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Sample records for leishmaniasis endemic rural

  1. Active surveillance of canine visceral leishmaniasis and american trypanossomiasis in rural dogs from non endemic area.

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    Tome, Rozeani Olimpio; Gaio, Fernanda Conceição; Generoso, Diego; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Langoni, Helio

    2011-01-01

    The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and american trypanosomiasis are important zoonoses in public health and dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite for humans. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of circulating antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania sp. in sera of dogs from the rural area of Botucatu, SP, Brazil. During the annual vaccination campaign against canine rabies in rural area, 689 blood samples were taken and processed by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The serological tests revealed the absence of antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., but anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 3 (0.4%) dogs.

  2. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

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    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  3. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil.

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    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-05-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  4. Comparison between active surveillance and passive detection of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic rural areas in Central Tunisia, 2009 to 2014

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    Hedia Bellali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the contribution of active surveillance of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL in rural areas in Sidi Bouzid from 2009 to 2014 in comparison with the passive case detection, and describe the pattern of the disease. Methods: The monitoring was based on the notification of all new cases in primary health care facilities, among pupils in all schools and a community-based active ZCL surveillance was also performed. The medical staff of health care facilities reviewed and confirmed cases notified in schools. Results: From July 2009 to June 2014, a total of 856 (51.1% male, 48.9% female cases were enrolled; the average incidence rate of the disease was 2 514.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. The median age was 11 years (inter quartile range: 7-28 and 68.9% were aged less than 20 years. Most ZCL lesions arose between August and January and 46.1% of cases were reported between July 2013 and June 2014. Active surveillance reported more cases mainly in the delegation of West Sidi Bouzid and most cases (66.7% were reported by the health care centers. Conclusions: The present study showed ZCL was still endemic in rural areas in Sidi Bouzid Governorate. Active surveillance's cost-effectiveness is not certain thus, it would be rational to improve routine passive detection of ZCL in Sidi Bouzid than to continue active research of cases.

  5. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

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    Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%, which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25% and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

  6. Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province

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    F Ahmadipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

  7. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India.

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    Singh, Rudra Pratap; Picado, Albert; Alam, Shahnawaz; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Shri Prakash; Ostyn, Bart; Chappuis, François; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a late cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in 16 VL-endemic communities in Bihar, India. The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Antibodies against sand flies saliva in domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis

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    Košťálová, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to test sera of domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in north and northwest Ethiopia for antibodies against presumed vector P. orientalis salivary glands and to clarify behavior of the sand fly and the role of domestic animals in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. Specific IgG antibodies against P. orientalis saliva were tested in dogs, cattle, goats, sheep and donkeys. Above the cut-off value there was 76 % analyzed dogs, 15 % cat...

  9. Leishmaniasis and textbook: how are endemic diseases addressed in public education?

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    Débora Batista Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis, considered a public health problem in Brazil, because of their magnitude, geographic expansion and lethality. The disease is the etiologic agent trypanosamatid Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis, an insect of the order Diptera that has hematophagous habits. Typically considered rural, the disease emerged in the urban scene in Teresina, Piauí state, in the 80´s, reaching the other urban producing several epidemiological outbreaks. Control of the disease, based on the slaughter of seropositive dogs, chemical vector control and treatment of human patients as strategies recommended by the Ministry of Health, do not have satisfactory results, it is imperative to integrate these strategies to the actions of health education. Considering the role of the school in the dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of health education actions and, above all, the importance of the textbook as an important educational tool for the teaching-learning process, this study aimed to analyze the books as they are atopted by public schools of the city of Floriano, Piauí state, address endemic diseases, particularly leishmaniasis. Physical criteria, as aspects of the brochure and binding aspects and the contents were used in the analyzes. The selection of books was made by teachers and managers of schools based on the National Textbook Program (PNLD tab and then were approved in the pedagogical evaluation of the Ministry of Education. Copies of each level of education (primary and secondary were analyzed according to conceptual and physical aspects. The analysis of conceptual and methodological aspects was based on the literature and a thorough observation of the images that complement the content. The physical aspects were evaluated according to the type of binding, size, font size and spacing employ, didactic presentation order of the content and illustrations. It was found

  10. Phlebotomine sandflies and factors associated with their abundance in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Attiki, Greece.

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    Boutsini, Sofia; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Spanakos, Gregory; Ntousi, Dimitra; Dotsika, Eleni; Bisia, Marina; Papadopoulos, Elias

    2018-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease of animals and humans caused by several Leishmania species and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. The aim of the present study was to identify the species of field collected phlebotomine sandflies in the endemic area of the Attiki during 4 consecutive years, to isolate the Leishmania parasites from the infected sandflies, and identify possible factors associated with sandfly abundance in the area. A total of 542 trappings were made in 46 collection sites, in purely urban areas, periurban areas, and purely rural areas in Attiki. Out of the 3254 sandflies trapped, 1448 (44.43%) were female and 241 (16.64%) of the females were blood fed while Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in the 0.41% of them. Regarding sandfly species, the most prevalent was Phlebotomus tobbi (41.52%) followed by Sergentomyia minuta (27.44%), P. neglectus (14.83%), P. simici (11.08%), P. papatasi (3.68%), P. similis (0.89%), and P. alexandri (0.56%). Periurban areas were found to have the highest density of sandfly populations.

  11. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

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    Day Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  12. One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.

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    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J

    2011-10-10

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  13. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an agricultural settlement, endemic area for leishmaniasis

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    A.F. Brilhante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis has several species of Leishmania as agents, and a wide variety of wild and domestic animals as hosts and different species of phlebotomines as vectors. A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a dog coming from an agricultural settlement is described. This is the first report of parasitism in a dog by Le. (Viannia braziliensis in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Attention is called to the importance of including this protozoonosis in the differential diagnosis of dermopathies in dogs as also the need to assess the importance of the domestic dog as a possible reservoir of Le. braziliensis.

  14. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da; Tomokane, Thaise Yumie; Pacheco, Acácio Duarte; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Marcondes, Mary; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL.

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    Tanure, Aline; Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

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    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

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    Aline TANURE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1% and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%. Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6% in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  18. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama.

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    Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2011-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

  19. Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area

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    Bortoletto, Danielly Vieira; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Ferreira, Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human rati...

  20. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil.

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    Pimentel, Danillo de Souza; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Maia, Carina Scanoni; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida; da Silva, Hernande Pereira; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2015-01-01

    The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600), and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (S7(r)Biogene). Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600) presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  1. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil

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    Danillo de Souza Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600, and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (S7(rBiogene. RESULTS: Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600 presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  2. Diversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Azar Shahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, North West of Iran.

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    Hazratian, Teimour; Vatandoost, Hasan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Fallah, Esmael; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Akbarzadeh, Kameran; Rassi, Yavar

    2016-09-01

    There are nearly 1000 species of Phlebotomine sand flies in 6 genera, of which only two, Phlebotomus in the old world and Lutzomyia in the new world are medically important. Globally, leishmaniasis prevalent in 98 countries and affects estimated 12 million people with almost two million new cases per year. Some rural areas of Azarshahr District in East Azarbaijan Province have been reported to be endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study is the first attempt to determine the species diversity and density in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. Sand flies were collected form indoor and outdoor biweekly using sticky traps. Diversity index of the collected sand flies within different villages were estimated by the Shannon-Weaver. The activity of the sand flies extended from April to October with one peak in August. Diversity of sand flies within study area were estimated as 0.917, 1.867, 1.339, 1.673, and 1.562 in Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj, and Germezgol Vvillages, respectively. Identifying the diversity and seasonal abundance of the collected species is of importance for prediction of the period of maximum risk for leishmaniasis transmission and for the successful implementation of a control program. Species diversity is one of the most important factors in ecological studies.

  3. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Bats from an Area of Brazil Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis.

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    de Rezende, M B; Herrera, H M; Carvalho, C M E; Carvalho Anjos, E A; Ramos, C A N; de Araújo, F R; Torres, J M; de Oliveira, C E

    2017-12-01

    The multihost parasites Leishmania spp. infect a broad range of wild mammalian species including bats. Several species of bats have adapted to a variety of food resources and shelters in urban areas. This study aimed to detect Leishmania spp. DNA in bats present in forest fragments located in metropolitan areas endemic for leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 80 individuals, including eight species of Phyllostomidae and one species of Vespertilionidae. Thirty of the 80 bats were positive for Leishmania spp. using conventional PCR, all belonging to the family Phyllostomidae. Eighteen samples tested by real-time PCR (qPCR) using specific primers for the kDNA of Leishmania infantum were positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detecting Leishmania spp. in Platyrrhinus incarum in addition to being the first reported detection of L. infantum in the bat species Phyllostomus discolor, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Artibeus planirostris and Artibeus lituratus. Our results show that bats can host Leishmania spp. in areas endemic for leishmaniasis, which must be taken into account in disease control operations by public health authorities. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Sandfly fauna in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil

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    Verónica de Lourdes Sierpe Jeraldo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, visceral leishmaniasis, a major public health problem, has been spreading from the rural to urban areas in many areas of Brazil, including Aracaju, the capital of the State of Sergipe. However, there are no studies of the sandfly fauna in this municipality or its variation over the year. METHODS: Phlebotomine sandflies were collected from a rural area of Aracaju from September 2007 to July 2009. Modified CDC ultra-violet (UV light traps were used to evaluate sandfly monthly distribution and their presence in the domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4% followed by Evandromyia lenti (9.6%. A chicken shed trap site had the highest proportion of L. longipalpis (51.1% and large numbers of L. longipalpis were also collected in the houses closest to the chicken shed. There was a positive correlation between monthly rainfall and L. longipalpis abundance. CONCLUSIONS: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most abundant species and is probably the main vector of the visceral leishmaniasis agent in the rural area of Aracaju. An increase in L. longipalpis frequency was observed during the rainy season. The peridomicile-intradomicile observations corroborate the importance of chicken sheds for the presence of L. longipalpis in the peridomestic environment. The great numbers of L. longipalpis inside the houses confirm the endophilic behaviour of this species and the possibility of visceral transmission in the intradomicile.

  5. Sandfly fauna in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil.

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    Jeraldo, Verónica de Lourdes Sierpe; Góes, Marco Aurélio de Oliveira; Casanova, Claudio; Melo, Claudia Moura de; Araújo, Edilson Divino de; Brandão Filho, Sinval Pinto; Cruz, Danilo Esdras Rocha; Pinto, Mara Cristina

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, visceral leishmaniasis, a major public health problem, has been spreading from the rural to urban areas in many areas of Brazil, including Aracaju, the capital of the State of Sergipe. However, there are no studies of the sandfly fauna in this municipality or its variation over the year. Phlebotomine sandflies were collected from a rural area of Aracaju from September 2007 to July 2009. Modified CDC ultra-violet (UV) light traps were used to evaluate sandfly monthly distribution and their presence in the domestic and peridomestic environments. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%) followed by Evandromyia lenti (9.6%). A chicken shed trap site had the highest proportion of L. longipalpis (51.1%) and large numbers of L. longipalpis were also collected in the houses closest to the chicken shed. There was a positive correlation between monthly rainfall and L. longipalpis abundance. Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most abundant species and is probably the main vector of the visceral leishmaniasis agent in the rural area of Aracaju. An increase in L. longipalpis frequency was observed during the rainy season. The peridomicile-intradomicile observations corroborate the importance of chicken sheds for the presence of L. longipalpis in the peridomestic environment. The great numbers of L. longipalpis inside the houses confirm the endophilic behaviour of this species and the possibility of visceral transmission in the intradomicile.

  6. Sero-epidemiological assessment and diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic locality using Fast Agglutination Screening Test (FAST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, A.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Schoone, G. J.; Berhe, N.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Fast Agglutination Screening Test (FAST) was employed on sera obtained from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in southwestern Ethiopia, in February 2000. The study involved (i) active case detection among 1575 residents of two villages; and (ii) passive case detection in an outpatient

  7. The Study of Sand Fly Fauna in an Endemic Focus for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fasa from April to October in the year 2013

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    Mehdi Sharafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Leishmaniasis as a zoonosis disease seen in three forms including Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral (kala- azar. The Leishmania transferred by sand flies is the causative agent of this disease. Considering that leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Fasa, this study was performed to determine the sand fly species of Fasa, Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional study from April to September 2014, the fauna of sand flies was investigated. Sampling was done in villages with above, medium, and low incidence by using sticky traps every 15 days. Then, captured specimens were mounted and identified by specific key. Results: 3842 sand flies were captured for ecological studies. 2305 of them (60% were males and the rest of them were females. 1152 specimens (30% of them were from indoors and the rest were from outdoors. Totally, 10 species were identified including Phlebotomus. Papatasi, Ph. Alexandri, Ph. Sergenti, Ph. Mongolensis, Ph. Bergeroti, Ph. Caucasicus, Sergentomyia theodori, S. Baghdadis, S. sintuni, and S. antennata. Among captured specimens Phlebotomus Papatasi, Ph. Sergenti had the first and the second places, respectively. Conclusion: Sandflies in Fasa are very active with high prevalence and species diversity. Phlebotomus Papatasi as the predominant species transfers Leishmania from rodents to humans. This subject is related to the prevalence of rural leishmaniasis in this area. According to the semi-domestic vector, spraying is not helpful in a rural foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. But the control of reservoir and educating the residents about prevention ways of bite are effective in disease control and prevention.

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update

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    Rastogi V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients attending the Skin and STD department, JLN Hospital, Ajmer. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, demonstration of amastigotes (LT bodies in Giemsa stained smear of the lesion and response to intralesional / local anti-leishmanial drug therapy. In addition, culture of the promastigote forms of L. tropica from the lesion was successfully attempted in four of the smear negatives cases. By retrospective analysis, 23 new indigenous cases of CL have been diagnosed in the same setting during the period January 2004 - December 2005, based on clinical and therapeutic response alone. There was no clear-cut history of sandfly bite and travel outside the district or state to endemic area in any of the cases. However, all of them came from a common residential area (famous dargah of Ajmer and the peak incidence was seen in January, four months after the famous Urs fair of Ajmer, the location was urban and the lesions were characteristic of L. tropica. Therefore, the disease is suspected to be anthroponotic. These features are suggestive of a common mode of transmission, source and/or vector signalling introduction of this infection into a non-endemic area.

  9. [Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Torres, V A; Silva, C A; Correia, D; Carvalho, E M; Magalhães, A V; Macêdo, V de O

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250 mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), 20 mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

  10. Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Danielly Vieira; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Ferreira, Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2016-09-05

    The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human ratio of 1:7. The mean age of dogs was estimated at 1.73 years; the age pyramid indicated high birth and mortality rates at the first year of age with an estimated cumulative mortality of 78% at the third year of age and expected life span of 2.75 years. In spite of the high mortality, a growth projection simulation suggested that the population has potential to grow in a logarithmic scale over the years. The estimated parameters can be further applied in models to maximize the impact and minimize financial inputs of visceral leishmaniasis control measures.

  11. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  12. Epidemiologic profile of oriental sore caused by Leishmania parasites in a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Moosa; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Sharafi, Mehdi; Rafat-Panah, Azam

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the first and most important vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand flies in Iran. As a parasitic disease in the Old World, it is a complex zoonosis with multiple vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors of pathogenic flagellate protozoan in the genus of Leishmania in different parts of its range. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven as vectors of this parasite which can be transmitted through the bite of an infected female sand fly distributed in almost all parts of Iran. This research performed on all CL patients as that were registered into special forms by physicians and experts during the study period 2006-2013 in the county town of Fasa, Iran. Data were analyzed by Chi square test using SPSS 17 statistics software. Overall, 1,908 patients (59.18 %) lived in rural and 1,316 (40.82 %) lived in urban areas. All ages were between 1 and ≥30 year. The most frequent age group was ≥20 years (54.6 %). Sex ratio of patients was almost 1:1 (1,561; 48.42 % male vs. 1,663; 51.58 % female). Most of them (66.84 %) had wet lesions and those with dry lesions were less frequent (33.16 %). There was a significant difference between the frequencies of these two groups (P counties in Iran showed that it was most likely an endemic disease in this region.

  13. A 22-Year Survey of Leishmaniasis Cases in a Tertiary-Care Hospital in an Endemic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Montecchini, Sara; Rossi, Sabina; Gorrini, Chiara; Dell’Anna, Maria Loretana; Piccolo, Giovanna; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    The northward spread of leishmaniasis from Mediterranean to Continental Europe affects our area where it is typically associated with Leishmania infantum infection. In this study a 22-year survey was performed in patients (including both patients with and without history of travel through endemic areas other than Italy) attending the University Hospital of Parma, Northern Italy, in order to make a contribution to describe the cases of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosed in this area. One hundred fifty-six samples from 134 patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis (96 suspected of having VL, 37 CL and one both VL and CL) were analyzed in our laboratory during 1992–2013 by microscopy, culture and, from 2005, also by real-time PCR. Leishmania spp. were detected in 23 samples of 15 patients (seven with VL and eight with CL), representing an infection rate of 11.2%. The figure of the cases of leishmaniasis herein reported, even if not comparable to that described for Italian areas other than Parma, underlines that suitable tools are mandatory for correct diagnosis. Moreover, the severity of this disease, particularly VL with its documented northward spread, requires physicians of continental Europe to increase their attention about the possibility of suspecting leishmaniasis in patients reporting related signs and symptoms and/or risk factors. PMID:24619118

  14. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country.

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    Trentina Di Muccio

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs. A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20 of which 36 were visceral (VL (16 HIV-coinfections and 69 cutaneous (CL cases; 85 cases (52 CL were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants 'visiting friends and relatives' and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends

  15. Risk Mapping and Situational Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Central Iran: A GIS-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Astaneh, Fatemeh; Hajjaran, Homa; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is among the top 10 infectious disease priorities in the world, and the leading cause of morbidity in Iran. The present study was conducted to assess the risk of CL, and to determine some epidemiological features of the disease in endemic areas of Qom Province in Central Iran during 2009 to 2013. Data regarding human cases of the disease were obtained from the Qom Province Health Center, prepared and stored in a spatial database created in ArcGIS10.3. A total of 9 out of 212 Leishmania spp. positive slides taken in 2013 from patients residing in Qom city were examined using molecular methods and the species of Leishmania was identified by PCR-RFLP. Those 9 patients had no history of travel outside the city. Spatial analysis and clustering methods were applied to find major hot spots and susceptible areas for the establishment of novel foci of the disease. Transmission patterns were examined for spatial autocorrelation using the Moran's I statistical application, and for the clustering of high or low values using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics. During the period of study, a total of 1767 CL cases were passively reported in the area, out of which were 65% males and 35% females. The highest and lowest numbers of cases were reported in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Importantly, 979 cases were reported from urban areas, while the remainder came from rural areas. Leishmania major was detected as the causative agent of CL in the city of Qom. Remarkably, most patients recorded in Qom city were associated with a history of travel to the endemic areas of CL within the province, or to other endemic areas of the disease in Iran. Spatial distribution of CL cases revealed northeastern and southwestern quarters of the city were the major hot spots of the disease (P<0.05). Hot spot and CL transmission risk analysis across the province indicated that more than 40 villages were located in high and very high risk areas of CL transmission. Due to the

  16. Risk Mapping and Situational Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Central Iran: A GIS-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abedi-Astaneh

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is among the top 10 infectious disease priorities in the world, and the leading cause of morbidity in Iran. The present study was conducted to assess the risk of CL, and to determine some epidemiological features of the disease in endemic areas of Qom Province in Central Iran during 2009 to 2013.Data regarding human cases of the disease were obtained from the Qom Province Health Center, prepared and stored in a spatial database created in ArcGIS10.3. A total of 9 out of 212 Leishmania spp. positive slides taken in 2013 from patients residing in Qom city were examined using molecular methods and the species of Leishmania was identified by PCR-RFLP. Those 9 patients had no history of travel outside the city. Spatial analysis and clustering methods were applied to find major hot spots and susceptible areas for the establishment of novel foci of the disease. Transmission patterns were examined for spatial autocorrelation using the Moran's I statistical application, and for the clustering of high or low values using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics.During the period of study, a total of 1767 CL cases were passively reported in the area, out of which were 65% males and 35% females. The highest and lowest numbers of cases were reported in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Importantly, 979 cases were reported from urban areas, while the remainder came from rural areas. Leishmania major was detected as the causative agent of CL in the city of Qom. Remarkably, most patients recorded in Qom city were associated with a history of travel to the endemic areas of CL within the province, or to other endemic areas of the disease in Iran. Spatial distribution of CL cases revealed northeastern and southwestern quarters of the city were the major hot spots of the disease (P<0.05. Hot spot and CL transmission risk analysis across the province indicated that more than 40 villages were located in high and very high risk areas of CL transmission

  17. Investigation of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis cases using western blot in an endemic area in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakru, Nermin; Korkmaz, Metin; Ozbel, Yusuf; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Sengul, Mustafa; Toz, Seray Ozensoy

    2007-01-01

    In Turkey, Leishmania infantum is responsible for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is seen mainly in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia Regions. This study aimed to determine asymptomatic infections in an endemic area of VL in Turkey using the western blot technique. A total of 82 persons including children and adults were chosen randomly in Denizli province which is one of the endemic sites for VL. Serum samples were collected and screened using indirect immunofluorescent test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB). One year later, 35 of the 82 persons were sampled and screened serologically for the second time. Seven out of 82 samples were found to be positive by western blot analysis with the presence of 14 and/or 18 kDa bands. Two of these seven sera were also positive by IFAT, but only one of these two was positive by ELISA. Only one person showing seropositivity with all three tests had clinical symptoms and was diagnosed as VL with the presence of amastigotes in bone marrow aspirate. Because six people, including the one found to be seropositive in all two tests, had no clinical symptoms, they were accepted as asymptomatic carriers. The ratio of asymptomatic infection was calculated as 7.41% (6/81) in the region. In the second sampling, the western blot revealed antibodies against the same antigens in all seven subjects. Our findings showed that the presence of antibodies against 14 and 18 kDa antigens are important for the diagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Western blot was found to be effective in the detection of asymptomatic persons in the epidemiological studies in endemic areas.

  18. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  19. Behavioral aspects of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, E F; Silva, E A; Casaril, A E; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Gamarra, R M; Ribeiro, A A; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G

    2013-03-01

    The study of some of the behavioral aspects of the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas in the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), such as dispersion, population size, and vector survival rates, is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These parameters were studied by means of capture-mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area of Campo Grande municipality, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, situated in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Six capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken between November 2009 and November 2010 and once in January 2012 with a view to assessing the population size and survival rate of Lu. longipalpis. The insects were released in a peridomicile surrounded by 13 residences. The recaptures were undertaken with automatic light traps for four consecutive weeks after release in the surrounding area. In total, 3,354 sand flies were captured, marked, and released. The overall recapture rate during the capture-mark-release-recapture experiments was 4.23%, of which 92.45% were recaptured at the release site, indicating limited dispersal. The greatest distance recorded from the release site was 165 m for males and 241 m for females. The male daily survival rate, calculated on the basis of regressions from the numbers of marked recaptured insects during the 15 successive days after release was 0.897. The estimated male population size measured by the Lincoln Index was 10,947.127. Though Lu. longipalpis presented a limited dispersion the physical barriers typical of urban environments did not prevent the sand flies from flying long distances.

  20. Situational Analysis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Most Important Endemic Area of the Disease in Iran

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    Eslam Moradi-Asl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector borne diseases in the world, transmitted by sand flies. Despite efforts to prevent the spread of the disease, cases continue worldwide. In Iran, the disease usually occurs in children under 10 years.  In the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rate is 95–100%. The main objective of this study was to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of visceral leishmaniasis as well as its correlation with climatic factors for determining high-risk areas in an endemic focus in northwestern Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data on VL cases were collected from local health centers in Ardabil Prov­ince, Iran during 2001–2015 to establish a geodatabase using ArcGIS10.3. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS23 and ArcMap Spatial Analyst. MaxEnt model was used to determine ecologically suitable nichesfor the disease.Results: Two hotspots were found in Meshkinshahr and Germi counties with 59% and 23% of total cases, respec­tively. There was an increase in the incidence rate of VL in Ardabil County from 2.9 in 2009 to 9.2/100,000 population in 2015. There was no spa­tial autocorrelation between county and total number of cases (P> 0.05. Higher NDVI, lower altitude and southern as­pects had positive effects on the presence probability of VL.Conclusion: The number of cases of this disease have been rising since 2013 and doubled in 2015. According to the derived distribution maps, the disease is spreading to new locations such as Ardabil and Namin counties.

  1. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the FOD? Foundation Levels of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest ... in which leishmaniasis is found range from rain forests in Central and South America (sometimes referred to ...

  2. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from the infe......Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  3. Molecular characterization of Leishmania infantum in domestic cats in a region of Brazil endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzdorf, Isabel Parizotto; da Costa Lima, Manoel Sebastião; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; de Souza Filho, Antonio Francisco; de Souza Tsujisaki, Rosianne A; Franco, Karina Garcia; Shapiro, Julie Teresa; de Almeida Borges, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a "neglected tropical disease" and serious public health issue in Brazil. While dogs are recognized as particularly important reservoirs, recent reports of domestic cats infected with Leishmania sp. in urban areas suggest their participation in the epidemiological chain of the parasite in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to screen domestic cats for Leishmania sp. infection in an area where human and canine visceral leishmaniasis are endemic, followed by the identification of the species circulating in cats. We collected peripheral blood, lymph-node aspirates and bone marrow from 100 adult animals, both male and female, and analyzed the samples using cytological and molecular (PCR) detection techniques. We detected Leishmania in 6% of animals, which were then analyzed by RFLP-PCR to identify the species. Leishmania infantum (synonym: L. chagasi), a species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in humans and other animals, was identified from all six samples. Amastigotes were observed in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph-node aspirates in 4 of the 6 PCR-positive animals. The presence of infected cats in endemic areas should not be neglected, because it demonstrates the potential role of these animals in the biological cycle of the pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Leishmania species and zymodemes isolated from endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimri, Laila; Soubani, Radwan; Gramiccia, Marina

    2002-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in the Middle Eastern countries. New cases are emerging in areas previously free of the disease. In Jordan, the diagnosis of cases during the 1960s and 1970s was mainly reported in military hospitals in Amman. Endemicity of the disease was ascertained after reporting a total of 524 cases during 1973–1978. Results Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were isolated from seventy-six autochthonous and imported cases of CL, during eight-year period. The highest infection rates recorded were in the central part of Jordan (60.5%), in males (72.4%) and in the age group 21–30 years (30.5%). Lesions were on the exposed sites of the body, mainly on the face (40%). Both Leishmania spp. were isolated from all parts of the country, although L. major was the predominant species (75% of cases) in all areas except in the north part of Jordan. Isoenzyme characterization of the isolates identified four previously undescribed zymodemes (Z). Four Leishmania major zymodemes were found, one of which was a new zymodeme (ZMON-103 variant in GLUD220); L. major ZMON-103 was the most common zymodeme. Four Leishmania tropica zymodemes were identified, of which three were previously unreported. Of these, ZMON-54 var PGD96–97 was isolated from autochthonous cases, whereas ZMON-59 var MDH100 and ZMON-75 var FH110 were obtained from both autochthonous and imported cases, or from an imported CL case, respectively. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate the emergence of the CL disease in new areas. New foci are reported, where the sporadic nature of the cases indicates recent spread of the disease to these areas and the urge for the implementation of control measures. PMID:12473179

  5. A comparative evaluation of endemic and non-endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar in India with ground survey and space technology

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    Shreekant Kesari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.

  6. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela

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    Scorza José V.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.

  7. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2014-01-01

    The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza.

  8. Modelling canine leishmaniasis spread to non-endemic areas of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, L A; Costard, S; Zagmutt, F J

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of sandflies and increasing pet travel have raised concerns about canine leishmaniasis (CanL) spread to new areas of Europe. This study aimed to estimate the probability of CanL introduction and persistence following movements of infected dogs. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the probabilities of (1) CanL infection during travels or imports of infected dogs (P inf and P infCA, respectively), (2) CanL persistence in a dog network with sandflies after introduction of an infected dog (P per), and (3) persistence in a CanL-free region (P per region) for N dogs moving between endemic and free regions. Different mitigation measures (MMs) were assessed. P inf [7.8%, 95% predictive interval (PI) 2.6-16.4] and P per (72.0%, 95% PI 67.8-76.0) were reduced by use of repellent, vaccine, prophylactic medication, and insecticide, in decreasing order of effectiveness. Testing and exclusion of positive dogs was most effective in reducing P per region for a small N. The spread of CanL to CanL-free areas with sandflies is thus likely, but can be reduced by MMs.

  9. Situation analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area, south of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mansour; Nazari, Saman; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Najafi, Ali; Nazari, Sasan

    2017-01-01

    To update current situation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Kazerun County, southwest of Iran and to analyse the epidemiological aspects of the disease during 2005-2015. Data on CL were obtained from the Health Center of Kazerun County, and then were analysed and mapped using SPSS and Arc GIS 10.3. A total of 700 cases of CL were recorded during the study period with an overall decreasing trend from 2005 to 2015. More than 60% of the patients were inhabitants of rural areas and males were infected more than females. Although there was not a significant difference between gender, job categories, residence and CL infection (P > 0.05), age groups were significantly different (P  0.05). Most of the acute lesions were found to be present on the hand, leg and face, respectively. The average CL incidence in the study area was calculated as 24.9/100000 population. A hot spot for the disease was found in southern part of the area (P < 0.05). This study revealed that CL is present in Kazerun country. Thus, effective monitoring and sustained surveillance system is crucial in counteracting the disease, and if possible, to eliminate it. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dispersal and memory of sand flies in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; De Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Massafera, Rubens; Rossi, Robson Marcelo; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-09-01

    The dispersal of and the existence of memory in sand flies were measured in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná, Brazil. Sand flies were caught in a rural area, with Shannon trap installed in the forest and three Falcão traps installed in a human-inhabited environment (HIE) and three others in an impacted environment presently uninhabited by humans (EUH), from 1800 to 0600 hours. The captured sand flies were marked with yellow, blue, or red fluorescent powder, according to the environments where they were captured. All marked sand flies were released at 0700 hours at a point between the three environments. The recaptures were made with 28 Falcão traps, distributed in the environments from for 10 consecutive days. The sand flies recaptured were examined under a stereomicroscope and later identified. It was concluded that sand flies are able to disperse over an average distance of 73 m, reaching 130 m in 24 h, showing that: 1) the sand flies were attracted with different intensities to each environment, and the ability to move among different environments allows the existence of enzootic cycle of Leishmania; 2) the sand flies possess a spatial memory, olfactory memory, or both, that enable them to return to the environment where they were captured initially, although the distances were different.

  11. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

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    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  12. Epidemiological Study on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area, of Qom Province, Central Iran

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    Abedin Saghafipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of the most important health problems in many areas of Iran. There are two forms of the disease in Iran, anthroponotic and zoonotic CL. This study conducted to assess the epi­demiological situation of CL in an endemic area of Qom Province, central Iran from Apr to Nov 2015.Methods: The sticky paper traps and aspirating tubes were used for collecting adult sand flies. Sherman traps and small insect nets were used to capture rodents and small mammals. Giemsa staining was used for preparing the ex­panded smear and followed by PCR for identifying the causative agent in human, vectors, and reservoirs. In this study, relative frequency of CL was also calculated.Results: Fourteen species of Phlebotomine sand flies were collected. Phlebotomus papatasi (61.74% was the pre­dominant species through the period of activity. Overall, 62 Meriones libycus, 8 Nesokia indica, 4 Mus musculus, 16 Allactaga elater and 2 Hemiechinus auritis were caught. PCR technique showed 6 out of 150 P. papatasi (2%, two out of 62 M. libycus (3.23% and all of suspected human's skin tissue samples (100% were infected with Leishmania major. The relative frequency of CL was 0.30%. Conclusion: This is the first detection of L. major within P. papatasi, M. libycus and human in Kahak District in Qom Province of Iran. Zoonotic cycle of CL exists in this area, L. major is the causative agent, P. papatasi is the main vector and M. libycus is the main reservoir of the disease. 

  13. Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, Ilana Mirian Almeida; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Kuppinger, Oliver; Santos, Max Diego Cruz; Rangel, Maurício Eduardo Salgado; Barbosa, David Soeiro; Barral, Aldina; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Caldas, Arlene de Jesus Mendes

    2011-03-01

    Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

  14. Species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Tahtay Adiyabo district, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Kirstein, Oscar David; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. orientalis in the VL endemic focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district. Methods Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps (n?=?602), sticky traps (n?=?9,350) ...

  15. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane; Santos, Márcio; Tunon, Gabriel; Cunha, Luana; Magalhães, Lucas; Moraes, Juliana; Ramalho, Danielle; Lima, Sanmy; Pacheco, José Antônio; Lipscomb, Michael; Ribeiro de Jesus, Amélia; Pacheco de Almeida, Roque

    2017-05-11

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  16. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  17. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

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    Roseane Campos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  18. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Cheryl Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N. intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector’s population and the contact between man and vectors.

  19. [Spatial and/or olfactory memory in sandflies in an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Janaína Sales de; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Casanova, Cláudio; Silva, Joseane Padilha da; Previdelli, Isolde; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2009-01-01

    The results from an investigation on the possibility that sandflies in an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the state of Paraná, may have memory are reported. Sandflies were caught in Recanto Marista, Doutor Camargo, State of Paraná, Brazil, using Falcão traps in two chicken sheds (G1 and G2), between November 15 and 26, 2007. A total of 2,080 sandflies were caught (1,000 in G1 and 1,080 in G2) and these were marked and released. Nyssomyia neivai was the most (90.5%) frequent species. Out of the total released, 168 sandflies (8%) were recaptured and the recapture rate in G2 was significant. The results show that it is possible that spatial or olfactory memory and/or host loyalty exists, and that this will guide the sandflies in recognizing the places where sources of blood are available.

