridley et al. (1980, to Magalhães et al. (1986a, and to a more simplified classification with only three patterns. District histopathological aspects, were observed in different lesions or even in the same lesion. The authors concluded that histopathological patterns do not represent a stage of tegumentary leishmaniasis, thus they can not be correlated with prognosis and therapeutical response as suggested in the literature.

  20. Use of the spectrophotometric color method for the determination of the age of skin lesions on the pig carcass and its relationship with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, M; Conte, S; Lessard, M; Deschêne, K; Benoit-Biancamano, M O; Celeste, C; Martelli, G; Sardi, L; Guay, F; Faucitano, L

    2017-09-01

    The presence of lesions on the pig carcass is an indicator of poor animal welfare and has economic impact as it downgrades the carcass value. The assessment of the age of lesions on the carcass may help identify risk factors and ultimately prevent their occurrence. The aim of this study was to assess the age of lesions on pig carcasses through spectrophotometric color evaluation and to relate the results with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters. A total of 96 barrows were mixed 4 times over 3 d before slaughter and 80 lesions were selected after skin lesion observations to define 4 age categories: carcass, and the color was assessed visually by a pictorial chart and instrumentally through a spectrophotometer. Delta values (Δ) were calculated as the difference between the value of the lesion and the value of the control for all measures, except for the histological analysis. Results indicated that visual color observation was not sufficiently accurate to discriminate lesions by time of infliction ( > 0.10), while the spectrophotometer ΔL* and Δa* values variation allowed the identification of 25 h old lesions ( 25 h old lesions; carcass lesions at slaughter appears to be a reliable method to discriminate between fresh and older lesions on the carcass at the abattoir.

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Mary Marcondes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is among the most important vector-borne diseases that occur in Brazil, mainly due to its zoonotic nature. It is currently present in almost all Brazilian territory, and its control is a challenge both for veterinarians and for public health officials. The etiologic agent is Leishmania infantum (syn chagasi, and the main vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Of all animals identified as reservoirs of VL, the dog is considered the most important domestic reservoir. Although the disease has already been identified in cats, the epidemiological role of this animal species is still unclear. This article presents a brief review of the epidemiological situation of the disease, its mode of transmission, clinical features in dogs and cats as well as possible risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in Brazil.

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis responds to daylight-activated photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enk, C D; Nasereddin, A; Alper, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Israel, with hundreds of new cases reported in recent years. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is highly effective for treatment of CL, but requires equipment available only at specialized centres. Daylight-activated PDT (DA-PDT) abolishes the need...... application of a thick layer of 16% methyl aminolaevulinate and 30-min occlusion, the lesions were exposed to daylight for 2·5 h. Treatment sessions were repeated at weekly intervals until clinical and microbiological cure. Control lesions were either treated with cryotherapy or left untreated. RESULTS...

  3. Epidemiology, pathology and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in taif region of saudi arabia.

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    Wajihullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an annoying and disfiguring disease affecting around 1,500,000 individuals globally. There are endemic pockets of this disease in Taif region. In some patients, lesion often weeps and leads to scar formation. The study was conducted to see the efficacy of fluconazole and itraconazole in the patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the effect of these drugs on liver enzymes and kidney markers.Positivity of Leishmania was recorded by microscopic examinations of smears. Specific diagnosis for Leishmania major and L. tropica was made with the help of nested polymerase chain reaction. Fluconazole was given at the rate of 200mg/day while itraconazole was given at 150mg/day for six weeks. AST, ALT, creatinine and urea were estimated during medication.Leishmania major and L. tropica were the species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Taif region. 81% patients had single lesions, mostly on face followed by hands and legs. 15% of the lesions had bacterial contamination. In terms of efficacy, fluconazole gave slightly better results compared to itraconazole. After 6 weeks of medications, slightly elevated values were recorded for liver enzymes and creatinine.Transmission of leishmaniasis in Taif region is probably because of poor coverage of residual insecticides spraying at hiding places in pile-ups of rocks and abandoned houses from where sand flies visit nearby houses and cattle sheds during night. Fluconazole and itraconazole may be used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with good recovery rate and fewer side effects.

  4. Beta-defensin-2 protein is a serum biomarker for disease activity in psoriasis and reaches biologically relevant concentrations in lesional skin.

