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Sample records for leishmaniasis skin lesions

  1. The microbiological signature of human cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions exhibits restricted bacterial diversity compared to healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Vanessa R; de Queiroz, Artur TL; Sanabani, Sabri S; de Oliveira, Camila I; Carvalho, Edgar M; Costa, Jackson ML; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is the most common form of cutaneous leishmaniasis characterised by single or multiple painless chronic ulcers, which commonly presents with secondary bacterial infection. Previous culture-based studies have found staphylococci, streptococci, and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in LCL lesions, but there have been no comparisons to normal skin. In addition, this approach has strong bias for determining bacterial composition. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacterial communities in LCL lesions differ from those found on healthy skin (HS). Using a high throughput amplicon sequencing approach, which allows for better populational evaluation due to greater depth coverage and the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline, we compared the microbiological signature of LCL lesions with that of contralateral HS from the same individuals.Streptococcus, Staphylococcus,Fusobacterium and other strict or facultative anaerobic bacteria composed the LCL microbiome. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria found in HS, including environmental bacteria, were significantly decreased in LCL lesions (p < 0.01). This paper presents the first comprehensive microbiome identification from LCL lesions with next generation sequence methodology and shows a marked reduction of bacterial diversity in the lesions. PMID:27074253

  2. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Gadir, A Fattah A; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    cells. Degenerating basal keratinocytes expressed HLA-DR, ICAM-1 and Leishmania antigen and closely interacted with CD4 T cells. Regional lymph nodes showed hyperplasia of the B- and T-cell zones. Conclusions: The inflammatory reaction in PKDL lesions is in response to Leishmania parasites and...... leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes....

  3. Spontaneous regional heading of extensive skin lesions in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL

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    Jackson M.L. Costa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, with longstanding evolution and presenting with diffuse infiltrated lesions rich in amastigotes in the absence of mucosal involvement. In situ characterization with monoclonal antibodies revealed Leishmania amazonensis. Large regional lesions have presented spontaneous healing without specific therapy. Considering that DCL presents with a defect in the cellular immune response, thisfact demonstrate that this patient may develop a regional cellular immune response enough to destroy the parasites and to produce clearing of some lesions.Os autores relatam um caso de leishmaniose cutânea difusa, com longa evolução epresençade lesões infiltradas difusas ricas em amastigotas havendo ausência de envolvimento mucoso. A caracterização in situ com anticorpos monocbnais revelou Leishmania amazonensis. Durante a evolução de sua doença, extensas lesões regionais apresentaram cicatrizaçâo espontânea, Considerando que a LCD apresenta-se com um déficit na resposta imune celular, este fato demonstra que o paciente pode ter desenvolvido uma resposta imune celular regional capaz de destruir os parasitas e produzir cicatrizaçâo de algumas lesões.

  4. Infrequency of gross skin lesions among Panamanian forest mammals with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1975-08-01

    Natural leishmanial infections among feral mammals in the Republic of Panama were studied in relation to gross skin alterations. Three dermatotropic species of Leishmania, L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. hertigi, isolated from 230 sylvatic animals of 5 mammalian orders were involved. In 205 (89%) of the cases there were no gross skin alterations. Cryptic infections of all three leishmanial species among wild animals were confirmed by culture and hamster inoculation. This type of infection was always present in the sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infusatcus, infected with L. braziliensis and in the porcupine, Coendou rothschildi, infected with L. hertigi. Suggestive skin alterations were encountered in 10 (4%) of infected animals. Only 15 (7%) of infected animals exhibited typical leishmanial lesions. It was possible to correlate skin depigmentation with the course of leishmanial infection in one animal, a young kinkajou, Potos flavus.

  5. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  6. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic.

  7. Immunopathology of skin lesions

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    Khan Nazoora

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  8. Development of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Leishmania Skin Test

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    Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Machado, Gustavo U.; Dantas, Marina L.; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7 mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32 mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24 mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): 2,943 pg/mL and 2,313 pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers. PMID:22162702

  9. Development of cutaneous leishmaniasis after leishmania skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R; Carvalho, Augusto M; Machado, Gustavo U; Dantas, Marina L; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7 mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32 mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24 mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): 2,943 pg/mL and 2,313 pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers.

  10. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  11. Isolation of bacteria causing secondary bacterial infection in the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Ziaie Hengameh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. Secondary bacterial infection is one of the complications of the disease that can increase the tissue destruction and the resulting scar. Objective: To effectively determine the incidence of real secondary bacteria infection in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we designed the current study. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Centre, Isfahan, Iran. In this study, 854 patients with confirmed CL were enrolled. Samples were taken from all the patients. Sterile swaps were achieved for the ulcer exudates and scraping was used for nonulcerated lesions. All the samples were transferred to tryptic soy broth medium. After 24 h of incubation in 37°C, they were transferred to eosin methylene blue agar (EBM and blood agar. Laboratory tests were used to determine the species of bacteria. All of the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi-square. Results: Among 854 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis, 177 patients (20.7% had positive cultures for secondary bacterial infection. Bacteria isolated from the lesions were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus - 123 cases (69.4%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus - 41 cases (23.1%, E. coil - 7 cases (3.9%, Proteus - 3 cases (1.7% and Klebsiella - 3 cases (1.7%. Conclusions: The incidence of secondary bacterial infection in lesions of CL was 20.7%. The most common isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus . The incidence of secondary bacterial infection was significantly more in the ulcerated lesions as compared with nonulcerated lesions ( P = 0.00001.

  12. Skin lesion biopsy

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    ... procedure will leave a small indented area. This type of biopsy is often done when a skin cancer is ... may have stitches to close the area. This type of biopsy is often done to diagnose rashes . EXCISIONAL BIOPSY ...

  13. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

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    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  14. Self-inflicted skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Smith, Matthias Nybro; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on the management of self-inflicted skin lesions points to an overall paucity of treatments with a high level of evidence (randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, or meta-analyses). In order to improve the communication between dermatologists and mental health...

  15. Chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in the lesions of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Nilka Luisa Diaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL presents distinct active clinical forms with different grades of severity, known as localised (LCL, intermediate (ICL and diffuse (DCL cutaneous leishmaniasis. LCL and DCL are associated with a polarised T-helper (Th1 and Th2 immune response, respectively, whereas ICL, or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis, is associated with an exacerbated immune response and a mixed cytokine expression profile. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in cellular migration and are critical in the inflammatory response. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of the chemokines CXCL10, CCL4, CCL8, CCL11 and CXCL8 and the chemokine receptors CCR3, CXCR3, CCR5 and CCR7 in the lesions of patients with different clinical forms of ACL using immunohistochemistry. LCL patients exhibited a high density of CXCL10+, CCL4+ and CCL8+ cells, indicating an important role for these chemokines in the local Th1 immune response and the migration of CXCR3+ cells. LCL patients showed a higher density of CCR7+ cells than ICL or DCL patients, suggesting major dendritic cell (DC migration to lymph nodes. Furthermore, DCL was associated with low expression levels of Th1-associated chemokines and CCL11+ epidermal DCs, which contribute to the recruitment of CCR3+ cells. Our findings also suggest an important role for epidermal cells in the induction of skin immune responses through the production of chemokines, such as CXCL10, by keratinocytes.

  16. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  17. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  18. Leishmaniasis in the knee area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bava Amadeo Javier; Rossi Maria Laura; Seley Celeste; Troncoso Alcides

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by species leishmaniae, which can produce two types of manifestations: visceral and cutaneous. In south America cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common than visceral leishmaniasis. A case of primary cutaneous leishmaniasis from Bolivia is presented for its rarity. The patient of our case showed an ulcerated lesion of the knee. Montenegro's intradermal test was positive. Giemsa-stained touch preparation of the skin biopsy revealed amastigotes inside macrophages, consistent with leishmaniasis. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate intramuscular (20 mg of Sb+/kg/day) three weeks, with complete cicatrization of the lesion.

  19. Histopathological pattern of exfoliative and ulcerative skin lesions in dogs with leishmaniasis / Padrões histopatológicos das lesões descamativas e ulcerativas da pele em cães com leishmaniose

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    Sônia R. V. S. Franco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic infectious disease in some São Paulo state regions and even though it is a systemic disease, in the dog, the main clinical sign is dermatological. Thirty dogs with positive results in serology and parasitological exams for leishmaniasis from Araçatuba city were evaluated. They just showed dermatological signs and were divided in two groups, one with exfoliative (n=1 and other with ulcerative (n=1 lesions. Histopathological patterns in the group of exfoliative lesions were: periadnexial dermatitis (5/15, 33,3%, superficial perivascular dermatitis (1/15, 6,6%, nodular dermatitis (1/1 , , % and mixed dermatitis (8/1 , , %, including intersticial/periadnexial dermatitis (1/8, 12,5%, lichenoid/perivascular superficial and deep dermatitis (1/8, 12,5%, perivascular superficial and deep/periadnexial dermatitis (1/8, 12,5% and superficial perivascular/perianexial dermatitis ( /8, , %. In the group of ulcerative lesions, the histopathological patterns were: perivascular superficial and deep dermatitis (5/15, 33,3%, diffuse dermatitis (3/15, 20%, periadnexial dermatitis ( /1 , 1 , %, nodular dermatitis (1/1 , , % and mixed dermatitis ( /1 , , %, including intersticial/ perivascular superficial and deep dermatitis (1/4, 25%, nodular/periadnexial dermatitis (1/4, 25%, fibrosing/perianexial dermatitis (1/4, 25% and perivascular superficial and deep/ periadnexial dermatitis(1/ , %. Parasites were found in eight dogs (8/1 , , % with exfoliative dematitis and seven ( /1 , , % with ulcerative dermatitis.A leishmaniose visceral canina é uma doença infecciosa crônica considerada endêmica em algumas regiões do estado de São Paulo e, apesar de ser uma enfermidade sistêmica, no cão, a maioria dos sinais clínicos são dermatológicos. Foram avaliados trinta cães com diagnóstico de leishmaniose, da região de Araçatuba, pelos exames parasitológico e sorológico. Os cães apresentando apenas sinais dermatol

  20. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis

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    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  1. Transmission potential, skin inflammatory response, and parasitism of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

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    Goto H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and it is transmitted by sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. Dogs are an important domestic reservoir, and control of the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL to humans includes the elimination of infected dogs. However, though dogs are considered to be an important element in the transmission cycle of Leishmania, the identification of infected dogs representing an immediate risk for transmission has not been properly evaluated. Since it is not possible to treat infected dogs, they are sacrificed when a diagnosis of VL is established, a measure that is difficult to accomplish in highly endemic areas. In such areas, parameters that allow for easy identification of reservoirs that represents an immediate risk for transmission is of great importance for the control of VL transmission. In this study we aimed to identify clinical parameters, reinforced by pathological parameters that characterize dogs with potential to transmit the parasite to the vector. Results The major clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic area were onicogriphosis, skin lesions, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. The transmission potential of these dogs was assessed by xenodiagnosis using Lutzomyia longipalpis. Six of nine symptomatic dogs were infective to Lutzomyia longipalpis while none of the five asymptomatic dogs were infective to the sandfly. Leishmania amastigotes were present in the skin of all clinically symptomatic dogs, but absent in asymptomatic dogs. Higher parasite loads were observed in the ear and ungueal region, and lower in abdomen. The inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the ears and ungueal regions of both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In clinically affected dogs in which few or none Leishmania amastigotes were observed, the inflammatory infiltrate was constituted mainly of lymphocytes

  2. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Eneide Aparecida Sabaini Venazzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL. For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6% presented positive parasite direct search (PD, 81 (51.9% had positive Montenegro skin test (MST, and 90 (57.7% presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity, in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482 and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455, and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133. The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Roberto, Andréa Claudia Bekner Silva; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra; Zanzarini, Paulo Donizeti; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6%) presented positive parasite direct search (PD), 81 (51.9%) had positive Montenegro skin test (MST), and 90 (57.7%) presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity), in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482) and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455), and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133). The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  4. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from the infe......Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  5. Comparison of diagnostic methods in cutaneous Leishmaniasis (histopathology compared to skin smears).

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    Gazozai, Sanaullah; Iqbal, Javeid; Bukhari, Ishrat; Bashir, Sajid

    2010-10-01

    Present study is carried out to compare laboratory diagnostic methods of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) for the outdoor patients of Bolan Medical College Complex Hospital, Quetta, Balochistan. From November 2005 to December 2007, three hundred cases of CL patients were selected without restriction of age and sex. The lesions were divided into two groups. Early with duration less than 2 months and late duration between 2 to 4 months and were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers and scarring (in case of relapses). Skin smears were taken on first visit of the patients, followed by skin biopsy for histopathological examination. Result showed that out of 300 cases 163 (54.33%) were positive smears for Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies and 137 (45.67%) were negative smears for LD bodies.. While histological examination of all 300 cases showed that only 83 (27.66%) cases were negative for (LD) bodies and no granuloma seen, except with evidence of acute and chronic inflammation. Further analysis of histological observations of positive cases (72.34%) revealed that 91(30.33%) cases had LD bodies,, 78 (26%) cases had only necrotic sloughs showing polymorph neutrophilic infiltration, and 48(16%) cases were having granulomas composed of, epithelioid cells Langhan's type of giant cells and lymphocytes. It is therefore concluded that histopathological examination as compared to skin smears method is more sensitive method for diagnosis of CL.

  6. Lesion Size Correlates with Leishmania Antigen-Stimulated TNF-Levels in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano; Bafica, Andre; Rosato, Andrea B.; Favali, Cecilia B. F.; Costa, Jackson M.; Cafe, Virginia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide disease endemic in several regions of the globe. The hallmark of CL is skin ulcers likely driven by efforts of the immune system to control Leishmania growth. Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-gamma can control disease progression in animal models. Nevertheless, the impact of these cytokines in CL ulcer outcome is not well established in humans. In this study, 96 CL patients from an endemic area of Leishmania braziliensis were enrolled for a follow-up study that consisted of clinical and immunological evaluations in a 2-year period. Statistical analysis revealed that healing time (P = 0.029), age (P = 0.002), and TNF levels (P = 0.0002) positively correlate with ulcer size at the time of the first clinical evaluation. Our findings suggest that ulcer size correlates with healing time and TNF levels support the use of TNF inhibitors combined with standard therapy to improve healing in CL patients with severe lesions. PMID:21734128

  7. Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwaldt, B L

    1999-10-02

    In 1903, Leishman and Donovan separately described the protozoan now called Leishmania donovani in splenic tissue from patients in India with the life-threatening disease now called visceral leishmaniasis. Almost a century later, many features of leishmaniasis and its major syndromes (ie, visceral, cutaneous, and mucosal) have remained the same; but also much has changed. As before, epidemics of this sandfly-borne disease occur periodically in India and elsewhere; but leishmaniasis has also emerged in new regions and settings, for example, as an AIDS-associated opportunistic infection. Diagnosis still typically relies on classic microbiological methods, but molecular-based approaches are being tested. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for half a century, but lipid formulations of amphotericin B (though expensive and administered parenterally) represent a major advance for treating visceral leishmaniasis. A pressing need is for the technological advances in the understanding of the immune response to leishmania and the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis to be translated into field-applicable and affordable methods for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this disease.

  8. Annular, erythematous skin lesions in a neonate

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    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-day-old premature female infant presented with rapidly progressive, erythematous, annular skin lesions from the 5 th day of life. She was diagnosed provisionally as a case of neonatal lupus erythematosus and was investigated accordingly. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy specimen revealed presence of hyphae of dermatophytes in the stratum corneum, and the diagnosis was changed to tinea corporis. Differential diagnosis of the annular erythema of infancy has been discussed and the importance of scraping a scaly lesion for KOH preparation in the diagnostic work-up of such a patient has been highlighted.

  9. Dermatology of the head and neck: skin cancer and benign skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, Monica; Karimkhani, Chanté

    2012-10-01

    Skin lesions are extremely common, and early detection of dangerous lesions makes skin cancer one of the most highly curable malignancies. By simply becoming aware of common lesions and their phenotypic presentation, dental professionals are empowered to detect suspicious dermatologic lesions in unaware patients. This article serves as an introduction to skin cancer and benign skin lesions for dental professionals.

  10. Evaluation of the in vivo leishmanicidal activity of amphotericin B emulgel: An alternative for the treatment of skin leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Iluska Martins; Carvalho, Ivana Pereira; de Carvalho, Camila Ernanda Sousa; Brito, Lucas Moreira; da Silva, Andrezza Braga Soares; Conde Júnior, Airton Mendes; de Carvalho, Fernando Aécio Amorim; Carvalho, André Luis Menezes

    2016-05-01

    The American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) is an infectious disease that can be fatal. The first line of treatment is pentavalent antimonies. However, due to its potential to develop resistance, Amphotericin B (AmB) started to be used as an alternative medicine. Current treatments are limited, a fact that has led to a growing interesting in developing new therapies. This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic potential in vivo of an amphotericin B + oleic acid (OA) emulgel in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an experimental model. Strains of Leishmania major MHOM/IL/80/Friendlin of Leishmania major were used. The animals were inoculated subcutaneously. After the development of leishmanial, nodular or ulcerative lesions, the animals were divided into three groups (control, Group A and Group B) and treated twice a day for twelve days. The weight of the animals was measured and the size of the lesions was observed. A histopathological analysis was performed with skin fragments of lesions and with the spleen of animals treated with different treatments (emulgel, AmB 3% emulgel and AmB 3% plus OA 5% emulgel). It was observed that when subjected to treatment with AmB 3% emulgel during the study period using both formulations, with enhancer and without enhancer, ulcerative lesions regress gradually or even complete cure. The quantification of the average number of parasites recovered from the inoculation site was made after the treatment in each group and the differences were considered significant. The treatment with AmB 3% and OA 5% emulgel had the best in vivo therapeutic response, showing good prospects for cutaneous leishmaniasis therapy as an alternative therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflammation in disseminated lesions: an analysis of CD4+, CD20+, CD68+, CD31+ and vW+ cells in non-ulcerated lesions of disseminated leishmaniasis

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    Dayana Santos Mendes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL differs from other clinical forms of the disease due to the presence of many non-ulcerated lesions (papules and nodules in non-contiguous areas of the body. We describe the histopathology of DL non-ulcerated lesions and the presence of CD4-, CD20-, CD68-, CD31- and von Willebrand factor (vW-positive cells in the inflamed area. We analysed eighteen biopsies from non-ulcerated lesions and quantified the inflamed areas and the expression of CD4, CD20, CD68, CD31 and vW using Image-Pro software (Media Cybernetics. Diffuse lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates were found in dermal skin. Inflammation was observed in 3-73% of the total biopsy area and showed a significant linear correlation with the number of vW+ vessels. The most common cells were CD68+ macrophages, CD20+ B-cells and CD4+ T-cells. A significant linear correlation between CD4+ and CD20+ cells and the size of the inflamed area was also found. Our findings show chronic inflammation in all DL non-ulcerated lesions predominantly formed by macrophages, plasmacytes and T and B-cells. As the inflamed area expanded, the number of granulomas and extent of the vascular framework increased. Thus, we demonstrate that vessels may have an important role in the clinical evolution of DL lesions.

  12. Use of FTA Cards for Direct Sampling of Patients' Lesions in the Ecological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Ishimaru, Yuka; Sayed, Amal S. M.; Fujita, Megumi; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Velez, Lenin N.; Gomez, Eduardo A. L.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    The FTA card (Whatman) was assessed for its utility as a molecular epidemiological tool in collecting samples from patients with leishmaniasis in Peru because the card has a variety of merits; it is less invasive for patients and easy to handle for both physicians and other medical personnel for sample collection or diagnosis, in addition to its simplicity and easy countrywide and/or intercountry transportation for analysis. Samples were collected from 132 patients suspected of having leishmaniasis, and Leishmania species were successfully identified in samples from 81 patients in 15 departments of Peru by cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. Of these, 61.7% were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, 22.2% as L. (V.) braziliensis, 12.3% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 2.5% as L. (V.) shawi, and 1.2% as L. (V.) lainsoni. The three predominant species, L. (V.) peruviana, L. (V.) braziliensis, and L. (V.) guyanensis, were mainly found in the Andean highlands, in the tropical rainforest, and in northern and central rainforest regions, respectively. This is the first time L. (V.) shawi has been identified outside Brazil. The present study showed that the FTA card will be a useful tool for the ecological study of different forms of leishmaniasis. Furthermore, collecting samples directly from patients' lesions by using the FTA card eliminates (i) the possibility of contamination of Leishmania isolates during short- and/or long-term passages of culture in vitro in each laboratory and (ii) pain and suffering of patients from taking samples by skin biopsy. PMID:20720027

  13. Classification of melanocytic skin lesions from non-melanocytic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Norton, Kerri-Ann; Celebi, M; Schaefer, Gerald; Tanaka, Masaru; Ogawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a classification method of dermoscopy images between melanocytic skin lesions (MSLs) and non-melanocytic skin lesions (NoMSLs). The motivation of this research is to develop a pre-processor of an automated melanoma screening system. Since NoMSLs have a wide variety of shapes and their border is often ambiguous, we developed a new tumor area extraction algorithm to account for these difficulties. We confirmed that this algorithm is capable of handling different dermoscopy images not only those of NoMSLs but also MSLs as well. We determined the tumor area from the image using this new algorithm, calculated a total 428 features from each image, and built a linear classifier. We found only two image features, "the skewness of bright region in the tumor along its major axis" and "the difference between the average intensity in the peripheral part of the tumor and that in the normal skin area using the blue channel" were very efficient at classifying NoMSLs and MSLs. The detection accuracy of MSLs by our classifier using only the above mentioned image feature has a sensitivity of 98.0% and a specificity of 86.6% in a set of 107 non-melanocytic and 548 melanocytic dermoscopy images using a cross-validation test.

  14. [Canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis by immunohistochemistry and PCR in skin tissues in association with IFAT and ELISA-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Nina M G P; de Assis, Juliana; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Machado, Rosângela Z; Nunes, Cáris M; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemistry (IMHC) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tests for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis and compare the results with serological tests such as the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), ELISA and a parasitological test (microscopic direct examination of the parasite stained with haematoxylin and eosin--HE). For this study, samples of healthy or lesion skin tissues were obtained from 34 CVL naturally infected dogs classified in three groups: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic. Not only lesion (56.5%) but also healthy skins (31.8%) were positives by IMHC and confirmed by PCR in 97.8% of skin samples. In asymptomatic group, 87.5% dogs were negatives by serological tests, but positives by IMHC in 50% and by PCR in 100%. In oligosymptomatic group, 100%, 85.7% and 28.6% of dogs were positives, respectively by PCR, serological and IMHC tests. In addition, 91.7% of polisymptomatic dogs were serum positive and had intact parasites in the skin. In general, PCR showed higher positivity (100%). The efficiency of each test varied with the evolution of the disease. IMHC may be used to confirm the results of the serology and PCR in inconclusive cases after HE and IMHC. The association of techniques proposed in this study may increase the positivity and contributed to the control of this canine disease.

  15. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... culture Montenegro skin test (not approved in the United States) Skin biopsy and culture Other tests that may be done include: Complete blood count Serologic testing Serum albumin Serum immunoglobulin levels ...

  16. Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.

    2013-01-01

    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named “strawberry pattern” in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM “strawberry pattern” is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs. PMID:23431466

  17. Atypical Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in an Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patient: T-cell Responses and Remission of Lesions Associated with Antigen Immunotherapy

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    Da-Cruz Alda M

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available An atypical case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated mucocutaneous lesions due to Leishmania braziliensis is described. Many vacuolated macrophages laden with amastigote forms of the parasite were found in the lesions. Leishmanin skin test and serology for leishmaniasis were both negative. The patient was resistant to therapy with conventional drugs (antimonial and amphotericin B. Interestingly, remission of lesions was achieved after an alternative combined therapy of antimonial associated with immunotherapy (whole promastigote antigens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and stimulated in vitro with Leishmania antigens to test the lymphoproliferative responses (LPR. Before the combined immunochemotherapy, the LPR to leishmanial antigens was negligible (stimulation index - SI=1.4. After the first course of combined therapy it became positive (SI=4.17. The antigen responding cells were predominantly T-cells (47.5% most of them with CD8+ phenotype (33%. Very low CD4+ cells (2.2% percentages were detected. The increased T-cell responsiveness to leishmanial antigens after combined therapy was accompanied by interferon-g (IFN-g production as observed in the cell culture supernatants. In this patient, healing of the leishmaniasis lesions was associated with the induction of a specific T-cell immune response, characterized by the production of IFN-g and the predominance of the CD8+ phenotype among the Leishmania-reactive T-cells.

  18. Evaluation of leishmanin skin test reaction in different variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Giti Sadeghian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease which has different clinical forms. The aim of this study is to compare the response to leishmanin skin test (LST in three forms of CL including plaque type, lupoid type, and sporotrichoid type. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The patients enrolled in this study had three clinical forms of CL confirmed by positive smear of their lesions and then LST was performed for them. Results were categorized as negative (0-5 mm induration, positive (6-14 mm, and strongly positive (≥15 mm. The data were documented in the patients′ files and analyzed with SPSS windows software version 16 (Inc.Chicago, USA. Results: 200 patients were enrolled in the study. In the group with plaque type, 86% had a positive LST, 13.3% were negative, and 0.7% were strongly positive. In the lupoid group, these figures were 45.8%, 8.4%, 45.8%, respectively. In the sporotrichoid group, LST was positive in 27.3%, negative in 72.7%, and none of the patients had a strongly positive reaction ( P < 0.05. Discussion: The most of the positive LST were belong to plaque and lupoid groups, the most of strongly positive were belong to lupoid, and the most of negative LST were related with sporotrichoid type. Conclusion: It can be suggested that lupoid and sporotrichoid types of CL are parts of a continuous spectrum of the disease with an enhanced cellular immunity in lupoid form and a decreased state in sporotrichoid type.

  19. Sensitive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by lesion swab sampling coupled to qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADAMS, EMILY R.; GOMEZ, MARIA ADELAIDA; SCHESKE, LAURA; RIOS, RUBY; MARQUEZ, RICARDO; COSSIO, ALEXANDRA; ALBERTINI, AUDREY; SCHALLIG, HENK; SARAVIA, NANCY GORE

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Variation in clinical accuracy of molecular diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is commonly observed depending on the sample source, the method of DNA recovery and the molecular test. Few attempts have been made to compare these variables. Two swab and aspirate samples from lesions of patients with suspected CL (n = 105) were evaluated alongside standard diagnosis by microscopic detection of amastigotes or culture of parasites from lesion material. Three DNA extraction methods were compared: Qiagen on swab and aspirate specimens, Isohelix on swabs and Boil/Spin of lesion aspirates. Recovery of Leishmania DNA was evaluated for each sample type by real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of parasitic 18S rDNA, and the diagnostic accuracy of the molecular method determined. Swab sampling combined with Qiagen DNA extraction was the most efficient recovery method for Leishmania DNA, and was the most sensitive (98%; 95% CI: 91–100%) and specific (84%; 95% CI: 64–95%) approach. Aspirated material was less sensitive at 80% (95% CI: 70–88%) and 61% (95% CI: 50–72%) when coupled to Qiagen or Boil-Spin DNA extraction, respectively. Swab sampling of lesions was painless, simple to perform and coupled with standardized DNA extraction enhances the feasibility of molecular diagnosis of CL. PMID:25111885

  20. Inorganic particles in the skin of inhabitants of volcanic areas of Central America: their possible immunomodulatory influence in leishmaniasis and leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, J; Ulrich, M; Castillo, J; De Lima, H; Pérez, M; Caballero, N; Hung, J; Arana, B; Pérez, P

    2006-08-01

    We have evaluated biopsies from patients with atypical nodular and typical ulcerated lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis, from leishmanin reactions and skin from normal individuals from Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala for the presence of inorganic particles using confocal microscopy with a polarised light source and conventional histopathological techniques. Analysis by semiquantitative confocal microscopy permitted the demonstration of significantly larger numbers of particles in atypical lesions. Silica and aluminium, important components of these particles, were less abundant in particles from normal skin. The histology of these atypical lesions, characterised by 'naked' sarcoidal granulomas with epithelioid differentiation but very few lymphocytes, was very similar to the histological reaction observed after 14 days in persisting inflammation at leishmanin skin test sites. The presence of these unusual lesions in areas of Central American countries characterised by the presence of large amounts of volcanic ash, as well the unexpectedly low prevalence of leprosy in Central America, suggest that environmental factors may contribute significantly to the frequency and clinical manifestations of these infections. Among possible environmental features, the presence of inorganic particles with immunomodulatory properties in the skin may be a significant factor.

  1. Hyperkeratotic warty skin lesion of foot caused by Fusarium oxysporum

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    Ravinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors, and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. Skin infections caused by Fusarium spp. include keratitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma, painful discrete erythematous nodules. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. are, however, rarely reported. We report a case of hyperkeratotic verrucous warty skin lesion in the foot of a 50-year-old immunocompetent male, farmer by occupation.

  2. Segmentation and Classification of Skin Lesions Based on Texture Features

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    B.Gohila vani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer and represents 50% all new cancers detected each year. The deadliest form of skin cancer is melanoma and its incidence has been rising at a rate of 3% per year. Due to the costs for dermatologists to monitor every patient, there is a need for an computerized system to evaluate a patient‘s risk of melanoma using images of their skin lesions captured using a standard digital camera. In Proposed method, a novel texture-based skin lesion segmentation algorithm is used and to classify the stages of skin cancer using probabilistic neural network. Probabilistic neural network will give better performance in this system to detect a lot of stages in skin lesion. To extract the characteristics from various skin lesions and its united features gives better classification with new approached probabilistic neural network. There are five different skin lesions commonly grouped as Actinic Keratosis (AK, Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC, Melanocytic Nevus / Mole (ML, Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC, Seborrhoeic Keratosis (SK. The system will be used to classify the queried images automatically to decide the stages of abnormality. The lesion diagnosis system involves two stages of process such as training and classification. Feature selection is used in the classified framework that chooses the most relevant feature subsets at each node of the hierarchy. An automatic classifier will be used for classification based on learning with some training samples of each stage. The accuracy of the proposed neural scheme is higher in discriminating cancer and pre-malignant lesions from benign skin lesions, and it attains an total classification accuracy is high of skin lesions.

  3. Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report

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    Jacinto Convit

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe mucocutaneous (MCL and diffuse (DCL forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL are infrequent in Venezuela. Chemotherapy produces only transitory remission in DCL, and occasional treatment failures are observed in MCL. We have evaluated therapy with an experimental vaccine in patients with severe leishmaniasis. Four patients with MCL and 3 with early DCL were treated with monthly intradermal injections of a vaccine containing promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis killed by pasteurization and viable Bacillus Calmette- Guerin. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Integrity of protein constituents in extracts of pasteurized promastigotes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Complete remission of lesions occurred after 5-9 injections in patients with MCL or 7-10 injections in patients with early DCL. DCL patients developed positive skin reactions, average size 18.7 mm. All have been free of active lesions for at least 10 months. Adverse effects of the vaccine were limited to local reactivity to BCG at the injection sites and fever in 2 patients. Extracts of pasteurized and fresh promastigotes did not reveal differences in the integrity of protein components detectable by gel electrophoresis. Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy .

  4. Analysis of skin line pattern for lesion classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zhishun; Fish, Peter J

    2003-02-01

    It has been observed that skin patterning tends to be disrupted by malignant but not by benign skin lesions. This suggests that measurements of skin pattern disruption on simply captured white light optical skin images could be a useful contribution to a diagnostic feature set. Previous work using a measurement of line strength by a consistent high-value profiling technique followed by local variance measurement or a region agglomerative classifier to measure skin line pattern disruption was extremely promising but computationally intensive, suggesting that the idea of measuring skin pattern disruption was useful but a simpler method was required. The skin pattern was extracted by high-pass filtration and enhanced by adaptive anisotropic (spatial variant) filtering which smoothes along skin lines but not across them. The skin line main direction and direction variance were estimated using a local image gradient matrix and the difference of these measures across the lesion image boundary was used as a lesion classifier. A set of images of malignant melanoma and benign naevi were processed as above and the scatter plot of results in a two-dimensional feature (line direction and line variation difference) space showed excellent separation of benign and malignant lesions. An ROC plot enclosed an area of 0.88. The experimental results showed that the local line direction and the local line variation were promising features for distinguishing malignant melanoma from benign lesion and the methods used were effective and computationally low-cost. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2003

  5. The efficacy of hydro alcoholic extract of Seidlitzia rosmarinus on experimental zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in murine model

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    Maryam Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic infectious diseases in the world. Since last century, many efforts have been made to control and treat the disease, but appropriate vaccines, pesticides and medicines are not available or even eligible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Seidlitzia rosmarinus on the lesions of experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL in Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: The population study was 60 Ballb/c mice which divided to 6 groups, all infected with Leishmania major [MRHO/75/IR]. Soon after the ulcer started to appear in the early stage, a dose of provided herbal extract with 5, 10 and 15% concentration applied on each lesion. The surface area of the lesions measured during an interval of 10 days. Direct Giemsa stained smears prepared two and four weeks after treatment. Results: Increasing the mean size of the lesions was statistically significant compared to those in control group (p>0.001. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL developed in all of the mice including the control group that received Eucerine alone. Survival rate in group receiving 15% S. rosmarinus extracts showed significantly higher  compared to mice in control group (p

  6. Leishmaniasis in the genital area

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    CABELLO Ismery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients from the gold mines of Bolivar State, Venezuela, presenting cutaneous leishmaniasis in the genital region, an unusual location, are described. The first patient showed an ulcerated lesion of the glans penis. Leishmanin skin test was positive. A biopsy specimen revealed a granulomatous infiltrate containing Leishmania parasites. In the second patient, Leishmanin skin test was positive, HIV and VDRL were negative. Leishmania parasites were present in a biopsy of an ulcerated lesion in the scrotum, with an indurated base, infiltrative borders with an yellowish exudate. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and the lesions healed.

  7. Skin lesion image segmentation using Delaunay Triangulation for melanoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Andrea; Bloisi, Domenico D; Nardi, Daniele; Giampetruzzi, Anna Rita; Mondino, Chiara; Facchiano, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Developing automatic diagnostic tools for the early detection of skin cancer lesions in dermoscopic images can help to reduce melanoma-induced mortality. Image segmentation is a key step in the automated skin lesion diagnosis pipeline. In this paper, a fast and fully-automatic algorithm for skin lesion segmentation in dermoscopic images is presented. Delaunay Triangulation is used to extract a binary mask of the lesion region, without the need of any training stage. A quantitative experimental evaluation has been conducted on a publicly available database, by taking into account six well-known state-of-the-art segmentation methods for comparison. The results of the experimental analysis demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly accurate when dealing with benign lesions, while the segmentation accuracy significantly decreases when melanoma images are processed. This behavior led us to consider geometrical and color features extracted from the binary masks generated by our algorithm for classification, achieving promising results for melanoma detection.

  8. Systemic FasL and TRAIL neutralisation reduce leishmaniasis induced skin ulceration.

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    Geremew Tasew

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL.

  9. Lesion classification using 3D skin surface tilt orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zhishun; Excell, P S

    2013-02-01

    Current non-invasive diagnostic procedures to detect skin cancer rely on two-dimensional (2D) views of the skin surface. For example, the most commonly-used ABCD features are extracted from the 2D images of skin lesion. However, because the skin surface is an object in three-dimensional (3D) space, valuable additional information can be obtained from a perspective of 3D skin objects. The aim of this work is to discover the new diagnostic features by considering 3D views of skin artefacts. A surface tilt orientation parameter was proposed to quantify the skin and the lesion in 3D space. The skin pattern was first extracted from simply captured white light optical clinical (WLC) skin images by high-pass filtering. Then the directions of the projected skin lines were determined by skin pattern analysis. Next the surface tilt orientations of skin and lesion were estimated using the shape from texture technique. Finally the difference of tilt orientation in the lesion and normal skin areas, combined with the ABCD features, was used as a lesion classifier. The proposed method was validated by processing a set of images of malignant melanoma and benign naevi. The scatter plot of classification using the feature of surface tilt orientation alone showed the potential of the new 3D feature, enclosing an area of 0.78 under the ROC curve. The scatter plot of classification, combining the new feature with the ABCD features by use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), demonstrated an excellent separation of benign and malignant lesions. An ROC plot for this case enclosed an area of 0.85. Compared with the ABCD analysis where the area under the ROC curve was 0.65, it indicated that the surface tilt orientation (3D information) was able to enhance the classification results significantly. The initial classification results show that the surface tilt orientation has a potential to increase lesion classifier accuracy. Combined with the ABCD features, it is very promising to

  10. Human Skin Permeation of a Chloroaluminum Phthalocyanine Nanoemulsion for Optimization of Topical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Formulations

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    Victoria Eugenia Ospina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nanoemulsions constitute excellent drug delivery systems for carrying and delivering active drugs. Chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc in photodynamic therapy constitutes an interesting alternative in cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. Objective: To de-termine the diffusion and retention of ClAlPc contained in a nanoemulsion (nano-ClAlPc in human skin membranes for optimization of topical formulations. Materials and methods: Two formulations (ClAlPc-nano- and ClAlPc-solution and vehicles without ClAlPc were prepared and physicochemical characterized. The permeation was tested in Franz-diffusion cells and the retention by the tape stripping method. ClAlPc concentration was determined fluorometrically (nM/cm2. Skin biopsies were analyzed by histologic technics. Results: The ClAlPc-nano average size, zeta potential and polydispersity index diluted in water was 132.9 nm, -19.23 and 0.14 and diluted in phosphate-buffer-saline was 25.33 nm, -13.69 and 0.139. ClAlPc maintains its stabil¬ity in each formulation. ClAlPc was unable to pass completely through the skin; it was retained in the different skin layers. A ClAlPc retention in stratum corneum and epidermis+dermis was observed with values of 44.17 nM and 8.48 nM after ClAlPc-nano treatment and 96.90 nM and 9.80 nM after ClAlPc-solution treatment. The ClAlPc-solution promoted greater retention in stratum corneum and both formulations showed similar ClAlPc-retention in epidermis+dermis. Histological changes as stratum corneum detachment and collagen-fragmentation were observed. Conclusion: ClAlPc was not able to cross completely the skin, it was retained in stratum corneum and epidermis+dermis Human permeation test using skin membranes without stratum corneum, and distribution assays in cutaneous leishmaniasis-infected animals, are suggested.

  11. Post-kala-azar dermal Leishmaniasis in two different clinical contexts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Daniel Holanda; Silva, Claúdia Elise Ferraz; Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina Depes Perdigao e; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Medeiros, Angela Cristina Rapela

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, visceral Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania chagasi. The development of cutaneous lesions in visceral leishmaniasis patients has been described in two different clinical contexts. Patients with compromised immunity can develop skin lesions as a direct consequence of a current visceral disease. Equally, patients with a history of kala-azar and progressive, immune improvement occasionally develop skin lesions as a consequence of immune reconstitution infl ammatory syndrome. These cases manifest in similar fashion to the classic form of post-kala-azar dermal Leishmaniasis. We describe different cases that exemplify these two clinical presentations. PMID:26312689

  12. Skin pattern analysis for lesion classification using local isotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zhishun; Excell, Peter S

    2011-05-01

    The observation that skin pattern tends to be disrupted by malignant skin lesions, but not by benign ones suggests that measurements of skin pattern disruption on simply captured white light optical clinical (WLC) skin images could be a useful contribution to a diagnostic feature set. Previous work, which generated a flow field of skin pattern using a measurement of local line direction and intensity, was encouraging. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of extracting new features using local isotropy metrics to quantify the skin pattern disruption. The skin pattern was extracted from WLC skin images by high-pass filtering. A local tensor matrix was computed. The local isotropy was measured by the condition number of the local tensor matrix. The difference of this measure over the lesion and normal skin areas, combined with the local line direction and the ABCD features, was used as a lesion classifier. A set of images of malignant melanoma and benign naevi was analysed. A one-dimensional scatter plot showed the potential of a local isotropy metric, showing an area of 0.70 under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A two-dimensional scatter plot, combined with the local line direction, indicated enhancement of the classification performance, showing an area of 0.89 under the ROC curve. A three-dimensional scatter plot combined with the local line direction and the ABCD features, using principal component analysis, demonstrated excellent separation of benign and malignant lesions. An ROC plot for this case enclosed an area of 0.96. The experimental results show that the local isotropy metric has a potential to increase lesion classifier accuracy. Combined with the local line direction and the ABCD features, it is very promising as a method to distinguish malignant melanoma from benign lesions. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Comparison of Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Lesions Caused by either Burn Injuries or Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Akhzari; Rezvan; Zolhavarieh; Moafi

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries in the world. Characterization of inflammatory responses produced in cutaneous Leishmaniasis has not yet been completed. The current study aims to assess and compare pro-inflammatory cytokines between burning injuries and Leishmania infection. Methods the specific primers were designed for 10 proinflammatory genes including CCL4, CCL3,...

  14. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suspected Patients Referred To the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran, Iran from 2008 To 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Mir Amin Mohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a major health problem in many parts of Iran, although diagnosis of CL especially in the endemic area is easy, but treatment and management of the disease is a global dilemma. Diagno­sis of CL in non-endemic area is not as simple as in endemic foci. In this study, the status and the proportions of CL induced by Leishmania major and L. tropica among CL suspected patients referred to the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, (CRTSDL during 2008 to 2011 are described.Methods: CL patients with suspected lesions were clinically examined. History of trip to zoonotic CL and/or anthroponotic CL endemic areas and the characte­ristics of their lesion(s were recorded. Diagnosis of the lesion was done using direct smear microscopy, culture and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR.Results: A total of 404 (M=256, F=148 patients with 776 lesions were re­cruited and parasitologically examined. The results showed that 255 of the pa­tients with 613 lesions; patients with lesion(s induced by L. major=147 (M=63, 43%, F=84, 57% and lesion(s induced by L. tropica=108 (M=35, 32%, F=73, 68%. History of travel to endemic area was not always correlated with isolated Leishmania species.Conclusion: Although travel history to endemic area is an important factor to be considered for diagnosis, but parasitological confirmation is necessary initia­tion of treatment.

  16. Artefactual skin lesions in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Miller, Iben M; Benfeldt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self harm is a great diagnostic and treatment challenge. In addition, psychocutaneous conditions are rare in the pediatric population and may therefore be misdiagnosed. Dermatitis artefacta is a psychocutaneous syndrome, which is a subgroup of the general spectrum of self-inflicted skin...

  17. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

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    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  18. Isolated lingual leishmaniasis

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    Habibzadeh F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Fars Province, southern Iran. However, mucosal leishmaniasis is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a patient with isolated lingual leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent 40-year-old man. The lesion was totally excised. The patient was cured completely and is doing well after four years of follow-up, with no medical treatment

  19. Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-β in Early and Late Lesions of Patients with Leishmania major induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    A Khamesipour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease, which imposes massive human distress and financial costs to the endemic countries. Better understanding of host immune response to the parasite leads to helpful strategies for disease control. Interleukin (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β are important immune regulatory cytokines, which appear to develop non-healing forms of leishmaniasis. However, there is little information about the function of IL-10 and TGF-β in old world cutaneous leismaniasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of IL-10 and TGF-β in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major infection.Methods: Biopsies were obtained from lesions of twenty proven cases of L. major induced cutaneous leishmaniasis. IL-10 and TGF-β positive cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining of frozen sections and compared between two groups of patients with early and late lesions.Results: The mean percentage of IL-10 positive cells were significantly (P= 0.035 higher in late lesions (0.51±0.24 than early ones (0.15±0.07. Similar results were obtained for TGF-β with mean percentages of 0.16±0.05 and 0.53±0.28 in early and late lesions respectively (P= 0.008.Conclusion: IL-10 and TGF-β are present in lesions of L. major induced cutaneous leishmaniasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of long lasting disease forms.

  20. Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-β in Early and Late Lesions of Patients with Leishmania major Induced Cutane­ous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khamesipour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease, which imposes massive human distress and financial costs to the endemic countries. Better understanding of host immune response to the parasite leads to helpful strategies for disease control. Interleukin (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β are important immune regulatory cytokines, which appear to develop non-healing forms of leishmaniasis. However, there is little information about the function of IL-10 and TGF-β in old world cutaneous leismaniasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of IL-10 and TGF-β in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major infection. Methods: Biopsies were obtained from lesions of twenty proven cases of L. major induced cutaneous leishmaniasis. IL-10 and TGF-β positive cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining of frozen sections and compared between two groups of patients with early and late lesions. Results: The mean percentage of IL-10 positive cells were significantly (P= 0.035 higher in late lesions (0.51±0.24 than early ones (0.15±0.07. Similar results were obtained for TGF-β with mean percentages of 0.16±0.05 and 0.53±0.28 in early and late lesions respectively (P= 0.008. Conclusion: IL-10 and TGF-β are present in lesions of L. major induced cutaneous leishmaniasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of long lasting disease forms.

  1. Comparison of skin patterning feature analysis methods for lesion classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Andrew J.; Duller, Andrew W.; Fish, Peter J.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes a method of distinguishing between early malignant melanoma and benign moles by examining skin pattern texture on an image of the lesion. Skin patterning is a macroscopic texture composed of fine linear elements. This texture is poorly described by standard definitions of texture and poorly detected by existing techniques. Skin line patterning is detected through a new method which looks at small patches spaced equally across the image and constructs a profile of their linear self-similarity over a range of angles. Regions which exhibit skin patterning result in similar profiles for neighboring patches whereas no such similarity is found in areas where the patterning is disrupted. Interpretation of the profile images for the classification of the lesions is then addressed.

  2. A newborn with grouped facial skin lesions and subsequent seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital grouped skin lesions are alarming signs of a variety of threatening diagnoses of quite different origin. The present case report shows an impressive clinical pattern of a neonate and illustrates the difficulty in differential diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease and neonatal lupus erythematosus in newborns. This reported case is to our knowledge the first description of an unrecognized mixed connective tissue disease in the mother with an unusual clinical manifestation in the newborn, comprising skin lesions, neurological damage and non-typical antibody constellation. Case presentation We report on a Caucasian female neonate from a perinatally asymptomatic mother, who presented with grouped facial pustular-like skin lesions, followed by focal clonic seizures caused by multiple ischemic brain lesions. Herpes simplex virus infection was excluded and both the mother and her infant had the antibody pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus erythematosus, respectively. However, clinical signs in the mother showed overlapping features of mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusion This case report emphasizes congenital Lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease as important differential diagnoses of grouped skin lesions in addition to Herpes simplex virus-infection. The coexistence of different criteria for mixed connective tissue disease makes it difficult to allocate precisely maternal and congenital infantile disease. PMID:24884686

  3. Inflammatory features of melasma lesions in Asian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Tai Kyung; Choi, Seok Joo; Chung, Bo Young; Kang, Jin Soo; Lee, Jong Hee; Lee, Mi Woo; Chang, Sung Eun

    2014-09-01

    Melasma is triggered by various factors including ultraviolet radiation and estrogen; however, its pathogenesis is unclear. To investigate the inflammatory features of melasma lesions as triggers for this disorder, 197 women with melasma who attended Asan Medical Center and Kangskin Clinic, Seoul, from June 2011 to October 2011 completed a questionnaire concerning triggering or aggravating factors. These cases were divided into "non-inflammatory" and "inflammatory" groups. Skin biopsies and immunostaining for CD68, CD117, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA) were performed in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of ten cases in the non-inflammatory group and nine cases in the inflammatory group. Among the 197 subjects (mean age, 41.5 years; mean age of melasma onset, 33.8 years), 50 patients (25.4%) were categorized into the inflammatory group. This group comprised cases that had inflammatory symptoms and events that triggered the melasma lesions. The lesional dermis contained more CD68(+) melanophages, CD117(+) mast cells, and LCA(+) leukocytes in the inflammatory group than in the non-inflammatory group. Inflammatory clinical features and an increased number of inflammatory cells in the lesion may be involved in the development of melasma in Asian skin.

  4. Measuring border irregularities of skin lesions using fractal dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vincent T. Y.; Lee, Tim K.