  20. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

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    DA Cerino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

  1. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Cheryl; de Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães; Zwetsch, Adriana; Motta-Silva, Daniel; Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; de Santana, Antônio Ferreira; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector's population and the contact between man and vectors. PMID:22988458

  2. Relationship between dog culling and incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Pires, Marina Mota; da Silva, Karinne Marques; Assis, Filipe Daniel; Gonçalves Filho, Jesualdo; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli

    2010-05-28

    Domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas; one of the control measures adopted in Brazil is the elimination of this reservoir. In order to test the relationship between the euthanasia rate of the canine reservoir and the incidence of the disease in humans, data on dog culling from the Centre for Zoonosis Control of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 1999 to 2008 and visceral leishmaniasis human cases registered in the same period were analyzed. Reduction of human VL incidence was statistically correlated to dog euthanasia rate (P=0.0211; r(2)=0.616) when it was analyzed for the period of two years after application of this measure. Other factors that may influence this relationship are considered. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

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    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  4. Molecular and Serological Evidence of Leishmania Infection in Stray Dogs from Visceral Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shirin; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Nakao, Ryo; Yasin, Golam; Kato, Hirotomo; Katakura, Ken

    2016-10-05

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is mainly caused by two closely related Leishmania species, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani Leishmania infantum is responsible for zoonotic VL, with dogs as the main reservoir host in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, and South America. In the Indian subcontinent, VL is caused by L. donovani and is considered anthroponotic, although the only known vector, the sand fly, is zoophilic in nature. The role of domestic and stray dogs in VL transmission is still unclear in this area. We screened 50 stray dogs from VL-endemic areas of Bangladesh for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection. We detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in six (12%) dog serum samples using rK39 immunochromatographic tests. We observed Leishmania kinetoplast DNA in 10 (20%) buffy coat DNA samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), five of which were positive based on internal transcribed spacer 1-PCR. A sequencing analysis of the amplified products confirmed that the parasitic DNA was derived from L. donovani Our findings support the hypothesis that stray dogs are an animal reservoir for L. donovani in this endemic region. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of dogs in the epidemiology of VL in Bangladesh. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. The potential economic value of a cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine in seven endemic countries in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kristina M; Hotez, Peter J; Kruchten, Stephanie D; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-07

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and its associated complications, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL) have emerged as important neglected tropical diseases in Latin America, especially in areas associated with human migration, conflict, and recent deforestation. Because of the limitations of current chemotherapeutic approaches to CL, MCL, and DCL, several prototype vaccines are in different states of product and clinical development. We constructed and utilized a Markov decision analytic computer model to evaluate the potential economic value of a preventative CL vaccine in seven countries in Latin America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. The results indicated that even a vaccine with a relatively short duration of protection and modest efficacy could be recommended for use in targeted locations, as it could prevent a substantial number of cases at low-cost and potentially even result in cost savings. If the population in the seven countries were vaccinated using a vaccine that provides at least 10 years of protection, an estimated 41,000-144,784 CL cases could be averted, each at a cost less than the cost of current recommended treatments. Further, even a vaccine providing as little as five years duration of protection with as little as 50% efficacy remains cost-effective compared with chemotherapy; additional scenarios resembling epidemic settings such as the one that occurred in Chaparral, Colombia in 2004 demonstrate important economic benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Larval breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic urban areas in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T M; Sampaio, Susy M P; Marcoris, Maria L G; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E; Prado, Angelo P

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus) in a endemic area of the state of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Cruz Manuel; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

    1986-01-01

    É relatado o encontro de infecção por parasitos do gênero Leishmania, em lesão cutânea de uma mula (Equus caballus x Equus asinus) procedente de uma localidade endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.Leishmania parasites were found in a skin lesion of a mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus) from a locality with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  8. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in urban and rural areas of Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Paula V S; Monteiro, Glória R G; Macedo, Virgínia P S; Rocha, Maria A C; Batista, Leopoldina M M; Queiroz, José W; Jerônimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria F F M

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory profiles of canine leishmaniasis in two distinct areas. Dogs from urban and rural areas were examined. The population studied in the metropolitan area included 54 dogs. Of these, 20 (37%) animals did not present with any signs suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Among these, only eight were confirmed negative by ELISA (rK39 and CE) and 12 dogs, clinically negative for leishmaniasis, were seropositive by ELISA (rK39 and CE). Thinness, conjunctivitis and onychogryphosis were the most frequent clinical signs in the urban areas, followed by crusty lesions, alopecia, ulcerated lesions, hyperkeratosis and exfoliation. In the metropolitan area human VL cases occurred mainly in 1991, 1992, 1999 and 2000. In the rural areas the ELISA rK39 test detected a seroprevalence of 11.3% and ELISA CE (Leishmania crude extract) of 20.6%. Thirty-nine dogs were examined 6 months after the first visit. Serological exams using rK39 antigen showed seroconversion of only one dog, whereas Leishmania CE showed seroconversion of 13 (33.4%) dogs. In this rural environment 83.3% of the positive dogs were asymptomatic. Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. longipalpis were the most predominant sandfly vector species. Amastigotes were identified in spleen and liver fragments of symptomatic necropsied animals. PCR amplification of DNA isolated from promastigote culture indicated that the species was Leishmania chagasi. This finding suggests that delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sandflies and subsequently to humans.

  9. [Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Guilherme; Toledo; Ramos; Arraes; Bertolini; Spinoza; Barbosa

    1996-04-01

    An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

  10. Ecological niches and blood sources of sand fly in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiying; Li, Kaili; Shi, Hua; Zhang, Yong; Ha, Yu; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yubin; Yang, Zhenzhou; Xu, Jiannong; Ma, Yajun

    2016-04-13

    Sand fly Phlebotomus chinensis is a principle vector for the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in China with a wide geographic distribution. Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan is a mountain type endemic area of VL in China. Long term effective control efforts in the region have successfully reduced VL transmission. To assess the current status of the sand flies and their ecological aspects in the region, a survey was conducted in the summer of 2014 and 2015. Sand fly specimens were collected by light traps in a village and blood sources were identified by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. In a rock cave, 65.2 %-79.8 % of collected sand flies were male. On a rabbit farm, 92.9 %-98.8 % of specimens were female. In pig pens, 61.1 % of specimens were female. Some females had visible blood residues. The feeding rate was 49.4 % from the pig pens, 12.3 % from the cave, and only 1.7 % from the rabbit farm. Pig, rabbit, chicken, dog, and human blood were detected in the fed specimens. Swine blood, present in all tested samples, was a preferred blood source, while chicken and dog blood were present in a third of the samples. In Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province of China, the considerable sandfly density and the peridomestic feeding behavior all increases the risk of VL transmission, and insecticide spraying in animal sheds could be exploited to reduce sand fly populations in human surroundings.

  11. Occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 and Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus 1977, in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil.

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    Araujo Soares, Maria Regiane; Lopes Antunes, Jadson Emanuel; de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Lima, Rogério Nora; Nery Costa, Carlos Henrique

    2017-10-01

    Cerdocyon thous presents a wide geographic distribution in Brazil and its role as a possible Leishmania infantum reservoir in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission cycle regardless of dogs (Canis familiaris) has been discussed. From this perspective, this work describes the occurrence and use of the habitat by Cerdocyon thous in a Lutzomyia longipalpis occurrence area Teresina (Piaui - Brazil), VL endemic region. Three specimens of C. thous were monitored with the use of radio telemetry and trails and footprints, seeking to find possible natural dens in order to collect the sanflies from the site. Luminous CDC and Damasceno traps were simultaneously installed at the visited sites, where two specimens of L. longipalpis and one L. termitophila were captured. The identification of the dens and trails, allows us to infer that the dens are not used only by the C. thous. Finding the VL vector in natural C. thous natural dens, reinforces the hypothesis of transmission of Le. infantum in the outskirts of the large urban centers, in a cycle that independs from dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

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    Léa Cristina Castellucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA, northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  13. Leishmaniasis in Yemen: a clinicoepidemiological study of leishmaniasis in central Yemen.

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    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in Yemen. This study was designed to identify clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in Yemen. The study was conducted at the Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center in central Yemen. Data sourced from the medical records of 152 patients with confirmed active leishmaniasis, managed during April-August 2013, were analyzed. A total of 94.1% of patients were rural residents. Al Bayda was the most endemic governorate (59.9%). Children represented the group at highest risk (57.2%), followed by adult females (32.9%); together these groups accounted for 90.1% of all patients. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was the most prevalent form (49.3%), followed by cutaneous leishmaniasis (47.4%), and visceral leishmaniasis (3.3%). The wet ulcer was the most common type of lesion (49.7%) and the single lesion (69.4%) represented the most common presentation. All patients were ignorant of the nature of the disease, and 55.9% had a history of using "popular" treatments. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniases have significant endemicity in Yemen, especially in central areas. Al Bayda is the governorate with the highest endemicity, and rural children and women represent the populations at highest risk. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis seems to be the most prevalent form and a single wet ulcer is the most common presentation. Infected refugees may represent new foci for imported Leishmania species. Ecology, geography, climate change, cultural gender- and age-specific duties, urban night activities, and use of popular treatments are among proven risk factors. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Trends in spatio-temporal dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis cases in a highly-endemic focus of Bihar, India: an investigation based on GIS tools.

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    Mandal, Rakesh; Kesari, Shreekant; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2018-04-02

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Bihar State (India) continues to be endemic, despite the existence of effective treatment and a vector control program to control disease morbidity. A clear understanding of spatio-temporal distribution of VL may improve surveillance and control implementation. This study explored the trends in spatio-temporal dynamics of VL endemicity at a meso-scale level in Vaishali District, based on geographical information systems (GIS) tools and spatial statistical analysis. A GIS database was used to integrate the VL case data from the study area between 2009 and 2014. All cases were spatially linked at a meso-scale level. Geospatial techniques, such as GIS-layer overlaying and mapping, were employed to visualize and detect the spatio-temporal patterns of a VL endemic outbreak across the district. The spatial statistic Moran's I Index (Moran's I) was used to simultaneously evaluate spatial-correlation between endemic villages and the spatial distribution patterns based on both the village location and the case incidence rate (CIR). Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard error, confidence intervals and percentages were used to summarize the VL case data. There were 624 endemic villages with 2719 (average 906 cases/year) VL cases during 2012-2014. The Moran's I revealed a cluster pattern (P < 0.05) of CIR distribution at the meso-scale level. On average, 68 villages were newly-endemic each year. Of which 93.1% of villages' endemicity were found to have occurred on the peripheries of the previous year endemic villages. The mean CIR of the endemic villages that were peripheral to the following year newly-endemic villages, compared to all endemic villages of the same year, was higher (P < 0.05). The results show that the VL endemicity of new villages tends to occur on the periphery of villages endemic in the previous year. High-CIR plays a major role in the spatial dispersion of the VL cases between non-endemic and endemic villages

  15. Epidemiological study on sand flies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, bushehr city, southwestern iran.

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    Darvishi, Mohammad; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Jafari, Reza; Soleimani, Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Nastaran; Khajeian, Mohammad; Darabi, Hossein; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most important health problem in the city of Bushehr, southwestern Iran. The objective of the study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the city during 2010-2011. Sand flies were collected monthly from outdoors and indoors by sticky traps at four selected districts of the city. They were also dissected and examined by nested-PCR for identification of the parasite during August-September of 2011. A total of 1234 adult sand flies were collected and 6 species including 3 of Genus Phlebotomus and 3 of Genus Sergentomyia were identified. Four species including P. papatasi (3.98%), P. sergenti (1.14%), S. tiberiadis (87.18%), and S. baghdadis (7.7%) were found indoors. Six species including P. papatasi (3.47%), P. sergenti (3.17%), P. alexandri (0.1%), S. tiberiadis (77.74%), S. baghdadis (15.41%), and one female of S. clydei (0.11%) were collected from outdoors. Sand flies started to appear from March and disappear at the end of January. There was only one peak in the density curve in July. The study revealed that S. tiberiadis and S. baghdadis could enter indoors which 89 and 81.8% of them were found blood-fed, respectively. Moreover, P. papatasi, S. tiberiadis, and S. baghdadis were active indoors and outdoors in most months of the year. Nested-PCR of P. papatasi females was positive against kinetoplast DNA of L. major and L. turanica and also mixed natural infections were found by L. gerbilli and L. turanica. Moreover, mixed infections by L. major and L. turanica were observed in this species. Sergentomyia clydei and S. tiberiadis were found to be negative to any DNA of Leishmania species. Phlebotomus sergenti females were found infected with DNA of L. turanica and this is the first report of natural infection and detection of the parasite from this sand fly species in worldwide.

  16. Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune in Brazilian endemic areas.

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    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Silva-Antunes, Ilce; Morgado, Adilson de Aguiar; Menz, Ingrid; Palatnik, Marcos; Lavor, Carlile

    2009-06-02

    Leishmune, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We demonstrate here that vaccination with Leishmune does not interfere with the serological control campaign (110,000 dogs). Only 1.3% of positivity (76 among 5860) was detected among Leishmune uninfected vaccinees. We also analyzed the possible additive effect of Leishmune vaccination over dog culling, on the decrease of the incidence of CVL and VL in two Brazilian endemic areas, from 2004 to 2006. In Araçatuba, a 25% of decline was seen in CVL with a 61% decline in human cases, indicating the additive effect of Leishmune vaccination of 5.7% of the healthy dogs (1419 dogs), on regular dog culling. In Belo Horizonte (BH), rising curves of canine and human incidence were observed in the districts of Barreiro, Venda Nova and Noroeste, while the canine and human incidence of Centro Sul, Leste, Nordeste, Norte, Pampulha and Oeste, started to decrease or maintained a stabilized plateau after Leishmune vaccination. Among the districts showing a percent decrease of human incidence (-36.5%), Centro Sul and Pampulha showed the highest dog vaccination percents (63.27% and 27.27%, respectively) and the lowest dog incidence (-3.36% and 1.89%, respectively). They were followed by Oeste, that vaccinated 25.30% of the animals and experienced an increase of only 12.86% of dog incidence and by Leste and Nordeste, with lower proportions of vaccinees (11.72% and 10.76%, respectively) and probably because of that, slightly higher canine incidences (42.77% and 35.73%). The only exception was found in Norte district where the reduced human and canine incidence were not correlated to Leishmune vaccination. Much lower proportions of dogs were vaccinated in Venda Nova (4.35%), Noroeste (10.27%) and Barreiro (0.09%) districts, which according to that exhibited very

  17. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Allopurinol therapy in imported dogs with leishmaniasis treated outside the endemic area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, M; Müller, W; Schaarschmidt, D; Grimm, F; Deplazes, P

    2013-10-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CL) has become one of the most frequently diagnosed travel associated infection in dogs in Switzerland and Germany. The aim of the study was to define recommendations for treatment with allopurinol and follow-up examinations of dogs with CL in a non endemic area. 31 dogs infected with Leishmania were treated with allopurinol (10 - 15 mg/kg twice daily, per os) and the effectiveness was examined. The diagnosis had been confirmed by the detection of specific anti-Leishmania antibodies and/or Leihmania-DNA. 22 dogs had clinical signs (skin lesions, lameness or lack of fitness) and 9 dogs were asymptomatic but showed abnormal laboratory parameters. Under treatment with allopurinol the symptoms disappeared within 1 - 5 months in 20 dogs.

  19. Maxadilan-simile expression in Nyssomyia neivai, a sandfly vector in an endemic region of Brazil, and its immunogenicity in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Juliana Aires

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Maxadilan (Max is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926 is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in Brazil. OBJECTIVE We searched for Max expression in Ny. neivai and for antibodies against Max in ATL patients. METHODS cDNA and protein were extracted from the cephalic segment, including salivary glands, of Ny. neivai and analysed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and blotting assays. The results were compared with data obtained from Lu. longipalpis samples. We quantified antibodies against Max in serum samples from 41 patients with ATL (31 and 10 with the cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms, respectively and 63 controls from the endemic northeastern region of São Paulo state, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FINDINGS Recognition of a Max-simile peptide by specific antibodies confirmed expression of a Max sequence in Ny. neivai (GenBank EF601123.1. Compared to controls, patients with ATL presented higher levels of antibodies against Max (p = 0.004; 24.4% of the patients with ATL and 3.2% of the controls presented anti-Max levels above the cutoff index (p = 0.014. The anti-Max levels were not associated with the specific clinical form of ATL, leishmanin skin test response, absence or presence of amastigotes in histopathologic exam, results of indirect immunofluorescence testing for leishmaniasis, or duration of cutaneous form disease. MAIN CONCLUSION High serum anti-Max levels did not protect patients against ATL, but confirmed previous natural exposure to Ny. neivai bites in this ATL endemic region.

  20. Molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. in reservoir hosts in endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Asadi, Mina; Mahmodi, Mohamad Reza; Amraei, Kamyar; Mirzaei, Asad

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an expanding disease and a public health issue in Iran. In the present study, rate of natural infection of rodent populations with Leishmania was investigated in six endemic foci including 28 villages in Golestan, Esfahan, Yazd, Fars, Khuzestan and Ilam provinces. A total of 593 rodents were captured and identified as Rhombomys opimus (n = 325), Meriones libycus (n = 171), Meriones persicus (n = 27), Tatera indica (n = 37), Nesokia indica (n = 12), Rattus rattus (n = 13) and Mus musculus (n = 8). Microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained smears showed that 108 out of 593 (18.2%) rodents were infected with Leishmania spp., whereas infection of 186 out of 593 (31.4%) rodents with Leishmania was then confirmed by ITS1-PCR. The highest rate of infection was found in R. opimus (prevalence of 35%) and M. libycus (31%). Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), 145 (78%) of 186 samples detected as Leishmania DNA were identified as L. major, 8 (4%) samples as L. turanica and 33 (18%) as mixed infection (L. major and L. turanica). Samples from infected rodents were inoculated subcutaneously at tail base of BALB/c mice. In 35 of them, nodules and ulcers containing amastigotes appeared at the inoculation site. The samples prepared from infected rodents were cultured in NNN medium and only two samples werepositive. Rhombomys opimus, M. libycus, M. persicus, T. indica and N. indica were confirmed as reservoir hosts of ZCL in the studied regions. Leishmania major infection was usually accompanied L. turanica in naturally infected gerbils (R. opimus and M. libycus) in Golestan, Esfahan and Fars provinces.

  1. Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Bhutto, Abdul Manan; Baloch, Javed Hussain; Soomro, Farooq Rahman; Kawamura, Yuta; Nakao, Ryo; Aoshima, Keisuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

    2012-07-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors.

  2. Environmental factors associated with the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas of Bangladesh: modeling the ecological niche.

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    Abdullah, Abu Yousuf Md; Dewan, Ashraf; Shogib, Md Rakibul Islam; Rahman, Md Masudur; Hossain, Md Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic infection (also called kala-azar in South Asia) caused by Leishmania donovani that is a considerable threat to public health in the Indian subcontinent, including densely populated Bangladesh. The disease seriously affects the poorest subset of the population in the subcontinent. Despite the fact that the incidence of VL results in significant morbidity and mortality, its environmental determinants are relatively poorly understood, especially in Bangladesh. In this study, we have extracted a number of environmental variables obtained from a range of sources, along with human VL cases collected through several field visits, to model the distribution of disease which may then be used as a surrogate for determining the distribution of Phlebotomus argentipes vector, in hyperendemic and endemic areas of Mymensingh and Gazipur districts in Bangladesh. The analysis was carried out within an ecological niche model (ENM) framework using a maxent to explore the ecological requirements of the disease. The results suggest that VL in the study area can be predicted by precipitation during the warmest quarter of the year, land surface temperature (LST), and normalized difference water index (NDWI). As P. argentipes is the single proven vector of L. donovani in the study area, its distribution could reasonably be determined by the same environmental variables. The analysis further showed that the majority of VL cases were located in mauzas where the estimated probability of the disease occurrence was high. This may reflect the potential distribution of the disease and consequently P. argentipes in the study area. The results of this study are expected to have important implications, particularly in vector control strategies and management of risk associated with this disease. Public health officials can use the results to prioritize their visits in specific areas. Further, the findings can be used as a baseline to model how the

  3. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian endemic area: one out of five seronegative dogs are infected.

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    Lopes, E G; Sevá, A P; Ferreira, F; Nunes, C M; Keid, L B; Hiramoto, R M; Ferreira, H L; Oliveira, T M F S; Bigotto, M F D; Galvis-Ovallos, F; Galati, E A B; Soares, R M

    2017-09-01

    Euthanasia of infected dogs is one of the measures adopted in Brazil to control visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. To detect infected dogs, animals are screened with the rapid test DPP® Visceral Canine Leishmaniasis for detection of antibodies against K26/K39 fusion antigens of amastigotes (DPP). DPP-positives are confirmed with an immunoenzymatic assay probing soluble antigens of promastigotes (ELISA), while DPP-negatives are considered free of infection. Here, 975 dogs from an endemic region were surveyed by using DPP, ELISA and real-time PCR (qPCR) for the diagnosis of VL. When DPP-negative dogs were tested by qPCR applied in blood and lymph node aspirates, 174/887 (19·6%) were positive in at least one sample. In a second sampling using 115 cases, the DPP-negative dogs were tested by qPCR in blood, lymph node and conjunctival swab samples, and 36/79 (45·6%) were positive in at least one sample. Low-to-moderate pairwise agreement was observed between all possible pair of tests. In conclusion, the official diagnosis of VL in dogs in Brazilian endemic areas failed to accuse an expressive number of infected animals and the impact of the low accuracy of serological tests in the success of euthanasia-based measure for VL control need to be assessed.

  4. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla-Jacques, Fernanda Elisa; Casanova, Cláudio; Prado, Angelo Pires do

    2010-03-01

    Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  5. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

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    Carla Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Algarve Region (AR in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

  6. Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary

    2012-06-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sand Flies of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius) comatus as a New Record for Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Kumar, Dinesh; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghian, Abdollah; Jafari, Reza; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Abdoli, Hamid; Soleimani, Hassan; Shareghi, Niloofar; Ghanei, Maryam; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country. Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters. A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females) including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%), P. longiductus (13.3%), P. balcanicus (23.3%), P. comatus (3.3%), and Adlerius spp. (13.3%) belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area. The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius.

  8. Sand Flies of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius comatus as a New Record for Iran.

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    Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country.Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters.A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%, P. longiductus (13.3%, P. balcanicus (23.3%, P. comatus (3.3%, and Adlerius spp. (13.3% belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area.The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius.

  9. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

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    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  10. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (Psand flies. PMID:27047974

  11. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver

    2016-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (Pflies.

  12. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Miranda, José Carlos; Caranha, Lindenbergh; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L.) longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL. PMID:22315621

  13. Multiplex-PCR for detection of natural Leishmania infection in Lutzomyia spp. captured in an endemic region for cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Sucre, Venezuela.

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    Jorquera, Alicia; González, Ricardo; Marchán-Marcano, Edgar; Oviedo, Milagros; Matos, Mercedes

    2005-02-01

    We studied the natural infection of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) sp. with Leishmania in endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Paria peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Sand flies were collected between March 2001 and June 2003, using Shannon light-traps and human bait. Of the 1291 insects captured, only two species of phlebotomines were identified: L. ovallesi (82.75%) and L. gomezi (17.42%). A sample of the collected sand flies (51 pools of 2-12 individuals) were analyzed by using a multiplex-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of New Word Leishmaniaand Viannia subgenera. The results showed a total of 8 pools (15.68%) infected; of these, 7 were L. ovallesi naturally infected with L. braziliensis (2 pools) and L. mexicana (5 pools) and 1 pool of L. gomezi infected by L. braziliensis.

  14. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  15. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

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    Maurício Luiz Vilela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO, an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements.

  16. Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps.

  17. Social and Economic Burden of Human Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Leishmaniasis continues to pose a major public health problem worldwide. With new epidemics occurring in endemic areas and the spread of the disease to previously free areas because of migration, tourism, and military activities, there is a great need for the development of an effective vaccine. Leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor, occurring mostly in remote rural villages with poor housing and little or no access to modern health-care facilities. In endemic areas, diagnosis of any form of leishmaniasis puts a huge financial strain on an already meagre financial resource at both the individual and community levels. Most often families need to sell their assets (land and livestock) or take loans from informal financial outfits with heavy interest rates to pay for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. Here, we discuss the disease with special emphasis on its socioeconomic impact on the affected individual and community. In addition, we highlight the reasons why continued research aimed at developing an effective Leishmania vaccine is necessary. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence- based detection of leishmania infection of sand flies in recently emerged endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Badzohreh, Abdollah; Sarkari, Bahador; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Kalantari, Mohsen; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Ali-Akbarpour, Mohsen

    2013-06-01

    Geographical distribution of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) has continuously been extended in recent years in Iran. The Beiza District is one of the newly-emerged endemic foci of ZCL in southern Iran. The main aim of the present study was to detect the vector(s) of ZCL in this area. To detect the fauna and vectors of ZCL in this district, sand flies were caught using sticky papers. Seventy randomly selected female sand flies out of 730 were molecularly investigated for Leishmania infection using species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay between April and October 2010. A total of 2543 sand flies were caught. The fauna was identified as 10 species (five Phlebotomus spp. and five Sergentomyia spp.). Phlebotomus papatasi was the most dominant species both indoors and outdoors (37.55% and 16.35 %, respectively). L. major was detected in 5 out of 48 investigated Phlebotomus papatasi (10.41%). Sequence-based characterization was carried out to confirm the PCR findings. The positive samples were shown to have 75-88% similarity with L. major sequences in GenBank. According to the findings of the present study, similar to the other foci of ZCL in Iran, P. papatasi is the proven and primary vector of CL. This study could be drawn upon for future strategy planning in this newly emerged endemic focus.

  19. Physiological Age Structure and Leishmania spp. Detection in Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis (Parrot, 1936) (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northern Ethiopia.

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    Gebresilassie, Araya; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar David; Aklilu, Essayas; Yared, Solomon; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is endemic in northern Ethiopia, where P. orientalis is the most important presumed vector. This study was designed to determine the physiological age structure and the occurrence of Leishmania infection in the vector of VL in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps from peridomestic and agricultural fields between May 2011 and April 2012 and P. orientalis females were dissected for age determination and detection of Leishmania promastigotes. Sand flies were also analyzed for L. donovani detection using molecular methods. Of 1,282 P. orientalis examined for abdominal stages and age characterization, 66.2%, 28.2%, 4.1%, and 1.6% were unfed, freshly fed, half-gravid, and gravid. Parous rate in unfed females was 34.1% and 35.4% in peridomestic and agricultural fields, respectively. Out of 921 P. orientalis females dissected, one specimen (0.1%) was found naturally infected with promastigotes. Five pools (25 females) of unfed P. orientalis were also found with DNA of Leishmania spp. In particular, a single P. orientalis was positive for L. donovani (0.5%). Based on this and other evidences (abundance, human blood feeding, and xenodiagnostic studies), P. orientalis is the principal vector of VL in this endemic focus.

  20. A case of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis in a post-partum woman

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    Claudia Colomba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand fly bites endemic in rural or periurban areas of the Mediterranean basin. Pregnancy is accompanied by changes in immune response, mainly a decrease in cellular immunity and a proportional increase in humoral immunity. These physiological events result in increased risk of infection by pathogens whose immunity is based on a T-helper 1 predominant response. We describe a case of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in a post-partum woman four days after delivery. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis should be considered in pregnant women with fever and haematologic abnormalities in endemic regions or if a history of exposure in endemic areas is reported.

  1. Karyosystematic and morphometric characterization of the rodents as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani Bidabadi, L; Nilforoushzadeh, M A; Akhavan, A A; Abdoli, H; Siadat, A H; Jaffary, F; Hejazi, S H; Shareghi, N; Ghanei, M; Arandian, M; Moradi, S H

    2009-03-01

    Rodents belonging to Gerbillinae subfamily are the main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Iran. Regarding the important role of these rodents in the maintenance of Leishmania major in the nature, their identification with morphometric, cytogenetic and molecular methods seems to be essential. The karyotype study of these species, captured from a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the south of Isfahan Province was carried out in 2007. Twenty specimens containing seventeen Meriones persicus and three Nesokia indica were captured from Mobarakeh rural district south of Isfahan. Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these two species were prepared from bone marrow chromosome preparations. Systematic important characters of the body and cranium (incisors, molars, occipitonasal, condylobasal, zygomatic, tympanic bullae, etc.) of these rodents were studied. Cranium size was measured using a Vernier calipers. Specimens of M. persicus and N. indica had 2n = 42. The karyotype study of these species included metacentric, sub-metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes. Morphological studies were completely matched with the reported characters of these species and further confirmed the diagnoses. Based on the results of this study, M. persicus and N. indica are two completely differentiated rodents species that were collected from a new focus and they can also be differentiated morphologically.

  2. Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Melchior, Leonardo Augusto Kohatsu; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cardoso, Cristiane de Oliveira; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-04-13

    The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN), and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0%) and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3%) were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro's skin test predominated (66.4%), with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia

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    Andreia Fernandes Brilhante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN, and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0% and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3% were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro’s skin test predominated (66.4%, with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.

  4. Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. χ2 test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ≤ 0.01). PMID:23918217

  5. Occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Phlebotominae) and canine visceral leishmaniasis in a rural area of Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Julio Cesar Pereira; Silva, Diogo Tiago da; Martins, Kennya Rozy Real; Rodas, Lílian Aparecida Colebrusco; Alves, Maria Luana; Faria, Glaucia Amorim; Buzutti, Marcelo Costa; Silva, Hélio Ricardo; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis and also the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in a rural area of Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo. Blood samples were collected from 32 dogs from different rural properties (small farms) and were analyzed by ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) in order to diagnose CVL. From these serological tests, 31.25% of the dogs were positive for CVL and these were distributed in 66.7% (8/12) of the rural properties, which were positive for L. longipalpis. CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) light traps were installed in 12 properties (one per property) and insects were caught on three consecutive days per month for one year. L. longipalpis was present on 100% of the rural properties visited, at least once during the twelve-month interval, totaling 64 males and 25 females. The insects were more numerous after the peak of the rain, but the association between prevalence of peridomestic vectors and the climatic data (precipitation, relative air humidity and temperature) and the occurrences of CVL among dogs on each rural property were not statistical significant (p longipalpis indicate that more attention is necessairy for the control of this disease in the rural area studied.

  6. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran

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    MohammadReza Jalilnavaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Do­mestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evalua­tion of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies.Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were trans­ferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or un­fed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope.Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (P< 0.0001. The blood feeding inhibition was 75.0–87.0 % and 41.0–46.0 % for the control and treated dogs (P< 0.0001, respectively.The total mortality rate was 94.0–100 % and 19.0–58.0 % respectively for the treated and control groups (P< 0.001.Conclustion: Application of pour-on flumethrin on dogs caused 90–100 % mortality until 2.5 month and inhibited the blood-feeding of sand flies. 

  7. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  8. The traditional and conventional medical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Ecuador Los tratamientos médicos tradicional y convencional de la leishmaniasis cutánea en una zona rural de Ecuador

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    M. Margaret Weigel

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the knowledge, beliefs, and practices (KBPs regarding cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL treatment held by an endemic population in Ecuador. Methods. A follow-up to research done several years before, this study used random cluster sampling to select 529 adults who lived in rural northwestern Ecuador. Data were collected over a 24-month period using in-depth interviews supplemented with qualitative methods. Results. Most of the subjects were familiar with CL. The interviewed persons described a large, diverse ethnomedical treatment inventory. Contrary to expectations, few treatment KBPs were predicted by gender, age, or prior CL experience. Factors reported as important in treatment decisions included female reproductive status, CL "type" (perceived form of the illness, lesion location, number of other infected household members, cost of the various treatments, treatment availability, and perceived treatment effectiveness. Subjects' strong motivation for prompt treatment appeared to be associated with beliefs regarding the inability of CL lesions to heal spontaneously, the disease's propensity to progress into fatal illnesses, and disfigurement. Despite increased familiarity with Glucantime® (meglumine antimonate, the conventional pentavalent antimonial drug used to treat CL in Ecuador, the proportion of subjects who had used it in their treatment remained low (20% while the prevalence of premature drug discontinuance appeared to have doubled in comparison to our earlier study. Conclusions. By itself, increased access to Glucantime® is unlikely to increase usage of the drug and to reduce its frequent premature discontinuance unless public health planners accommodate the health and illness world views of local populations. Efficacy and safety studies should be undertaken to investigate promising traditional remedies as possible alternatives to Glucantime®.Objetivo. Investigar los conocimientos, creencias y pr

  9. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results

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    Ana Denise Fuenzalida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97% and Lutzomyia migonei (3% were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in both months. In January, the variable that most influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale.

  10. Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil

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    Kalidia Felipe de Lima Costa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regarding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, and significance was determined using chi-square (χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032. Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

  11. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis

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    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. METHODS The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. FINDINGS A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region. PMID:28327794

  12. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves de; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-04-01

    Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region.

  13. The effect of education based on the theory of planned behavior on preventive behaviors of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in mothers living in endemic city of Natanz

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    MH Baghianimoghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the limited studies conducted on the educational interventions to change the preventive behaviors of cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL as well as mothers' critical role in creating and maintaining these behaviors, this study aimed to determine the impact of education based on theory of planned behavior on preventive behaviors of CL in mothers living in endemic city of Natanz. Methods: In this case experimental study, two health care centers in endemic areas of CL were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. Using list of mothers covered by each center, 80 patients were selected by simple random sampling, who were required to complete a questionnaire that has been designed based on the theory of planned behavior, and its reliability and validity had been confirmed in the previous studies. Then 4 sessions were held for the experimental group mothers and 2 training sessions were held for people who influenced them, whereas control group received no interventions. Two months after training intervention, the study data were collected again and were analyzed using the SPSS software (ver. 18 via independent statistical t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Mann Whitney tests. Results: Before the intervention, no significant differences were observed between the mean scores of different constructs of this theory in the two groups (p>0/005. Though after intervention, a significant increase was observed (p<0/005 in the mean score of knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention and action of groups and in control group, only a significant increase was observed in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude (p<0/005. Conclusions: As the findings of the present study revealed, training based on theory of planned behavior can promote preventive behaviors of CL in mothers.

  14. Molecular detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in phlebotomine sandflies from a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in northwestern of São Paulo State, Brazil.