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    Patrick A M Jansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have extensively documented antimicrobial and chemotactic activities of beta-defensins. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2 is strongly expressed in lesional psoriatic epidermis, and recently we have shown that high beta-defensin genomic copy number is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. It is not known, however, if biologically and pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of hBD-2 protein are present in vivo, which could support an antimicrobial and proinflammatory role of beta-defensins in lesional psoriatic epidermis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that systemic levels of hBD-2 showed a weak but significant correlation with beta defensin copy number in healthy controls but not in psoriasis patients with active disease. In psoriasis patients but not in atopic dermatitis patients, we found high systemic hBD-2 levels that strongly correlated with disease activity as assessed by the PASI score. Our findings suggest that systemic levels in psoriasis are largely determined by secretion from involved skin and not by genomic copy number. Modelling of the in vivo epidermal hBD-2 concentration based on the secretion rate in a reconstructed skin model for psoriatic epidermis provides evidence that epidermal hBD-2 levels in vivo are probably well above the concentrations required for in vitro antimicrobial and chemokine-like effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Serum hBD-2 appears to be a useful surrogate marker for disease activity in psoriasis. The discrepancy between hBD-2 levels in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis could explain the well known differences in infection rate between these two diseases.

  5. Intralesional Infiltration with Meglumine Antimoniate for the Treatment of Leishmaniasis Recidiva Cutis in Ecuador.

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    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Paredes, Yolanda; Puebla, Edison; Flores, Jessica; Loor, Richard; Padilla, José

    2017-11-01

    Meglumine Antimoniate (MA), administered intramuscularly for 21 continuous days is the recommended treatment of leishmaniases in Ecuador. However, because of its toxicity and requirement for intramuscular injections, treatment is frequently abandoned before completion. In addition, therapeutic failure and reactivation are not uncommon. Here we evaluate the efficacy and safety of MA administered intralesionally (IL) in leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC). LRC is a special clinical variant of cutaneous leishmaniasis, characterized by reactivation at the edges of a primary cured lesion, presenting with active papules around the scar. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. All were diagnosed parasitologically by one of three diagnostic methods (smear, culture, and Leishmanin skin test). Each patient received MA intralesionally weekly for 4 weeks. Each papule was infiltrated until complete saturation. On average, patients received 1 mL of MA per administration. The criterion of cure was the complete resolution of the papules. Follow up was performed at 30, 90, and 180 days after treatment. At day 30 after treatment, 19 (90.5%) of 21 patients were clinically cured. The two patients, who did not heal by the fourth application, were cured on the seventh and eighth dose, achieving a clinical cure of 100% without subsequent reactivation. Mild to moderate local pain during infiltration was the only adverse reaction experienced by 81% of patients. In one case, subsequent infiltrations were discontinued because of a local allergic reaction. Complete compliance of patients to treatment and the small volume of drug administered make this method of administering MA an effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative. Consequently, IL could replace intramuscular administration in the treatment of LRC in Ecuador.

  6. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central provinces of Hama and Edlib in Syria: Vector identification and parasite typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nabil; Saliba, Hanadi; Altawil, Atef; Villinsky, Jeffrey; Al-Nahhas, Samar

    2015-10-12

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease transmitted by sand fly bites. This disease is highly prevalent in Syria where Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica are the known aetiological agents. In 2011, more than 58,000 cases were reported in the country by the Ministry of Health. The central region of the country harbors 20 % of the reported cases. However, the epidemiology of the disease in this area is not well understood. An epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010 to identity the circulating parasite and the sand fly vector in the central provinces of Edlib and Hama. Sand fly specimens were collected using CDC light traps and identified morphologically. Total DNA was extracted from the abdomens of female specimens and from Giemsa-stained skin lesion smears of 80 patients. Leishmania parasites were first identified by sequencing the ITS1 gene amplicons. Then polymorphism analysis was performed using the RFLP technique. A total of 2142 sand flies were collected. They belonged to eight species, among which Phlebotomus sergenti and Phlebotomus papatasi were the most predominant. L. tropica ITS1 gene was amplified from two pools of P. sergenti specimens and from skin smears of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. This suggests that P. sergenti is the potential vector species in the study area. The digestion profiles of the obtained amplicons by TaqI restriction enzyme were identical for all analysed L. tropica parasites. Moreover, L. infantum ITS1 gene was amplified from two pools of Phlebotomus tobbi in the relatively humid zone of Edlib. L. tropica is confirmed to be the aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the central provinces. RFLP technique failed to show any genetic heterogeneity in the ITS1 gene among the tested parasites. The molecular detection of this parasite in human skin smears and in P. sergenti supports the vector status of this species in the study area. The detection of L. infantum in P. tobbi specimens indicates a potential

  8. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic enhancement of protective immunity during experimental leishmaniasis.