    1996-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer in people less than 35 years of age and incident rates are increasing by approximately 5 percent per annum in many white populations, including British Columbia, Canada. In 1994, a clinical study has been established to digitize melanocytic lesions under a controlled environment. Lesions are digitized from patients who are referred to the Colored Pigment Lesion Clinic in the University of British Columbia. In this paper, we investigate how to use fractal dimensions (FDs) in measuring the irregularity of a skin lesion. In a previous project, we have experimented with 6 different methods to calculate fractal dimensions on a small number of images of skin lesions, and the simple box-counting method performed the best. However, the method did not exploit the intensity information of the images. With the new set of images which are digitized under the controlled environment, we utilize the differential box counting method to exploit such information. Four FD measures, including the direct FD, the horizontal and the vertical smoothing FDs, and the multi- fractal dimension of order two, are calculated based on the original color images. In addition, these 4 FD features are repeatedly calculate for the blue band of the images. This paper reports the different features through the calculations of the fractal dimensions and compares their differentiation power in the use of diagnosis of images of skin lesions.

  5. Comparing IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18 Cytokines Levels Secreted From the PBMCs of Patients with Healing and Nonhealing Skin Leishmaniasis

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    S.M.J. Yazdanpanah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leishmaniasis is a major worldwide health problem throughout the world and in Iran as well. Skin lesions are mostly healing but nonhealing cases have also increased recently. T-helper type1 (Th1 responses induction helps the patients to resist against the disease while T-helper type2 (Th2 responses cause susceptibility to disease. With the assessment of IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18 cytokines secreted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in leishmaniasis healing and nonhealing patients, their role in curing leishmaniasis was surveyed.Materials & Methods: Cytokines secreted from PBMCs of 60 healing and nonhealing patients and also control group referred to Ab-o-Bargh number1 clinic and Mashhad Qaem hospital during 2007 were evaluated Elisa commercial kits after stimulation by leishmania antigen and mitogen in vitro. Results: Healing patients PBMCs secreted IL-12 (236.55±38.00 pg/ml more than non healing patients (p<0.05 while in nonhealing patients IL-5 (52.14±65.21 pg/ml and IL-10 (30.19±18.73 pg/ml secreted more than healing patients (p<0.005. Also IL-18 secreted significantly higher in nonhealing patients compared with healing patients (p=0.003.Conclusion: According to the results It can be concluded that IL-12 is secreted more in healing patients than nonhealing patients but IL-18, which causes the increase of IL-12 secretion and the activation of Th1 cells during IL-12 secretion decrease, secrets more in nonhealing patients, induces Th2 responses and results in disease progression.

  6. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

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    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.A.M. van Thiel; J.E. Zeegelaar; T. van Gool; W.R. Faber; P.A. Kager

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data wer

  8. [Determination of Leishmania species by PCR-RFLP in the smear samples taken from the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Ertuğ, Sema; Çalışkan, Serçin Özlem; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The forms of the disease caused by Leishmania species in Turkey as well as in Aegean region are cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL, respectively), and the agent of CL is commonly L.tropica. However, L.infantum was also reported as being CL agent recently. Direct microscopic examination, serological tests and culture are the conventional methods used for the diagnosis of CL. Since the specificities of these methods are high their sensitivities are variable and identification at species level is not possible. Recently, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods enabled the rapid and reliable diagnosis and species identification. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method both for the detection and identification of Leishmania species simultaneously in CL patients. A total of 30 smear samples that were positive for Leishmania amastigotes with microscopic examination, obtained from CL-suspected cases admitted to Adnan Menderes University Medical School Hospital, Parasitology Laboratory (located at Aydin, in the Aegean region of Turkey) between 2012-2014 period were included in the study. Ten samples taken from the skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus (n= 5) and Candida albicans (n= 5) were also included as negative controls. DNA extractions from the smears were performed by the use of a commercial kit (Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Tissue® Kit, Germany). DNA isolation was also performed from L.major, L.infantum and L.tropica promastigotes that were grown in culture as positive controls. In PCR method LITSR and L5.8S primers targeting to ITS (internal transcribed spacer)-1 region were used. In RFLP method, the amplified PCR products were cleaved by BsuRI (HaeIII) restriction enzyme for the species identification. As a result, restriction profiles of all samples (n= 30) were in accordance with L.tropica restriction profile. No band was observed in the

  9. Gene Expression Profiling in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dolcino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is an autoimmune blistering skin disease associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy (CD. In order to investigate the pathogenesis of skin lesions at molecular level, we analysed the gene expression profiles in skin biopsies from 6 CD patients with DH and 6 healthy controls using Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 arrays. 486 genes were differentially expressed in DH skin compared to normal skin: 225 were upregulated and 261 were downregulated. Consistently with the autoimmune origin of DH, functional classification of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs indicates a B- and T-cell immune response (LAG3, TRAF5, DPP4, and NT5E. In addition, gene modulation provides evidence for a local inflammatory response (IL8, PTGFR, FSTL1, IFI16, BDKRD2, and NAMPT with concomitant leukocyte recruitment (CCL5, ENPP2, endothelial cell activation, and neutrophil extravasation (SELL, SELE. DEGs also indicate overproduction of matrix proteases (MMP9, ADAM9, and ADAM19 and proteolytic enzymes (CTSG, ELA2, CPA3, TPSB2, and CMA1 that may contribute to epidermal splitting and blister formation. Finally, we observed modulation of genes involved in cell growth inhibition (CGREF1, PA2G4, and PPP2R1B, increased apoptosis (FAS, TNFSF10, and BASP1, and reduced adhesion at the dermal epidermal junction (PLEC1, ITGB4, and LAMA5. In conclusion, our results identify genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of DH skin lesions.

  10. American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: Effectiveness of an Immunohistochemical Protocol for the Detection of Leishmania in Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cibele Fontes; Alves, Cintia Fontes; Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Souza, Carolina Carvalho; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Melo, Maria Norma; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Raso, Pedro; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in Latin America, where Brazil has over 27 thousand cases per year. The aim of the present study was to develop an immunohistochemical method (IHC) for ATL diagnosis. For this purpose, we used serum from a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L) infantum (canine hyperimmune serum) as the primary antibody, followed by a detection system with a secondary biotinylated antibody. Methodology Skin samples were obtained from 73 patients in an endemic area of Caratinga, Minas Gerais (MG) State, Brazil all testing positive for ATL with the Montenegro skin test, microscopy, and PCR. Canine hyperimmune serum of a dog naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum was employed as a primary antibody in an immunohistochemical diagnostic method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase. To assess the specificity of this reaction, IHC assays employing two monoclonal antibodies were carried out. As the polymer-based technology is less time-consuming and labor intensive than the IHC labeled streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, we compared the two methods for all samples. Results The IHC method detected ATL in 67 of the 73 cases (91.8%). Immunolabeled parasites were primarily detected inside macrophages either in the superficial or the deep dermis. Detection was facilitated by the high contrast staining of amastigotes (dark brown) against the light blue background. A lower detection rate (71.2%) was observed with the both of the monoclonal Leishmania antibodies compared to the canine hyperimmune serum. This may have been due to a non-specific background staining observed in all histological samples rendering positive detection more difficult. The higher efficacy of the canine hyperimmune serum in the IHC method was confirmed by the method using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase as well as that with the polymer-based technology (biotin-avidin-free system). Conclusions The data are encouraging with regard to validating IHC

  11. Automated Imaging System for Pigmented Skin Lesion Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Ahmed Sheha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the study of pigmented skin lesions risk factors, the appearance of malignant melanoma turns the anomalous occurrence of these lesions to annoying sign. The difficulty of differentiation between malignant melanoma and melanocytic naive is the error-bone problem that usually faces the physicians in diagnosis. To think through the hard mission of pigmented skin lesions diagnosis different clinical diagnosis algorithms were proposed such as pattern analysis, ABCD rule of dermoscopy, Menzies method, and 7-points checklist. Computerized monitoring of these algorithms improves the diagnosis of melanoma compared to simple naked-eye of physician during examination. Toward the serious step of melanoma early detection, aiming to reduce melanoma mortality rate, several computerized studies and procedures were proposed. Through this research different approaches with a huge number of features were discussed to point out the best approach or methodology could be followed to accurately diagnose the pigmented skin lesion. This paper proposes automated system for diagnosis of melanoma to provide quantitative and objective evaluation of skin lesion as opposed to visual assessment, which is subjective in nature. Two different data sets were utilized to reduce the effect of qualitative interpretation problem upon accurate diagnosis. Set of clinical images that are acquired from a standard camera while the other set is acquired from a special dermoscopic camera and so named dermoscopic images. System contribution appears in new, complete and different approaches presented for the aim of pigmented skin lesion diagnosis. These approaches result from using large conclusive set of features fed to different classifiers. The three main types of different features extracted from the region of interest are geometric, chromatic, and texture features. Three statistical methods were proposed to select the most significant features that will cause a valuable effect in

  12. Increased transepidermal water loss and decreased ceramide content in lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichiro; Yoon, Ji-Seon; Yoshihara, Toru; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and intercorneal lipid content in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). TEWL and skin hydration were measured in the inguinal skin of 10 dogs with AD and 30 normal dogs. TEWL was significantly higher in both lesional skin (94.3 +/- 38.8 g/m(2)/h) and non-lesional skin (28.8 +/- 9.5) of dogs with AD than healthy controls (12.3 +/- 2.3) (P skin of dogs with AD (15.8 +/- 7.0 AU) was significantly lower than that of controls (24.2 +/- 8.8) (P skin of dogs with AD and controls. To compare the lipid content between lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls, intercorneal lipids, extracted from the stratum corneum, were quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The relative amounts of ceramides in the lesional skin (24.4 +/- 5.6%) and non-lesional skin (25.6 +/- 3.8%) of dogs with AD were significantly lower than those in controls (31.4 +/- 6.9%) (P ceramides, but not those of cholesterols and FFA, in both lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD. These results strongly suggest that decreased ceramide content accelerates TEWL in dogs with AD, similar to the situation seen in the corresponding human disease.

  13. Leprosy with Atypical Skin Lesions Masquerading as Relapsing Polychondritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munganda, Hariharan; Bangia, Amit; Rani, Uma; Budhiraja, Rajesh; Brajpuriya, Swapnil

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy can present with a variety of clinical manifestations depending on the immune status of the individual. After dermatological and neurological involvement, rheumatic features specially various forms of arthritis are the third most common manifestation of the disease. We describe a unique case of a 22-year-old patient presenting with external ear involvement mimicking relapsing polychondritis along with inflammatory joint symptoms and skin lesions. Ear involvement in relapsing polychondritis characteristically is painful and spares the noncartilaginous ear lobules, in contrast to painless ear involvement in leprosy affecting the lobules as well. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis, although the ear and skin lesions were not classical of leprosy. Such a presentation of leprosy closely mimicking relapsing polychondritis has not been described previously. Tissue diagnosis should always be attempted whenever possible in patients presenting with autoimmune features, so that inappropriate therapy with immunosuppressants is avoided. PMID:28116186

  14. Intestinal helminth coinfection is associated with mucosal lesions and poor response to therapy in American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo-Coutinho, Rilza Beatriz G; Pimentel, Maria Inês; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Madeira, Maria F; Cataldo, Jamyra Iglesias; Schubach, Armando O; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Mendonça, Sergio C F

    2016-02-01

    The most severe clinical form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) due to Leishmania braziliensis is mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), characterized by destructive lesions in the facial mucosa. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 109 ATL patients from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where ATL is caused by L. braziliensis, to evaluate the influence of intestinal parasite coinfections in the clinical course of ATL. Parasitological stool examination (PSE) was performed with samples from all patients by the sedimentation, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes methods. The diagnosis of ATL was made from lesion biopsies by direct observation of amastigotes in Giemsa-stained imprints, isolation of Leishmania promastigotes or histopathological examination. All patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate. Patients with positive PSE had a frequency of mucosal lesions significantly higher than those with negative PSE (pAscaris lumbricoides (p<0.05), but not for protozoan infections. Patients with intestinal parasites had poor response to therapy (therapeutic failure or relapse) significantly more frequently than the patients with negative stool examination (p<0.005). A similar difference (p<0.005) was observed between patients with positive and negative results for intestinal helminths, but not for intestinal protozoa. Patients with positive PSE took significantly longer to heal than those with negative PSE (p<0.005). A similar difference was observed for intestinal helminth infections (p<0.005), but not for protozoan infections. Our results indicate a deleterious influence of intestinal helminth infections in the clinical course of ATL and evidence for the first time an association between ML and these coinfections, particularly with nematodes and A. lumbricoides.

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  16. Are Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Playing a Role in the Parasite Control in Active American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fernanda Nazaré; Nascimento, Michelle T C; Saraiva, Elvira M; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Carla; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; da Costa-Santos, Marcela; Vasconcellos, Erica C F; Pimentel, Maria Ines F; Rosandiski Lyra, Marcelo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Conceição-Silva, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been described as a network of extracellular fibers composed by DNA, histones and various proteins/enzymes. Studies have demonstrated that NETs could be responsible for the trapping and elimination of a variety of infectious agents. In order to verify the presence of NETs in American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and their relationship with the presence of amastigotes we evaluated active cutaneous lesions of 35 patients before treatment by the detection of parasites, neutrophils (neutrophil elastase) and histones through immunohistochemistry and confocal immunofluorescence. Intact neutrophils could be detected in all ATL lesions. NETs were present in 27 patients (median 1.1; range from 0.1 to 23.5/mm2) with lesion duration ranging from one to seven months. NETs were in close proximity with neutrophils (r = 0.586; p = 0.0001) and amastigotes (r = 0.710; p = 0.0001). Two patterns of NET formation were detected: small homogeneously distributed networks observed in all lesions; and large structures that could be visualized at a lower magnification in lesions presenting at least 20% of neutrophils. Lesions presenting the larger NET formation showed high parasite detection. A correlation between NET size and the number of intact amastigotes was observed (p=0.02). As we detected an association between NET and amastigotes, our results suggest that neutrophil migration and NET formation could be stimulated and maintained by stimuli derived from the parasite burden/parasite antigen in the extracellular environment. The observation of areas containing only antigens not intermingled with NETs (elastase and histone) suggests that the involvement of these structures in the control of parasite burden is a dynamic process in which the formation of NETs is exhausted with the destruction of the parasites. Since NETs were also associated with granulomas, this trapping would favor the activity of macrophages in order to control the parasite

  17. The pathogenesis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis from the field to the molecule: does ultraviolet light (UVB) radiation play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M

    2006-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatosis caused by persistence of Leishmania donovani parasites in the skin following apparently successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. The distribution of PKDL lesions in Sudanese patients often mirrors the clothing habits of those...

  18. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  19. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Anke C; Blahak, Silvia; Heckers, Kim O; Wiechert, Jutta; Behncke, Helge; Mathes, Karina; Günther, Pascale; Zwart, Peer; Ball, Inna; Rüschoff, Birgit; Marschang, Rachel E

    2013-09-27

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards.

  20. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards. PMID:24073785

  1. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: a comparison with direct microscopy of smears and sections from lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Gaafar, A; El-Hassan, A M

    1996-01-01

    We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed by microscopi......We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed......%, respectively. The PCR should be considered as a valuable and sensitive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis; it has the added advantage of identification of the species of Leishmania causing the lesion....

  2. Treatment Approaches for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Aytekin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a widespread tropical infection caused by numerous different species of Leishmania protozoa. In our country, CL is due frequently to L. major and L. tropica. Its clinical presentation is extremely diverse. Treatment of CL aims to prevent mucosal invasion, to accelerate the healing of skin lesions, and avoid disfiguring scar. Local and physical treatment modalities including topical paromomycin, cryotherapy, localized controlled heat, carbon dioxide laser therapy, or pentavalant antimonals can be effective against. Intralesional antimonals are still the drug of choice may patients. WHO recommends an injection of drug under edges of the lesions and the entire lesion until the surface has blanched. Parenteral antimonials are useful for large, persistent or recurrent lesions. Combinations with other drugs such as allopurinol, pentoxifylline must be used for antimony unresponsive lesions.

  3. Acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin lesions in a neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Kamal; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Kabra, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    A male neonate was born to a sixth-gravida mother with a history of four early-neonatal deaths. On day 21 of life, the patient was admitted for poor feeding, vomiting and encephalopathy. Final diagnosis of propionic acidaemica (propionylcarnitine, 17.67 μmol/L) was made. He was managed by peritoneal dialysis followed by protein-free and special lipid diet, sodium benzoate and multivitamins. On day 28 of life, he developed acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin lesions on perioral and diaper a...

  4. Multicentric Reticulohistiocytosis Presenting with Papulonodular Skin Lesions and Arthritis Mutilans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya Saba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare multisystem disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by erosive polyarthritis and papulonodular lesions on the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. We report the case of a 54-year-old female who was misdiagnosed as having rheumatoid arthritis and underwent numerous joint replacement surgeries for progressively destructive arthritis in her hands, shoulders, hips, and knees. The patient finally received a diagnosis of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis after histopathological examination of the patient’s left knee arthroplasty which revealed a diffuse histiocytic infiltrate, multinucleated giant cells, and finely granulated eosinophilic cytoplasm with a ground-glass appearance.

  5. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  6. Topical retapamulin in the management of infected traumatic skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribhi Shawar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribhi Shawar1, Nicole Scangarella-Oman1, MaryBeth Dalessandro2, John Breton2, Monique Twynholm3, Gang Li4, Harmony Garges51Infectious Disease Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 2Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 3Infectious Diseases Medicine Development Centre Europe, GlaxoSmithKline, Greenford, Middlesex, UK; 4MDC BDS – Infectious Disease, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 5Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: Retapamulin is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic specifically designed for use as a topical agent. The unique mode of action by which retapamulin selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis differentiates it from other nonpleuromutilin antibacterial agents that target the ribosome or ribosomal factors, minimizing the potential for target-specific cross-resistance with other antibacterial classes in current use. In vitro studies show that retapamulin has high potency against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and coagulase-negative staphylococci commonly found in skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs, including S. aureus strains with resistance to agents such as macrolides, fusidic acid, or mupirocin, and other less common organisms associated with SSSIs, anaerobes, and common respiratory tract pathogens. Clinical studies have shown that twice-daily topical retapamulin for 5 days is comparable to 10 days of oral cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions. A 1% concentration of retapamulin ointment has been approved for clinical use as an easily applied treatment with a short, convenient dosing regimen for impetigo. Given the novel mode of action, low potential for cross-resistance with established antibacterial agents, and high in vitro potency against many bacterial pathogens

  7. Melanoma and other skin lesion detection using smart handheld devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouridakis, George; Wadhawan, Tarun; Situ, Ning; Hu, Rui; Yuan, Xiaojing; Lancaster, Keith; Queen, Courtney M

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones of the latest generation featuring advanced multicore processors, dedicated microchips for graphics, high-resolution cameras, and innovative operating systems provide a portable platform for running sophisticated medical screening software and delivering point-of-care patient diagnostic services at a very low cost. In this chapter, we present a smartphone digital dermoscopy application that can analyze high-resolution images of skin lesions and provide the user with feedback about the likelihood of malignancy. The same basic procedure has been adapted to evaluate other skin lesions, such as the flesh-eating bacterial disease known as Buruli ulcer. When implemented on the iPhone, the accuracy and speed achieved by this application are comparable to that of a desktop computer, demonstrating that smartphone applications can combine portability and low cost with high performance. Thus, smartphone-based systems can be used as assistive devices by primary care physicians during routine office visits, and they can have a significant impact in underserved areas and in developing countries, where health-care infrastructure is limited.

  8. Polymorphisms of cytochrome b gene in Leishmania parasites and their relation to types of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Chomar Kaung; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Kato, Hirotomo; Bhutto, Abdul M; Soomro, Farooq R; Memon, Muhamad Z; Matsumoto, Jun; Marco, Jorge D; Oshiro, Minoru; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    The exact species and/or strains of Leishmania parasites involved strongly influence the clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis, and current knowledge of those influences and relationships is inadequate. We report that cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequencing identified causal Leishmania parasites of 69 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Pakistan over a 3-year period. Of 21 cases in highland areas (Quetta city, Balochistan province), 16 (76.2%) were identified as Leishmania (L.) tropica and five (23.8%) as Leishmania (L.) major. Of 48 cases from lowland areas, cities/villages in Indus valley in Sindh and Balochistan provinces, 47 (97.9%) were identified as L. (L.) major and one (2.1%) as L. (L.) tropica. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the distribution of the two species by altitude; L. (L.) major is predominant in lowland and L. (L.) tropica at highland areas. The present result enriched our earlier finding, based on the first year's cultured parasite data, that only L. (L.) tropica was found in highland areas and only L. (L.) major in lowland areas. Among Leishmania samples analyzed, three types of cyt b polymorphism of L. (L.) major were found, including 45 (86.5%) cases of type I, six (11.5%) of type II and one (2%) of type III. We report for the first time on the presence of polymorphisms in L. (L.) major (types I, II and III) based on species identification using cyt b gene sequencing from clinical samples. Moreover, we found no correlation between clinical presentation (wet-, dry- and/or mixed-types of cutaneous lesions) and causal Leishmania parasites.

  9. Risk group, skin lesion history, and sun sensitivity reliability in squamous cell skin cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Mary C; Harris, Robin B; Roe, Denise J; Saboda, Kathylynn; Ranger-Moore, James; Duckett, Laura; Alberts, David S

    2006-11-01

    In studies of skin cancer, participants are often classified into risk groups based on self-reported history of sun exposure or skin characteristics. We sought to determine the reliability of self-reported skin characteristics among participants of a study to evaluate markers for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Multiple questionnaires and screening protocols were administered over a 3-month period to individuals from three risk groups: existing sun damage on forearms but no visible actinic keratoses (n = 91), visible actinic keratoses (n = 38), and history of resected squamous cell skin cancer in the last 12 months (n = 35). We assessed consistency of risk group assignment between telephone screen and study dermatologist assignment, self-reported sun sensitivity (telephone recruitment form versus participant completed profile), and self-reported history of NMSC skin lesions (telephone recruitment form versus health history). There was substantial agreement between probable risk group and final assignment (kappa = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.85) and agreement did not differ by gender. Agreement for self-reported sun sensitivity was moderate (kappa weighted = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.56) with higher agreement for women. For self-reported NMSC lesion history between two interviews, 24 days apart, kappa estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.78 and were higher for women than men. Overall, there was evidence for substantial reproducibility related to risk group assignment and self-reported history of NMSC, with self-reported sun sensitivity being less reliable. In all comparisons, women had higher kappa values than men. These results suggest that self-reported measures of skin cancer risk are reasonably reliable for use in screening subjects into studies.

  10. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, C D; Gardlo, K; Hochberg, M; Ingber, A; Ruzicka, T

    2003-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa, Leishmania, which resides in macrophages. The parasite is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis approaches 2 million new cases per year with 90% of the cases occurring in the "Old World", while the "New World" accounts for the rest. Infection may be restricted to the skin with development of characteristic ulcers, or may affect the mucous membranes in its mucocutaneous form. The clinical diagnosis is verified by the presence of amastigotes in slit-skin smears. Therapeutic modalities include systemic treatments such as the pentavalent antimony compound sodium stibogluconate, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, oral ketoconazole or itraconazole, as well as topical paromomycin sulphate, local heat, freezing with liquid nitrogen, or photodynamic therapy. An effective vaccine is not available.

  11. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  12. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Alam, Md Zahidul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2014-05-02

    Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women's reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. We compared menopausal age in two groups of women--with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies--participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups' age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p arsenic skin lesions. The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure.

  13. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baldi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs, allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis. This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR.

  14. Goltz syndrome: A newborn with ectrodactyly and skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatanik Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Goltz syndrome or Focal Dermal Hypoplasia is a rare multisystem disorder, involving all the three germ cell layers. The disease is thought to be inherited in X-linked dominant fashion with heterogeneous mutations of the PORCN gene at Xp11.23 locus. Majority of the cases are sporadic, mainly due to postzygotic somatic mutations. The clinical spectrum includes characteristic cutaneous manifestations, multiple skeletal anomalies, and involvement of the eyes, hair, nails, kidneys, and so on. Considerable variability is noted in the clinical expression of the disease probably due to genomic mosaicism. Around 300 cases of Goltz syndrome have been reported in the literature. Here, we report such a case with characteristic skin lesions, multiple bony defects, distinctive facial features, coloboma of iris, and bilateral hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was evident immediately after birth due to the characteristic clinical picture of the baby.

  15. A Comparison between the Effects of Glucantime, Topical Trichloroacetic Acid 50% plus Glucantime, and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser plus Glucantime on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Pentavalent antimonial drugs have been the first line of therapy in cutaneous leishmaniasis for many years. However, the cure rate of these agents is still not favorable. This study was carried out to compare the efficacies of intralesional glucantime with topical trichloroacetic acid 50% (TCA 50% + glucantime and fractional carbon dioxide laser + glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods. A total of 90 patients were randomly divided into three groups of 30 to be treated with intralesional injection of glucantime, a combination of topical TCA 50% and glucantime, or a combination of fractional laser and glucantime. The overall clinical improvement and changes in sizes of lesions and scars were assessed and compared among three groups. Results. The mean duration of treatment was 6.1±2.1 weeks in all patients (range: 2–12 weeks and 6.8±1.7, 5.2±1.0, and 6.3±3.0 weeks in glucantime, topical TCA plus glucantime, and fractional laser plus glucantime groups, respectively (P=0.011. Complete improvement was observed in 10 (38.5%, 27 (90%, and 20 (87% patients of glucantime, glucantime + TCA, and glucantime + laser groups, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Compared to glucantime alone, the combination of intralesional glucantime and TCA 50% or fractional CO2 laser had significantly higher and faster cure rate in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  16. Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from infected skin lesions in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Claire L; Fagan, Peter; Hennessy, Jann; Baird, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae is commonly isolated from cutaneous skin lesions in the Northern Territory of Australia. We prospectively assessed 32 recent isolates from infected skin lesions, in addition to reviewing 192 isolates collected over 5 years for toxin status. No isolates carried the toxin gene. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae is now a rare occurrence in the Northern Territory.

  17. Force of infection and evolution of lesions of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Diego Marco

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A clinical-serological follow-up was carried out in a canine population in endemic foci of Leishmania braziliensis spread in northwestern Argentina. Each dog was studied in at least two visits, 309±15 days (X±SE apart. Some initially healthy dogs (n=52 developed seroconversion or lesions. The clinical evolution of the disease in dogs resembles in many aspects the human disease. Similarities include the long duration of most ulcers with occasional healing or appearance of new ones and the late appearance of erosive snout lesions in some animals. Yearly incidence rates of 22.7% for seroconversion and of 13.5% for disease were calculated as indicators of the force of infection by this parasite upon the canine population.

  18. Intralesional Pentamidine: A Novel Therapy for Single Lesions of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Jaime; Paz, David; Rivero, Daniela; Soto, Paula; Quispe, Jorge; Toledo, Julia; Berman, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    A novel therapy, intralesional (IL) pentamidine, was compared to intralesional therapy with antimony (ILSb), a World Health Organization-recommended therapy, for single Bolivian Leishmania braziliensis lesions. In Study 1, 90 patients were randomized equally between three injections of ILSb over 5 days, five injections of ILSb over 11 days, and three injections of IL pentamidine (120 μg/mm(2)lesion area [ILPenta-120-3]) over 5 days. Cure rates at 6 months were 57% for ILSb-3 injections, 73% for ILSb-5 injections, and 72% for ILPenta-120-3 injections. Adverse effects were local irritation and injection-site pain-ILSb (60 patients): mild (25), moderate (4); IL pentamidine (30 patients): mild (4), moderate (3). In Study 2, 60 patients were randomized equally between five injections of ILSb and three injections of a double dose of IL pentamidine (240 μg/mm(2)[ILPenta-240-3]). In Study 2, cure rates were 67% for ILSb-5 injections and 73% for ILPenta-240-3. For three IL injections of pentamidine, efficacy was optimized at a dose of 120 μg/mm(2)lesion area. The cure rate of that regimen was similar to that for ILSb-5 injections and nonstatistically larger than that of ILSb-3 injections. IL pentamidine is an attractive alternative to ILSb on the basis of efficacy for Bolivian L. braziliensis, the threat of Sb-resistant parasites, tolerance, and patient convenience of three visits over 5 days.

  19. An ICA-based method for the segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in macroscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Pablo G; Scharcanski, Jacob; Di Persia, Leandro E; Milone, Diego H

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step in computer-aided diagnostic systems for pigmented skin lesions, since that a good definition of the lesion area and its boundary at the image is very important to distinguish benign from malignant cases. In this paper a new skin lesion segmentation method is proposed. This method uses Independent Component Analysis to locate skin lesions in the image, and this location information is further refined by a Level-set segmentation method. Our method was evaluated in 141 images and achieved an average segmentation error of 16.55%, lower than the results for comparable state-of-the-art methods proposed in literature.

  20. Cytokine profile in Montenegro skin test of patients with localized cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis Perfil de citocinas na intradermorreação de Montenegro em doentes de leishmaniose cutânea localizada e cutâneo-mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ferraz Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis presents as two major clinical forms: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. The immune response in leishmaniasis is efficiently evaluated by the response to Leishmania antigen through the Montenegro skin test (MST. Both LCL and MCL present positive response to MST, indicating that the patients present cell-mediated immunity against the parasite - Leishmania. In spite of the presence of immunity in MCL, this is not sufficient to stop disease progression and prevent resistance to treatment. In this study we demonstrated interleukin (IL 2, 4, 5 and interferon (IFN gamma expression in biopsies of MST of ten patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The obtained results were compared between LCL (n = 5 and MCL (n = 5 patients. The MST of MCL patients displayed a higher expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, in comparison to LCL. There was no significant difference in IFN-gamma expression between groups. The obtained results suggest the role of IL-4 and IL-5 in the maintenance of the immunopathogenic mechanism of the destructive lesions that characterize MCL.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana apresenta duas formas clínicas mais comuns: a leishmaniose cutânea localizada e a leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. A imunidade da leishmaniose é avaliada pela resposta ao antígeno Leishmania através da Intradermorreação de Montenegro. Estas duas formas apresentam resposta positiva, indicando que o paciente apresenta imunidade celular contra o parasita Leishmania. Apesar da presença da imunidade celular na leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa, esta não é suficiente para barrar a progressão da doença e a resistência ao tratamento. Neste estudo, detectamos quatro citocinas por imunohistoquímica, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 e IFN-gama nas biópsias da intradermorreação de Montenegro de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana (n = 10, cinco com leishmaniose cutânea e cinco com cut

  1. Age related efficiency of the leishmanin skin test as a marker of immunity to human visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, A; Ben Salah, A; Hamida, N Bel Haj; Zaatour, A

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether the efficiency of the leishmanin skin test (LST) to evaluate the immune status of individuals exposed to Leishmania (L.) infantum is age-related. It was conducted in two districts of the governorate of Kairouan, an endemic region for L. infantum infection in Tunisia. Healthy individuals (n = 119) were selected according to two criteria: no current or past history of visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, and their age range: 1-6 years (group I), 7-14 years (group II), and 20-66 years old (group III). Assessments comprised LSTs, in vitro lymphoproliferative response, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) productions induced by soluble leishmanial antigens (SLA). LST recorded an overall of 89.07% and 89.9% concordance with T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production induced by SLA, respectively. Using in vitro tests as gold standards, LST was found more sensitive for screening individuals from group I (96% and 100%, considering T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production results, respectively), than group II (91% and 97%) and group III (70% and 74%,). Conversely, LST was less specific in group I (84% and 77%) than group II (100% and 94%) and group III (100% for both in vitro tests). Our results suggested that the strength of LST resided in its higher sensitivity, to unravel asymptomatic injections and cell mediated immunity to L. infantum parasite in infants and its higher specificity for screening adult individuals. Negative LST in adults and positive LST in children < 5 years, the population at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis, remain the weaknesses of LST and should be interpreted with caution.

  2. Ribosomal protein s6-ps240 is expressed in lesional skin from patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The in situ signaling transduction within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases is not well-characterized. Aim : In autoimmune skin blistering diseases, autoantibodies seem to trigger several intracellular signaling pathways and we investigated the presence of the phosphorylated form of ribosomal protein S6-pS240 within autoimmune skin blistering diseases biopsies. Materials and Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of S6-pS240 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases including patients with an endemic and nonendemic pemphigus foliaceus (non EPF, with bullous pemphigoid (BP, pemphigus vulgaris (PV, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH, and the respective controls. Results: Most autoimmune bullous skin diseases biopsies stained positive for S6-pS240 around lesional blisters, including adjacent areas of the epidermis; and within upper dermal inflammatory infiltrates, and/or mesenchymal-endothelial cell junctions within the dermis. Conclusions: We document that S6-pS240 is expressed in lesional areas of skin biopsies from patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases, as well as on eccrine glands and piloerector muscles. Thus, the role of this molecule in autoimmune skin blistering diseases warrants further study.

  3. Co-existence of cutaneous leishmaniasis with pleural effusion: a case report from Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mortazavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a 12-year-old Afghan boy with chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis on the face and verrucous lesions on the body and pleural effusion suspected of having co-existent tuberculosis has been presented. The cutaneous lesions were appeared for five years before his admission. Leishman-Donovan bodies were seen in H&E (Hematoxylin and eosin slide of skin lesion specimens. The pathogenic species was proved to be Leishmania tropica using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method. Purified Protein Derivative (PPD and Leishmanin Skin Test (LST were strongly positive. The patient was treated with systemic and intralesional meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime for cutaneous leishmaniasis and then with anti-tuberculosis drugs for pleural effusion. Afterwards, pleural effusion was disappeared and cutaneous leishmaniasis cured.

  4. Postmastectomy-Postirradiation Atypical Vascular Lesion of the Skin: Report of 2 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalakshmy, P. S.; Sivaram, Aswathy P.; Joy Augustine; Bindu, P

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of vascular lesions developing in breast or chest wall skin following lumpectomy or mastectomy and radiation is wide and ranges from atypical vascular lesions with a benign clinical behaviour to frankly malignant, angiosarcoma ranging histologically from well to poorly differentiated variety. Postmastectomy-postirradiation atypical vascular lesions (AVLs) are rare and develop in the skin adjacent to the mastectomy scar. About hundred cases have been reported in the literature so ...

  5. Leishmaniasis Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Leishmaniasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ...

  6. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – Dermoscopic Findings And Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev Hristo P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year-old male patient who, three months after a holiday in Southern Greece, found a small ‘pimple’ on his back, which gradually got as big as a small walnut, the central part becoming ulcerated and scabby. Dermatological examination found an erythematous-to-livid nodular lesion on the right shoulder; it was 16 mm in diameter with central ulceration, covered with brownish crust which discharged pus-like secretion upon pressure. Microscope examination of Romanowsky-Giemsa stained lesion material detected amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica. The culture investigation and serological tests for leishmaniasis were negative. Dermoscopy of the lesion found the following features: erythema, hyperkeratosis, central ulceration covered with brownish crust, “yellow tears-like” structures and “white starburst-like” patterns, and various vascular structures (including dotted vessels, comma-shaped vessels, hairpin- and glomerular-like vessels. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and underwent four cryotherapy sessions every other week with excellent therapeutic results - complete resolution of infiltrate with subsequent gentle hypopigmented scarring. In conclusion, dermoscopy is an easily accessible non-invasive method which can be useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cryotherapy is the treatment of choice for single skin lesions.

  7. Study of early appearance of skin lesions in coal gasification workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begraca, M; Ukmata, H; Morris, S C; Canhasi, B; Haxhiu, M A

    1991-09-01

    A retrospective cohort morbidity study was conducted among workers employed at the Kosovo coal gasification plant and a reference population of open-pit lignite miners. The aim was to determine the rate of early skin cancer and pre-cancerous skin lesions. In 15 years of commercial operation of the coal gasification plant, seven workers were diagnosed with benign skin tumors, six with pre-cancerous skin diseases, but none with skin cancer. The lesions were significantly fewer than were reported earlier over a shorter time period and in a smaller population at a coal hydrogenation plant. Compared to the reference population who received medical care in the same clinic, gasification workers had a lower skin cancer rate, but a higher rate of benign skin tumors and potentially pre-cancerous skin diseases.

  8. Computer aided analysis of epi-illumination and transillumination images of skin lesions for diagnosis of skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Brian; Dhawan, Atam P; Mullani, Nizar

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesion pigmentation area from surface, or, epi-illumination (ELM) images and blood volume area from transillumination (TLM) images are useful features to aid a dermatologist in the diagnosis of melanoma and other skin cancers in early curable stages. However, segmentation of these areas is difficult. In this work, we present an automatic segmentation tool for ELM and TLM images that also provides additional choices for user selection and interaction with adaptive learning. Our tool uses a combination of k-means clustering, wavelet analysis, and morphological operations to segment the lesion and blood volume, and then presents the user with six segmentation suggestions for both ELM and TLM images. The final selection of segmentation boundary may then be iteratively improved through scoring by multiple users. The ratio of TLM to ELM segmented areas is an indicator of dysplasia in skin lesions for detection of skin cancers, and this ratio is found to show a statistically significant trend in association with lesion dysplasia on a set of 81 pathologically validated lesions (p = 0.0058). We then present a support vector machine classifier using the results from the interactive segmentation method along with ratio, color, texture, and shape features to characterize skin lesions into three degrees of dysplasia with promising accuracy.

  9. Protective Effect of Vitamin D3 and Gp63 Conjugated with Tetanus Toxoid on Outcome of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions in Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soudi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: GP63 is a major surface protease of Leishmania promastigotes that plays an important role in its virulance. As GP63 on its own can not develop an effective protection against leishmaniasis, the goal of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of GP63 conjugated with tetanus toxoid (TT and Vitamin D3 in susceptible BALB/c mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: This study was a basic-applied experimental study performed in Tarbiat Modarres University from September 2002 to April 2005. Cloned virulant Leishmania (L. major [MRHO / IR / 75 / ER] strain was cultured and 5109 cells were harvested. GP63 Molecule was purified and conjugated with TT and conjugated molecule was used for immunization of 8 groups of female BALB/c mice. Results: Results showed that the group of mice receiving conjugated molecule with Vitamin D3 had significant differences from other groups regarding lesion progression (P0.05. The culture of spleen cells showed that the disease did not become systemic in this group. Conclusion: Conjugation of GP63 with TT strengthens cell immunity and its use along with vitamin D3 provokes macrophages activity. This basis can be used for production of an appropriate preparation for protection against Leishmaniasis.

  10. A survey on leishmaniasis and the leishman_in skin test profile

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leishmanin skin test is an immunological procedure resembling the .... g of the skin over the volar surface of the forearm ... angles, to get a two»dimensional measurement of the .... of vegetation shelter. with lower density of Ph/ebolomus.

  11. Feasibility Study of Optical Spectroscopy as a Medical Tool for Diagnosis of Skin Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Saf; Sheikh Ziauddin; Alexander Horsch; Mahzad Ziai; Victor Castaneda; Tobias Lasser; Nassir Navab

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most frequently en-countered types of cancer in the Western world. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation Statistics, one in every five Americans develops skin cancer during his/her lifetime. Today, the incurability of advanced cutaneous melanoma raises the importance of its early detection. Since the differentiation of early melanoma from other pigmented skin lesions is not a trivial task, even for experienced dermatologists, computer aided diagnosis could become a...

  12. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women’s reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Methods We compared menopausal age in two groups of women – with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies— participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Results Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups’ age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p arsenic skin lesions. Conclusions The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure. PMID:24886424

  13. Oral manifestations in the American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cesar Silva da Costa

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - MCL including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing.Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities.A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test and non parametric (Mann-Whitney tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant.The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9% have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites.Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL.

  14. Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination, Skin Lesions, and Malignancies: A Systematic Review of the Global Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagas, Margaret R; Gossai, Anala; Pierce, Brandon; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-03-01

    Skin lesions and cancer are known manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water. Epidemiologic data primarily comes from regions with exposures 1-2 orders of magnitude above the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 10 μg/L. Emerging evidence indicates that more common exposures may also be related to both noncancerous and cancerous changes to the skin. In this review, we focus on the body of epidemiologic literature that encompasses exposures within the WHO guidelines, excluding studies that lacked individual exposure estimates and case reports. For skin lesions and skin cancers, 15 and 10 studies were identified that met our criteria, respectively. For skin lesions, a consistent dose-response relationship with water arsenic has been observed, with increased risk evident at low- to moderate-dose exposure. Of the larger studies of specific histologic types of skin cancers, although with differing exposure definitions, there was evidence of dose-related relationships with both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The effect of arsenic exposure on skin lesion risk is likely modified by genetic variants that influence arsenic metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that arsenic may increase risk of skin lesions and skin cancers at levels not previously considered harmful, and that genetic factors may influence risk.

  15. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in skin lesions of classic Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouni, Mirna; Kurban, Mazen; Abbas, Ossama

    2016-09-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent producers of type I interferons (IFNs), which allows them to provide anti-viral resistance and to link the innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the function of myeloid DCs, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. pDCs are involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious [especially viral, such as Molluscum contagiosum (MC)], inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic entities. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal, systemic lympho-angioproliferative tumor associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Microscopy typically exhibits a chronic inflammatory lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in addition to the vascular changes and spindle cell proliferation. Despite the extensive research done on the immune evasion strategies employed by KSHV, pDCs role in relation to KS has only rarely been investigated. Given this, we intend to investigate pDC occurrence and activity in the skin lesions of KS. Immunohistochemical staining for BDCA-2 (specific pDC marker) and MxA (surrogate marker for local type I IFN production) was performed on classic KS (n = 20) with the control group comprising inflamed MC (n = 20). As expected, BDCA-2+ pDCs were present in abundance with diffuse and intense MxA expression (indicative of local type I IFN production) in all inflamed MC cases (20 of 20, 100 %). Though present in all the KS cases, pDCs were significantly less abundant in KS than in inflamed MC cases, and MxA expression was patchy/weak in most KS cases. In summary, pDCs are part of the inflammatory host response in KS; however, they were generally low in number with decreased type I IFN production which is probably related to KSHV's ability to evade the immune system through the production of different viral proteins capable of suppressing IFN production as well as pDC function.

  16. Affinity cytochemistry analysis of mast cells in skin lesions: a possible tool to assess the timing of lesions after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, A; Bacci, S; Norelli, G A

    2003-12-01

    The histamine content in vital wounds is known to increase, with a zenith after 3 h, and then decrease until 24 h after wounding. We addressed whether this biochemical alteration has a morphological counterpart. Since the main source of skin histamine are mast cells, the distribution and number of these cells was assessed upon labeling with fluorescent avidin and with antibodies to the mast cell specific enzymes, chymase and tryptase. Analyses were performed on skin from 15 healthy controls (from surgical biopsies), from 15 post-mortem lesions and 75 vital lesions, obtained at autopsy from subjects who had survived from a few seconds to 24 h. The number of mast cells per unit area of section surface increased progressively with survival time, up to a maximum in subjects who survived 1-3 h ( pdeath ( paffinity cytochemistry can help to discriminate vital from post-mortem lesions and to estimate survival time after lesions.

  17. Enhancement of lesion classification using divergence, curl and curvature of skin pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zhishun; Duller, A W G; Fish, P J

    2004-11-01

    The observation that skin pattern tends to be disrupted by malignant but not by benign skin lesions suggests that measurements of skin pattern disruption on simply captured white light optical clinical (WLC) skin images could be a useful contribution to a diagnostic feature set. Previous work which generated a flow field of skin pattern using a measurement of local line direction and variation determined by the minimum eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector of the local tensor matrix to measure skin pattern disruption was computationally low cost and encouraging. This paper explores the possibility of extracting new features from the first and second differentiations of this flow field to enhance classification performance. The skin pattern was extracted from WLC skin images by high-pass filtering. The skin line direction was estimated using a local image gradient matrix to produce a flow field of skin pattern. Divergence, curl, mean and Gaussian curvatures of this flow field were computed from the first and second differentiations of this flow field. The difference of these measures combined with skin line direction across the lesion image boundary was used as a lesion classifier. A set of images of malignant melanoma and benign naevi were analysed as above and the scatter plot in a two-dimensional dominant feature space using principal component analysis showed excellent separation of benign and malignant lesions. A receiver operating characteristic plot enclosed an area of 0.96. The experimental results show that the divergence, curl, mean and Gaussian curvatures of the flow field can increase lesion classifier accuracy. Combined with skin line direction they are promising features for distinguishing malignant melanoma from benign lesions and the methods used are computationally efficient which is important if their use is to be considered in clinical practice.

  18. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the Eyelids: A Case Series with Molecular Identification and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Iraj; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Handjani, Farhad; Hatam, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan disease which is endemic in Iran. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The eyelid is rarely involved possibly because the movement of the lids impedes the sand fly from biting the skin in this region. Here, we report 6 rare cases of eyelid CL. The patients were diagnosed by skin scraping, culture, and PCR from the lesions. Skin scraping examination showed Leishmania spp. amastigotes in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Culture examination was positive for Leishmania spp. PCR was positive for Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica. The lesions were disguised as basal cell carcinoma, chalazion, hordeolum, and impetigo. The patients were treated with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (20 mg/kg/day) for at least 3 weeks. They showed a dramatic response, and the lesions almost completely disappeared. We emphasized the importance of clinical and diagnostic features of lesions, characterized the phylogenetic relationship of isolated parasites, and reviewed the literature on ocular leishmaniasis. PMID:28095664

  19. Nonhealing skin lesions in a sailor and a journalist returning from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesho, Emil P; Wortmann, Glenn; Neafie, Ronald; Aronson, Naomi

    2005-02-01

    US health care providers who are not familiar with cutaneous leishmaniasis may now begin to encounter more patients with this challenging entity as military personnel return from rotations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Diagnosis requires a skin scraping, aspiration, or biopsy, followed by examination by an experienced microscopist or pathologist. Demonstration of the parasite DNA by PCR or culture in special media can also be used to confirm the diagnosis. Sodium stibogluconate is the mainstay of therapy, but other options for selected cases include topical thermal or cryotherapy treatment and oral triazole compounds. Assistance is available through the CDC and, for Department of Defense beneficiaries, certain military facilities.

  20. Extraction of skin lesions contours using anisotropic diffusion and active contour model without edges

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Barbosa Oliveira; Araujo, Alex F. de; Aledir Silveira Pereira; João Manuel R. S. Tavares; Norian Marranghello; Ricardo Baccaro Rossetti

    2012-01-01

    According to an estimate made by the National Cancer Institute (INCA) in 2012, also valid for the year 2013, the skin cancer appears as one of the most cancer types common in Brazil. The high level of predominance of the skin cancer case has motivated the search and the development of computational methods to assist dermatologists in the diagnosis of skin lesions. The main goal of such methods is concerned to the detection of benign skin le-sions to prevent their development, or diagnose mali...

  1. PCR Associated with Molecular Hybridization Detects Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Healthy Skin in Canine Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guilherme Marx de Oliveira; Maria de Fatima Madeira; Fernanda S. Oliveira; Raquel S. Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, we detected L. (V.) braziliensis DNA in intact skin fragments collected from 3 naturally infected dogs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the use of PCR techniques associated with molecular hybridization...

  2. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  3. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein

    2017-01-01

    The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis). The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major. PMID:28210511

  4. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Papillon-lefevre Syndrome : Improvement of Skin Lesions After the Loss of Permanent Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw N

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS showed improvement of skin lesions after the loss of permanent teeth which is an unusual feature. The case is being reported because of this feature.

  6. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Amaral, Gabriela Borborema do; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    .... However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD...

  7. [Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) concurrent with cancer: Presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Domínguez, Selene Del C; Martínez-Vázquez, Alejandro; Núñez-Oreza, Luis A; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Tamay-Segovia, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Male of 52 year old with chronic alcoholism and ulcerated lesion on the face and disseminated nodular skin lesions, underwent to biopsy of ulcer edges where was observed a concomitant epidermoid malignancy with Leishmania (L.). Besides others, biopsies of nodule in the periumbilical region, lymph node and bone marrow were assayed, and all biopsies had abundant amastigotes. The amplified Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products from nodule were sequenced and the alignment analysis demonstrated homology with L. mexicana confirming the infection by this parasite. This is considered the first case of visceral and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis concurrent with epidermoid cancer in the state of Campeche.

  8. Design and evaluation of neural classifiers application to skin lesion classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintz-Madsen, Mads; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Addresses design and evaluation of neural classifiers for the problem of skin lesion classification. By using Gauss Newton optimization for the entropic cost function in conjunction with pruning by Optimal Brain Damage and a new test error estimate, the authors show that this scheme is capable...... of optimizing the architecture of neural classifiers. Furthermore, error-reject tradeoff theory indicates, that the resulting neural classifiers for the skin lesion classification problem are near-optimal...