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    Dos Santos Brighente, Kate Bastos; Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Motoie, Gabriela; da Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Cristina; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2018-01-29

    This study identified the natural infection rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies collected in a neighborhood around a kennel, in Dracena, northwestern of São Paulo state. This region is highly endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Insects were captured during 2-3 nights monthly for 11 months (January-November 2012) using 10 automatic light traps around a kennel in a transition between periurban and urban neighborhood. Capture aimed the determination of the minimal infection rate (MIR) on the area. A total of 1690 Lu. longipalpis were captured during the studied period. Out of them, 292 (17.25%) were females and were grouped in 165 pools containing 1 to five insects for DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Positive results for L. (L) infantum in conventional PCR and real time PCR were shown in 7.28% (12/165) and 4.85% (8/165) of the analysis respectively. These data confirm that Lu. longipalpis captured in the study area were infected by L. (L.) infantum. The MIR of sandflies during the 11 months of captures was 4.10% for female the total of 292 female sandflies collected. A high DNA concentration of L. (L.) infantum was detected on sandflies especially in kennel, chicken coop and neighboring houses, where higher abundance of hosts for blood source were present. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Maria Marassa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai, which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%, pig (47.4% and 26.4%, chicken (25.7% and 36.8% and dog (3.9% and 0%, and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043. Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  16. The Seminested PCR Based Detection of Leishmania infantum Infection in Asymptomatic Dogs in a New Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran

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    Y Rassi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar is a serious health problem in some northern and south western parts of Iran. The incidence of kala-azar caused by Leishmania infantum has recently increased in Nourabad-Mamassani district of Fars Province, in the south of the country. This study was designed to determine the role of asymptomatic dogs as host reservoir of L. infantum in this new formed focus and detection of prevalence of infection near them. A total of 20 as¬ymptomatic stray and sheep dogs were randomly sampled. The Buffy coat layer of their peripheral blood was used for DNA extraction and PCR. A species specific seminested PCR was used for DNA amplification using LINR4, LIN17 and LIN19 primers. These primers amplified variable area of the minicircle kDNA of Leishmania parasites. Of the 20 sampled dogs checked for leishmanial kDNA, six (30% were found naturally infected. It is concluded that, dogs (Canis familiaris even if asympto¬matic, is considered as the domestic host reservoir of kala-azar in this endemic focus.

  17. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, Solomon; Gebresilassie, Araya; Akililu, Essayas; Deribe, Kebede; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-12-01

    The Leishmaniases are caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are widely distributed in different parts of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies from Kafta Humera to Gondar town in northwest Ethiopia. Seven localities were selected with distinct altitudinal variations between 550m above sea level (m a.s.l) and 2300m a.s.l. In each locality, sand flies were collected using standard CDC light traps and sticky traps during the active sand fly season from December 2012 to May 2013. Shannon-Weiner species diversity index and Jaccard's coefficient were used to estimate species diversity and similarity between altitudes and localities, respectively. A total of 89,044 sand flies (41,798 males and 47, 246 females) were collected from the seven localities/towns throughout the study period. Twenty-two species belonging to 11 species in the genus Phlebotomus and 11 species in the genus Sergentomyia were documented. Of these, Sergentomyia clydei (25.87%), S. schwetzi (25.21%), S. africana (24.65%), S. bedfordi (8.89%), Phlebotomus orientalis (6.43%), and S. antennata (4.8%) were the most prevalent species. The remaining 10 Phlebotomus species and six Sergentomyia were less frequent catches. In CDC light trap and sticky trap, higher species diversity and richness for both male and female sand flies was observed at low altitude ranging from 550 to 699m a.s.l in Adebay village in Kafta Humera district whereas low species richness and high evenness of both sexes were also observed in an altitude 1950-2300m a.s.l. The results revealed that the presence of leishmaniasis vectors such as P. orientalis, P. longipes, P. papatasi, and P. duboscqi in different altitudes in northwest Ethiopia. P. orientalis a vector of L. donovani, occurred between altitude 500-1100m

  18. Ecological Aspects of Phebotomine (Diptera, Psychodidae in an Endemic Area of Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in the Northeastern Argentina, 1993-1998

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    Oscar D Salomón

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The first epidemic tegumentary leishmaniasis´ outbreak in the province of Misiones was recorded in 1998, in the locality of Puerto Esperanza. Phlebotominae collected in the region, previously or simultaneously to the outbreak (September 1993-December 1998 showed that the species Lutzomyia intermedia s. l. was prevalent (94%, n 6,150 at all the sites sampled with miniature light trap (10 and Shannon trap (3. L. pessoai, L. whitmani, L. migonei, L. shannoni, L. fischeri, L. misionensis, Brumptomyia avellari and B. guimaraesi were also captured. Sand fly distribution in time and space suggests that in the province of Misiones (1 the species already present before 1990 could give rise to the epidemic by the density/dispersion fluctuation of their local populations; (2 the abundance of L. intermedia s. l. was associated with environments with ecotones of primary-secondary vegetation, close to water bodies and with moderate human disturbance; (3 this species showed, towards the end of 1997, peaks of exceptional abundance, subsequent to rainfall peaks in 1996. This increase in abundance of potential vector sand fly populations close to houses with colonizable surroundings could have generated the 1998 epidemic outbreak.

  19. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

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    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sero-prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL among dogs in VL endemic areas of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh

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    Ariful Islam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL among street and owned dogs at Trishal Upazila of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Blood was collected asceptically from targeted dogs and serum was separated out using standard centrifigation method. The rK39-antigen-based dipstick test was used to detect anti-leishmania antibodies in serum. Results: The study revealed that 35% of the dogs in the study area were sero-positive for L. donovani. Living status of the dogs (street or owned was a potential risk factor and sero-prevalence was significantly higher in free roaming street dogs (P=0.009 and dogs with skin lesions and enlarged lymph nodes (P<0.05. The female and adult dogs were more susceptible. Conclusion: VL is an important zoonotic disease wich is transmissible to humans by the bite of phlebotomine sand fly. Dogs are the main reservoir. The higher sero-prevalence of VL indicates the potential rule of dogs to maintain the zoonosis wich need to be explored more specifically by isolation and typing of the parasite. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 241-248

  1. Species composition of sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic foci, Morocco.

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    Boussaa, Samia; Kahime, Kholoud; Samy, Abdallah M; Salem, Abdelkrim Ben; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-02-02

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in Morocco. Leishmania major and L. tropica are the main culprits identified in all endemic foci across the country. These two etiological agents are transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, the two most prevalent sand fly species in Morocco. Previous studies reflected gaps of knowledge regarding the environmental fingerprints that affect the distribution of these two potential vectors across Morocco. The sand flies were collected from 48 districts across Morocco using sticky paper traps. Collected specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol for further processing and identification. Male and female densities were calculated in each site to examine their relations to the environmental conditions across these sites. The study used 19 environmental variables including precipitation, aridity, elevation, soil variables and a composite representing maximum, minimum and mean of day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A total of 11,717 specimens were collected during this entomological survey. These specimens represented 11 species of two genera; Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia. Correlations of the sand fly densities with the environmental variables were estimated to identify the variables which influence the distribution of the two potential vectors, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, associated with all CL endemic foci across the country. The density of P. papatasi was most affected by temperature changes. The study showed a significant positive correlation between the densities of both sexes of P. papatasi and night-time temperatures. Both P. papatasi and P. sergenti showed a negative correlation with aridity, but, such correlation was only significant in case of P. papatasi. NDVI showed a positive correlation only with densities of P. sergenti, while, soil PH and soil water stress were negatively correlated with the

  2. Case report: An unusual case of mucosal leishmaniasis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan is endemic for visceral, cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis. The latter is the least common of the three forms of leishmaniasis. It is caused by L. donovani, the same parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the country. Most of the cases were reported from VL endemic areas, the majority in adults.

  3. Knowledge about sandflies in relation to public and domestic control activities of kala-azar in rural endemic areas of Bihar.

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    Kumar, Narendra; Siddiqui, N A; Verma, R B; Das, P

    2009-06-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) control is a global cause of concern. To identify the gaps in People's knowledge/awareness about sand flies and control activities of kala-azar in rural endemic areas of Bihar, this study consisting of 450 respondents with 288 male and 162 female was carried out. The result showed that 95% respondents had heard about the disease up to some extent, but majority respondents were neither aware about the vector of kala-azar, nor they had any idea about transmission of the disease. About 61% had wrong impression that mosquitoes were causing kala-azar. Regarding knowledge about breeding and resting sites of vectors, 20% reported cattle shed, 16% crevices in the household followed by 15% damp dark places. The attitude of respondents towards vector control programme was poor, as 99% lost faith in the DDT spraying because of ineffectiveness, like no reduction in mosquito nuisance. Bed net was considered the best protection method against sand fly or mosquito nuisance but the cost was considered the major constraint in its use. Proper health education programme in Simple and local language along with visual demonstration should be promoted to enhance the awareness and co-operation at community level.

  4. Comparison of two commercial vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from endemic areas: IgG, and subclasses, parasitism, and parasite transmission by xenodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Consuelo Barreto; Junior, Jairo Torres Magalhães; de Jesus, Clauceane; Souza, Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Tavares Veras, Patricia Sampaio; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2014-03-05

    The incidence of zoonotic canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would decrease if dogs were effectively vaccinated; however, additional data on the efficacy of canine vaccines are required for their approved preventative use. To prospectively evaluate vaccination outcomes using two products commercially available in Brazil, with respect to adverse reactions (reactogenicity), humoral response, disease signs, parasitism, and parasite infectiousness in naturally exposed pet dogs in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). From 2010 to 2012, healthy dogs were vaccinated with Leishmune(®) (50 animals) or Leish-Tec(®) (50 animals). Each dog was examined to identify clinical signs during peri- and post-vaccination procedures every 2 months for 11 months to identify the presence of parasites or parasite DNA in splenic samples using culturing or PCR, respectively. Levels of anti-Leishmania IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 were quantified in sera by ELISA and infectiousness was assessed by xenodiagnosis. Adverse effects occurred in 2.2% (1/45) and 13.0% (6/46) of the animals in the Leishmune(®) and Leish-Tec(®) groups, respectively. IgG levels peaked on the 21st day following the first dose of Leishmune(®) and on the 21st day after the second dose of Leish-Tec(®). The final seropositivity rate for IgG was 32.5% (13/40) and 30.9% (13/42) in the Leishmune(®) and Leish-Tec(®) groups, respectively. The Leishmune(®) group presented higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2 compared to the Leish-Tec(®) group (p<0.001), and ELISA reactivity in both vaccinated groups was significantly lower (p<0.001) than in infected positive control dogs. Parasitism was observed in 12.2% (5/41) of the Leishmune(®) group, and 7.9% (3/38) of the Leish-Tec(®) group, with xenodiagnostic transmission rates of Leishmania to Lutzomyia longipalpis of 5.1% (2/39), and 5.4% (2/37), respectively. No significant differences were observed in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) or Leish-Tec(®), with respect to LVC

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON CANINE POPULATION WITH THE USE OF IMMUNOLEISH SKIN TEST IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF HUMAN AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Elizabeth Gloria O. Barbosa Santos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey for canine tegumentary leishmaniasis (CTL has been carried out between 1986 and 1993 in seven endemic localities for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 270 dogs have been examined for their clinical aspects, the development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS with Immunoleish antigen and with immunofluorescent antibody research of IgG (IF. 28.2% of them had ulcer lesions and 3.3% had scars. The lesions consisted of single (39.5% and mucocutaneous lesions (31.6%, multiple cutaneous (25.0% and mucocutaneous lesions associated with cutaneous ulcers (4.0%. Twelve (15.8% isolates from biopsies were analyzed by zimodeme and schizodeme and identified as L. (V. braziliensis. The overall prevalence of canine infection that was evaluated with the skin test was of 40.5% and with IF it was of 25.5%. Both tests showed a high positive rate with relation to the animals with mucosal lesions, as in the case of human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The comparison of the two tests showed the skin test to have a better performance although there was no statistical difference (p>0.05 between them. The proportional sensitivity and specificity was of 84.0% and 74.0%, respectively. The Immunoleish skin test and IF are useful tools to be employed in CTL field epidemiological surveys.Um inquérito epidemiológico em população canina foi realizado em 7 localidades endêmicas de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA entre os anos de 1986 a 1993, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Duzentos e setenta cães foram examinados, segundo os parâmetros: clínicos, desenvolvimento de hipersensibilidade tardia e dosagem de anticorpos por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. 28,2% dos animais possuíam lesões e 3,3% eram portadores de cicatrizes compatíveis com infecção prévia de Leishmania sp. De um total de 98 lesões ulceradas detectadas, 39,5% eram cutâneas únicas, 25,0% lesões cutâneas múltiplas, 31,6% lesões de mucosa e 4,0% lesões de

  6. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico.

  7. Species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Tahtay Adiyabo district, Northern Ethiopia.

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    Gebresilassie, Araya; Kirstein, Oscar David; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-04-25

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. orientalis in the VL endemic focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps (n = 602), sticky traps (n = 9,350) and indoor pyrethrum spray catches (n = 578 house visits) from indoor, peri-domestic and agricultural field habitats between May 2011 to April 2012. All sand fly specimens collected were identified to species level and counted. In total, 100,772 sand fly specimens, belonging to 25 sand fly species (nine Phlebotomus and sixteen Sergentomyia) were collected and identified. S. africana and P. orientalis made up 59.1% and 23.5% of the collected sand flies, respectively. As it could be determined from the proportion of collections from outdoor (peri-domestic and agricultural fields) and indoor locations, P. orientalis appears to exhibit increased exophilic behavior. The outdoor to indoor index was 79:1 on m(2) of sticky traps. Mean density of P. orientalis caught was significantly higher on horizontally placed sticky traps (mean = 60 ± 14.56/m(2)/night) than vertically deployed sticky traps (12 ± 3.57/m(2)/night). The highest abundance of P. orientalis occurred between March and April. Through July to September, there was a sharp decline in abundance of P. orientalis population. Regarding climatic variables, P. orientalis density in light traps and on sticky traps showed a significant positive and negative association with temperature and relative humidity, respectively. However, non-significant negative correlation was observed with rainfall pattern. Overall, P. orientalis was found to be the most abundant Phlebotomus species, showing marked seasonal abundance that mainly

  8. Iodization of village water supply in the control of endemic iodine deficiency in rural Sarawak, Malaysia.

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    Foo, L C; Zainab, T; Goh, S Y; Letchuman, G R; Nafikudin, M; Doraisingam, P; Khalid, B

    1996-09-01

    A simple water iodizing system, which incorporates the Venturi principle in combination with the controlled release mechanism of a silicone-sodium iodide elastomer, for the iodization of rural piped-water supply in the control of endemic iodine deficiency has been developed and its effectiveness evaluated in three Iban longhouse villages in the iodine-deficient district of Lubok Antu, Sarawak. Urines were collected for iodine assays from women aged 15-40 years before and at 6 and 12 months after the connection of the iodinating device; goiter assessment was performed on the women at the start and end of the 1-year study. Water samples were collected for iodine assays at 2-weekly intervals. In all three villages, significant and sustained increases in median urinary iodine excretions, reaching levels recommended for an iodine-sufficient population, were observed; goitre prevalences were reduced in all the villages (by 22.6% to 35.8%). The iodine levels in the water ranged from 34 micrograms/l to 212 micrograms/L. In the control village, median urinary iodine excretions remained essentially unchanged but a small increase in goiter prevalence was observed. The iodized water was well received by the villagers and no adverse effects of water iodization were observed. The system functioned unattended throughout the one year period. The cost of providing supplemental iodine via the iodizing device is approximately 60 cents (U.S.) per family per year which is affordable by either the Government or the villagers. It is concluded that the iodizing system offers a new cost-effective strategy for the control of endemic iodine deficiency in Sarawak and may have applications in other areas with similar water sources.

  9. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Antonio; dos-Santos, Claudiney B.; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Pinto, Israel de-Souza; Fux, Blima; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2017-01-01

    Background Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein–saponin vaccine (Leish-tec®) had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations. Methodology/Principal findings This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months), which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months). After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016) between the vaccinated (27%) and unvaccinated (42%) dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of

  10. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates.

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    Gabriel Grimaldi

    Full Text Available Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein-saponin vaccine (Leish-tec® had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations.This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months, which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months. After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016 between the vaccinated (27% and unvaccinated (42% dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of vaccine recipients developed

  11. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Dos-Santos, Claudiney B; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Pinto, Israel de-Souza; Fux, Blima; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2017-01-01

    Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein-saponin vaccine (Leish-tec®) had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations. This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months), which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months). After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016) between the vaccinated (27%) and unvaccinated (42%) dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of vaccine recipients developed disease over

  12. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227, 10 to 12 years (n = 153, 13 to 15 years (n = 92, 16 to 22 years (n = 39. For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF, dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0 and severity (TF 5. In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05. The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  13. Urinary schistosomiasis in school aged children of two rural endemic communities in Edo State, Nigeria.

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    Noriode, Rukeme M; Idowu, Emmanuel T; Otubanjo, Olubunmi A; Mafe, Margaret A

    2017-09-29

    Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in many rural communities of Nigeria and school aged children are mostly affected. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection among 251 school aged children in two communities of Ovia South West LGA of Edo State, Nigeria, as well as their knowledge on the control/elimination measures. Urine samples were collected and examined by microscopy using filtration technique. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted among school-aged children and health care providers, probing their knowledge, attitude and practices on on-going control activities. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the school-aged children was 65.3%. The prevalence was generally higher among females (68.8%) and children in the age groups 10-14 (69.9%). The intensity of infection ranged from 1 to 5044 (mean=449.8) eggs/10ml of urine with a higher proportion having heavy infections (76.8%, P<0.05). Water contact was attested by 123 (49.0%) of the children; of these 123, 74 (60.1%) were infected. The children's knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis was deficient. The high prevalences reported in these communities require integrated approach to control which essentially should incorporate the provision of safe water supply and sanitary facilities, and health education in addition to the annual mass praziquantel distribution, to reduce transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Amazonia: a comparison of sex-biased incidence among rural settlers and field biologists.

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    Soares, Letícia; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is more frequently reported in men than in women; this may be due to male-biased exposure to CL vectors, female-biased resistance against the disease or both. We sought to determine whether gender-specific exposure to vector habitats explains male-biased CL incidence in two human populations of central Amazonia. We compared the CL incidence in one population of field researchers (N = 166), with similar exposure for males and females, and one population of rural settlers (N = 646), where exposure is overall male-biased. We used a combination of questionnaires and clinical data to quantify CL cases, and modelled disease incidence in a Bayesian framework. There was a moderately higher incidence of CL among men than among women in both populations, but male bias decreased as exposure time increased. Disease incidence was overall higher among field researchers, suggesting that they are an important but understudied CL risk group. Our comparison of two contrasting populations provided epidemiological evidence that CL incidence can be male-biased even when exposure is comparable in both sexes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis in rural communities of Amhara State: a longitudinal study in northwest Ethiopia.

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    Noemí López-Perea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009 and at the end (February 2011 of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001, knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001, and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001. Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall.

  16. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stebut, E; Sunderkötter, C

    2007-05-01

    Infections with Leishmania are increasing worldwide because of tourism and job-related travel; central Europe is no exception. Infections often first become apparent after return from an endemic region. Depending on the Leishmania species and the host immune status, different forms of cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) (L. brasiliensis complex) or visceral leishmaniasis (L. donovani as well as L. infantum) may develop. CL may heal spontaneously with scarring but can evolve into diffuse CL (with reduced immune response to L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis, L. mexicana or L. aethiopica) or into recurrent CL. Diagnostic criteria include travel to an endemic area as well as ulcerated plaques or nodules on an exposed site which show no tendency towards healing over 3-4 weeks. Differential diagnostic considerations include ecthyma, other infectious ulcers, and malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding Leishmania in a smear or tissue biopsy, as well as by culture. Therapy options range from topical treatment of simple CL of the Old World caused by L. major to systemic therapy which is needed for most complex cases of CL as well as MCL. Miltefosine is a less toxic option to replace the antimony compounds.

  17. Isolation and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis species by PCR-RFLP in Ilam province, the west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanjani, Ali; Akhlaghi, Lame; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Hadighi, Ramtin

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most common parasitic diseases and public health problems in Iran. CL is endemic in most parts of Ilam province, in the west of Iran. The distance from the center of country, the great number of divers rural areas, and lack of specialists and laboratory facilities have been the major causes of Leishmania species remaining unknown in this region. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to identify the Leishmania species in 61 patients with cutaneous lesions. Eventually L. major was confirmed as the cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilam province, the west of Iran.

  18. Fatores relacionados com a positividade de cães para leishmaniose visceral em área endêmica do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Factors related to positive testing of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in endemic area in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou descrever alguns fatores relacionados à positividade de cães para leishmaniose visceral, em área endêmica do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram analisados 198 cães, dos quais 62 foram recrutados de propriedades rurais e 136 de residências urbanas. O diagnóstico foi realizado através dos testes de imunofluorescência indireta e imunoadsorção enzimática. Dos cães analisados, 45% dos positivos eram provenientes da área rural e 35% da área urbana. Analisando a função dos animais, a prevalência foi de 50% dos cães de guarda nas áreas rural e de 43% na área urbana. Quanto aos cães que tinham contato com outros cães de origem rural ou urbana, a prevalência observada de foi 54% e 32%, respectivamente. No que se refere ao sexo, as fêmeas da zona rural foram mais prevalentes. Estes resultados sugerem uma atenção maior sobre o papel destes animais como reservatório dessa zoonose, como também na urbanização da leishmaniose visceral e o inquérito epidemiológico desta doença, no qual estas informações poderão contribuir para o planejamento de estratégias de controle do cão como reservatório doméstico.This study aimed at describing several factors related to positive testing of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis, in an endemic area of the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Sera of 198 dogs were analyzed, 62 from rural properties and 136 from urban residences. Diagnosis was performed through indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty five percent of positive dogs were from the rural area and 35% came from the urban area. Concerning the analysis of dogs' function, the watchdogs showed greater prevalence, with 50% prevalence in the rural area and 43% in the urban area. With regard to contact with other dogs and origin in rural or urban areas, the prevalence was 54% and 32% respectively. In relation to gender, females from the rural area were more prevalent. These results

  19. Leishmaniasis — Surprise from the East

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    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 4-year-old child is presented in the article. The child came to the Crimea from area where leishmaniasis is endemic — Republic of Uzbekistan. Clinical case is interesting for consideration in terms of differential diagnosis of specific rash.

  20. Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients from rural Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosoma mansoni is endemic.

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    Opio, Christopher Kenneth; Kazibwe, Francis; Ocama, Ponsiano; Rejani, Lalitha; Belousova, Elena Nikolaevna; Ajal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis is a common cause of episodes upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is paucity of data on clinical epidemiology of episodes of UGIB from rural Africa despite on going public health interventions to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. Through a cross sectional study we profiled lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and associated factors at a rural primary health facility in sub-Saharan Africa were schistosomiasis is endemic. The main outcome was number of lifetime episodes of UGIB analyzed as count data. From 107 enrolled participants, 323 lifetime episodes of UGIB were reported. Fifty-seven percent experienced ≥ 2 lifetime episodes of UGIB. Ninety-four percent had severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis and 80% esophageal varices. Alcohol use and viral hepatitis was infrequent. Eighty-eight percent were previously treated with praziquantel and 70% had a history of blood transfusion. No patient had ever had an endoscopy or treatment for prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding. Multivariable analysis identified a cluster of eight clinical factor variables (age ≥ 40, female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated (P-value < 0.05) with increased probability of experiencing two or more lifetime episodes of UGIB in our study. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common health problem in this part of rural SSA where schistosomiasis is endemic. The clinical profile described is unique and is important for improved case management, and for future research.

  1. The history of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2017-02-15

    In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented. Ancient documents and paleoparasitological data indicate that leishmaniasis was already widespread in antiquity. Identification of Leishmania parasites as etiological agents and sand flies as the transmission vectors of leishmaniasis started at the beginning of the 20 th century and the discovery of new Leishmania and sand fly species continued well into the 21 st century. Lately, the Syrian civil war and refugee crises have shown that leishmaniasis epidemics can happen any time in conflict areas and neighbouring regions where the disease was previously endemic.

  2. Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission.

  3. Introducing Single Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bangladesh: Feasibility and Acceptance to Patients and Health Staff

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    Eva-Maria Maintz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh, single dose liposomal amphotericin B (ambisome is supposed to be the safest and most effective treatment. Specific needs for application and storage raise questions about feasibility of its implementation and acceptance by patients and health staff. Methods. The study was carried out in the most endemic district of Bangladesh. Study population includes patients treated with ambisome or miltefosine, hospital staff, and a director of the national visceral leishmaniasis program. Study methods include direct observation (subdistrict hospitals, open interviews (heath staff and program personnel, structured questionnaires, and focus group discussions (patients. Results. Politicalcommitment for ambisome is strong; the general hospital infrastructure favours implementation but further strengthening is required, particularly for drug storage below 25°C (refrigerators, back-up energy (fuel for generators, and supplies for ambisome administration (like 5% dextrose solution. Ambisome created high satisfaction in patients and hospital staff, less adverse events, and less income loss for patients compared to miltefosine. Conclusions. High political commitment, general capacities of subdistrict hospitals, and high acceptability favour the implementation of ambisome treatment in Bangladesh. However, strengthening of the infrastructure and uninterrupted supplies of essential accessories is mandatory before introducing sLAB in Bangladesh.

  4. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema: potential area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Pontes, Michelle Cristina de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Fuzari, Andressa Alencaste; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. Phlebotomine captures were conducted during 2008 and 2009 in a rural area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro. Among other species captured, we observed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This is the first report of the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in this region, demonstrating the potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the coastal area of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Therefore, active vigilance by all municipalities in the area is necessary.

  5. A new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central area of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Schnell e Schühli, Guilherme; de Carvalho, Yanê; Marques, Ellen; Pereira, Elisângela de Fátima; Alcantara, Fernanda de Souza; Machado, Angela Maria; Kowalthuk, Wolodymir; Membrive, Norberto; Luz, Ennio

    2009-09-01

    We report a new endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the central area of the State of Paraná (Municipality of Prudentópolis), in southern Brazil. This region was not previously considered endemic for CL, and this work constitutes the first report of CL endemicity there. Leishmaniasis was confirmed by smear, culture, and ELISA. Parasites were isolated and identified by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD). Phylogeographical analysis, based on two different criteria, was able to distinguish between RAPD profiles from different geographical regions. In total, 100 patients were diagnosed with leishmaniasis by culture and serology methods. The reported incidence rate was 4.32%. Of the 100 patients, 92% of the patients had single lesions, and 79.98% of these lesions were located on their limbs. The fact that 61% of patients were male rural workers points to an extradomiciliar type of transmission. In houses where human leishmaniasis was diagnosed, 29% of the dogs presented anti-Leishmania antibodies. A total of 1663 phlebotomines, representing 5 species, were captured in the studied area with CDC-like light minitraps. Lutzomyia intermedia s.l. was the most prevalent species (94.40%). The isolated parasites were grouped with Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The epidemiological implications are discussed in the present article.

  6. Detection of Leishmania spp in silvatic mammals and isolation of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis from Rattus rattus in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

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    Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira

    Full Text Available Knowledge of potential reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in an anthropic environment is important so that surveillance and control measures can be implemented. The aim of this study was to investigate the infection by Leishmania in small mammals in an area located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, that undergoes changes in its natural environment and presents autochthonous human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and visceral leishmaniasis (VL. For the capture of the animals, Sherman and Tomahawk traps were used and distributed in the peridomicile of houses with reports of autochthonous cases of CL or VL. Six catches were carried out on two consecutive nights with intervals of two months during one year and samples of spleen, liver, tail skin, ear skin and bone marrow of the animals were obtained. Parasitological and molecular methods were used to detect the infection. Identification of the Leishmania species was performed by PCR RFLPhsp70. Twenty five animals of four species were captured: ten Rattus rattus, nine Didelphis albiventris, five Cerradomys subflavus and one Marmosops incanus. In the PCR-hsp70, five animals were positive (20%. The Leishmania species identified in PCR-RFLPhsp70 were: Leishmania braziliensis in D. albiventris (2, C. subflavus (1 and R. rattus (1 and Leishmania infantum in R. rattus (1. The highest positivity rate for L. braziliensis was obtained in the liver samples. The spleen was the only tissue positive for L. infantum. It was isolated in culture medium L. braziliensis from two samples (liver and spleen of R. rattus. This is the first record of isolation of L. braziliensis from R. rattus in the southeastern region of Brazil. These results are relevant to the knowledge of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the region, mainly in the investigation of the presence of hosts and possible reservoirs of the parasite.

  7. Leishmaniasis in travelers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; Vitale, Giustina; Cascio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection whose clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Over the last decades, an increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries, have been pointed-out from a review of the international literature. Among the possible causes are increasing international tourism, influx of immigrants from endemic regions and military operations. The main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas, is represented from South America, whereas popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas to acquire visceral variant. Leishmaniasis should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years before. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas, should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leishmaniasis, an emerging infection in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2010-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection with a wide clinical spectrum, which ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. A review of the recent literature indicates a sharp increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries over the last decade, in association with increasing international tourism, military operations, and the influx of immigrants from endemic countries. South America is the main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas are at particular risk. Popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas of acquisition of visceral leishmaniasis for European travelers. Leishmaniasis should be considered in patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years ago. Appropriate counseling should be provided to adventure travelers, military personnel, researchers, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sandflies in endemic areas. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh V; Kumar Joginder

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is considered to be zoonotic disease, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by a bite of infected female sandfly. Primary cutaneous leishmaniasis is not common disease in Nepal, however, there were cases reported from Terai region of Nepal. The patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis present with a papule or nodule at the site of inoculation, followed by formation of crusts. Differential diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis include variety...

  10. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Neurocysticercosis in an Endemic Rural Community in Peru.

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    Luz M Moyano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level.We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454. We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB. We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT of the head.Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9% were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8% had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0% reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic.This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future.

  11. Ecological aspects of the sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study was undertaken to identify determinant factors in the occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil. The ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna were investigated. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled with automatic light traps from February 2004 to June 2006 at 25 sites in the urban and rural areas of Itambaracá, and in Porto Almeida and São Joaquim do Pontal. RESULTS: A total of 3,187 sandflies of 15 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai predominated (34.4%, followed by Pintomyia pessoai (32.6%, Migonemyia migonei (11.6%, Nyssomyia whitmani (8.8%, and Pintomyia fischeri (2.7%, all implicated in the transmission of Leishmania. Males predominated for Ny. neivai, and females for the other vector species, with significant statistical differences (p < 0.001. Nyssomyia neivai, Pi. pessoai, Ny. whitmani, Brumptomyia brumpti, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri presented the highest values for the Standardized Species Abundance Index (SSAI. The highest frequencies and diversities were found in the preserved forest in Porto Almeida, followed by forests with degradation in São Joaquim do Pontal and Vila Rural. CONCLUSIONS: Sandflies were captured in all localities, with the five vectors predominating. Ny. neivai had its highest frequencies in nearby peridomestic environments and Pi. pessoai in areas of preserved forests. The highest SSAI values of Ny. neivai and Pi. pessoai reflect their wider dispersion and higher frequencies compared with other species, which seems to indicate that these two species may be transmitting leishmaniasis in the area.

  12. Diversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Two Different Eco-Climatic and Endemic Zones of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mali, West Africa.

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    Coulibaly, C A; Sissoko, I; Traore, B; Diallo, A; Samake, S; Traore, S F; Doumbia, S

    2016-07-01

    Being the only established vectors of the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, sand flies have become very important in all countries where leishmaniasis exists. To better understand the sand fly fauna, a taxonomic inventory study was carried out between January and March 2012 in Soudan savannah (Boundioba, Sikasso) and Sahelian (Tieneguebougou, Koulikoro) areas of Mali. CDC light traps were used to collect the sand flies. Collected sand flies specimens were cleaned with lacto-phenol and examined under a light microscope for species identification. In total, 14 species belonging to the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia were identified. The genus Sergentomyia constituted 98.05% of collected sand flies versus 1.95% for the genus Phlebotomus. The most abundant species were Sergentomyia dubia Parrot, Mornet, & Cadenat, Sergentomyia shwetzi, Sergentomyia clydei Sinton, and Sergentomyia antennata Newstead. In Boundioba, the genus Phlebotomus was represented by two species (Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu-Lemaire and Phlebotomus rodhaini Parrot), whereas only one species, Ph. duboscqi, was captured in Tieneguebougou. For the first time, three new species, Sergentomyia madagascariensis, Sergentomyia congolensis, and Sergentomyia dureni, were identified in Mali. More investigations are needed for a better entomological assessment of the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the different eco-climatic zones of Mali. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Faunal Distribution and Seasonal Bio-Ecology of Naturally Infected Sand Flies in a New Endemic Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus of Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Parvinjahromi, Hayedeh; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Sarkari, Bahador; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Iran in spite of implementation of control program. This infectious disease caused morbidity in less than 27000 people in 2010. This study was set to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in Fasa district, Fars Province, southern Iran during 2011-2012. A total of 4792 sand flies were captured by means of sticky paper and CDC miniature light traps in 10 selected villages from the beginning to the end of the active season, from which 1115 specimens were captured for abundance study and 3677 specimens captured for monitoring monthly activities in Fasa. After species identification, extracted DNA was processed for detection of Leishmania parasite infection in sand flies. Twelve species (6 Phlebotomus , 6 Sergentomyia ) were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi (82.4%) which represented 86.6% of sand flies from indoors and 82.7% from outdoors. The monthly activity of the species extended from April to the end of November. There were two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in September. Natural infection to L. major was detected in P. papatasi (25 out of 130 sand flies, 19.2%) . Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fasa, Fars Province, south of Iran.

  14. Ecological aspects of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of phlebotomine behavior were investigated in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The insects were captured weekly during December 2003 to November 2005, with Centers for Disease Control light traps at seven different sites including forests and residential areas. In total, 11,024 specimens (7,805 males and 3,219 females) were collected, from which 9,963 (90.38%) were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the proven vector of American visceral leishmaniasis agent. The remaining 9.62% comprised 21 species. L. longipalpis was the most frequent species in all sampled sites, and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index. In residential areas this species clearly predominated in the peridomicile (90.96%), in contrast to the intradomicile (9.04%); in animal shelters, it was more numerous in hen houses and prevailed at ground level, inside, and at forest edge around the residences; this aspect is worrying because this insect may remain sheltered in forested environments during the use of insecticides in homes. In the forest environment, other probable or proven vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis agents were also captured such as Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati), Lutzomyia antunesi (=Nyssomyia antunesi, sensu Galati), and Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (=Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, sensu Galati).