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    Senad Divanovic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Available therapies are problematic due to toxicity, treatment duration and emerging drug resistance. Mouse models of leishmaniasis have demonstrated that disease outcome depends critically on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4(+ T cell responses, something mirrored in descriptive studies of human disease. Recombinant IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (rIL-2/DTx, a drug that is FDA-approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, has been reported to deplete regulatory CD4(+ T cells.We investigated the potential efficacy of rIL-2/DTx as adjunctive therapy for experimental infection with Leishmania major. Treatment with rIL-2/DTx suppressed lesional regulatory T cell numbers and was associated with significantly increased antigen-specific IFN-γ production, enhanced lesion resolution and decreased parasite burden. Combined administration of rIL-2/DTx and sodium stibogluconate had additive biological and therapeutic effects, allowing for reduced duration or dose of sodium stibogluconate therapy.These data suggest that pharmacological suppression of immune counterregulation using a commercially available drug originally developed for cancer therapy may have practical therapeutic utility in leishmaniasis. Rational reinvestigation of the efficacy of drugs approved for other indications in experimental models of neglected tropical diseases has promise in providing new candidates to the drug discovery pipeline.

  10. Type 1- and type 2-like lesional skin-derived Mycobacterium leprae-responsive T cell clones are characterized by coexpression of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha and IL-4/IL-5/IL-13, respectively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, C. E.; van der Pouw Kraan, T. C.; Buffing, A. A.; Chand, M. A.; Faber, W. R.; Aarden, L. A.; Das, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    In an earlier study, we generated a large number of Mycobacterium leprae-responsive and M. leprae-nonresponsive T cell clones (TCC) from the lesional skin of immunologic unstable borderline leprosy patients. In that study, we divided TCC into type 1- and type 2-like on the basis of their IFN-gamma

  11. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumour associated with Leishmaniasis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizan, J T; Carreira, J T; Souza, N C; Carvalho, I R; Gomes, P B C; Lima, V M F; Orlandi, C M B; Rozza, D B; Koivisto, M B

    2012-12-01

    This report addresses an atypical transmissible venereal tumour in an 8-year-old bitch that was pluriparous and seropositive for leishmaniasis. There were ascites and a serosanguineous discharge from the vulva, but no lesions on the external genital mucosa. An aspirate of the peritoneal fluid showed mononuclear round cells characteristic of transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). Exploratory laparotomy revealed light red, granulomatous structures in the peritoneum, omentum, spleen, liver and uterine horns. Cytological and histopathological tests confirmed the diagnosis of intra-abdominal TVT. Dissemination of the TVT to several organs inside the abdominal cavity probably resulted from immunosuppression caused by leishmaniasis, which favoured the presence and aggressiveness of TVT. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

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    Ready PD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul D ReadyDisease Control Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKAbstract: Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control, surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL

  13. Efecto de la temperatura de la piel en la leishmaniasis cutanea experimental

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    Rodrigo Zeledón

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the thermosensitive properties of strains or species of Leishmania and of other miercorganisms is revised. Cutaneous or mucocutaneous strains that infect animais in the coldest areas of the skin or mucosa in general can not grow in tissue culture at 37°C or higher temperatures and their respiratory metabolism decreases at these temperatures. These facts suggest a thermosensitive event in some important metabolism phase of the organisme. The strains or species that are able to produce visceral leishmaniasis were probably originated from cutaneous strains after genetioally determined physiological adaptation, to warmer temperatures. These strains can not only visceralize in animais and man but will also grow in tissue culture at 36-37°C and the respiratory metabolism will be higher at such temperatures. There are reasons to believe that intermediate strains, i. e., with properties of both groupsí do exist. A thermosensitive physiological event is a more general phenomenon and examples of it can also be found in the fields of virology, bacteriology and mycology. It has practical applications since some of the diseases produced by these agents can be cured by treatments with heat or artificial fever. Experiments along these line were performed on hamsters with a Costa Rican strain of L. braziliensis as an experimental model. Even after intraperitoneal inoculation lesions appear in the nose, ears, paws and tail with a subcutaneous temperature bellow 33°C at 22-24°C. Healing of the lesión is accomplished by increasing room temperature. A good lesión is produced in the rump of the animal if the area is depilated (comercial cream depilatory previously and the naked skin cooled artificially. Elevated temperature, or the growing back of the hair will tend to diminish or cure the lesion.

  14. Visceral leishmaniasis: an update of laboratory diagnosis

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    Zineb Tlamcani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis, is an infection due to obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There exist two varieties of visceral leishmaniasis, that vary in their transmission aspects: zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis and anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis. Their clinical features are comparable with sevral differences. Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis consists of microscopic observation of parasite, culture from appropriate samples, detection of antigen, serological tests, and identification of parasite DNA. In this review, we will discuss the different techniques of diagnosis and the interet of the recent methods such as rapid diagnostic test and direct agglutination test.