  9. A review of Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.

  10. Associations of arsenic metabolites, methylation capacity, and skin lesions caused by chronic exposure to high arsenic in tube well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linsheng; Chai, Yuanqing; Yu, Jiangping; Wei, Binggan; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the interaction between skin lesion status and arsenic methylation profiles, the concentrations and proportions of arsenic metabolites in urine and arsenic methylation capacities of study subjects were determined. The results showed that the mean urinary concentrations of iAs (inorganic arsenic), MMA (monomethylarsonic acid), DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), and TAs (total arsenic) were 75.65, 68.78, 265.81, and 410.24 μg/L, respectively, in the skin lesions subjects. The highest values were observed in the multiple skin lesions subjects. Higher %iAs and %MMA, and lower %DMA, PMI (primary methylation index), and SMI (secondary methylation index) were found in skin lesions subjects. The multiple skin lesions subjects had highest %iAs and %MMA, and lowest %DMA, PMI, and SMI. The prevalence of skin lesions strongly, positively correlated with arsenic levels in drinking water. The elder persons also had higher frequency of skin lesions compared with younger persons. It can be concluded that arsenic levels in drinking water significantly affected the prevalence of skin lesions. Male subjects usually had higher proportions of skin lesions when compared with female subjects. Moreover, it may be concluded that MMA was significantly related to single skin lesion, whereas DMA and iAs were associated with multiple skin lesions. It seemed that MMA had greater toxicity to hyperkeratosis, whereas DMA and iAs had higher toxicity to depigmentation or pigmentation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 28-36, 2017.

  11. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  12. Distinct profile of the mitochondrial DNA common deletion in benign skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Christian; Kamenisch, York; Landthaler, Michael; Berneburg, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Mutations of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, particularly the 4977 bp long common deletion, are increased in aging tissues and preferentially found in chronologically and photoaged skin. Mutations of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have also been identified in malignant tumors of the skin and of other organs. However, benign skin lesions have not yet been investigated. We analyzed the frequency of the common deletion in 27 benign skin lesions [8 seborrheic keratoses (SK), 5 epidermal nevi (EN), 14 solar lentigos (SL)] by quantitative real-time PCR, because SK and especially SL have been related to (photo)aged skin. All SK and four of five EN displayed reduced common deletion levels compared with adjacent normal skin. In contrast, 50% of SL revealed a higher percentage of the common deletion than the adjacent normal skin, and some SL showed very high absolute common deletion levels up to 14% of total mtDNA. Our results show that the amount of the common deletion is significantly different in benign skin lesions and raise further questions regarding the pathogenesis of SL and its possible role as a precursor lesion of SK.

  13. Skin lesions suspected of malignancy : an increasing burden on general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, Cecile J. L.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Groenhof, Feikje; van der Meer, Klaas; van der Heide, Wouter K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer is believed to impose a heavy burden on healthcare services, but the burden of skin lesions suspected of malignancy on primary healthcare has never been evaluated. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the demand for care in general practice due to these suspected

  14. Papillomavirus associated skin lesions in a cat seropositive for feline immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Berrocal, A.; Bax, H.A.; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Walter, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A cat was presented with skin lesions consisting of slightly raised pigmented plaques, 2 7 mm in diameter with a rough slightly verrucous surface. Histologically these lesions were identified as papillomas. A papillomavirus infection was demonstrated: virus-like particles were present in the nuclei

  15. Gabor filter for the segmentation of skin lesions from ultrasonographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Lorena I.; Gómez, W.; Alvarenga, André V.; Pereira, Wagner C. A.

    2012-05-01

    The present work applies Gabor filters bank for texture analysis of skin lesions images, obtained by ultrasound biomicroscopy. The regions affected by the lesions were differentiated from surrounding tissue in all the analyzed cases; however the accuracy of the traced borders showed some limitations in part of the images. Future steps are being contemplated, attempting to enhance the technique performance.

  16. Papillomavirus associated skin lesions in a cat seropositive for feline immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Berrocal, A.; Bax, H.A.; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Walter, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A cat was presented with skin lesions consisting of slightly raised pigmented plaques, 2 7 mm in diameter with a rough slightly verrucous surface. Histologically these lesions were identified as papillomas. A papillomavirus infection was demonstrated: virus-like particles were present in the nuclei

  17. Correlation Between the Evaluation of Pigmented Lesions by a Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device and the Clinical and Histological Features of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Richard R.; Rigel, Darrell S.; Ferris, Laura; Sober, Arthur; Tucker, Natalie; Cockerell, Clay J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To correlate Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis classifier scores with histopathological severity of pigmented lesions and clinical features of melanoma. Design: Classifier scores were computed for 1,632 skin lesions. Dermatologists evaluated the same lesions for Asymmetry, Border Irregularity, Color variegation, Diameter >6mm, Evolution, Patient’s Concern, Regression, and/or “Ugly Duckling” sign. Classifier scores were correlated to the number of clinical risk features an...

  18. Traumatic degloving lesion of penile and scrotal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Zanettini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avulsions of penile and scrotal skin are uncommon events and are caused mainly by accidents with industrial machines and agricultural machine belts. We report the case of a 30-year old patient with avulsion and traumatic degloving of the penile and scrotal skin, with exposure of the cavernous bodies, spongy body, and testes due to an industrial machine accident. Reconstruction was performed in steps, achieving a satisfactory esthetic result, normal voiding and reestablished sexual function.

  19. Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis of the lips mimicking granulomatous cheilitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Ekiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC is an unusual form of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Herein, we present a case of LRC of the lips mimicking granulomatous cheilitis. An 8-year-old, Syrian child admitted with a swelling and disfigurement of his lips for 4 years. Abundant intra and extracellular Leishmania amastigotes were determined in the smear prepared from the lesion with Giemsa stain. Histopathology showed foamy histiocytes and leishmania parasites within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the epidermis and a dense dermal mixed type inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, foamy histiocytes with multinucleated giant cells. On the basis of anamnestic data, the skin smears results, clinical and histopathologic findings, LRC was diagnosed. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate intramuscularly and fluconazole orally. Cryotherapy was applied to the residual papular lesions. The lesion improved markedly at the first month of the treatment.

  20. Quantitative measure in image segmentation for skin lesion images: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nurulhuda Firdaus Mohd; Ibrahim, Mohd Hakimi Aiman; Keng, Lau Hui; Ibrahim, Nuzulha Khilwani; Sarkan, Haslina Md

    2014-12-01

    Automatic Skin Lesion Diagnosis (ASLD) allows skin lesion diagnosis by using a computer or mobile devices. The idea of using a computer to assist in diagnosis of skin lesions was first proposed in the literature around 1985. Images of skin lesions are analyzed by the computer to capture certain features thought to be characteristic of skin diseases. These features (expressed as numeric values) are then used to classify the image and report a diagnosis. Image segmentation is often a critical step in image analysis and it may use statistical classification, thresholding, edge detection, region detection, or any combination of these techniques. Nevertheless, image segmentation of skin lesion images is yet limited to superficial evaluations which merely display images of the segmentation results and appeal to the reader's intuition for evaluation. There is a consistent lack of quantitative measure, thus, it is difficult to know which segmentation present useful results and in which situations they do so. If segmentation is done well, then, all other stages in image analysis are made simpler. If significant features (that are crucial for diagnosis) are not extracted from images, it will affect the accuracy of the automated diagnosis. This paper explore the existing quantitative measure in image segmentation ranging in the application of pattern recognition for example hand writing, plat number, and colour. Selecting the most suitable segmentation measure is highly important so that as much relevant features can be identified and extracted.

  1. On the geometric modulation of skin lesion growth: a mathematical model for melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early detection of suspicious skin lesions is critical to prevent skin malignancies, particularly the melanoma, which is the most dangerous form of human skin cancer. In the last decade, image processing techniques have been an increasingly important tool for early detection and mathematical models play a relevant role in mapping the progression of lesions. Methods This work presents an algorithm to describe the evolution of the border of the skin lesion based on two main measurable markers: the symmetry and the geometric growth path of the lesion. The proposed methodology involves two dermoscopic images of the same melanocytic lesion obtained at different moments in time. By applying a mathematical model based on planar linear transformations, measurable parameters related to symmetry and growth are extracted. Results With this information one may compare the actual evolution in the lesion with the outcomes from the geometric model. First, this method was tested on predefined images whose growth was controlled and the symmetry known which were used for validation. Then the methodology was tested in real dermoscopic melanoma images in which the parameters of the mathematical model revealed symmetry and growth rates consistent with a typical melanoma behavior. Conclusions The method developed proved to show very accurate information about the target growth markers (variation on the growth along the border, the deformation and the symmetry of the lesion trough the time. All the results, validated by the expected phantom outputs, were similar to the ones on the real images.

  2. Mefloquina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em uma área endêmica de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Alberto Laguna-Torres

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da mefloquina numa região endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, considerando que esta droga de administração oral, eficaz no tratamento da malária, com meia vida prolongada e efeitos colaterais pouco freqüentes poderia ser menos tóxica e de mais fácil administração, quando comparada com os antimoniais pentavalentes. Em Corte de Pedra, no litoral sul do Estado da Bahia, foram tratados, aleatoriamente, dez pacientes portadores de lesões leishmanióticas, subdivididos em dois grupos. O primeiro grupo recebeu mefloquina pela via oral, dose de 250mg/dia, durante seis dias, repetindo-se o mesmo esquema após intervalo de três semanas. O segundo grupo recebeu antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® diariamente, pela via endovenosa, na dose de 20mg/kg por 20 dias. Do grupo da mefloquina só um paciente apresentou cicatrização depois do segundo ciclo. Um desses, com quatro lesões apresentou nova lesão durante o primeiro ciclo de tratamento. A evolução dos outros três foi lenta sendo que em nove semanas nenhum deles tinha cicatrizado as úlceras que permaneciam com grande infiltração e sinais evidentes de atividade. O grupo tratado com Glucantime® apresentou evidente melhora.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®, 20mg/kg daily administered

  3. Skin lesions on common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from three sites in the Northwest Atlantic, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Burdett Hart

    Full Text Available Skin disease occurs frequently in many cetacean species across the globe; methods to categorize lesions have relied on photo-identification (photo-id, stranding, and by-catch data. The current study used photo-id data from four sampling months during 2009 to estimate skin lesion prevalence and type occurring on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from three sites along the southeast United States coast [Sarasota Bay, FL (SSB; near Brunswick and Sapelo Island, GA (BSG; and near Charleston, SC (CHS]. The prevalence of lesions was highest among BSG dolphins (P = 0.587 and lowest in SSB (P = 0.380, and the overall prevalence was significantly different among all sites (p<0.0167. Logistic regression modeling revealed a significant reduction in the odds of lesion occurrence for increasing water temperatures (OR = 0.92; 95%CI:0.906-0.938 and a significantly increased odds of lesion occurrence for BSG dolphins (OR = 1.39; 95%CI:1.203-1.614. Approximately one-third of the lesioned dolphins from each site presented with multiple types, and population differences in lesion type occurrence were observed (p<0.05. Lesions on stranded dolphins were sampled to determine the etiology of different lesion types, which included three visually distinct samples positive for herpesvirus. Although generally considered non-fatal, skin disease may be indicative of animal health or exposure to anthropogenic or environmental threats, and photo-id data provide an efficient and cost-effective approach to document the occurrence of skin lesions in free-ranging populations.

  4. Diagnostic Value of Calretinin in Mast Cell Lesions of the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Janine; Silverman, Jan F.; Dabbs, David J.; Tung, Ming Y.; Silverman, Alan R.

    2000-04-01

    The diagnosis of mast cell lesions of the skin can occasionally be challenging. Calretinin, a 29 kD neuron-specific calcium-binding protein found mostly in the CNS and retina, has been shown to be a positive marker for mesotheliomas, and is also expressed in mast cells. We studied the diagnostic value of calretinin and compared our results to other established ancillary studies used to identify mast cells, such as Toluidine blue and the Leder stain. Sixty-three cases were studied, including 45 mast cell lesions (22 urticaria pigmentosum, 17 mastocytomas, and six telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans [TMEP]), seven nevi, three melanomas, four granular cell minors of the skin, three cutaneous lymphomas, and one granulocytic sarcoma. Patients ranged in age from less than 1 to 85 years with a median age of 29 years. The group consisted of 36 females and 27 males. Calretinin was expressed in all 45 mast cell lesions. Negative staining for calretinin was seen in all skin lesions that potentially could be considered in the differential diagnosis of mast cell lesions such as nevi, melanomas, lymphomas, and the granulocytic sarcoma. However, calretinin expression was noted in four/four granular cell tumors. Leder and Toluidine blue stains were positive in all 45 mast cell lesions, and all nonmast cell lesions were negative with these stains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that calretinin is a sensitive and specific marker of mast cells and can be an aid in distinguishing mast cell lesions from other skin lesions considered in the differential diagnosis. Calretinin may be more sensitive than the currently used special stains utilized to diagnose mast cell lesions having few diagnostic mast cells such as TMEP. However, this immunoperoxidase stain does not add significant diagnostic information in most cases, when compared with the currently used less expensive special stains and, therefore, is not cost-effective. Int J Surg Pathol 8(2):119-122, 2000

  5. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Hansen, Lone Bak; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM), a national fast-track referral system (FTRS) was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma i...... melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions.......Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM), a national fast-track referral system (FTRS) was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma....... A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1%) were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4%) of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma.  Conclusion. In total, 353 (63...

  6. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  7. Independent histogram pursuit for segmentation of skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, D.D.; Butakoff, C.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an unsupervised algorithm, called the Independent Histogram Pursuit (HIP), for segmenting dermatological lesions is proposed. The algorithm estimates a set of linear combinations of image bands that enhance different structures embedded in the image. In particular, the first estima...... to deal with different types of dermatological lesions. The boundary detection precision using k-means segmentation was close to 97%. The proposed algorithm can be easily combined with the majority of classification algorithms.......In this paper, an unsupervised algorithm, called the Independent Histogram Pursuit (HIP), for segmenting dermatological lesions is proposed. The algorithm estimates a set of linear combinations of image bands that enhance different structures embedded in the image. In particular, the first...... estimated combination enhances the contrast of the lesion to facilitate its segmentation. Given an N-band image, this first combination corresponds to a line in N dimensions, such that the separation between the two main modes of the histogram obtained by projecting the pixels onto this line, is maximized...

  8. Expression of RANTES mRNA in skin lesions of feline eosinophilic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoe; Kano, Rui; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nagata, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2003-10-01

    One of the mechanisms of eosinophil infiltration is its induction by chemoattractants such as regulated upon activation, normal T-expressed and secreted (RANTES) which is a cysteine-cysteine chemokine that mediates chemotaxis and activation of eosinophils in humans and mice. Skin lesions of feline eosinophilic plaque are characterized by a predominant infiltration of eosinophils. The mechanism(s) of eosinophilic infiltration in the skin and/or mucosa of cats is unknown. It is possible that RANTES is involved. To investigate the presence of RANTES in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaques and nonaffected skin, we cloned and sequenced the full-length feline RANTES cDNA gene, in order to determine whether it is present in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaques and/or if it is present in normal adjacent skin. We were able to document the the expression of RANTES mRNAs in skin with feline eosinophilic plaque as well as in normal cat skin. The full-length cDNA sequence of the RANTES gene (742 bp) contained a single open reading frame of 276 bp encoding a protein of 92 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of feline RANTES shared 67 and 74% sequence identity with that of bovine and mouse RANTES genes, respectively. RT-PCR analysis on RANTES mRNA in the skin of cats with eosinophilic plaque revealed that its expression was higher in the eosinophilic plaque skin lesions than in the normal skin. The result suggested that RANTES might play a role to induce eosinophil infiltration in feline eosinophilic plaque lesions.

  9. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CAUSES OF SKIN LESIONS IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) IN THE EASTERN USA, 1975-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsmo, Elizabeth J; Allison, Andrew B; Brown, Justin D

    2016-07-01

    Skin lesions of Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) are a common cause of concern to wildlife biologists and the general public and are a frequent reason for submission to diagnostic laboratories. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the causes, occurrence, and epidemiologic patterns of skin lesions in Wild Turkeys in the eastern US. Skin lesions were diagnosed in 30% (n=199) of the 660 Wild Turkey samples submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study diagnostic service from 1975 to 2013. Avian pox was the most frequent cause of skin lesions (66%, n=131), followed by bacterial dermatitis (22%, n=44), ectoparasitism-related dermatitis (3%, n=6), fungal dermatitis (2.5%, n=5), and neoplasia (2.0%, n=4). Although the gross appearance of skin lesions is often insufficient to determine the etiology, the anatomic distribution of lesions and temporal occurrence of certain diseases may offer insights into likely causes. Cases with lesions involving or restricted to the head and neck were much more likely to be caused by avian pox than other etiologies. Similarly, lesions restricted to the feet were more likely to be of bacterial origin. Skin lesions observed in the fall and winter were more likely to be caused by avian pox, whereas bacterial dermatitis was more frequently observed in the spring and summer. This retrospective study provides a summary of the causes of skin lesions in Wild Turkeys and serves as a useful reference to diagnosticians and biologists when evaluating Wild Turkeys with skin lesions.

  10. Skin lesion metrics: role of photography in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Audris; Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-04-01

    Accurate assessment of acne severity is essential for determining the appropriate treatment required. This paper reviews photographic methods for such assessment. Literature included met the following criteria: proposed photographic standards to assess acne, evaluated such standards, or offered photographic methods to improve visualization and assessment. Validity was evaluated by comparing given photographic grading methods to other methods, such as lesion counting. Many photographic standards were shown to be objective, time-efficient, and have intra-grader and inter-grader consistency. Photography also documents progress for retrospective verification. Drawbacks include not allowing determination of depth, minimization of small lesions and erythema, and difficulty in maintaining consistent settings. Fluorescence and polarized photography improve visualization beyond clinical observation alone. Advances such as computer alignment, imaging segmentation, and three-dimensional analysis methods track lesions and measure objective characteristics. The combined experience summarized here strongly promotes the use of a photographic standard in assessing acne severity. Cook's method can also be used to train and qualify graders. Photographic advancements improve accuracy of assessment by solving problems with consistent settings and depth visualization. Further advancements can improve image analysis through analysis of objective attributes.

  11. Characterization of the local and systemic immune responses in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Veress, B; Permin, H

    1999-01-01

    In this study skin biopsies and peripheral blood samples were obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Samples were obtained at diagnosis and during healing when the lesions had regressed to half the original size. At diagnosis most of the cells expressed HLA...

  12. Locomotion Disorders and Skin and Claw Lesions in Gestating Sows Housed in Dynamic versus Static Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Emilie-Julie; Maes, Dominiek; van Riet, Miriam M. J.; Millet, Sam; Ampe, Bart; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lameness and lesions to the skin and claws of sows in group housing are commonly occurring indicators of reduced welfare. Typically, these problems are more common in group housing than in individual housing systems. Group management type (dynamic versus static) and stage of gestation influence the behavior of the animals, which in turn influences the occurrence of these problems. The present study compared prevalence, incidence and mean scores of lameness and skin and claw lesions in static versus dynamic group housed sows at different stages of gestation during three consecutive reproductive cycles. A total of 10 Belgian sow herds were monitored; 5 in which dynamic groups and 5 in which static groups were utilized. All sows were visually assessed for lameness and skin lesions three times per cycle and the claws of the hind limbs were assessed once per cycle. Lameness and claw lesions were assessed using visual analogue scales. Static groups, in comparison with dynamic groups, demonstrated lower lameness scores (Psows demonstrating claw lesions regardless of group management. Prevalences of lameness (22.4 vs. 8.9%, P<0.05) and skin lesions (46.6 vs. 4.4%, P<0.05) were highest during the group-housed phase compared to the individually housed phases. Although the prevalence of lameness and skin lesions did not differ three days after grouping versus at the end of the group-housing phase, their incidence peaked during the first three days after moving from the insemination stalls to the group. In conclusion, the first three days after grouping was the most risky period for lameness incidence, but there was no significant difference between static or dynamic group management. PMID:27680675

  13. A herpesvirus-type agent associated with skin lesions of green sea turtles in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebell, G; Rywlin, A; Haines, H

    1975-08-01

    Nine successive groups of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were observed in aquaculture during the posthatchling period. During the first 6 months of growth, each group underwent an epizootic of skin lesions, named gray-patch disease. Two types of skin lesions are associated with gray-patch disease: papules and, more characteristically, spreading gray patches which appear 7 to 8 weeks after hatching. In both types of lesions, intranuclear inclusions are found in keratinocytes in the malpighian layer of the epidermis. Electron microscopic examination of scrapings from lesions and biopsies revealed many viral particles, with features characteristic of the herpesvirus group. Transmission of gray-patch disease is possible with bacteria-free preparations of viral particles.

  14. Skin lesions simulating blue toe syndrome caused by prolonged contact with a millipede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Scardazan Heeren Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals are those that, by means of a hunting and defense mechanism, are able to inject their prey with a toxic substance produced in their bodies, directly from specialized glands (e.g., tooth, sting, spur through which the poison passes. Millipedes are poisonous animals; they can be harmful to humans, and their effects usually manifest as erythematous, purpuric, and cyanotic lesions; local pain; and paresthesia. Here, we report a case of skin contact with a millipede for 6h resulting in skin lesions similar to blue toe syndrome.

  15. Modeling spatial relation in skin lesion images by the graph walk kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Ning; Wadhawan, Tarun; Yuan, Xiaojing; Zouridakis, George

    2010-01-01

    Early skin cancer detection with the help of dermoscopic images is becoming more and more important. Previous methods generally ignored the spatial relation of the pixels or regions inside the lesion. We propose to employ a graph representation of the skin lesion to model the spatial relation. We then use the graph walk kernel, a similarity measure between two graphs, to build a classifier based on support vector machines for melanoma detection. In experiments, we compare the sensitivities and specificities of models with and without spatial information. Experimental results show that the model with spatial information performs the best in both sensitivity and specificity. Statistical test indicates that the improvement is significant.

  16. Study of apoptosis in skin lesions of leprosy in relation to treatment and lepra reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, C; Gupta, Sachin; Radotra, Bishan D; Arora, Sunil K; Kumar, Bhushan; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Inderjeet

    2005-12-01

    In leprosy on treatment, one factor contributing to the healing of skin lesions with minimal fibrosis may be apoptosis of inflammatory cells, even though apoptosis is sparse in leprosy as compared to tuberculosis. The degree of apoptosis in skin lesions of leprosy was studied by histopathologic examination (HPE) and by DNA fragmentation and electrophoresis. The effect of various parameters on apoptosis was noted in untreated disease, during treatment at 3 and 6 months, and in lepra reactions in different parts of the spectrum of leprosy. Of the 31 patients, 13 had paucibacillary (PB) and 18 multibacillary (MB) disease. Twenty one patients were in reaction: 16 had type 1 reaction and 5 had type 2 reaction. The controls included patients with non-granulomatous skin diseases; there were no normal controls, and no separate controls for cases with reaction. Apoptosis occurred more frequently in patients with leprosy as compared to the controls. In both PB & MB lesions, apoptosis was observed to increase progressively with treatment at 3 and 6 months, and was more prominent in the MB cases at 6 months of treatment. When lesions in either type 1 or type 2 reaction were compared to lesions not in reaction, a significant increase in apoptosis (p = 0.014) was found only in lesions with type 2 reaction and those which were at 6 months of treatment. The type of treatment regimen, or oral steroids given for reactions, did not significantly alter the degree of apoptosis. Our observations indicate that increased apoptosis is present in leprosy lesions and that in leprosy it progressively increases with anti-leprosy treatment up to 6 months. If the process of apoptosis in skin lesions is followed up for a longer period of time, the degree of apoptosis may be expected to decline. The study of apoptosis may help to understand the mechanism of clearance of bacilli and resolution of granulomas in leprosy patients.

  17. Necessity of Distinguishing Verrucous Carcinoma From Verrucous Skin Lesion Overlaying Residual Skin Staples in an Area of Sensory Loss: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Tokiyoshi, Takahiro; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is a condition usually induced by chronic mechanical stimulation of the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy and usually occurs at weight-bearing sites. We here present a rare case involving a man with verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy at an unusual, non-weight-bearing site. A 58-year-old man with diabetic neuropathy presented with a verrucous skin lesion overlaying residual skin staples and an amputation stump of the second metatarsal bone on the dorsal foot. The biopsy findings were inconclusive and suggested the necessity of distinguishing the lesion from verrucous carcinoma. The lesion was resected, and the residual skin staples were simultaneously removed. Investigation of the excisional biopsy confirmed our diagnosis of verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy. Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is often difficult to distinguish from verrucous carcinoma; in this case, the unusual location of the lesion could be attributed not only to sensory loss but also to the presence of an amputation stump and the persistence of the residual skin staples.

  18. A Case of Multiple Myeloma Diagnosed by Skin Lesions

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    Fatma Gülru Erdoğan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma, being a malignant proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, has clinical spectrum varying from monoclonal gammopathy with unknown significance to plasma cell leukemia. The presenting symptoms have usually been bone pain, pathologic fractures or repeating infections. In patients with multiple myeloma, amyloid depositions may be seen in the skin. This form, defined as primary systemic amyloidosis, is characterized by light-chain amyloid fibril depositions. Our case applied with multiple, asymptomatic, yellowish papules localized on the face, trunk, oral and genital mucosa, gradually increasing during the last two years. He had no complaints, except for slight weight loss. In routine tests, the patient had no pathological laboratory findings, except high C-reactive protein levels. Further research revealed histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings consistent with amyloidosis. Upon these results, immunoglobulin G levels were measured and found high, and in protein electrophoresis, IgG monoclonal gammopathy was determined. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is made by bone marrow biopsy. This patient is presented for being an asymptomatic case diagnosed by skin findings of amyloidosis.

  19. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases.

  20. Feasibility Study of Optical Spectroscopy as a Medical Tool for Diagnosis of Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Saf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is one of the most frequently en-countered types of cancer in the Western world. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation Statistics, one in every five Americans develops skin cancer during his/her lifetime. Today, the incurability of advanced cutaneous melanoma raises the importance of its early detection. Since the differentiation of early melanoma from other pigmented skin lesions is not a trivial task, even for experienced dermatologists, computer aided diagnosis could become an important tool for reducing the mortality rate of this highly malignant cancer type. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system based on machine learning is proposed in order to support the clinical use of optical spectroscopy for skin lesions quantification and classification. The focuses is on a feasibility study of optical spectroscopy as a medical tool for diagnosis. To this end, data acquisition protocols for optical spectroscopy are defined and detailed analysis of feature vectors is performed. Different tech-niques for supervised and unsupervised learning are explored on clinical data, collected from patients with malignant and benign skin lesions.

  1. The role of CD4 and CD8 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Claudia Ida Brodskyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, caused by infection with parasites of the Leishmania genus, affects millions of individuals worldwide. This disease displays distinct clinical manifestations ranging from self-healing skin lesions to severe tissue damage. The control of Leishmania infection is dependent on cellular immune mechanisms, and evidence has shown that CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes play different roles in the outcome of leishmaniasis. Although the presence of CD4 T cells is important for controlling parasite growth, the results in the literature suggest that the inflammatory response elicited by these cells could contribute to the pathogenesis of lesions. However, recent studies on CD8 T lymphocytes show that these cells are mainly involved in tissue damage through cytotoxic mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the study of the human adaptive immunological response in the pathogenesis of tegumentary leishmaniasis.

  2. Expression of Apoptosis Related Protein in Skin Lesions of Lichen Planus and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu'e CHEN; Yan WU; Jiawen LI; Zhixiang LIU; Qing YUE; Houjun LIU

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of Caspase-3 and Bax in the pathogenesis of lichen planus, immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax in skin lesions of the patients with lichen planus and skin tissues of normal subjects. The results showed that positive rate of Caspase-3 and Bax expression in lichen planus were significantly higher than that in normal skins (both P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was a obvious correlation between the increase of Caspase-3 and that of Bax in lichen planus. The expression of Caspase-3 and Bax might play an important role in the development of lichen planus.

  3. Orocutaneous Fistula or Traumatic Infectious Skin Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Vermani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orocutaneous fistula (OCF (of dental origin is an uncommon but well-described condition in the literature. These are often misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists. Careful selection of investigating modality is important in case of diagnostically challenging cases. A 19-year-old female came with a complaint of a lesion on the chin reported with h/o trauma with the impact on chin presented as diagnostic dilemma because of unusual case history and clinical examination. Commonly used radiographic investigations like IOPA and orthopantomograph did not resolve the dilemma whereas advanced imaging modality like CT scan, 3D volume imaging, and contrast enhanced CT played an important role in the diagnosis of OCF and selecting the treatment plan.

  4. Sow and piglet skin, claw and nipple lesions on two concrete flooring materials during lactation period

    OpenAIRE

    Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna; Munksgaard, Lene; Saloniemi, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin, claw and nipple lesions of sows and their piglets while they were kept on two different flooring materials: concrete cement and concrete covered with polyurethane and graveled with sand (particles 0.5-1.2 mm).

  5. Evaluation of Basophil Infiltration into the Skin Lesions of Tick Bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Nakahigashi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been described that basophils play an essential role in antibody-mediated acquired immunity against ticks in mice. However, it is still unknown whether basophil infiltration has any significance in the infestation with ticks in humans. In this report, we have evaluated the infiltration of basophils into human skin lesions of tick bites.

  6. Prediction of Dermoscopy Patterns for Recognition of both Melanocytic and Non-Melanocytic Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Abbas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A differentiation between all types of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions (MnM–SK is a challenging task for both computer-aided diagnosis (CAD and dermatologists due to the complex structure of patterns. The dermatologists are widely using pattern analysis as a first step with clinical attributes to recognize all categories of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs. To increase the diagnostic accuracy of CAD systems, a new pattern classification algorithm is proposed to predict skin lesions patterns by integrating the majority voting (MV–SVM scheme with multi-class support vector machine (SVM. The optimal color and texture features are also extracted from each region-of-interest (ROI dermoscopy image and then these normalized features are fed into an MV–SVM classifier to recognize seven classes. The overall system is evaluated using a dataset of 350 dermoscopy images (50 ROIs per class. On average, the sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 84%, 93% of accuracy and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC of 0.94 are achieved by the proposed MnM–SK system compared to state-of-the-art methods. The obtained result indicates that the MnM–SK system is successful for obtaining the high level of diagnostic accuracy. Thus, it can be used as an alternative pattern classification system to differentiate among all types of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs.

  7. PREVENTION OF NEWBORN SKIN LESIONS: KNOWLEDGE OF THE NURSING TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vidal Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación cualitativa, convergente asistencial, con el objetivo de identificar los conocimientos del personal de enfermería neonatal en la prevención de lesiones en la piel de los recién nacidos. Se realizó en un hospital en el sur de Brasil, con 14 enfermeras. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas en noviembre y diciembre de 2012. El análisis se realizó mediante aprensión, síntesis, teorización y recontextualización. Los resultados indican que el profesional es consciente de las particularidades de la piel del recién nacido, reconociendo la necesidad de la protección, regulación térmica, pérdida de agua transepidérmica, la higiene, la hidratación y la manipulación. Además de la atención con los procedimientos invasivos, prevención de úlceras por presión y punción, cuidado en la fijación de los dispositivos y uso de antissépticos. A partir de este estudio se percibe la necesidad de realizar cuidados delicados, libre de riesgo, proporcionando seguridad a estos pacientes.

  8. Identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of poxvirus in skin lesions of southern right whale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Carla; Palacios, Carlos; Golemba, Marcelo; Bratanich, Ana; Argüelles, Maria Belen; Fazio, Ana; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Lombardo, Daniel

    2015-10-16

    Poxvirus skin disease has been reported in several species of cetaceans, principally in odontocetes, and a single report in mysticetes. Southern right whales Eubalaena australis in Peninsula Valdes, Argentina, show a variety of skin lesions of unknown etiology, and the number of these lesions has increased in recent years. Samples from dead whales were taken in order to establish the etiology of these lesions. One calf and one adult presented ring-type lesions, characterized by a circumscribed and slightly raised area of skin. Lesions were histologically characterized by the presence of microvesicles and vacuolated cells in the stratum spinosum, along with hyperplasia of the stratum corneum and eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed aggregations of virions with typical poxvirus morphology. PCR of cetacean poxvirus (CPV) DNA polymerase, DNA topoisomerase I and parapoxvirus DNA polymerase gene fragments was done, and confirmed the presence of poxvirus in one sample. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected poxvirus belongs to the CPV-2 group. This is the first confirmed report of poxvirus in southern right whales in Argentina.

  9. Eight cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, K E; Porter, B F; Logan, K S; Hoffman, R J; Snowden, K F

    2010-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by intracellular Leishmania protozoa that are transmitted by sandflies. The disease occurs in 3 forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in cats in Europe and South America and in 1 cat from Texas. Leishmania mexicana is endemic in Texas and has been reported to cause cutaneous lesions in humans. This article describes the pathology of 8 biopsy cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis presented to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory over a 3.5-year period. The median age of the cats was 3 years; each was presented with nodular, ulcerative lesions on the pinnae and less commonly on the muzzle and periorbital skin. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse histiocytic dermatitis with numerous amastigotes (2-4 μm) within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within round, clear, intracellular vacuoles. In areas of necrosis, organisms were also free within the interstitium. The overlying epidermis was hyperkeratotic, hyperplastic, and often ulcerated. The organisms were not argyrophilic (Gomori methenamine silver), reacted poorly with periodic acid-Schiff reagent, and were inconsistently basophilic with Giemsa. Although not readily visible histologically, kinetoplasts were evident in amastigotes in cytologic preparations. The lesions were similar to those described for cutaneous L. mexicana infection in humans. In 5 of the 8 cats, Leishmania mexicana DNA was amplified from paraffin-embedded tissue by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced.

  10. The case of diagnosis of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Savelyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Article presents the current data on the clinical and epidemiological issue of leishmaniasis. Methods and results. Leishmaniasis is endemic disease in 88 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Probability of importation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in our country is practically zero, but, given the rarity of this disease, we present own clinical observation of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye. At the beginning of the third millennium has greatly increased the urgency of tropical parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. According to WHO, the world's 14 million people are infected each year there is about 2 million new cases and about 350 million live in areas at risk. Leishmaniasis - a group of vector-borne protozoal disease in humans and animals characterized by lesions of the internal organs (visceral leishmaniasis or the skin and mucous membranes (cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is the vector mosquitoes. We present their own clinical observations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis imported. Patient S., 41 years was hospitalized in Zaporozhye Regional Clinical Hospital infectious on 07.17.2013, with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis. From the history of the disease is known that for the first time in February 2013 the patient have got relative to blade area redness and bump that appeared above the skin, and had a magnitude of 2,3 mm brownish-red. To the doctor the patient has not addressed. After 1,5-2 months bump grew and he began to stand out ichor, which dries and formed a crust on top of the hump. Further small ulcers that did not bring discomfort and pain to the patient appeared. However, every month ulcer increased. In July, after vacation at sea, rose weeping sores and perifocal inflammation appeared. Ulcer size reached 2 cm in diameter. The patient first applied to the dermatologist at the beginning of July 2013. Dermatologist excluded secondary syphilis and tuberculosis skin and sent to an

  11. An Improved Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis and Suppression of Skin Lesions by an Inhibitor of Tec Family Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kawakami

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: We established a highly efficient, highly reproducible protocol to induce skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and successfully applied it to show the efficacy of terreic acid in treating skin lesions. This mouse model of atopic dermatitis will be useful to study the pathogenetic processes of atopic dermatitis and to evaluate the efficacy of drug candidates.

  12. Intakes of several nutrients are associated with incidence of arsenic-related keratotic skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Pierce, Brandon; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-12-01

    Risk of skin lesions due to chronic arsenic exposure can be further affected by nutrient intake. We prospectively evaluated the association of nutrient intake and gender with incident skin lesions using data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate these effects in stratified analyses based on skin lesion severity. Overall, we observed significant associations between low intakes of various nutrients (retinol, calcium, fiber, folate, iron, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamins A, C, and E) and skin lesion incidence, particularly for keratotic skin lesions. Associations for vitamins C and E showed significant linear trends. Gender-specific analyses revealed an inverse association between the lowest quartile of nutrient intake and keratotic skin lesion incidence for retinol equivalents, calcium, folate, iron, and fiber among women. Interactions by gender were observed for retinol equivalents (P-interaction = 0.03), calcium (P-interaction = 0.04), vitamin A (P-interaction = 0.03), and riboflavin (P-interaction = 0.04) with the incidence of keratotic skin lesions. Understanding differential susceptibility to skin lesion incidence based on nutrient intake will help researchers develop targeted interventions to prevent health consequences of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and beyond.

  13. KIT D816V mutation-positive cell fractions in lesional skin biopsies from adults with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Vestergaard, Hanne;

    2013-01-01

    Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized.......Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized....

  14. Skin lesion computational diagnosis of dermoscopic images: Ensemble models based on input feature manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Roberta B; Pereira, Aledir S; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2017-10-01

    The number of deaths worldwide due to melanoma has risen in recent times, in part because melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer. Computational systems have been developed to assist dermatologists in early diagnosis of skin cancer, or even to monitor skin lesions. However, there still remains a challenge to improve classifiers for the diagnosis of such skin lesions. The main objective of this article is to evaluate different ensemble classification models based on input feature manipulation to diagnose skin lesions. Input feature manipulation processes are based on feature subset selections from shape properties, colour variation and texture analysis to generate diversity for the ensemble models. Three subset selection models are presented here: (1) a subset selection model based on specific feature groups, (2) a correlation-based subset selection model, and (3) a subset selection model based on feature selection algorithms. Each ensemble classification model is generated using an optimum-path forest classifier and integrated with a majority voting strategy. The proposed models were applied on a set of 1104 dermoscopic images using a cross-validation procedure. The best results were obtained by the first ensemble classification model that generates a feature subset ensemble based on specific feature groups. The skin lesion diagnosis computational system achieved 94.3% accuracy, 91.8% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity. The input feature manipulation process based on specific feature subsets generated the greatest diversity for the ensemble classification model with very promising results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Leishmaniasis: a preliminary epidemiological study in a locality of the endemic area in the state of the Tabasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Uscanga, C; Albertos-Alpuche, N E; Andrade-Narváez, F J; Canto-Lara, S B

    1993-01-01

    The state of Tabasco is localized in the endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis where both diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis have recently been reported. The objective of the present study was to obtain reliable information of the situation of this disease--which has a great relevance as a worldwide public health problem--through determination of the allergic index in a randomized sample from Ranchería Miguel Hidalgo, Comalcalco Municipality, Tabasco, Mexico. We found an allergic index of 56 per cent. Farmers and housewives had the highest positive responses to the Montenegro skin test. We found no statistical differences between males and females. Moreover, 3 patients with active lesions and people with scars suggestive of prior leishmaniasis were detected during the study. This village should be considered a high endemic focus.

  16. Molecular characterization of poxviruses associated with tattoo skin lesions in UK cetaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Blacklaws

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern for the well-being of cetacean populations around the UK. Tattoo skin disease (characterised by irregular, grey, black or yellowish, stippled cutaneous lesions caused by poxvirus infection is a potential health indicatora potential health indicator for cetaceans. Limited sequence data indicates that cetacean poxviruses (CPVs belong to an unassigned genus of the Chordopoxvirinae. To obtain further insight into the phylogenetic relationships between CPV and other Chordopoxvirinae members we partially characterized viral DNA originating from tattoo lesions collected in Delphinidae and Phocoenidae stranded along the UK coastline in 1998-2008. We also evaluated the presence of CPV in skin lesions other than tattoos to examine specificity and sensitivity of visual diagnosis. After DNA extraction, regions of the DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase I genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared with other isolates. The presence of CPV DNA was demonstrated in tattoos from one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, eight harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena and one short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis and in one 'dubious tattoo' lesion detected in one other porpoise. Seventeen of the 18 PCR positive skin lesions had been visually identified as tattoos and one as a dubious tattoo. None of the other skin lesions were PCR positive. Thus, visual identification had a 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The DNA polymerase PCR was most effective in detecting CPV DNA. Limited sequence phylogeny grouped the UK samples within the odontocete poxviruses (CPV group 1 and indicated that two different poxvirus lineages infect the Phocoenidae and the Delphinidae. The phylogenetic tree had three major branches: one with the UK Phocoenidae viruses, one with the Delphinidae isolates and one for the mysticete poxvirus (CPV group 2. This implies a radiation of poxviruses according to the host suborder and the families within

  17. American visceral Leishmaniasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Dog is the major source of infection to man, especially in urban areas. The authors report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a pit bull female dog from Bocaina, São Paulo, Brazil. The animal presented clinical signs compatible with leishmaniasis, including skin lesions in the body and partial damage of the external ears. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT demonstrated a titer of 1280, and promastigote forms of Leishmania sp were isolated by the culture of bone marrow puncture. Cytological analysis of the lymph node and smear of the bone marrow puncture revealed macrophages containing amastigote forms of Leishmania sp in their inner region. The test of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR utilized the primers LINR4 and LIN19, which amplify 720 base pairs, specific for Leishmania sp. The authors discuss the importance of techniques for a quick and precise diagnosis to this serious zoonosis with great impact in animal and public health.

  18. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...... the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign...... lesions, and 105 OCT images from perilesional skin was performed; 50 OCT images of NMSC and 50 PS-OCT images of normal skin were evaluated twice. RESULTS Sensitivity was 79% to 94% and specificity 85% to 96% in differentiating normal skin from lesions. Important features were absence of well...

  19. Correlation Between the Evaluation of Pigmented Lesions by a Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device and the Clinical and Histological Features of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Rigel, Darrell S; Ferris, Laura; Sober, Arthur; Tucker, Natalie; Cockerell, Clay J

    2016-03-01

    To correlate Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis classifier scores with histopathological severity of pigmented lesions and clinical features of melanoma. Classifier scores were computed for 1,632 skin lesions. Dermatologists evaluated the same lesions for Asymmetry, Border Irregularity, Color variegation, Diameter >6mm, Evolution, Patient's Concern, Regression, and/or "Ugly Duckling" sign. Classifier scores were correlated to the number of clinical risk features and for six histopathological severity levels of pigmented lesions. Average classifier score, Welch's t-test, and chi-square analysis. Melanomas had higher mean classifier scores (3.5) than high-grade dysplastic nevi (2.7, p=0.002), low-grade dysplastic nevi (1.7, pClassifier score and the number of clinical risk characteristics directly correlated (Pearson coefficient 0.32, pclassifier scores to clinical and histological melanoma features supports the effectiveness of Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis in assessing the risk of pigmented lesions requiring biopsy. Optimizing outcomes of dermatologist decisions to biopsy suspicious pigmented lesions may be enhanced utilizing Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis.

  20. Density-based parallel skin lesion border detection with webCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, James; Kockara, Sinan; Halic, Tansel; Mete, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy is a highly effective and noninvasive imaging technique used in diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Many aspects of the lesion under consideration are defined in relation to the lesion border. This makes border detection one of the most important steps in dermoscopic image analysis. In current practice, dermatologists often delineate borders through a hand drawn representation based upon visual inspection. Due to the subjective nature of this technique, intra- and inter-observer variations are common. Because of this, the automated assessment of lesion borders in dermoscopic images has become an important area of study. Fast density based skin lesion border detection method has been implemented in parallel with a new parallel technology called WebCL. WebCL utilizes client side computing capabilities to use available hardware resources such as multi cores and GPUs. Developed WebCL-parallel density based skin lesion border detection method runs efficiently from internet browsers. Previous research indicates that one of the highest accuracy rates can be achieved using density based clustering techniques for skin lesion border detection. While these algorithms do have unfavorable time complexities, this effect could be mitigated when implemented in parallel. In this study, density based clustering technique for skin lesion border detection is parallelized and redesigned to run very efficiently on the heterogeneous platforms (e.g. tablets, SmartPhones, multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units) by transforming the technique into a series of independent concurrent operations. Heterogeneous computing is adopted to support accessibility, portability and multi-device use in the clinical settings. For this, we used WebCL, an emerging technology that enables a HTML5 Web browser to execute code in parallel for heterogeneous platforms. We depicted WebCL and our parallel algorithm design. In addition, we tested

  1. Density-based parallel skin lesion border detection with webCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermoscopy is a highly effective and noninvasive imaging technique used in diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Many aspects of the lesion under consideration are defined in relation to the lesion border. This makes border detection one of the most important steps in dermoscopic image analysis. In current practice, dermatologists often delineate borders through a hand drawn representation based upon visual inspection. Due to the subjective nature of this technique, intra- and inter-observer variations are common. Because of this, the automated assessment of lesion borders in dermoscopic images has become an important area of study. Methods Fast density based skin lesion border detection method has been implemented in parallel with a new parallel technology called WebCL. WebCL utilizes client side computing capabilities to use available hardware resources such as multi cores and GPUs. Developed WebCL-parallel density based skin lesion border detection method runs efficiently from internet browsers. Results Previous research indicates that one of the highest accuracy rates can be achieved using density based clustering techniques for skin lesion border detection. While these algorithms do have unfavorable time complexities, this effect could be mitigated when implemented in parallel. In this study, density based clustering technique for skin lesion border detection is parallelized and redesigned to run very efficiently on the heterogeneous platforms (e.g. tablets, SmartPhones, multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units) by transforming the technique into a series of independent concurrent operations. Heterogeneous computing is adopted to support accessibility, portability and multi-device use in the clinical settings. For this, we used WebCL, an emerging technology that enables a HTML5 Web browser to execute code in parallel for heterogeneous platforms. We depicted WebCL and our parallel algorithm design. In

  2. Attempts using cryotherapy to achieve more rapid healing in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. braziliensis braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer Alejandro Llanos Cuentas

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of cryotherapy as an adjunct to systemic antimonial therapy (Clucantime was studied in 17 patients with a total of23 skin lesions of leishmaniasis in an area where L. braziliensis braziliensis is the species in circulation. Cryotherapy did not speed healing and has been discarded as an auxiliary therapeutic measure in our practice. However this technique may be suitable for species o/Leishmania causing more limited superficial lesions in man without the danger of metastasis.

  3. Improved detection reveals active β-papillomavirus infection in skin lesions from kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Lanfredini, Simone; Peretti, Alberto; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Colombo, Enrico; Quaglia, Marco; Boldorini, Renzo; Miglio, Umberto; Doorbar, John; Bavinck, Jan N Bouwes; Quint, Koen D; de Koning, Maurits N C; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether detection of β-HPV gene products, as defined in epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancer, could also be observed in lesions from kidney transplant recipients alongside the viral DNA. A total of 111 samples, corresponding to 79 skin lesions abscised from 17 kidney transplant recipients, have been analyzed. The initial PCR analysis demonstrated that β-HPV-DNA was highly present in our tumor series (85%). Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize productive infection in 4 out of 19 actinic keratoses, and in the pathological borders of 1 out of 14 squamous cell carcinomas and 1 out of 31 basal cell carcinomas. Increased expression of the cellular proliferation marker minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7), that extended into the upper epithelial layers, was a common feature of all the E4-positive areas, indicating that cells were driven into the cell cycle in areas of productive viral infections. Although the present study does not directly demonstrate a causal role of these viruses, the detection of E4 and L1 positivity in actinic keratosis and the adjacent pathological epithelium of skin cancer, clearly shows that β-HPV are actively replicating in the intraepidermal precursor lesions of kidney transplant recipients and can therefore cooperate with other carcinogenic agents, such as UVB, favoring skin cancer promotion.