  15. Detection of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis in Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sidi Kacem Province, Northwestern Morocco (2006–2014

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    Aziz El Aasri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Sidi Kacem Province, North-Western Morocco between 2006 and 2014. Methods: The Leishmania parasite (amastigotes was identified by direct microscopic identification after staining. May-Grünwald Giemsa was the method used to diagnose CL in Sidi Kacem Province between 2006 and 2014. The collected data were exploited by using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and the geographical distribution was prepared by the Geographical Information System ArcGIS Version 10.2. Results: From 2006 to 2014, 415 cases of CL were reported in Sidi Kacem area. The incidence of this skin disease that had affected all age groups was 49.1 cases per year and the sex ratio (M/F was 0.85. Children aged 15 to 19 represented the most affected class with more than 28.2% of the study population. Also, CL affected virtually the rural and urban areas but with an uneven incidence. It is more important in rural areas where they were registered 56.85% of cases against 43.15% in urban areas. Conclusions: The retrospective analysis has showed that cutaneous leishmaniasis is still major public health problem in Sidi Kacem Province. Indeed, this disease which presented an evolution according hyperendemic fashion can become endemic to the future in this province which borders the endemic area of Ouazzane. We highlight the cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence through the Sidi Kasem area during the last 8 years (2006-2014.

  17. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries. The cases of leishmaniasis evaluated in the United States reflect travel and immigration patterns. For example, many of the cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in U.S. civilian travelers have been acquired in common tourist ... found in the United States? Not usually. Almost all of the cases of ...

  18. A field study of the survival and dispersal pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Claudio; Pimentel Bergamaschi, Denise

    2018-01-01

    Zoonotic Visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a neglected tropical disease that in the Americas is caused by the infection of Leishmania infantum and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is the main parasite reservoir in urban areas. The parasite is mainly transmitted by populations of the sibling species Lutzomyia longipalpis that has been spreading in countries including Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and more recently Uruguay. Although bionomic parameters such as population survival and the duration of the gonotrophic cycle are critical in evaluating vector capacity, field studies have rarely been applied to sand fly populations. The present study sought to evaluate basic bionomic parameters related to the vectorial capacity of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area of Sao Paulo state. The daily survival rate, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle and the dispersal pattern were evaluated through the mark- release-recapture method. A total of 1,547 males and 401 females were marked and released in five experiments carried out between February 2013 and February 2014. The higher recapture rates occurred within 100 meters of the release point and the estimated daily survival rates varied between 0.69 and 0.89 for females and between 0.69 and 0.79 for males. The minimum duration of the gonotrophic cycle observed was five days. The absolute population size, calculated ranged from 900 to 4,857 females and from 2,882 to 9,543 males. Our results demonstrate a high survival rate of this vector population and low dispersal that could be associated with the presence of all necessary conditions for its establishment and maintenance in the peridomiciles of this area. Our findings contribute to the basic data necessary for the understanding of ZVL dynamics and the evaluation of the implementation of prevention and control measures. PMID:29608563

  19. A field study of the survival and dispersal pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Casanova, Claudio; Pimentel Bergamaschi, Denise; Bianchi Galati, Eunice Aparecida

    2018-04-01

    Zoonotic Visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a neglected tropical disease that in the Americas is caused by the infection of Leishmania infantum and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is the main parasite reservoir in urban areas. The parasite is mainly transmitted by populations of the sibling species Lutzomyia longipalpis that has been spreading in countries including Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and more recently Uruguay. Although bionomic parameters such as population survival and the duration of the gonotrophic cycle are critical in evaluating vector capacity, field studies have rarely been applied to sand fly populations. The present study sought to evaluate basic bionomic parameters related to the vectorial capacity of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area of Sao Paulo state. The daily survival rate, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle and the dispersal pattern were evaluated through the mark- release-recapture method. A total of 1,547 males and 401 females were marked and released in five experiments carried out between February 2013 and February 2014. The higher recapture rates occurred within 100 meters of the release point and the estimated daily survival rates varied between 0.69 and 0.89 for females and between 0.69 and 0.79 for males. The minimum duration of the gonotrophic cycle observed was five days. The absolute population size, calculated ranged from 900 to 4,857 females and from 2,882 to 9,543 males. Our results demonstrate a high survival rate of this vector population and low dispersal that could be associated with the presence of all necessary conditions for its establishment and maintenance in the peridomiciles of this area. Our findings contribute to the basic data necessary for the understanding of ZVL dynamics and the evaluation of the implementation of prevention and control measures.

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chandra Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is considered to be zoonotic disease, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by a bite of infected female sandfly. Primary cutaneous leishmaniasis is not common disease in Nepal, however, there were cases reported from Terai region of Nepal. The patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis present with a papule or nodule at the site of inoculation, followed by formation of crusts. Differential diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis include variety of skin diseases, inflammatory like impetigo, eczema, or granulomatous like sarcoidosis, lupus vulgaris, to skin tumor like basal cell carcinoma & squamous cell carcinoma. There are various procedures and laboratory techniques used to diagnose leishmaniasis. Punch skin biopsy is widely used & popular technique to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis. Different drugs like sodium stibogluconate, sodium antimony gluconate, Amphotericin B and Miltefosine: are used for its treatment. No vaccines are available for prevention. 

  1. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions.

  2. Prophylaxis and treatment of endemic goiter with iodized oil in rural Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, J; Fierro-Benitez, R; Pretell, E A; Stanbury, J B

    1969-12-01

    Endemic goiter is a health problem in many areas of the world; in some areas the disease is so severe that cretinism and other defects are found. In many areas geographic, economic, and other factors prevent the use of iodized salt as a preventive measure. Field studies were begun in 1966 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of parenteral administration of iodized oil in goiter prevention. Studies were carried out in Ecuador and Peru. In Ecuador 2 villages were chosen in which the prevalence of goiter was about 60%; in Peru 3 villages were chosen where incidence was about 50%. Prevalence of goiter decreased for 20 months during the study but then began to rise again with the maximum reduction seen up to age 18 and minimal reduction after 40 years of age. The control groups in the study experienced only slight decreases in rate of incidence. Cretinism has not yet appeared among the progeny of the population injected with iodized oil but several instances have appeared in control groups. The use of iodized oil as a public health procedure for the prevention of endemic goiter and its associated defects is an acceptable measure in regions where salt iodization cannot be done.

  3. Detection of Leishmania major DNA within wild caught Phlebotomus papatasi and species composition of sand flies in endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, A; Rassi, Y; Oshaghi, M A; Sayyadi, M; Rafizadeh, S

    2016-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important public health problem in many developing countries. The present study was conducted to determine the vector(s), the parasite and the species composition of sand flies in the Dehloran County during May-November 2012. Sand flies were collected by sticky traps and mounted in Puri's medium for species identification. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used for identification of DNA of Leishmania parasites in infected sand flies. A total of 82443 specimens comprising 15 species of sand flies (5 Phlebotomus and 10 Sergentomyia) were collected and identified. The species of Phlebotomus papatasi was dominant in outdoor and indoor resting places. Among the 280 specimens of female P. papatasi tested by PCR of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA genes of the parasite followed by RFLP, only 5 of them (1.8 %) were positive to Leishmania major parasites. This is the first molecular detection of leishmania infection of P. papatasi to L. major in this region. The results indicated that, P. papatasi was only species found infected by L. major and the principal vector of disease agent to human.

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to identify host-feeding preferences of Phlebotomus species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Ian; Roy, Lalita; Picado, Albert; Das, Murari; Rijal, Suman; Rogers, Matthew; Coosemans, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive; Cameron, Mary

    2010-09-01

    Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis, transmitted by Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale & Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies, is regarded as a major problem of public health importance in the Indian subcontinent. Understanding the feeding behavior of the vector can be used to investigate changes in human-vector contact during intervention programs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified to make it suitable to identify the origin of P. argentipes and Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) blood meals. The sensitivity and specificity of the precipitin ring test and ELISA were compared, as well as the stability of the tests across different stages of blood meal digestion. The ELISA was more sensitive and specific than the precipitin test for identifying the sources of blood meals. When using the ELISA method with a plate reader, it was possible to obtain 100% sensitivity and specificity. When comparing the techniques across digestion stages, it was found that there was a drop in sensitivity, 48 and 72 h postblood meal for precipitin and visually read ELISA, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA using a plate reader was not altered by the digestion time. The feeding habits of P. argentipes and P. papatasi from the Terai region of Nepal, determined by the ELISA developed, showed P. papatasi to be highly anthropophilic, and P. argentipes appeared to feed both on humans and animals, in particular bovines.

  5. A time series analysis of environmental and metrological factors impact on cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in an endemic area of Dehloran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonahad, Ali; Khorshidi, Ali; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Aval, Hamideh Ebrahimi; Miri, Mohammad; Amarloei, Ali; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Mohammadi, Amir

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the environmental and metrological variables and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission and its prediction in a region susceptible to this disease prevalence using a time series model. The accurate locations of 4437 CL diagnosed from 2011 to 2015 were obtained to be used in the time series model. Temperature, number of days with temperature over 30 °C, and number of earthquake were related to CL incidence using the Seasonal Auto-correlated Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model according to the Box-Jenkins method. In addition, the relationship between land use and surface soil type in 500- and 1000-m radius around the CL patients were investigated. The SARIMA models showed significant associations between environmental and meteorological variables and CL incidence adjusted for seasonality and auto-correlation. The result indicated that there are need more robust preventive programs in earthquake-prone areas with high temperature and inceptisol soil type than other areas. In addition, the region with these characteristics should be considered as high-risk areas for CL prevalence.

  6. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Harman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is used to describe a spectrum of diseases caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania spp. and transmitted by infected female sandflies. There are three main forms of the disease; cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. According to the World Health Organization, almost 12 million people from 98 countries worldwide are currently infected with leishmaniasis, while 350 million people are at risk. It was reported that 2 million new cases are diagnosed every year, with three-fourth are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases. The scientific and medical communities have learnt a lot about CL during the 20th and early 21st centuries. However, the management and control of the disease remains a difficult task. This article was focused on the most common form of the disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and especially its epidemiological aspects and treatment.

  7. Leishmaniasis in northern Cyprus: Human cases and their association with risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruh, Emrah; Bostanci, Aysegul; Kunter, Vasfiye; Tosun, Ozgur; Imir, Turgut; Schallig, Henk; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cyprus is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Region where leishmaniasis is endemic. The primary objective of this study was to investigate human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the northern region of Cyprus where presence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and

  8. Aspects on the Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Guaraí, State of Tocantins, Brazil, Endemic Area for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; de Santana, Antônio Luís Ferreira; Graser, Carina; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Vilela, Maurício Luiz

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) ecology involves a diversity of Leishmania species transmitted by different sand fly species. Workers involved in agricultural activities are those mainly affected by ACL in some regions from Tocantins State (TO), Brazil, where the disease can be established in new settlements. The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and hourly frequency of sand fly species, focusing on the potential vectors of ACL, in a settlement in Guaraí (TO), an ACL transmission area. Sand flies were captured in forested area close to Pedra Branca Agricultural Project settlement, from March 2006 until December 2007, using Shannon trap. Monthly captures were made from 06:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., and 24-h captures were done twice per semester, from 06:00 a.m. to 06:00 a.m. A total of 10,089 specimens from 30 species were identified. Psychodopygus complexus Mangabeira, Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, and Nyssomyia antunesi Coutinho were the most abundant species. Nyssomyia antunesi was more frequent during the dry period, whereas Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi had high frequencies during the rainy season. Precipitation was positively correlated with Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi abundance, and negatively correlated with Ny. antunesi During 24-h captures, the majority of specimens were captured during the night followed by a decrease at dawn. The behavior and previous finding of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis of Ps. complexus led us to the conclusion that this species can be a potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis during the rainy season in Guaraí. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan: an update | El Hassan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L.major is now endemic in many parts of the northern Sudan. In this up-date we discuss the clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis, its diagnosis and treatment. The most common clinical forms are nodular, noduloulcerative and ulcerative lesions. Less common forms are ...

  10. The changing profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in a central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduced to non-endemic areas, leading to the emergence of new zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) foci, provided that ecological conditions such as the presence of potential vectors and reservoir hosts, are in favor of the parasite lifecycle. Therefore, we could hypothesize that zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis had ...

  11. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Important Factors in Maintenance of the disease in the city of Mirassol D'Oeste-Mt

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    Angela Pinheiro Carneiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis was initially considered a disease associated with rural areas, but due to various environmental changes such as deforestation, urbanization, intensive migration process and endemic areas expansion, this disease is affecting humans and animals in urban and rural areas. In Brazil, there are severe endemic and epidemic occurrences of Visceral Leishmaniasis. In recent years the disease has spread through several states that had no cases of infected people and animals. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis coexists with the human disease in all known outbreaks, but is more prevalent in humans. In Mirassol D'Oeste, Mato Grosso, for six consecutive years, cases of sick people have been reported, including deaths. Several serologically positive dogs and the presence of the Visceral Leishmaniasis transmission vectors characterized the city as conducive to disease development. This work aimed at assessing the status of canine visceral leishmaniasis transmission in two sections of Mirassol D'Oeste city, where 38 canine blood samples were collected in each of them and tested by RIFI and ELISA tests. The number of seropositive dogs amounted to 15 animals, 8 living in Jardim São Paulo section and 7, in Planalto section. There were no significant differences between the number of infected dogs in the two sections (x2 = 0.058, p = 0.9712, df = 1. The socioeconomic characteristics examined are distinct and a visible difference in the housing and life quality of residents was also observed. Possibly, these factors may be influencing the maintenance of the disease in Mirassol D'Oeste.

  12. Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Using Deltamethrin Treated Nets in Comparison to Indoors Residual Spraying in a Rural Area of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Rassi, Yavar; Chegeni-Sharafi, Ali; Rostami, Reza; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Abdali, Nargess

    2017-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important vector-borne disease in Iran. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Deltamethrin treated nets in comparison to Indoors Residual Spraying (IRS) for the control of leishmaniasis in a new focal area of Iran. The study was carried out in 5 villages in the west of Iran during 2012-2013. One village was selected to the application of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs, 25 mg/m 2 deltamethrin) among residents. Four other villages were considered for IRS using deltamethrin emulsion, 2.5% EG and Aicon 10WP. Spraying was repeated after 3 month. Other control methods e.g. environmental managements, and treatment of positive cases were carried out in all villages. After 1 yr of trial, the cases of disease reduced from 50 to 2 and 128 to 5 for ITNs distributed nets and use of IRS in the villages, respectively. Reduction of CL cases in both methods were significant ( P <0.001).

  13. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis

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    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  14. Dispersal and survival of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the speleological province of the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice AB Galati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal and survival of the phlebotomines Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (both implicated as vectors of the cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in an endemic area was investigated using a capture-mark-release technique in five experiments from August-December 2003 in municipality of Iporanga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1,749 males and 1,262 females of Ny. intermedia and 915 males and 411 females of Ny. neivai were marked and released during the five experiments. Recapture attempts were made using automatic light traps, aspiration in natural resting places and domestic animal shelters and Shannon traps. A total of 153 specimens (3.48% were recaptured: 2.59% (78/3,011 for Ny. intermedia and 5.35% (71/1,326 for Ny. neivai. Both species were recaptured up to 144 h post-release, with the larger part of them recaptured within 48 h. The median dispersion distances for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were 109 m and 100 m. The greatest dispersal range of Ny. intermedia was 180 m, while for Ny. neivai one female was recaptured in a pasture at 250 m and another in a pigsty at 520 m, showing a tendency to disperse to more open areas. The daily survival rates calculated based on regressions of the numbers of marked insects recaptured on the six successive days after release were 0.746 for males and 0.575 for females of Ny. intermedia and 0.649 for both sexes of Ny. neivai. The size of the populations in the five months ranged from 8,332-725,085 for Ny. intermedia males, 2,193-104,490 for Ny. intermedia females, 1,687-350,122 for Ny. neivai males and 254-49,705 for Ny. neivai females.

  15. Why latrines are not used : communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefevre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Z...

  16. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro Coutinho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 and Belo Horizonte (n = 96, where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP. RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.

  17. Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a patient with MALT lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Nørgaard, Peter; Himmelstrup, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 66-year-old female with a history of MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient presented with major hemorrhage per rectum and perforation of the small intestine. Due to unexplained decreasing platelets, lymphoma bone marrow involvement...... was suspected and bone marrow examination was performed. Surprisingly, Leishman-Donovan bodies were detected. The low platelet count, caused by the combination of MALT lymphoma and visceral leishmaniasis, appears to have aggravated the symptoms of the intestinal lymphoma. Leishmaniasis should be suspected even...... among asymptomatic patients with immune compromising illnesses and a travel history to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic....

  18. Leishmaniose tegumentar em uma mula (Equus caballus x equus asinus em área endêmica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus in a endemic area of the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o encontro de infecção por parasitos do gênero Leishmania, em lesão cutânea de uma mula (Equus caballus x Equus asinus procedente de uma localidade endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.Leishmania parasites were found in a skin lesion of a mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus from a locality with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  19. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Leishmaniasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ...

  20. Contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods in a district of southeastern Uganda endemic for bovine parasitic diseases: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Walter O; Muhanguzi, Dennis; MacLeod, Ewan T; Welburn, Susan C; Waiswa, Charles; Shaw, Alexandra P

    2015-11-05

    A study was conducted in Tororo District in eastern Uganda to assess the socio-economic contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods. The aim of the study was to empirically quantify the economic value of draft cattle thus contributing to understanding the impact of endemic parasitic diseases of cattle on livestock productivity and subsequently household income, labor and food security. A total of 205 draft cattle keeping households (n = 205) were randomly selected and structured household questionnaires were administered, focusing on work oxen use, productivity, inputs and outputs. The data obtained was analyzed using standard statistical methods and used to calculate the gross margin from the draft cattle enterprise. Secondary data were obtained from focus group discussions and key informant interviews and these were analyzed using Bayesian methods. The study showed that, apart from being labor saving, the use of animal traction is highly profitable with the gross margin per year from the use of draft cattle amounting to 245 United States dollars per work oxen owning household. The cash obtained from hiring out draft animals was equivalent to nearly a quarter of the average local household's monetary receipts. It also revealed that endemic bovine parasitic diseases such as trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases reduced draft cattle output by 20.9 % and potential household income from the use of draft oxen by 32.2 %. The presence of endemic cattle diseases in rural Uganda is adversely affecting the productivity of draft cattle, which in turn affects household income, labor and ultimately food security. This study highlights the contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods, thus increasing the expected impact of cost-effective control strategies of endemic production limiting livestock diseases in Uganda.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau.

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    Carla van Tienen

    Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.

  2. [Case report: disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheno-Valencia, Alexandra; Cabezas-Arteaga, Julia; Sacoto-Aizaga, Ketty; Arenas-Guzmáno, Roberto

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified leishmaniasis as an uncontrolled and emerging disease. In Ecuador, the only anecdotal cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded in 1994 and have not been formally published. This form can be differentiated from classical localized cutaneous leishmaniasis by the number of injuries, the clinical type of the main elementary lesions (papular and acneform), and a weak response to standard treatments. The case we report is a 34-year-old woman who presented with disseminated nodular lesions and ulcers of various sizes with erythematous edges and scars. We report the case and review diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and the differences that can be found with the other cutaneous variants. The diagnosis requires to be considered by primary care physicians in endemic areas and specialists, taking into account that this presentation can also occur in immunocompetent hosts.

  3. The direct agglutination test as an alternative method for the diagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terán-Angel, Guillermo; Schallig, Henk; Zerpa, Olga; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Ulrich, Marian; Cabrera, Maira

    2007-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe clinical form of leishmaniasis and is often fatal without proper treatment. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is important, but often difficult in endemic areas. The aim was to evaluate a direct agglutination test as a potential visceral leishmaniasis

  4. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  5. Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pittner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA, entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresentou lesão, mas 12 (24,0% tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8% tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7% apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença.The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0% had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8% out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7% were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

  6. The frequency of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis in skin ulcers in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Abdullah, F.H.; Khan, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (OWCL) is a preventable skin infection that leads to morbidity and social isolation. It is spreading rapidly. The sore of OWCL may be a non-ulcerative red papule, nodule or a large mutilating ulcer. The ulcer is typically painless and can leave a disfiguring scar. Methods: This was a descriptive study. The diagnosis of OWCL was established by finding LD bodies in skin smear preparation. Results: This study identified 1680 cutaneous leishmaniasis in 1767 skin ulcers. Children (n=924) were infected more than other age groups (n=756). There were typical skin sore of OWCL in 1512 cases while 168 patients had atypical presentation. The ulcers were painless in 1603 patients. History of insect bite was present in 1366 cases, thorn prick in 156 patients, religious visit to endemic areas in 256 patients, and 4 patients had post surgical non healing wound. Lesions with 4 to 6 months of age had a maximum yield of LD bodies. There were 498 patients from different areas of Peshawar; 688 cases from leishmania endemic belt of FATA while 89 patients came from other urban and rural areas of NWFP. Conclusions: There is a tremendous increase in cases of OWCL and the disease became endemic in many regions of Pakistan. The bordering areas along Afghanistan have constituted an endemic belt that had invaded the neighboring urban and rural areas. Several chronic non healing ulcers had been diagnosed as OWCL. Many cases have been detected in Peshawar. People need education about the nature of the diseases and the efficacy of personal protective measures. Spray with suitable insecticides is required in all residential areas. (author)

  7. Avaliação do nível de conhecimento que populações residentes em áreas endêmicas têm sobre leishmaniose visceral, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil Evaluation of the level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis in endemics areas of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elinor Alves Gama

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo prospectivo visando identificar e comparar que conhecimentos básicos relativos à leishmaniose visceral (LV têm as populações com características distintas, residentes em áreas periurbanas (Maracanã ­ instalação e ocorrência de casos de LV antigas; Vila Nova/Bom Viver ­ instalação e ocorrência recentes e rural, Município de Codó ­ instalação antiga e ocorrência recentes. No período compreendido entre agosto de 1996 a janeiro de 1997, aplicou-se questionário com perguntas abertas e fechadas, sendo abordados aspectos referentes à epidemiologia, prevenção, clínica e terapêutica. A população de estudo foi formada pelos casos de LV registrados pela FNS/MA e seus vizinhos. Foram entrevistados os residentes de 283 casas: 53 do Maracanã; 103, em Vila Nova/Bom Viver; 127, em Codó. Foi referido ambiente favorável para o desenvolvimento e manutenção da doença. Do total dos entrevistados, 93,8%, percentual significativo, ouviram falar de LV, por meio de fontes não oficiais. No Maracanã, 50,9% referiram transmissão pelo mosquito; 87,2% reconheciam o envolvimento do cão na cadeia epidemiológica da doença. Os entrevistados estão cientes da gravidade do mal, sendo capazes de identificar casos suspeitos, humano ou canino. Medidas de controle são desconhecidas por 77,8%. Sete pessoas sabiam que o Glucantime® é usado no tratamento da LV. Concluiu-se que o nível de conhecimento sobre LV foi baixo, principalmente em relação à prevenção e à terapêutica, situação semelhantes nas três áreas.A prospective study was performed to identify knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis (VL in endemic areas of Maranhão, amongst the rural population of the Codó township and in a peripheral urban area (an old settlement, Maracanã, on the outskirts of the city of São Luís, and Vila Nova/Bom Viver, Paço do Lumiar township. A total of 283 persons were interviewed, including 53 from Maracanã, 103 from Vila Nova

  8. Assessment of Point-of-Care Diagnostics for G6PD Deficiency in Malaria Endemic Rural Eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyagraha, Ari W; Sadhewa, Arkasha; Elvira, Rosalie; Elyazar, Iqbal; Feriandika, Denny; Antonjaya, Ungke; Oyong, Damian; Subekti, Decy; Rozi, Ismail E; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Harahap, Alida R; Baird, J Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Patients infected by Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale suffer repeated clinical attacks without primaquine therapy against latent stages in liver. Primaquine causes seriously threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients having inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Access to safe primaquine therapy hinges upon the ability to confirm G6PD normal status. CareStart G6PD, a qualitative G6PD rapid diagnostic test (G6PD RDT) intended for use at point-of-care in impoverished rural settings where most malaria patients live, was evaluated. This device and the standard qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST) were each compared against the quantitative spectrophotometric assay for G6PD activity as the diagnostic gold standard. The assessment occurred at meso-endemic Panenggo Ede in western Sumba Island in eastern Indonesia, where 610 residents provided venous blood. The G6PD RDT and FST qualitative assessments were performed in the field, whereas the quantitative assay was performed in a research laboratory at Jakarta. The median G6PD activity ≥ 5 U/gHb was 9.7 U/gHb and was considered 100% of normal activity. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency by quantitative assessment (<5 U/gHb) was 7.2%. Applying 30% of normal G6PD activity as the cut-off for qualitative testing, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for G6PD RDT versus FST among males were as follows: 100%, 98.7%, 89%, and 100% versus 91.7%, 92%, 55%, and 99%; P = 0.49, 0.001, 0.004, and 0.24, respectively. These values among females were: 83%, 92.7%, 17%, and 99.7% versus 100%, 92%, 18%, and 100%; P = 1.0, 0.89, 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. The overall performance of G6PD RDT, especially 100% negative predictive value, demonstrates suitable safety for G6PD screening prior to administering hemolytic drugs like primaquine and many others. Relatively poor diagnostic performance among females due to mosaic G6PD phenotype is an inherent limitation

  9. Assessment of Point-of-Care Diagnostics for G6PD Deficiency in Malaria Endemic Rural Eastern Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari W Satyagraha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients infected by Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale suffer repeated clinical attacks without primaquine therapy against latent stages in liver. Primaquine causes seriously threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients having inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. Access to safe primaquine therapy hinges upon the ability to confirm G6PD normal status. CareStart G6PD, a qualitative G6PD rapid diagnostic test (G6PD RDT intended for use at point-of-care in impoverished rural settings where most malaria patients live, was evaluated.This device and the standard qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST were each compared against the quantitative spectrophotometric assay for G6PD activity as the diagnostic gold standard. The assessment occurred at meso-endemic Panenggo Ede in western Sumba Island in eastern Indonesia, where 610 residents provided venous blood. The G6PD RDT and FST qualitative assessments were performed in the field, whereas the quantitative assay was performed in a research laboratory at Jakarta. The median G6PD activity ≥ 5 U/gHb was 9.7 U/gHb and was considered 100% of normal activity. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency by quantitative assessment (<5 U/gHb was 7.2%. Applying 30% of normal G6PD activity as the cut-off for qualitative testing, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for G6PD RDT versus FST among males were as follows: 100%, 98.7%, 89%, and 100% versus 91.7%, 92%, 55%, and 99%; P = 0.49, 0.001, 0.004, and 0.24, respectively. These values among females were: 83%, 92.7%, 17%, and 99.7% versus 100%, 92%, 18%, and 100%; P = 1.0, 0.89, 1.0 and 1.0, respectively.The overall performance of G6PD RDT, especially 100% negative predictive value, demonstrates suitable safety for G6PD screening prior to administering hemolytic drugs like primaquine and many others. Relatively poor diagnostic performance among females due to mosaic G6PD phenotype is an

  10. [Description of an acidic peptidase, insensitive to classical inhibitors, in protein extracts of Trypanosoma cruzi, from a rural area of Venezuela, where Chagas disease is endemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Edgar Armando; de la Cruz, Henry Samuel; Coita, Blanca Elena

    2013-09-01

    Through two peptidase assay methods, one in liquid-phase and another, in gel-phase (gel zymography), an acid peptidase was detected in protein crude extracts of epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, from a rural area of Venezuela where Chagas disease is endemic. The peptidase shows activity at a pH range between 2.0 and 2.9. Under the experimental conditions described, the acid peptidase was insensitive to usual concentrations of peptidase inhibitors of the types: serine, cysteine, aspartic and metallopeptidases. Nevertheless, like porcine pepsin at pH 2.9, the peptidase was inhibited in the presence of 5mM DTT.

  11. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela Edad fisiológica de poblaciones de Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae de una área endémica de leishmaniasis cutánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Scorza

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.Con lotes de hembras silvestres de Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae capturadas con trampa de Shannon en doce ocasiones a lo largo de un año, en una localidad endémica para leishmaniasis tegumentaria, próxima a la ciudad de Trujillo, Venezuela, se estudio: 1 los percentajes de hembras paridas según criterios previamente establecidos y 2 el número medio de huevos puestos espontaneamente por hembras aisladas, en el curso de 7 días postigestión, ingurgitadas también sobre hámsteres. Se comparó la data de lotes de hembras capturadas, en noches de días anteriores a los per

  12. Molecular prevalence and estimated risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya

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    Ayman A. El-Badry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Cutanoeus leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area including Libya. The aim of the present study is to detect the prevalent Leishmania species obtained from smeared cutaneous lesions in addition to studying the diverse sociodemographic risk factors of the reported cases from different provinces of Libya. Methods: A total of 250 archived microscopic slides from clinically suspected cases of CL attending the leishmaniasis clinic in the Dermatology Department, Tripoli Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, were microscopically examined. Leishmania-DNA was amplified using combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting kinetoplast-DNA (kDNA and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1-DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for direct Leishmania species identification. Results: Using kDNA and ITS1-PCR, 22.5% and 20% of cases were positive, respectively. Only 14.4% of cases were positive using microscopy. Nominating ITS1-PCR as the reference standard, kDNA-PCR assay was highly sensitive while microscopy was 100% specific but of limited sensitivity (72% with a substantial agreement and an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were the predominant species reported from the north-western provinces including Tripoli, Zintan, and Gharyan with their related subprovinces; Asabaa, Mizdan, Alkawasem, and Alorban. CL prevailed more among men and residents of rural areas. House wives and students were the most affected professions. Children were the least affected, while the middle-aged were the most affected age group. Conclusion: L. major and L. tropica are the predominant species in the north-western regions of Libya. ITS1-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay offered a sensitive, specific, and faster diagnostic method especially with negative parasitologic examination. Keywords: Archived microscopic slides, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, ITS1-PCR, kDNA-PCR

  13. [Nasal leishmaniasis in an HIV-positive patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, J M; Lorente, J; Crego, F; Naches, S; Subirana, F X; Calderón, J R; Pollán, C; Encarnación, L F; Quesada, P

    2000-03-01

    Leishmania is currently one of the most clinically important protozoa in otorhinolaryngology. Mediterranean countries, including Spain, have endemic HIV and L. infantum. Dogs are the most important Leishmania reservoir. Leishmaniasis is transmitted basically by the bite of infected female Phlebotomus sandflies. Its clinical development depends mainly on the host's cellular immunity (TCD4+ lymphocyte count). About 400 cases of HIV-visceral leishmaniasis have been reported in Spain. However, exclusively cutaneous presentation of HIV-leishmaniasis coinfection has been observed in only 2-3% of cases. We report the case of a female HIV+ patient who developed cutaneous leishmaniasis of the nasal vestibule by L. infantum. The patient was treated satisfactorily with a combination of parenteral Pentostam (sodium stilbogluconate) and periodic intralesional injections of Pentostam. The patient was included in a secondary prophylaxis protocol for visceral leishmaniasis with a monthly dose of Glucantime (meglumine antimoniate) for life.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human t-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in guinea-bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Tienen (Carla); T.I. de Silva (Thushan); L.C.J. Alcantara (Luiz); C. Onyango (Clayton); S. Jarju (Sheikh); N. Gonçalves (Nato); T. Vincent (Tim); P. Aaby; H. Whittle (Hilton); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M. Cotten (Matthew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Endemic Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in a Rural Community in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienen, Carla; de Silva, Thushan I.; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Onyango, Clayton O.; Jarju, Sheikh; Gonçalves, Nato; Vincent, Tim; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, Hilton; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Cotten, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in

  16. Visceral Leishmaniasis Treated with Antimonials/Paromomycin followed by Itraconazole/Miltefosine after Standard Therapy Failures in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán, Patricia; López-Velez, Rogelio; Olmo, Montserrat; Podzamczer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an opportunistic infection that affects human immunodeficiency virus–infected persons in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. The standard treatment may not be effective and relapses are common. We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-1–infected patient who had several relapses of visceral leishmaniasis after treatment with standard therapies and responded to a combined therapy.

  17. Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Prevalence Among Farmers in Central Tunisia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Hedia; Chemak, Fraj; Nouiri, Issam; Ben Mansour, Dorra; Ghrab, Jamila; Chahed, Mohamed Kouni

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in central Tunisia and is more prevalent in rural agricultural areas. The aim of this work was to determine ZCL prevalence among farmers and to test their availability to take ownership of the problem and participate actively to fight and address the disease. A sample of farmers from Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia, was selected randomly. Farmers were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about ZCL lesion occurrence, its date of onset among family members, and the farmers' availability to contribute to fighting this disease. ZCL occurred in at least one of the family members of 38.5% interviewed farmers. The disease was endemic with recurrent epidemics every 4 or 5 years. ZCL among farmers was associated with irrigation management. With regard to ZCL preventive measures, the majority of farmers agreed and expressed willingness to collaborate (93.1%), to follow health care facilities instructions (73.1%), and to join the nongovernmental organization (NGO) (56.9%). However, they did not agree to reduce irrigation activities mainly at night, to live far from their irrigated fields, or to sleep out of their houses at night. ZCL is more prevalent in farmers engaged in irrigation activities. Farmers are not agreeable to reducing their activity to avoid exposure to the sand fly bites. Thus, population involvement and commitment is required to implement effective control measures to fight and address ZCL.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

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    Tamalee Roberts

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55. Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94% with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis and heterogeneity of Leishmania major strains in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh-Niknam, Hamid; Ajdary, Soheila; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Mirzadegan, Ebrahim; Rezaeian, Abdolhossein; Khaze, Vahid; Djadid, Navid D; Alimohammadian, Mohammad H

    2012-11-01

    To determine the geographical distribution of Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and to study the genetic heterogeneity of Leishmania major isolates from different endemic areas of Iran. A total of 341 isolates from lesions of patients living in 11 provinces of Iran were grown in culture medium and inoculated to BALB/c mice to detect possible visceralisation. The species were identified by isoenzyme analysis using a battery of six enzymes and kinetoplast (k) DNA-PCR technique. Genetic variation among L. major isolates was analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Of the total 341 isolates, 283 isolates were L. major and 58 isolates were Leishmania tropica. In rural areas, the causative agent of CL was mainly L. major (95%L. major vs. 5%L. tropica), in urban areas it was L. tropica (65%L. tropica vs. 35%L. major). All isolates of L. major and 8.6% of L. tropica isolates showed visceralisation in BALB/c mice. There is considerable genetic diversity between L. major strains from different endemic areas and even between some isolates of the same endemic area. Leishmania major is the most frequent species in the endemic areas of CL in eleven provinces of Iran, and genetic diversity is a common feature of L. major in the country. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Bayesian geostatistical modeling of leishmaniasis incidence in Brazil.