  15. Coinfection of Leishmania guyanensis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Aguirre, Cristina; Cevallos, William; Castillo, Alberto; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Warburg, Alon

    2017-01-01

    Reported herein is the first case of Leishmania–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Ecuador. In Ecuador, HIV infections overlap endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for developing severe disease. This is a severe case of a 32-year-old man presenting with disseminated pleomorphic ulcers, papules, and cutaneous plaque-like lesions over his whole body. Numerous amastigotes were observed in both skin scrapings and biopsies. The sequence of the cytochrome b gene confirmed the presence of Leishmania guyanensis. The patient was treated but failed to respond to meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B. Six months later, the patient died due to bacterial septic shock. PMID:28193741

  16. AIDS-Related Endemic Mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa, and Clinical Mimics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Adults With Advanced HIV and Recent-Onset, Widespread Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Lehloenya, Rannakoe; Claasens, Saskya; Spengane, Zandile; Prozesky, Hans; Burton, Rosie; Parker, Arifa; Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Mendelson, Marc; Taljaard, Jantjie; Schneider, Johann W; Beylis, Natalie; Maloba, Bonnie; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Dlamini, Sipho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses. Methods We prospectively enrolled HIV-infected adult patients living in Western Cape, South Africa, with CD4 counts ≤100 cells/μL and widespread skin lesions present ≤6 months that were deemed clinically compatible with SM. We obtained skin biopsies for histopathology and fungal culture and collected epidemiological and clinical data. Results Of 34 patients enrolled and in whom a diagnosis could be made, 25 had proven SM: 14 had emergomycosis, and 3 each had histoplasmosis and sporotrichosis; for 5 additional patients, the fungal species could not be identified. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) had been initiated in the preceding 4 weeks for 11/25 (44%) patients with SM (vs no patients without SM). Plaques and scale crust occurred more frequently in patients with SM (96% vs 25%, P = .0002; and 67% vs 13%, P = .01, respectively). Conclusions Recent ART initiation and presence of plaques or scale crust should make clinicians consider SM in patients with advanced HIV infection in this geographic area. Clinical overlap between SM and other dermatoses makes early skin biopsy critical for timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29164168

  17. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  18. Emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanayaka, Rohana; Kahawita, Indra; Gamage, Ajith; Siribaddana, Sisira; Agampodi, Suneth

    2014-02-01

    To report cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. The study population included all patients with CL reported from Polonnaruwa district from January 2008 through April 2012. Data were collected in the dermatology unit of Polonnaruwa General Hospital and the regional epidemiology unit of Polonnaruwa. Four hundred and forty six patients with leishmaniasis were detected; clinical details were available for 362. Mean annual incidence of leishmaniasis between 2008 and 2012 in Polonnaruwa district was 26.2 per 100,000. The case incidence steadily increased during the study period. Case distribution by month peaked between August and November. Cases were geographically clustered in three administrative divisions with a mean annual incidence ranging from 94.7 to 54.1 per 100,000 population. Significantly more (n = 294, 65.9%) males than females were affected (χ(2) for goodness of fit = 48.4, P < 0.001). The commonest type of lesion was nodules (n = 157, 43.4%) followed by crust (n = 116, 32.0%). The majority of patients had lesions on upper limbs (n = 144, 39.8%) or the face (n = 117, 32.3%). Cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasing in Polonnaruwa, with clear spatial and temporal clustering. Sri Lanka needs more vigilant leishmaniasis surveillance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Interconnecting smartphone, image analysis server, and case report forms in clinical trials for automatic skin lesion tracking in clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Daniel; Doma, Aliaa; Gombert, Alexander; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    Today, subject's medical data in controlled clinical trials is captured digitally in electronic case report forms (eCRFs). However, eCRFs only insufficiently support integration of subject's image data, although medical imaging is looming large in studies today. For bed-side image integration, we present a mobile application (App) that utilizes the smartphone-integrated camera. To ensure high image quality with this inexpensive consumer hardware, color reference cards are placed in the camera's field of view next to the lesion. The cards are used for automatic calibration of geometry, color, and contrast. In addition, a personalized code is read from the cards that allows subject identification. For data integration, the App is connected to an communication and image analysis server that also holds the code-study-subject relation. In a second system interconnection, web services are used to connect the smartphone with OpenClinica, an open-source, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved electronic data capture (EDC) system in clinical trials. Once the photographs have been securely stored on the server, they are released automatically from the mobile device. The workflow of the system is demonstrated by an ongoing clinical trial, in which photographic documentation is frequently performed to measure the effect of wound incision management systems. All 205 images, which have been collected in the study so far, have been correctly identified and successfully integrated into the corresponding subject's eCRF. Using this system, manual steps for the study personnel are reduced, and, therefore, errors, latency and costs decreased. Our approach also increases data security and privacy.