  4. Automatic detection of basal cell carcinoma using telangiectasia analysis in dermoscopy skin lesion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Beibei; Erdos, David; Stanley, Ronald J; Stoecker, William V; Calcara, David A; Gómez, David D

    2011-08-01

    Telangiectasia, dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin of small, varying diameter, are critical dermoscopy structures used in the detection of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Distinguishing these vessels from other telangiectasia, that are commonly found in sun-damaged skin, is challenging. Image analysis techniques are investigated to find vessels structures in BCC automatically. The primary screen for vessels uses an optimized local color drop technique. A noise filter is developed to eliminate false-positive structures, primarily bubbles, hair, and blotch and ulcer edges. From the telangiectasia mask containing candidate vessel-like structures, shape, size and normalized count features are computed to facilitate the discrimination of benign skin lesions from BCCs with telangiectasia. Experimental results yielded a diagnostic accuracy as high as 96.7% using a neural network classifier for a data set of 59 BCCs and 152 benign lesions for skin lesion discrimination based on features computed from the telangiectasia masks. In current clinical practice, it is possible to find smaller BCCs by dermoscopy than by clinical inspection. Although almost all of these small BCCs have telangiectasia, they can be short and thin. Normalization of lengths and areas helps to detect these smaller BCCs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Premalignant and Malignant Skin Lesions in Two Recipients of Vascularized Composite Tissue Allografts (Face, Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kanitakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipients of solid organ transplants (RSOT have a highly increased risk for developing cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions, favored by the lifelong immunosuppression. Vascularized composite tissue allografts (VCA have been introduced recently, and relevant data are sparse. Two patients with skin cancers (one with basal cell carcinoma and one with squamous cell carcinomas have been so far reported in this patient group. Since 2000 we have been following 9 recipients of VCA (3 face, 6 bilateral hands for the development of rejection and complications of the immunosuppressive treatment. Among the 9 patients, one face-grafted recipient was diagnosed with nodular-pigmented basal cell carcinoma of her own facial skin 6 years after graft, and one patient with double hand allografts developed disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, a potentially premalignant dermatosis, on her skin of the arm and legs. Similar to RSOT, recipients of VCA are prone to develop cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions. Prevention should be applied through sun-protective measures, regular skin examination, and early treatment of premalignant lesions.

  6. Postmastectomy-Postirradiation Atypical Vascular Lesion of the Skin: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Jayalakshmy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of vascular lesions developing in breast or chest wall skin following lumpectomy or mastectomy and radiation is wide and ranges from atypical vascular lesions with a benign clinical behaviour to frankly malignant, angiosarcoma ranging histologically from well to poorly differentiated variety. Postmastectomy-postirradiation atypical vascular lesions (AVLs are rare and develop in the skin adjacent to the mastectomy scar. About hundred cases have been reported in the literature so far. AVLs have also been reported in patients after breast conservation surgery within the breast parenchyma or in the skin around the scar. The incidence appears to be rising. The exact reason for this is not known. The newer modalities of radiation therapy may be contributory to the pathogenesis. More studies have to be done in this area to prove the causal relationship. We are reporting the cases of 2 patients with carcinoma of breast who developed postmastectomy-postirradiation atypical vascular lesions. The cases were received in our department within a 6-month period.

  7. Topical Application of Eupatilin Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ye Jin; Lee, Jun Young

    2017-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder with severe pruritus. Despite advancements in medicine, therapeutic treatments for AD are still limited. Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-30,40,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the lipophilic flavonoids from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber. Objective Although it has been reported to act a role in improving inflammation, its action on AD is uncertain. In this study, we examined the role of eupatilin on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Methods 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was repeatedly applied to the ear of NC/Nga mice to produce AD-like skin lesions. Eupatilin (1%, once a day for 5 consecutive days/week) was applied topically for four weeks for the evaluation of its therapeutic effects. Results 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the clinical severity score of AD-like lesions, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). A histopathological analysis revealed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly decreased the mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cell infiltration, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). We showed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, and interleukin-19, but not interferon-γ, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). Conclusion Considering the therapeutic reaction of eupatilin on AD-like lesions as in this study, the substance has a promising to be an adjuvant topical agent for the control of AD.

  8. Searching for cutaneous leishmaniasis in tribals from Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Simi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, indigenous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are mainly confined to the northwestern region. But now, more and more case reports are coming in from other parts of India. In January 2009, a 26-year-old lady residing in a forest area in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala State presented with bluish red nodules on her upper extremities, of six months duration, which was clinically more in favor of cutaneous leishmaniasis. She had never gone out of the district of Thiruvananthapuram in her life. Aim : To investigate whether the patient hails from a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Setting and Design : An epidemiological investigation in the form of a survey was carried out in March 2009 by a multidisciplinary team among 63 persons residing in the Mele Aamala and Aayiramkala forest tribal settlements in Kuttichal Panchayat of Thiruvananthapuram district. Material and Methods : History taking and clinical examination of 38 persons in the area with special consideration to skin lesions was undertaken. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the skin lesions was done. Breeding places of sand fly and possible reservoirs of Leishmania were also simultaneously investigated. Statistical analysis used : The data obtained was tabulated as frequency and percentage. Chi-square test was done to find out the statistical significance of differences in distributions. Results : Out of the 38 persons examined, active lesions were found in 12 persons and six had healed lesions. Tissue samples were obtained from seven out of the 12 suspected cases. Four of them showed Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in tissue smears. Out of the cultures taken from three patients, one showed promastigote forms in Novy McNeal Nicolle (NNN medium. Histopathological study was done in five patients and two patients had LD bodies, one had epithelioid cell granuloma and the other two had mixed infiltrate with predominantly macrophages. All

  9. Suction blistering the lesional skin of vitiligo patients reveals useful biomarkers of disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, James P; Rashighi, Mehdi; Ahmed Refat, Maggi; Richmond, Jillian M; Harris, John E

    2017-05-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin with limited treatment options; there is an urgent need to identify and validate biomarkers of disease activity to support vitiligo clinical studies. To investigate potential biomarkers of disease activity directly in the skin of vitiligo subjects and healthy subjects. Patient skin was sampled via a modified suction-blister technique, allowing for minimally invasive, objective assessment of cytokines and T-cell infiltrates in the interstitial skin fluid. Potential biomarkers were first defined and later validated in separate study groups. In screening and validation, CD8(+) T-cell number and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 9 protein concentration were significantly elevated in active lesional compared to nonlesional skin. CXCL9 protein concentration achieved greater sensitivity and specificity by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Suction blistering also allowed for phenotyping of the T-cell infiltrate, which overwhelmingly expresses C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3. A small number of patients were enrolled for the study, and only a single patient was used to define the treatment response. Measuring CXCL9 directly in the skin might be effective in clinical trials as an early marker of treatment response. Additionally, use of the modified suction-blister technique supports investigation of inflammatory skin diseases using powerful tools like flow cytometry and protein quantification. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel Approaches for Diagnosing Melanoma Skin Lesions Through Supervised and Deep Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaladha, J; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-04-01

    Dermoscopy is a technique used to capture the images of skin, and these images are useful to analyze the different types of skin diseases. Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer whose severity even leads to death. Earlier detection of melanoma prevents death and the clinicians can treat the patients to increase the chances of survival. Only few machine learning algorithms are developed to detect the melanoma using its features. This paper proposes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system which equips efficient algorithms to classify and predict the melanoma. Enhancement of the images are done using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique (CLAHE) and median filter. A new segmentation algorithm called Normalized Otsu's Segmentation (NOS) is implemented to segment the affected skin lesion from the normal skin, which overcomes the problem of variable illumination. Fifteen features are derived and extracted from the segmented images are fed into the proposed classification techniques like Deep Learning based Neural Networks and Hybrid Adaboost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. The proposed system is tested and validated with nearly 992 images (malignant & benign lesions) and it provides a high classification accuracy of 93 %. The proposed CAD system can assist the dermatologists to confirm the decision of the diagnosis and to avoid excisional biopsies.

  11. Status of oxidative stress on lesional skin surface of plantar warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arican, O; Ozturk, P; Kurutas, E B; Unsal, V

    2013-03-01

    Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of the patients. Sometimes the disease is difficult to treatment, and also, the relationship between HPV and some forms of skin cancers is important. The cutaneous oxidative stress status of warts is absent in the literature. To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in affected skin areas in a group of patients with plantar warts. Thirty-six consecutive patients with a diagnosis of plantar warts were enrolled. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured spectrophotometrically at samples. The SOD activity was significantly lower, and the MDA level was significantly higher on the lesional area than on the non-lesional area (P warts may play a role in pathogenesis of the disease. The addition of topical drugs with antioxidative effects may be valuable in the treatment of warts. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Development of terminal hair following skin lesion treatments with an intense pulsed light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Spiros P; Kontoes, Paraskevas P

    2002-01-01

    Laser and other light sources have been used to treat vascular and pigmented skin lesions and to remove tattoos and unwanted hair, with varying degrees of success and various side effects. It has not yet been reported that hair growth can occur as a side effect of such treatments. In this paper two cases are presented, one port wine stain and one tattoo, that were each treated several times with an intense pulsed light source (IPLS) for removal. Terminal hair, not present before treatment, partially developed in treated areas of both lesions. Local inflammatory reactions are believed to trigger such outcomes.

  13. Detection and characterization of Leishmania in tissues of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis using a specific monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; Kharazmi, A; Permin, H

    1997-01-01

    Sections from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis were examined using an immunoperoxidase method and a monoclonal antibody directed against Leishmania donovani. Parasites were detected in 22 of 25 biopsies (88%). In parallel sections stained...

  14. Autofluorescence of pigmented skin lesions using a pulsed UV laser with synchronized detection: clinical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Svenmarker, Pontus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    We report preliminary clinical results of autofluorescence imaging of malignant and benign skin lesions, using pulsed 355 nm laser excitation with synchronized detection. The novel synchronized detection system allows high signal-to-noise ratio to be achieved in the resulting autofluorescence...... signal, which may in turn produce high contrast images that improve diagnosis, even in the presence of ambient room light. The synchronized set-up utilizes a compact, diode pumped, pulsed UV laser at 355 nm which is coupled to a CCD camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter. The excitation and image...... capture is sampled at 5 kHz and the resulting autofluorescence is captured with the liquid crystal filter cycling through seven wavelengths between 420 nm and 580 nm. The clinical study targets pigmented skin lesions and evaluates the prospects of using autofluorescence as a possible means...

  15. Extraction of ABCD rule features from skin lesions images with smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Luís; Castro, Rui; Ferreira, Liliana; Ferreira, Márcia

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in dermatology today is the early detection of melanoma since the success rates of curing this type of cancer are very high if detected during the early stages of its development. The main objective of the work presented in this paper is to create a prototype of a patient-oriented system for skin lesion analysis using a smartphone. This work aims at implementing a self-monitoring system that collects, processes, and stores information of skin lesions through the automatic extraction of specific visual features. The selection of the features was based on the ABCD rule, which considers 4 visual criteria considered highly relevant for the detection of malignant melanoma. The algorithms used to extract these features are briefly described and the results achieved using images taken from the smartphone camera are discussed.

  16. Arsenic methylation and skin lesions in migrant and native adult women with chronic exposure to arsenic from drinking groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong; Chai, Yuanqing; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na

    2017-02-01

    In order to figure out the prevalence of skin lesions and methylation capacity for migrant and native adult women in an endemic area for arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China, 207 adult women were selected for study subjects. The results showed that the prevalence of skin lesions for the external group, provincial group and native group was 36.54, 26.15 and 35.56 %, respectively. The nail content of arsenic and urinary concentrations of dimethylarsenic (DMA), monomethylarsenic (MMA) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) were significantly higher in women with skin lesions than in those without skin lesions. The highest urinary concentrations of DMA, MMA and iAs were 213.93, 45.72 and 45.01 μg/L in the native group. The arsenic methylation capacity index revealed that the external group had the greatest capacity, while the native group had the lowest. The odds ratios of skin lesions in relation to arsenic metabolites and arsenic methylation capacity varied widely among the three groups. Urinary MMA and iAs concentrations were positively associated with risk of skin lesions in the three groups of adult women, while primary and secondary methylation capacities were negatively related to risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. The external group might be more susceptible to MMA and iAs, while the provincial and native groups were more tolerance to MMA and iAs. Lower primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacities increased the risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. Moreover, higher nail arsenic concentration increased the risk of skin lesions of adult women.

  17. Implementation and analysis of relief patterns of the surface of benign and malignant lesions of the skin by microtopography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Pacheco, Maria del Carmen Lopez [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico); Martins-Costa, Manuel Filipe Pereira da Cunha [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad do Minho, Escola de Ciencias Campus de Gualtar-PT-4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Zapata, Aura Judith Perez [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico); Cherit, Judith DomInguez [Departamento de DermatologIa, Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Calzada de Tlalpan No 4800, 14000 (Mexico); Gallegos, Eva Ramon [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico)

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this study was to be able to distinguish between healthy skin tissue and malignant ones, furthermore determining a unique pattern of roughness for each skin lesion by microtopographic analysis of the skin surface of Mexican patients during the period from April to October 2002. The standard technique used in this study for the diagnosis of skin cancer and the comparison of the results was the haematoxylin-eosin histopathological technique. Latex impressions were taken from skin lesions as well as from the healthy skin of each patient to serve as control samples. These impressions were analysed by the MICROTOP.03.MFC microtopographic system inspection. It was observed that when the tumour becomes rougher, more malign will be the lesion. On average, the melanoma present an increase of roughness of 67% compared to healthy skin, obtaining a roughness relation of 1:2.54. The percentage decreases to 49% (49%, 1:60) in the case of basal cell carcinoma and to 40% in pre-malignant lesions such as melanocytic nevus (40%, 1:150). In benign lesions such as the seborrhoea keratosis only a small increase in roughness was noted (4%, 1:0.72). Microtopographic inspection of the skin surface can be considered as a complementary diagnostic technique for skin cancer.

  18. [Ozone therapy for radiation reactions and skin lesions after neutron therapy in patients with malignant tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikaya, V V; Gribova, O V; Musabaeva, L I; Startseva, Zh A; Simonov, K A; Aleinik, A N; Lisin, V A

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the problem of radiation complications from normal tissues in patients after therapy with fast neutrons of 6.3 MeV. The methods of treatment using ozone technologies in patients with radiation reactions and skin lesions on the areas of irradiation after neutron and neutron-photon therapy have been worked out. Ozone therapy showed its harmlessness and increased efficiency of complex treatment of these patients.

  19. Mutations in COX7B Cause Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Lesions, an Unconventional Mitochondrial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin lesions (MLS) is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disorder associated with mutations in holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS), which encodes a crucial player of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). Unlike other mitochondrial diseases, MLS is characterized by a well-recognizable neurodevelopmental phenotype. Interestingly, not all clinically diagnosed MLS cases have mutations in HCCS, thus suggesting genetic heterogeneity for this disorder. Among the possi...

  20. Herpes Zoster Lesions on Reconstructed Breast Skin: Rare Objective Proof of Reinervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitgasser, Laurenz; Valina, Stephan Wolfgang; Schoeller, Thomas; Ehebruster, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Blazed up Herpes zoster lesions have been described in very few patients after free and pedicled flap transfer for reconstructive purpose. Although sensory recovery after flap reconstructions has been studied extensively most studies addressed subjective perceptions of sensation. Objective investigations of spontaneous reinervation of free and pedicled flaps are rare. We would like to present a witnessed herpes zoster infection of a latissimus dorsi skin flap 2 years after breast reconstruction.

  1. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Amaral,Gabriela Borborema do; Mendes,Maiana Darwich; Quaresma,Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD: Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemic...

  2. Mycotic skin lesions in an adult reindeer caused by Debaryomyces bansenii. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This report apparently is the first to describe candidosis in reindeer. It is imperative that reindeer kept in corrals during winter and spring for supplementary feeding, are provided clean, dry conditions and that strict hygenic measures are followed. If reindeer on the other hand are kept in dirty, wet and muddy corrals, among other things, skin lesions due to fungal infections may possibly appear rather frequently.

  3. Aerobic bacteria and fungi from skin lesions of fish in Khartoum state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hassan Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Fishes with skin lesions are harboring many pathogenic bacteria and fungi and may act as a source of zoonotic infections and can transmit several pathogens to workers in fish industry and consumers. Therefore, thorough and strict routine inspection of fish is recommended to ensure safety and that there are no serious risks to consumers. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 375-385

  4. Effect of rubber flooring on group-housed sows' gait and claw and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E-J; van Riet, M M J; Maes, D; Millet, S; Ampe, B; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare in terms of lameness, claw lesions, and skin lesions. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, we have investigated the effect of rubber coverings on concrete floors and the effect of 3 levels of dietary zinc supplementation on locomotion and claw and skin lesions in group-housed sows. Six groups of 21 ± 4 hybrid sows were monitored during 3 successive reproductive cycles. The sows were group housed from d 28 after insemination (d 0) until 1 wk before expected farrowing date (d 108) in pens with either exposed concrete floors or concrete floors covered with rubber in part of the lying area and the fully slatted area. During each reproductive cycle, locomotion and skin lesions were assessed 4 times (d 28, 50, 108, and 140) and claw lesions were assessed twice (d 50 and 140). Results are given as least squares means ± SE. Locomotion and claw scores were given in millimeters, on analog scales of 150 and 160 mm, respectively. Here, we report on the effect of floor type, which did not interact with dietary zinc concentration ( > 0.10 for all variables). At move to group (d 28) and mid gestation (d 50), no differences between floor treatments were seen in locomotion ( > 0.10). At the end of gestation (d 108), sows housed on rubber flooring scored 9.9 ± 4.1 mm better on gait ( sows on rubber flooring at mid gestation (d 50). However, sows on rubber flooring scored worse for "vertical cracks in the wall horn" (difference of 3.4 ± 1.7 mm; = 0.04). At the end of lactation (d 140), both "white line" (difference of 2.9 ± 1 mm; = 0.02) and "claw length" (difference of 4.7 ± 1.4 mm; sows. The documented increase in vertical cracks in the wall horn at d 50 requires further investigation.

  5. Widespread atypical vascular lesions of the skin after whole-body electron beam therapy: expanding the clinical spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Werner

    2013-02-01

    Atypical vascular lesion of the skin is an uncommon usually benign condition, thus far reported almost exclusively from mammary skin after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Some clinical and histological overlap exists with early angiosarcoma, which can also occur on irradiated skin. The lesions are divided into vascular and lymphatic types, the first representing a higher risk for development of angiosarcoma and the latter being more common. This article reports a rare case of widespread, progressive, vascular-type atypical vascular lesion after repeated whole-body electron beam irradiation administered as treatment for mycosis fungoides.

  6. Nigerian Female with Skin Lesions in the Leg and Face: Herpetic Sycosis Folliculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Dilorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nongenital HSV 1 presents outside the mucus membrane. Our patient had unusual presentation that caused diagnostic dilemma. 30-year-old native Nigerian female coming with fiancée to the United States presented to our service one day after arrival through ER with a lesion on her right ankle. She was diagnosed with cellulitis, started on antibiotics, and admitted to hospital. She had fever of 39.1°C. Head and neck exam showed multiple sized lesions over tongue and palate and inner aspect of lower lip. Abdomen and genital exam was normal. Skin exam showed lesions over the face and lesions over the lateral aspect of the right leg. There was ulcerated lesion over the right lateral malleolus with surrounding erythema and edema. Her tests showed elevated ESR of 98; HIV test was negative; CT scan of the ankle showed no abscess or osteomyelitis. TB quantiferon was indeterminate; AFB stain and culture were negative; HSV IgM was elevated at 1 : 16; RPR was negative; ANA was negative; malaria screen was negative, and blood cultures were negative for bacteria, fungus, and virus. Debrided wound had no growth of bacteria or fungus or virus. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of the HSV1 outside the mucus membrane and how it can be confused with other conditions that required extensive tests. Therapeutic trail with antiviral medications resolved lesions over the leg and face.

  7. Leishmaniasis cutis:report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ke-jian; LIU Yue-hua; FANG Kai

    2005-01-01

    @@ Leishmaniasis cutis is a chronic dermatosis resulting from infestation by Leishmania of the skin.The diagnosis could not be established until a biopsy specimen revealed Leishman-Donovan(LD)bodies.We report two cases of leishmaniasis cutis diagnosed and treated recently in our department.

  8. [Epidemic outbreak of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Puerto Esperanza, Misiones, 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, O D; Sosa Estani, S; Monzani, A S; Studer, C

    2001-01-01

    The province of Misiones reported 205 leishmaniasis cases during 1998, 98% of them from the locality of Puerto Esperanza. The reports of Puerto Esperanza Hospital (January to September 1998) for leishmaniasis were analysed (n: 129). The mainly reported lesion was the single cutaneous ulcer (97.2%), localized in the inferior limbs (72.5%), without any mucosa involvement. The results are consistent with the knowledge from other Argentinean leishmaniasis foci due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The difference in incidence among sexes was not significant, leishmaniasis was reported in all age groups, and it was susceptible to the conventional treatment. The main focus was located in Km 1 neighbourhood, the transmission peak was during April 1998. The Montenegro skin test among general population (n: 205) did not show reactivity among asymptomatic people. The prevalent Phlebotominae species were Lutzomyia intermedia (79.7%) and Lu. whitmani (10.9%), among the 577 individuals belonging to 8 species collected. The Phlebotominae were abundant in peridomestic habitats of Km 1 neighbourhood, close to human dwellings, in places associated with residual primary forest and secondary vegetation. The results are discussed in the frame of surveillance and possible control strategies.

  9. Halting angiogenesis by non-viral somatic gene therapy alleviates psoriasis and murine psoriasiform skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Wallbrecht, Katrin; Schön, Margarete

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated angiogenesis is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, a common skin disorder that affects approximately 2% of the population. Studying both human psoriasis in 2 complementary xenotransplantation models and psoriasis-like skin lesions in transgenic mice...... with epidermal expression of human TGF-ß1, we have demonstrated that antiangiogenic non-viral somatic gene therapy reduces the cutaneous microvasculature and alleviates chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Transient muscular expression of the recombinant disintegrin domain (RDD) of metargidin (also known as ADAM......-15) by in vivo electroporation reduced cutaneous angiogenesis and vascularization in all 3 models. As demonstrated using red fluorescent protein-coupled RDD, the treatment resulted in muscular expression of the gene product and its deposition within the cutaneous hyperangiogenic connective tissue...

  10. A new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Kaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in India is mainly confined to the deserts of Rajasthan; some cases have been reported from the dry north-western half of the Indo-Gangetic plain, including Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Varanasi. Aims: To highlight a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, previously a non-endemic area. This report presents the clinico-epidemiological and investigative results of 120 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis detected between November 2012 and October 2013. Methods: The clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was made using criteria proposed by Bari and Rahman. It was further confirmed by the demonstration of Leishman-Donovan bodies in Leishman stained slit skin smears and skin biopsy specimens, and/or by a satisfactory response to intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate given weekly for 4 weeks. Serial clinical photographs were taken before giving injections and at the end of the 6 th week. Results: There were 67 females and 53 males with an age range of 8 months to 80 years. The most frequently affected site was the face. Lesions were most commonly of the nodulo-ulcerative type. The number of lesions ranged from 1 to 4. Farmers (28.1%, homemakers (27.2% and students (27.2% were significantly over-represented among the occupations (P < 0.001. Skin smears and biopsies were positive for Leishman-Donovan bodies in 50.8% and 44.2% cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division which deserves urgent attention from the public health angle. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to establish the identity of the vector and the strain of Leishmania involved.

  11. Comparison of the Distribution of Morphological Disorganization of Pigmented Lesions in a Community-based Practice versus a University-based Clinical Setting as Measured by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device: Impact on Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Nikolaidis, Gregory; Rigel, Darrell S; Tucker, Natalie; Speck, Laura

    2015-02-01

    To observe how a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis device was used by dermatologists in a community-based clinical setting and determine differences from a university-based environment. Use of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis was incorporated into a community-based practice by 12 dermatologists across six clinics over seven consecutive days with the data provided by the device integrated as an adjuvant to their clinical evaluation for their pigmented lesion management decisions. Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis results were collected electronically for lesions prior to biopsy, and histopathological evaluation was performed for the biopsied lesions. Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis and pathology results were then compared to assess the degree of morphological disorganization. Study of 160 consecutive patients in community-based clinical setting. Proportion of "low" and "high" disorganization lesions identified by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Of the 344 pigmented skin lesions analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis, 255 were high disorganization, 113 of which were biopsied. Of the 89 lesions evaluated by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis to be low disorganization, seven were biopsied and all pathology was benign. Data demonstrate a higher rate of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis low disorganization readings for pigmented skin lesions (32% for single use per patient lesions, plesions, plesions clinics providing data for the university-based clinical study (10%). Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis in the community-based clinical setting may outperform specificity results from the university-based clinical trial study, perhaps because of a higher proportion of subtle lesions encountered at high-risk pigmented lesion clinics of participating major academic centers as compared with those in a community-based practice setting.

  12. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: presentation and problems of patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Chulay

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were infected in Panama (55, Brazil (4 or Colombia (I. Among 35 patients with a 3 week exposure in Panama, the mean maximum incubation period was 33 days (range 4-81 days. Diagnosis was delayed an average of 93 days after onset of skin lesions, due to the patient's delay in seeking medical attention (31 days, medical personnel's delay in considering the diagnosis (45 days, and the laboratory's delay in confirming the diagnosis (17 days. Forty-four patients (73% developed ulcers typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sixteen additional patients (27% had atypical macular, papular, squamous, verrucous or acneiform skin lesions that were diagnosed only because leishmanial cultures were obtained. Of the 59 patients treated with pentavalent antimonial drugs, only 34 (58% were cured after the first course of treatment. Lesions which were at least 2 cm in diameter, ulcerated, or caused by Leishmania braziliensis were less likely to be cured after a single course of treatment than were lesions smaller than 2 cm, nonulcerated or caused by Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania donovani.

  13. Skin lesion classification using oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrübeoğlu, Mehrübe; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Marquez, Guillermo; Duvic, Madeleine; Wang, Lihong V

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the use of a noninvasive in vivo optical technique, diffuse reflectance spectroscopic imaging with oblique incidence, to distinguish between benign and cancer-prone skin lesions. Various image features were examined to classify the images from lesions into benign and cancerous categories. Two groups of lesions were processed separately: Group 1 includes keratoses, warts versus carcinomas; and group 2 includes common nevi versus dysplastic nevi. A region search algorithm was developed to extract both one- and two-dimensional spectral information. A bootstrap-based Bayes classifier was used for classification. A computer-assisted tool was then devised to act as an electronic second opinion to the dermatologist. Our approach generated only one false-positive misclassification out of 23 cases collected for group 1 and two misclassifications out of 34 cases collected for group 2 under the worst estimation condition.

  14. Elemental concentration in normal skin and fibroepithelial polip lesions by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.R.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: jcorsini@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Laboratory Instrumentation/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analysed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X- ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them. (author)

  15. Pre-diagnostic digital imaging prediction model to discriminate between malignant melanoma and benign pigmented skin lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Soerensen, Mads B T; Linghui, Zhong; Chen, Sun; Jensen, Morten O

    2010-02-01

    Malignant cutaneous melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with an increasing incidence over the past decades. The final diagnosis provided is typically based on a biopsy of the skin lesion under consideration. To assist the naked-eye examination and decision on whether or not a biopsy is necessary, digital image processing techniques provide promising results. The hypothesis of this study was that a computer-aided assessment tool could assist the evaluation of a pigmented skin lesion. Hence, the overall aim was to discriminate between malignant and benign pigmented skin lesions using digital image processing. Discriminating algorithms utilizing novel well-established morphological operations and methods were constructed. The algorithms were implemented utilizing graphical programming (LabVIEW Vision). Verification was performed with reference to an image database consisting of 97 pigmented skin lesion pictures of various resolutions and light distributions. The outcome of the algorithms was analysed statistically with MATLAB and a prediction model was constructed. The prediction model evaluates pigmented skin lesions with regards to the overall shape, border and colour distribution with a total of nine different discriminating parameters. The prediction model outputs an index score, and by using the optimal threshold value, a diagnostic accuracy of 77% in discriminating between malignant and benign skin lesions was obtained. This is an improvement compared with the naked-eye analysis performed by professionals, rendering the system a significant assistance in detecting malignant cutaneous melanoma.

  16. Intralesional autotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with buffy coat cells: cytological findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabiri, S; Meymandi, S S; Hayes, M M

    2000-01-01

    The skin lesions of five patient volunteers with dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated by intralesional injection of auto-leukocytes prepared from buffy coat of the patient's own blood. Giemsa stained, air-dried cytological smear preparations were prepared from scrapings taken from...... the margins of the lesions. The cellular interaction between the organism and the inflammatory response of the host was studied. All lesions showed clinical evidence of regression. The cytological findings suggested progressive degradation of the Leishman donovan (LD) bodies within the parasitophorous...

  17. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laboratórios Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot A and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot B. We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  18. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Flores M, Rico Marlon de Moraes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laborat rios Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot A) and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot B). We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  19. Expression of Th17 Cytokines in Skin Lesions of Patients with Psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiawen; CHEN Xu'e; LIU Zhixiang; YUE Qing; LIU Houjun

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of Th17 cytokines in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of IL-17, IL-23 (p19/p40), and IL-6 in skin lesions and non-lesions of the patients with psoriasis and skin tissues of normal subjects. The results showed that the mRNA expression levels of IL-17, IL-23p19, IL-23p40 and IL-6 in psoriasis leision were significantly higher than those of non-leisions (1.231±0.843 vs 1.003±0.044, 1.166±0.142 vs 0.765±0.133, 1.125±0.104 vs 0.730±0.103, 1.186±0.222 vs 0.976±0.122, respectively, all P<0.05). Meanwhile, The expression levels of IL-17 mRNA,IL-23p19 mRNA, IL-23p40 mRNA and IL-6 mRNA were higher in non-leisions than those in normal skin tissues (1.003±0.044 vs 0.620±0.104, 0.765±0.133 vs 0.584±0.078, 0.730±0.103 vs 0.000±0.000, 0.976±0.122 vs 0.656±0.121, respectively, all P<0.05). The overexpression of Th17 cytokines in the skin lesions of patients with psoriasis may indicate that Th17 cytokines play a very important role in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis.

  20. Pigmented skin lesion detection using random forest and wavelet-based texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Yang, Tie-jun

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, a disease of worldwide distribution and is the deadliest form of skin cancer, has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Because advanced cutaneous melanoma is still incurable, early detection is an important step toward a reduction in mortality. Dermoscopy photographs are commonly used in melanoma diagnosis and can capture detailed features of a lesion. A great variability exists in the visual appearance of pigmented skin lesions. Therefore, in order to minimize the diagnostic errors that result from the difficulty and subjectivity of visual interpretation, an automatic detection approach is required. The objectives of this paper were to propose a hybrid method using random forest and Gabor wavelet transformation to accurately differentiate which part belong to lesion area and the other is not in a dermoscopy photographs and analyze segmentation accuracy. A random forest classifier consisting of a set of decision trees was used for classification. Gabor wavelets transformation are the mathematical model of visual cortical cells of mammalian brain and an image can be decomposed into multiple scales and multiple orientations by using it. The Gabor function has been recognized as a very useful tool in texture analysis, due to its optimal localization properties in both spatial and frequency domain. Texture features based on Gabor wavelets transformation are found by the Gabor filtered image. Experiment results indicate the following: (1) the proposed algorithm based on random forest outperformed the-state-of-the-art in pigmented skin lesions detection (2) and the inclusion of Gabor wavelet transformation based texture features improved segmentation accuracy significantly.

  1. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation changes with development of arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladesh: a case-control follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Studies have found an association between aberrant DNA methylation and arsenic-induced skin lesions. Yet, little is known about DNA methylation changes over time in people who develop arsenic-induced skin lesions. We sought to investigate epigenome-wide changes of DNA methylation in people who developed arsenic-induced skin lesions in a ten year period. In 2009–2011, we conducted a follow-up study of 900 skin lesion cases and 900 controls and identified 10 people who developed skin lesions si...

  2. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  3. Clinical studies of pigmented lesions in human skin by using a multiphoton tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Kelly, Kristen M.; Zachary, Christopher B.; Harris, Ronald M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; König, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-02-01

    In vivo imaging of pigmented lesions in human skin was performed with a clinical multiphoton microscopy (MPM)-based tomograph (MPTflex, JenLab, Germany). Two-photon excited fluorescence was used for visualizing endogenous fluorophores such as NADH/FAD, keratin, melanin in the epidermal cells and elastin fibers in the dermis. Collagen fibers were imaged by second harmonic generation. Our study involved in vivo imaging of benign melanocytic nevi, atypical nevi and melanoma. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify in vivo the characteristic features and their frequency in pigmented lesions at different stages (benign, atypical and malignant) and to evaluate the ability of in vivo MPM to distinguish atypical nevi from melanoma. Comparison with histopathology was performed for the biopsied lesions. Benign melanocytic nevi were characterized by the presence of nevus cell nests at the epidermal-dermal junction. In atypical nevi, features such as lentiginous hyperplasia, acanthosis and architectural disorder were imaged. Cytological atypia was present in all the melanoma lesions imaged, showing the strongest correlation with malignancy. The MPM images demonstrated very good correlation with corresponding histological images, suggesting that MPM could be a promising tool for in vivo non-invasive pigmented lesion diagnosis, particularly distinguishing atypical nevi from melanoma.

  4. Necrotic skin lesion in a dog attributed to Loxosceles (brown spider bite: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LHA Machado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomations caused by Loxosceles (brown spider have been reported throughout the world. Clinical signs associated to bites of these spiders involve dermonecrotic lesions and intense local inflammatory response, besides systemic manifestations such as intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. The present study aimed to report and to describe dermonecrotic lesions probably caused by a Loxosceles envenomation in a four year-old poodle female dog, treated at the Dermatology Service of the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil. Initially, the animal presented two skin lesions with blackish aspect that evolved into ulcerative crusts. The owner reported the presence of a brown spider near the place where the animal spent most of the time. Histological examination of lesions revealed necrosis of the epidermis extending to adnexa and panniculi, which is compatible with Loxosceles bite reaction. The animal was treated with systemic antibiotic and local curatives. Lesions healed by second intention in two months.

  5. Prehistological evaluation of benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions with optical computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokolakis, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis; Krasagakis, Konstantin; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Favicchio, Rosy; Spiliopoulos, George; Giannikaki, Elpida; Ripoll, Jorge; Tosca, Androniki

    2012-06-01

    Discrimination of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions is a major issue in clinical dermatology. Assessment of the thickness of melanoma is critical for prognosis and treatment selection. We aimed to evaluate a novel optical computed tomography (optical-CT) system as a tool for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of melanocytic lesions and its ability to discriminate benign from malignant melanocytic lesions while simultaneously determining the thickness of invasive melanoma. Seventeen melanocytic lesions, one hemangioma, and normal skin were assessed immediately after their excision by optical-CT and subsequently underwent histopathological examination. Tomographic reconstructions were performed with a back-propagation algorithm calculating a 3-D map of the total attenuation coefficient (AC). There was a statistically significant difference between melanomas, dysplastic nevi, and non-dysplastic nevi, as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis test. Median AC values were higher for melanomas compared with dysplastic and non-dysplastic nevi. No statistically significant difference was observed when thickness values obtained by optical-CT were compared with histological thickness using a Wilcoxon sighed rank test. Our results suggest that optical-CT can be important for the immediate prehistological evaluation of biopsies, assisting the physician for a rapid assessment of malignancy and of the thickness of a melanocytic lesion.

  6. Development of a three-dimensional surface imaging system for melanocytic skin lesion evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Androniki; Kokolakis, Athanasios; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Zabulis, Xenophon; Marnelakis, Ioannis; Ripoll, Jorge; Stephanidis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    Even though surface morphology is always taken into account when assessing clinically pigmented skin lesions, it is not captured by most modern imaging systems using digital imaging. Our aim is to develop a novel three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to record detailed information of the surface anatomy of melanocytic lesions that will enable improved classification through digital imaging. The apparatus consists of three high-resolution cameras, a light source, and accompanying software. Volume measurements of specific phantoms using volumetric tubes render slightly lower values than those obtained by our 3D imaging system (mean%±SD, 3.8%±0.98, P<0.05). To examine the reproducibility of the method, sequential imaging of melanocytic lesions is carried out. The mean%±SD differences of area, major axis length, volume, and maximum height are 2.1%±1.1, 0.9%±0.8, 3.8%±2.9, and 2.5%±3.5, respectively. Thirty melanocytic lesions are assessed, including common and dysplastic nevi and melanomas. There is a significant difference between nevi and melanomas in terms of variance in height and boundary asymmetry (P<0.001). Moreover, dysplastic nevi have significantly higher variances in pigment density values than common nevi (P<0.001). Preliminary data suggest that our instrument has great potential in the evaluation of the melanocytic lesions. However, these findings should be confirmed in larger-scale studies.

  7. The transcriptional activation program of human neutrophils in skin lesions supports their important role in wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Monch, K.; Knudsen, Steen; Follin, P.

    2004-01-01

    receptors involved in inflammatory responses. These findings indicate a change of responsiveness to chemotactic and immunoregulatory mediators once PMNs have migrated to skin lesions and have been activated. Other effects of the up-regulated cytokines/chemokines/enzymes were critical for wound healing......To investigate the cellular fate and function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) attracted to skin wounds, we used a human skin-wounding model and microarray technology to define differentially expressed genes in PMNs from peripheral blood, and PMNs that had transmigrated to skin...... lesions. After migration to skin lesions, PMNs demonstrated a significant transcriptional response including genes from several different functional categories. The up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes concomitant with the down-regulation of proapoptotic genes suggested a transient anti-apoptotic priming...

  8. Protective Effects of B Vitamins and Antioxidants on the Risk of Arsenic-Related Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Background An estimated 25–40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. Objectives The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. Methods We per...

  9. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

  10. CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana D Batista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immunopathogenic mechanisms leading to psoriasis remain unresolved. CD57 is a marker of replicative inability and immunosenescence on CD8+ T cells and the proportion of CD57 expressing CD8+ T cells is increased in a number of inflammatory conditions. METHODOLOGY: We examined the expression of CD57 on T cells in the skin of patients affected with psoriasis, comparing lesional and unaffected skin. We also assessed functionality of the T cells by evaluating the secretion of several inflammatory cytokines (IL-17A, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-33, TNF-alpha, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-27, from cell-sorted purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from lesional and unaffected skin biopsies of psoriasis patients. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that the frequency of CD57+CD4+ and CD57+CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in unaffected skin of psoriasis patients compared to lesional skin. Sorted CD4+ T cells from psoriatic lesional skin produced higher levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IFN-gamma compared to unaffected skin, while sorted CD8+ T cells from lesional skin produced higher levels of IL-17, IL-22, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2 compared to unaffected skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that T cells in unaffected skin from psoriasis patients exhibit a phenotype compatible with replicative inability. As they have a lower replicative capacity, CD57+ T cells are less frequent in lesional tissue due to the high cellular turnover.

  11. The association of anti-annexin1 antibodies with the occurrence of skin lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z; Shi, Z-R; Tan, G-Z; Yin, J; Wu, J; Mi, X-B; Wang, L

    2014-02-01

    Anti-annexin1 antibodies are associated with the subtypes of cutaneous lupus and are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation of this antibody with the incidence of SLE skin lesions. The presence of anti-annexin1-IgG and-IgM determined by Western blot was no different among healthy controls and SLE patients with and without skin lesions. Serum levels of anti-annexin1-IgG and -IgM measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were comparable between patients with and without skin lesions, whereas anti-annexin1-IgM was lower in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Annexin1 was abundantly detected in each epidermal layer in lupus lesional skin. Additionally, anti-annexin1-IgG was higher in SLE patients with arthritis and negatively correlated with white blood cells (WBC). Anti-annexin1-IgM was higher in patients with antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive sera, and was positively related to hemoglobin and total serum IgM. Collectively, anti-annexin1 antibodies are not related to the incidence of skin lesions in SLE, and annexin1 abundantly distributes in epidermis in lesional skin.

  12. Usefulness of the rK39-immunochromatographic test, direct agglutination test, and leishmanin skin test for detecting asymptomatic Leishmania infection in children in a new visceral leishmaniasis focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-05-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis-endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test.

  13. The use of tissue expander in repairing skin and hair lesions of the head

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    Khatir A

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Of 14 cases who underwent this operation only in one of them because of infection in operation site, we had to extract the expander. Also, in the first day of the operation that we injected serum inside the expander of two other patients, the wound opened up and the expander appeared and came out automatically. The remaining ten patients have tolerated the operation after treatment period without any complications and good result was achieved. This method in covering up skin lesions and in eliminating burn as well as old wound scars was very effective and the patient become satisfied because there was no need to remove skin from other parts of the body and thus no new scars would have been created. The only problems in this method of treatment were its duration which is needed for injection inside the expander as well as bad appearance in operation region and these problems cause the patients to become depressed and to become isolated from the public for a long period. For the past three years that we used this method for covering skin lesions in different parts of the body and even in treating extensive spots and the hemantrium we achieved excellent results and the report will subsequently be submitted.

  14. An effective hair detection algorithm for dermoscopic melanoma images of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Damayanti; Kaur, Ravneet; Umbaugh, Scott; LeAnder, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Dermoscopic images are obtained using the method of skin surface microscopy. Pigmented skin lesions are evaluated in terms of texture features such as color and structure. Artifacts, such as hairs, bubbles, black frames, ruler-marks, etc., create obstacles that prevent accurate detection of skin lesions by both clinicians and computer-aided diagnosis. In this article, we propose a new algorithm for the automated detection of hairs, using an adaptive, Canny edge-detection method, followed by morphological filtering and an arithmetic addition operation. The algorithm was applied to 50 dermoscopic melanoma images. In order to ascertain this method's relative detection accuracy, it was compared to the Razmjooy hair-detection method [1], using segmentation error (SE), true detection rate (TDR) and false positioning rate (FPR). The new method produced 6.57% SE, 96.28% TDR and 3.47% FPR, compared to 15.751% SE, 86.29% TDR and 11.74% FPR produced by the Razmjooy method [1]. Because of the 7.27-9.99% improvement in those parameters, we conclude that the new algorithm produces much better results for detecting thick, thin, dark and light hairs. The new method proposed here, shows an appreciable difference in the rate of detecting bubbles, as well.

  15. CNN intelligent early warning for apple skin lesion image acquired by infrared video sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭文学

    2016-01-01

    Video sensors and agricultural IoT ( internet of things) have been widely used in the informa-tionalized orchards.In order to realize intelligent-unattended early warning for disease-pest, this pa-per presents convolutional neural network ( CNN) early warning for apple skin lesion image, which is real-time acquired by infrared video sensor.More specifically, as to skin lesion image, a suite of processing methods is devised to simulate the disturbance of variable orientation and light condition which occurs in orchards.It designs a method to recognize apple pathologic images based on CNN, and formulates a self-adaptive momentum rule to update CNN parameters.For example, a series of experiments are carried out on the recognition of fruit lesion image of apple trees for early warning. The results demonstrate that compared with the shallow learning algorithms and other involved, well-known deep learning methods, the recognition accuracy of the proposal is up to 96.08%, with a fairly quick convergence, and it also presents satisfying smoothness and stableness after conver-gence.In addition, statistics on different benchmark datasets prove that it is fairly effective to other image patterns concerned.

  16. Inter- and intra-variability of pigmented skin lesions: could the ABCD rule be influenced by host characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Marco; Dell'Eva, Giordana; Corona, Rosamaria; Sera, Francesco; Bono, Riccardo; Sbano, Paolo; Andreassi, Lucio; Rubegni, Pietro

    2004-08-01

    Many differences in color, shape and dimension exist between different moles even in the same individual. Major differences might be accounted for anatomical location, genetic factors and by environmental factors, mainly sunlight exposure. Therefore, it would be of great value, when evaluating skin lesions, to take into account the degree of intra- and inter-variability of several diagnostic parameters. In order to assess the morphologic and chromatic differences between lesions belonging to different patients and between lesions belonging to the same individual, we examined objective digital parameters obtained with dermatoscopic analysis, using the DBDermo MIPS system (BIO MIPS Engineering, S.R.L, siena, Italy). The automatic classifier inside the software is based on a 'match by similarity' algorithm, based on the measurement of the Euclidean distances of all variables considered from the reference image. Two-hundred and four clinically benign pigmented lesion, belonging to 18 patients were examined, stored and automatically processed. For each lesion objective parameters related to geometry, color and texture were automatically evaluated. We found skin color (healthy skin) is objectively different from subject to subject and the lesion color is more similar among different lesions of the same patient than among lesions belonging to different individuals both in their darkest and slightly dark component. We also observed that lesion dimensions are individual correlates, i.e. the probability for a lesion to be large is higher when the other, in the same patient, is large. Many parameters of pigmented skin lesions evaluated by digital dermoscopy analysis are similar in the same patient and different from those belonging to different individuals. This indicates that, when considering a lesion, we should take into account the peculiar patient's characteristics.

  17. Prevention and treatment of skin lesions associated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Recommendations of experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raurell-Torredà, M; Romero-Collado, A; Rodríguez-Palma, M; Farrés-Tarafa, M; Martí, J D; Hurtado-Pardos, B; Peñarrubia-San Florencio, L; Saez-Paredes, P; Esquinas, A M

    In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients. To identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. Review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10years to reach consensus through an expert panel. Knowledge about how to measure correct mask size and protection of the skin with foam or hydrocolloids dressings are factors related to the incidence of LESADIC, as it conditions the degree of pressure-friction and shear that the interface exerts on the skin. The interface that causes fewer LESADIC and is better tolerated is the face mask. When there are injuries, the first thing is to remove the interface that causes pressure on damaged skin, recommending a Helmet(®) hood as an alternative, treating the infection, managing the exudate and stimulating perilesional skin. The mask of choice is the facial, always using foam or hydrocolloid dressings on the nasal bridge. Evaluate the condition of the skin under the interface and harness every 4hours (recommended) and 11hours (maximum). Evaluate the rotation strategy of the interface at 24hours if the NIV is still needed on an ongoing basis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

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    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  19. [Types of skin lesions in pulmonary sarcoidosis and their prognostic value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmash, Iu Iu; Soldatskaia, L V; Enikeeva, E G; Agadzhanova, I S; Slutskaia, O M

    2007-01-01

    When sarcoidosis is suspected, a patient should be meticulously examined for dermal changes, the favorite sites of which are the skin of the face, ears, upper and lower extremities, and trunk. Elements may vary in number from solitary to multiple. When dermal changes are suspected of sarcoidosis, a dermatologist should examine the patient and, if there are some doubts about the nature of dermal elements, biopsy and histological study should be made since the morphological verification of the diagnosis primarily requires the use of extrapulmonary sites of the process, namely superficial peripheral lymph nodes, as well as the skin. The findings suggest that skin sarcoidosis characterized by the long-term chronic or progressive course is encountered at different (X-ray) stages of sarcoidosis of respiratory organs and is of poor prognostic value. The severity of dermal manifestations is no less and, in individual cases, more significant than pulmonary symptoms. Great or ugly skin lesions require prednisolone treatment. In some cases, long-term therapy cannot yield a result. Delagil treatment of dermal manifestations remains to be effective.

  20. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  1. Multi-spectral light interaction modeling and imaging of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Sachin Vidyanand

    Nevoscope as a diagnostic tool for melanoma was evaluated using a white light source with promising results. Information about the lesion depth and its structure will further improve the sensitivity and specificity of melanoma diagnosis. Wavelength-dependent variable penetration power of monochromatic light in the trans-illumination imaging using the Nevoscope can be used to obtain this information. Optimal selection of wavelengths for multi-spectral imaging requires light-tissue interaction modeling. For this, three-dimensional wavelength dependent voxel-based models of skin lesions with different depths are proposed. A Monte Carlo simulation algorithm (MCSVL) is developed in MATLAB and the tissue models are simulated using the Nevoscope optical geometry. 350--700nm optical wavelengths with an interval of 5nm are used in the study. A correlation analysis between the lesion depth and the diffuse reflectance is then used to obtain wavelengths that will produce diffuse reflectance suitable for imaging and give information related to the nevus depth and structure. Using the selected wavelengths, multi-spectral trans-illumination images of the skin lesions are collected and analyzed. An adaptive wavelet transform based tree-structure classification method (ADWAT) is proposed to classify epi-illuminance images of the skin lesions obtained using a white light source into melanoma and dysplastic nevus images classes. In this method, tree-structure models of melanoma and dysplastic nevus are developed and semantically compared with the tree-structure of the unknown image for classification. Development of the tree-structure is dependent on threshold selections obtained from a statistical analysis of the feature set. This makes the classification method adaptive. The true positive value obtained for this classifier is 90% with a false positive of 10%. The Extended ADWAT method and Fuzzy Membership Functions method using combined features from the epi-illuminance and multi

  2. CD 13/APN expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin lesions in patients with advanced psoriasis vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Taihua; Liu Defang; Chen Yihua; Hu Zonghai; Chen Lu; Luo Chen; Xu Zhejuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the expression of CDI3/APN in peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin lesions of patients with advanced psoriasis vulgaris, and discuss its effect on the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods: CDI 3 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin lesions was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. Results were compared with those of healthy controls. Results: CD13 expression was significantly higher in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with advanced psoriasis vulgaris than in that of healthy controls, and in skin lesions than in healthy skin tissues. The expression was mainly in the suprabasal layers of skin lesions, andpositively correlated to PASI (R=0.78029). Conclusion: The significantly higher expression of CDI3 in peripheralblood lymphocytes and skin lesions of the patients with advanced psoriasis vulgaris probably is related to immunological abnormality, blood vessel abnormality and proliferation of keratinocyte in the pathogenic course of psoriasis. It may be a novel and effective way to treat psoriasis with specific CD13 inhibitors.