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    Dimitrios-Alexios Karagiannis-Voules

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. METHODOLOGY: We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001-2010. Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676 for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288 for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence.

  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    nitric oxide killing. These properties of sandfly saliva are the focus of current research on an antileishmania vaccine.11 At the site of inoculation...patients, classic parasitologic diagnostic methods are preferred. For ex- ample, cultures or amplification of parasite specific DNA by PCR of the buffy... parasitologic diagnostic methods are satisfactory. In endemic areas, VL should never be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of immunocom- promised

  2. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Laamrani-Idrissi, Abderrahman; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unkno...

  3. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement.

  4. Eco-epidemiological survey of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ribeira Valley River, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2005-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed.

  5. Neglected health literacy undermining fluorosis control efforts: A pilot study among schoolchildren in an endemic village of rural Rajasthan, India

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    Neeti Rustagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ingestion of excess fluoride can cause fluorosis which adversely affects teeth and bones. Fluorosis is a major public health problem in the state of Rajasthan with all its 32 districts having variable fluoride contamination, and many initiatives are currently implemented in this region to mitigate the fluorosis burden. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess fluorosis, its risk factors, and the awareness among school students and teachers in endemic villages of Jodhpur district, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of 300 students of age 12–15 years were enrolled for cross-sectional study in selected villages. Data were collected regarding awareness, behavioral and preventive practices about fluorosis and clinical assessment and fluoride estimation in water and urine samples was done. Results: Dental fluorosis through Dean's index was observed in 24.5% of students. The awareness and practices for fluorosis prevention and its risk factors were poor among both students and teachers. Intake of piped water supply was reported by majority of students (95.8%. High fluoride concentration was found in 35 (81.3% out of 43 urine samples. Conclusion: Improvement in drinking water supply in the endemic village of Rajasthan has decreased the burden of fluorosis, but low level of awareness and prevailing dietary and behavioral practices still pose them at risk of high fluoride intake. This signifies the need to address nonconventional sources of fluoride intake (diet and toothpaste and early screening of disease by involving teachers and family physicians in fluoride mitigation efforts.

  6. Conventional or interpersonal communication: which works best in disseminating malaria information in an endemic rural Bangladeshi community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Mohammad Shamim; Kabir, Moktadir

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007, BRAC has been implementing malaria prevention and control programme in 13 endemic districts of Bangladesh under the National Malaria Control Programme. This study was done to examine the role of different communication media in bringing about changes in knowledge and awareness which facilitate informed decision-making for managing malaria-like illnesses. A baseline survey in 2007 before inception of the programme, and a follow-up survey in 2012 were done to study changes in different aspects of programme interventions including the communication component. Both the surveys used the same sampling technique to select 25 households at random from each of the 30 mauza/villages in a district. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from respondents in face-to-face interview. Analysis was done comparing the study areas at two different times. Statistical tests were done as necessary to examine the differences. The intervention succeeded in improving knowledge in some trivial areas (e.g., most frequent symptom suggestive of malaria, importance of using insecticidal bed nets) but not in critical domains necessary for taking informed action (e.g., mode of malaria transmission, awareness about facilities providing free malaria treatment). Inequity in knowledge and practice was quite common depending upon household affluence, location of households in high or low endemic districts, and sex. Of the different media used in Information, Education and communication (IEC) campaigns during the study period, interpersonal communication with community health workers/relatives/neighbours/friends was found to be more effective in improving knowledge and practice than conventional print and audio-visual media. This study reiterates the fact that conventional media may not be user-friendly or culture-sensitive for this semi-literate/illiterate community where dissemination through 'words of mouth' is more common, and as such

  7. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

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    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  8. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  9. Molecular prevalence and estimated risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Ayman A; El-Dwibe, Hamida; Basyoni, Maha M A; Al-Antably, Abeer S A; Al-Bashier, Wafaa A

    2017-12-01

    Cutanoeus leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area including Libya. The aim of the present study is to detect the prevalent Leishmania species obtained from smeared cutaneous lesions in addition to studying the diverse sociodemographic risk factors of the reported cases from different provinces of Libya. A total of 250 archived microscopic slides from clinically suspected cases of CL attending the leishmaniasis clinic in the Dermatology Department, Tripoli Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, were microscopically examined. Leishmania-DNA was amplified using combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting kinetoplast-DNA (kDNA) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for direct Leishmania species identification. Using kDNA and ITS1-PCR, 22.5% and 20% of cases were positive, respectively. Only 14.4% of cases were positive using microscopy. Nominating ITS1-PCR as the reference standard, kDNA-PCR assay was highly sensitive while microscopy was 100% specific but of limited sensitivity (72%) with a substantial agreement and an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were the predominant species reported from the north-western provinces including Tripoli, Zintan, and Gharyan with their related subprovinces; Asabaa, Mizdan, Alkawasem, and Alorban. CL prevailed more among men and residents of rural areas. House wives and students were the most affected professions. Children were the least affected, while the middle-aged were the most affected age group. L. major and L. tropica are the predominant species in the north-western regions of Libya. ITS1-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay offered a sensitive, specific, and faster diagnostic method especially with negative parasitologic examination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Conventional or interpersonal communication: which works best in disseminating malaria information in an endemic rural Bangladeshi community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Masud Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2007, BRAC has been implementing malaria prevention and control programme in 13 endemic districts of Bangladesh under the National Malaria Control Programme. This study was done to examine the role of different communication media in bringing about changes in knowledge and awareness which facilitate informed decision-making for managing malaria-like illnesses. METHODS: A baseline survey in 2007 before inception of the programme, and a follow-up survey in 2012 were done to study changes in different aspects of programme interventions including the communication component. Both the surveys used the same sampling technique to select 25 households at random from each of the 30 mauza/villages in a district. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from respondents in face-to-face interview. Analysis was done comparing the study areas at two different times. Statistical tests were done as necessary to examine the differences. RESULTS: The intervention succeeded in improving knowledge in some trivial areas (e.g., most frequent symptom suggestive of malaria, importance of using insecticidal bed nets but not in critical domains necessary for taking informed action (e.g., mode of malaria transmission, awareness about facilities providing free malaria treatment. Inequity in knowledge and practice was quite common depending upon household affluence, location of households in high or low endemic districts, and sex. Of the different media used in Information, Education and communication (IEC campaigns during the study period, interpersonal communication with community health workers/relatives/neighbours/friends was found to be more effective in improving knowledge and practice than conventional print and audio-visual media. CONCLUSION: This study reiterates the fact that conventional media may not be user-friendly or culture-sensitive for this semi-literate/illiterate community where dissemination

  11. Leishmaniasis in Northern and Western Africa: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albert Kimutai

    and disseminated lesions. Phlebotomus papatasi (sandfly) is the proven vector of L. major, and rodents. Psammomys obesus and Meriones spp. serve as animal reservoir hosts. Some countries of the region have endemic foci of zoonotic and anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, which could cause epidemics among.

  12. Lupoid Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Amin Moghadam; Vahid Mashayekhi; Ali Taheriyan; Naeme Organji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease currently threatens 350 million people in 88 countries. Lupoid leishmaniasis occurs as a result of the host response, in which despite an intensified hypersensitivity the cell mediated immunity cannot sterilize lesions. A chronic granulomatous inflammation remains active for a long time. To summarize the articles published about Lupoid leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: a systematic web base search was conducted in PubMed up to July 2015...

  13. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

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    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  14. A prospective study on the incidence of dog bites and management in a rural Cambodian, rabies-endemic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsich, Aurelia; Goutard, Flavie; Sorn, San; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Rabies circulates intensely in Cambodia, mainly affecting rural populations. We conducted a prospective study to estimate the baseline incidence of potentially infective dog bites in rural villages of Siem Reap province, Cambodia. The study was conducted in a convenience sample of 844 families totaling 1779 persons in four villages. The study collected data in a total of 802.3 person-years. Trained village health workers (VHW) exhaustively documented consecutive dog bites at the end of each month. Between May 15th and November 15th, 2011, a total of 40 attacks (43 bites; 1.07 bites per attack) were notified by 39 persons (50% female; one suffered two distinct incidents) to VHW. The all-age attack rate for bites over this 6-month period was 2.3% (CI95%: 1.7-3.1%), with a global incidence rate estimated at 4.84 bites/100 person-years (CI95%: 3.5-6.6). The mean age in bite victims was 20.8±18.9years (median 12.5; interquartile range 6-36; range 1-63). The dog was identified in 39 (97.5%) of cases, being the household dog in 9 (22.5%) of cases. Bites were classified as severe (WHO Category III-broken skin with bleeding) in 33 (82.5%) of cases with a severe dog bites incidence estimated at 4/100 person-years (CI95%: 2.8-5.6). The bites involved the hand or face in 1 (2.5%) case each (both Category III). In 20 incidents (50%), only rice was applied to the wounds. There were no suspected or confirmed human rabies deaths during the study period but one dog died after biting (2 others were lost to follow-up and 14 were put down by their owner). Our study documented an extremely high incidence of dog bites in of rural Cambodian adults and children. Adapted control policies for canine vaccination are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Caregivers' treatment-seeking behaviour for children under age five in malaria-endemic areas of rural Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandar, Moe Moe; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Jimba, Masamine; Yasuoka, Junko

    2015-01-05

    A community-based malaria intervention was introduced through fixed and mobile clinics in rural Myanmar. This study attempted to identify treatment-seeking behaviour of caregivers for children under five and the determinants of appropriate treatment-seeking behaviour in mobile clinic villages (MV) and non-mobile clinic villages (NMV) in malaria-endemic rural areas in Myanmar. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 23 MV and 25 NMV in Ingapu Township, Myanmar. Appropriate treatment-seeking behaviour was operationally defined as seeking treatment from trained personnel or at a health facility within 24 hours after the onset of fever. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the determinants of appropriate treatment-seeking behaviour. Among the 597 participants in both types of villages, 166 (35.3%) caregivers sought appropriate treatment. No significant difference in appropriate treatment-seeking behaviour was found between the two types of villages (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51-1.24). Determinants of behaviour include proximity to public health facilities (AOR, 5.86; 95% CI, 3.43-10.02), knowledge of malaria (AOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14-3.17), malaria prevention behaviour (AOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.13-2.76), treatment at home (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.45), and treatment and transportation costs (AOR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83). Caregivers' treatment-seeking behaviour was poor for fever cases among children under age five, and did not differ significantly between MV and NMV. It is necessary to educate caregivers, particularly for early treatment seeking and appropriate use of health care options for fever, and catering to their medical needs. These findings can help promote awareness and prevention, and improve the quality of interventions at the community level.

  16. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug Resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    Helena C. Maltezou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide. This illness was included by the World Health Organization in the list of neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination by 2015. The widespread emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials in India where half cases occur globally and the unavailability of a vaccine in clinical use constitute major obstacles in achieving this goal. The last decade new antileishmanials became available, including the oral agent miltefosine. However, in poor endemic countries their wide use was curtailed because of the high costs, and also due to concerns of toxicity and emergence of resistance. Various mechanisms of antileishmanial resistance were identified recently in field isolates. Their elucidation will boost the design of new drugs and the molecular surveillance of resistance. Combination regimens should be evaluated in large trials. Overall, the development of antileishmanials has been generally slow; new drugs are needed. In order to control visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, treatment advances should become affordable in the poorest countries, where they are needed most.

  18. Molecular detection of Leishmania parasites and host blood meal identification in wild sand flies from a new endemic rural region, south of Iran.

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    Azizi, Kourosh; Askari, Mohammad Bagher; Kalantari, Mohsen; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniosis (ZCL) remains the most crucial vector-borne public health disease particularly in endemic rural parts of Iran. The main aim of this study is to identify wild sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), determine their infection rate, and differentiate their host blood meal sources using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Sand fly populations were caught with sticky paper traps from 10 different villages in the county of Darab, Fars province, southern Iran. Following their species identification, they were used in one step PCR to determine their infection with Leishmania spp. parasites. They were then subjected to PCR-RFLP protocol to identify and differentiate their blood meal sources. Two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia comprising 13 species of sand flies were identified in this region. From a total of 150 parous female sand flies, encompassing 4 different medically important species, 7 specimens (4.7%) including 6 Phlebotomus papatasi and 1 Phlebotomus bergeroti were infected with Leishmania major. Molecular data indicated that about 32% of female sand flies fed on man, while nearly 43% fed on rodent and canine hosts. Molecular detection is an efficient way of differentiating the source of blood meals in female sand flies feeding on different vertebrate hosts. It is suggested that P. papatasi is not highly anthropophagic and appears to be an opportunistic feeder on man. This species is, however, the primary vector of ZCL in this region.

  19. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Sasani, F.; Javanbakht, J.; Samani, R.; Shirani, D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammato...

  20. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*

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    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate. PMID:24474115

  1. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

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    Ready PD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul D ReadyDisease Control Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKAbstract: Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control, surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL

  2. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

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    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  3. Leishmaniose visceral: características clínico-epidemiológicas em crianças de área endêmica Visceral leishmaniasis: clinical and epidemiological features of children in an endemic area

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    Márcia J. A. Queiroz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínico-epidemiológicas, o tratamento e a letalidade das crianças internadas com leishmaniose visceral em um hospital pediátrico de referência. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos dados biológicos, demográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais das crianças internadas no Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco, em Recife, no período compreendido entre 1996 e 2001. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas 431 crianças, de 4 meses a 13,7 anos de idade, sendo que 50,3% eram do sexo feminino, e 82,5% eram do interior do estado de Pernambuco. Cerca de 70% dos domicílios eram de alvenaria, 70% não dispunham de água encanada ou sistema de esgoto sanitário, e o tempo médio de permanência das mães na escola foi de 3 anos. Esplenomegalia e febre estavam presentes em 97% e 95,6% dos casos, respectivamente, e 44,5% dos pacientes eram subnutridos. Em 47 (10,9% dos pacientes foi detectada infecção na admissão. O nível médio de hemoglobina foi de 6 g/dl, de leucócitos 3.516/mm³ e de plaquetas 118.641/mm³. O tratamento de escolha foi o glucantime (98% dos casos, e em sete pacientes, a anfotericina B foi utilizada. A letalidade foi de 10,2%, sendo que as principais causas imediatas de óbito foram atribuídas a infecções associadas, hemorragias e insuficiência hepática. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores destacam as características clínicas, epidemiológicas e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em área endêmica, além do diagnóstico tardio e alta letalidade, sugerindo a capacitação de profissionais de saúde para o reconhecimento precoce e tratamento adequado da doença e suas complicações.OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of children with visceral leishmaniasis admitted to a pediatric referral hospital, and to describe treatment measures and the case fatality rate . METHODS: Retrospective analysis of biological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data from children with

  4. Spatial and seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Dracena, a city in the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, that is endemic with visceral leishmaniasis

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    Marcia Moreira Holcman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vector seasonality knowledge is important for monitoring and controlling of vector-borne diseases. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lu. longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, which is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Methods Lu. longipalpis was monitored for 3 consecutive nights each month using light traps from the Centers for Disease Control in the peridomiciles and intradomiciles of 18 residences from January 2005 to December 2012 in the urban area of Dracena, a medium-sized city located in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil. Results A total of 54,820 Lu. longipalpis specimens were collected, and the proportion of positive samples was significantly higher in the peridomiciles than in the intradomiciles (p<0.05 in all 8 years of the study, except for 2005. The vector was present in all study years in the 9 sub-regions of the city, and the male/female ratio ranged from 3.19 to 4.26. The greatest vector abundance occurred in the first semester and peaked in March, confirming its seasonality. Conclusions The maintenance of this high abundance over an 8-year surveillance period demonstrates the vector adaptation to the urban conditions of the city. These characteristics present a major challenge for preventing human and canine contact with the vector and, consequently, controlling the spread of disease.

  5. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.

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    Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-03

    A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis during anti-TNFα therapy.

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    Guarneri, Claudio; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Patterson, James W; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    The long-term use of novel antipsoriatic systemic biotechnological drugs may increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Several cases of visceral leishmaniasis have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals, including those who have been treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocking agents. Simultaneous occurrence of cutaneous and visceral involvement has been more rarely recorded in the medical literature. Herein, we describe a case of mucosal leishmaniasis occurring in a farmer living in an endemic region, who was treated with golimumab because of psoriatic arthritis. This highlights the importance of recognizing cutaneous lesions as a first indicator of possible underlying kala-azar disease.

  7. Therapeutic vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Numerous therapeutic strategies are used to treat leishmaniasis. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is solely depends on antimonate derivatives with safety issues and questionable efficacy and there is no fully effective modality to treat CL caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania braziliensis. There is no prophylactic vaccine available against any form of leishmaniasis. Immunotherapy for CL has a long history; immunotherapy trials of first and second generation vaccines showed promising results. The current article briefly covers the prophylactic vaccines and explains different immunotherapy strategies that have been used to treat leishmaniasis. This paper does not include experimental vaccines and only lays emphasis on human trials and those vaccines which reached human trials. Immunotherapy is currently used to successfully treat several disorders; Low cost, limited side effects and no possibility to develop resistance make immunotherapy a valuable choice especially for infectious disease with chemotherapy problems. Efforts are needed to explore the immunological surrogate marker(s) of cure and protection in leishmaniasis and overcome the difficulties in standardization of crude Leishmania vaccines. One of the reasons for anti-leishmaniasis vaccine failure is lack of an appropriate adjuvant. So far, not enough attention has been paid to develop vaccines for immunotherapy of leishmaniasis.

  8. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  9. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

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    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  10. Immunity to Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Genetically Defined Live-Attenuated Parasites

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    Angamuthu Selvapandiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease endemic to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with three major clinical forms, self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Drug treatments are expensive and often result in the development of drug resistance. No vaccine is available against leishmaniasis. Subunit Leishmania vaccine immunization in animal models has shown some efficacy but little or none in humans. However, individuals who recover from natural infection are protected from reinfection and develop life-long protection, suggesting that infection may be a prerequisite for immunological memory. Thus, genetically altered live-attenuated parasites with controlled infectivity could achieve such memory. In this paper, we discuss development and characteristics of genetically altered, live-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites and their possible use as vaccine candidates against VL. In addition, we discuss the challenges and other considerations in the use of live-attenuated parasites.

  11. Study on Sand Flies as a Vector(s of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Nested PCR in Rural Areas of Damghan District, Semnan Province

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    Y. Rasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is caused by obligatory intracellular parasite of genus Lieshmania. The disease is reported from more than half of Iran's provinces. Various species of sand flies are vector of the disease. Determination of vectors and gaining knowledge about them are important for devising of control program. Materials & Methods: This survey was performed as a cross-sectional study in order to determine the vector(s of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Damghan district during 2008-2009. Sand flies were collected from indoors and outdoors by sticky traps twice in month from April to November. Head and last abdominal segments of the samples were removed and mounted in a drop of Puri’s medium and identified. The rest of the sand flies' bodies was subjected to DNA extraction for molecular detection of Leishmania parasite by Nested PCR using specific primers of minicircle kinetoplast DNAResults: Totally, 6110 sand flies in 8 species were collected. P. papatasi had high density (46.7%. Examination of 280 female sand flies by Nested PCR showed that 28 sand flies (10%include 24 specimens P.papatasi (85.7% and 4 specimens P.caucasicus(14.3%were found naturally infected with L.major. The highest rate of infected sandflies were observed in rodents burrow (42.9%. Maximum rate of sand fly infection was in September (89.3%. Conclusion: With respect to high density of P.papatasi and isolation of L.major from it, this species was the main vector of the disease. Detection of L.major from P.caucasicus shows that this species was the secondary vector in rodent burrow. The highest rate of sand leis infected was in September, so personal protection in this month is very important and necessary. Regarding to the high density of vectors and high infection rate of them taking actions to decrease the sand fly abundance and prevention of human biting are suggested.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:47-52

  12. Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Gomes,Ciro Martins; Damasco,Fabiana dos Santos; Morais,Orlando Oliveira de; Paula,Carmen Dea Ribeiro de; Sampaio,Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because...

  13. Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: spatial distribution and seasonal variations from 2009 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Iddawela, Devika

    2018-01-25

    Leishmaniasis is listed as one of the eight neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization and the number of cases in endemic areas has seen a sharp rise in the past decade. More alarmingly, reports have shown that leishmaniasis is spreading to non-endemic areas of the world due to co-infection with HIV. In Sri Lanka, leishmaniasis is considered as a notifiable disease from 2008 and has seen a rising trend of incidence since then. This is the first study describing the burden, seasonal variation and spatial distribution of leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka since the disease has been included as a notifiable disease. Data on health statistics from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from published databases maintained by the Epidemiology Unit of the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka. Climatic data for Sri Lanka were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and the populations in administrative districts were obtained from the Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. Descriptive spatiotemporal analysis, correlation between leishmaniasis incidence and climatic variables were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The total number of people reported with leishmaniasis during the study period was 8487. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the prominent form in Sri Lanka while few visceral and muco-cutaneous cases were reported. Although leishmaniasis patients were identified from all 25 districts in the island, almost 90% of the total caseload was reported from Anuradhapura, Hambantota, Polonnaruwa, Kurunegala and Matara districts. The highest number of patients was reported from the Anuradhapura district and the highest incidence per 100,000 persons was reported from the Hambantota district. The disease has a seasonal trend, a peak of leishmaniasis occur in July to September in the north-central region and in October to December in the southern region. Maximum temperature, humidity and wind speed are significantly associated climatic variables with leishmaniasis in

  14. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012

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    Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  15. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Leishmaniasis in Armenia

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    A.L. Kazinian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the clinical and laboratory characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis according to the data from Clinical hospital of infectious diseases «Nork» in Yerevan for 2013. It is shown that Armenia is a country endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Most patients (81 % were males. About half of the patients were young children (up to 2 years. It was found that the majority of patients had acute onset of the disease with fever up to 40 °C, severe symptoms of intoxication and single hemorrhages on the skin. Enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in all patients. The enlargement of the spleen was more pronounced, and it reached the level of the pelvis. One of the cardinal symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis — anemia — developed in all patients admitted to the hospital, and a significant change in the hemogram was observed in young children.

  16. Foveal hemorrhage in an immunocompetent patient with visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Cibils Farrés, P; Bedoya Ayala, P; Burga Kuroda, G H; Zegarra Domínguez, M; Luna, J D; Velazco Casapía, J

    2015-12-01

    To report a case of foveal and macular intraretinal hemorrhages in an immunocompetent male patient with visceral leishmaniasis. An immunocompetent, 42 year-old male, presented with progressive visual loss and metamorphopsia in his right eye. The fundus examination showed a foveal round yellow lesion and intraretinal hemorrhages in the macula. The patient was hospitalized with fever, anorexia, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and progressive anemia. Laboratory studies were conducted and a positive test for leishmaniasis and hepatitis A was reported. Treatment was begun with amphotericin B 50mg/day up to a total dose of 1400mg. Bilateral retinal hemorrhages in an endemic country could suggest the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwest of Iran during 2001–2011

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    Mohammad Hossien Feiz Haddad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence process and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL during 2001–2011. Methods: This was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study examining 2 637 patients with CL in Susangerd county during 2001–2011. The data of all patients who referred to the Prevention Unit of Susangerd Health Center were registered in CL epidemiologic data summary forms. The data and parameters included age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural, and lesion location. Results: Out of 2 637 patients, 1 174 cases (44.5% were females and 1463 patients (55.5% were males. The maximum rate of infection was recorded in under 10-year-old age group (45.32% and its minimum rate was seen among those aged over 60 years (0.87%. Among them, 1 557 patients (59.0% were living in urban and 1 080 (41.0% were in rural areas. The maximum and minimum occupational frequency distributions were seen in students (49.9% and farmers (0.6%, respectively. The study showed that the maximum and minimum frequencies were observed in winter (52.33% and summer (7.62% correspondingly. The most lesion frequencies from lesion location point of view were related to hands (37.5%, faces (30.0%, feet (26.3% and other organs (6.2% and the number of lesions ranged from 1–5 and sized varied from 0.5–5.5 cm Conclusions: Epidemiological parameters such as age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural and lesion location in endemic regions have had significant effects on the prevalence of CL in Susangerd county and the findings can be effective for assessing disease prevention programs. In addition, CL might become a serious dermatological health problem in the near future due to a great population movement to the neighboring country Iraq with a high incidence to an endemic area.

  18. Leishmaniasis in the middle East: incidence and epidemiology.

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    Nasir Salam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature.

  19. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  20. Identification of Leishmania tropica from micro-foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kenyan Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiwuor, Samwel; Muia, Alfred; Magiri, Charles; Maes, Ilse; Kirigi, George; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Wasunna, Monique; Mbuchi, Margaret; Auwera, Gert Van der

    2012-07-01

    We performed diagnosis and species identification of parasites in lesion samples from suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in four villages, three of which are in a known Leishmania tropica endemic region in Kenya. Samples were analyzed both by microscopy and PCR for Leishmania, and typed by an assay using four ribosomal DNA-based species-identification PCRs. The lesions were demonstrated to be caused by L. tropica, which confirms the re-emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis from this species after a period of reduced incidence in the endemic zone. Our report highlights the importance of an intervention and sustained Leishmania control program.

  1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria: quadrennial assessment (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelmouffok, A B; Sellami, M; Boughoufalah, A

    2017-08-01

    To study the prevalence and epidemiological factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria from 2008 through 2011. The endemic site of M'Sila is the most important in Algeria after the historic site of Biskra, but the disease has spread rapidly and created new and important sites of infection, including Batna, Bechar, El Oued and Ghardaïa. The increased number of cases and the spread of this zoonosis require increased surveillance of its evolution and the application of adequate control measures.

  2. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  3. Lupoid Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amin Moghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease currently threatens 350 million people in 88 countries. Lupoid leishmaniasis occurs as a result of the host response, in which despite an intensified hypersensitivity the cell mediated immunity cannot sterilize lesions. A chronic granulomatous inflammation remains active for a long time. To summarize the articles published about Lupoid leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: a systematic web base search was conducted in PubMed up to July 2015. We included articles with available abstract in English language. Manual searching was done within the reference list of articles.  Results: Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed eligibility criteria, assessed quality, and extracted data. Conclusion: Some patients have periods of relapse and remission at the site of inoculation of parasites and others suffer from chronic injury for years. In the case of effective disease treatment several studies have been conducted, so far, no satisfactory results have been achieved.

  4. Urban-Rural Disparity in Helicobacter Pylori Infection-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer in China and the Decreasing Trend in Parallel with Socioeconomic Development and Urbanization in an Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoduo; Wen, Denggui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yuetong; Wang, Guiying; Shan, Baoen

    Globally China has the largest urban-rural disparity in socioeconomic development, and the urban-rural difference in upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) is similar to the difference between developed and developing countries. To describe urban-rural disparity in UGIC and to emphasize prevention by socioeconomic development and urbanization in China. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of cancers in 2012 were compared between urban Shijiazhuang city and rural Shexian County, and trends from 2000-2015 in Shexian County were analyzed. Compared with urban Shijiazhuang city, the ASR of gastroesophageal cancers in rural Shexian County was 5.3 times higher in men (234.1 vs 44.2/100,000, P urban disparity in UGIC is associated with differences in socioeconomic development in annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of US$2700 vs US$6965, in urbanization rate of 48% vs 100%, and in adult Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence of 75% vs 50%. From 2000-2015, the GDP per capita in Shexian County increased from US$860 to US$3000, urbanization rate increased from 22.4% to 54.8%, and prevalence of H pylori infection among 3- to 10-year-old children decreased from 60% to 46.1% (P Urban-rural disparity in UGIC is related to inequity in socioeconomic development. Economic growth and urbanization is effective for prevention in endemic regions in China and should be a policy priority. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Asociación entre la incidencia de leishmaniosis cutánea y el índice de desarrollo humano y sus componentes en cuatro estados endémicos de Venezuela Association between cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and the human development index and its components in four endemic states of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar las posibles asociaciones entre el índice de desarrollo humano (IDH y sus componentes, y la incidencia de Leishmaniosis cutánea (LC en cuatro estados endémicos de Venezuela (Mérida, Trujillo, Lara y Sucre en el período 1994 al 2003. Materiales y métodos. La data socioeconómica (clasificada de acuerdo al Banco Mundial se obtuvo del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y la epidemiológica del Ministerio de Salud, ambos de Venezuela. Para este estudio ecológico se evaluó la variación anual de las variables y se realizó modelos de regresión. Resultados. El IDH varió en el período, de 0,6746 en 1994 a 0,8144 en 2003 (p=0,90, asimismo, se observó un aumento de la incidencia acumulada de Leishmaniosis, en especial del año 1998 (7,3 casos/100 000 hab a 1999 (11,3 casos/100 000 hab. Al analizar con los modelos de regresión lineal, se observó que la relación entre las variables epidemiológicas y sociales era diferente a nivel de los Estados evaluados. Para Mérida y Trujillo se observó un descenso significativo de la incidencia de LC con relación al aumento del porcentaje de alfabetización (pObjectives. Assess potential relationships between the Human Development Index (HDI and its components and the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in four endemic States of Venezuela (Mérida, Trujillo, Lara and Sucre in the period 1994-2003. Material and methods. Socioeconomical data (classified according the World Bank was obtained from the National Institute of Statistics, and the epidemiological data from the Ministry of Health, both from Venezuela. For this ecological study the annual variation of the variables was assessed and also regression models were done. Results. The HDI varied in the period from 0.6746 in 1994 to 0.8144 in 2003 (p=0.90. During this time an increase in the cumulative incidence of Leishmaniasis was observed, particularly from 1998 (7.3 cases/100,000 pop to 1999 (11.3 cases/100,000 pop. Analyzing

  6. [Interpretation of laboratory data during cryptic leishmaniasis in dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravino, A E

    2004-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by an intracellular parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. In Europe, Africa, South America and China, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by L. infantum. The vectors of leishmaniasis are phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genera Phlebotomus. According to the World Health Organization there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. Leishmaniasis is considered a zoonosis and human are generally accidental hosts. The animal reservoir includes rodents, dog and other mammals. Several studies have indicate that half of the dogs with antileishmanial antibodies have no signs of disease although, animal with subclinical infections are potentially infectious to sand flies. The factors determining susceptibility or resistence to visceral leishmaniasis remain unclear, but the genetics of the host may play a major role. Clinical signs are: intermittent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, skin lesions and ulcers, alopecia, onychogryphosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In mice, the outcome of infection depends on the polarized activation of one of two subsets of CD4+ T cells, Th1 or Th2, the subdivision into Th1 and Th2 cells is based on the pattern of cytokines that they produce. Th1 cells produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin -2 (IL-2), whereas Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. An important difference between susceptible and resistant mice is that the resistant mice are able to switch to a Th1 profile and control the disease. An important factor in the "decision" to form a Th1 or Th2 phenotype is the early cytokine environment, and IL-12 is one of the cytokines that contributes significantly to the establishment of the Th1 phenotype. Canine leishmaniosis is endemic in the Mediterranean basin and, in most cases is caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum. The main clinical findings are skin lesions, local or generalized lymphoadenopathy, loss of

  7. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachfouti, Nabil; Najdi, Adil; Alonso, Sergi; Sicuri, Elisa; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderahmane; Nejjari, Chakib; Picado, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco.

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishya B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is being reported from Assam, a North Eastern state of India. Clinical feature and direct smear examination of the case confirmed the diagnosis. Dramatic resolution of the lesions with sodium antimony gluconate during 10 days of therapy was achieved.