  20. Optimization of microculture and evaluation of miniculture for the isolation of Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Espinosa, Diego; Arevalo, Jorge; Martinez-Medina, Dalila; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Low, Donald E

    2008-12-01

    Traditional culture of Leishmania parasites is labor-intensive and shows poor sensitivity. We evaluated microculture and novel miniculture methods for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Consecutive patients who came to the Leishmaniasis Clinic, Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru, were enrolled. Lesion aspirates were cultured in traditional tubes containing Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle medium and in miniculture tubes (Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany) and capillary tubes (microculture) containing RPMI 1640 medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum. The reference standard was positive results in two of four tests (smear, culture, polymerase chain reaction, or leishmanin skin test). Outcome measures were sensitivity and time to positivity. Fifty-five patients with 74 lesions were enrolled. Of 59 lesions that fulfilled reference criteria for CL, 50 were positive by microculture (sensitivity=84.7%; P=0.001), 45 by miniculture (sensitivity=76.3%; P=0.042), and 35 by traditional culture (sensitivity=59.3%). Median time to positivity was three days by microculture and miniculture and five days by traditional culture (PMicroculture and miniculture are sensitive and efficient means of diagnosing CL.

  1. Influence of apoptosis on the cutaneous and peripheral lymph node inflammatory response in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Bandarra, Marcio de Barros; Magalhães, Geórgia Modé; Munari, Danísio Prado; Machado, Gisele Fabrino; Prandini, Marcelo Martinasso; Alessi, Antonio Carlos; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri

    2013-02-18

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), the abnormalities most commonly observed in clinical examination on the animals are lymphadenomegaly and skin lesions. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir for the protozoon Leishmania (L.) chagasi and the skin is the main site of contamination by the vector insect. Some protozoa use apoptosis as an immunological escape mechanism. The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of apoptosis with the parasite load and with the inflammatory response in the skin and lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) chagasi. Thirty-three dogs from the municipality of Araçatuba (São Paulo, Brazil) were used, an endemic area for CVL. Muzzle, ear and abdominal skin and the popliteal, subscapular, iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes of symptomatic (S), oligosymptomatic (O) and asymptomatic (A) dogs were analyzed histologically. The parasite load and percentage apoptosis were evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique. Microscopically, the lymph nodes presented chronic lymphadenitis and the skin presented plasmacytic infiltrate and granulomatous foci in the superficial dermis, especially in the ear and muzzle regions. The inflammation was most severe in group S. The parasite load and apoptotic cell density were also greatest in this group. The cause of the lymphoid atrophy in these dogs was correlated with T lymphocyte apoptosis, thus leaving the dogs more susceptible to CVL. The peripheral lymph nodes presented the greatest inflammatory response. Independent of the clinical picture, the predominant inflammatory response was granulomatous and plasmacytic, both in the skin and in the peripheral lymph nodes. The ear skin presented the greatest intensity of inflammation and parasite load, followed by the muzzle skin, in group S. The ear skin area presented a non-significant difference in cell profile, with predominance of macrophages, and a significant difference from group A to groups O and S. It was seen that in

  2. Accelerated healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis in non-healing BALB/c mice using water soluble amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corware, Karina; Harris, Debra; Teo, Ian; Rogers, Matthew; Naresh, Kikkeri; Müller, Ingrid; Shaunak, Sunil

    2011-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease that causes prominent skin scaring. No water soluble, non-toxic, short course and low cost treatment exists. We developed a new water soluble amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid (AmB-PMA) using established and scalable chemistries. AmB-PMA was stable for 9 months during storage. In vitro, it was effective against Leishmania spp. promastigotes and amastigote infected macrophages. It was also less toxic and more effective than deoxycholate-AmB, and similar to liposomal AmB. Its in vivo activity was determined in both early and established CL lesion models of Leishmania major infection in genetically susceptible non-healing BALB/c mice. Intradermal AmB-PMA at a total dose of 18 mg of AmB/kg body weight led to rapid parasite killing and lesion healing. No toxicity was seen. No parasite relapse occurred after 80 days follow-up. Histological studies confirmed rapid parasite clearance from macrophages followed by accelerated fibroblast mediated tissue repair, regeneration and cure of the infection. Quantitative mRNA studies of the CL lesions showed that accelerated healing was associated with increased Tumour Necrosis Factor-α and Interferon-γ, and reduced Interleukin-10. These results suggest that a cost-effective AmB-PMA could be used to pharmacologically treat and immuno-therapeutically accelerate the healing of CL lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidian M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multidermatomal zosteriform CL. It was resistant to conventional treatment but responded well to a combination of meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol, and cryotherapy.