  3. The lesional skin of linear IgA bullous dermatosis expresses growth-regulated peptide (GRO)-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Ihn, Hironobu; Saeki, Hidehisa; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2004-07-01

    The patient was a 62-year-old man with erythema with tense vesiculobullae and erosions on the bilateral elbows, right knee, and one buttock. A skin biopsy specimen revealed subepidermal blister formation with a predominant infiltration of neutrophils and papillary neutrophilic microabscesses. Direct immunofluorescence study showed linear deposition of IgA and weak deposition of IgG at the basement membrane zone of the lesional skin, and indirect immunofluorescence study showed linear deposition of IgA at the epidermal side of the 1M NaCl-separated normal skin. He was diagnosed with linear IgA bullous dermatosis. Immunohistochemical study revealed that the lesional and perilesional keratinocytes expressed growth-regulated peptide (GRO) -alpha, a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. This suggests that GRO-alpha plays a role in the infiltration of neutrophils into the lesional skin and in bulla formation in linear IgA bullous dermatosis.

  4. Dermatoses em pacientes com diabetes mellitus Skin lesions in diabetic patients

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    N T Foss

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Ainda é desconhecida a relação do diabetes com fatores determinantes ou precipitantes de lesões dermatológicas em pacientes diabéticos. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi investigar a presença de lesões cutâneas, não referidas pelo paciente diabético e sua relação com o controle metabólico da doença. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 403 pacientes, dos quais 31% eram diabéticos do tipo 1 e 69% do tipo 2. Em ambulatório de um hospital universitário, os pacientes foram atendidos por endocrinologista para a avaliação endócrino-metabólica e por dermatologista para a avaliação dermatológica. O grau de controle metabólico foi documentado em 136 pacientes por meio da dosagem de hemoglobina glicada. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de dermatofitoses (82,6%, seguido de grupo de dermatoses como acne e degeneração actínica (66,7%, piodermites (5%, tumores cutâneos (3% e necrobiose lipoídica (1%. Entre as dermatoses mais comuns em diabéticos, foram confirmados com exame histológico: dois diagnósticos de necrobiose (0,4%, cinco de dermopatia diabética (1,2% e três casos de mal perfurante plantar (0,7%. Os valores da hemoglobina glicada foram: 7,2% em pacientes com controle metabólico adequado nos dois tipos de diabetes e de 11,9% e 12,7% nos tipos 1 e 2, respectivamente, com controle inadequado. Nos pacientes com controle metabólico inadequado foi observada freqüência maior de dermatofitoses, em ambos os tipos de diabetes. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados revelaram freqüência elevada de lesão dermatológica nos pacientes diabéticos, especialmente dermatofitoses. Dessa forma, o descontrole metabólico do diabético propicia maior suscetibilidade a infecções cutâneas.OBJECTIVE: It is yet unknown the relationship between diabetes and determinants or triggering factors of skin lesions in diabetic patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of unreported skin lesions in diabetic patients and their

  5. [Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in five villages of Dogon country, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, A K; Delaunay, P; Djimdé, A A; Thera, M A; Giudice, P D; Coulibaly, D; Traoré, K; Goita, S M; Abathina, A; Izri, A; Marty, P; Doumbo, O K

    2012-02-01

    The epidemiology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with Leishmania major is poorly documented in Mali. Following reports of CL in the tourist areas of the Dogon country (Bandiagara Escarpment), a joint French and Malian bio-clinical team conducted a field study from 16 to 27 January, 2010. The population of 5 villages has been examined by a dermato-infectiologist and cases were selected by visual inspection of skin lesions. Smears and biopsies (from the lesions) and venous blood were obtained from suspected cases of CL. Diagnosis was performed by light microscopy, in vitro cultures, serology and molecular biology. Fifty patients with skin lesions have been examined. Twenty-one have been suspected as CL. At least one sample was obtained from 18 patients. The lesions were predominantly old, more or less scarring and secondary infected. A skin smear was performed for 15 patients, a skin biopsy for 14 patients: smears and cultures were all negative. The PCR (Leishmania spp.) made on 14 biopsies was positive for 12 patients (86%). The low amount of amplified DNA obtained did not allow the sequencing and identification of the species of Leishmania. Western blot (WB) serology was positive in 11 cases out of 12 (92%). This investigation showed the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bandiagara. A further investigation is required during transmission period (September-October) to confirm the presence of Leishmania major epidemic in Dogon country.

  6. Leishmaniasis in rheumatology, haematology and oncology: epidemiological, immunological and clinical aspects and caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an intracellular protozoan infection that can lead to cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral or systemic manifestations depending on the parasite species and virulence and on the host immune response. It is endemic in countries of Europe (Mediterranean basin), Asia, Africa, Central and South America, but autochthonous cases begin to emerge outside classical disease areas. CD4+ T helper cells, interferon γ, dendritic cells and macrophages are the key components of antileishmanial defence. Leishmaniasis is an important differential diagnosis in patients with chronic lesions of the skin or mucous membranes or with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, histocytosis, haemophagocytic syndrome or glomerulonephritis. Organ transplant recipients and patients with autoimmune syndromes are at particular risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis following immunosuppressive therapy (eg, with steroids, methotrexate, ciclosporin or tumour necrosis factor-neutralising biological agents). Diagnosis and adequate treatment of leishmaniasis requires the combined use of culture, microscopic and nucleic acid amplication methods and species identification by sequencing and other molecular techniques. Standard regimens for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg body weight for 10 days) or oral miltefosine (150 mg/day for 28 days).

  7. Localised Leishmaniasis of Oral Mucosa: Report of an Unusual Clinicopathological Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Passi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term leishmaniasis comprises of a group of diseases caused by different species of a protozoan called Leishmania. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Exclusive involvement of the mucosa is very rare. We present a case of mucosal leishmaniasis located in the oral cavity. The only manifestation of leishmaniasis disease in the described case was the appearance of an oral lesion. Treatment was provided in the form of antimoniates (oral miltefosine and systemic sodium stibogluconate. A review of literature is made on the subject.

  8. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza D C; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detect Leishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmania genus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays.

  9. Statistical image segmentation for the detection of skin lesion borders in UV fluorescence excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Padilla-Martinez, Juan Pablo; Franco, Walfre

    2016-04-01

    The skin contains several fluorescent molecules or fluorophores that serve as markers of structure, function and composition. UV fluorescence excitation photography is a simple and effective way to image specific intrinsic fluorophores, such as the one ascribed to tryptophan which emits at a wavelength of 345 nm upon excitation at 295 nm, and is a marker of cellular proliferation. Earlier, we built a clinical UV photography system to image cellular proliferation. In some samples, the naturally low intensity of the fluorescence can make it difficult to separate the fluorescence of cells in higher proliferation states from background fluorescence and other imaging artifacts -- like electronic noise. In this work, we describe a statistical image segmentation method to separate the fluorescence of interest. Statistical image segmentation is based on image averaging, background subtraction and pixel statistics. This method allows to better quantify the intensity and surface distributions of fluorescence, which in turn simplify the detection of borders. Using this method we delineated the borders of highly-proliferative skin conditions and diseases, in particular, allergic contact dermatitis, psoriatic lesions and basal cell carcinoma. Segmented images clearly define lesion borders. UV fluorescence excitation photography along with statistical image segmentation may serve as a quick and simple diagnostic tool for clinicians.

  10. Calciphylaxis: Temporal Artery Calcification Preceding Widespread Skin Lesions and Penile Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal artery calciphylaxis has rarely been described in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. We report a case of 72-year-old Caucasian man with multiple comorbidities and end-stage renal disease on dialysis who presented with temporal artery calcification leading to bilateral loss of vision followed by extensive skin lesions including one on glans penis. While on peritoneal dialysis, he developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, had no improvement on high dose steroids, and temporal artery biopsy showed marked calcification without any evidence of vasculitis. Few weeks later on hemodialysis, he developed widespread cutaneous lesions on extremities and penile necrosis with skin biopsy revealing calciphylaxis. On literature review of calciphylaxis in chronic kidney disease, we found only four cases of temporal artery calciphylaxis leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and blindness. We believe this is the first case in which the rare temporal artery calciphylaxis and the uncommon penile necrosis are being described together. The objective is to emphasize the need to recognize this condition early in the CKD patients on dialysis presenting with visual symptoms as the different treatment strategies may help prevent complete loss of vision and also modify or prevent a full blown calciphylaxis.

  11. Visual cues do not improve skin lesion ABC(D) grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto, Matteo; Ballerini, Lucia; Aldridge, Ben; Fisher, Robert B.; Rees, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    In this work evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that observers tend to evaluate very differently the same properties of given skin-lesion images. Results from previous experiments have been compared to new ones obtained where we gave additional prototypical visual cues to the users during their evaluation trials. Each property (colour, colour uniformity, asymmetry, border regularity, roughness of texture) had to be evaluated on a 0-10 range, with both linguistic descriptors and visual references at each end and in the middle (e.g. light/medium/dark for colour). A set of 22 images covering different clinical diagnoses has been used in the comparison with previous results. Statistical testing showed that only for a few test images the inclusion of the visual anchors reduced the variability of the grading for some of the properties. Despite such reduction, though, the average variance of each property still remains high even after the inclusion of the visual anchors. When considering each property, the average variance significantly changed for the roughness of texture, where the visual references caused an increase in the variability. With these results we can conclude that the variance of the answers observed in the previous experiments was not due to the lack of a standard definition of the extrema of the scale, but rather to a high variability in the way observers perceive and understand skin-lesion images.

  12. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  13. PCR-based diagnosis for detection of Leishmania in skin and blood of rodents from an endemic area of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernanda S; Pirmez, Claude; Pires, Marize Q; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Pacheco, Raquel S

    2005-05-15

    The technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated to hybridization was used to screen 123 samples collected from wild and synanthropic rodents captured in a cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The detection of Leishmania spp in naturally infected rodents is of fundamental importance for incriminating them as possible reservoir hosts of the diseases in Minas Gerais. A total of 62 specimens belonging to wild (Thrichomys apereoides, Oryzomys subflavus, Galea spixii, Bolomys lasiurus and Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos) and synanthropic (R. rattus) rodent species were captured in different ecotopes. Blood and skin samples were submitted for PCR analyses followed by molecular hybridization with specific probes for the three Leishmania-species complexes. Fifteen samples were found positive after PCR-hybridization and identified as follows: nine belonging to the L. mexicana complex, three to the L. braziliensis complex and three to the L. donovani complex. Positive PCR results were found in 11 out of the 61 (18%) blood samples and in four out of the 62 (6.4%) skin fragments screened. R. rattus and T. apereoides were the most abundant species in the area also presenting high prevalence of natural infection. The presence of parasite DNA belonging to L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. donovani complexes was confirmed in several individuals of a rodent species, R. rattus. This work is the first report of the detection of L. (L.) chagasi in a naturally infected T. apereoides. The utility of filter paper as a substrate for PCR analyses and the efficacy of the procedure associated to the hybridization is emphasized.

  14. The transcriptional activation program of human neutrophils in skin lesions supports their important role in wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Monch, K.; Knudsen, Steen; Follin, P.

    2004-01-01

    receptors involved in inflammatory responses. These findings indicate a change of responsiveness to chemotactic and immunoregulatory mediators once PMNs have migrated to skin lesions and have been activated. Other effects of the up-regulated cytokines/chemokines/enzymes were critical for wound healing...... and function, and promotes wound healing.......To investigate the cellular fate and function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) attracted to skin wounds, we used a human skin-wounding model and microarray technology to define differentially expressed genes in PMNs from peripheral blood, and PMNs that had transmigrated to skin...

  15. Skin tags: A link between lesional mast cell count/tryptase expression and obesity and dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Abdallah M Salem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The etiology of skin tags (STs is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG, postprandial blood glucose (PPBG, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control. Results:All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%. STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin ( P < 0.001, with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions:STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting.

  16. Adaptive technique for matching the spectral response in skin lesions' images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Pavlova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2015-03-01

    The suggested technique is a subsequent stage for data obtaining from diffuse reflectance spectra and images of diseased tissue with a final aim of skin cancer diagnostics. Our previous work allows us to extract patterns for some types of skin cancer, as a ratio between spectra, obtained from healthy and diseased tissue in the range of 380 - 780 nm region. The authenticity of the patterns depends on the tested point into the area of lesion, and the resulting diagnose could also be fixed with some probability. In this work, two adaptations are implemented to localize pixels of the image lesion, where the reflectance spectrum corresponds to pattern. First adapts the standard to the personal patient and second - translates the spectrum white point basis to the relative white point of the image. Since the reflectance spectra and the image pixels are regarding to different white points, a correction of the compared colours is needed. The latest is done using a standard method for chromatic adaptation. The technique follows the steps below: -Calculation the colorimetric XYZ parameters for the initial white point, fixed by reflectance spectrum from healthy tissue; -Calculation the XYZ parameters for the distant white point on the base of image of nondiseased tissue; -Transformation the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum by obtained matrix; -Finding the RGB values of the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum according sRGB; Finally, the pixels of the lesion's image, corresponding to colour from the test-spectrum and particular diagnostic pattern are marked with a specific colour.

  17. Differences of urinary arsenic metabolites and methylation capacity between individuals with and without skin lesions in Inner Mongolia, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Yongfang; Liu, Juan; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2014-07-18

    Incomplete arsenic (As) methylation has been considered a risk factor of As-related diseases. This study aimed to examine the difference of urinary As metabolites and the methylation capacity between subjects with and without skin lesions. Urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analyzed. The percentage of each As species (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%), the primary methylation index (PMI) and secondary methylation index (SMI) were calculated. The results showed that subjects with skin lesions have higher levels of urinary iAs (99.08 vs. 70.63 μg/g Cr, p = 0.006) and MMA (69.34 vs. 42.85 μg/g Cr, p = 0.016) than subjects without skin lesions after adjustment for several confounders. Significant differences of urianry MMA% (15.49 vs. 12.11, p = 0.036) and SMI (0.74 vs. 0.81, p = 0.025) were found between the two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that subjects with skin lesions may have a lower As methylation capacity than subjects without skin lesions.

  18. Effects of maxacalcitol ointment on skin lesions in patients with psoriasis receiving treatment with adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakawa, Masaru; Komine, Mayumi; Kishimoto, Megumi; Maki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Ai; Sugai, Junichi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro

    2016-11-01

    Adalimumab is a biologic that is very effective for treatment of psoriasis. However, recalcitrant or recurrent lesions sometimes occur during treatment. Maxacalcitol is an active vitamin D3 ointment that is effective in treatment of psoriasis. Topical therapy may be beneficial in treatment of recalcitrant or recurrent lesions during treatment with systemic therapy, but there is little evidence on this topic. We investigated the effect of maxacalcitol on skin lesions during treatment with adalimumab in patients with psoriasis. Twelve patients with psoriasis were randomly assigned to two groups after informed consent - treatment with adalimumab only (n = 6), and treatment with adalimumab and maxacalcitol (n = 6) - and they were evaluated every 4 weeks for 44 weeks. Exacerbation was defined as an increase of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. The interval between adalimumab treatments was elongated to 3-4 weeks from 2 weeks according to the individual patient's condition. The PASI score was evaluated every 4 weeks, and the frequency of exacerbations was counted. The overall improvement in PASI score was not statistically different between the two groups, but the frequency of exacerbations was significantly less in the maxacalcitol combination group compared with the adalimumab monotherapy group (Mann-Whitney U-test, P psoriasis when used in combination with adalimumab. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Seroepidemiological Studies of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Campeche State of México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroy-Ostria Amalia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out on 169 individuals in a rural area of the Campeche state of México. Fifty showed cutaneous lesions suggestive of leishmaniasis, 70% were parasite positive and 96% skin test positive. An overall 40% positivity to skin test with Montenegro's antigen was found. Most of the affected individuals were males from 11 to 30 years-old. Antibodies were determined by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA and by Western blot. Two antigen preparations were used, one from a Leishmania mexicana strain which produced localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL and the other from a diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL. In the general population from the area of study 19% gave positive IFA tests with DCL antigen and 20% with LCL antigen while for the patients 67% gave positive IFA tests with DCL and 71% with LCL. By Western blot analysis most of the patients recognized more antigens in the DCL than in the LCL strain. In the DCL strain 78% of patients recognized a 105 kDa, 34% a 139 kDa, 28% a 117 kDa and 26% a 205 kDa MW antigen. In the LCL strain 40% of patients recognized a 205 kDa and 22% a 175 kDa antigens

  20. Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Campeche state of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Ostria, A; Sosa-Cabrera, T; Rivas-Sanchez, B; Ruiz-Tuyu, R; Mendoza-Gonzalez, A R; Favila-Castillo, L

    1997-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out in 169 individuals in a rural area of the Campeche state of México. Fifty showed cutaneous lesions suggestive of leishmaniasis, 70% were parasite positive and 96% skin test positive. An overall 40% positivity to skin test with Montenegro's antigen was found. Most of the affected individuals were males from 11 to 30 years-old. Antibodies were determined by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA) and by Western blot. Two antigen preparations were used, one from a Leishmania mexicana strain which produced localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) and the other from a diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). In the general population from the area of study 19% gave positive IFA tests with DCL antigen and 20% with LCL antigen while for the patients 67% gave positive IFA tests with DCL and 71% with LCL. By Western blot analysis most of the patients recognized more antigens in the DCL than in the LCL strain. In the DCL strain 78% of patients recognized a 105 kDa, 34% a 139 kDa, 28% a 117 kDa and 26% a 205 kDa MW antigen. In the LCL strain 40% of patients recognized a 205 kDa and 22% a 175 kDa antigens.

  1. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Leishmaniasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ...

  2. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. civilian travelers have been acquired in common tourist destinations in Latin America, such as in Costa Rica. U.S. military personnel have become infected in various countries, such as Iraq and Afghanistan Back To Top Is leishmaniasis found in the United States? Not ...

  3. PAX3 expression in normal skin melanocytes and melanocytic lesions (naevi and melanomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer, arising in cutaneous melanocytes. The transcription factor PAX3 regulates melanocyte specification from neural crest cells during development but expression in differentiated melanocytes is uncertain. By contrast it is frequently found in melanomas and naevi and is a marker for melanoma staging and detection. In this study we analysed the expression of PAX3 across the spectrum of melanocytic cells, from normal melanocytes to cells of benign and malignant lesions to better assess its function in these various tissues. Pax3 and PAX3 (italicized refer to the mouse and human gene, respectively; whereas Pax3 and PAX3 (non-italicized refer to the corresponding mouse and human protein. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PAX3 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. Immunofluorescence was used for co-expression with differentiation, migration and survival markers. As expected PAX3 expression was observed in naevi and melanoma cells. It was also found in melanocytes of normal skin where it co-expressed with melanocyte markers, MITF and MLANA. Co-expression with its downstream target, antiapoptotic factor BCL2L1 confirms PAX3 as a cell survival regulator. PAX3 was also co-expressed with melanoma cell migration marker MCAM in dermal naevi and melanoma cell nests, but this downstream target of PAX3 was not present in normal epidermal melanocytes, suggesting differential roles for PAX3 in normal epidermal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Most interestingly, a proportion of PAX3-positive epidermal melanocytes in normal skin show HES1 and Ki67 co-expression, indicating their less differentiated proliferative phenotype. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that a previously identified role for PAX3, that of regulator of an undifferentiated plastic state, may operate in melanocytes of normal skin. This role, possibly required for cellular response to

  4. PREVENTION OF SKIN-CANCER AND REDUCTION OF KERATOTIC SKIN-LESIONS DURING ACITRETIN THERAPY IN RENAL-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS : A DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, JNB; Tieben, LM; van der Woude, F; Tegzess, Adam; Hermans, J; ter Schegget, J; Vermeer, BJ

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acitretin on the development of keratotic skin lesions, and on squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas in a group of renal transplant recipients. Patients and Methods: Forty-four renal transplant recipients with more than

  5. Comparison of the immune profile of nonhealing cutaneous Leishmaniasis patients with those with active lesions and those who have recovered from infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajdary, S; Alimohammadian, M H; Eslami, M B

    2000-01-01

    Th1-type cellular immune responses play a critical role in protection against infection with Leishmania parasites, whereas activation of Th2-type cells results in progressive disease. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is often a self-healing disease; however, persistent nonhealing...

  6. Properties of films obtained from biopolymers of different origins for skin lesions therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Zilioli Bellini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the origin of xanthan used, in combination with chitosan, to prepare films for the treatment of skin lesions were evaluated. The characteristics of the films obtained with xanthan commercially available for the food industry sector and xanthan originated from a fermentation process conducted in a pilot plant were compared. Results showed that the source did not strongly interfere in many of the properties of the films, such as the mechanical properties, cytotoxicity to L929 cells, absorption of simulated body fluid and culture medium, stability in water and saline solution. Hence, even though the properties of biopolymers of different sources might vary, the films prepared with two distinct types of xanthan gum could be considered as potentially safe and similar in terms of relevant characteristics considering the aimed application.

  7. A fractal analysis of skin pigmented lesions using the novel tool of the variogram technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrolonardo, Mario [Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, Unit of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' Ospedali Riuniti' di Foggia (Italy)]. E-mail: mariomastrolonardo@libero.it; Conte, Elio [Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, Unit of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' Ospedali Riuniti' di Foggia (Italy); Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology, TIRES-Center for Innovative Technology for Signal Detection and Processing, Bari University, 70100 Bari (Italy); Zbilut, Joseph P. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The incidence of the cutaneous malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly in the world [Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, et al. GLOBOCAN 2000: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, Version 1.0 IARC Cancer Base no. 5. Lyon: IARC Press, 2001]. The therapeutic address requires a method having high sensitivity and capability to diagnose such disease at an early stage. We introduce a new diagnostic method based on non-linear methodologies. In detail we suggest that fractal as well as noise and chaos dynamics are the most important components responsible for genetic instability of melanocytes. As consequence we introduce the new technique of the variogram and of fractal analysis extended to the whole regions of interest of skin in order to obtain parameters able to identify the malignant lesion. In a preliminary analysis, satisfactory results are reached.

  8. [Similar skin lesions in victim and perpetrator caused by a knife with a serrated blade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendura, K; Geserick, G

    2000-01-01

    Reported in this paper is an attack of two adolescents on a man who was killed in the fight, with several kitchen knives being used, including two with grooved and wave-grooved blades. One of the offenders held the victim tight from behind and was injured by his attacking accomplice++. A grid mark on the left side of the victim's face and the left forearm of the second offender in the back supported the assumption of a knife with simple wave profile. Skin lesions of finer structure below the left ear and on the left forearm of the victim suggested involvement of a smaller kitchen knife with groove-milled wave profile. Offender-victim position and course of offence were verified and confirmed by evaluation of these specific findings.

  9. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy.

  10. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.mouret@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Dorandeu, Frédéric [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, 1 place Alphonse Laveran, Paris (France); Boudry, Isabelle [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France)

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage.

  11. Effect of a deproteinized blood extract on the recovery of blood circulation in an ischaemic skin lesion.

    OpenAIRE

    Smahel, J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions.

  12. "Spider bite" lesions are usually diagnosed as skin and soft-tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchard, Jeffrey Ross

    2011-11-01

    Many people seek medical attention for skin lesions and other conditions they attribute to spider bites. Prior experience suggests that many of these lesions have alternate causes, especially infections with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). This study determined the percentage of emergency department (ED) patients reporting a "spider bite" who received a clinical diagnosis of spider bite by their physician vs. other etiologies, and if the diagnoses correlated with demographic risk factors for developing CA-MRSA infections. ED patients who reported that their condition was caused by a "spider bite" were prospectively enrolled in an anonymous, voluntary survey regarding details of their illness and demographic information. Discharge diagnoses were also collected and categorized as: spider bite, bite from other animal (including unknown arthropod), infection, or other diagnosis. There were 182 patients enrolled over 23 months. Seven patients (3.8%) were diagnosed with actual spider bites, 9 patients (4.9%) with bites from other animals, 156 patients (85.7%) with infections, and 6 patients (3.3%) were given other diagnoses. Four patients were given concurrent diagnoses in two categories, and 8 (4.4%) did not have the diagnosis recorded on the data collection instrument. No statistically significant associations were found between the patients' diagnostic categories and the demographic risk factors for CA-MRSA assessed. ED patients reporting a "spider bite" were most frequently diagnosed with skin and soft-tissue infections. Clinically confirmed spider bites were rare, and were caused by black widow spiders when the species could be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leishmaniasis recidivans in Ethiopia: cutaneous and mucocutaneous features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassoni, Federica; Daba, Frehiwot; Naafs, Bernard; Morrone, Aldo

    2017-01-30

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Ethiopia. An unusual clinical form of this disease is leishmaniasis recidivans (LR), a prolonged, relapsing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling tuberculosis of the skin that may persist for many years with a chronic and relapsing course. This rare variant has been shown to be caused by Leishmania tropica species in the Old World and by Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania panamensis, and Leishmania guyanensis in the New World, as reported in various studies. To our knowledge, there are no reports from Ethiopia, and mucocutaneous involvement of LR has not been described to date. This was a retrospective analysis of the patients seen at the Italian Dermatological Center in Mekelle on the Tigrean highlands over a three-year period (2008-2011). Seven patients with typical clinical features of LR were seen. Two of them presented with signs of mucosal involvement. To date, Leishmania aethiopica is shown to be the only species causing CL that is endemic in the Ethiopian highlands. Therefore, it had to be assumed that the lesions in these patients were caused by this species. The aims of this communication are to report, for the first time, the presence of LR, most likely due to Leishmania aethiopica, in Ethiopia, and to report mucosal involvement in this rare clinical form of CL.

  14. Unsupervised skin lesions border detection via two-dimensional image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Fondón, Irene; Rashid, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The skin cancer was analyzed by dermoscopy helpful for dermatologists. The classification of melanoma and carcinoma such as basal cell, squamous cell, and merkel cell carcinomas tumors can be increased the sensitivity and specificity. The detection of an automated border is an important step for the correctness of subsequent phases in the computerized melanoma recognition systems. The artifacts such as, dermoscopy-gel, specular reflection and outline (skin lines, blood vessels, and hair or ruler markings) were also contained in the dermoscopic images. In this paper, we present an unsupervised approach for multiple lesion segmentation, modification of Region-based Active Contours (RACs) as well as artifact diminution steps. Iterative thresholding is applied to initialize level set automatically; the stability of curves is enforced by maximum smoothing constraints on Courant-Friedreichs-Lewy (CFL) function. The work has been tested on dermoscopic database of 320 images. The border detection error is quantified by five distinct statistical metrics and manually used to determine the borders from a dermatologist as the ground truth. The segmentation results were compared with other state-of-the-art methods along with the evaluation criteria. The unsupervised border detection system increased the true detection rate (TDR) is 4.31% and reduced the false positive rate (FPR) of 5.28%.

  15. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Deepak M.W.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Spitzer-Naaijkens, Juliette M.J.; Hulshof, Mieke M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. Methods We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Results Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Conclusions Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients. PMID:28203158

  16. A robust hair segmentation and removal approach for clinical images of skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam; Kwan, Shun-Yuen; Chang, Wen-Yu; Liu, Min-Yin; Chi, Min-Hsiu; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Artifacts such as hair are major obstacles to automatic segmentation of pigmented skin lesion images for computer-aided diagnosis systems. It is even more challenging to process clinical images taken by a regular digital camera, where the shadows of the skin texture may mimic hair-like curvilinear structures. In this study, we examined the popular DullRazor software with a dataset of 20 clinical images. The software, specifically designed for dermoscopic images, was unable to remove fine hairs or hairs in the shade. Alternatively, we proposed using conventional matched filters to enhance curvilinear structures. The more complicate hair intersection patterns, which were known to generate low matched filtering responses, were recovered by using region growing algorithms from nearby detected hair segments with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on a color similarity criterion. The preliminary results indicated the proposed method was able to remove more fine hairs and hairs in the shade, and lower false hair detection rate by 58% (from 0.438 to 0.183) as compared to the DullRazor's approach.

  17. Increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; van Kooten, P J; Thepen, T; Bihari, I C; Rutten, V P; Koeman, J P; Willemse, T

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize T cells in the skin of cats with an allergic dermatitis histologically compatible with atopic dermatitis, since T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in humans. We observed a significantly greater number of T cells in lesional skin of domestic short-haired cats with allergic dermatitis (n = 10; median age 5.8 years) than in the skin of healthy control animals (n = 10; median age 5.0 years). In the skin of the healthy control animals, one or two CD4+ cells and no CD8+ cells were found. A predominant increase of CD4+ T cells and a CD4+/CD8+ ratio (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 2.0) was found in the lesional skin of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the skin of healthy control animals could not be determined because of the absence of CD8+ cells. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis (mean +/- SD: 1.9 +/- 0.4) did not differ significantly from that in 10 healthy control animals (2.2 +/- 0.4). The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and predominance of CD4+ T cells in the lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis is comparable to that found in atopic dermatitis in humans. In addition, the observed increase of CD4+ T cells in the nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis compared to the skin of healthy cats is similar to what is seen in humans. Cytokines produced by T cells and antigen-specific T cells are important mediators in the inflammatory cascade resulting in atopic dermatitis in humans. This study is a first step to investigate their role in feline allergic dermatitis.

  18. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  19. Anesthetic Considerations for Neuraxial Anesthesia in Pregnant Patients With Pityriasis Rosea With Skin Lesions Covering the Lumbar Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werntz, Megan; Chun, Carlene; Togioka, Brandon Michael

    2016-10-15

    Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an acute exanthematous skin disease that is likely due to reactivation of human herpesviruses (HHVs) 6b and 7. In contrast to herpes simplex and zoster (alphaherpesviruses), HHV-6b and -7 (betaherpesviruses) are not found predominantly in skin lesions. This difference in virion location may decrease the possibility of causing central nervous system infection through skin contamination, but the risk for hematogenous spread likely remains the same. This article uses the first-known epidural placement through active PR to illustrate risk-benefit considerations when deciding between neuraxial and general anesthesia for obstetric patients with PR.

  20. Standard guidelines of care: CO 2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupashankar D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. Machines : Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. Indications for CO 2 laser: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. Aesthetic indications: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. Physicians′ qualifications: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer′s facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. Facility: CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be

  1. The role of thymus-dependent T cells in hexachlorobenzene-induced inflammatory skin and lung lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, CCPPC; Bloksma, N; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J; Vos, JG; van Dijk, JE

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of thymus-dependent T cells in the inflammatory skin and lung lesions and spleen effects induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated by using genetically athymic and euthymic WAG/Rij rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats with or without depletion of T cells by adult thymectomy, let

  2. Plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy--POEMS syndrome presenting with vasculitic skin lesions and responding to combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Y; Raanani, P; Shenkar, A; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    2000-12-01

    We report a 61-year-old male patient who presented with severe sensorimotor neuropathy, leg edema and skin lesions with M-paraprotein and 50% plasma cells in the bone marrow. The POEMS (Crow-Fukase) syndrome was diagnosed and the skin lesions were compatible with vasculitis according to the histopathology. The patient was treated with aggressive combined chemotherapy, which induced improvement in both the clinical and laboratory parameters of his disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a vasculitic process underlying the skin changes in the POEMS syndrome. Our findings may shed light on the unknown pathogenesis of this syndrome and the successful results of treatment support the adoption of an aggressive therapeutic approach in symptomatic patients.

  3. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, F W; Wallace, D B; Putterill, J F; Gerdes, G H

    2009-09-01

    When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin prick-like holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called "classical crocodile pox" and the newly discovered form "atypical crocodile pox". The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  4. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W. Huchzermeyer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin pricklike holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called ''classical crocodile pox'' and the newly discovered form ''atypical crocodile pox''. The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  5. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosandiski LYRA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL are caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L. infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L. infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement. We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.

  6. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BYLeishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANTONIO, Liliane de Fátima; LYRA, Janine Pontes de Miranda; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases. PMID:26603237

  7. Protective Effects of B Vitamins and Antioxidants on the Risk of Arsenic-Related Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B.; Chen, Yu; Graziano, Joseph H.; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Howe, Geoffrey R.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-01-01

    Background An estimated 25–40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. Objectives The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), 2000–2002, with individual-level, time-weighted measures of arsenic exposure from drinking water. A total of 14,828 individuals meeting a set of eligibility criteria were identified among 65,876 users of all 5,996 tube wells in the 25-km2 area of Araihazar, Bangladesh; 11,746 were recruited into the study. This analysis is based on 10,628 subjects (90.5%) with nonmissing dietary data. Skin lesions were identified according to a structured clinical protocol during screening and confirmed with further clinical review. Results Riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E significantly modified risk of arsenic-related skin lesions. The deleterious effect of ingested arsenic, at a given exposure level, was significantly reduced (ranging from 46% reduction for pyridoxine to 68% for vitamin C) for persons in the highest quintiles of vitamin intake. Conclusions Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh. PMID:18709164

  8. Protective effects of B vitamins and antioxidants on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Chen, Yu; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-08-01

    An estimated 25-40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), 2000-2002, with individual-level, time-weighted measures of arsenic exposure from drinking water. A total of 14,828 individuals meeting a set of eligibility criteria were identified among 65,876 users of all 5,996 tube wells in the 25-km(2) area of Araihazar, Bangladesh; 11,746 were recruited into the study. This analysis is based on 10,628 subjects (90.5%) with nonmissing dietary data. Skin lesions were identified according to a structured clinical protocol during screening and confirmed with further clinical review. Riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E significantly modified risk of arsenic-related skin lesions. The deleterious effect of ingested arsenic, at a given exposure level, was significantly reduced (ranging from 46% reduction for pyridoxine to 68% for vitamin C) for persons in the highest quintiles of vitamin intake. Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

  9. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Boudry, Isabelle

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned.

  10. Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseased patients attending a dermatologic clinic: a cross-sectional study in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hussein

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far there have been no studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is noteworthy as skin lesions are strongly associated with oral lesions and could easily be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and socio-behavioural correlates of OML in skin diseased patients attending outpatient's facility of Khartoum Teaching Hospital - Dermatology Clinic, Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in Khartoum from October 2008 to January 2009. A total of 588 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 16 years, 50.3% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview of which 544 patients (mean age 37.1 ± 15.9 years, 50% females with confirmed skin disease diagnosis were included for further analyses. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria (WHO. Biopsy and smear were used as adjuvant techniques for confirmation. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher's exact test were used. Results A total of 438 OML were registered in 315 (57.9%, males: 54.6% versus females: 45.6%, p Tongue lesions were the most frequently diagnosed OML (23.3%, followed in descending order by white lesions (19.1%, red and blue lesions (11% and vesiculobullous diseases (6%. OML in various skin diseases were; vesiculobullous reaction pattern (72.2%, lichenoid reaction pattern (60.5%, infectious lesions (56.5%, psoriasiform reaction pattern (56.7%, and spongiotic reaction pattern (46.8%. Presence of OML in skin diseased patients was most frequent in older age groups (62.4% older versus 52.7% younger, p Conclusions OML were frequently diagnosed in skin diseased patients and varied systematically with age, gender, systemic condition and use of toombak. The high prevalence of OML emphasizes the importance of routine examination

  11. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  12. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess the diagn......BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...... the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign......-defined layering in OCT and PS-OCT images and dark lobules in BCC. Discrimination of AK from BCC had an error rate of 50% to 52%. CONCLUSION OCT features in NMSC are identified, but AK and BCC cannot be differentiated. OCT diagnosis is less accurate than clinical diagnosis, but high accuracy in distinguishing...

  13. Understanding visual search patterns of dermatologists assessing pigmented skin lesions before and after online training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Chao, Joseph; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Morrison, Lynne; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this investigation was to explore the feasibility of characterizing the visual search characteristics of dermatologists evaluating images corresponding to single pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) (close-ups and dermoscopy) as a venue to improve training programs for dermoscopy. Two Board-certified dermatologists and two dermatology residents participated in a phased study. In phase I, they viewed a series of 20 PSL cases ranging from benign nevi to melanoma. The close-up and dermoscopy images of the PSL were evaluated sequentially and rated individually as benign or malignant, while eye position was recorded. Subsequently, the participating subjects completed an online dermoscopy training module that included a pre- and post-test assessing their dermoscopy skills (phase 2). Three months later, the subjects repeated their assessment on the 20 PSLs presented during phase I of the study. Significant differences in viewing time and eye-position parameters were observed as a function of level of expertise. Dermatologists overall have more efficient search than residents generating fewer fixations with shorter dwells. Fixations and dwells associated with decisions changing from benign to malignant or vice versa from photo to dermatoscopic viewing were longer than any other decision, indicating increased visual processing for those decisions. These differences in visual search may have implications for developing tools to teach dermatologists and residents about how to better utilize dermoscopy in clinical practice.

  14. Mutations in COX7B cause microphthalmia with linear skin lesions, an unconventional mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrieri, Alessia; van Rahden, Vanessa Alexandra; Tiranti, Valeria; Morleo, Manuela; Iaconis, Daniela; Tammaro, Roberta; D'Amato, Ilaria; Conte, Ivan; Maystadt, Isabelle; Demuth, Stephanie; Zvulunov, Alex; Kutsche, Kerstin; Zeviani, Massimo; Franco, Brunella

    2012-11-02

    Microphthalmia with linear skin lesions (MLS) is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disorder associated with mutations in holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS), which encodes a crucial player of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). Unlike other mitochondrial diseases, MLS is characterized by a well-recognizable neurodevelopmental phenotype. Interestingly, not all clinically diagnosed MLS cases have mutations in HCCS, thus suggesting genetic heterogeneity for this disorder. Among the possible candidates, we analyzed the X-linked COX7B and found deleterious de novo mutations in two simplex cases and a nonsense mutation, which segregates with the disease, in a familial case. COX7B encodes a poorly characterized structural subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the MRC complex IV. We demonstrated that COX7B is indispensable for COX assembly, COX activity, and mitochondrial respiration. Downregulation of the COX7B ortholog (cox7B) in medaka (Oryzias latipes) resulted in microcephaly and microphthalmia that recapitulated the MLS phenotype and demonstrated an essential function of complex IV activity in vertebrate CNS development. Our results indicate an evolutionary conserved role of the MRC complexes III and IV for the proper development of the CNS in vertebrates and uncover a group of mitochondrial diseases hallmarked by a developmental phenotype.

  15. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; do Amaral, Gabriela Borborema; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. CONCLUSION We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease. PMID:24770500

  16. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Amaral, Gabriela Borborema do; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease.

  17. A comparison of classification methods as diagnostic system: A case study on skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Suhail M; Baareh, Abdel Karim Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Numerous classification methods are currently available, but most of them were performed on different datasets. In this paper, different classification techniques were used for a diagnostic system on different skin lesions for the same data, which gives consistency for the data to have more accurate and better results. Four classification methods were proposed, a classical method based on K-Nearest Neighbor with Sequential Scanning selection technique for feature selection, a classical method with complex technique KNN with Genetic Algorithm, a complex method based on Artificial Neural Networks with Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. From the results obtained we can say that the performance of KNN with optimization of genetic algorithm for the feature selection was the best with an accuracy rate of 94%. The Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System result was also good with an accuracy rate of 92%, and the other techniques' results were also satisfactory. The improvement on the performance of the classifier depends on the feature selection methods. In addition, the diagnosis system as a decision support tool could be used to increase the performance of human experts to make a correct decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Guidance Provided by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device Following Dermoscopy on Decisions to Biopsy Atypical Melanocytic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Yoo, Jane; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2015-09-01

    To determine how a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis (MSDSLA) device data affects the biopsy performance of dermatologists and non-dermatologist practitioners following clinical and dermoscopic pigmented lesion evaluation. MSDSLA employs near infrared light to image and analyze pigmented skin lesions. MSDSLA generates a "classifier score" based on morphological disorganization. Using a logistical regression model, 1) a probability of being melanoma and, 2) a probability of being melanoma, atypical melanocytic hyperplasia, or a high grade dysplastic nevus is computed. PARTICIPANTS were shown clinical images of 12 lesions (2 melanomas in situ, 3 invasive melanomas, and 7 low grade DNs). They were asked first if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, again after observing dermoscopy images, and once more when presented with MSDSLA probability information. National dermoscopy conference. Sixty-four healthcare providers; 30 dermatologists and 34 non-dermatologist practitioners. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, biopsy rates Results: For the 30 dermatologists, sensitivity was 65 percent after clinical evaluation (C) and 65% post-dermoscopy (D) but improved to 91% after MSDSLA. For the 34 non-dermatologist practitioners, sensitivity improved from 66 percent (C) to 70 percent (D) to 95 percent after MSDSLA. With MSDSLA information, dermatologist specificity increased from 40 percent (D) to 58 percent while non-dermatologist practitioners specificity increased from 34 percent (D) to 55 percent. Diagnostic accuracy of malignant and benign lesions decreased for both groups 55 percent (C) to 51 percent (D) for dermatologists and 54 percent (C) to 49 percent (D) for non-dermatologist practitioners. However, diagnostic accuracy increased to 72 percent for dermatologists and 72 percent for non-dermatologist practitioners with MSDSLA data. Non-melanoma biopsy percentages by dermatologists increased from 53 percent (C) to 60 percent (D), but

  19. In Situ complement activation and T-cell immunity in leprosy spectrum: An immunohistological study on leprosy lesional skin.

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    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Iyer, Anand M; Ramaglia, Valeria; Rosa, Patricia S; Soares, Cleverson T; Baas, Frank; Das, Pranab K

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection causes nerve damage and the condition worsens often during and long after treatment. Clearance of bacterial antigens including lipoarabinomannan (LAM) during and after treatment in leprosy patients is slow. We previously demonstrated that M. leprae LAM damages peripheral nerves by in situ generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Investigating the role of complement activation in skin lesions of leprosy patients might provide insight into the dynamics of in situ immune reactivity and the destructive pathology of M. leprae. In this study, we analyzed in skin lesions of leprosy patients, whether M. leprae antigen LAM deposition correlates with the deposition of complement activation products MAC and C3d on nerves and cells in the surrounding tissue. Skin biopsies of paucibacillary (n = 7), multibacillary leprosy patients (n = 7), and patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) (n = 6) or reversal reaction (RR) (n = 4) and controls (n = 5) were analyzed. The percentage of C3d, MAC and LAM deposition was significantly higher in the skin biopsies of multibacillary compared to paucibacillary patients (p = leprosy patients (r = 0.9578, pleprosy patients (p = leprosy patients, suggesting that inflammation driven by complement activation might contribute to nerve damage in the lesions of these patients. This should be regarded as an important factor in M. leprae nerve damage pathology.

  20. CYCLO-OXYGENASE 2 IS PRESENT IN THE MAJORITY OF LESIONAL SKIN FROM PATIENTS WITH AUTOINMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The in situ immune response within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs is not well characterized. Aim: Based on the fact that the ABD immune response is considered an adaptive immune response, both an innate immune response and inflammation would be expected in these diseases. Our investigation investigates the presence of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, since this enzyme is commonly involved in innate immune responses. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC to evaluate the presence of COX-2 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by ABDs. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABDs, including 20 patients with bullous pemphigoid, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus and 12 with dermatitis herpetiformis. Results: Most ABD biopsies stained positive for COX-2 in the lesional blister and/or the dermal inflammatory infiltrate, accentuated in the upper neurovascular plexus. In BP and EPF, the COX-2 staining was also seen in the sweat glands. All controls were negative. Conclusions: We document that COX-2 is expressed in lesional skin of patients with ABDs.

  1. Vaccine candidates for leishmaniasis: a review.

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    Nagill, Rajeev; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical manifestation of the disease varies from self-limiting cutaneous lesions to progressive visceral disease. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The key control measures mainly rely on early case detection and chemotherapy which has been hampered by the toxicity of drugs, side-effects and by the emergence of drug resistance in parasites. Control of reservoir host and vector is difficult due to operational difficulties and frequent relapses in the host. Therefore, the development of effective and affordable vaccine against leishmaniasis is highly desirable. Although considerable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding immune mechanisms underlying potential candidate antigens, including killed, live attenuated parasites, crude parasites, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins or DNA encoding leishmanial proteins, as well as immunomodulators from sand fly saliva, very few candidate vaccines have progressed beyond the experimental stage. As such there is no vaccine against any form of human leishmaniasis. In recent years, however, much interest has been stimulated towards vaccination against leishmaniasis focused mainly on cutaneous leishmaniasis with fewer attempts against visceral leishmaniasis.

  2. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

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    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  3. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: apresentação pouco comum American tegumentary leishmaniasis: an unusual presentation

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    Antonio Carlos Martins Guedes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se caso de leishmaniose tegumentar americana com lesões proeminentes na face. Os critérios diagnósticos incluíram dados clínicos e epidemiológicos, intradermorreação de Montenegro, identificação de Leishmania pela reação em cadeia da polimerase e resposta clínica ao tratamento. A importância do relato se deve ao fato de se tratar de caso incomum de leishmaniose tegumentar americana.We report the case of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis and prominent lesions on the face. Diagnostic criteria included clinical and epidemiological data, Montenegro's skin test, identification of Leishmania by means of polymerase chain reaction and clinical response to treatment. Our report is important to call attention to an unusual presentation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis with cardiac involvement in a dog: a case report

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    Goicoa Ana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dog presented with cutaneous nodules, enlarged lymph nodes and oedema in limbs, face and abdomen. The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was established by identification of Leishmania amastigotes within macrophages from skin and popliteal lymph node biopsies. At necropsy, lesions were found in different organs, but it was particularly striking to observe large areas of pallor in the myocardium. Histological examination revealed an intense chronic inflammatory reaction in many organs, and numerous macrophages were found to contain amastigote forms of Leishmania. The inflammatory reaction was especially severe in the heart, where large areas of the myocardium appeared infiltrated with huge numbers of mononuclear immune cells, causing cardiac muscle atrophy and degeneration. Despite the severe inflammation, the number of parasitized macrophages was low in the myocardium, as revealed by immunohistochemical staining of Leishmania amastigotes. Because cardiac involvement is not usually described in this condition, this dog represents a very rare case of canine visceral leishmaniasis with affection of the myocardium.

  5. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs.

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    Thomsen, R; Edwards, S A; Rousing, T; Labouriau, R; Sørensen, J T

    2016-07-01

    Alternatives to surgical castration are needed, due to stress and pain caused by castration of male pigs. One alternative is production of entire male pigs. However, changed behaviour of entire males compared with castrated males might adversely affect the welfare of entire males and changes in management procedures and production system might be needed. Elements from the organic pig production system might be beneficial in this aspect. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of grouping strategy including social mixing and group size on levels of mounting behaviour and skin lesions, hypothesising that procedures that disrupt the social stability (e.g. regrouping) will have a larger negative effect in small groups compared with large groups. Approximately 1600 organic entire male pigs of the breed (Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc were reared in parallel in five organic herds, distributed across four batches in a 2×2 factorial design in order to test the influence of social mixing (presence or absence of social mixing at relocation) and group size (15 and 30 animals). Animals were able to socialise with piglets from other litters during the lactation period, and were all mixed across litters at weaning. A second mixing occurred at insertion to fattening pens for pigs being regrouped. Counting of skin lesions (1348 or 1124 pigs) and registration of mounting behaviour (1434 or 1258 pigs) were done on two occasions during the experimental period. No interactive effects were found between social mixing and group size on either skin lesions or mounting frequency. Herd differences were found for both mounting frequency and number of skin lesions. No association between skin lesions and mounting were revealed. Social mixing and group size were shown as interacting effects with herds on mounting frequency (Pskin lesions, but more lesions were observed in large groups (P<0.036). This could indicate that keeping entire male pigs in groups of 30 animals as compared

  6. Cytodiagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual with molluscum contagiosum-like skin lesions and lymphadenopathy

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    Gupta, Prajwala; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum). The early clinical manifestations are nonspecific, often lead to diagnostic difficulty, and is misdiagnosed as tuberculosis and seen usually in immunosuppressed states. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, safe, and quick technique to establish the initial diagnosis of H. capsulatum, thereby prompting early treatment. The skin involvement is rare in disseminated disease and we describe a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient with unusual molluscum contagiosum like umbilicated skin lesions and FNAC of the cervical lymph node was the only tool for rapid and early confirmatory diagnosis.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: diagnostic pitfall. Case report

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    Asmae EL Hatimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection encountered in our daily dermatologic practice. Case report: We present a case of 57 year-old man of Moroccan origin, with erythematous squamous and indurated plaque on the abdomen, treated as sarcoidosis with corticosteroids with no improvement. Discussion: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries. Aside from its classical presentation it can manifest in multiple different ways. In our case, the diagnostic of Erysipeloide Leishmaniasis was corrected on the basis of the skin smear and the histopathological examination. Our observation is particular in its clinical presentation and location. To our knowledge it is the first Moroccan case. Conclusion: Even in endemic countries it is worth reporting unusual forms and locations of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and management.