  9. New serological tools for improved diagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lourena E; Salles, Beatriz C S; Alves, Patrícia T; Dias, Ana C S; Vaz, Emília R; Ramos, Fernanda F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Duarte, Mariana C; Roatt, Bruno M; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Tavares, Carlos A P; Gonçalves, Denise U; Rocha, Manoel O C; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-07-01

    Human tegumentary leishmaniasis (HTL), characterized by skin ulcers that may spread and cause dreadful and massive tissue destruction of the nose and mouth, is considered a neglected tropical disease, and it is a serious threat to global health due to its continuous expansion, favored by the lifecycle of its causative organism that is maintained in domestic animal reservoirs and anthropophilic sand fly species. Serodiagnosis of HTL is a great challenge due to many biological factors, including hampered specificity and/or sensitivity. This investigation addresses the unmet need for new diagnostic markers of HTL, and describes a simple platform to improve the serodiagnosis. A constrained conformational phage display random peptide library combined with a magnetic microsphere-based subtraction strategy was used to identify ligands with potential diagnostic applications. Six clones were selected against IgG antibodies from HTL patients, characterized by sequencing and confirmed by a phage-ELISA using sera from patients developing visceral leishmaniasis (n=20), Chagas disease (n=10), mucosal (n=30) and cutaneous (n=20) leishmaniasis; as well as from healthy subjects living in endemic (n=20) and non-endemic (n=30) areas of leishmaniasis. A wild-type M13-phage clone and a soluble Leishmania antigenic extract were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Three clones reached 100% sensitivity and specificity, without any cross-reactivity with sera from patients with leishmaniasis-related diseases. Briefly, we describe for the first time a set of serological markers based on three immunodominant mimotopes that showed 100% accuracy, and that could be used in a phage-ELISA assay for the HTL serodiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The immune microenvironment in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, M N; Issa, G; Charafeddine, K; Simaan, Y; Karam, M; Khalifeh, H; Habib, R; Khalifeh, I

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infection that has spread to non-endemic regions, stimulating recent interest for the enhanced understanding of this disease. Downregulation of the CD1a receptor on Langerhans cells has been described in various cutaneous infections. In this study, the immune response across different Ridley patterns and parasitic indices is outlined in a case series of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Skin punch biopsies from the interface of normal and lesional cutaneous leishmaniasis were collected from 33 patients with molecularly confirmed Leishmania tropica or L. major infection. Ridley patterns (2-5) were assessed for various clinicopathological features including age, gender, disease duration, parasitic index and constituents of the inflammatory infiltrate. CD1a, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD138 stains were performed on normal skin tissue, cutaneous leishmaniasis biopsies and cytospin/cell block cytology preparations of cultured leishmania promastigotes. CD1a was quantified per mm2 in the epidermis and dermis. The remaining stains were graded according to a 4-tiered grading system [0 (0-4%); 1 (5-24%); 2 (25-49%); 3 (50-74%) and 4 (75-100%). Total CD1a expression significantly decreased (14-fold) from parasitic indices (0-2) to (5-6); (ρ < 0.001). CD1a expression in the epidermis was at least 5-fold lower than normal skin (58 vs. 400 cells/mm2), inversely correlating with the parasitic index. There was an increase in dermal CD1a Langerhans cells (33 vs. 0 cells/mm² in the dermis). CD1a and CD68 staining of amastigotes was strong and diffuse, whereas promastigotes were negative. The major inflammatory infiltrate, in all Ridley patterns, consisted of macrophages and double-negative CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes. The double-negative CD3 T cells formed a ring around the parasitic laden macrophages. Apart from CD1a, there was no significant difference in inflammatory markers between the various Ridley patterns and parasitic indices. Disease

  11. Progressive increasing of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kashan district, central of Iran

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    Doroodgar A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in important endemic focus of Kashan district, central of Iran during 2007-2008. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and 5 098 individuals were selected from thirteen rural and urban districts of Kashan city. Information of positive cases including age, sex, job, number and sites of ulcers or scars, date and place of the ulcer, and results of clinical examination and laboratory tests were recorded. Diagnoses of affected cases were based on clinical examination and microscopic observation of the ulcer parasite. The results were analyzed with statistical Chi-square test. Results: An infection prevalence rate of 6.4% was obtained among 5 098 individuals. Regarding to 326 affected cases, 103 (2.0% and 223 (4.4% persons were observed with active lesion and scars, respectively. The highest frequency of active ulcer rate (23.3% was associated with age group of 20-29 years old, while the lowest rate was related to age group of 0-9 years old with 7.8% infection. About 49.5% of the infected cases were under 30 years old. This study showed 64.1% of cases with one and the rest of them with two or more ulcers. Hands (46.6% were the most affected parts of body. Conclusions: There is a progressive increasing of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kashan district and this is a warning to local health workers to provide prevention as well as control program of the disease.

  12. Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-01-01

    This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country's mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples' migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thiel, P P A M; Zeegelaar, J E; van Gool, T; Faber, W R; Kager, P A

    2011-05-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic investigations for cutaneous leishmaniasis included Giemsa stain, culture, PCR and NASBA and histopathology of biopsies. Treatment of leishmaniasis was with sodium stibogluconate, given intravenously or intralesionally, the latter with cryotherapy. In 1998 and 2004 cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania mexicana infection was diagnosed in 25 persons out of 99 (attack rate 25.2%) and 14 persons out of 80 (attack rate 17.5%) respectively. In 2009 cutaneous leishmaniasis was not acquired. Skin problems were common during and after jungle training. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was important in the first two cohorts but not observed in the third cohort. Factors that could have played a role in the absence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the third cohort include variability in transmission and availability of better preventive measures and adherence to these. Sodium stibogluconate treatment, intralesional or intravenous, was effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, José M; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Bolaños-Pizarro, Máxima

    2013-03-07

    Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author's institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research.

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; Zeegelaar, J. E.; van Gool, T.; Faber, W. R.; Kager, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data

  16. The case of diagnosis of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Savelyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Article presents the current data on the clinical and epidemiological issue of leishmaniasis. Methods and results. Leishmaniasis is endemic disease in 88 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Probability of importation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in our country is practically zero, but, given the rarity of this disease, we present own clinical observation of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye. At the beginning of the third millennium has greatly increased the urgency of tropical parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. According to WHO, the world's 14 million people are infected each year there is about 2 million new cases and about 350 million live in areas at risk. Leishmaniasis - a group of vector-borne protozoal disease in humans and animals characterized by lesions of the internal organs (visceral leishmaniasis or the skin and mucous membranes (cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is the vector mosquitoes. We present their own clinical observations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis imported. Patient S., 41 years was hospitalized in Zaporozhye Regional Clinical Hospital infectious on 07.17.2013, with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis. From the history of the disease is known that for the first time in February 2013 the patient have got relative to blade area redness and bump that appeared above the skin, and had a magnitude of 2,3 mm brownish-red. To the doctor the patient has not addressed. After 1,5-2 months bump grew and he began to stand out ichor, which dries and formed a crust on top of the hump. Further small ulcers that did not bring discomfort and pain to the patient appeared. However, every month ulcer increased. In July, after vacation at sea, rose weeping sores and perifocal inflammation appeared. Ulcer size reached 2 cm in diameter. The patient first applied to the dermatologist at the beginning of July 2013. Dermatologist excluded secondary syphilis and tuberculosis skin and sent to an

  17. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis DNA in fruit, vegetable, and mushroom samples collected in the non-endemic territory of the Pomerania province and comparison of the results with data from rural areas of the neighbouring highly endemic Warmia-Masuria province, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemyslaw; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm that may cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most dangerous parasitic zoonoses. As in the case of some foodborne diseases, unwashed fruits and vegetables contaminated with eggs of E. multilocularis may serve as an important transmission route for this parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms in rural areas of the Pomerania province, Poland (non-endemic territory). In total, 104 environmental fruit, vegetable, and mushroom samples collected in forests, plantations, and kitchen gardens were analysed using nested PCR based on the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. E. multilocularis DNA was detected in 6.7 % of the samples tested, which indicated that the environment of the Pomerania province is contaminated with this parasite, creating a potential risk for humans. Therefore, fresh fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms should be washed before consumption. Additionally, the results showed that the level of contamination is significantly lower than in the highly endemic Warmia-Masuria province. The differences in the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the environment of these neighbouring provinces appears to be connected with the general epidemiological situation of these two regions, but further study is required for an exact explanation.

  18. Herramientas no invasivas en Venezuela: comparación entre las pruebas inmunoserológicas DAT, rK26 y rK39 en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis visceral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terán-Ángel, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Silva, Rosilved; Zerpa, Olga; Schallig, Henk; Ulrich, Marian; Cabrera, Maira

    2010-01-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in endemic countries because of its high potential lethality, particularly in children. Rapid diagnosis is essential to early treatment and control of visceral leishmaniasis. The aim was to compare three serodiagnostic tools for human

  19. Immunoglobulin E Antileishmanial Antibody Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Atta, Maria L. B.; Salamé, Gregório S.; D’Oliveira, Argemiro; Almeida, Roque P.; Atta, Ajax M.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2002-01-01

    High levels of antileishmanial immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are associated with disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis. Herein, we report our observations about the relationship between antileishmanial IgE antibodies and clinical aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study was carried out with 45 patients (29 male and 16 female), with ages ranging from 11 to 48 years. All subjects were from an area to which leishmaniasis is endemic, Corte de Pedra (Bahia, Brazil), and the duration of the illness was ≤30 days. The patients were classified as positive or negative for IgE serology in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with leishmanial antigens. IgE antibodies were detected in 18 patients (optical density, 0.421 ± 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.57), and only 3 (17%) had more than one ulcer. In this group the diameter of Montenegro’s reaction was 18 ± 12.2 mm. In the group with negative IgE serology, 11 of 27 patients (48%) presented two or more cutaneous ulcers, and the mean of the skin test result was 9 ± 6.9 mm. There was a positive correlation between IgE antibody levels and Montenegro’s reaction size and an inverse correlation between IgE antileishmanial antibodies and the number of skin ulcers. The presence of antileishmanial IgE antibodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis may be a result of immunoregulatory events with clinical implications. PMID:11777837

  20. Female genital schistosomiasis--a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted disease: genital itch and vaginal discharge as indicators of genital Schistosoma haematobium morbidity in a cross-sectional study in endemic rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Kurewa, Edith Nyaradzai; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Mason, Peter R; Gomo, Exnevia; Sandvik, Leiv; Mduluza, Takafira; Friis, Henrik; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2008-12-01

    To examine the association between schistosomiasis and reproductive tract symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of rural Zimbabwe. A total of 483 permanently resident adult women of Mupfure Ward aged 20-49 were interviewed and examined clinically, each providing three consecutive urine samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women with genital sandy patches had significantly more genital itch (P = 0.009) and perceived their discharge as abnormal (P = 0.003). Eighty percent of the women who had genital itch, yellow discharge, and childhood or current waterbody contact had sandy patches. Fifty-two percent of the women with genital sandy patches did not have detectable S. haematobium ova in urine. Genital schistosomiasis was associated with stress incontinence and pollakisuria, but not with menstrual irregularities, current or previous ulcers, or tumours. Genital schistosomiasis may be a differential diagnosis to the STDs in women who have been exposed to fresh water in endemic areas. Because of the chronic nature of the disease in adults, we suggest to pay special attention to the prevention of morbidity.

  1. New world cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Trufant, Joshua W; Lewin, Jesse M; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2015-01-01

    A 24-year-old Bangladeshi man presented with a 12-week history of a pruritic papule on his left elbow that had enlarged and ulcerated. He was without any constitutional or systemic symptoms. He reported a history of extensive travel in the two years prior to presentation that included Bangladesh, South and Central America, and Mexico. Histopathologic features were consistent with leishmaniasis. Speciation by the Centers for Disease Control showed L. brasiliensis.

  2. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  3. Eclectic feeding behavior of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, state of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mauricio Baum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The blood meal source of sandflies provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction and allows for an understanding of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL transmission mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Brazil's State of Paraná using a precipitin test. Methods Sandflies were collected in the rural locality of Epitácio Pessoa within the City of Adrianópolis, State of Paraná, in southern Brazil. A total of 864 female sandflies were captured, and 862 (99.8% were identified as L. intermedia species. However, two unidentified specimens were considered to be part of the genus Lutzomyia. Results Among the females examined, 396 specimens presented reactions to a certain type of tested antiserum, and most (67.9% reacted to the simple type. These sandflies fed mainly on the blood of birds, opossums, and rodents, but specimens that fed on the blood of humans, dogs, horses, cattle, and cats were also found. Among the cross-reactions found (32.1%, bird/rodent, bird/opossum, bird/dog, bird/human, and horse/dog cross-reactions were the most common. Conclusions These results demonstrate a tendency in the eclectic feeding behavior of L. intermedia and support its potential role as a vector for ACL in the study area.

  4. The sandflies of the Satluj river valley, Himachal Pradesh (India): some possible vectors of the parasite causing human cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases in this endemic focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nand Lal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Ranjan, Nitin; Verma, Ghanshyam K; Negi, Ajit K; Mehta, Karan Inder S

    2009-06-01

    The recently recognized endemic focus of leishmaniasis in Satluj river valley in Himachal Pradesh (India) lies in north-western Himalayas (30 degrees N, 70 degrees E). This endemic focus of leishmaniasis appears peculiar where localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) co-exists with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and Leishmania donovani is predominant pathogen for LCL whereas only a few cases have been due to Leishmania tropica. This study was carried out to collect sandflies, identify and delineate their habitat and role in transmission of human leishmaniasis in this endemic focus. During June 2003 to September 2007, 142 (M-22, F-120) sandflies were collected with aspirators from 10 endemic villages of Kinnaur and Shimla districts. Sixty-two of the identified sandflies caught belonged to the genus Phlebotomus species, including some species that are known to act as vectors of the parasites causing human leishmaniasis. The Phlebotomus (Adlerius) chinensis longiductus (Parrot), 1928 (28 sandflies), P. major (8 sandflies), P. (Larroussius) kandelakii burneyi (Lewis), 1967 (8 sandflies) were identified. The identification of the main species of vector sandfly in the region is complicated because it is still uncertain which Leishmania species cause(s) the local human leishmaniasis. Circumstantially it seems likely, however, that Phlebotomus (Adlerius) chinensis longiductus is the main vector. Other species found, such as P. major and P. (Larroussius) kandelakii burneyi, may also be responsible for some cases. A more elaborate study is recommended.

  5. [Leishmaniasis in Algiers: epidemiologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrat, Z; Belkaid, M

    2003-08-01

    The authors review the situation on human and canine leishmaniasis observed in Algiers during the period 1990-1997. 1800 sera have been tested by IFAT. The frequency of canine leishmaniasis rises to 37%. 25% of the positive dogs are asymptomatic. The canine leishmaniasis annual fluctuations seem to vary from one year to another, with an increase of number of cases comparing with the last period. Human leishmaniasis is also increasing in Algiers, where 22 cases of HVL and 40 cases CL have been notified. Nine strains of Leishmania (5 from dogs and 4 from human) were isolated and identified by isoenzymes eletrophoresis technique. All stocks were belonging to Leishmania infantum complex. To complete the study, the seasonal dynamic of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out in the same area where 2959 specimens have been captured. The results showed the predominance of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis, the main vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria.

  6. Fatores sócio-econômicos e atitudes em relação à prevenção domiciliar da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, em uma área endêmica do sul da Bahia, Brasil Socioeconomic factors and attitudes towards household prevention of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area in southern Bahia, Brazil

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    João Barberino Santos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito visando identificar condições sócio-econômicas e atitudes de uma população em relação à prevenção domiciliar da LTA, na localidade de Corte de Pedra, Município de Tancredo Neves, área endêmica do sul da Bahia, Brasil. O questionário foi aplicado em julho de 1997, com perguntas sobre aspectos sociais e econômicos, hábitos e atitudes da população em relação à prevenção contra a picada de artrópodos. Foram entrevistadas 100% das famílias habitantes da área selecionada, distribuídas em 168 moradias, correspondendo a 851 pessoas. Cerca de 66,7% das famílias percebem um ou menos de um salário mínimo mensal para o sustento de uma média de 5,1 moradores por residência. A maioria das famílias (57,2% não usa qualquer tipo de proteção. O meio de prevenção mais comum é a fumegação pela incineração de diversos tipos de materiais. As medidas de proteção individual são raramente usadas. Uma vez que na área de estudo têm sido relatadas evidências de transmissão intra e peridomiciliar de LTA, o uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com inseticida seria uma alternativa à proteção intradomiciliar.A survey was conducted to identify socioeconomic conditions and attitudes towards household prevention of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Corte de Pedra, located in the county of Tancredo Neves, an endemic region in southern Bahia, Brazil. A questionnaire was applied in July 1997, focusing on social and economic variables, habits, and attitudes towards prevention of arthropod bites. All families (100% living in the study area were surveyed, comprising 168 households with 851 individuals. Approximately 66.7% of the families earned up to one minimum wage, supporting an average of 5.1 residents per household. Most (57.2% of the families did not use any type of protection against bites. Fumigation by burning various types of materials was the most customary form of prevention. Individual

  7. Características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma região endêmica do Estado da Bahia: III. Fauna flebotomínica Epidemiological characteristics of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia: III. Phlebotomine fauna

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    Julio A. Vexenat

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available A fauna flebotomínica da região de Três Braços, uma área endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea-mucosa localizada no sudeste do Estado da Bahia, na região cacaueira, é muito variada. Foram identificadas 30 espécies de Lutzomyia em 13.535 exemplares coletados entre os anos de 1976 e 1984. Lu. withmani foi a espécie altamente predominante no ambiente peridoméstico e no interior das residências, com percentuais de 99,0 e 97,5, respectivamente. Na floresta, as espécies predominantes foram Lu. ayrozai e Lu. yuilli, aparecendo Lu. whitmani com apenas 1,0% do total de exemplares examinados. Lu. flaviscutellata, vetor comprovado da Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, foi também coletada em baixos índices. Lu. wellcomei, vetor da L. braziliensis braziliensis na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil, não foi encontrada na região de Três Braços onde o parasito causando infecções humanas é predominantemente L. b. braziliensis. Embora não se tenha encontrado infecção natural por promastigotas em 1.832 fêmeas de diversas espécies examinadas, discute-se a possibilidade de Lu. whitmani ser um vetor da L.b. braziliensis na região, mantendo, provavelmente, a transmissão entre o cão e o homem.The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in três Braços, an endemic area american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, brazil. Thirty species of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 spcecimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyia whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% or flies in the periodomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yulli. Lu whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers, I.u. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Par

  8. Unusual forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M; Greenberger, S; Baum, S; Pavlotsky, F; Barzilai, A; Schwartz, E

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania major (L. major) is common in the Middle East; however, this skin infection may be under-diagnosed when it presents atypically. To highlight the occurrence of uncommon presentations of CL that may elude diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed among patients who presented at The Sheba Medical Center between 2005 and 2014 with atypical clinical presentations of CL due to L. major. Twelve patients with unusual clinical presentations of L. major CL were identified. All infections were acquired in L. major - endemic areas of Israel. The average age was 37 years. The average number of lesions was 2. Nine patients presented with a form that mimicked other forms of CL, such as lupoid, giant ulcer, sporotrichoid and recidivans, and three had a variant resembling other infectious skin diseases, such as erysipeloid and verruciform. All patients required systemic therapy. Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major can masquerade as many other infectious and inflammatory diseases. In addition, it can mimic clinical forms of New World CL. We suggest that in endemic countries or in travellers returning from countries where L. major is endemic, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania-specific DNA should be performed routinely in cases of unusual presentations of dermatitis with a single or a few lesions, even if a diagnosis of CL was not considered by the referring clinician. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  10. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

  11. Malaria-related mortality based on verbal autopsy in an area of low endemicity in a predominantly rural population in Ethiopia

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    Fantahun Mesganaw

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria is one of the most important causes of death in Ethiopia, measuring the magnitude of malaria-attributed deaths at community level poses a considerable difficulty. Nevertheless, despite its low sensitivity and specificity, verbal autopsy (VA has been the most important technique to determine malaria-specific cause of death for community-based studies. The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of malaria mortality in a predominantly rural population of Ethiopia using VA technique at Butajira Rural Health Programme (BRHP Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS. Methods A verbal autopsy was carried out for a year from August 2003 to July 2004 for all deaths identified at BRPH-DSS. Two trained physicians independently reviewed each VA questionnaire and indicated the most likely causes of death. Finally, all malaria related deaths were identified and used for analysis. Results A verbal autopsy study was successfully conducted in 325 deaths, of which 42 (13% were attributed to malaria. The majority of malaria deaths (47.6% were from the rural lowlands compared to those that occurred in the rural highlands (31% and urban (21.4% areas. The proportional mortality attributable to malaria was not statistically significant among the specific age groups and ecological zones. Mortality from malaria was reckoned to be seasonal; 57% occurred during a three-month period at the end of the rainy season between September and November. About 71% of the deceased received some form of treatment before death, while 12 (28.6% of those who died neither sought care from a traditional healer nor were taken to a conventional health facility before death. Of those who sought treatment, 53.3% were first taken to a private clinic, 40% sought care from public health facilities, and the remaining two (6.7% received traditional medicine. Only 11.9% of the total malaria-related deaths received some sort of treatment within 24h after

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient receiving methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; Güell, Elena; Martínez Montauti, Joaquín; Pineda, Antonio; Corominas, Hèctor

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are susceptible to severe infections such as leishmaniasis. As L. infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean region, it is necessary to rule this infectious process out in any RA patient presenting with fever and pancytopenia. An early diagnosis based on a high suspicion can prevent a fatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Arzamani, Kourosh; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeghi, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Motavalli-Haghi, Seyed Mousa; Elikaee, Samira; Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Ahmad; Kakoei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serol...

  14. Military Relevant Infectious Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Vaccine and Clinical Trials and Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    have historically impacted military operations. Malaria is hyper-endemic in the coastal lowlands and lake regions of Kenya, leishmaniasis focally...al., Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 in blood, plasma, and serum . Clin Vaccine

  15. First report of the use of meglumine antimoniate for treatment of canine leishmaniasis in a pregnant dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Groppetti, Debora; Perego, Roberta; Grieco, Valeria; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis during pregnancy is rarely reported, even in countries where the infection in dogs is endemic. The authors report a case of a 4 yr old bitch with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate during pregnancy. The pregnancy and delivery were normal and the bitch presented improvement of the infection during treatment. Three puppies died within 2 days of birth and tested negative via real-time PCR for L. infantum. The two surviving puppies were followed clinically, serologically, and by real-time PCR until 1 yr of age with no evidence of congenital leishmaniasis. L. infantum DNA was detected with real-time PCR analysis of uterine tissue from the bitch at the time of ovariohysterectomy. PCR analysis was performed after an ovariohysterectomy of the bitch that was performed two months after parturition. Meglumine antimoniate use in the pregnant bitch may have prevented vertical transmission of leishmaniasis.

  16. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pediatric Patients in a Single Tertiary Hospital in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaman, Ayşe; Tanır, Gönül; Gayretli Aydın, Zeynep Gökçe; Metin, Özge; Aydın Teke, Türkan; Öz, Fatma Nur; Mungan, Mesut

    2017-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is caused by a protozoan parasite of the Leishmania genus and that occurs worldwide. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southeastern Turkey and the neighboring Middle Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). A total of 16 CL patients [11 (69%) boys and five (31%) girls] were admitted between January 2014 and December 2015. The data of the patients were retrospectively recorded from their medical records. Their mean age was 74.3±32.3 months (range: 1-10.5 years). Double lesions were most commonly seen in eight (50%) patients. The face and neck was the most commonly involved site (87.5% of the patients). Skin smears for a parasitological examination were positive in nine (56%) patients. Two patients (12.5%) with limb lesions were treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate. Fourteen patients were treated with systemic agents. We felt that the increase in human movement that include travels and forced migration due to the war might make it possible for CL to appear in non-endemic provinces such as Ankara. In particular, in patients with painless cutaneous lesion(s) who came from endemic areas such as Syria, CL should be kept in mind by the clinicians that residing in even non-endemic areas .

  17. Phlebotomine sandflies in rural locations in the State of Parana, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State.

  18. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya. A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, K. U.; Kurtzhals, J. A.; Sherwood, J. A.; Githure, J. I.; Kager, P. A.; Muller, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is endemic in Baringo District, Kenya. The disease has a focal distribution in the dry, hot areas below 1500 metres. Infections may be characterized as follows: 1) asymptomatic, 2) subclinical and self-limiting (not medically identifiable),

  19. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  20. First case report of atypical disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in an opium abuser in Iran

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    Seyed Ahmad Hashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a worldwide tropical infectious disease caused by different species of intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania . Herein, we report a 78-year-old man with unusual diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL who had a history of opium abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. He had multiple papular, crusted and severely ulcerated lesions extended to his arm and chest. Direct smears and skin punch biopsy of the lesions were suggestive of leishmaniasis. Parasite DNA was amplified from ulcers, and identified as Leishmania major by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing analyses. The aim of the current study was to bring to attention this atypical form of disease in CL endemic countries. Thus, this is the first case of DCL in an opium abuser with COPD due to L. major in Northeastern Iran indicating that atypical and extensive forms of CL (DCL owing to L. major are increasing in Iran.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of Leishmania mexicana in a cutaneous leishmaniasis case in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Diaz, Yssete O; Lopez-Moreno, Carmina Y; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose G; Lopez-Moreno, Hector S

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has been considered endemic in Sinaloa, Mexico, since 1994. Despite that Leishmania mexicana is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in other regions of Mexico, the species causing CL in patients from Sinaloa state has not been previously established, although Leishmania braziliensis has been found in the neighboring southern state, Nayarit. L. braziliensis is also associated with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a more complicated clinical variant. Due to the implications on individual and public health, the objective of this report was to identify the Leishmania species present in Sinaloa, Mexico. Using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, we identified L. mexicana in a CL patient from Sinaloa and confirmed the extended distribution of this parasite in Mexico.

  2. [Update on tegumentary leishmaniasis and carrion's disease vectors in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; Vásquez, Gissella; Espada, Liz; Ramírez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Among approximately 190 species of Lutzomyia in Peru, only a small number have been identified as vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Western and inter-Andean valleys. These include L. peruensis, L. verrucarum, L. tejadai, L. ayacuchensis, and L. pescei. In the Amazon region, L. yuilli yuilli, L. chagasi, L. davisi, and L. auraensis are naturally infected, among the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. L. auraensis is newly reported as a potential vector of leishmaniasis in neotropical regions. Among the primary and most widely distributed vectors of human bartonellosis or Carrión's disease, L. verrucarum and L. peruensis are predominant in the Andean regions of northern, central, and southern Peru. Other potential vectors of Carrion's disease are L. serrana in the Monzon Valley, Huamalies, and Huanuco; L. pescei in Apurímac and Cusco; and L. robusta and L. maranonensis in Jaén, San Ignacio, and Utcubamba provinces, and the high forests of Peru. Because of the high prevalence of leishmaniasis and bartonellosis outside of known endemic areas in Peru, it is necessary to update data and distribution maps of these disease vectors. This may improve both prevention and control measures. Existing information about sandfly vectors in Peru is also provided in this article.

  3. Miltefosine in cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.B.; Mumtaz, N.; Bari, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of oral Miltefosine in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and its comparison with the most effective standard treatment, pentavalent antimony compound. Thirty patients, 12 years of age or older clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected. Fifteen patients received orally administered Miltefosine 2.5mg/kg/day for 28 days and remaining 15 received injectable pentavalent antimony 20mg/kg/day for 28 days. Pre-treatment complete physical examination was done along with necessary laboratory investigations in all cases. These were repeated again after 2 weeks and at the end of treatment to note any deviation from the normal limits. Groups were almost matched in terms of age, weight, parasitological score. The efficacy was evaluated by ulcer size, before therapy, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Patients were followed-up at 3 and 6 months. Efficacy of two groups was statistically compared by calculating p-value by z-test. All patients completed the study without any serious complication. Lesions improved significantly and only scarring and post-inflammatory pigmentation was left. At 3 months, cure rate was 93% in group A and it was 73.33% in group B while at the end of 6 months, it was 86% and 66.6% respectively. This difference between efficacies of two groups was not found to be statistically significant (p-value >0.5). Miltefosine appears to be a safe and effective alternative to currently used therapies. The striking advantage of Miltefosine is its oral administration and it may also be helpful in regions where parasites are resistant to current agents. (author)

  4. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria.

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    Ayodele Adedoja

    Full Text Available Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria.Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4-15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data.Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4% of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%. The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%, Hymenolepis species (9.8%, Schistosoma mansoni (2.9% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%. The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062. The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049 and hookworm (p = 0.034 infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10-15 years recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively. Children who were

  6. Autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area: Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral canina autóctone em uma área não-endêmica: Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Marcio Roberto Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by describing a dog with characteristic symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis. A serum sample from this animal was positive by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF performed in anti-Leishmania total IgG in 1999. Tissues from the same dog were also positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 2004, identifying Leishmania DNA in the cerebellum, liver, kidney, and intestine. This is the first report of a dog with autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in the county of Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The finding of this IIF-positive dog led to a canine visceral leishmaniasis epidemiological investigation in the county. The investigation was conducted from March 1999 to December 2005. IIF was positive for Leishmania in 22 (3% of 734 examined dogs. Among the 22 IIF-positive dogs, six presented characteristic symptoms of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The results of this epidemiological investigation were sent to local and State public health authorities, requesting visceral leishmaniasis control and preventive measures to interrupt transmission of the disease and avoid the occurrence of human cases.O presente trabalho descreve inicialmente um cão com sintomas característicos de leishmaniose visceral. Amostra de soro desse cão foi positiva por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI conduzida no IgG total anti-Leishmania em 1999. Além disso, tecidos desse cão foram positivos por reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR conduzida em 2004, identificando DNA de Leishmania no cerebelo, fígado, rim e intestino. Esta é a primeira vez que um cão com leishmaniose visceral autóctone foi descrito no Município de Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O achado desse cão reagente à IFI levou a uma investigação epidemiológica nesse município. Essa investigação foi conduzida de março de 1999 a dezembro de 2005. Vinte e dois de um total de 734 (3% cães examinados foram reagentes à IFI. Entre os 22 cães IFI reagentes, seis apresentaram

  7. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological profile of patients treated in Londrina from 1998 to 2009*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Rubens Pontello; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Ogama, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a dermatozoonosis of compulsory notification with relevant morbidity. The disease is considered endemic in northern Paraná. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological aspects of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis treated at Clinics Hospital, State University of Londrina, Brazil (Paraná). METHODS This was an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study. The medical records of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis treated at the University Hospital of Londrina - Paraná, from 1998 to 2009 were evaluated. RESULTS A total of 470 patients, with prevalence of 8.72 cases / 100,000 inhabitants, participated in the study. Most patients were male, aged 21-40 years, with a single ulcerated lesion as the most common clinical presentation, located mainly in an exposed area of the body. With regard to immunological tests, the Montenegro intradermal reaction was positive in 84.4% of cases. Treatment with pentavalent antimony was well tolerated, and patient follow-up for a year occurred in 59% of cases. CONCLUSION American cutaneous leishmaniasis is still an endemic disease in the region, with a high potential for morbidity, but with a cure rate of around 95% after treatment. The use of immunological techniques facilitates the diagnosis of clinically suspicious cases. PMID:24173180

  8. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

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    Andreina de Carvalho ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality ofPetrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%. Most of the patients were males (59.4%. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%, with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  9. DSFL database: A hub of target proteins of Leishmania sp. to combat leishmaniasis

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    Ameer Khusro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne chronic infectious tropical dermal disease caused by the protozoa parasite of the genus Leishmania that causes high mortality globally. Among three different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar is a systemic public health disease with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries, caused by Leishmania donovani, Leishmania infantum or Leishmania chagasi. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine available till date for the treatment of leishmaniasis. On the other hand, the therapeutics approved to treat this fatal disease is expensive, toxic, and associated with serious side effects. Furthermore, the emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania parasites in most endemic countries due to the incessant utilization of existing drugs is a major concern at present. Drug Search for Leishmaniasis (DSFL is a unique database that involves 50 crystallized target proteins of varied Leishmania sp. in order to develop new drugs in future by interacting several antiparasitic compounds or molecules with specific protein through computational tools. The structure of target protein from different Leishmania sp. is available in this database. In this review, we spotlighted not only the current global status of leishmaniasis in brief but also detailed information about target proteins of various Leishmania sp. available in DSFL. DSFL has created a new expectation for mankind in order to combat leishmaniasis by targeting parasitic proteins and commence a new era to get rid of drug resistance parasites. The database will substantiate to be a worthwhile project for further development of new, non-toxic, and cost-effective antileishmanial drugs as targeted therapies using in vitro/in vivo assays.

  10. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad District, Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran

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    V Barati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is present in different parts of Iran. Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Iran and other Mediterranean regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis as animal reservoir host for human visceral leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad dis­trict in southwest of Iran.Methods: A seroepidemiological study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL among ownership dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT in 23 of 182 villages of Boyer Ahmad district, during August 2009 to August 2010. One hundred and seventy serum samples from ownership dogs were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling in villages of Boyer Ahmad district. All samples were tested by DAT and anti-Leishmania antibodies titers at ≥ 1:320 was considered as positive.Results: Of the 170 serum samples, 10% were positive by DAT at titers of 1:320 and higher. No statistical significant difference was found between male (10.7% and female (8.3% seroprevalence. The highest seroprevalence rate (15.1% was observed among the ownership dogs of four to seven years age. Altogether, seventeen (25.4% of the seropositive dogs had clinical signs and symptoms.Conclusion: It seems that Boyer Ahmad district is an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran.

  11. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge - A review

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    Manuel Calvopina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  12. Efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in treatment of atrophic scar of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (high efficacy of fractional CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.

  13. Conjunctival leishmaniasis in a case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghinejad, M Reza; Monabati, Ahmad; Kadivar, Mohammad Rahim; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2017-01-01

    A 15-year-old female patient presented with numerous, small, papulonodular skin lesions, and hepatosplenomegaly 9 months after a treated biopsy proved cutaneous leishmaniasis. In ocular examination there were two yellowish, raised gelatinous conjunctival lesions in the left eye. The exisional conjunctival lesion biopsy revealed many Leishman bodies inside tissue histiocytes. The patient had no systemic immunologic problems (normal serum immunoglobulins, nitroblue-tetrazolium test, complement CH50 test and flow cytometry of leukocytes). The indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for Leishmania tropica (titre of 1:1024) and the leishmanin skin test were positive. DNA of L. tropica was detected by a specific polymerase chain reaction on whole blood, bone marrow and skin biopsy specimens. The skin and conjunctival lesions disappeared with miltefosine and no intraocular tissue penetration of organism happened. Conjunctival leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of raised conjunctival lesions in a disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis patient and needs proper systemic therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. On the relationship between calcified neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in an endemic village: A large-scale, computed tomography-based population study in rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H

    2017-11-01

    Using a large-scale population-based study, we aimed to assess prevalence and patterns of presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC) and its relationship with epilepsy in community-dwellers aged ≥20 years living in Atahualpa (rural Ecuador). In a three-phase epidemiological study, individuals with suspected seizures were identified during a door-to-door survey and an interview (phase I). Then, neurologists evaluated suspected cases and randomly selected negative persons to estimate epilepsy prevalence (phase II). In phase III, all participants were offered noncontrast computed tomography (CT) for identifying NCC cases. The independent association between NCC (exposure) and epilepsy (outcome) was assessed by the use of multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, level of education, and alcohol intake. CT findings were subsequently compared to archived brain magnetic resonance imaging in a sizable subgroup of participants. Of 1,604 villagers aged ≥20 years, 1,462 (91%) were enrolled. Forty-one persons with epilepsy (PWE) were identified, for a crude prevalence of epilepsy of 28 per 1,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20.7-38.2). A head CT was performed in 1,228 (84%) of 1,462 participants, including 39 of 41 PWE. CT showed lesions consistent with calcified parenchymal brain cysticerci in 118 (9.6%) cases (95% CI = 8.1-11.4%). No patient had other forms of NCC. Nine of 39 PWE, as opposed to 109 of 1,189 participants without epilepsy, had NCC (23.1% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.004). This difference persisted in the adjusted logistic regression model (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 1.35-6.81, p = 0.007). This large CT-based study demonstrates that PWE had three times the odds of having NCC than those without epilepsy, providing robust epidemiological evidence favoring the relationship between NCC and epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Sand Fly Vectors and Eco-Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Cristina; López, Marla; Fuya, Patricia; Lugo, Ligia; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; González, Camila

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania is transmitted by Phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector’s search for blood source. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (CL), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on th...