  4. Efficacy of glucantime for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glucantime remains the first-line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. In a prospective study, we evaluated its efficacy and side effects in patients treated in Yazd from 2010 to 2011. Methods: Patients with lesions compatible with cutaneous leishmaniasis were considered eligible for inclusion in this study if the disease was confirmed parasitologically. The exclusion criteria were as follows: the patient preferred a treatment modality other than Glucantime; there was no indication for treatment; the patient had underlying kidney, liver, or cardiac disease; or was pregnant and lactating.Patients with ≤3 lesions and/or lesions <3 cm in diameter were treated with Glucantime intralesionally if the lesions were not located on the face, neck or joints; sporotrichoid; or superinfected with bacteria. All other patients were prescribed intramuscular Glucantime at 10–20 mg/kg/day for 20 days. Results: The failure rate for patients treated with one course of Glucantime was 22.6% overall. There were no associations between age, sex, weight, the route of administration, the number and size of lesions, the adequacy of the dose of the drug injected intramuscularly, the number of intralesional injections (<6 or ≥6 and the duration of therapy. The only factor associated with failure was reported previous exposure to antimony (p value 0.047. Adverse effects occurred in 14.2% of patients (22/155. Conclusion: Glucantime is an effective drug for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Iran. However, because cutaneous leishmaniasis heals spontaneously and to prevent the acquisition of resistance, the indications for treatment in each region should be defined carefully. Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Efficacy, Glucantime, Iran

  5. Cutaneous Manifestations of Human and Murine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna M. Scorza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes. This review discusses the distinct cutaneous syndromes described in humans, and current knowledge of the inflammatory responses associated with divergent cutaneous pathologic responses to different Leishmania species. The contribution of key hematopoietic cells in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in mouse models are also reviewed and compared with those observed during human infection. We hypothesize that local skin events influence the ensuing adaptive immune response to Leishmania spp. infections, and that the balance between inflammatory and regulatory factors induced by infection are critical for determining cutaneous pathology and outcome of infection.

  6. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a simple, rapid, and standardized tool for molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru.

  7. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a Simple, Rapid, and Standardized Tool for Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K.; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru. PMID:19553579

  8. Skin lesions and inoculation eschars at the tick bite site in spotted fever group rickettsioses: experience from a patient series in eastern crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanakis, Antonis; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main clinical signs and symptoms caused by a rickettsial infection typically begin 6-10 days after the bite and are accompanied by nonspecific findings such as fever, headache and muscle pain. The diagnosis is mainly based on serological tests, however antibody presentation may be delayed, at least at the early stages of the disease, while seroconversion is usually detected 10-15 days after disease onset. Culture is difficult, requires optimized facilities and often proves negative. Under this scope, the presence of a characteristic inoculation eschar at the bite site may prove a useful clinical tool towards the early suspicion and diagnosis/differential diagnosis of tick-borne rickettsioses, even before the onset of rash and fever or serological confirmation. We describe herein the presence of skin lesions and/or an inoculation eschar at the tick bite site in 17 patients diagnosed, by molecular means, as suffering from spotted fever group rickettsioses. The detection of the pathogen's DNA in biopsy samples proved to be a useful means for early rickettsiae detection and identification. Moreover, the presence of an infiltrated erythema always seemed to precede the appearance of an eschar by 2-5 days and the initiation of fever by 1-10 days; these two signs might also prove useful in the context of the final diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dutch military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is een tropische ziekte veroorzaakt door een parasiet die wordt overgebracht door de zandvlieg. Pieter-Paul van Thiel beschrijft de besmetting van militairen tijdens drie missies in Afghanistan, en jungletrainingen in Suriname en Belize. Bij een missie in Noord-Afghanistan in 2005

  11. La leishmaniasis: conocimientos y prácticas en poblaciones de la costa del Pacífico de Colombia Leishmaniasis: knowledge and practices in populations of the Pacific coast of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Isaza