  8. Effect of a deproteinized blood extract on the recovery of blood circulation in an ischaemic skin lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6176254

  9. Verrucous lesions arising in lymphedema and diabetic neuropathy: Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa or verrucous skin lesions on the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Eri; Asai, Jun; Okuzawa, Yasutaro; Hanada, Keiji; Nomiyama, Tomoko; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-03-01

    Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy (VSLDN) develop in areas with sensory loss in diabetic patients. Although various types of chronic stimulation, such as pressure or friction, are considered an important factor in the development of such lesions, the precise pathogenesis of VSLDN remains obscure, and there is currently no established treatment for this disease. Here, we present a case of VSLDN on the dorsum of the right foot. However, because lymphedema was also observed at the same site, this lesion could also be diagnosed as elephantiasis nostras verrucosa arising in diabetic neuropathy. The lesion was successfully treated with a combination of elastic stocking and mixed killed bacterial suspension and hydrocortisone ointment, which suggested that VSLDN might have been exacerbated by the pre-existing lymphedema. Because various types of chronic stimulation can trigger VSLDN, treatment plans should be devised on a case-by-case basis. Therefore, it is important to investigate the presence of factors that can induce or exacerbate chronic inflammatory stimulation, such as lymphedema in our case, in each patient with VSLDN. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. The importance of a full clinical examination: assessment of index lesions referred to a skin cancer clinic without a total body skin examination would miss one in three melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, R Benjamin; Naysmith, Lisa; Ooi, Ee Ting; Murray, Caroline S; Rees, Jonathan L

    2013-11-01

    Traditional clinical teaching emphasises the importance of a full clinical examination. In the clinical assessment of lesions that may be skin cancer, full examination allows detection of incidental lesions, as well as helping in the characterisation of the index lesion. Despite this, a total body skin examination is not always performed. Based on two prospective studies of over 1,800 sequential patients in two UK centres we show that over one third of melanomas detected in secondary care are found as incidental lesions, in patients referred for assessment of other potential skin cancers. The majority of these melanomas occurred in patients whose index lesion turned out to be benign. Alternative models of care--for instance some models of teledermatology in which a total body skin examination is not performed by a competent practitioner--cannot be considered equivalent to a traditional consultation and, if adopted uncritically, without system change, will likely lead to melanomas being missed.

  11. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

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    Daya-Grosjean, Leela [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daya@igr.fr; Sarasin, Alain [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis.

  12. Decreased effect of glucantime in cutaneous leishmaniasis complicated with secondary bacterial infection

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    G Sadeghian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucantime is regarded as the first-line treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL; however, failure to treatment is a problem in many cases. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of glucantime in CL complicated with secondary bacterial infection compared to uncomplicated lesions. Methods: This experimental study was performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. A total of 161 patients enrolled in the study had CL confirmed by positive smear of lesions. All the patients were treated with systemic glucantime for 3 weeks and followed for 2 months. Response to treatment was defined as loss of infiltration, reepithelization, and negative smear. Depending on the results of bacterial cultures, the lesions were divided into two groups and the efficacy of glucantime was compared. Results: A total of 123 patients (76.4% were negative, and 38 patients (23.6% were positive for secondary bacterial infection. In groups with negative bacterial culture response to treatment was 65% (80 patients and in the other positive group, it was 31.6% (12 patients, with a difference (χ2 = 13.77, P < 0.01. Conclusion: Therapeutic effect of glucantime showed a decrease in CL lesions with secondary bacterial infection. Therefore, in the cases of unresponsiveness to treatment, the lesions should be evaluated for bacterial infection, before repeating the treatment.

  13. A case of stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) with lobomycosis-like skin lesions in Kinko-wan, Kagoshima, Japan.

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    Tajima, Yuko; Sasaki, Kyoko; Kashiwagi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-08-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic fungal disease caused by the etiologic agent, Lacazia loboi, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues in humans and dolphins in tropical and transitional tropical climates. An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) stranded in Kagoshima, Japan, had severe skin lesions characterized by granulomatous reactions and hyperkeratosis that were similar to those of the lobomycosis, but no fungal organism was observed in the skin lesion. In this paper, we report a stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin with lobomycosis-like lesions based on pathological examinations in Japan.

  14. Dermatologic and otorhinolaryngologic manifestations in leishmaniasis

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    Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is an extremely important parasitic disease as regards epidemiology, and, in such a disease, man is an occasional host to the Leishmania protozoon. Some of the major clinical, visceral and integumentary features are the mucocutaneous ways that can harm face and upper airways and even cause deforming lesions, leading to a functional impairment. Objective: Review the main dermatologic and otorhinolaryngologic manifestations in leishmaniasis. Methods: It was based on the Virtual Health Library (BVS, by entering the following keywords: Leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, nasal mucosa, and nose. References dated from 1999 to 2008 have been regarded. Final Comments: It is about a zoonosis, in which the human being is an occasional host attacked by Lutzomya or Phlebotomus insects that are, in turn, infected by the Leishmania parasite, and the early diagnosis of a leishmania-related lesion is essential, especially when a nasopharyngeal impairment is evident, with a view to preventing deformities or functional harms. The evaluation of cutaneous and/or mucosa lesions and the accurate definition of leishmaniasis diagnosis given by either dermatologists or otorhinolaryngologists enables the proper treatment to be implemented and the subsequent reduction in the disease dissemination.

  15. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high.

  16. Tissue histiocyte reactivity with CD31 is comparable to CD68 and CD163 in common skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, W James; Googe, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    CD31 is a standard immunostain for evaluating vascular lesions of the skin, but CD31 reactivity for histiocytes is reported in only a small variety of pathological conditions. CD68 and CD163 are well recognized stains for cutaneous histiocytic lesions. We compared immunostaining of CD31 within that of CD68 and CD163 in five cases each of cutaneous lesions containing histiocytes: healing biopsy site, granuloma annulare, xanthogranuloma, ruptured follicular cyst and sarcoidosis. Reactivity was graded on a scale of 0-3 for brightness of immunostaining. Immunoreactivity was seen in histiocytes in all specimens for CD31, CD68 and CD163. The average intensity of staining was 1.7-2.5 for CD31, 2.6-3 for CD68 and 2.9-3 for CD163. The staining was somewhat less for CD31 because the reactivity is localized on the cell surfaces, whereas CD68 and CD163 react with cell surfaces and cytoplasm. We conclude that histiocytes in cutaneous lesions stain for CD31 and the staining is comparable to, but less intense, than that seen with CD68 and CD163. Caution is suggested in interpretation of CD31 staining in skin specimens, as CD31 shows reactivity with histiocytes as well as endothelial cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. T lymphocytes in the lesional skin and the levels of peripheral blood cytokines in patients with psoriasis

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    İbrahim Kökçam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the roles of tissue cellular immunity and serum levels of cytokines in the patients with plaque psoriasis treated with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate.Materials and methods: The study included 20 patients with psoriasis. Peripheral blood and biopsy samples were collected from lesional and normal skins before and after treatment. The results were compared with each other.Results: Immunohistochemical examination revealed significant elevations of CD4+, CD8+ and CD25+ T lymphocytes in the lesional tissues when compared to that in the healthy tissues and post treatment tissue (p0.05. The levels of IL–4, IL–10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 in serum were not significantly different between before and after treatment periods (p>0.05.Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there were infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ cell in the lesional skin and CD8+ T-lymphocytes were the dominant cell types. The improvement of the lesions and significant decreases in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in accordance with the treatment strongly support the hypothesis that Th lymphocytes may have prominent roles in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. However, our findings showed that sufficient T-cells still remains in the tissue, which is consistent with the chronic characteristic of the disease, and the topical treatment could not be able to prevent the activation of the disease.

  18. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

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    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  19. A novel non-invasive diagnostic sampling technique for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Yasaman; Sadeghipour, Pardis; Habibzadeh, Sima; Mashayekhi, Vahid; Mortazavi, Hossien; Müller, Ingrid; Lane, Majella E; Kropf, Pascale; Rafati, Sima

    2017-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is important for chemotherapy and epidemiological studies. Common approaches for Leishmania detection involve the invasive collection of specimens for direct identification of amastigotes by microscopy and the culturing of promastigotes from infected tissues. Although these techniques are highly specific, they require highly skilled health workers and have the inherent risks of all invasive procedures, such as pain and risk of bacterial and fungal super-infection. Therefore, it is essential to reduce discomfort, potential infection and scarring caused by invasive diagnostic approaches especially for children. In this report, we present a novel non-invasive method, that is painless, rapid and user-friendly, using sequential tape strips for sampling and isolation of DNA from the surface of active and healed skin lesions of CL patients. A total of 119 patients suspected of suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis with different clinical manifestations were recruited and samples were collected both from their lesions and from uninfected areas. In addition, 15 fungal-infected lesions and 54 areas of healthy skin were examined. The duration of sampling is short (less than one minute) and species identification by PCR is highly specific and sensitive. The sequential tape stripping sampling method is a sensitive, non-invasive and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic assays and it is suitable for field studies as well as for use in health care centers.

  20. [Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Torres, V A; Silva, C A; Correia, D; Carvalho, E M; Magalhães, A V; Macêdo, V de O

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250 mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), 20 mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

  1. Penicillamine-induced elastosis perforans serpiginosa with abnormal "lumpy-bumpy" elastic fibers in lesional and non-lesional skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna S Khatu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Four types of elastosis perforans serpiginosa (EPS have been described in literature: 1 idiopathic EPS, 2 reactive perforating elastosis associated with connective tissue disorders, 3 in some instances of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE, disease-specific calcified elastic tissue is extruded, producing a clinical picture indistinguishable from other types, may also be seen in patients undergoing hemodialysis and 4 EPS induced by long-term treatment with D-penicillamine is observed in patients suffering from Wilson′s disease. Long term D-penicillamine therapy causes an alteration in the dermal elastic tissue. D-penicillamine induced EPS has a distinctive histopathologic feature - serrated appearance of elastic fibers due to perpendicular budding from their surface giving a "lumpy-bumpy" look. D-penicillamine induced elastic fiber alteration may not always manifest clinically as EPS. We report a case of D-penicillamine induced widespread alteration in skin elastic tissue with distinct histopathologic features.

  2. Penicillamine-induced elastosis perforans serpiginosa with abnormal "lumpy-bumpy" elastic fibers in lesional and non-lesional skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatu, Swapna S; Dhurat, Rachita S; Nayak, Chitra S; Pereira, Rickson R; Kagne, Rucha B

    2011-01-01

    Four types of elastosis perforans serpiginosa (EPS) have been described in literature: 1) idiopathic EPS, 2) reactive perforating elastosis associated with connective tissue disorders, 3) in some instances of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), disease-specific calcified elastic tissue is extruded, producing a clinical picture indistinguishable from other types, may also be seen in patients undergoing hemodialysis and 4) EPS induced by long-term treatment with D-penicillamine is observed in patients suffering from Wilson's disease. Long term D-penicillamine therapy causes an alteration in the dermal elastic tissue. D-penicillamine induced EPS has a distinctive histopathologic feature - serrated appearance of elastic fibers due to perpendicular budding from their surface giving a "lumpy-bumpy" look. D-penicillamine induced elastic fiber alteration may not always manifest clinically as EPS. We report a case of D-penicillamine induced widespread alteration in skin elastic tissue with distinct histopathologic features.

  3. Localized Leishmaniasis of the oral mucosa. A report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Marcos, José Antonio; Dean Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos Granados, Francisco; Ruiz Masera, Juan José; Cortés Rodríguez, Begoña; Vidal Jiménez, Alfredo; García Lainez, Ana; Lozano Rodríguez-Mancheno, Aquiles

    2007-08-01

    The term leishmaniasis comprises a group of diseases caused by different species of a protozoon called Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is found worldwide, and is considered to be endemic in 88 countries. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Exclusive involvement of the mucosa is very rare. We present a series of three cases of mucosal leishmaniasis located in the oral cavity. The fact that all three cases were recorded in Spain (an area where L. infantum is endemic), suggests that the latter was the causal agent. The only manifestation of leishmaniasis disease in the described cases was the appearance of an oral lesion. Treatment was provided in the form of meglumine antimoniate in two patients, with a favorable response. One of the patients left the hospital after diagnosis, without receiving treatment, and the subsequent course is not known. A review is made of the literature on the subject.

  4. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Inhibits Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

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    Hoyoung Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (AR suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis (AD-like skin lesions induced by Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice. To investigate the effect of AR, we measured the AD severity score, measured plasma levels of IgE and histamine, and performed histological analysis in NC/Nga mice. We also confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of AR by measuring TARC/CCL17 production from LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells and mRNA levels of TARC and MDC/CCL22 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells. 10 mg/day of AR extract was applied for 4 weeks to NC/Nga mice. Both the AR extract and 0.1% tacrolimus suppressed the development of AD-like skin lesions and reduced dermatitis scores of the back and ear skin. AR extracts caused an inhibition of histological changes induced by repeated application of D. farinae and a reduction of IgE and histamine levels in plasma (P<0.05. Furthermore, NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells was diminished in a dose-dependent manner, and hTARC production and TARC and MDC mRNA levels in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells were diminished by AR. The inhibitory effect of AR on NO, TARC and MDC production may be associated with the suppression of AD-like skin lesions in D. farinae-induced NC/Nga mice.

  5. Identical TCR beta-chain rearrangements in streptococcal angina and skin lesions of patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diluvio, Laura; Vollmer, Sigrid; Besgen, Petra; Ellwart, Joachim W; Chimenti, Sergio; Prinz, Joerg C

    2006-06-01

    Tonsillar infection with Streptococcus pyogenes may induce several nonsuppurative autoimmune sequelae. The precise pathogenetic mechanisms behind this clinically well-established association are still unresolved. Using TCR analysis, we sought to identify a link between streptococcal tonsillitis and the T cell-mediated autoimmune response in psoriasis. Three patients with streptococcal-induced psoriasis underwent tonsillectomy. Using size spectratyping and sequencing of TCR beta-chain variable region gene (TCRBV) rearrangements, we compared the TCR usage of psoriatic skin lesions, blood, tonsils, and tonsillar T cells fractionated according to the expression of the skin address in "cutaneous lymphocyte-associated Ag" (CLA). TCRBV-size spectratype analysis of the blood lymphocytes, tonsils, and the CLA-negative tonsillar T cells revealed largely unselected T cell populations. Instead, TCRBV gene families of the psoriatic lesions and skin-homing CLA-positive tonsillar T cells displayed highly restricted spectratypes. Sequencing of TCRBV cDNA identified various clonal TCRBV rearrangements within the psoriatic lesions that indicated Ag-driven T cell expansion. Several of these clonotypes were also detected within the tonsils and, in one of the patients, within the small subset of CLA-positive tonsillar T cells, suggesting that T cells from the same T cell clones were simultaneously present within skin and tonsillar tissue. Because after tonsillectomy psoriasis cleared in all three patients our observations indicate that T cells may connect psoriatic inflammation to streptococcal angina. They suggest that the chronic streptococcal immune stimulus within the tonsils could act as a source for pathogenic T cells in poststreptococcal disorders, and they may help to explain why eliminating this source with tonsillectomy may improve streptococcal-induced sequelae.

  6. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We...... report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected...

  7. Positive tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma release assay in patients with radiographic lesion suggesting old healed tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Yoon, Soonho; Koo, Hyeon-kyoung; Lim, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Ji Sun; Lee, Sang-Min; Yang, Seok-Chul; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Sung-Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2012-07-01

    Radiographic lesions suggesting old healed tuberculosis (TB) is considered a risk factor for the subsequent development of active TB. The aim of this study was to estimate the positive rates of tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) in persons with old healed TB. Participants with lesions suggesting old healed TB on chest images and controls without such lesions were prospectively enrolled between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2011. TST and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) were performed. In total, 193 participants with old healed TB and 126 controls were recruited. The rates of positive TST and QFT-GIT among patients with old healed TB were 54.6% and 77.7%, respectively. The rates of positive TST and QFT-GIT among patients without old healed TB were 38.9% and 61.9%. Sixteen percent of participants with old healed TB showed negative results by both TST and QFT-GIT. The positive rate of TST waned among participants with old healed TB who were older than 60 yr, whereas QFT-GIT positivity was unaffected by age. The positive rates of TST and IGRA among participants with radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB was higher than without those lesions. In addition, IGRA may be more accurate than TST for the detection of latent TB infection, especially in populations of individuals older than 60 yr.

  8. Changing epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil: a disease of the urban-rural interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos C G; Lacerda, Henio G; Martins, Daniella R M; Barbosa, James D A; Monteiro, Gloria R; Queiroz, Jose W; Sousa, Jacira M A; Ximenes, Maria F F M; Jeronimo, Selma M B

    2004-04-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was first reported from the south-western region of the state of Rio Grande do Norte in 1987. São Miguel municipality and adjacent areas have accounted for 90% of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the region since then. A population survey conducted in São Miguel and adjacent areas was undertaken to identify individuals with a history of ACL. The incidence of ACL, distribution by age and gender, clinical characteristics, family clustering, relationship to animals, association with skin test responses, and development of mucosal lesions were determined. Males and females were equally likely to be infected by Leishmania. Thirty-eight percent of the individuals tested were found to be Montenegro skin test positive. No difference in the Montenegro skin test was observed with gender, but the response increased with age. Among the 140 ACL cases treated in a 4-year period in São Miguel, five (3.6%) developed mucosal involvement. Sandflies capable of transmitting Leishmania were captured inside households and in the areas surrounding them. The high density of sandfly species potentially able to transmit Leishmania species and the age distribution of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis suggest that transmission of the parasite occurred inside or in close proximity to houses.

  9. A case of multiple metastatic malignant melanoma with the largest lesion in the ileum and no skin lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with malignant melanoma and multiple metastases; the largest tumor was in the ileum. The patient experienced general fatigue and bloody feces for 1 month before consulting a nearby clinic. Blood tests revealed anemia, and fecal occult blood was positive, but no abnormalities were detected using gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy or the skin of the entire body. Computed tomography images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvic region, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography images of the entire body revealed multiple nodules in the ileum, left mammary gland, left thyroid, right inguinal lymph node, and on the fascia of the right thoracic area and right buttocks. The tumor in the left mammary gland was excised and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the excised tissue was positive for HMB45, melan-A, and MITF, but negative for S-100 protein. Diagnosed with melanoma with multiple metastases, the patient underwent four cycles of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV plus interferon beta chemotherapy and one cycle of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and tamoxifen (DAC-Tam chemotherapy. Two series of embolizations of the artery feeding the ileum tumors, as well as a series of plasma and red blood cell transfusions, were performed for ileum tumor hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized eight times, for a total of 204 days during the 1-year survival period before her death from respiratory failure.

  10. A Luciferase-Expressing Leishmania braziliensis Line That Leads to Sustained Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice and Allows Monitoring of Miltefosine Treatment Outcome.

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    Adriano C Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania braziliensis is the most prevalent species isolated from patients displaying cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. However, there are difficulties for studying L. braziliensis pathogenesis or response to chemotherapy in vivo due to the natural resistance of most mouse strains to infection with these parasites. The aim of this work was to develop an experimental set up that could be used to assess drug efficacy against L. braziliensis. The model was tested using miltefosine.A L. braziliensis line, originally isolated from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient, was passaged repeatedly in laboratory rodents and further genetically manipulated to express luciferase. Once collected from a culture of parasites freshly transformed from amastigotes, 106 wild type or luciferase-expressing stationary phase promastigotes were inoculated subcutaneously in young BALB/c mice or golden hamsters. In both groups, sustained cutaneous lesions developed at the site of inoculation, no spontaneous self- healing being observed 4 months post-inoculation, if left untreated. Compared to the wild type line features, no difference was noted for the luciferase-transgenic line. Infected animals were treated with 5 or 15 mg/kg/day miltefosine orally for 15 days. At the end of treatment, lesions had regressed and parasites were not detected. However, relapses were observed in animals treated with both doses of miltefosine.Here we described experimental settings for a late-healing model of cutaneous leishmaniasis upon inoculation of a luciferase-expressing L. braziliensis line that can be applied to drug development projects. These settings allowed the monitoring of the transient efficacy of a short-term miltefosine administration.

  11. The influence of a magnesium-rich marine extract on behaviour, salivary cortisol levels and skin lesions in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, K; O'Gorman, D M; Taylor, S; Boyle, L A

    2013-06-01

    Growing pigs can display undesirable behaviours, reflecting or causing poor welfare. Addition of magnesium (Mg) to the diet could reduce these, as Mg supplementation has been associated with improved coping ability in response to stress. This study examined the effect of supplementation with a Mg-rich marine extract-based product (Supplement) on the behaviour, skin and tail lesion scores and salivary cortisol concentrations of growing pigs. At weaning (28 days), 448 piglets were assigned to either Control or Supplement (0.05%) diets in single-sex groups of 14. Four weeks later (c. 17 kg), pigs were blocked according to weight and back test scores. Seven piglets from each pen were mixed with seven from another pen of the same sex and dietary treatment to yield the following groups: control male, Supplement male, control female and Supplement female (n = 4 of each). This marked the start of the 9-week experimental period. Instances of the following behaviours were recorded in each pen for 8 × 2 min periods 1 day/week: aggression (fight, head-knock and bite); harmful (tail-in-mouth, ear-chewing and belly-nosing); and sexual/mounting behaviour. Four focal pigs were selected from each pen, and their behaviour was continuously recorded for 2 × 5 min periods on the same day. Saliva was collected once per week at 1000 h by allowing pigs to chew on a cotton bud for c. 1 min. Salivary cortisol was analysed in duplicate by an enzyme immunoassay. Skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity 1 day/week. There were fewer aggressive incidents in Supplement pens (P behaviour (performed only by males) was almost three times lower in Supplement than in control pens (P behaviours. Behaviour of the focal pigs showed no treatment effect on the duration or incidence of aggressive behaviour. However, Supplement pigs spent less time performing harmful behaviours compared with control pigs (P < 0.001). Supplement had no effect on the occurrence or severity of tail

  12. An overlap of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and Kimura′s disease: Successful treatment of skin lesions with cryotherapy

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    Praveen Kumar S Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kimura′s disease is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous masses, eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and in tissues with marked increase in Serum Ig E. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE manifests with the presence of dermal papules and nodules. Unique clinical, histopathological, and biochemical findings are noted in these individual entities. A 32-year-female presented with multiple nodules in the axillae for 2 years. Peripheral smear showed eosinophilia with AEC of 6080. Histopathological examination showed features of overlap. Antinuclear antibody immunoflorescence was was negative. CD31, CD34, and FVIII were positive in vascular component. A CT chest revealed left axillary lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated with Cryotherapy and there was complete regression of skin lesions, with no recurrence after 1 year of follow-up. ALHE and KD are common in the head and neck region, but no reports of an overlap, presenting with lesions in the axillae are available to date, to the best of our knowledge. Response of skin lesions to cryotherapy is highlighted.

  13. An Overlap of Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia and Kimura's Disease: Successful Treatment of Skin Lesions with Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Praveen Kumar S; Prasad, Arakali Lakshminarayana Shyam; Sumathy, Tharayil Kunneth; Shivaswamy, Kanakapura Nanjundaswamy; Ranganathan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Kimura's disease is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous masses, eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and in tissues with marked increase in Serum Ig E. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) manifests with the presence of dermal papules and nodules. Unique clinical, histopathological, and biochemical findings are noted in these individual entities. A 32-year-female presented with multiple nodules in the axillae for 2 years. Peripheral smear showed eosinophilia with AEC of 6080. Histopathological examination showed features of overlap. Antinuclear antibody immunoflorescence was was negative. CD31, CD34, and FVIII were positive in vascular component. A CT chest revealed left axillary lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated with Cryotherapy and there was complete regression of skin lesions, with no recurrence after 1 year of follow-up. ALHE and KD are common in the head and neck region, but no reports of an overlap, presenting with lesions in the axillae are available to date, to the best of our knowledge. Response of skin lesions to cryotherapy is highlighted. PMID:25814755

  14. Serial study of the immune response of an individual with exacerbated simple cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, S N; Frankenburg, S; Gross, A; Jonas, F; Vardy, D

    1994-01-01

    The immunological responses of a patient with exacerbated cutaneous leishmaniasis, measured during the course of the disease, are described. Except for skin lesions the patient was healthy and showed no signs of immunosuppression. Three immunological parameters were measured: specific lymphocyte proliferation (LPA), monocyte effector activity (MEA), and antibody levels. LPA was positive early in the course of the disease, became negative as the lesions enlarged, and was positive again as the lesions healed 28 weeks after initiation of the study. In the MEA test, in which the mononuclear cells of the patient were incubated in the presence of Leishmania major promastigotes in a 3-day assay, the number of amastigotes per 100 monocytes remained constant until week 28 and then decreased significantly. Antibody levels remained elevated until week 28 and then decreased to background levels. The results indicate that the cell-mediated immune response parallels the course of the disease while circulating antibodies show an inverse relationship.

  15. AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS WITH UNUSUAL CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND RESPONSE TO TREATMENT

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    Andrea Claudia Bekner Silva FERNANDES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations and prognosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL can be influenced by the immune response of the patient and the species of the parasite. A case of atypical clinical presentation of CL, with development of non-characteristic lesions, poor response to therapy, and a long time to resolution is reported. Confirmatory laboratory tests included parasite detection, indirect immunofluorescence, Montenegro skin test, polymerase chain reaction, and parasite identification by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The parasite was identified as Leishmaniabraziliensis. The lesion was unresponsive to three complete courses of N-methylglucamine antimoniate intramuscular, and to treatment with pentamidine. The patient did not tolerate amphotericin B. The lesion finally receded after treatment with intravenous N-methylglucamine antimoniate. It is essential to ensure the accuracy of diagnosis and the appropriate treatment, which can include the use a second choice drug or a different route of administration.

  16. Influence of the nutritional status in the clinical and therapeutical evolution in adults and elderly with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A G L; Brito, P D; Schubach, A O; Oliveira, R V C; Saheki, M N; Lyra, M R; Salgueiro, M M; Terceiro, B F; Pimentel, M I F; Vasconcellos, E C; Valete-Rosalino, C M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the nutritional status of adult and elderly patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL). It was conducted a longitudinal study in 68 adult and elderly patients with ATL treating at the Surveillance Leishmaniasis Laboratory at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), from 2009 to 2012. The nutritional assessment included the body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels. The clinical evolution (epithelialization and wound healing) was measured up to two years after ATL treatment. Most of the sample was composed of men (71%), adults (73%), with household income of 1-5 minimum wages (79%), and incomplete elementary school (48.5%). The predominant ATL form was cutaneous (72%), and 39% presented comorbidities, the most frequent was hypertension (30.8%). The most prevalent clinical and nutritional events were: recent decrease in food intake (23.9%); nasal obstruction (22.1%); oral ulcer (14.7%), anorexia and dysphagia (13.2% each) and odynophagia (10.3%). The total healing time was 115.00 (IR=80-230) days for skin lesions, and 120.00 (IR=104.50-223.50) days for mucous membrane lesions. Low body weight in 10%, and hypoalbuminemia in 12% of the patients have been observed. Low body weight was associated with age, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), nasal obstruction, recent decrease in food intake and hypoalbuminemia. As for serum albumin depletion, association with the ML, dyspnea, dysphagia, odynophagia, recent decrease in food intake, absence of complete healing of the skin lesions, and increased healing time for mucous membrane lesions, was observed. The ML and their events that affect the alimentary intake have been related to the impairment of the nutritional status. Additionally, serum albumin depletion negatively affected the healing of the lesions, suggesting that a nutritional intervention can increase the effectiveness of the ATL treatment.

  17. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. M.; Zhong, H. Q.; Zhai, J.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo.

  18. Leishmaniasis in Yemen: a clinicoepidemiological study of leishmaniasis in central Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in Yemen. This study was designed to identify clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in Yemen. The study was conducted at the Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center in central Yemen. Data sourced from the medical records of 152 patients with confirmed active leishmaniasis, managed during April-August 2013, were analyzed. A total of 94.1% of patients were rural residents. Al Bayda was the most endemic governorate (59.9%). Children represented the group at highest risk (57.2%), followed by adult females (32.9%); together these groups accounted for 90.1% of all patients. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was the most prevalent form (49.3%), followed by cutaneous leishmaniasis (47.4%), and visceral leishmaniasis (3.3%). The wet ulcer was the most common type of lesion (49.7%) and the single lesion (69.4%) represented the most common presentation. All patients were ignorant of the nature of the disease, and 55.9% had a history of using "popular" treatments. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniases have significant endemicity in Yemen, especially in central areas. Al Bayda is the governorate with the highest endemicity, and rural children and women represent the populations at highest risk. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis seems to be the most prevalent form and a single wet ulcer is the most common presentation. Infected refugees may represent new foci for imported Leishmania species. Ecology, geography, climate change, cultural gender- and age-specific duties, urban night activities, and use of popular treatments are among proven risk factors. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Horev, Amir; Avni, Yonat Shemer; Ziv, Mati; Riesenberg, Klaris

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major is common in southern Israel, while Leishmania infantum (sub-strain of L. donovani, causing zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis) infections were rarely reported in Israel and only in other regions. We report the first case of L. infantum infection in southern Israel, presented atypically as CL in an immunosuppressed 47-year old male. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin-B and recovered, without extra-cutaneous complications. Diagnosis of L. infantum CL was confirmed by microscopic identification of amastigotes in Gimsa-stained smear of skin lesion, positive blood serology and a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 1 genes (ITS1) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS1 PCR-RFLP). We also review the medical literature on old-world CL caused by L. infantum. Multiple L. donovani/infantum CL cases were identified in the literature search. These can be divided schematically to two: 1) In several endemic countries, L. infantum strains are the main causative agents of CL; 2) In other regions, CL is almost exclusively caused by L. major or L. tropica, while L. donovani strains CL cases were reported sporadically or as imported disease.

  20. Pathological study of non-neoplastic skin lesions by punch biopsy

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    Vijay Sreedhar Veldurthy

    2015-08-01

    Results: Total number of cases analysed were 92. The age group of 21-30 years constituted 31.5% of the total cases. There was a male predominance. Hyperpigmented patch/plaque was the most common clinical lesion (36.9%. Lichenoid lesions was the most common histopathological diagnosis reported (26% followed by Hansen's disease(23.9%. Lichen planus was the most common histopathological subtype of lichenoid lesions (58.3%. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1985-1988

  1. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

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    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  2. Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Reduced by Topical Application and Intraperitoneal Injection of Hirsutenone in NC/Nga Mice

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    Mi Sook Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory skin disease. The increasing prevalence and severity of AD have prompted the developments of safer, more effective drugs. Although topical corticosteroids have been used as first line therapy for AD, their potential side effects limit their clinical applications. To investigate the effect of hirsutenone (HIR, a diarylheptanoid compound, on AD-like skin lesions and other factors related to immune response is the aim of this paper Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eosinophil, IgE inflammatory factors (COX-2, iNOS levels were reduced in blood, lymphocytes, and tissue after HIR treatment. These results suggest that HIR might be an effective treatment for AD.

  3. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice

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    Kyung-Hwa Jung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg, and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  4. Clinical outcome of skin yaws lesions after treatment with benzathinebenzylpenicillin in a pygmy population in Lobaye, Central African Republic

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    Manirakiza Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment with benzathinepenicillin in this population, we conducted a cohort survey of 243 patients in the Lobaye region. Findings and conclusion The rate of healing of lesions after 5 months was 95.9%. This relatively satisfactory level of therapeutic response implies that yaws could be controlled in the Central African Republic. Thus, reinforcement of the management of new cases and of contacts is suggested.

  5. Toward noninvasive microspectrofluorometry of skin lesions for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of cell metabolism and organelle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Schachtschabel, Astrid; Kohen, Elli; Kohen, Cahide; Schachtschabel, Dietrich O.

    1995-02-01

    The basic principle of this approach relies on microspectrofluorometric observations of upheavals in the cell's energy metabolism and cell-to-cell metabolic communication in human and mouse melanoma cells. A striking feature is the definition of a highly active nuclear energy metabolism in M8255 human melanoma cells which is characterized by an intense fluorescence response associated with NAD(P) reduction by substrates of glycolysis or the hexose monophosphate shunt. Changes are also expected in the steady state levels of reduced/oxidized NAD(P) in the nuclear, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments, which are probably dependent on ATP levels and distribution (as determined by cell metabolism and eventually the presence of ATP traps). A topographic scanning of skin lesions, either under metabolic steady state conditions or in the presence of permeating substrates, can lead to the recognition of characteristic patterns associated with pigmented and nonpigmented, malignant and nonmalignant skin lesions. The method is, in a way, an extension of microscopic transillumination techniques which have led to the identification of specific patterns associated with such lesions. However, here, a new dimension is added by introduction of fluorescence evaluations. This can represent the first step in a multiparameter approach to the non-invasive in situ fluorescence scan of dermatological lesions by inclusion of: (1) fluorescence excitation and emission spectra; (2) new fluorescence probes of cytoplasmic organelles and nuclear components. Primary emphasis should be placed on the highly active nuclear energy metabolism, which can be triggered to maximum levels when the role of mitochondria as the `cells's policeman' with regard to metabolic control is suppressed by use of topically cytotoxic agents such as the `antipsoriatic' anthralin and dicarboxylic acids used in the local treatment of melanoma. Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy may be of particular advantage in

  6. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

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    Mukhtar Taha Abu-Samra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic.

  7. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The "high-turnover" granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic.

  8. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement.

  9. An overview of a diagnostic and epidemiologic reappraisal of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran

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    Mahin Farahmand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a widespread tropical infection which has a high incidence rate in Iran. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, and Leishmania major, which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL, are endemic in various parts of Iran with a high incidence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reappraisal of the diagnosis and epidemiology of CL in Iran, by different clinical, parasitological and molecular assays among patients suspected of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology, at the Pasteur Institute of Iran during 2006-2009. Two hundred samples from patients with ulcerative skin lesions were collected, clinical analyses were applied, data questionnaire was completed and samples were examined for CL by using both direct microscopic and culture methods. Moreover, PCR assay was applied for detection of Leishmania species in CL isolates resulting from parasitological assay. Clinical observation revealed that the majority (58% of lesions was single; double lesions were observed in 22% of patients, and only 20% of CL had multiple lesions. Out of 200 patients, Leishman body was observed in 77 samples (38.5% by direct smear and 40% by cultivation assay. Most patients (21.3% had a travel history to the Isfahan province, one of the most important endemic areas of CL located in center of Iran. PCR assay by kDNA indicated 32 and 18 out of 50 isolates respectively had similar patterns with standard L. major and L. tropica. In conclusion, clinical manifestations and an appropriate diagnostic assay with a parallel molecular characterization of CL may lead to a screening evaluation of disease, prognosis, treatment and control strategies.

  10. Research Note Mesenchymal stem cells from skin lesions of psoriasis patients promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R F; Wang, F; Wang, Q; Zhao, X C; Zhang, K M

    2015-12-22

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by excessive proliferation and abnormal differentiation and apoptosis of keratinocytes (KCs). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from skin lesions of psoriasis patients demonstrate abnormal cytokine secretion, which may affect KC proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we explored how MSCs from skin lesions of psoriasis patients affect HaCaT cell proliferation and apoptosis. First, flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation methods were used to identify skin MSCs, which were then co-cultured with HaCaT cells. HaCaT cell proliferation was analyzed in real-time, and cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell morphologies and multipotencies of skin MSCs were similar between the psoriasis group and healthy control group, with high levels of CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105 and limited expression of CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. MSCs from skin lesions of psoriasis patients promote KC proliferation more potently and are less capable of inducing KC apoptosis. This may underlie KC proliferation and abnormal apoptosis in psoriasis skin lesions, which results in abnormal thickening of the epidermis.

  11. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: cassia fistula fruit gel- intralesional glucantime Vs. placebo gel- intralesional glucantime combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffary F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Iran and especially Isfahan province is considered as an endemic area for this disease. Regarding the previous report of positive effects of Cassia fistula boiled extract in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of combination therapy with intralesional meglumine antimoniate and Cassia fistula fruit gel compared to placebo in this disease."n"nMethods: 140 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis referring to Skin Disease and Leishmaniasis Research Center of Isfahan (SDLRC were randomly allocated in two groups. One group received intralesional meglumine antimoniate injection and Cassia fistula fruit gel and the second group were treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate and placebo gel. Improvement was defined as complete cure, partial cure and treatment failure. "n"nResults: At 12 week, 47 patients treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate and topical Cassia fistula fruit gel achieved complete cure (67.1% compared to 29(41.4% patients in placebo treated group. There was significant difference in cure rate between two treatment groups of this study (p<0.001. Nine patients (19% in each group

  12. Risk Factors in Patients with Venous Stasis-Related Skin Lesions without Major Abnormalities on Duplex Ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikage, Noriyasu; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Samura, Makoto; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the risk factors for venous stasis-related skin lesions in the legs in patients without major abnormalities on duplex ultrasonography (DUS). Methods: Fifty patients (nine males and 41 females, age 27–93 years) with symptoms of C4 or greater according to the Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, Pathological (CEAP) classification, but having no abnormalities on DUS were reviewed for known risk factors for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) such as older age (>70 years), obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m2), short walking distance (8h per day). Results: The risk factor was different between male and female patients; although all patients had at least one of the above risk factors, the most commonly found risk factor in male patients was occupation requiring prolonged standing (63%), while advanced age (78%) and limited walking distance (83%) were risk factors in female patients. Conclusions: Although male and female patients had different risk factors, insufficient walking seemed to be closely related to the development of venous stasis-related skin lesions. PMID:27738462

  13. An estimation of the global burden of disease due to skin lesions caused by arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Lorna; Fuge, Ron; Kay, David

    2005-06-01

    The global burden of disease due to skin lesions caused by arsenic in drinking water was estimated by combining country-based exposure data with selected exposure-response relationships derived from the literature. Populations were considered to be exposed to elevated arsenic levels if their drinking water contained arsenic concentrations of 50 microg I(-1) or greater. Elevated arsenic concentrations in drinking water result in a significant global burden of disease, even when confining the health outcome to skin lesions. The burden of disease was particularly marked in the World Health Organization (WHO) comparative risk assessment (CRA) 'Sear D' region, which includes Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Unsurprisingly, Bangladesh was the worst affected country with 143 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1,000 population. Although this initial estimate is subject to a large degree of uncertainty, it does represent an important first step in allowing the comparison of the problem relating to elevated arsenic in drinking water to other environmental health outcomes.

  14. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer: reluctant response to antimonial treatment

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    Isaac-Márquez Angélica Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the bacterial flora present in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico using conventional culture methods (11 patients, and an immunocolorimetric detection of pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (15 patients. Prevalence of bacteria isolated by culture methods was 90.9% (10/11. We cultured, from chiclero's ulcers (60%, pathogenic bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus (20%, S. pyogenes (1.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.6%, Morganella morganii (1.6%, and opportunist pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. (20.0%, Enterobacter spp. (20%, and Enterococcus spp. (20%. We also cultured coagulase-negative staphylococci in 40% (4/10 of the remaining patients. Micrococcus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted the bacterial genuses more frequently isolated in the normal skin of patients with chiclero's ulcer and healthy individuals used as controls. We also undertook another study to find out the presence of S. pyogenes by an immunocolorimetric assay. This study indicated that 60% (9/15 of the ulcerated lesions, but not normal controls, were contaminated with S. pyogenes. Importantly, individuals with purulent secretion and holding concomitant infections with S. pyogenes, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. morganii, and E. durans took longer to heal Leishmania (L. mexicana infections treated with antimonial drugs. Our results suggest the need to eliminate bacterial purulent infections, by antibiotic treatment, before starting antimonial administration to patients with chiclero's ulcer.

  15. Association between floor type and behaviour, skin lesions, and claw dimensions in group-housed fattening bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Siegfried; Ahrens, Frank; Bahrs, Elisabeth; Nüske, Stefan; Erhard, Michael H

    2007-07-16

    Rubber mats covering concrete slatted flooring are a developing market in dairy barns but remain rare in beef cattle facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of covering slatted concrete floor with perforated rubber mats on behaviour and occurrence of skin and claw lesions in fattening bulls. The groups of six bulls each with a total average age of 9.8 months were kept over 1 year on either slatted concrete (CONCRETE PEN) or on slatted concrete covered completely (RUBBER PEN) or partially (CHOICE PEN) with perforated rubber mats. Every quarter-year, behaviour (preference of flooring, lying, aggression, mounting) was recorded. In two-weekly intervals the incidence of skin lesions was examined. At 12 and 18 months of age the rising time of the bulls was measured. At the beginning of the study and after slaughter claw dimensions were recorded. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN preferred (Prubber coated area throughout the experiment. Animals in the RUBBER and the CHOICE PENS showed more lying periods (PCONCRETE PEN. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN needed less time for rising (2.7+/-0.3s) than bulls in the CONCRETE PEN (4.4+/-0.5s, PRUBBER>CHOICE>CONCRETE; Prubber coated slatted flooring has a positive influence on the housing conditions of beef cattle.

  16. TRATAMENTO CIRÚRGICO DA PISADURA EM EQÜINOS SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SKIN LESIONS IN EQUIDAE

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    Valéria de Sá Jayme

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico em 20 eqüinos e seis muares portadores da lesão de pisadura, na região dorsal do tórax, através de incisão elíptica da ferida e dermorrafia com sutura do tipo Donatti encavilhada. A técnica cirúrgica mostrou-se adequada e 93% dos animais recuperaram-se em aproximadamente 20 dias após a cirurgia.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eqüino; pisadura; cirurgia.

    After clinical diagnosis, 20 horses and six mules were submitted to surgical treatment of skin lesions in the dorsal region through an elliptic incision of the wound closed by a Donatti fastening suture. This surgical technique was shown to be adequate and 93% of the animals recovered in approximately 20 days after surgery.

    KEY-WORDS: Equine; skin lesions; surgery.

  17. Investigating Healing Effects of Pot Marigold Oil and ProsopisFarcta Extract on Skin Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Kalantar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been a common practice to use herbal plants in Iran and other countries around the world since past years. Today with unfavorable impacts and side effects of chemical drugs, traditional medicine and prescription of herbal plants have attracted specific attention. Treatment and healing of lesions can be considered among major issues which human has faced from the first of creation. Using pot marigold oil and powder of ProsopisFarcta fruit has been long common in Iran for treatment of skin lesions. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate quick healing and restoration effects of ProsopisFracta fruit extract as well as pot marigold oil on laboratory rats. The research was a laboratory trial which was done on 50 rats which were divided randomly into five groups including ten rats after complete anesthesia and creating spinal injuries in completely similar conditions and characteristics. For treatment, five interventions were used as follows: 1. Normal saline solution (0.9% physiologic serum; 2. ProsopisFracta fruit extract (with density of 0.5 to 99.5% solvent; 3. Pure pot marigold oil; 4.Combination of ProsopisFracta fruit extract and pot marigold oil (95% oil and 0.5% extract; and 5.Nitroforazone 1% ointment (positive control. Features including 1. Rats' body temperature, 2.Testing injury site blood, 3.Lesion extent, 4.Histology microscopic experiment during sixteen days of treatment were measured and collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software by mean+-SEM as well as survival analysis tests at significance level of 0.05. According to the results, intervention by combination of ProsopisFracta fruit extract and pot marigold oil is significantly better regarding all features studied, while given the feature of lesion extent it shows a significant difference in treatment and healing of the lesion. Results of a study done by Nakhai Moghadam and colleagues confirm the results obtained by the present study.

  18. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis versus dermoscopy for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions: prospective, double-blind study in a secondary reference centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2009-01-01

    Dermoscopy is considered to be the golden standard for the clinical assessment of pigmented skin lesions. In expert hands, this instrument improves both sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of melanoma, however, the outcome is highly dependent on the skills and experience of the examiner....... Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIAscopy) is a new, commercially available method of analyzing pigmented skin lesions noninvasively. The diagnosis is based on objective features such as the presence of dermal pigment, vascularity of the lesion, and the integrity of collagen. The objective of this study...... investigated by dermoscopy and SIAscopy and subsequently excised. Histopathologically, 12 lesions were diagnosed as malignant melanoma. Both dermoscopy and SIAscopy overestimated the proportion of possible malignant lesions (n=24 and 41, respectively) and had sensitivities of 92 and 100%, respectively...

  19. Prospective evaluation of skin surface electropotentials in Japanese patients with suspicious breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Shimizu, K; Okamoto, N; Arimura, T; Ohta, T; Yamaguchi, S; Faupel, M L

    1996-10-01

    The biofield breast examination (BBE) is a new, noninvasive and cost-effective method for diagnosing breast lesions currently undergoing multicenter evaluation in the USA and Europe. The test analyzes subtle differences in electrical potential caused by dysregulated epithelial proliferation. This report summarizes a prospective evaluation of BBE in a population of 101 patients with suspicious breast lesions scheduled either for open surgical biopsy or fine needle aspiration biopsy. Of the 101 patients included in the study, 49 were found to have a breast malignancy and 52 were found to have a benign breast lesion. BBE correctly identified 44 of 49 biopsy-proven cancers (sensitivity=90%) and correctly indicated no cancer in 31 of 52 biopsy-proven benign cases (specificity=60%). Sensitivity increased to 95% for cancers less than 2.5 cm in size. These results indicate that BBE may be an effective adjunctive test to help to resolve abnormalities discovered by physical examination or other screening methods.

  20. Detection and characterisation of papillomavirus in skin lesions of giraffe and sable antelope in South Africa

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    E. van Dyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Papillomavirus was detected electron microscopically in cutaneous fibropapillomas of a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger. The virus particles measured 45 nm in diameter. Histopathologically, the lesions showed histopathological features similar to those of equine sarcoid as well as positive immunoperoxidase-staining of tissue sections for papillomavirus antigen. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detected bovine papillomavirus (BPV DNA. Bovine papillomavirus-1 was characterised by real-time PCR in the sable and giraffe, and cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed a similarity to BPV-1. As in the 1st giraffe, the lesions from a 2nd giraffe revealed locally malignant pleomorphism, possibly indicating the lesional end-point of papilloma infection. Neither virus particles nor positively staining papillomavirus antigen could be demonstrated in the 2nd giraffe but papillomavirus DNA was detected by real-time PCR which corresponded with BPV-1 and BPV-2.

  1. Histopathological Evaluation of Behçet's Disease and Identification of New Skin Lesions

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    Özgür Gündüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's disease (BD is a multisystemic, relapsing inflammatory disorder with an obscure etiology and pathogenesis. Diagnosis depends on the clinician's ability to identify a group of nonspecific mucocutaneous lesions, which also manifest in a number of other diseases. In recent years, there has been an increase in the studies focusing on the histopathological aspects of Behçet's disease diagnostic mucocutaneous lesions. Their results emphasize the value of histopathology and direct immunofluorescence (DIF in the differential diagnosis of Behçet's disease.