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis: an update of laboratory diagnosis

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    Zineb Tlamcani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis, is an infection due to obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There exist two varieties of visceral leishmaniasis, that vary in their transmission aspects: zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis and anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis. Their clinical features are comparable with sevral differences. Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis consists of microscopic observation of parasite, culture from appropriate samples, detection of antigen, serological tests, and identification of parasite DNA. In this review, we will discuss the different techniques of diagnosis and the interet of the recent methods such as rapid diagnostic test and direct agglutination test.

  17. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis among children in Gadarif hospital, eastern Sudan

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    Mohammed Ahmed A. Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1900s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL has been among the most important health problems in Sudan, particularly in the endemic areas such as eastern and central regions. Methods This was a cross sectional, hospital-based study conducted from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2015 to investigate the epidemiological factors of VL in Gadarif hospital, eastern Sudan. Results During the study period there were 47 identified children with VL among 145 suspected cases. The most common clinical presentations were fever (47, 100%, pallor (47, 100%, weight loss (40, 85.1%, splenomegaly (37, 78.7%, lymphadenopathy (33, 70.2%, vomiting (32, 68% cough (28, 59%, loss of appetite (22, 46.8%, diarrhoea (17, 36.1% and jaundice (5, 10.6%. With regard to the outcome after short term follow up 37 patients (78.8% improved without complications, while 3 (6.4%, 2 (4.3%, 2 (4.3%, 1 (2.1%, 1 (2.1% and 1 (2.1% developed pneumonia, otitis media, septicaemia, urinary tract infection, parasitic infestation and PKDL respectively. Lower mean of haemoglobin level was observed among the VL cases in comparison with the suspected cases (in whom VL was excluded haemoglobin level {8.9 (3.1 Vs 11 (6.3, P = 0.021}. Again more proportion of anaemic (47 (100% Vs 14 (14.2%, P = 0.000 and severely anaemic (23 (48.9% Vs 2 (2%, P = 0.006 patients was detected among the infected children. Using logistic regression analyses there was significant association between rural residence (CI = 1.5–24, OR = 19.1, P = 0.023, male gender (CI = 6.6–18.7, OR = 6.4, P = 0.001 and VL among children. Conclusions While there is an advance in prevention and management of visceral leishmaniasis our results indicate that VL is still a public health problem with its severe complications among children in eastern Sudan.

  18. The burden of leishmaniasis in Iran, acquired from the global burden of disease during 1990–2010

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    Alireza Badirzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report and measure the burden of leishmaniasis in Iran using the global burden of disease (GBD results, conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation for the years 1990 to 2010, and provide some recommendations for reaching better conclusions about the burden of disease. Methods: GBD burden and fatality rates of leishmaniasis were compared with the findings registered by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME. Data obtained from the GBD for the years 1990 to 2010 were used to estimate the disability-adjusted life-years and fatality rates of leishmaniasis in Iran. Results: The GBD estimated 229 714 disability-adjusted life-years due to leishmaniasis in Iranian people of all ages and both sexes. The number of deaths caused by visceral leishmaniasis (VL had decreased significantly in recent years. MOHME registered data on fewer than 30 deaths in Iran from 1990 to 2010. Conclusions: The underreporting of VL deaths is always more pronounced. Findings indicate that the GBD estimation of mortality rates was surprisingly higher than MOHME’s data. The burden of leishmaniasis decreased significantly between the years 1990 and 2010 in both data sources. The possible explanation for this decrease has been discovered through the establishment of a VL surveillance system in various parts of Iran, particularly in endemic areas.

  19. Epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients: experience from thirty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Avelar Alves; Pacheco e Silva Filho, Álvaro; Sesso, Ricardio de Castro Cinta; Esmeraldo, Ronaldo de Matos; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Costa; Fernandes, Paula Frassinetti; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves; de Silva, Leila Silveira Veira; de Carvalho, Valencio Pereira; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Andrade, Jesusmar Ximenes; da Silva, Diana Marisa Barros; Chaves, Roosevelt Valente

    2015-02-25

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania sp. and is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis (sand fly). In renal transplant recipients, visceral leishmaniasis causes severe damage to the liver, spleen, and hematopoietic system, as well as poor outcomes for patients with transplanted kidneys. This study describes the largest series of cases of visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients, providing important information about the diagnostic routines and therapeutic strategies in this patient population. A retrospective, descriptive study was performed to analyze the distribution and evaluate the extent of the epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of 30 renal transplant recipients from endemic regions who presented with visceral leishmaniasis in the post-transplantation period. In this study, visceral leishmaniasis was more frequent in men (80%). The mean age of presentation was 40 ± 10.5 years. The majority of patients worked in urban areas (66.7%), cohabitated with domestic animals (90%), and were from low-income households. In 73.3% of cases, diagnosis was made by direct isolation of Leishmania forms. Patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin, resulting in a high degree of disease remission (80%). This study describes the largest series of visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients and expands clinical-epidemiological knowledge for transplantation teams to perform adequate disease management for this specific patient population.

  20. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CL is usually more common in rural than urban areas, but it is found in some periurban and urban areas (such as in Kabul, Afghanistan). The ecologic ... insect repellent to exposed skin and under the edges of clothing, such as sleeves and pant legs, ...

  1. Serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a peptide sequence from gene B protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Gaafar, A; Ismail, A

    1996-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a 28 amino acid sequence of the repetitive element of gene B protein (GBP) from Leishmania major was developed for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was compared to ELISAs using crude amastigote and promastigote antigens from...... samples from healthy Sudanese individuals living in an area endemic for malaria but free of leish-maniasis were negative in all the assays. Significantly higher levels of antibodies were found in the patients who had suffered from the disease for more than eight weeks than in patients with a shorter...

  2. Low castes have poor access to visceral leishmaniasis treatment in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Martínez, F; Picado, A; Roddy, P; Palma, P

    2012-05-01

    Bihar, the poorest state in India, concentrates most of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases in the country. A large proportion of the poor rural communities where VL is endemic are marginalized by their socio-economic status, intrinsically related to the caste system. In this study, we evaluated whether people from low socio-economic strata had difficulties accessing VL treatment in Bihar. As a secondary outcome, we evaluated whether people delaying their VL treatment had poorer clinical indicators at admission. Data on 2187 patients with VL treated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Vaishali district from July 2007 to December 2008 were analysed. Patients who reported having onset of symptoms ≥8 weeks before admission were defined as 'late presenters'. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether low castes had higher risk to be 'late presenters' compared to the rest of castes and whether 'late presenters' had poorer indicators at admission (i.e. haemoglobin level, spleen size). After adjusting for age, gender and distance to VL treatment facility, Mushars (the lowest caste in Bihar) had twice the odds to be 'late presenters' compared to the rest of castes (OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.24-2.38). Subjects that had VL symptoms for ≥8 weeks had a larger spleen and lower haemoglobin level than those that were treated earlier. Low castes have poor access to VL treatment in Bihar, and late presenters have poorer clinical indicators at admission. These findings have implications at individual and community levels and should stimulate targeted VL control programmes to ensure that marginalized communities in Bihar are properly treated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dutch military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is een tropische ziekte veroorzaakt door een parasiet die wordt overgebracht door de zandvlieg. Pieter-Paul van Thiel beschrijft de besmetting van militairen tijdens drie missies in Afghanistan, en jungletrainingen in Suriname en Belize. Bij een missie in Noord-Afghanistan in 2005

  4. Detection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by PCR in Fasa district in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sharafi

    2013-09-01

    Material & Methods: Slit biopsies were collected from 138 suspected cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis who were presented, consecutively, in Fasa district from April 2011 to February 2012. After the microscopy, the entire smear was then scraped off the slide surface for DNA extraction and PCR assay. Results: All 138 investigated smears were reported positive by microscopy and nested PCR assay. In PCR, One of the smears had the 750-bp band, indicative of L. tropica and the rest had the 560-bp band indicative of L. major. Conclusion: In conclusion, the cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Fasa district is predominantly Rural Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The PCR-based assay used in the present study appears to be a suitable and powerful tool for the characterization of Leishmanial species.

  5. Sandflies and leishmaniasis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naucke, T J; Menn, B; Massberg, D; Lorentz, S

    2008-12-01

    This study has provided evidence for the natural occurrence of sandflies in Germany. Two species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus were detected. Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus, a proven vector of leishmaniasis, was found in association with an autochthonous case of canine leishmaniasis near Kaiserslautern. Two hundred thirty-seven specimens of Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii were caught in 17 different locations in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate. The northernmost finding in Germany (and Europe) was near Cochem (Moselle). P. mascittii has not yet been confirmed as a vector of leishmaniasis, but its competence is strongly suspected. In addition to the detection of the vector, since 1991, there have been 11 cases of leishmaniasis in Germany in which an autochthonous origin was confirmed or which were highly likely to have been of indigenous origin. Data from the German meteorological service indicate that Germany currently has a Mediterranean climate, with an annual average temperature of 10 degrees C being reached or exceeded in several regions. This type of climate is also appropriate for the living conditions of sandflies. Therefore, it is assumed that sandflies have a greater geographical distribution in Germany than the first studies suggested, being mainly restricted to the southern region of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The risk of an autochthonous canine infection occurring in Germany is very low. The rapidly increasing number of imported cases of leishmaniasis in dogs means that special attention must be focused on veterinary advice to dog owners about prophylaxis. The results indicate that the use of repellents and preventive behavioural measures is vital.

  6. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

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    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  7. Entomological studies of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in relation to cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Al Rabta, North West of Libya.

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    Dokhan, Mostafa Ramahdan; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin; Doha, Said Abdallah; El-Hosary, Shabaan Said; Shaibi, Taher; Annajar, Badereddin Bashir

    2016-02-01

    Al Rabta in the North-West of Libya is a rural area where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic for long time. Few reports are available on sand flies in this area which is an important focus of CL. Therefore, this study aimed at updating the species composition, and monthly fluctuation of sand flies in this area. Sand flies were biweekly collected by CDC light traps from June to November 2012 and April to November 2013 in two villages, Al Rabta East (RE) and Al Rabta West (RW). Nine species (6 Phlebotomus and 3 Sergentomyia) were reported in the two villages. A total of 5605 and 5446 flies were collected of which Phlebotomus represented 59.30 and 56.63% in RE and RW, respectively. Sergentomyia minuta and Phlebotomus papatasi were the abundant species. Generally, more males were collected than females for all species. The overall ratios (males: females) for most of species were not deviated from the expected 1:1 ratio (Chi-squared, P>0.05). Sand fly abundance (fly/trap) is directly related to the temperature and RH (P0.05). Flies were active from April to November with increased activity from June to October. Prominent peaks were in September and June. The abundance of P. papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti, vectors of CL (August-October) coincided with the reported higher numbers of CL cases (August- November). The obtained results could be important for the successful planning and implementation of leishmaniasis control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An outbreak investigation of visceral leishmaniasis among residents of Dharan town, eastern Nepal, evidence for urban transmission of Leishmania donovani

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    Uranw Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a predominantly rural disease, common in the low lands of eastern Nepal. Since 1997 VL cases have also been reported among residents of the city of Dharan. Our main research objective was to find out whether there had been local transmission of VL inside the city. Methods We conducted an outbreak investigation including a case–control study; cases were all urban residents treated for VL between 2000 and 2008 at BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, a university hospital in the city. For each case, we selected four random controls, with no history of previous VL; frequency-matched for age. Cases and controls were subjected to a structured interview on the main exposures of interest and potential confounders; a binominal multilevel model was used to analyze the data. We also collected entomological data from all neighborhoods of the city. Results We enrolled 115 VL patients and 448 controls. Cases were strongly clustered, 70% residing in 3 out of 19 neighborhoods. We found a strong association with socio-economic status, the poorest being most at risk. Housing was a risk factor independent from socio-economic status, most at risk were those living in thatched houses without windows. ‘Sleeping upstairs’ and ‘sleeping on a bed’ were strongly protective, OR of 0.08 and 0.25 respectively; proximity to a case was a strong risk factor (OR 3.79. Sand flies were captured in all neighborhoods; in collections from several neighborhoods presence of L. donovani could be demonstrated by PCR. Conclusion The evidence found in this study is consistent with transmission of anthroponotic VL within the city. The vector P. argentipes and the parasite L. donovani have both been identified inside the town. These findings are highly relevant for policy makers; in VL endemic areas appropriate surveillance and disease control measures must be adopted not only in rural areas but in urban areas as well.

  9. Phlebotomus sergenti in a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in Azilal Province (High Atlas, Morocco): Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Leishmania tropica, and Feeding Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ajaoud , Malika; Es-Sette , Nargys; Charrel , Rémi N.; Laamrani-Idrissi , Abderahmane; Nhammi , Haddou; Riyad , Myriam; Lemrani , Meryem

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti is at least one of the confirmed vectors for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica and distributed widely in Morocco. This form of leishmaniasis is considered largely as anthroponotic, although dogs were found infected with Leishmania tropica, suggestive of zoonosis in some rural areas. Methodology and Findings This survey aimed at (i) studying the presence of Leishmania in field caugh...

  10. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddawela, Devika; Vithana, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda; Atapattu, Dhilma; Wijekoon, Lanka

    2018-03-06

    Leishmaniasis, a vector borne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study. A sample of 509 clinically suspected cases of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology from all across Sri Lanka between 2005 and 2015 was selected consecutively. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic visualization of the Leishmania amastigote from the slit skin smear. A structured questionnaire was used to identify exposure related risk factors and a clinical examination was performed to identify lesion characteristics. Out of 509 clinical cases, 41.5% (n = 211) were smear positive. The study population ranged from ages 1 to 80 years (mean age = 34.76) and the most affected age group was 40-49. Of the smear positives, 58.85% were males. Majority (47.86%) were from the North Western region (Kurunegala) of the country and were exposed to scrub jungles. Sand fly exposure (p = 0.04) and positive contact history (p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for smear positivity. Erythema (p = 0.02), lack of pruritus (p = 0.02) and scaly appearance (p = 0.003) were significant lesion characteristics in smear positivity. Lesions were commonly found in the exposed areas and the commonest morphological type was papulo-nodular. An increasing trend in the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis from endemic to non-endemic areas has become evident. Positive contact history and sandfly exposure

  11. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

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    E M Moore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The available treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (VL have problems relating to efficacy, adverse effects and cost, making treatment a complex issue. We review the evidence relating to the different methods of treatment in relation to - efficacy and toxicity of the drugs in different areas of the world; ability to monitor side effects, length of treatment; ability of patients to pay for and stay safe during treatment, ability of the healthcare services to give intramuscular, intravenous or oral therapy; the sex and child-bearing potential of the patient and the immune status of the patient. The high mortality of untreated/ poorly treated VL infection makes the decisions paramount, but a unified and coordinated response by each area is likely to be more effective and informative to future policies than an ad hoc response. For patients in resource-rich countries, liposomal amphotericin B appears to be the optimal treatment. In South Asia, miltefosine is being used; the combination of single dose liposomal amphotericin B and short course miltefosine looks encouraging but has the problem of potential reproductive toxicities in females. In Africa, the evidence to switch from SSG is not yet compelling. The need to monitor and plan for evolving drug failure, secondary to leishmania parasite resistance, is paramount. With a few drugs the options may be limited; however, we await key ongoing trials in both Africa and India to explore the effects of combination treatment. If safe and reliable combinations are revealed by the ongoing studies, it is far from clear as to whether this will avoid leishmania parasite resistance. The development of new drugs to add to the armamentarium is paramount. Lessons can be learnt from the management of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria in terms of planning the switch to combination treatment. As important as establishing the best choice for specific antileishmanial agent is ensuring treatment centers

  12. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  13. Epidemiological survey on Leishmania infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and hunting dogs sharing the same rural area in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Di Muccio, Trentina; Manzillo, Valentina Foglia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Neola, Benedetto; Di Prisco, Francesca; D'Alessio, Nicola; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Gramiccia, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Southern Italy, particularly Campania region, is an area where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are endemic. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been hypothesized to play a role in occurrence of CanL in Italy but specific studies are poor. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs and foxes living in the same rural area (Picentini hills). 123 sera from autochthonous fox-hunting dogs were examined by immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) using a cut-off of 1:160. The seroprevalence of dogs examined was 17.9%. Moreover, 48 foxes were examined after having been shooted by hunters or road accidents. Spleen, liver and lymph node samples were analyzed by specific Leishmania nested PCR (n-PCR). 10 foxes were found infected by L. infantum (20.8%) of which 4 animals in spleen, 2 in lymph nodes and 4 both in spleen and lymph nodes. The overall n-PCR positivity was 17.4% for spleen samples and 13.3% for lymph nodes; all liver samples resulted negative. In positive PCR foxes no signs clearly referable to leishmaniasis were recorded at necropsy. The results confirmed the presence of L. infantum infection in red foxes from Southern Italy, with a moderate level of exposure. Because large proportions of dogs with ascertained progressive leishmaniasis show a prolonged "subpatent condition" during which they are only positive to n-PCR before seroconversion, our results allow to assume that exposure risk in foxes is lower than hunting dogs living in the studied area.

  14. Genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs identifies candidate genes involved in T helper cells and macrophage signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2....

  15. Diagnóstico molecular para Leishmaniasis

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    Ysabel Montoya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial diagnóstico de epitopes inmunodominantes seleccionados fue ensayado satisfactoriamente a fin de obtener una prueba serodiagnóstica alternativa para la Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana. Dos proteínas recombinantes prometedoras de L. (v. peruviana referidas como T-26-U2/T26-U4 fueron reconocidas por sueros individuales de pacientes con Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana usando Western Blot. La sensibilidad de la prueba fue de 86% con sueros permanentes con Leishmaniasis peruana.

  16. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Azar; Fakhar, Mahdi; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is considered an endemic zoonosis in some parts of Iran and dogs are main reservoirs, which play role in the transmission cycle of human leishmaniasis. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1982 to 2015 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, Iran medex and Scientific Information Database (SID). A total of 39 articles concerning dogs, 6 articles on jackals, 4 articles on wolves and 4 articles on foxes, reporting the prevalence of CVL from different regions of Iran fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Totally, 19903 dogs, 151 jackals, 42 wolves and 44 foxes were examined and the overall prevalence rate of CVL in Iran was estimated to be as following: in dogs 16% (95% CI: 13-19%), in jackals 10% (95% CI: 5-15%), in wolves 10% (95% CI: 5-15%) and in foxes 10% (95% CI: 1k19%), respectively. There was a significant difference in infection rate between male and female dogs, the infection in males 9% (95% CI: 8.8-10.5%) was more than females 7% (95% CI: 5.5-7.5%) (p=0.024). Also, the rate of infection was significantly higher in older dogs than younger ones (p<0.047) while in dogs younger than 1year was 12% (95% CI: 6-18%), in 1-2 years 10% (95% CI: 6-14%), in 3-5 years 16% (95% CI: 9-22%) and in those which were over 7 years 31% (95% CI: 19-44%), respectively. Our meta- regression analysis revealed the significant correlation between stray and owned dogs: the infection rate in stray 10% (95% CI: 5-4%) was higher than those owned 6% (95% CI: 3- 8%) (p=0.037). Also, the prevalence of infection in rural dogs 36% (95% CI: -1-72%) is significantly higher than urban dogs, 19% (95% CI:-1-40%) (p=0.013). Although most (81%) of infected dogs had no clinical signs (asymptomatic), meta-regression analysis showed that the infection rate in

  17. [Chronic facial ulceration in France and potential involvement of Leishmania infantum cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenvers, P; Marty, P; Peyron, F

    2013-11-01

    In France, cutaneous leishmaniasis is frequently seen in patients returning from North Africa or South America. Autochthonous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum causes rather visceral forms. Nevertheless, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by this parasite is occasionally seen in immunocompetent patients who have never been outside France. An 8-year-old girl living in the Haute-Savoie region and who had never travelled overseas presented with chronic ulceration of the right cheekbone that failed to regress under topical therapy. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of L. infantum. Following cryotherapy and intralesional injections of meglumine antimonite, the lesion resolved within a month. The patient's medical history revealed repeated journeys to the Pyrénées-Orientales region of southern France. For chronic ulceration on an uncovered area that does not resolve with topical therapy, cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis even if the patient has never left France. Trips to the South of France (an endemic region) should be sought in the history. In addition to direct examination of the product from curettage of the lesion and histopathology, non-invasive methods such as Western blotting with PCR run on filter paper impressions allow accurate diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. In silico search of energy metabolism inhibitors for alternative leishmaniasis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lourival A; Vinaud, Marina C; Castro, Ana Maria; Cravo, Pedro Vítor L; Bezerra, José Clecildo B

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that affects mammals and is caused by approximately 20 distinct protozoa from the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease that exerts a large socioeconomic impact on poor and developing countries. The current treatment for leishmaniasis is complex, expensive, and poorly efficacious. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more selective, less expensive new drugs. The energy metabolism pathways of Leishmania include several interesting targets for specific inhibitors. In the present study, we sought to establish which energy metabolism enzymes in Leishmania could be targets for inhibitors that have already been approved for the treatment of other diseases. We were able to identify 94 genes and 93 Leishmania energy metabolism targets. Using each gene's designation as a search criterion in the TriTrypDB database, we located the predicted peptide sequences, which in turn were used to interrogate the DrugBank, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), and PubChem databases. We identified 44 putative targets of which 11 are predicted to be amenable to inhibition by drugs which have already been approved for use in humans for 11 of these targets. We propose that these drugs should be experimentally tested and potentially used in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  19. Revisiting leishmaniasis in the time of war: the Syrian conflict and the Lebanese outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawieh, Ali; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Jaber, Amani; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Bizri, Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in many worldwide foci including the Middle East. Several outbreaks have occurred in the Middle East over the past decades, mostly related to war-associated population migration. With the start of the Syrian war, the frequency and magnitude of these outbreaks increased alarmingly. We describe the epidemiology of Leishmania infection in Lebanon and the most recent outbreak relevant to the Syrian war. We reviewed all leishmaniasis cases reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and the first quarter of 2014. The demographics and distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon were linked to reports of new Leishmania cases. In total, 1033 new cases of leishmaniasis were reported in 2013 compared to a previous annual number in the range of 0-6 cases. The majority of cases reported in 2013 involved Syrian refugees and their relevant areas of concentration. This new outbreak of leishmaniasis in Lebanon is the first of its kind for more than a decade. The sudden increase in Leishmania cases in Lebanon in 2013 is attributed to the increasing numbers and wide distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. This serves as an example of the risks associated with military conflicts and the ability of communicable diseases to cross borders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel low-cost thermotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

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    Braulio M Valencia

    Full Text Available Thermotherapy is an accepted alternative therapy for new-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, but current heat-delivery modalities are too costly to be made widely available to endemic populations. We adapted a low-cost heat pack named the HECT-CL device that delivers safe, reliable, and renewable conduction heat. 25 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis completed treatment with the device at an initial temperature of 52°C ± 2°C for 3 minutes to each lesion, repeated daily for 7 days, and were followed up for 6 months by direct observation. The overall definitive clinical cure rate was 60%. Concurrently, 13 patients meeting minimally significant exclusion criteria received identical compassionate use treatment with a cumulative definitive cure rate of 68.4%, 75% for those who had experienced CL relapse after prior antimonial treatment. Therapy was well tolerated. Reversible second-degree burns occurred in two patients and no bacterial super-infections were observed. HECT-CL is a promising treatment and deserves further study to verify its safety and efficacy as adjuvant and mono- therapy.

  1. The use of radionuclide DNA probe technology in epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Octavio [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Tropical; Gomes, Rosangela Fatima; Melo, Maria Norma de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia]|[Cor Jesus Fontes Mato Grosso Univ., Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Julio Muller

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis are due to different species that belongs to Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana complex and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex, respectively. Cutaneous leishmaniasis ulcers may persist for months to years but eventually they heal, while mucocutaneous leishmaniasis can result in destructive lesions on the nose, oral pharynx, lips or face. The specific diagnosis of the disease is important because of the high cost and toxicity of the treatment and the subsequent medical follow-up depends on the precise identification of the complex that causes the infection. The epidemiological information furnished by the identification of parasites of a given endemic region is also essential for the design of appropriate control measures. In this work we typed, using specific DNA probes labelled with {sup 32}P radionuclide, samples collected from patients living in endemic areas of Mato Grosso state. The results showed that L. braziliensis is the predominant group infecting human patients in the state. We have typed, up to the moment 68 samples. 64 samples (94.1%) belonged to the L. braziliensis complex and only 4 (5.9%) belonged to the L. mexicana complex. (author)

  2. Reactivation of cutaneous and mucocutaneous tegumentary leishmaniasis in rheumatoid arthritis patients: an emerging problem?

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    Regina Maia de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic condition that is frequent in patients living in tropical areas exposed to leishmaniasis. RA therapy involves immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate (MTX, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and prednisone. We report an unusual presentation of cutaneous (CL or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML in RA patients from an endemic area of leishmaniasis. A 51-year-old woman noted a cutaneous ulcer on her left ankle during MTX and prednisone RA therapy. Initially diagnosed as a venous stasis ulcer, the aspirate of the injury revealed the presence of Leishmania DNA. A 73-year-old woman presenting non-ulcerated, infiltrated and painful erythematous nodules inside her nostrils while receiving MTX, anti-TNF mAb, and prednisone for RA, had also the aspirate of injuries showing the presence of Leishmania DNA. Both patients healed after the therapy with liposomal amphotericin. The RA therapy has changed to low-dose prednisone, without further reactivation episodes. Both cases suggest that CL or ML can reactivate after administration of an immunosuppressant for RA treatment. Therefore, immunosuppressive treatments for RA should be carefully prescribed in patients from endemic areas or with a history of CL and ML.

  3. The unwelcome trio: HIV plus cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, C; Tchernev, G; Bevelacqua, V; Lotti, T; Nunnari, G

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) coinfection has emerged as an extremely serious and increasingly frequent health problem in the last decades. Considering the insidious and not typical clinical picture in presence of immunosuppressive conditions, the increasing number of people travelling in endemic zones, the ability to survive, within both human and vector bodies, of the parasite, clinicians and dermatologists as the first line should be aware of these kind of "pathologic alliances," to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment. In this setting, the occurrence of cutaneous lesions can, paradoxically, aid the physician in recognition and approaching the correct staging and management of the two (or three) diseases. Treatment of these unwelcome synergies is a challenge: apart from the recommended anti-retroviral protocols, different anti-leishmanial drugs have been widely used, according with the standard guidelines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with no successful treatment regimen still been established. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Mohammad; Aadil, Khoksar; Sidiqi, Majeed; Erasmus, Panna; Coleman, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    A prevalence survey in Kabul City showed that 2.7% and 21.9% of persons have active leishmaniasis lesions or scars, respectively. Incidence of disease was estimated to be 2.9% (29 cases/1,000 persons per year; 95% confidence interval 0.018 to 0.031). Disease was associated with age and gender; logistic regression analyses showed significant clustering of cases. PMID:12781016

  5. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Visceral leishmaniasis. Pediatric case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila H, Andrés; Vanzo, Carolina; Garnero, Analía; Peruzzo, Luisina; Badalotti, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad causada por parásitos obligados intracelulares pertenecientes al género Leishmania y que reconoce tres formas clínicas principales: cutánea, visceral y mucocutánea. Es una patología del grupo de las "enfermedades desatendidas". Es la única enfermedad tropical transmitida a través de vectores que se ha mantenido endémica por décadas en el sur de Europa. La leishmaniasis visceral representa la forma más grave. Se caracteriza por fiebre, pérdida de peso, anemia y hepatoesplenomegalia. Su período de incubación oscila entre 2 semanas y 18 meses. La leishmaniasis se considera una enfermedad reemergente a nivel mundial. Algunos de los factores que favorecen esta situación son los cambios en las condiciones climáticas, migraciones y urbanizaciones deficitarias en saneamiento ambiental. Se presenta el caso de un niño europeo que estaba vacacionando en Córdoba y fue derivado a nuestro Hospital por fiebre y pancitopenia, lo que generó un abordaje multidisciplinario con resolución clínica favorable. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  7. Forum: geographic spread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Guilherme L

    2008-12-01

    The geographic spread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil has been described since the early 1980s. However, the putative factors associated with this process, its full characterization, and the implications for disease control still challenge researchers and Public Health professionals. Although the available data show that the disease occurs mainly in urban areas, current knowledge is insufficient to claim specificity in urban transmission as compared to rural niches. Transmission scenarios in urban settings appear to be highly heterogeneous, each showing some degree of similarity to the rural epidemiological pattern. The understanding of a relatively recent and complex problem like the introduction, spread, and maintenance of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas requires new analytical approaches that consider the network of relevant variables and more elaborate methods capable of capturing the dynamics of the environmental and demographic transformations taking place in transmission areas.

  8. Effect of topical honey application along with intralesional injection of glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Moradi Shahram

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Although many treatments have been suggested for this disease, there hasn't been an effective and safe treatment yet. Regarding the healing effect of honey in the chronic ulcers and its reported therapeutic effect in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we performed a study to better evaluate the efficacy of honey in cutaneous leishmaniasis and its final scar. Methods In a prospective clinical trial, 100 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected and randomized into 2 groups. Group A were treated with topical honey twice daily along with intralesional injection of glucantime once weekly until complete healing of the ulcer or for maximum of 6 weeks. Group B were treated with intralesional injection of glucantime alone until complete healing of the ulcer or for a maximum of 6 weeks, too. The patients were followed for 4 months. The collected data were analyzed statistically using statistical tests including Chi-square, Mann Whitney and Kaplan – Mayer tests. Results In this study, 45 patients that had cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with intralesional glucantime alone and 45 patients were treated with topical honey and glucantime . Ten patients left out the study. In the glucantime alone treated group, 32 patients (71.1% had complete cure whereas in the group treated with both glucantime & topical honey, 23 patients (51.1% achieved complete cure. This difference was significant statistically (p = 0.04. Conclusion Further studies to better clarify the efficacy of honey in cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed. We suggest that in another study, the efficacy of honey with standardized level of antibacterial activity is evaluated against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  9. Profile Of Leishmaniasis In Central Kerala

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    Criton S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by several species of the genus leishmania. It is not prevalent in Kerala even though there are a few case reports. Recently, a focus of indigenous leishmaniasis is located in the north- east part of Kerala. We are also reporting probably indigenous cases along with those contracted from Middle- east countries.

  10. Leishmaniasis in humans: drug or vaccine therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Masoud; Farhoudi, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    Leishmania is an obligate intracellular pathogen that invades phagocytic host cells. Approximately 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies can transmit this parasite either anthroponotically or zoonotically through their bites. Leishmaniasis affects poor people living around the Mediterranean Basin, East Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia. Affected regions are often remote and unstable, with limited resources for treating this disease. Leishmaniasis has been reported as one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases, second only to malaria in parasitic causes of death. People can carry some species of Leishmania for long periods without becoming ill, and symptoms depend on the form of the disease. There are many drugs and candidate vaccines available to treat leishmaniasis. For instance, antiparasitic drugs, such as amphotericin B (AmBisome), are a treatment of choice for leishmaniasis depending on the type of the disease. Despite the availability of different treatment approaches to treat leishmaniasis, therapeutic tools are not adequate to eradicate this infection. In the meantime, drug therapy has been limited because of adverse side effects and unsuccessful vaccine preparation. However, it can immediately make infections inactive. According to other studies, vaccination cannot eradicate leishmaniasis. There is no perfect vaccine or suitable drug to eradicate leishmaniasis completely. So far, no vaccine or drug has been provided to induce long-term protection and ensure effective immunity against leishmaniasis. Therefore, it is necessary that intensive research should be performed in drug and vaccine fields to achieve certain results. PMID:29317800

  11. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  12. Parasitological and biochemical studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shara'b District, Taiz, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmaa, Qhtan; Al-Shamerii, Salwa; Al-Tag, Mohammed; Al-Shamerii, Adam; Li, Yiping; Osman, Bashir H

    2017-07-04

    The leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by intracellular haemoflagellate protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis has diverse clinical manifestations; cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis which is responsible for 60% of disability-adjusted life years. CL is endemic in Yemen. In Shara'b there is no reference study available to identify the prevalence of endemic diseases and no investigation has been conducted for diagnosing the diseases. This study was conducted in villages for CL which collected randomly. The study aimed at investigating the epidemiological factors of CL in Shara'b by using questioner. Symptoms of lesions in patients suffering from CL, confirmed by laboratory tests, gave a new evidence of biochemical diagnosis in 525 villagers aged between 1 and 60 years old. Venous bloods were collected from 99 patients as well as from 51 control after an overnight fast. The percentage prevalence of CL was found 18.8%. The prevalence rate of infection among males (19.3%) was higher than females (18.40%). Younger age group (1-15) had a higher prevalence rate (20.3%) than the other age groups. Furthermore, the population with no formal education had the higher rate of infection (61% of the total). A significant increase of serum malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) in CL patients was obtained. The highest level of MDA may be due to over production of ROS and RNS results in oxidative stress and the acceleration of lipid peroxidation in CL patients. There were high prevalence rates of CL in Shara'b. The patient who had CL has been found with many changes in some biochemical levels. This study provides a clear indication on the role of MDA as an early biochemical marker of peroxidation damage occurring during CL. Increased uric acid, and catalase activity was provided of free radical.