    1999-09-01

    ún pudo observarse en 102 de 155 respuestas. No se encontraron diferencias atribuibles al género en los conocimientos y prácticas acerca de la leishmaniasis, con excepción de la falta de conocimiento de las mujeres acerca del tratamiento de la enfermedad. Esta investigación resalta la importancia de estudiar los conocimientos y prácticas de los habitantes locales antes de diseñar y organizar programas educativos sobre el control de la leishmaniasis.In 1997 a descriptive study with a qualitative emphasis was carried out in order to document, by gender, the knowledge and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis among inhabitants 14 years and older in seven communities of Colombia's Pacific coastal department of Chocó. Since the control activities carried out by the Chocó Sectional Health Services had not had the desired results, the residents of the region were at high risk of contracting leishmaniasis, which they called bejuco (liana and yateví. Qualitative data were collected by directly involving each community in discussion workshops and by interviewing knowledgeable informants. Using these materials as a foundation, the researchers prepared a survey with 10 closed-ended questions, which they administered to all persons over 14 years of age in each randomly chosen home visited. The results indicate that 94% of the population knew that leishmaniasis appeared as a skin disease; those not knowing that were more often women than men. With respect to the mode of transmission, 35% of the respondents connected the disease to the bite of an insect, but they did not what the etiologic agent was and thought that the bite was inflicted by a worm that lives in the mountains. In the communities studied, the residents used a great variety of treatments to cure the disease. The treatments were based on plants, chemical substances, burning the lesions with a piece of heated metal, and, to a lesser degree, drugs. Despite being responsible for taking care of sick persons in

  12. Diabetes melutus associated with pentamidine isethionate in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Jackson Mauricio Lopes Costa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of a male patient from Bacabal, MA with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL, for at least nine years, with 168 lesions on his body. These were tumour-like nodules with some ulceratmi. He usedpentavalent antimonial (glucantime® and an association of gamma interferon plus glucantime with improvement of the lesions but relapsed later. Recently, pentamidine isethionate (pentacarinat® was given a dosage of 4mg/kg/weight/day on alternate days for 20 applications. After 3 months a similar course of 10 application was given 2 times. Later he developed diabetic signs with weight loss of 10kg, polydypsia, polyuria and xerostomia. The lower limbs lesions showed signs of activity. Blood glucose levels normalised and remain like this at moment. Attention is drawn to the fact that pentamidine isethionate should be used as a therapy option with care, obeyng rigorous laboratory controls including a glucose tolerance test.

  13. Atypical post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis with "muzzle area" swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sandeep; Bal, Arvinder Singh; Baveja, Sukriti; Sood, Aradhana; Rathi, Khushi Ram; Patil, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with recurrent swelling of the muzzle area of the face with history of low-grade intermittent fever of 3 year duration managed variously with antibiotics, systemic steroids, and antituberculous therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a granulomatous infiltration negative for acid-fast bacilli and leishmania donovan bodies. Immunochromatography test for rK 39 antigen and polymerase chain reaction for leishmania was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis, managed with injection sodium stibogluconate and followed-up thereafter.

  14. The subclinical form of experimental visceral leishmaniasis in dogs

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    G. G. S. Oliveira

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological aspects of a subclinical form of experimental canine leishmaniasis is reported here for the first time. Fifteen mongrel dogs were used in the present study. Eight dogs were infected and seven were used as control. Four of the control dogs were inoculated with spleen cells from non-infected hamsters. The eight mongrel dogs inoculated intravenously with amastigotes forms of Leishmania chagasi envolved for periods as long as 25 months without any clinical characteristic sign of classical Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. Most of the laboratory test results were compatible to those of the seven control animals but culture of bone marrow aspirated material and serologic testing (IIF demonstrated or provided evidence that the animals were infected. The most important and predominant histopathological lesion in infected animals were epitheloid granulomas presented in the liver, spleen, adrenal gland and lung of some animals. Channels containing erythrocytes in some granulomas of the liver suggeste that these granulomas are formed inside sinusoidal capillaries. Despite the animals were proved to be infected and presented characteristic histologic lesions, they did not present external signs of disease. The granulomatous aspect of the lesions indicates a good immunologic reactivity and suggest that a host-parasite equilibrium does exist in the dog experimental model

  15. A molecular and parasitological survey on cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from historical city of Kashan in Isfahan province, center of Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Shiee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL for identifying the dominant Leishmania species on CL patients referred to medical health centers of historical Kashan city and suburbs located in Isfahan province in central part of Iran during 2010 to 2011. Methods: From 137 CL cases, were microscopically positive, the skin lesion serosity materials of 103 cases were cultured in monophasic culture media (RPMI 1 640. We used the PCR-RFLP method for characterization the Leishmania isolates, by using specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 primers and HAEШ as the restriction fast enzyme. DNA was extracted from 63 samples. Results: L. tropica is main species in 58 (92.1% cases and L. major is identified in 5 (7.9% cases. Indeed randomly two isolates were the species characterized as L. major produced ulcer at the base tail of BALB/c mice after 3 weeks but from three L. tropica isolates none of them produced any lesion during 6 months post inoculation. Conclusions: The parasitological, epidemiological aspect and molecular methods of this study showed that, Kashan and suburb are anthroponetic CL area despite this city located in Isfahan province as an ancient focus of zoonotic CL in Iran.