  2. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  3. Expression of cyclins A and E in melanocytic skin lesions and its correlation with some clinicopathologic features

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    Ana Alekseenko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyclins play a fundamental role in the cell cycle. Recent studies have focused on their role in the development of various malignancies. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of cyclins A and E in common nevi, dysplastic nevi and malignant melanomas, and to investigate the relationship between cyclin expression and some pathological parameters such as tumor thickness, ulceration, regression, and mitotic rate, as well as several clinical and phenotypic parameters such as skin phototype, hair and eye color, number of nevi, personal or family melanoma history, and personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC. A total of 102 melanocytic skin lesions, including 30 common nevi, 38 dysplastic nevi and 34 melanomas, were examined. Expression of cyclins was detected by immunohistochemistry and quantified as a percentage of immunostained cell nuclei in each sample. Significant differences in expression of both cyclins were found between all lesion types: the median percentage of cyclin A-positive nuclei was 8.2% in melanomas, 3.4% in dysplastic nevi, and 0.95% in common nevi (p < 0.001. The corresponding percentages for cyclin E were 9.5%, 4.25% and 1.44% (p < 0.001. Expression of both cyclins was significantly higher among patients with a personal history of NMSC. Cyclin A was also significantly overexpressed in patients with a high total nevus count (TNC compared to moderate and low TNC. Expression of cyclins did not significantly correlate with the other clinicopathologic features investigated. These findings indicate the possible involvement of cyclins A and E in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. Our results also show a potential diagnostic significance of these cyclins as markers allowing discrimination between dysplastic nevi and melanoma.

  4. Amentoflavone protects against psoriasis-like skin lesion through suppression of NF-κB-mediated inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingang; Li, Zhengxiao; Dong, Yingying; Ren, Jianwen; Huo, Jia

    2016-02-01

    Psoriasis is a one of the most common chronic skin diseases, which affects 0.6-4.8% of the general population. Amentoflavone (AMF) belongs to the biflavonoid class of flavonoids, possessing various biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of AMF on psoriasis in imiquimod (IMQ) psoriasis-like lesions in mice and keratinocyte proliferation in HaCaT cells. We showed that AMF reduced skinfold thickening, and improved erythema and scaling scores and histological lesions in IMQ-treated mice. AMF exerted potent anti-inflammatory effect via influencing a variety of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 in local skin lesions and the whole body. In M5 (a cocktail of cytokines)-treated HaCaT cells, AMF significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and inhibited the increase of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, IL-17A, and IL-22. In addition, AMF inhibited the upregulation of p65 NF-κB under psoriatic condition. Moreover, overexpression of p65 NF-κB significantly suppressed the effect of AMF on keratinocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, IL-17A, and IL-22. These results demonstrated that suppression of NF-κB was involved in AMF-resulted anti-proliferative, apoptosis-promoting, anti-inflammatory effects in keratinocytes. The data demonstrate that AMF may serve as potential therapeutic option for patients with psoriasis.

  5. Non-respiratory tuberculosis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis after penetrating lesions of the skin : five case histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JW; van Altena, R

    2000-01-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily transmitted from person to person via the respiratory route. We describe five cases of patients who developed tuberculosis at the site of a skin injury: three after being treated repeatedly with local corticosteroids via intramuscular injections, and two who cut themselves

  6. Non-respiratory tuberculosis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis after penetrating lesions of the skin : five case histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JW; van Altena, R

    2000-01-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily transmitted from person to person via the respiratory route. We describe five cases of patients who developed tuberculosis at the site of a skin injury: three after being treated repeatedly with local corticosteroids via intramuscular injections, and two who cut themselves

  7. Skin lesions in children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillevis Smitt, J.H.; van Woensel, J.B.M.; Bos, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    We analysed, by a prospective observational study over a 3-year period, the frequency and character of dermatological symptoms and diseases in children admitted to a tertiary general paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a university hospital. Skin problems were observed in 42 of 1,800 children

  8. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  9. Multimodal imaging findings of SAPHO syndrome with no skin lesions: A report of three cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Na; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Yongkang; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongqiu

    2016-10-01

    Synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis syndrome (SAPHO) is a rare syndrome that affects the skin, bones and joints. Diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome is established on clinical appearance and imaging features. The present case report described the imaging features of three cases of SAPHO with sternoclavicular joint arthritis but without skin manifestations using multiple imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy. The first case was a 52-year-old male who suffered from progressive sternoclavicular arthritis for 2 years. The second case was a 62-year-old female with arthritis in the larger joints for 5 years, particularly on the right thoracic area. The third case was a 44-year-old male who exhibited a slight bulge accompanied by pain in the upper anterior chest wall for 4 years. All of them lacked cutaneous lesions. CT demonstrated sclerosis and hyperostosis with subchondral erosions in the sternocostoclavicular joints. MRI revealed bone marrow edema that was slightly hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. Typical 'bull head' signs were observed in bone scintigraphy images. The present case study demonstrated that SAPHO syndrome should be suspected in patients with multifocal osteitis or arthritis affecting the chest wall that lack skin manifestations. Multimodal imaging modalities in combination are helpful for SAPHO diagnosis.

  10. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira da; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction of P. brasiliensis with these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

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    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  12. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J L; Diniega, B M; Small, J W; Miller, R N; Andujar, J M; Weina, P J; Lawyer, P G; Ballou, W R; Lovelace, J K

    1992-07-01

    An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 Puerto Rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the Panama Canal Area in July 1984. An epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in November and December 1984. Fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. Twelve cases yielded positive Leishmania cultures, identified as L. braziliensis panamensis by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Evaluation of different diagnostic techniques revealed that direct examination of tissues by Giemsa-stained histological examination was the most sensitive test (87% sensitivity), with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test being rather insensitive (67%). All but one of the confirmed cases operated in small units that trained and slept overnight at a mortar firing site for a period of three days, yielding a site-specific attack rate of 22% (14 of 64). This contrasted with a much lower attack rate of 0.2% (1 of 476), experienced by unit members who trained at other locations during the same time frame (P less than 0.001). The median incubation period calculated from day of arrival at the mortar firing site was 17 days (range 2-78) for the 15 confirmed cases. Available personal protection methods, such as the use of insect repellents, were not appropriately implemented by unit personnel and thus, were not found to effectively protect against Leishmania infection. This is the largest reported outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in military personnel associated with a single geographic focus of infection and contrasts with the usual sporadic disease experience in Panama.

  13. Leishmaniasis cutánea difusa en un paciente con sida Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with AIDS

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    Carlos Pérez

    2006-12-01

    .Objective: A patient with a leishmaniasis-Aids co-infection was presented and discussed.
    Methods and results: A 29-year -old soldiier, coming from the Province of San José del Guaviare, Colombia, complained of a weight loss of 18 kgs in the previous ten months as well as a two-month-old cutaneous leision. Elisa and Western blot tests were positive for HIV infection. LT CD4 were 92/mm3. He had a generalized erythematous, psoriasiform dermal lesion,which, upon biopsy, revealed an abundance of phagocytosed microorganisms that stained black with Gomory's technique. Disseminated histoplasmosis was diagnosed. The patient received anti-retroviral therapy and itraconazole, without regression of the lesions. Amphotericin B was beneficial but the lesions recurred several months later, more numerous, nodular and with occurrence in the oral mucosa. Nine months after the initial diagnosis additional skin biopsies and review of the previous biopsies established that the patient had diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. The leishmania parasite did not grow in culture. Miltefosine produced marked improvement, but the lesions recurred and were cured finally with 52 Glucantime® injections administered for two months. Presently, the patient remains in good condition 21 months after diagnosis of leishmaniasis.
    Conclusions: Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis may be a common clinical manifestation when leishmaniasis and AIDS co-occur. Its treatment is difficult and must include an antiparasitic drug as well as prophylactic,and anti-retroviral therapy. Leishmania amastigotes typically are not Gomory-positive and can be differentiated from Histoplasma by morphology, immunohistochemistry, culture, antibody-specific response and PCR. The leishmaniasis-AIDS co-infection enhances invasive capacity for both causal microorganisms. Increasing case numbers can be expected in Colombia, due to the high frequency of both diseases.

  14. Inhibitory effects of Juglans mandshurica leaf on allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions-induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-03-01

    Allergic dermatitis among common skin diseases is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder caused by genetic, environmental, allergens as well as microbial factors. Allergic dermatitis patients clinically present skin erythematous plaques, eruption, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine levels. The leaf of walnut tree Juglans mandshurica Maxim (JM) is consumed food and traditional phytomedicine in Asia, China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of JM on allergic dermatitis has been reported. Here, we demonstrated the effect of JM against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions. 0.5% JM or 1% dexamethasone (positive control) applied to the dorsal skin inhibited development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions and scratching behavior. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines IgE, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-13, were significantly reduced by JM treatment. Thus JM can inhibit development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators, and may be an effective alternative therapy for allergic dermatitis.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

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    In Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Valencene (VAL isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD.

  16. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonietta Costa; Carney Matheson; Lucia Iachetta; Agustín Llagostera; Otto Appenzeller

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses...

  17. Meta-transcriptome Profiling of the Human-Leishmania braziliensis Cutaneous Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Stephen M.; Dillon, Laura A. L.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Passos, Sara; Novais, Fernanda O.; Hughitt, V. Keith; Beiting, Daniel P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Scott, Phillip; El-Sayed, Najib M.

    2016-01-01

    Host and parasite gene expression in skin biopsies from Leishmania braziliensis-infected patients were simultaneously analyzed using high throughput RNA-sequencing. Biopsies were taken from 8 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis and 17 patients with late cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although parasite DNA was found in all patient lesions at the time of biopsy, the patients could be stratified into two groups: one lacking detectable parasite transcripts (PTNeg) in lesions, and another in which parasite transcripts were readily detected (PTPos). These groups exhibited substantial differences in host responses to infection. PTPos biopsies contained an unexpected increase in B lymphocyte-specific and immunoglobulin transcripts in the lesions, and an upregulation of immune inhibitory molecules. Biopsies without detectable parasite transcripts showed decreased evidence for B cell activation, but increased expression of antimicrobial genes and genes encoding skin barrier functions. The composition and abundance of L. braziliensis transcripts in PTPos lesions were surprisingly conserved among all six patients, with minimal meaningful differences between lesions from patients with early and late cutaneous leishmaniasis. The most abundant parasite transcripts expressed in lesions were distinct from transcripts expressed in vitro in human macrophage cultures infected with L. amazonensis or L. major. Therefore in vitro gene expression in macrophage monolayers may not be a strong predictor of gene expression in lesions. Some of the most highly expressed in vivo transcripts encoded amastin-like proteins, hypothetical genes, putative parasite virulence factors, as well as histones and tubulin. In summary, RNA sequencing allowed us to simultaneously analyze human and L. braziliensis transcriptomes in lesions of infected patients, and identify unexpected differences in host immune responses which correlated with active transcription of parasite genes. PMID:27631090

  18. Modified watershed technique and post-processing for segmentation of skin lesions in dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanzheng; Moss, Randy H; Chen, Xiaohe; Stanley, R Joe; Stoecker, William V; Celebi, M Emre; Malters, Joseph M; Grichnik, James M; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Menzies, Scott W; Szalapski, Thomas M

    2011-03-01

    In previous research, a watershed-based algorithm was shown to be useful for automatic lesion segmentation in dermoscopy images, and was tested on a set of 100 benign and malignant melanoma images with the average of three sets of dermatologist-drawn borders used as the ground truth, resulting in an overall error of 15.98%. In this study, to reduce the border detection errors, a neural network classifier was utilized to improve the first-pass watershed segmentation; a novel "edge object value (EOV) threshold" method was used to remove large light blobs near the lesion boundary; and a noise removal procedure was applied to reduce the peninsula-shaped false-positive areas. As a result, an overall error of 11.09% was achieved.

  19. Evaluation of a Microculture Method for Isolation of Leishmania Parasites from Cutaneous Lesions of Patients in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K.; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Espinosa, Diego; Arevalo, Jorge; Adaui, Vanessa; Tulliano, Gianfranco; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Low, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional culture of Leishmania spp. is labor intensive and has poor sensitivity. We evaluated a microculture method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in consecutive patients presenting to the Leishmaniasis Clinic at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru, for evaluation of skin lesions. Lesion aspirates were cultured in duplicate and parallel in traditional culture tubes containing modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium or Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (10% RPMI) and in 70-μl capillary tubes containing a mixture of lesion aspirate and 10% RPMI. For sensitivity analysis, the consensus standard was considered to be a positive result in any two of the following four tests: Giemsa-stained lesion smear, culture, kinetoplast DNA PCR, or leishmanin skin test. The outcome measures were sensitivity and time to culture positivity. Forty-five patients with 62 skin lesions were enrolled in the study, of which 53 lesions fulfilled the consensus criteria for a final diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Of these 53 lesions, 39 were culture positive: 38 in capillary tubes, 29 in traditional culture tubes with modified NNN medium, and 19 in traditional culture tubes with 10% RPMI medium. The sensitivity of microculture was 71.7%, versus 54.7% for traditional culture with NNN (P, 0.038) and 35.8% with 10% RPMI (P, <0.001). The mean times to culture positivity were 4.2 days by microculture, 5.2 days in NNN, and 6 days in 10% RPMI (P, 0.009). We have demonstrated that microculture is a more sensitive and time-efficient means of isolating Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions than traditional culture. PMID:17881557

  20. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Clinical and Histological Presentation: Report of Four Cases

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    Hamideh Moravvej

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL usually causes a single, self-healing and uncomplicated lesion mainly on the exposed area of body. This report presents four cases of OWCL from Iran that misdiagnosed with sarcoidosis, lymphoma, and acne agminata. Two out of four patients showed a history of purplish red plaques for at least 5 years who misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis because of histological and clinical characteristics. The other one presented with flesh-colored nodules disseminated all over his skin that was misdiagnosed as lymphoma for ten years. The last patient was misdiagnosed as acne agminata due to tuberculoid reactions in examination of the lesion biopsy. All the patients responded to the treatment with meglumine antimonate.

  1. Geographical Distribution of Leishmania Species of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    M Akhoundi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to know the identity of Leishmania species responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Fars Province, southern Iran.Methods: Five counties of Shiraz, Firouz Abad, Ghir-Karzin, Farashband and Larestan were pros­pected. Forty-four patients exhibiting cutaneous lesions were selected. Samples collected on skin lesions were examined both microscopically (after Giemsa staining and molecularly (after PCR-RFLP.Results: On the 44 examined patients, 39 exhibit Leishmania sp. by microscopical examination, all confirmed by PCR. For five patients with negative microscopical examination, PCR was positive for three of them. Among these 42 positive samples, 3 (7% were infected by L. tropica and 39 (93% by L. major.Conclusions: Leishmania major is the most prevalent species in prospected area and L. tropica occurs in Shiraz and Ghir-Karzin counties.

  2. Laryngeal leishmaniasis in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsadni, C; Fsadni, P; Piscopo, T; Mallia Azzopardi, C

    2007-02-01

    The localization of Leishmania spp. in the larynx is rare especially when not associated with immunosuppression or with visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis, the first of its kind documented in Malta and infrequently reported from the Mediterranean basin.

  3. How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  4. Empiric antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans-like skin lesions as a function of geography: a clinical and cost effectiveness modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, Paul M; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Wormser, Gary P; Clemen, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The skin lesion of early Lyme disease, erythema migrans (EM), is so characteristic that routine practice is to treat all such patients with antibiotics. Because other skin lesions may resemble EM, it is not known whether presumptive treatment of EM is appropriate in regions where Lyme disease is rare. We constructed a decision model to compare the cost and clinical effectiveness of three strategies for the management of EM: Treat All, Observe, and Serology as a function of the probability that an EM-like lesion is Lyme disease. Treat All was found to be the preferred strategy in regions that are endemic for Lyme disease. Where Lyme disease is rare, Observe is the preferred strategy, as presumptive treatment would be expected to produce excessive harm and increased costs. Where Lyme disease is rare, clinicians and public health officials should consider observing patients with EM-like lesions who lack travel to Lyme disease-endemic areas.

  5. Granulomatous skin lesions complicating Varicella infection in a patient with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and immune deficiency: case report

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    Van Den Oord Joost

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS(OMIM 268400 is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by poikiloderma, small stature, skeletal and dental abnormalities, cataract and an increased risk of cancer. It is caused by mutations in RECQL4 at 8q24. Immune deficiency is not described as a classical feature of the disease. Here we report the appearance of granulomatous skin lesions complicating primary Varicella Zoster Virus infection in a toddler with Rothmund Thomson syndrome and immune deficiency. Although granulomatous disorders are sometimes seen after Herpes zoster, they are even more rare after Varicella primary infection. Granulomas have hitherto not been described in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. With this report we aim to stress the importance of screening for immune deficiency in patients with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome.

  6. Performance of a dermoscopy-based computer vision system for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions compared with visual evaluation by experienced dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortea, Maciel; Schopf, Thomas R; Thon, Kevin; Geilhufe, Marc; Hindberg, Kristian; Kirchesch, Herbert; Møllersen, Kajsa; Schulz, Jörn; Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2014-01-01

    It is often difficult to differentiate early melanomas from benign melanocytic nevi even by expert dermatologists, and the task is even more challenging for primary care physicians untrained in dermatology and dermoscopy. A computer system can provide an objective and quantitative evaluation of skin lesions, reducing subjectivity in the diagnosis. Our objective is to make a low-cost computer aided diagnostic tool applicable in primary care based on a consumer grade camera with attached dermatoscope, and compare its performance to that of experienced dermatologists. We propose several new image-derived features computed from automatically segmented dermoscopic pictures. These are related to the asymmetry, color, border, geometry, and texture of skin lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of the system is compared with that of three dermatologists. With a data set of 206 skin lesions, 169 benign and 37 melanomas, the classifier was able to provide competitive sensitivity (86%) and specificity (52%) scores compared with the sensitivity (85%) and specificity (48%) of the most accurate dermatologist using only dermoscopic images. We show that simple statistical classifiers can be trained to provide a recommendation on whether a pigmented skin lesion requires biopsy to exclude skin cancer with a performance that is comparable to and exceeds that of experienced dermatologists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning reflectance confocal microscopy of melanocytic skin lesions through histopathologic transversal sections.

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    Juliana Casagrande Tavoloni Braga

    Full Text Available Histopathologic interpretation of dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM features of cutaneous melanoma was timidly carried out using perpendicular histologic sections, which does not mimic the same plane of the image achieved at both techniques (horizontal plane. The aim of this study was to describe the transverse histologic sections research technique and correlate main dermoscopic features characteristic of cutaneous melanoma (atypical network, irregular globules and pseudopods with RCM and histopathology in perpendicular and transverse sections in order to offer a more precise interpretation of in vivo detectable features. Four melanomas and 2 nevi with different dermoscopic clues have been studied. Lesion areas that showed characteristic dermoscopic features were imaged by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy and directly correlated with histopathology in perpendicular and transverse sections. We presented the possibility to perform transverse sections as a new approach to understand RCM features. Atypical network showed different aspects in the 2 melanomas: in one case it was characterized by pleomorphic malignant melanocytes with tendency to form aggregates, whereas in the other elongated dendritic cells crowded around dermal papillae, some of them forming bridges that resembled the mitochondrial aspect at confocal and histopathology transversal sections. Pigment globules in melanomas and nevi differed for the presence of large atypical cells in the former, and pseudopods showed up as elongated nests protruded toward the periphery of the lesion. Transverse histologic research sections have a consistent dermoscopic and confocal correlate, and it may represent an help in confocal feature interpretation and an advance in improving melanoma diagnosis and knowledge of the biology of melanocytic lesions.

  8. Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Skin Lesions from Sporotrichosis Epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto Ferreira, Cassio; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:25653392

  9. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  10. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Éricka Lima; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Werkhäuser, Roberto Pereira; de Araújo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis. PMID:23227369

  11. Thalidomide induces granuloma differentiation in sarcoid skin lesions associated with disease improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen J; Kikuchi, Toyoko; Krueger, James G; Kaplan, Gilla

    2002-03-01

    Sarcoidosis, a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, is treated with immune suppressive drugs such as corticosteroids. Sarcoidosis patients have been reported to benefit clinically from treatment with thalidomide. We administered thalidomide for 16 weeks to eight patients with chronic skin sarcoidosis and evaluated the drug's effects before and with treatment. After thalidomide treatment, all skin biopsies showed decreases in granuloma size and reduction in epidermal thickness. We also observed extensive T cell recruitment into the granulomas, the appearance of multinucleated giant cells, and increased numbers of dermal Langerhans cells (CD1a(+)) and mature dendritic cells (CD83(+) or DC-LAMP(+)). Plasma IL-12 levels increased and remained elevated during the treatment period. We noted increased HLA-DR expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and a corresponding drop in the naive T cell marker CD45RA. Our data suggest that thalidomide treatment of sarcoidosis results in granuloma differentiation to a Th1-type cellular immune response usually associated with protective immunity to tuberculosis and tuberculoid leprosy.

  12. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images

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    Kajsa Møllersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC. As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND’s ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME, a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95% melanoma sensitivity, the NMSC sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 12%. The melanomas misclassified by ND at 95% sensitivity were correctly classified by ME, and vice versa. ND is able to detect NMSC without sacrificing melanoma sensitivity.

  13. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Møllersen, Kajsa; Zortea, Maciel; Schopf, Thomas R; Hindberg, Kristian; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND) is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND's ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME), a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95 percent melanoma sensitivity, ...

  14. A current perspective on leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Clem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many challenges facing the successful control and eradication of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is still endemic in many poverty stricken and war torn areas. Through the use of an extensive literature review, this article examined the global disease burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Surveillance and control measures for leishmaniasis being used by the World Health Organization were also discussed in this article. Finally, potential new treatments and possible vaccines for leishmaniasis were reviewed in this article.

  15. A Current Perspective on Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Angela

    2010-01-01

    There are many challenges facing the successful control and eradication of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is still endemic in many poverty stricken and war torn areas. Through the use of an extensive literature review, this article examined the global disease burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Surveillance and control measures for leishmaniasis being used by the World Health Organization were also discussed in this article. Finally, potential new treatments and possible vaccines for leishmaniasis were reviewed in this article. PMID:20606967

  16. Laminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake : skin lesions and biochemical findings : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yeruham

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sudden addition of a large quantity of readily fermentable carbohydrate to the feed ration of pregnant heifers are described. Clinical and pathological changes caused by the resulting disease were confined to the digits and skin. The 4 acutely affected heifers were reluctant to get up or move (group II. They tended to lie down or stand with feet bunched together and the back arched, often shifting weight from limb to limb. They walked stiffly with great tenderness and pain in the digits. Extreme pain was noticed when the digits were examined. In 4 of 8 heifers, separation of the sole at the heel, with leakage of exudate, and under-running of the sole were observed. Necrotic dermatitis of the legs, alopecia and hyperkeratosis of the tail were noticed in all 8 heifers. Skin lesions appeared simultaneously. Four of the heifers (group I recovered, and the other 4 (group II were sent to slaughter. No post mortem examination was performed. The biochemical findings revealed a significantly higher concentration of total serum globulins and sodium, and increased activity, in CK, LDH and AST. A significantly decreasing pattern was noted in blood urea concentration, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and calcium. No significant differences among the various groups were found in the activities of amylase, GGT, and concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and potassium.

  17. Bull's-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, John N.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Yedlin, Victoria; Kortte, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lyme disease is an emerging worldwide infectious disease with major foci of endemicity in North America and regions of temperate Eurasia. The erythema migrans rash associated with early infection is found in approximately 80% of patients and can have a range of appearances including the classic target bull's-eye lesion and nontarget appearing lesions. Methods. A survey was designed to assess the ability of the general public to distinguish various appearances of erythema migrans from non-Lyme rashes. Participants were solicited from individuals who visited an educational website about Lyme disease. Results. Of 3,104 people who accessed a rash identification survey, 72.7% of participants correctly identified the classic target erythema migrans commonly associated with Lyme disease. A mean of 20.5% of participants was able to correctly identify the four nonclassic erythema migrans. 24.2% of participants incorrectly identified a tick bite reaction in the skin as erythema migrans. Conclusions. Participants were most familiar with the classic target erythema migrans of Lyme disease but were unlikely to correctly identify the nonclassic erythema migrans. These results identify an opportunity for educational intervention to improve early recognition of Lyme disease and to increase the patient's appropriate use of medical services for early Lyme disease diagnosis. PMID:23133445

  18. [A Case of Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala lecanii-corni Showing a Seasonal Fluctuation of Skin Lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujioka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Risa; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ogura, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old Japanese female presented to our hospital in March complaining of asymptomatic skin lesions on both cheeks for the past few years. She had been receiving treatment for phlebosclerotic colitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. We identified subcutaneous nodules with scale, erosion, and necrotic crusts on the surface, with one on the right cheek and two on the left. The patient said that the eruptions almost disappeared every summer but always recurred in winter, a phenomenon that we confirmed. Histopathology revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and marked infiltration from various inflammatory cells with a granulomatous reaction in the dermis. Brown fungal elements were scattered around the epidermis and dermis in the form of single spore or toruloid hyphae. We identified the fungus as Exophiala lecanii-corni based on morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as rRNA gene analysis. The strain grew well at 27 ℃, but growth was remarkably suppressed at 33 ℃ and not observed at all at 37 ℃. Treatment with itraconazole 200 mg / day for 6 months resulted in complete remission of the lesions.

  19. Bull’s-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Aucott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lyme disease is an emerging worldwide infectious disease with major foci of endemicity in North America and regions of temperate Eurasia. The erythema migrans rash associated with early infection is found in approximately 80% of patients and can have a range of appearances including the classic target bull’s-eye lesion and nontarget appearing lesions. Methods. A survey was designed to assess the ability of the general public to distinguish various appearances of erythema migrans from non-Lyme rashes. Participants were solicited from individuals who visited an educational website about Lyme disease. Results. Of 3,104 people who accessed a rash identification survey, 72.7% of participants correctly identified the classic target erythema migrans commonly associated with Lyme disease. A mean of 20.5% of participants was able to correctly identify the four nonclassic erythema migrans. 24.2% of participants incorrectly identified a tick bite reaction in the skin as erythema migrans. Conclusions. Participants were most familiar with the classic target erythema migrans of Lyme disease but were unlikely to correctly identify the nonclassic erythema migrans. These results identify an opportunity for educational intervention to improve early recognition of Lyme disease and to increase the patient’s appropriate use of medical services for early Lyme disease diagnosis.

  20. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a Chinese laborer who worked in Saudi Arabia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208

  1. Efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in the treatment of persistent post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, A M; Khalil, E A G; Mahgoub, F A; Hamad, S; Elkadaru, A M Y; El Hassan, A M

    2005-09-01

    A dermatosis commonly known as post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) may develop following the treatment of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In about 15% of PKDL cases the disfiguring lesions persist, sometimes for many years. Such persistent lesions currently require daily injections of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) for 2-4 months and even then treatment may not be successful. Alternative, quicker and cheaper treatment options that cause less toxicity are being explored. Immuno-chemotherapeutic regimens (based on leishmaniasis candidate vaccines/BCG with SSG) are still experimental but treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) has already been found effective, albeit in a small number of patients. AmBisome is considered less nephrotoxic than non-liposomal amphotericin B because it specifically targets the macrophages in which the Leishmania parasites develop. The aim of the present study was to evaluate further the usefulness of AmBisome in the treatment of persistent PKDL, in Sudan. The 12 subjects, all of whom gave their informed consent, had each had PKDL lesions for >6 months and shown no improvement after repeated injections of SSG. During the study period, they were hospitalized and regularly screened, haematologically and biochemically, for adverse effects. The AmBisome, given intravenously at 2.5 mg/kg.day for 20 days, completely cleared the skin rash of 10 (83%) of the patients and caused no detectable adverse effects. In the 10 patients who responded well to the treatment, the papular lesions regressed and became flat while the hypopigmented lesions darkened (continuing to do so even after the last AmBisome injections). Treatment outcome appeared to be unaffected by the age or gender of the patient (P = 0.7 for each) but the time taken for the PKDL lesions to heal was correlated with the age of the lesions (P = 0.009). The macular lesions healed more slowly than the papular (P = 0.02). In conclusion, Ambisome appears suitable for the

  2. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K

    1999-01-01

    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...

  3. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those o

  4. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those

  5. Anti-leishmania antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.F. Lima

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and the dog is its most important reservoir. The clinical features in dogs include loss of weight, lymphadenopathy, renal failure, skin lesions, fever, hypergammaglobulinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and, rarely, neurological symptoms. Most infected animals develop active disease, characterized by high anti-leishmania antibody titers and depressed lymphoproliferative ability. Antibody production is not primarily important for protection but might be involved in the pathogenesis of tissue lesions. An ELISA test was used to determine if there is an association between neurological symptoms and the presence of anti-L. chagasi antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Thirty serum and CSF samples from symptomatic mixed breed dogs (three with neurological symptoms from a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil were examined for antibody using total parasite antigen and anti-dog IgG peroxidase conjugate. A high level of L. chagasi antibodies was observed in sera (mean absorbance ± SD, 1.939 ± 0.405; negative control, N = 20, 0.154 ± 0.074 and CSF (1.571 ± 0.532; negative control, N = 10, 0.0195 ± 0.040 from all animals studied. This observation suggests that L. chagasi can cause breakdown of filtration barriers and the transfer of antibodies and antigens from the blood to the CSF compartment. No correlation was observed between antibody titer in CSF and neurological symptoms.

  6. Radiation-induced skin toxicity: prevention and treatments; Lesions cutanees induites par la radiotherapie: prevention, traitements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorette, G.; Machet, L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Trousseau, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-11-01

    Acute and long term effects are frequent after radiotherapy. They may alter the general status and quality of life of the patients. Chronic radiodermatitis may result in ulceration and in transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. There is a correlation of the frequency of acute dermatitis with the total dose. Chronic radiodermatitis may develop after repeated small doses of ionizing radiation for cardiac catheterization and coronary angio-plasties. The other prognostic factors for the level of acute and late skin reactions are volume of tissue treated, total daily dose, fractionations schemes... but there are some variation in the degree of reaction in patients treated with identical radiotherapy schedules. There is a patient - to- patient variability. Several diseases as systemic sclerosis, some genetic diseases, perhaps some drugs may increase the cutaneous reactions. So both acute and chronic irradiation injury is a complex process with many regulations. Chronic fibrosis may be caused by mechanism of cell activation (and particularly fibroblasts). Cytokines e.g transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) might be involved in the induction of fibrosis. Treatment use emollients. Superoxide dismutase was used as an ointment for radio-fibrosis therapy and obtains a reduction of the fibrosis. In late phases plastic surgery or sometimes cryo-surgery can be used. (authors)

  7. Case report: Dermanyssus gallinae in a patient with pruritus and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Cihangir; Gülcan, Erim; Tanritanir, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year old woman patient who presented at the Dumlupinar University Faculty of Medicine Hospital reported intensified itching on her body during evening hours. During her physical examination, puritic dermatitis lesions were found on the patient's shoulders, neck and arms in particular, and systemic examination and laboratory tests were found to be normal. The patient's story showed that similar signs had been seen in other members of the household. They reside on the top floor of a building and pigeons are occasionally seen in the ventilation shaft. Examination of the house was made. The walls of the house, door architraves and finally beds, sheets and blankets and the windows opening to the outside were examined. During the examination, arthropoda smaller than 1 mm were detected. Following preparation of the collected samples, these were found to be Dermanyssus gallinae. Together with this presentation of this event, it is believed cutaneous reactions stemming from birds could be missed and that whether or not of pets or wild birds exist in or around the homes should be investigated.

  8. Skin lesion classification from dermoscopy images using color and shape features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid reza javadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new algorithm for dermoscopy image classification into two types of malignant and benign is presented. At first, one preprocessing step to remove noise and also enhance image quality is performed. After that using Otsu thresholding, the lesion is separated from the healthy area. Then color and shape features are extracted from the segmented image. The colored features based on statistical moments of quantized grayscale and quantized color histogram are defined. These features demonastrare distribution of color components. Moreover, the shape features are extracted information of the segmented regions with two scenarios. In the first scenario, the features are represented the expantion of region and in the second scenario, the features are represented the edge variations of the extracted regions. Finally, the classification procedure is performed using K-Neasert Neighbor (KNN, Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Adaboost. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a standard database consisting of 200 images. The results show that classification using Adaboost classifier obtains the precision rate, accuracy rate and sensitivity rate of 96%, 96.7% and 95%, respectively.

  9. Estimation of the environmental effect of natural volatile organic compounds from Chamaecyparis obtusa and their effect on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun; Ahn, Changhwan; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Mi-Jin; Lee, Sung-Suk; Choi, Don-Ha; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-07-01

    Aromatherapy has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic method for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema and other skin diseases. In the current study, the anti-atopic properties of the volatile organic compounds of Chamaecyparis obtusa (VOCCo) were examined to determine whether they are amenable for use as a pharmaceutical candidate. The alterations in histological features, serum IgE levels and mast cell infiltration following exposure to VOCCo were determined in a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mouse model. The results of these experiments demonstrated that VOCCo inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions by reducing the serum IgE level and mast cell infiltration into the dermal and subcutaneous layers. This was supported by screening of immune cytokine mRNAs, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 from the skin of DNCB-treated mice. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the skin lesions of mice was dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with VOCCo. Furthermore, treatment with VOCCo resulted in the recovery of histopathological features in AD-like skin lesions. These results suggest that VOCCo may have therapeutic and preventive effects for the development of AD.

  10. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  11. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  12. [Adult-onset Hartnup disease presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms but without skin lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, E; Yamadori, A; Tsutsumi, A; Kyotani, Y

    1989-06-01

    Hartnup disease is an inborn abnormality of renal and intestinal transport involving the neutral amino acids. Intermittent pellagra-like rash, attacks of cerebellar ataxia and psychiatric disturbance are characteristic symptoms of this disease. We described here a patient with adult-onset Hartnup disease who presented unique neuropsychiatric symptoms but no dermatologic symptoms, and reported features of amino acids transport in this patient and his family. The patient, a man aged 37 years, was referred to us because of lasting daytime bruxism. He is the second child of healthy parents who are first cousin; his elder brother who has been mentally retarded became bed-ridden and died at 32 years of age. His younger brother is completely healthy. Although the patient's development in infancy has been slightly retarded, he completed compulsory 9-year education. At 29 years of age, he experienced episodes of diplopia, ataxic gait and insomnia, and at 33 years of age, of transient stupor. There had been no history of photosensitivity or dermatitis. On neurological examination, there were trunkal ataxia, increased muscular tone and decreased mental activity besides bruxism. These symptoms remained unchanged despite of several medications including trihexyphenidyl, diazepam, halloperidol, tiapride and sulpiride. Two months later, the patient became stuporous; bruxism and hypertonicity became exaggerated. Myerson's sign, sucking reflex and grasp reflex in both hand appeared. There was no dermal lesion. A cranial computed tomography revealed a small calcification in the right frontal subcortical region and a single photon emission tomography indicated possible bifrontal hypoperfusion. Electroencephalograms demonstrated non-specific slowing. Somatosensory evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocities were normal. There were constant indicanuria and amino-aciduria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  14. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Rourke

    Full Text Available B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8% and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (P<0.001. The quantitative data also enabled relationships between Borrelia burden and patient symptoms to be evaluated. The bacterial load was significantly higher among patients with systemic symptoms than without (P = 0.02 and was significantly higher for biopsies retrieved from patients with EM lesions with central clearing (P<0.001. 16S copy numbers were moderately lower in samples from patients reporting a history of LB (P = 0.10. This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii

  15. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Maria; Traweger, Andreas; Lusa, Lara; Stupica, Dasa; Maraspin, Vera; Barrett, P Noel; Strle, Franc; Livey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB) globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM) lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive) and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8%) and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (Phistory of LB (P = 0.10). This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii-infected patients and Borrelia burden.

  16. Utilization of a 3D printer to fabricate boluses used for electron therapy of skin lesions of the eye canthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowiak, Magdalena; Jezierska, Karolina; Boehlke, Marek; Więcko, Marzena; Łukowiak, Adam; Podraza, Wojciech; Lewocki, Mirosław; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Falco, Michał

    2017-01-01

    This work describes the use of 3D printing technology to create individualized boluses for patients treated with electron beam therapy for skin lesions of the eye canthi. It aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-printed over manually fabricated paraffin boluses. The study involved 11 patients for whom the construction of individual boluses were required. CT scans of the fabricated 3D-printed boluses and paraffin boluses were acquired and superimposed onto patient CT scans to compare their fitting, bolus homogeneity, and underlying dose distribution. To quantify the level of matching, multiple metrics were utilized. Matching Level Index (ML) values ranged from 0 to 100%, where 100% indicated a perfect fit between the reference bolus (planned in treatment planning system) and 3D-printed and paraffin bolus. The average ML (± 1 SD) of the 3D-printed boluses was 95.1 ± 2.1%, compared to 46.0 ± 10.1% for the manually fabricated paraffin bolus. Correspondingly, mean doses were closer to the prescribed doses, and dose spreads were less for the dose distributions from the 3D-printed boluses, as compared to those for the manually fabricated paraffin boluses. It was concluded that 3D-printing technology is a viable method for fabricating boluses for small eye lesions and provides boluses superior to our boluses manually fabricated from paraffin sheets. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Video-mosaicking of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy images for noninvasive examination of skin lesion (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Kivanc; Gou, Mengran; Yelamos, Oriol; Cordova, Miguel A.; Rossi, Anthony; Nehal, Kishwer S.; Camps, Octavia I.; Dy, Jennifer G.; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2017-02-01

    In this report we describe a computer vision based pipeline to convert in-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) videos collected with a handheld system into large field of view (FOV) mosaics. For many applications such as imaging of hard to access lesions, intraoperative assessment of MOHS margins, or delineation of lesion margins beyond clinical borders, raster scan based mosaicing techniques have clinically significant limitations. In such cases, clinicians often capture RCM videos by freely moving a handheld microscope over the area of interest, but the resulting videos lose large-scale spatial relationships. Videomosaicking is a standard computational imaging technique to register, and stitch together consecutive frames of videos into large FOV high resolution mosaics. However, mosaicing RCM videos collected in-vivo has unique challenges: (i) tissue may deform or warp due to physical contact with the microscope objective lens, (ii) discontinuities or "jumps" between consecutive images and motion blur artifacts may occur, due to manual operation of the microscope, and (iii) optical sectioning and resolution may vary between consecutive images due to scattering and aberrations induced by changes in imaging depth and tissue morphology. We addressed these challenges by adapting or developing new algorithmic methods for videomosaicking, specifically by modeling non-rigid deformations, followed by automatically detecting discontinuities (cut locations) and, finally, applying a data-driven image stitching approach that fully preserves resolution and tissue morphologic detail without imposing arbitrary pre-defined boundaries. We will present example mosaics obtained by clinical imaging of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The ability to combine freehand mosaicing for handheld microscopes with preserved cellular resolution will have high impact application in diverse clinical settings, including low-resource healthcare systems.

  18. Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    NOTES 1S. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side linscoeawy and identiIIy by block number) LEISHMANIA LEISHMANIASIS CHEMOTHERAPY ANTILEISHMANIAL PENTOSTAM...number of compounds was supplied by WRAIR for testing on four strains of Leishmania in December 1977. Preliminary data were supplied to WRAIR by the...j_ = L. tropica major (Strain LV39 from USSR) and the New World cutaneous leishmaniasis by L. mexicana amazonensis (Strain LV78 from Brazil). The test

  19. Pathogenic CCR6+ dendritic cells in the skin lesions of discoid lupus patients: a role for damage-associated molecular patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Reguera, Aniela; Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Martínez-Estrada, Virginia; Cazarin-Barrientos, Jorge Rafael; Rojas-Espinosa, Oscar; Jurado-Santacruz, Fermín; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Bonifaz, Laura C; Bonifaz-Alfonzo, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a cutaneous autoimmune inflammatory disease in which the role of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in skin damage has not been evaluated. To evaluate the involvement of cDCs in DLE pathogenesis. Skin biopsies from 42 patients with DLE were embedded in paraffin or placed in culture. The dermis was separated and cell suspensions were characterized by flow cytometry. We found an increase in cDCs with inflammatory characteristics in the skin of DLE patients, compared with control skins. Interestingly, cDCs from the DLE patients expressed low levels of the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and showed a high expression of CCR6, which correlated with disease activity. Increased cellular death was observed in the skin of DLE patients compared with control skin and remarkably we found that damage-associated molecular patterns could be responsible for CCR6 expression on cDCs in the skin. Our results indicate the presence of pathogenic CCR6+ cDCs in the skin lesions of DLE patients, which could result from in situ phenotypic changes.

  20. Genetic associations of short- and long-term aggressiveness identified by skin lesion with growth, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desire, S; Turner, S P; D'Eath, R B; Doeschl-Wilson, A B; Lewis, C R G; Roehe, R

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships between skin lesion traits in group housed growing pigs as a measure of short- (in a newly mixed group) and long- (in a socially stable group) term aggression and commonly used commercial performance measures: growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, and carcass traits. Data on 2,413 growing pigs (138 groups) were available. Pigs were mixed into new social groups of 18 animals, and skin lesions were counted 24 h (SL24h) and 5 wk (SL5wk) postmixing. The animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters for skin lesion traits, test daily gain, lifetime daily gain, daily feed intake, feed efficiency (calculated as test daily gain divided by daily feed intake), loin depth, back fat, and HCW. Skin lesions had a heritable component, ranging from 0.08 for anterior SL24h to 0.22 for central SL5wk and would, therefore, be suitable as a method of phenotyping aggression for selection purposes. Significant positive genetic correlations were found between SL24h and SL5wk (0.46 to 0.81). Positive genetic correlations were also found between SL24h (central and posterior body regions) or SL5wk (all body regions) and the production traits lifetime daily gain, test daily gain, and HCW (0.29 to 0.54). Central SL24h, anterior SL5wk, and posterior SL5wk were found to correlate positively with feed efficiency (0.39 to 0.50), suggesting that pigs with more lesions convert feed more efficiently. Where significant, the magnitude of phenotypic correlations was low but positive (0.07 to 0.10). These results suggest that, genetically, animals that receive many lesions show improved performance compared to those with few lesions, except for anterior SL24h, which had previously been shown to be genetically positively correlated with the initiation of nonreciprocal attacks. It may, therefore, be possible, via selection against anterior skin lesions at mixing, to reduce this form of 1-sided aggression without adversely

  1. Misdiagnosis and Mistreatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

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    Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a known complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by L. donovani. It is rare in VL caused by L. infantum and L. chagasi. In Sudan, it occurs with a frequency of 58% among successfully treated VL patients. In the majority of cases, PKDL can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical appearance, distribution of the lesions, and past history of treated VL. The ideal diagnostic method is to demonstrate the parasite in smears, by culture or PCR. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in patients who develop PKDL in the absence of previous history of visceral leishmaniasis. We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as PKDL and 3 cases of PKDL who were either misdiagnosed or mistreated as other dermatoses. This caused exacerbation of their disease leading to high parasite loads in the lesions and dissemination to internal organs in one of the patients, who was also diabetic. The latter patient had L. major infection. A fourth patient with papulonodular lesions on the face and arms of 17-year duration and who was misdiagnosed as having PKDL is also described. He turned out to have cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major. Fortunately, he was not treated with steroids. He was cured with intravenous sodium stibogluconate.

  2. Feline leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alda Izabel; Barros, Evânia Marcia Silva; Ishikawa, Edna; Ilha, Iêda Maria Novaes; Marin, Glaucia Rosely Barbosa; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão

    2005-03-10

    A case of leishmaniasis in a domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is described. The animal showed a single, nodular lesion on the nose and many nodules of different size on the ears and digital regions of all the paws. Diagnosis was made by microscopic detection of amastigotes in Giemsa-stained smears from the lesions. By monoclonal antibodies the aetiological agent was identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, one of the seven species implicated in human leishmaniasis in Brazil. The clinical signs in feline leishmaniasis are unspecific and similar to those observed in other diseases such as cryptococcosis and in sporotrichosis, commonly found in cats. Leishmaniasis should therefore, be added to the differential diagnosis by feline veterinary practitioners and adequate investigations should carried out for dermal leishmaniasis in the area where the feline infection is detected.

  3. Three Leishmania/L. species--L. infantum, L. major, L. tropica--as causative agents of mucosal leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirian, Sadegh; Oryan, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Daneshbod, Yahya

    2013-07-01

    Cases of human oro-mucosal leishmaniasis are mainly reported in areas where Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis perpetuates and the damages are mainly located at the cartilaginous nasal septum and frontal portions of the nasal fossa. In Iran, an area free of any L.(V) braziliensis, three Leishmania species are known to perpetuate through distinct (i) blood-feeding sand flies and (ii) rodents or (iii) canidae. Thus while establishing the diagnosis of any human oro-mucosal lesions, three Leishmania species - L. infantum, L. major, and L. tropica - must be considered as potential etiological agents of these damages. With these objectives in mind, features such as localization, extent, severity of oro-mucosal lesions, and duration of symptoms at the time of diagnosis were recorded from 11 patients with respect to the presence or absence of cutaneous lesions in other body parts. The biopsy samples were collected from the oro-mucosal and cutaneous lesions and were processed for further identification of the Leishmania species. The lesions ranged from mucosal nodules without ulceration, nodules with erosion, and shallow to deep ulcerations. Leishmania major was isolated from six (55%) cases showing lesions or scars. The scars were restricted to upper and lower extremities. For the other five patients who did not display any signs of former or active cutaneous leishmaniasis, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum were isolated from their lesions. In conclusion L. major, L. infantum, and L. tropica, regardless of common tropism, can be seen in mucosal tissues. However, L. major was the predominant species detected from the lesions in the nasal, gingival, and hard and soft palates, and L. tropica was isolated from the gingival and lower lip lesions. Leishmania infantum was isolated from two severe cases of deep mucosal damage displayed by the epiglottis, cricoarytenoid muscle, and laryngeal mucosa. One important finding was the association of L. major with active or scarred

  4. Everolimus in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, angiomyolipomas, and pulmonary and skin lesions associated with tuberous sclerosis complex

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    Franz DN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available David Neal Franz Department of Pediatrics, Tuberous Sclerosis Clinic, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by inactivating mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. It is characterized by the development of multiple, benign tumors in several organs throughout the body. Lesions occur in the brain, kidneys, heart, liver, lungs, and skin and result in seizures and epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, and renal and pulmonary organ system dysfunction, as well as other complications. Elucidation of the molecular pathways and etiological factors responsible for causing TSC has led to a paradigm shift in the management and treatment of the disease. TSC1 or TSC2 mutations lead to constitutive upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, which affects many cellular processes involved in tumor growth. By targeting mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, an orally active rapamycin derivative, clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in tumor burden have been achieved for the main brain (subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal manifestations (angiomyolipoma associated with TSC. This review provides an overview of TSC, everolimus, and the clinical trials that led to its approval for the treatment of TSC-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal angiomyolipoma. Keywords: everolimus, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, angiomyolipomas, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, facial angiofibromas, tuberous sclerosis complex

  5. The 'common mole' from the point of view of digital dermoscopy analysis: subjective vs. objective evaluation of easy pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, M; Rubegni, P; Dell'eva, G; Santini, S; Perotti, R; Biagioli, M; Taddeucci, P; Andreassi, L

    2003-01-01

    The term 'common mole', often used to describe a subset of benign pigmented skin lesions, is traditionally defined on the basis of morpho-chromatic features. In recent years, certain research groups have developed equipment and methods, such as digital dermoscopy analysis, that enable objective evaluation of pigmented skin lesions. In this study we use a digital dermoscopy analyser trained for the recognition of pigmented skin lesions to compare the subjective definition of 'common' and the mathematical concept of 'close to the mean of measurements'. A subset (100) of digital images of flat pigmented lesions, obtained in daily practice, were classified by trained and non-expert clinicians as common moles (60) or clear-cut melanoma (40), and processed with a DB-Mips analyser. The resulting parameters, validated by a classifier, were used to evaluate Hotelling's T2 multivariate distances from the mean. 'Common' moles could not be clearly defined in terms of closeness to the means of objectively evaluated parameters. Their diagnosis indudes many other evaluations and clusters of variables. The clinical semantics of the term 'common' does not conform to any unambiguous mathematical definition.

  6. Genus-specific kinetoplast-DNA PCR and parasite culture for the diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis: applications for clinical trials under field conditions in Brazil

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    Julia Ampuero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The positivities of two methods for the diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL were estimated in 280 patients enrolled in a clinical trial. The trial was conducted in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and trial participants were patients with skin ulcers and positive leishmanin skin tests. Patients underwent aspirative skin punctures of the ulcerated lesions and lymph nodes for in vitro cultures, which were processed under field conditions at the local health centre. Skin lesion biopsies were tested at a reference laboratory using kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA-PCR to detect DNA. The median time required to obtain a positive culture from the skin samples was seven days and the contamination rate of the samples was 1.8%. The positivities of the cultures from skin lesions, kDNA-PCR and the combination of the two methods were 78.2% (95% CI: 73-82.6%, 89.3% (95% CI: 85.1-92.4% and 97.1% (95% CI: 94.5-98.5%. We conclude that parasite culture is a feasible method for the detection of Leishmania in field conditions and that the combination of culture and PCR has a potential role for the diagnosis of CL in candidates for clinical trials.