  16. Plasma levels of interlukin-4 and Interferon- in patients with chronic or healed cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Taheri; Vahid Mashayekhi Goyonlo; Yalda Nahidi; Nasrin Moheghi; Jalil Tavakkol Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study, the serum level of interferon-γ (IFN- γ) and interlukin-4 (IL-4) was evaluated as a marker of Th1 and Th2 immune response that influence the clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis . Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 44 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (21 cases with healed lesions and 23 cases with chronic non-healing lesions. Thirty-two non-infected persons living in the area were considered as controls. Serum levels of IFN- γ...

  17. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  18. Obtaining membranes for alternative treatment hydrogels of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric Hydrogels formed by crosslinked polymeric chains were obtained by ionizing radiation process according to Rosiak technique. In the last 40 years the use of hydrogels has been investigated for various applications as curatives. In this work hydrogel membranes were synthesized with poly (N-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan and laponita clay for use as a vehicle for controlled glucantime release on the surface of skin tissues injured by leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomies sandfly. The traditional treatment of patients infected by these parasites is done with pentavalent antimony in injectable form. However, these antimonates are highly toxic and cause side effects in these patients. In addition, patients with heart and kidney disease can not use this treatment. In treatment with drug delivery hydrogel membrane applied on the surface of leishmaniasis injured tissues the drug is released directly to the wound in a controlled manner, reducing the side effects. Membranes prepared in this study were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), swelling, gel fraction, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations of cytotoxicity and drug release were made 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' with functional test according to ethical protocol of the Division of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases at the Hospital of Clinics, Sao Paulo University-School of Medicine, University. The 'in vivo' test of these membranes proved to be effective in controlled release of drugs directly into leishmaniasis damaged tissues. Results of 'in vivo' tests using PVP/PVAl / clay 1,5% and glucantime membrane showed remarkable contribution to wound reduction and cure in clinical therapy. (author)

  19. Concurrent cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a kidney transplant patient

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    Gontijo Célia MF

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of leishmaniasis co-infection have been described in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients as well as those who have undergone organ transplants, to our knowledge, the present report is the first documented case of simultaneous cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a transplant patient. The patient had been using immunosuppressive drugs since receiving a transplanted kidney. The first clinical signs of leishmaniasis included fever, thoracic pain, hepatosplenomegaly, leucopenia and anemia. The cutaneous disease was revealed by the presence of amastigotes in the skin biopsy. After three months, the patient presented fever with conjunctive hyperemia, intense ocular pain and low visual acuity. Parasites isolated from iliac crest, aqueous humor and vitreous body were examined using a range of molecular techniques. The same strain of L. (V. braziliensis was responsible for the different clinical manifestations. The immunosuppressive drugs probably contributed to the dissemination of Leishmania.

  20. Diagnóstico molecular para Leishmaniasis

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    Ysabel Montoya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial diagnóstico de epitopes inmunodominantes seleccionados fue ensayado satisfactoriamente a fin de obtener una prueba serodiagnóstica alternativa para la Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana. Dos proteínas recombinantes prometedoras de L. (v. peruviana referidas como T-26-U2/T26-U4 fueron reconocidas por sueros individuales de pacientes con Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana usando Western Blot. La sensibilidad de la prueba fue de 86% con sueros permanentes con Leishmaniasis peruana.

  1. Severity of tegumentary leishmaniasis is not exclusively associated with Leishmania RNA virus 1 infection in Brazil

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    Luiza de Oliveira Ramos Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania RNA virus (LRV has been shown to be a symbiotic component of Leishmania parasites in South America. Nested retro-transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed to investigate LRV1 presence in leishmaniasis lesions from Brazil. In endemic areas of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, no LRV1 infection was observed even with mucosal involvement. LRV1 was only detected in Leishmania (V. guyanensis cutaneous lesions from the northern region, which were obtained from patients presenting with disease reactivation after clinical cure of their primary lesions. Our results indicated that the severity of leishmaniasis in some areas of RJ, where Leishmania (V. brazi-liensis is the primary etiological agent, was not associated with Leishmania LRV1 infection.