  7. Genus-specific kinetoplast-DNA PCR and parasite culture for the diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis: applications for clinical trials under field conditions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia; Rios, Alexandre Pereira; Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2009-11-01

    The positivities of two methods for the diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were estimated in 280 patients enrolled in a clinical trial. The trial was conducted in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and trial participants were patients with skin ulcers and positive leishmanin skin tests. Patients underwent aspirative skin punctures of the ulcerated lesions and lymph nodes for in vitro cultures, which were processed under field conditions at the local health centre. Skin lesion biopsies were tested at a reference laboratory using kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA)-PCR to detect DNA. The median time required to obtain a positive culture from the skin samples was seven days and the contamination rate of the samples was 1.8%. The positivities of the cultures from skin lesions, kDNA-PCR and the combination of the two methods were 78.2% (95% CI: 73-82.6%), 89.3% (95% CI: 85.1-92.4%) and 97.1% (95% CI: 94.5-98.5%). We conclude that parasite culture is a feasible method for the detection of Leishmania in field conditions and that the combination of culture and PCR has a potential role for the diagnosis of CL in candidates for clinical trials.

  8. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA expression in epidermal keratinocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus skin lesions

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    José Ronaldo M Carneiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze cytokine gene expression in keratinocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. INTRODUCTION: Keratinocytes represent 95% of epidermal cells and can secrete several cytokines. METHODS: Keratinocytes were obtained by laser microdissection from 21 patients with SLE (10 discoid and 11 acute lesions at involved and uninvolved sites. All patients were receiving a low/moderate prednisone dose and 18 were receiving chloroquine diphosphate. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and expressed as the ratio (R to a pool of skin samples from 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Heterogeneity in cytokine gene expression was found among patients with SLE. Eighteen of 38 valid SLE samples (47% presented overexpression (R>1 of at least one cytokine. Lesional skin samples tended to show higher cytokine expression than samples from uninvolved skin (p = 0.06. IL-5 and IFN-γ were the most commonly overexpressed cytokines. Samples with cytokine overexpression corresponded to more extensive and severe lesions. Prednisone dose did not differ between samples without cytokine overexpression (15.71±3.45 mg/day and those with overexpressed cytokines (12.68±5.41 mg/day (p = 0.216. Samples from all patients not receiving diphosphate chloroquine had at least one overexpressed cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous keratinocyte cytokine gene expression reflects the complex immunological and inflammatory background in SLE. Patients with severe/extensive skin lesions showed a higher frequency of cytokine gene overexpression. Increased IFN-γ and IL-5 expression suggests that Th1 and Th2 cells are involved in SLE skin inflammation. The possibility that prednisone and antimalarial drugs may have contributed to low cytokine gene expression in some samples cannot be ruled out.

  9. Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors: increased serum myeloperoxidase and corresponding immunocellular overexpression by Cd11b+ CD68+ macrophages in skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lauren Y; Soler, David C; Debanne, Sarah M; Grozdev, Ivan; Rodriguez, Myriam E; Feig, Rivka L; Carman, Teresa L; Gilkeson, Robert C; Orringer, Carl E; Kern, Elizabeth F; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Korman, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies report independent associations between psoriasis, cardiovascular (CV) events and risk factors. Blood Myeloperoxidase (MPO) from activated myeloid cells is associated with CV risk mainly through lipid oxidation, induction of endothelial dysfunction and release of IL-12 from macrophages. Objectives: To elucidate associations between psoriasis and conventional CV risk factors. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 100 psoriasis patients and 53 controls, group matched on age, gender and body mass index, to assess levels of MPO in serum, as well as immunohistochemical staining from psoriasis skin lesions, psoriasis uninvolved skin, and normal skin. Results: Although the groups did not differ on waist circumference, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine or personal history of CV events, psoriasis patients had significantly higher waist-to-hip ratios, blood pressures, proportion of current smokers, and lower high density lipoprotein level than controls. Serum MPO level was elevated 2.5 fold (Ppsoriasis patients, even after adjusting for the CV risk factors on which the groups differed. MPO did correlate with coronary artery calcification, carotid plaque, carotid intima media thickness and flow mediated dilation, but did not correlate with psoriasis severity. However, MPO was highly expressed in lesional psoriatic skin and colocalized predominantly with CD45+ CD11b+ leukocytes. CD11b+ cell density correlated with circulation MPO levels. Conclusion: Lesional skin CD11b+ leukocytes activated to generate MPO may contribute to serum levels of MPO. Lesional CD11b+ cell activity may be an alternative measure of disease burden to PASI that underlies the MPO biomarker for systemic inflammation related to Cardiovascular Disease. PMID:24349618

  10. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA expression in epidermal keratinocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ronaldo M Carneiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze cytokine gene expression in keratinocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. INTRODUCTION: Keratinocytes represent 95% of epidermal cells and can secrete several cytokines. METHODS: Keratinocytes were obtained by laser microdissection from 21 patients with SLE (10 discoid and 11 acute lesions at involved and uninvolved sites. All patients were receiving a low/moderate prednisone dose and 18 were receiving chloroquine diphosphate. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and expressed as the ratio (R to a pool of skin samples from 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Heterogeneity in cytokine gene expression was found among patients with SLE. Eighteen of 38 valid SLE samples (47% presented overexpression (R>1 of at least one cytokine. Lesional skin samples tended to show higher cytokine expression than samples from uninvolved skin (p = 0.06. IL-5 and IFN-γ were the most commonly overexpressed cytokines. Samples with cytokine overexpression corresponded to more extensive and severe lesions. Prednisone dose did not differ between samples without cytokine overexpression (15.71±3.45 mg/day and those with overexpressed cytokines (12.68±5.41 mg/day (p = 0.216. Samples from all patients not receiving diphosphate chloroquine had at least one overexpressed cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous keratinocyte cytokine gene expression reflects the complex immunological and inflammatory background in SLE. Patients with severe/extensive skin lesions showed a higher frequency of cytokine gene overexpression. Increased IFN-γ and IL-5 expression suggests that Th1 and Th2 cells are involved in SLE skin inflammation. The possibility that prednisone and antimalarial drugs may have contributed to low cytokine gene expression in some samples cannot be ruled out.

  11. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qiuling, E-mail: 924969007@qq.com [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan); Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Mu, Jinjun [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Li, Yuanfei [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  12. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  13. Efficiency of ablative fractional Er: YAG (Erbium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet laser treatment of epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions: A retrospective study

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    Erol Koç

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Er: YAG lasers are precise ablation systems used in the treatment epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions. In this study, we restrospectively analysed efficiency of Er: YAG laser therapy in the treatment of epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated our clinical records of 116 patients treated with Er: YAG laser between April 2011 and April 2013. The clinical records of 103 patients (47 men, 56 women were included in our study. Of these 103 patients included in the study were xanthelasma, solar lentigo, epidermal nevus, seborrheic keratosis, nevus of ota, syringoma, cafe au lait macules (CALM and other than these. Treatment parameters, demographic features and before and after photographs of the lesions were investigated from patients’ records in order to evaluate efficiency of Er: YAG laser therapy. Results: Of these 103 patients included in the study were evaluated in 8 groups, described as xanthelasma (n=21, syringoma (n=17, solar lentigo (n=16, epidermal nevus (n=11, seborrheic keratosis (n=9, nevus of ota (n=5, CALM (n=3 and other than these (n=21. In the Er: YAG laser treatment, the average energy flow was 3-7 J/cm2, the average pulse duration was 300 ms, the average number of passes was 3-5 repeat, and the average pulse frequency was 3-7 Hz. While 4.9% of the patients showed no improvement, 59.2% showed marked improvement, 26.2% showed moderate improvement and 9.7% showed mild improvement. Treatment responses in xanthelasma, syringoma, epidermal nevus, solar lentigo and CALM lesions were statistically significant. Observed side effects were hyperpigmentation in 4 patients, hypopigmentation in 3 patients, hypertrophic scar in 2 patients and persistent erythema in one patient and the treatment was well tolerated by all the patients. Conclusion: Er: YAG laser is an effective and safe treatment option in the treatment of benign skin lesions especially in epidermal lesions.

  14. Meta-analysis of digital dermoscopy follow-up of melanocytic skin lesions: a study on behalf of the International Dermoscopy Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerni, G; Terán, T; Puig, S; Malvehy, J; Zalaudek, I; Argenziano, G; Kittler, H

    2013-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that dermoscopic monitoring of melanocytic lesions allows for the recognition of melanoma in early stages while minimizing the excision of benign lesions. However, it is still pending to determine the real impact of digital follow-up in the clinical management of pigmented lesions. To assess the evidence of follow-up of melanocytic skin lesions with digital dermoscopy in the management of individuals at risk for melanoma by performing a meta-analysis. Medline database was screened, no limits in terms of date or language were applied. Original studies were selected when the following criteria were met: performed in clinical setting with clinical and dermoscopic evaluation made by physicians, data regarding population characteristics included, follow-up strategy used described. Fourteen of 145 retrieved references were retained. Included studies account for a total of 5787 patients (mean 445 per study) and 52,739 lesions monitored (mean per study 4057; range 272-11,396) with a mean of 12 lesions monitored per patient; a total of 4388 lesions (8.3%) were excised. The mean length of follow-up was 30 months. A mean of digital dermoscopy follow-up, the proportion of in situ melanoma and thin melanomas are higher than expected in general population. Chances to detect a melanoma during surveillance increase as the length of follow-up extends.

  15. In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Dhaenens, F.

    2016-01-01

    becomes a straight line has been implemented on HD-OCT signals coming from four successive skin layers (epidermis, upper papillary dermis, deeper papillary dermis and superficial reticular dermis). This permitted the HD-OCT in vivo measurement of skin entrance signal (SES), relative attenuation factor...... normalized for the skin entrance signal (µraf1) and half value layer (z1/2). The diagnostic accuracy of HD-OCT for melanoma detection based on the optical properties, µraf1, SES and z1/2 was high (95.6, 82.2 and 88.9 %, respectively). High negative predictive values could be found for these optical...

  16. Study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche (Yucatan Peninsula), Mexico, over a period of two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, Mirsha Pamela; Hernández-Montes, Omar; Chiñas-Pérez, Adelaido; Batiza-Avelar, Juan Miguel; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Wong-Ramírez, Carlos; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    To study cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in the Calakmul municipality of the Campeche State, during two years. Individuals with skin lesions were evaluated. Aspirates taken from the lesions were cultured, PCR was performed to diagnose the Leishmania species. The culture detected 42% of the samples. PCR diagnosed CL in 76% of the samples; of those 38% were from children and 62% from adults. 89% of the patients were infected with L. mexicana; 14.4% with Mexican strains of L. mexicana; 7% with L. braziliensis; 3.6% with L. mexicana and L. braziliensis. The most affected villages with CL were Dos Lagunas Sur with 12.3%, La Mancolona with 6.5% and La Guadalupe with 2.2% of prevalence, respectively. After the treatment with Glucantime, 96% of the patients were healed. CL is an important public health concern in Calakmul, and the parasite causing it belongs to Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania braziliensis complexes.

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by members of Leishmania braziliensis complex in Nayarit, State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sanchez-Tejeda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was carried out in the northern Mexican state, Nayarit. Fourteen patients with possible cutaneous leishmaniasis skin lesions gave positive Montenegro skin tests. Biopsies were taken from the skin ulcer and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers for the Leishmania mexicana complex; however all biopsies were not amplified. PCR carried out with specific primers for the L. braziliensis complex resulted in the amplification of all patient DNA. DNA from 12 out of 14 biopsies gave positive amplification with primers species specific for L. (Viannia braziliensis and hybridized with a species specific L. (V. braziliensis probe. These results demonstrate the presence in Nayarit of at least two members of the L. braziliensis complex. Most of the cutaneous lesions were caused by L. (V. braziliensis and two by another species belonging to the L. braziliensis complex. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of L. (V. braziliensis in Nayarit. The main risk factor associated with the contraction of this disease in Nayarit is attributed to working on coffee plantations.

  18. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by members of Leishmania braziliensis complex in Nayarit, State of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Tejeda, G; Rodríguez, N; Parra, C I; Hernandez-Montes, O; Barker, D C; Monroy-Ostria, A

    2001-01-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out in the northern Mexican state, Nayarit. Fourteen patients with possible cutaneous leishmaniasis skin lesions gave positive Montenegro skin tests. Biopsies were taken from the skin ulcer and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers for the Leishmania mexicana complex; however all biopsies were not amplified. PCR carried out with specific primers for the L. braziliensis complex resulted in the amplification of all patient DNA. DNA from 12 out of 14 biopsies gave positive amplification with primers species specific for L. (Viannia) braziliensis and hybridized with a species specific L. (V.) braziliensis probe. These results demonstrate the presence in Nayarit of at least two members of the L. braziliensis complex. Most of the cutaneous lesions were caused by L. (V.) braziliensis and two by another species belonging to the L. braziliensis complex. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of L. (V.) braziliensis in Nayarit. The main risk factor associated with the contraction of this disease in Nayarit is attributed to working on coffee plantations.

  19. The history of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2017-02-15

    In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented. Ancient documents and paleoparasitological data indicate that leishmaniasis was already widespread in antiquity. Identification of Leishmania parasites as etiological agents and sand flies as the transmission vectors of leishmaniasis started at the beginning of the 20(th) century and the discovery of new Leishmania and sand fly species continued well into the 21(st) century. Lately, the Syrian civil war and refugee crises have shown that leishmaniasis epidemics can happen any time in conflict areas and neighbouring regions where the disease was previously endemic.

  20. Design and characterization of a new high-dose-rate brachytherapy Valencia applicator for larger skin lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, C., E-mail: ccanjuan@gmail.com [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and National Dosimetry Centre (CND), Valencia 46009 (Spain); Niatsetski, Y. [Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal 3905 TH (Netherlands); Laarse, R. van der [Quality Radiation Therapy BV, Zeist 3707 HB (Netherlands); Granero, D. [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ballester, F. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J. [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and Department of Radiotherapy, Clínica Benidorm, Benidorm 03501 (Spain); Vijande, J. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and Instituto de Física Corpuscular (UV-CSIC), Burjassot 46100 (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    tool in clinical practice, making treatment of large skin lesions simpler, faster, and safer. Also the dose to surrounding healthy tissues is minimal.

  1. Design and characterization of a new high-dose-rate brachytherapy Valencia applicator for larger skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela-Juan, C; Niatsetski, Y; van der Laarse, R; Granero, D; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J; Vijande, J

    2016-04-01

    large skin lesions simpler, faster, and safer. Also the dose to surrounding healthy tissues is minimal.

  2. Automated Detection and Segmentation of Vascular Structures of Skin Lesions Seen in Dermoscopy, with an application to Basal Cell Carcinoma Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Pegah; AlJasser, Mohammed I; Lui, Harvey; Wang, Z Jane; Lee, Tim K

    2016-12-08

    Blood vessels are important biomarkers in skin lesions both diagnostically and clinically. Detection and quantification of cutaneous blood vessels provide critical information towards lesion diagnosis and assessment. In this paper, a novel framework for detection and segmentation of cutaneous vasculature from dermoscopy images is presented and the further extracted vascular features are explored for skin cancer classification. Given a dermoscopy image, we segment vascular structures of the lesion by first decomposing the image using independent component analysis into melanin and hemoglobin components. This eliminates the effect of pigmentation on the visibility of blood vessels. Using k-means clustering, the hemoglobin component is then clustered into normal, pigmented and erythema regions. Shape filters are then applied to the erythema cluster at different scales. A vessel mask is generated as a result of global thresholding. The segmentation sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 86% were achieved on a set of 500000 manually segmented pixels provided by an expert. To further demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method, based on the segmentation results, we defined and extracted vascular features towards lesion diagnosis in Basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Among a data set of 659 lesions (299 BCC and 360 non-BCC), a set of 12 vascular features are extracted from the final vessel images of the lesions and fed into a random forest classifier. When compared with a few other state-of-art methods, the proposed method achieves the best performance of 96.5% in terms of AUC in differentiating BCC from benign lesions using only the extracted vascular features.

  3. Expression and localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and nuclear factor kappaB in normal and lesional psoriatic skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Majken; Henningsen, Jeanette; Johansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    activators of PPARdelta. The expression levels of NF-kappaB p50 and p65 were not significantly altered in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin. In the basal layer of normal epidermis both p50 and p65 were sequestered in the cytoplasm, whereas p50, but not p65, localized to nuclei...... in the suprabasal layers, and this distribution was maintained in lesional psoriatic skin. In normal human keratinocytes PPAR agonists neither impaired IL-1beta-induced translocation of p65 nor IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding. We show that PPARdelta physically interacts with the N-terminal Rel homology......-mediated transactivation was partially relieved by forced expression of the coactivators p300 or CBP. We suggest that deficient NF-kappaB activation in chronic psoriatic plaques permitting unabated PPARdelta-mediated transactivation contributes to the pathologic phenotype of psoriasis....

  4. Paeonol ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice by inhibiting the maturation and activation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yujiao; Wang, Mingxing; Xie, Xiangjiang; Di, Tingting; Zhao, Jingxia; Lin, Yan; Xu, Xiaolong; Li, Ningfei; Zhai, Yating; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Paeonol, an active component derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Moutan, possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anti-allergic properties. Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory dermatosis accompanied by excessive activation of Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) in dendritic cells (DCs), which are primarily responsible for initiating an immune response. We investigated the effect of paeonol on inflammation in an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated by R848. Mice were intragastrically administered 100 mg/kg (high), 50 mg/kg (medium) and 25 mg/kg (low) paeonol, respectively. We evaluated inflammation of psori-asis‑like lesions based on histological changes, protein levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TLR8 in skin lesions by western blotting, and levels of CD11c+ DCs in skin by immunoassay and in spleens by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-23, IL-12 and IL-1β] in skin lesions and BMDCs were also assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Application of paeonol decreased IMQ-induced keratinocyte proliferation, and infiltration of CD3+ cells, while the treatment ameliorated CD11c+ cells in the spleen and skin, and reduced MyD88 and TLR8 proteins in skin lesions. Paeonol inhibited IMQ-induced mRNA expression of IL-23, but not IL-12 and IL-1β in BMDCs, along with significantly lower levels of DCs expressing MHCⅡ, CD80 and CD86 in vitro. These results indicate that paeonol suppresses the maturation and activation of DCs by decreasing MyD88 and TLR8 proteins in the TLR7/8 signaling pathway which finally alleviates psoriasis‑like skin lesions. The TLR7/8 signaling pathway in DCs provides an important insight into the mechanism of psoriasis, and paeonol may be a potent therapeutic drug for psoriasis.

  5. Sporotrichosis in Iran: A mini review of reported cases in patients suspected to cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram mahmoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous fungal infection with global distribution. It is a rare fungal infection with nine reported cases in Iran, including eight humans and one animal, within the past 30 years. Among the human cases, seven were of the fixed cutaneous type of sporotrichosis and one had sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous. The reported patients were within the age range of 23-60 years, and six of them were female. The most frequent sites of infection were forearms and hands, as well as the face and legs. In addition, the majority of the cases had previously been suspected of leishmaniasis and received treatment. Sporotrichosis is not a well-known condition in Iran and is often misdiagnosed and erroneously treated for other cutaneous parasitic or bacterial infections with similar clinical manifestations. Therefore, sporotrichosis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of nodular-ulcerative skin lesions.

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  7. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L.; Faraj, Joycelyn M.; Ronnenberg, Alayne G.; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudar; Mostofa, Golam; Afroz, Sakila; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association betwee...

  8. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L; Faraj, Joycelyn M.; Ronnenberg, Alayne G; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudar; Mostofa, Golam; Afroz, Sakila; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association betw...

  9. Assessment of illness-related indicators in peripheral blood and skin lesion tissue of patients with vitiligo after NB-UVB, triamcinolone acetonide and vitiligo granules triple treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Liang Wang; Yan Chen; Feng-Bin Liu; Yuan-Zuo Huang; Ju-Zhen Lin; Guan-Biao Lyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the changes of illness-related indicators in peripheral blood and skin lesion tissue of patients with vitiligo after NB-UVB, triamcinolone acetonide and vitiligo granules triple treatment.Methods: Patients with vitiligo were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, observation group received NB-UVB, triamcinolone acetonide and vitiligo granules triple treatment, control group received combined therapy of NB-UVB and triamcinolone acetonide, and then the contents of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in peripheral blood as well as the expression of illness-related molecules in skin lesion tissue were detected.Results:After treatment, the percentage of CD3+ CD28+, CD3+CD4+CD28+, CD3+CD8+CD28+ and Th17cells as well as the contents of IL-17 and IL-6 in peripheral blood of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, and the percentage of CD3+ CTLA4+, CD3+CD4+ CTLA4+, CD3+CD8+ CTLA4+ and Treg cells as well as the contents of IL-10 and TGF-β were significantly higher than those of control group; the expression levels of Nrf-2, SCF, c-kit and InnVit in skin lesion tissue of observation group were higher than those of control group, and CLEC2B expression level was lower than that of control group.Conclusion:NB-UVB, triamcinolone acetonide and vitiligo granules triple treatment can more effectively regulate immune function and expression of illness-related molecules in skin lesion tissue of patients with vitiligo.

  10. Application of concentrated deep sea water inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bak Jong-Phil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral water from deep-sea bedrock, formed over thousands of years, is rich in minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and others. Our present study was to investigate the preventive effects of natural deep-sea water on developing atopic dermatitis (AD. Methods We elicited AD by application of DNCB (2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene in Nc/Nga mouse dorsal skin. Deep Sea water (DSW was filtered and concentrated by a nanofiltration process and reverse osmosis. We applied concentrated DSW (CDSW to lesions five times per week for six weeks, followed by evaluation. 1% pimecrolimus ointment was used as positive control. The severity of skin lesions was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ spleen lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Results DNCB-treated mice showed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Treatment of mice with CDSW reduced the severity of symptoms in the skin lesions, including edema, erythema, dryness, itching, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Histological analyses demonstrated that epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells were decreased after CDSW treatment. Given these interesting observations, we further evaluated the effect of CDSW on immune responses in this AD model. Treatment AD mice with CDSW inhibited up-regulation of IgE, histamine, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. Also, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocyte was down-regulated after treatment with CDSW. Finally, cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-10 which are important for Th2 cell development, were reduced. Conclusions Our data suggests that topical application of CDSW could be useful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis.

  11. Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) alleviates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by regulation of PKC and IL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, A-Ram; Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Park, In-Sik; Park, Sun-Young; Jeong, Seung-Il; Cheon, Jin-Hong; Kim, Kibong

    2016-10-24

    Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) is produced from fermented soybeans, which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated whether Douchi attenuates protein kinase C (PKC) and interleukin (IL)-4 response and cutaneous inflammation in Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like NC/Nga mice. To induce AD-like skin lesions, D. farinae antigen was applied to the dorsal skin of 3-week-old NC/Nga mice. After inducing AD, Douchi extract was administered 20 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks to the Douchi-treated mice group. We identified the changes of skin barrier and Th2 differentiation through PKC and IL-4 by immunohistochemistry. Douchi treatment of NC/Nga mice significantly reduced clinical scores (p < 0.01) and histological features. The levels of PKC and IL-4 were significantly reduced in the Douchi-treated group (p < 0.01). The reduction of IL-4 and PKC led to decrease of inflammatory factors such as substance P, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) (all p < 0.01). Douchi also down-regulated Th1 markers (IL-12, TNF-α) as well as Th2 markers (IL-4, p-IκB) (p < 0.01). Douchi alleviates AD-like skin lesions through suppressing of PKC and IL-4. These results also lead to diminish levels of substance P, iNOS and MMP-9 in skin lesions. Therefore, Douchi may have potential applications for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  12. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, Molly L; Faraj, Joycelyn M; Ronnenberg, Alayne G; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudar; Mostofa, Golam; Afroz, Sakila; Christiani, David C

    2016-02-16

    In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association between anemia and arsenic-induced skin lesions. We observed that the odds of arsenic-related skin lesions were approximately three times higher among women who were anemic (hemoglobin arsenic levels in drinking water and other covariates. Furthermore, 75% of the women with anemia had adequate iron stores (serum ferritin ≥ 12 μg/L), suggesting that the majority of anemia detected in this population was unrelated to iron depletion. Considering the magnitude of arsenic exposure and prevalence of anemia in Bangladeshi women, additional research is warranted that identifies the causes of anemia so that effective interventions can be implemented while arsenic remediation efforts continue.

  13. Assessment of β-lapachone loaded in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles for the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in L. major infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Esther; Schwartz, Juana; Larrea, Esther; Conde, Iosune; Font, Maria; Sanmartín, Carmen; Irache, Juan Manuel; Espuelas, Socorro

    2015-11-01

    Patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis need a topical treatment which cures lesions without leaving scars. Lesions are produced not only by the parasite but also by an uncontrolled and persistent inflammatory immune response. In this study, we proposed the loading of β-lapachone (β-LP) in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (NP) for targeting the drug to the dermis, where infected macrophages reside, and promote wound healing. Although the loading of β-LP in NP did not influence the drug antileishmanial activity it was critical to achieve important drug accumulation in the dermis and permeation through the skin. When topically applied in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice, β-LP NP achieved no parasite reduction but they stopped the lesion progression. Immuno-histopathological assays in CL lesions and quantitative mRNA studies in draining lymph nodes confirmed that β-LP exhibited anti-inflammatory activity leading to the down-regulation of IL-1β and COX-2 expression and a decrease of neutrophils infiltrate. Cutaneous leishmaniasis often leaves patients with unsightly scars due to the body's inflammatory response to the infection. The authors in this paper described topical treatment using β-lapachone (β- LP) loaded in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (NP) in an animal model. Results confirmed the reduction of inflammatory response without affecting the parasite killing efficacy. These findings would pave way for further clinical testing in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribución de las lesiones de la piel en la región de cabeza y cuello Distribution of skin lesions on the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Simão

    Full Text Available El cáncer de piel (incluyendo el melanoma y los tipos de cáncer de piel de células basales y de células escamosas es por mucho, el tipo de cáncer más común de todos los cánceres. La mayoría de éstos son cánceres de células basales. Los cánceres de células escamosas ocurren con menos frecuencia. Noventa y seis por ciento de las resecciones de lesiones cutáneas, en la clínica de cirugía plástica del Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de Sao Paulo, están representadas por lesiones en las regiones de la cara, cabeza y cuello. El conocimiento del perfil epidemiológico del servicio, nos ayuda a establecer medidas de prevención y tratamiento de neoplasias cutáneas.Skin cancer (including melanoma and basal cell and squamous cell cancers is by far the most common type of cancer of all cancers. Most of these are basal cell cancers. Squamous cell cancers occur less frequently. Ninety-six percent of resections of skin lesions in the plastic surgery clinic of the Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de Sao Paulo, are represented by lesions in the regions of the face, head and neck. The knowledge of the epidemiological profile of service, helps us to establish prevention and treatment of skin malignancies.

  15. MMP8 Is Increased in Lesions and Blood of Acne Inversa Patients: A Potential Link to Skin Destruction and Metabolic Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Tsaousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne inversa (AI; also designated as hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disease with still unknown pathogenesis that affects the intertriginous skin of perianal, inguinal, and axillary sites. It leads to painful nodules, abscesses, and fistulas with malodorous secretion and is frequently associated with metabolic alterations. Here, we demonstrate that one of the most highly upregulated molecules in AI lesions is matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8, an enzyme specialized in the degradation of extracellular matrix components and the HDL component apolipoprotein A-I. Granulocytes, which were present in AI lesions, secreted high amounts of MMP8 especially after TNF-α stimulation. Furthermore, activated fibroblasts but not keratinocytes were found to express MMP8. The high lesional MMP8 levels were accompanied by elevated blood levels that positively correlated with TNF-α blood levels and disease severity assessed by Sartorius score, especially with the number of regions with inflammatory nodules/abscesses and fistulas. Additionally, we found a negative correlation between blood MMP8 and HDL-cholesterol levels, suggesting a contributory role of MMP8 in metabolic alterations in AI. In summary, we demonstrate elevated MMP8 levels in AI lesions, suggest their role in skin destruction and metabolic alterations, and recommend the use of MMP8 as blood biomarker for AI disease activity assessment.

  16. Molecular and histological tools to diagnose an imported case of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Ana M; De Armas, Yaxsier; Fraga, Jorge; Blanco, Orestes; Menéndez, Reinaldo; Montoto, Vicente; Capó de Paz, Virginia

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis represents a polymorphous group of diseases caused by around 20 different species of Leishmania parasite. Increases in the number of cases of leishmaniasis reported as a consequence of the growth in travel and migration are of concern to epidemiologists and are diagnostically challenging in non-endemic areas. Molecular and histological analyses of a paraffin-embedded skin biopsy were used in parallel to detect Leishmania parasites in a Cuban woman with suspicious lesions arriving in Cuba from Venezuela. Primers based on the 18S fragment of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and heat shock protein 70 genes (hsp70) were used for molecular detection. Histological studies detected the presence of the parasite. A small fragment of Leishmania DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S fragment using, for the first time, nucleic acid obtained from paraffin-embedded tissue as a template. Amplification of a larger fragment from the hsp70 gene did not occur. The detection of Leishmania DNA from paraffin-embedded tissue by means of 18S-targeted PCR is a feasible approach to diagnosis. In combination with classical methods such as histology, the molecular detection of the parasite was demonstrated to be useful in confirming Leishmania infection in a traveler. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran:Results from an epidemiological study in urban and rural provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Norouzinezhad; Fatemeh Ghaffari; Abbas Norouzinejad; Farzad Kaveh; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of cutaneous leish-maniasis (CL) in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Iran between 2011 and 2013. Sampling, pre-paring, developing, and fixing of suspicious skin lesions were completed in healthcare centers in 31 Iranian provinces as well as in the Academic Reference Laboratory and the National Reference Laboratory. The information was then analyzed at the Ministry of Health's Information Management Center of Contagious Diseases. Results: Over a three-year period, the number of people identified with CL was 56 546. The highest incidence was reported in 2011 (27.5 per 100 000). Wet CL accounted for 43.7% of cases while 43.3% resulted from sporotrichoid leishmaniasis. The results showed that there was a higher incidence of CL due to Leishmania major (50.2%) than to Leishmania tropica. The results of this study found that the highest incidence of CL had happened respectively in Ilam, Fars and, Khorasan Razavi Provinces between 2011 and 2013. Conclusions: Although the incidence of the disease is declining, CL is still a public health concern and disease control protocols need to be established. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the vectors, reservoirs, and disease species as well as to develop appropriate disease control strategies.

  18. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran: Results from an epidemiological study in urban and rural provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Norouzinezhad; Fatemeh Ghaffari; Abbas Norouzinejad; Farzad Kaveh; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) in Iran.Methods: This study was conducted in Iran between 2011 and 2013. Sampling, preparing, developing, and fixing of suspicious skin lesions were completed in healthcare centers in 31 Iranian provinces as well as in the Academic Reference Laboratory and the National Reference Laboratory. The information was then analyzed at the Ministry of Health’s Information Management Center of Contagious Diseases.Results: Over a three-year period, the number of people identified with CL was 56 546.The highest incidence was reported in 2011(27.5 per 100 000). Wet CL accounted for 43.7% of cases while 43.3% resulted from sporotrichoid leishmaniasis. The results showed that there was a higher incidence of CL due to Leishmania major(50.2%) than to Leishmania tropica. The results of this study found that the highest incidence of CL had happened respectively in Ilam, Fars and, Khorasan Razavi Provinces between 2011 and 2013.Conclusions: Although the incidence of the disease is declining, CL is still a public health concern and disease control protocols need to be established. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the vectors, reservoirs, and disease species as well as to develop appropriate disease control strategies.

  19. Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mayrink

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac as well as to phenol (PhVac. The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05. The proliferative response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells shows that the stimulation index of mice immunized with both candidate vaccines was higher than the one in control animals (p < 0.05. The ability of the candidate vaccines to induce protection in C57BL/10 mice against a challenge with infective Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was tested and the mice immunized with PhVac developed smaller lesions than the mice immunized with MtVac. Electrophoresis of phenol-preserved antigen revealed a number of proteins, which were better preserved in PhVac. These results do in fact encourage the use of phenol for preserving the immunogenic and biochemical properties of the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  20. Active surveillance of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in endemic areas in rural Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Luna Tedesqui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL, is endemic in Bolivia. We describe the results of active surveillance of ATL from 2001 to 2006 and assess demographic data related to ATL epidemiology in the Yungas valleys. METHODS: Community-based active ATL surveillance was performed by the institutions SERVIR, CÁRITAS, and the Health Services Department of La Paz, whose files were reviewed retrospectively. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess demographic data in two communities. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred nine cases of ATL were detected from 2001 to 2006: 2,488 (85.5% corresponded to LCL and 421 (14.5% to MCL. A reduction in the proportion of mucosal cases was observed between 2001 and 2006. The proportion of MCL cases increased with age and was higher among males (15.5% versus 12.1%, p=0.018. The rate of positivity via direct observation of the parasite in dermal scrapings and in parasite cultivation was significantly higher for LCL than for MCL (p<0.001 and p=0.009, respectively. The rate of reactivity in the leishmanin skin test was higher in the group with mucosal lesions (p=0.012. The cross-sectional survey showed that 40% of the families had emigrated from the Altiplano. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to undertake continuous case detection of ATL in the area, where the disease presents a high rate of mucosal cases. Increasing incidence seems to be associated with immigration and continuous deforestation to expand the crop-growing areas.

  1. Burden of skin lesions of arsenicosis at higher exposure through groundwater of taluka Gambat district Khairpur, Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Abbasi, Imran Naeem; Ahmed, Mubashir; Kazi, Ambreen; Kayama, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    Prior surveys conducted have found higher proportion of arsenic-contaminated wells in villages along river Indus in Pakistan. This study aims to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions among population exposed to higher exposure in taluka Gambat district Khairpur in Sindh. The cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2008 to January 2009 among 610 households. A total of 707 water sources (hand pumps/wells) were tested from the villages of union councils of Agra and Jado Wahan for arsenic levels with Quick rapid arsenic field test kits. A total of 110 households exposed to arsenic levels >50 ppb were identified. Case screening for arsenic skin lesions was performed for 610 individuals residing in these 110 high-risk households. Information regarding household and socio-demographic characteristics, height and weight measurements and arsenic exposure assessment were collected. Physical examinations by trained physicians were carried out to diagnose the arsenic skin lesions. After data cleaning, 534 individuals from all age groups were included in the final analysis which had complete exposure and outcome information. Overall prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions was 13.5 % (72 cases). Of the 534 individuals, 490 (91.8 %) were exposed to arsenic levels of ≥100 ppb in drinking water (8.2 % to >50-99 ppb, 58.6 % to 100-299 ppb, 14.6 % to 300-399 ppb and 18 % to ≥400 ppb). Prevalence rate (per 100 population) of arsenicosis was highest at arsenic levels of 100-199 ppb (15.2 cases) followed by ≥400 ppb (13.5 cases) and 300-399 (12.8 cases). Prevalence rate was higher among females (15.2) compared to males (11.3). Our study reports arsenicosis burden due to exposure to higher arsenic levels in drinking water in Pakistan. Exposure to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water calls for urgent action along river Indus. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with increasing arsenic levels in drinking groundwater. Provision of arsenic-free drinking

  2. Spitz Nevus on the Earlobe Mimicking Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    İbrahim Özmen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spitz nevus is a benign, usually acquired melanocytic tumor which is seen especially in children and adolescents. It usually appears as a pink or light-brown, smooth-surfaced, well-circumscribed and asymptomatic papulonodular lesion. A large group of dermatologic disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Herein we present a case of Spitz nevus with a two month history of a nodular lesion on the earlobe which mimicks cutaneous leishmaniasis clinically.

  3. Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis following Treatment with 20 mg/kg Liposomal Amphotericin B (Ambisome) for Primary Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sakib Burza; Prabhat Kumar Sinha; Raman Mahajan; Marta González Sanz; María Angeles Lima; Gaurab Mitra; Neena Verma; Pradeep Das

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The skin disorder Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs in up to 10% of patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. The pathogenesis of PKDL is not yet fully understood. Cases have been reported in India following therapy with most available treatments, but rarely in those treated with liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome). Between July 2007 and August 2012 with the support of the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute (RMRI), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) ...

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'.

  5. Atypical Presentation of PKDL due to Leishmania infantum in an HIV-Infected Patient with Relapsing Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    Benedetto Maurizio Celesia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of an Italian patient with HIV infection who developed an atypical rash resembling post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL when receiving liposomal Amphotericin B (L-AMB for secondary prophylaxis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. At the time of PKDL appearance, the patient was virologically suppressed but had failed to restore an adequate CD4+ T-cell count. Histology of skin lesions revealed the presence of a granulomatous infiltrate, with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages, most of which contained Leishmania amastigotes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction was positive for Leishmania infantum. Paradoxically, cutaneous lesions markedly improved when a new relapse of VL occurred. The patient received meglumine antimoniate, with a rapid clinical response and complete disappearance of cutaneous rash. Unfortunately, the patient had several relapses of VL over the following years, though the interval between them has become wider after restarting maintenance therapy with L-AMB 4 mg/kg/day once a month. Even if rare, PKDL due to Leishmania infantum may occur in Western countries and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for physicians. The therapeutic management of both PKDL and VL in HIV infection is challenging, because relapses are frequent and evidence is often limited to small case series and case reports.

  6. Skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions:clinical analysis of 632 cases%632例皮肤恶性肿瘤及癌前病变临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄远深; 李航; 涂平; 陈喜雪; 杨淑霞; 武玲慎; 赵俊郁; 李雪迎

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨皮肤恶性肿瘤的临床特点.方法 回顾2005-2008年病理诊断皮肤恶性肿瘤及癌前病变的病例资料,重新阅片确认肿瘤诊断和病理亚型分型后,利用统计软件进行分析.结果 基底细胞癌及原位和侵袭性鳞状细胞癌最多见,分别占总病例数的29.3%及24.2%.在所研究病例中,>60岁发病者占55.4%,35~59岁发病比例达到34.3%,青少年患者比例为10.3%.Paget病临床诊断与病理诊断的符合率接近90.0%,但其他常见皮肤恶性肿瘤及癌前病变临床与病理的符合率仅在70.0%左右.结论 在皮肤恶性肿瘤及癌前病变中,头面部皮肤肿瘤及癌前病变病例明显多于其他部位.中青年患者不仅在皮肤淋巴瘤相关肿瘤病例中多见,而且在上皮来源的皮肤恶性肿瘤及黑素瘤病例中占有显著比例.%Objective To investigate the clinical features of skin cancer.Methods Clinical data of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions confirmed pathologically from 2005 to 2008 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively analyzed by using statistical methods.Results A total of 632 cases of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions were studied.The most common skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (invasive and in situ) which accounted for 29.3%and 24.2%,respectively.The average age at onset was older than 60 years in 55.4%of the patients,between 35 and 59 years in 34.3%,younger than 35 years in 10.3%.The concordance between clinical and pathological diagnosis reached nearly 90.O%for Paget's disease,70.0% for other common skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions.Conclusions Skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions have a predilection for scalp and face.Patients aged from 35 to 59 years account for a significant proportion not only in cutaneous lymphoma but also in melanoma and epithelium-derived nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  7. Clinical Manifestations and Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan

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    Abaseen Khan Afghan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL.

  8. Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

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    Singh S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate Leishmania. There are more than 21 species causing human infection. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bites of female sandflies belonging to 30 species. The disease manifests mainly in 3 forms: the visceral, the cutaneous and the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral form is conventionally made by the demonstration of amastigotes of the parasite in the aspirated fluid from the bone marrow, the spleen, and rarely from the lymph nodes, or the liver. The parasite demonstration and isolation rates are rather poor from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions due to low parasite load and high rate of culture contamination. Recently several recombinant proteins have been developed to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Recombinant kinesin protein of 39 kDa called rK 39 is the most promising of these molecules. The antigen used in various test formats has been proved highly sensitive and specific for visceral leishmaniasis. It is useful in the diagnosis of HIV-Leishmania co-infection and as a prognostic marker. Molecular techniques targeting various genes of the parasite have also been reported, the PCR being the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and for differentiation of species.

  9. L. (L. chagasi in aids and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar co-infection L. (L. chagasi em lesões cutâneas na co-infecção aids-calazar

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    Ana Maria Roselino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant skin lesions in visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar are rare, being more common the description of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis occurring post treatment of kala-azar. Skin lesions caused by Leishmania donovani are frequently seen in the aids-VL co-infection. In Brazil cutaneous or mucosal forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis concomitant with aids are more commonly registered. Here we present a case of aids-VL co-infection, with unusual cutaneous and digestive compromising attributed to L. (L. chagasi, with special attention to ecthymatous aspect of the lesion, allied to the absence of parasite on the histological skin biopsy.Lesões cutâneas, na vigência da leishmaniose visceral (LV ou calazar, são raramente observadas, sendo mais comum a ocorrência após o tratamento do calazar, conhecidas como lesões dérmicas pós calazar. Lesões cutâneas causadas por Leishmania donovani são freqüentemente observadas na co-infecção AIDS-LV. No Brasil, a concomitância das formas cutânea ou mucosa da leishmaniose tegumentar com a AIDS é mais comumente relatada. A seguir, relata-se um caso de co-infecção AIDS-LV com inusitado comprometimento digestivo e cutâneo, atribuído a L. (L. chagasi, chamando a atenção para o aspecto ectimatóide da lesão cutânea, aliado à ausência do parasito ao exame histopatológico da pele.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Propionibacterium acnes Strains Isolated from Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis Lesions of Human Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rolf; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scholz, Christian F. P.;

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that is prevalent on human skin. It has been associated with skin disorders such as acne vulgaris and progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH). Here, we report draft genome sequences of two type III P. acnes strains, PMH5 and PMH7, isolated from...

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Propionibacterium acnes Strains Isolated from Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis Lesions of Human Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rolf; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scholz, Christian F. P.

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that is prevalent on human skin. It has been associated with skin disorders such as acne vulgaris and progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH). Here, we report draft genome sequences of two type III P. acnes strains, PMH5 and PMH7, isolated from...

  12. Examination of skin lesions for cancer : Which clinical decision aids and tools are available in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, Cecile J. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Van der Meer, Klaas; Van der Heide, Wouter K.

    2014-01-01

    Background While skin cancer incidence is rising throughout Europe, general practitioners (GP) feel unsure about their ability to diagnose skin malignancies. Objectives To evaluate whether the GP has sufficient validated clinical decision aids and tools for the examination of potentially malignant

  13. Expression of annexin A1 in Leishmania-infected skin and its correlation with histopathological features

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    Helen Aguiar Lemes da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was quantify annexin A1 expression in macrophages and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 + and cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8+ T cells from the skin of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n=55 and correlate with histopathological aspects.METHODS:Infecting species were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and expression of annexin A1 was analyzed by immunofluorescence.RESULTS:All patients (n = 55 were infected with Leishmania braziliensis . Annexin A1 was expressed more abundantly in CD163 + macrophages in infected skin (p < 0.0001 than in uninfected skin. In addition, macrophages in necrotic exudative reaction lesions expressed annexin A1 at higher levels than those observed in granulomatous (p < 0.01 and cellular lesions p < 0.05. This difference might be due to the need to clear both parasites and necrotic tissue from necrotic lesions. CD4 + cells in cellular lesions expressed annexin A1 more abundantly than did those in necrotic (p < 0.05 and granulomatous lesions (p < 0.01. Expression in CD8 + T cells followed the same trend. These differences might be due to the pervasiveness of lymphohistiocytic and plasmacytic infiltrate in cellular lesions.CONCLUSIONS:Annexin A1 is differentially expressed in CD163 + macrophages and T cells depending on the histopathological features of Leishmania -infected skin, which might affect cell activation.

  14. CD1a, HAM56, CD68 and S-100 are present in lesional skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune blistering diseases

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research on autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABD has primarily focused on the humoral immune response; moreover, little attention has been given to the potential role of the antigen presenting cells (APCs in lesional skin. Aim: The purpose of our study was to immunophenotype selected APC in the lesional skin of ABDs, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC stains. Materials and Methods: We utilized IHC to stain for dendritic cells (DC, staining with CD1a, CD68, HAM56, and S-100 in lesional skin from 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABD, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 2 with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA. Results: Cells stained by CD68, HAM56 and S-100 were present in the majority of the ABD skin biopsies; these cells were located primarily in perivascular infiltrates surrounding dermal vessels subjacent to the blisters. However, these cells were also noted within the blisters, in vessels supplying dermal eccrine glands and ducts, and in areas of dermal endothelial-mesenchymal cell junction-like structures, especially in BP cases. In our CD1a staining, the number and location of positive staining cells varied with each disease, being abundant in most ABD in the epidermis suprajacent to the blisters, or in the epidermis surrounding the blister site if the blister site epidermis was missing. In the control biopsies, most did not display positive IHC staining, with the exception of a few CD1a positive cells in the epidermis Conclusion: Our findings confirm positive IHC staining for APCs in areas of the skin besides the disease blisters. Our findings suggest that the antigen presentation in ABD proceeds in areas distant from the blister site

  15. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of feline leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Luiz da Silveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis are severe and unfortunately common parasitic diseases in Brazil. Among domestic animals, dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of the protozoan parasites, however, there is evidence that infected cats can also contribute towards the disease pool. The number of cats diagnosed with leishmaniasis has greatly increased in the last few years, highlighting the importance of thorough investigations on the role of the cat in the epidemiological cycle of the disease and in public health related issues. The main clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis suffered by cats, even when infected with Leishmania chagasi, a viscerotropic species, are skin abnormalities, which can be confounded with multiple other diseases. Indirect ELISA should be used as a screening test in epidemiological investigations for being a sensitive technique, followed by more specific laboratory tests. The standardization and validation of rapid, economical and reproducible diagnostic methods, to be employed in epidemiological surveillance, are still required

  16. [A case of feline leishmaniasis in the south of France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocholle, E; Reyes-Gomez, E; Giacomo, A; Delaunay, P; Hasseine, L; Marty, P

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of disseminated feline leishmaniasis in a FIV-seropositive 14-year-old male cat (Felis catus) living in the Alpes-Maritimes (south of France). The cat presented with erythematous ulcerated papules on the head and withers, and with an ulcerated proliferative lesion on the left pinnae. The condition was diagnosed, along with a squamous cell carcinoma of the pinnae, after histopathological examination of the cutaneous lesions. Total remission of the cutaneous lesions was obtained after oral administration of 100 mg of allopurinol once a day for four months. Necropsic samples revealed that the parasite was still present in the organism after six months of treatment. This case discusses of the cat sensibility to the leishmaniasis pathology and of his potential ability of being a reservoir host.

  17. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: presentation and problems of patient management

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    Jeffrey D. Chulay

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were infected in Panama (55, Brazil (4 or Colombia (I. Among 35 patients with a 3 week exposure in Panama, the mean maximum incubation period was 33 days (range 4-81 days. Diagnosis was delayed an average of 93 days after onset of skin lesions, due to the patient's delay in seeking medical attention (31 days, medical personnel's delay in considering the diagnosis (45 days, and the laboratory's delay in confirming the diagnosis (17 days. Forty-four patients (73% developed ulcers typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sixteen additional patients (27% had atypical macular, papular, squamous, verrucous or acneiform skin lesions that were diagnosed only because leishmanial cultures were obtained. Of the 59 patients treated with pentavalent antimonial drugs, only 34 (58% were cured after the first course of treatment. Lesions which were at least 2 cm in diameter, ulcerated, or caused by Leishmania braziliensis were less likely to be cured after a single course of treatment than were lesions smaller than 2 cm, nonulcerated or caused by Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania donovani.Relatamos nossa experiência em 60 pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana diagnosticada e tratada entre 1977 e 1982. Cinqüenta e cinco pacientes foram infectados no Panamá, 4 no Brasil, e 1 na Colômbia. Entre 35 pacientes com uma exposição de 3 semanas no Panam