  13. O sal como solução? políticas de saúde e endemias rurais no Brasil (1940-1960 Salt as solution? health policies and endemic rural diseases in Brazil (1940-1960

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    Gilberto Hochman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar e comparar as políticas acerca do uso do sal no tratamento de duas doenças graves que assolaram a Amazônia e as áreas rurais do Brasil durante o período desenvolvimentista: o bócio endêmico e a malária. Apesar de serem doenças muito diferentes - a primeira é uma doença carencial, e a segunda uma doença parasitária - a luta dos médicos e nutricionistas para tornar obrigatória a iodação do sal de cozinha consumido no país inspirou a idéia de um sal misturado com cloroquina, a ser distribuído livremente em zonas de malária, onde o uso de DDT (Dicloro-Difenil-Tricloroetano não seria eficaz. O que seria um método simples - e, portanto, eficaz - para controlar e até mesmo eliminar tais doenças, o uso do sal de cozinha como veículo para fornecer iodo e uma droga antimalárica para a população, esbarra em fatores cognitivos, econômicos, sociais e culturais. Algumas variáveis contribuem para a análise histórica desses programas de saúde: o consenso quanto à etiologia da doença, o grau de institucionalização da comunidade de especialistas e a sua organização, a importância da doença na agenda das organizações internacionais de saúde, o locus de decisão política, a existência de uma liderança científica envolvida na formulação e gestão das políticas de saúde, e os padrões de consumo das populações-alvo.The article main objective is to analyze and compare the policies surrounding the use of salt in the treatment of two major diseases that raging in rural areas and the Amazon in Brazil during the national-developmentist period: the endemic goiter and malaria. Although they are very different diseases, the first is a carential disease and the second a parasitic disease, the struggle of doctors and nutritionists for the obligatory iodisation of table salt consumed in the country inspired the proposal of a cooking salt mixed with chloroquine and its free distribution in

  14. Unusual presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Lahiry Anup Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leis hmaniasis is endemic in some regions of Saudi Arabia. A case with uncommon hyperkeratotic type of lesion was seen. Being an endemic zone, a slit- skin smear was done and stained with Giemsa′s stain. Smears howed Leishman Donovan bodies within and outside the macrophages. Significant improvement, followed by complete resolution of the lesion was seen with ketoconazole treatment.

  15. Aspectos da ecologia e do comportamento de flebotomíneos em área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral, Minas Gerais Aspects of the ecology and behaviour of phlebotomines in endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis in State of Minas Gerais

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    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento e hábitos alimentares de algumas espécies da flebotomíneos têm sido útil na compreensão da epidemiologia das leishmanioses. No município de Porteirinha (MG, foram realizadas capturas mensais sistematizadas utilizando-se 28 armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC, durante o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2002. Foram capturadas 14 espécies de flebotomíneos, totalizando 1.408 exemplares. De acordo com o ambiente, os resultados obtidos mostraram que o peridomicílio apresentou a maior (53,3% porcentagem dos espécimens encontrados na região, embora parte (46,7% da fauna também tenha sido encontrada no intradomicílio. O repasto sanguíneo de 38 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis, provenientes do campo, foi identificado através da reação de precipitina. Os resultados indicam que Lutzomyia longipalpis foi a espécie predominante (65,1%, mostrando-se oportunista, podendo sugar uma ampla variedade de vertebrados.Studies on the behavioral and feeding habits of some species of phlebotominae sand flies have contributed to the comprehension of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. In the present work, systematic captures were performed monthly in the municipality of Porteirinha (MG using 28 light traps (CDC from January to December 2002. Fourteen different species of phlebotomine were captured in a total of 1,408 specimens. The highest percentage of individuals (53.3% was collected in the peridomicile against 46.7% in the intradomicile. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species in that region. The blood feeding of 38 females of this species from the field was analyzed by precipitin reaction. The results indicated that Lutzomyia longipalpis is an opportunist (65.1% species that feeds on a wide variety of vertebrates in nature.

  16. SDS-PAGE and Western blot of urinary proteins in dogs with leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Concepción; Barrera, Rafael; Centeno, Francisco; Tapia, Jose A; Durán, Esther; González, Marta; Mañé, M Cinta

    2003-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, which usually produces renal failure. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot using antibodies to IgG and IgA from dogs were carried out in the urine of 22 dogs with leishmaniasis diagnosed by ELISA and confirmed by PCR, and 20 healthy dogs. The results were compared to renal function laboratory tests and to those from a histopathological study of the kidneys from sick animals that died naturally or were euthanized. Five different bands with molecular weights ranging from 10 to 110 kDa were obtained from the electrophoresis of the urine of healthy dogs. 33.5% of total proteins corresponded to low molecular weight proteins and the other proteins had middle and high molecular weights. However, in the group with leishmaniasis, a maximum of 11 different bands with molecular weights ranging from 10 kDa to 150 kDa were displayed in the electrophoresis of the urine. The urine electrophoretic pattern in the sick dogs was classified as mixed (proteins with high and low molecular weights) because low molecular weight proteins made up 57.9% and the rest of the proteins had middle and high molecular weights. In Western blot, none of the healthy dogs showed excretion of IgG and/or IgA, whereas IgG and IgA were detected in the Western blot of urine of 68% and 55% respectively of dogs with leishmaniasis. The results obtained in the leishmaniasis group agreed with glomerular and tubular damage, which were confirmed by the histopathological findings.

  17. A new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, India

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    Neenu Kaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in India is mainly confined to the deserts of Rajasthan; some cases have been reported from the dry north-western half of the Indo-Gangetic plain, including Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Varanasi. Aims: To highlight a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir State, previously a non-endemic area. This report presents the clinico-epidemiological and investigative results of 120 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis detected between November 2012 and October 2013. Methods: The clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was made using criteria proposed by Bari and Rahman. It was further confirmed by the demonstration of Leishman-Donovan bodies in Leishman stained slit skin smears and skin biopsy specimens, and/or by a satisfactory response to intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate given weekly for 4 weeks. Serial clinical photographs were taken before giving injections and at the end of the 6 th week. Results: There were 67 females and 53 males with an age range of 8 months to 80 years. The most frequently affected site was the face. Lesions were most commonly of the nodulo-ulcerative type. The number of lesions ranged from 1 to 4. Farmers (28.1%, homemakers (27.2% and students (27.2% were significantly over-represented among the occupations (P < 0.001. Skin smears and biopsies were positive for Leishman-Donovan bodies in 50.8% and 44.2% cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jammu division which deserves urgent attention from the public health angle. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to establish the identity of the vector and the strain of Leishmania involved.

  18. Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran from 1983 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Mohebali, Mehdi; Pakzad, Reza

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous Leshmaniasis (CL), a parasitic skin infection caused by Leishmania species, is endemic in some regions of Iran. In this study, the effect of location on the incidence and distribution of CL in Iran was studied. We collected datas including the number of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases and populations at-risk of disease in Iran's different provinces reported by the Iranian ministry of health and the National Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Spatial modeling was performed using Arc GIS software. Descriptive maps, hotspot analysis, and high/low clustering analysis were used to demonstrate distribution of the cutaneous leishmaniasis, to determine regions at risk of disease's incidence, and to reach the most appropriate method for clustering of disease. The total number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported through the study period was 589,913. The annual incidence of CL was estimated to be 30.9 per 100,000 in Iranian population. We also demonstrated that Cutaneous leishmaniasis most prominently occurs in regions with dry and desert climates as well as in central parts of Iran. It affected the southwest of Iran between 1983 and 1997, and subsequently developed towards the center and the eastern between 1998 and 2013. Disease hotspots were focused in the provinces of Yazd, Khozestan and Kohgiloyeh-Boyer-Ahmad (p<0.05). No pattern of spatial clustering was observed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem which could be a serious threat for inhabitants who live in high-risk provinces of Iran; much more resources need to be allocated in these areas, to warrant the prevention as well as effectively management of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reprint of "Spatial modeling of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran from 1983 to 2013".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Mohebali, Mehdi; Pakzad, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous Leshmaniasis (CL), a parasitic skin infection caused by Leishmania species, is endemic in some regions of Iran. In this study, the effect of location on the incidence and distribution of CL in Iran was studied. We collected datas including the number of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases and populations at-risk of disease in Iran's different provinces reported by the Iranian ministry of health and the National Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Spatial modeling was performed using Arc GIS software. Descriptive maps, hotspot analysis, and high/low clustering analysis were used to demonstrate distribution of the cutaneous leishmaniasis, to determine regions at risk of disease's incidence, and to reach the most appropriate method for clustering of disease. The total number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported through the study period was 589,913. The annual incidence of CL was estimated to be 30.9 per 100,000 in Iranian population. We also demonstrated that Cutaneous leishmaniasis most prominently occurs in regions with dry and desert climates as well as in central parts of Iran. It affected the southwest of Iran between 1983 and 1997, and subsequently developed towards the center and the eastern between 1998 and 2013. Disease hotspots were focused in the provinces of Yazd, Khozestan and Kohgiloyeh-Boyer-Ahmad (p<0.05). No pattern of spatial clustering was observed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem which could be a serious threat for inhabitants who live in high-risk provinces of Iran; much more resources need to be allocated in these areas, to warrant the prevention as well as effectively management of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of climate variability on the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran

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    Farideh Azimi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, is frequently cited with respect to health risks related to climate change. The current variability of the climate may have different impacts on the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL depending on the various Leishmania species. The number and distribution of CL cases in Khuzestan Province, Southwestern Iran was analysed over the 2010-2014 period with regard to temperature, humidity, rainfall, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind-related climate issues. During the study period, there were 4672 recorded clinical cases of CL, the incidence of which was found to fall into three types of areas, such as high, intermediate and low-level endemic areas. Compared to the intermediate and low-endemic areas, the hyper-endemic areas showed significantly variable meteorological data with regard to rainy days, maximum/minimum temperature and humidity. Decreased temperatures in the eastern part of this province were found to promote the disease towards its centre. We conclude that the meteorological variables and incidence data of CL indicate that the number of rainy days, maximum and minimum temperatures and relative humidity are significant variables that can predict CL incidence. Indeed, the substantial climatic variability occurring during the recent 5-year period (2010-2014 in Khuzestan Province could be the main reason for the change in epidemiology and transmission of CL.

  1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

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    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  2. Vaccine candidates for leishmaniasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagill, Rajeev; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical manifestation of the disease varies from self-limiting cutaneous lesions to progressive visceral disease. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The key control measures mainly rely on early case detection and chemotherapy which has been hampered by the toxicity of drugs, side-effects and by the emergence of drug resistance in parasites. Control of reservoir host and vector is difficult due to operational difficulties and frequent relapses in the host. Therefore, the development of effective and affordable vaccine against leishmaniasis is highly desirable. Although considerable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding immune mechanisms underlying potential candidate antigens, including killed, live attenuated parasites, crude parasites, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins or DNA encoding leishmanial proteins, as well as immunomodulators from sand fly saliva, very few candidate vaccines have progressed beyond the experimental stage. As such there is no vaccine against any form of human leishmaniasis. In recent years, however, much interest has been stimulated towards vaccination against leishmaniasis focused mainly on cutaneous leishmaniasis with fewer attempts against visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interstitial pneumonitis in canine visceral leishmaniasis

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    M. I. S. Duarte

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one naturally infected dogs with visceral leishmaniasis from an urban area of Corumbá (Mato Grosso do Sul-BRAZIL were studied and three types of lung involvement due to visceral leishmaniasis were characterized; a cellular, a cellular-fibrotic and a fibrotic type. These types seem to represent a sequential evolutive proce'as. Visceral leishmaniasis frequently causes an interstitial pneu monitis in naturally infected dogs (80.5% as well as in man and experimentally infected hamsters.

  4. Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which bad beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agro-forestry tree species in bee endemic parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

  5. Ausência da Lutzomyia longipalpis em algumas áreas de ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral no Município do Rio de Janeiro Absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in some endemic visceral leishmaniasis areas in Rio de Janeiro municipality

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    Marcos Barbosa de Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 1977 foi diagnosticado o primeiro caso autóctone de leishmaniose visceral (LV humano no Município do Rio de Janeiro. A partir de 1980, foram diagnosticados 54 casos autóctones em diversas localidades, sendo que desde 1993 ocorreram 17 casos humanos autóctones notificados. Oito deles ocorreram no bairro de Barra de Guaratiba e o restante distribuído pelos bairros: Camorim, Colônia, Grota Funda, Grumari, Ilha de Guaratiba e Carapiá. Entre setembro de 1996 a dezembro de 1999, foram realizadas capturas de flebotomíneos em 18 localidades nas encostas do maciço da Pedra Branca, no município, e coletados 18.303 espécimes com predomínio de L. intermedia (87,33%, L. migonei (6,59%, L. longipalpis (3,10% e L. firmatoi (1,90%. A espécie L. longipalpis predominou em Barra de Guaratiba (46,80%, permanecendo ausente nas outras seis localidades onde também ocorreram casos de LV, o que sugere a participação de outras espécies tais como L. migonei e L. firmatoi, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo parafilético da espécie vetora, na cadeia de transmissão da LV na região.The first autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro was diagnosed in 1977. Since 1980, 54 autochthonous cases have been diagnosed in various locations, and since 1993 some 17 autochthonous human cases have been reported. Eight of these occurred in the neighborhood of Barra de Guaratiba and the others were distributed in the following neighborhoods: Camorim, Colônia, Grota Funda, Grumari, Ilha de Guaratiba, and Carapiá. From September 1996 to December 1999, phebotomine sandfly captures were performed at 18 sites on the mountainsides of the Pedra Branca Massif, in the Municipality, and a total of 18,303 specimens were collected, with a predominance of L. intermedia (87.33%, L. migonei (6.59%, L. longipalpis (3.10%, and L. firmatoi (1.90%. The species L. longipalpis predominated in Barra de Guaratiba (46.80% and was absent from the

  6. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

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    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis hos to børn efter ferie i Sydeuropa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Filip Christian; Poulsen, Anja; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2013-01-01

    Pancytopenia, fever and splenomegaly are frequent causes for referrals to paediatric haematology departments, on the suspicion of acute leukaemia. We report two cases of Danish children with the tropical disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) contracted on short vacations in Southern Europe. One...... of the patients developed secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH). Both children were successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. In Denmark, VL is a rare but important differential diagnosis to acute leukaemia and HLH, and should be ruled out after journeys to endemic areas, including Southern...

  8. Transmisión de la Leishmaniasis tegumentaria en la Argentina Transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina

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    Oscar D. Salomón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis tegumentaria ha experimentado en Argentina, desde 1985, un incremento de casos totales, de la frecuencia, intensidad y distribución de brotes epidémicos, y de la incidencia relativa en mujeres y en niños. Es necesario caracterizar los nuevas circunstancias de transmisión generadas en las últimas décadas para el diseño de estrategias apropiadas de control. Con dicho objeto, basados en indicadores epidemiológicos, entomológicos y en el análisis cualitativo de imágenes satelitales, se describen cuatro brotes epidémicos tomados como casos de estudio: Urugua-í (2004, Esperanza (1998, Alberdi (2003 y Monteros-Simoca (2004. A partir de dichas descripciones se caracterizaron cuatro ciclos: a silvestre con transmisión en vegetación primaria o residual; b silvestre con transmisión eventual peridoméstica por alteración de parches de vegetación residual; c silvestre con transmisión peridoméstica por contigüidad con vegetación residual; d peridoméstico en ambientes rurales, periurbano ruralizado o interfase urbano-rural. Todos los brotes epidémicos ocurridos desde 1985 se correspondieron con uno de estos ciclos, demostrando ser hasta el momento una tipificación abarcativa de la transmisión de leishmaniasis tegumentaria en la Argentina. De esta manera se categorizaron cuatro patrones epidémicos en el país, destacando a su vez la utilidad del análisis cualitativo, de datos de terreno e imágenes satelitales, como herramientas para comprender la epidemiología de la enfermedad y poder desarrollar medidas adecuadas de prevención y control.The total cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina increased since 1985, as the frequency, intensity and geographic distribution of the epidemic outbreaks, and the relative incidence in women and children. The characterization of the new scenarios of transmission generated in the last decades is needed for the design of appropriate control measures. With this aim, four

  9. Nível de conhecimentos sobre Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA e uso de terapias alternativas por populações de uma área endêmica da Amazônia do Maranhão, Brasil Awareness of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and use of alternative therapies in an endemic area in the Amazon Region in the State of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Rosilene da Conceição R. Moreira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo visando identificar e comparar que conhecimentos básicos e uso de terapias alternativas relativos à Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, têm populações residentes em cinco áreas rurais (Sexta Vicinal, Quinta Vicinal, Trilha 410, Vila União e Buritizinho pertencentes ao município de Buriticupu, Maranhão. No período de setembro de 1997 a janeiro de 1998, aplicou-se questionários com perguntas abertas e fechadas, abordando aspectos epidemiológicos, modos de prevenção, clínica e terapêutica alternativa. A população estudada foi de 378 (19% indivíduos de um total de 1980 habitantes. Na Sexta Vicinal (35 indivíduos, Quinta Vicinal (63, Trilha 410 (96, Vila União (85 e Buritizinho (99. Dos entrevistados, 72% tinham poucos conhecimentos dos modos de transmissão, 96,9% já ouviram falar da doença, a maioria obteve informações com amigos, 60,7% conheciam a LTA como lésh. O Glucantime foi a droga mais citada para o tratamento, 29,6% relataram uso de plantas no local da lesão. O Citrus limon (limão foi a planta mais citada (15,4% dos entrevistados, o modo de uso mais freqüente era o pó espalhado sobre a lesão. Conclui-se que o nível de conhecimento sobre LTA foi incipiente, principalmente na prevenção e terapêutica, situação similar nas cinco áreas estudadas.The level of knowledge concerning American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and use of alternative therapies was evaluated in five rural communities in Buriticupu, Maranhão State, Brazil. The study lasted from September 1997 to January 1998. Local inhabitants answered an interview on housing conditions, epidemiological aspects, prevention, standard clinical treatment, and alternative therapies. The study population was 378 (19% out of a total of 1,980 inhabitants, from Sexta Vicinal (35, Quinta Vicinal (63, Trilha 410 (96, Vila União (85, and Buritizinho (99. Of the interviewees, 72% had little knowledge of ATL transmission, 96% had heard

  10. Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Mosteiro, Julio; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Pinart, Mariona; Lopez Pereira, Patricia; Reveiz, Ludovic; Garcia-Carrasco, Emely; Campuzano Cuadrado, Pedro; Royuela, Ana; Mendez Roman, Irene; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2017-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2008. To assess the effects of therapeutic interventions for the localised form of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. We updated our searches of the following databases to November 2016: the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We wrote to national programme managers, general co-ordinators, directors, clinicians, WHO-EMRO regional officers of endemic countries, pharmaceutical companies, tropical medicine centres, and authors of relevant papers for further information about relevant unpublished and ongoing trials. We undertook a separate search for adverse effects of interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in September 2015 using MEDLINE. Randomised controlled trials of either single or combination treatments in immunocompetent people with OWCL confirmed by smear, histology, culture, or polymerase chain reaction. The comparators were either no treatment, placebo/vehicle, and/or another active compound. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias and extracted data. We only synthesised data when we were able to identify at least two studies investigating similar treatments and reporting data amenable to pooling. We also recorded data about adverse effects from the

  11. Geographic information system-based analysis of the spatial and spatio-temporal distribution of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Golestan Province, north-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollalo, A; Alimohammadi, A; Shirzadi, M R; Malek, M R

    2015-02-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a vector-borne disease, poses serious psychological as well as social and economic burden to many rural areas of Iran. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of the disease to better understand spatio-temporal epidemiological aspects of ZCL in rural areas of an endemic province, located in north-east of Iran. Cross-sectional survey was performed on 2983 recorded cases during the period of 2010-2012 at village level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest-neighbour distance, Moran's I, general G indices and Ripley's K-function were applied to investigate the annual spatial distribution of the existing point patterns. Presence of spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using the spatial and space-time scan statistics. For each year, semivariogram analysis and all global clustering methods indicated meaningful persistent spatial autocorrelation and highly clustered distribution of ZCL, respectively. Eight significant spatial clusters, mainly located in north and northeast of the province, and one space-time cluster, observed in northern part of the province and during the period of September 2010-November 2010, were detected. Comparison of the location of ZCL clusters with environmental conditions of the study area showed that 97.8% of cases in clusters were located at low altitudes below 725 m above sea level with predominantly arid and semi-arid climates and poor socio-economic conditions. The identified clusters highlight high-risk areas requiring special plans and resources for more close monitoring and control of the disease. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. T-cell response in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Kemp, K; Ismail, A

    1999-01-01

    from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma production following stimulation with Leishmania antigens whereas cells from patients recovered from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) showed a mixed pattern of IFN-gamma and IL-4 responses. The cells producing these cytokines were predominantly CD4......In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered......+. Furthermore, IL-10 plays an important role in the development of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) from VL. The balance between the parasitic-specific T-cell response plays an important regulatory role in determining the outcome of Leishmania infections in humans....

  13. T-cell response in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Kemp, K; Ismail, A

    1999-01-01

    In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered...... from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma production following stimulation with Leishmania antigens whereas cells from patients recovered from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) showed a mixed pattern of IFN-gamma and IL-4 responses. The cells producing these cytokines were predominantly CD4......+. Furthermore, IL-10 plays an important role in the development of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) from VL. The balance between the parasitic-specific T-cell response plays an important regulatory role in determining the outcome of Leishmania infections in humans....

  14. Leishmaniasis in humans: drug or vaccine therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Masoud Ghorbani, Ramin Farhoudi Department of Viral Vaccine Production, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Research and Production Complex, Karaj, Iran Abstract: Leishmania is an obligate intracellular pathogen that invades phagocytic host cells. Approximately 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies can transmit this parasite either anthroponotically or zoonotically through their bites. Leishmaniasis affects poor people living around the Mediterranean Basin, East Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia. Affected regions are often remote and unstable, with limited resources for treating this disease. Leishmaniasis has been reported as one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases, second only to malaria in parasitic causes of death. People can carry some species of Leishmania for long periods without becoming ill, and symptoms depend on the form of the disease. There are many drugs and candidate vaccines available to treat leishmaniasis. For instance, antiparasitic drugs, such as amphotericin B (AmBisome, are a treatment of choice for leishmaniasis depending on the type of the disease. Despite the availability of different treatment approaches to treat leishmaniasis, therapeutic tools are not adequate to eradicate this infection. In the meantime, drug therapy has been limited because of adverse side effects and unsuccessful vaccine preparation. However, it can immediately make infections inactive. According to other studies, vaccination cannot eradicate leishmaniasis. There is no perfect vaccine or suitable drug to eradicate leishmaniasis completely. So far, no vaccine or drug has been provided to induce long-term protection and ensure effective immunity against leishmaniasis. Therefore, it is necessary that intensive research should be performed in drug and vaccine fields to achieve certain results. Keywords: leishmania, leishmania treatment, vaccine, recombinant antigens

  15. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvar, Jorge; Croft, Simon L; Kaye, Paul; Khamesipour, Ali; Sundar, Shyam; Reed, Steven G

    2013-04-18

    Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study. Two reasons for this are that leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by several different species of parasite that are highly related, thus raising the possibility of developing a single vaccine to protect against multiple diseases. Another reason is the demonstration that a leishmaniasis vaccine may be used therapeutically as well as prophylactically. Although there is no registered human leishmaniasis vaccine today, immunization approaches using live or killed organisms, as well as defined vaccine candidates, have demonstrated at least some degree of efficacy in humans to prevent and to treat some forms of leishmaniasis, and there is a vigorous pipeline of candidates in development. Current approaches include using individual or combined antigens of the parasite or of salivary gland extract of the parasites' insect vector, administered with or without formulation in adjuvant. Animal data obtained with several vaccine candidates are promising and some have been or will be entered into clinical testing in the near future. There is sufficient scientific and epidemiological justification to continue to invest in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Endemic Treponematoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The agents of human treponematoses include four closely related members of the genus Treponema: three subspecies of Treponema pallidum plus Treponema carateum. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum causes venereal syphilis, while T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, and T. carateum are the agents of the endemic treponematoses yaws, bejel (or endemic syphilis), and pinta, respectively. All human treponematoses share remarkable similarities in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, consistent with the high genetic and antigenic relatedness of their etiological agents. Distinctive features have been identified in terms of age of acquisition, most common mode of transmission, and capacity for invasion of the central nervous system and fetus, although the accuracy of these purported differences is debated among investigators and no biological basis for these differences has been identified to date. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially set a goal for yaws eradication by 2020. This challenging but potentially feasible endeavor is favored by the adoption of oral azithromycin for mass treatment and the currently focused distribution of yaws and endemic treponematoses and has revived global interest in these fascinating diseases and their causative agents. PMID:24396138

  17. Histological grading patterns in patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Ayaz, B.; Shaikh, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the histological grading patterns in a cohort of hospitalized patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis. One hundred patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), admitted in dermatology wards at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, were examined. Only admitted patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study. Patients of CL, who had received or were receiving systemic treatment were excluded. The lesions having marked secondary bacterial infection were also excluded. Initial diagnosis was clinical. History of being to an endemic area supported the diagnosis. The lesions were divided in two groups. Early, with duration less than 03 months and late, with duration between 3 and 12 months. The clinical lesions were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers, crusted ulcers, lupoid lesions and plaques with scarring. Three types of skin smears (slit skin smear, saline aspirate smear and dab smear) were taken and examined with Giemsa stain. Cultures were performed on Nicolle-Novy-MacNeal (NNN) culture medium from Defense Scientific and Technology Organization (DESTO) Lab., Pakistan. Incisional skin biopsies were done. The biopsy specimens were examined by hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E stain). The number of Leishmania Tropica (LT) bodies was graded according to modified Ridley's parasitic index 1983. Clinical features were correlated with the histological patterns. Five histological patterns were identified in current study: 1) diffuse dermal infiltration without necrosis, 2) patchy dermal infiltration, 3) diffuse dermal infiltration with necrosis, 4) early reactive granuloma formation and 5) established epithelioid granuloma formation. LT bodies were identified in 75% of cases. Epidermal features were non-specific. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions showed granuloma formation. Five distinct types of histological patterns of CL have been recognized in this study. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions

  18. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  19. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-06

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Bin Shuaib, Naemah O. M.; Azazy, Ahmed A.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. Conclusions/Significance The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person–to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL. PMID:20862227

  1. Autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino de; Bredt, Angelika; Bofil, Maria Isabel Rao; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Menna Barreto; Silva, Ailton Domício da; Cortez, Sandra Maria Felipe Coelho; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health threat in Brazil considering the high lethality rates and increasing geographical dispersion to large urban conglomerates over the past 25 years. This study aimed to confirm suspected autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis reported from 2005 to 2009 among individuals living in Brasilia, Federal District. A retrospective review of the surveillance data obtained on a regular basis and clinical records of the reported cases were performed in 2009. Data from entomological and canine surveys revealed the presence of both Lutzomyia longipalpis and positive serology for Leishmania in dogs within 19 of the 21 neighborhoods where human cases occurred since 2005. The review of surveillance data and medical records, together with the entomological and canine survey data, permitted confirmation of 21 autochthonous human cases in the Federal District. The disease predominantly affected children (12/21) and those from the Sobradinho region (16/21); the typical presentation of fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia was observed in 67% of cases. Three deaths occurred during the study period. Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi was successfully isolated from one human case and twelve canine cases. Visceral leishmaniasis should be considered endemic in Brasilia based on the documented epidemiological behavior herein described and the confirmed autochthony of human cases.

  2. Sandfly Surveillance within an Emerging Epidemic Focus ofCutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major has become a hot topic in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the study area. "n "nMethods: Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors and outdoors fixed places in the selected villages, using 30 sticky paper traps from the beginning to the end of the active season of 2006 in Kerman Province, south of Iran. The flies were mounted and identified. Some blood fed and gravid female sand flies of rodent burrows and indoors were dissected and examined microscopically for natural promastigote infection of Leishmania parasite during August to September. "n "nResults: In total, 2439 specimens comprising 8 species (3 Phlebotomus and 5 Sergentomyia were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi and represented 87.1% of sand flies from indoors and 57.2% from outdoors. The activity of the species extended from April to end October. There are two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in August. Natural promastigote infection was found in P. papatasi (12.7%. "n "nConclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a probable vector among gerbils and to humans with a high percentage of promastigote infection in this new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The Bahraman area which until recently was unknown as an endemic area seems now to represent a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Iran.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Keizer, Ron J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Beijnen, Jos H.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in leishmaniasis patients are, to a great extent, unknown. We examined and characterized the pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in a group of patients with Old World (Leishmania major) cutaneous leishmaniasis. Miltefosine plasma concentrations were determined in

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, W. R.; Wonders, J.; Jensema, A. J.; Chocholova, E.; Kager, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the

  5. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in a short-term traveler returning from Central Mali - The role of PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Baudry, Thomas; Peyron, François

    2012-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by the obligate intracellular protazoa leishmania. The most commonly encountered form is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which generally manifests as a chronic, painless ulcer. Recent increases in the incidence of CL worldwide due in large part to increased immigration and international travel, combined often with the lack of familiarity with the disease in non-endemic settings, pose the continued problems of delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. A case is described of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis occurring in a 48 year-old male who presented with multiple painless, progressively ulcerating lesions after returning from a one week trip to Bandiagara, Mali, West Africa. After four months of misdiagnoses and ineffective treatments, he was referred to a tropical disease specialist where the diagnosis was made with a skin biopsy followed by a tissue impression smear, culture and PCR. Appropriate treatment was initiated and the lesions resolved with minimal scarring. The goals of this case report are threefold: first, to stress the importance of associating chronic ulcers in a traveler with potential cutaneous leishmaniasis; second, to emphasize the clinical utility of PCR for the diagnosis; and third, to discuss the clinical approach to treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site . Credit: CDC Phlebotomus papatasi sand fly. Parasite & Vector NIAID scientists are researching different species of disease-causing Leishmania parasites and the varieties of sand flies that ...

  7. Miltefosine for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: An experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected diseases included in the World Health Organization's list of the top guns of antimicrobial resistance. Miltefosine (MIL) was the first successful oral agent used against visceral leishmaniasis in India. As regards cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), multiple experimental and ...

  8. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in HIV positive patient - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV dual-infection is seldom reported. Leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection may intensify the immune defect and is the chief reason for atypical presentation and widespread progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis and its defiance to conventional therapy. Here we report a ...

  9. Coinfection of cutaneous leishmaniasis and hiv infection | Lartey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was con-firmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported ...

  10. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Gonbad-e-Qabus city using a PCR method during 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesgarian F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is endemic in plenty of Iranian provinces. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological status of the cutaneous Leishmaniasis outbreak, isolation and identification of the parasite using a PCR method in burden rural areas of Gonbad-e-Qabus County, north Iran. "n"nMethods: Data was collected on the prevalence of scars and ulcers over a period of three months among 6990 inhabitants of five villages around Gonbad-e-Qabus county, north Iran, during 2006-2007. Cultured promastigotes were identified using PCR technique. ITS1 and ITS2 of Non Coding Transcribed region at ribosomal DNA of 46 Leishmania isolates were amplified and the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose gel (200 mA, 140 V, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. To confirm the PCR findings, six Leishmanis isolates were injected individually into two BALB/c mice."n"nResults: Among 6990 inhabitants of the five villages, 62.9% had scars and 0.5% had active lesions. The most highly infected age group was 0-10 years and nobody was infected in individuals more than fifty years of age. Individuals 11 to 20 years of age were the most highly infected

  12. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  13. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Paraguayan Communities, Patients, and Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoti, Mónica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orué, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A.; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M.; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Krentel, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. PMID:23690792

  14. Serological markers of sand fly exposure to evaluate insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal: a cluster-randomi trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidwani, K; Picado, A; Rijal, S

    2011-01-01

    and Nepal we tested the effect of LNs on sand fly biting by measuring the antibody response of subjects to the saliva of Leishmania donovani vector Phlebotomus argentipes and the sympatric (non-vector) Phlebotomus papatasi. Fifteen to 20 individuals above 15 years of age from 26 VL endemic clusters were......Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is the world’ second largest vector-borne parasitic killer and a neglected tropical disease, prevalent in poor communities. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) are a low cost proven vector intervention method for malaria control; however, their effectiveness...... against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is unknown. This study quantified the effect of LNs on exposure to the sand fly vector of VL in India and Nepal during a two year community intervention trial. Methods: As part of a paired-cluster randomized controlled clinical trial in VL-endemic regions of India...

  15. Epidemiological Aspects of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Baft District, Kerman Province, Southeast of Iran

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    H Mahmoudvand

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar is an endemic disease in some areas of Iran. A cross- sectional study was conducted for sero-epidemiological survey of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Baft district from Kerman Province, southeast of Iran.Methods: Blood samples were collected from children up to 12 years old and 10% of adult population from Baft villages with a multi-stage randomized cluster sampling. In addition, blood samples were collected from 30 domestic dogs from the same areas. All the collected blood sam­ples were tested by direct agglutination test (DAT for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibod­ies in both human and dog using the cut-off value of ≥1:3200 and ≥ 1:320, respectively. Parasitologi­cal, molecular, and pathological were performed on infected dogs. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare sero-prevalence values.Results: From 1476 collected human serum samples, 23 (1.55% showed anti-Leishmania antibod­ies at titers of 1:800 and 1:1600 whereas 14 (0.95% showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies at titers of ≤ 1:3200. No statistically significant difference was found between male (1.18 % and female (0.69% sero-prevalence (P=0.330. Children of 5-8 years showed the high­est sero-prevalence rate (3.22%. Seven out of 30 domestic dogs (23% showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ≤1:320. Leishmania infantum was identified in five infected dogs by nested - PCR assay.Conclusion: It seems that visceral leishmaniasis is being endemic in southern villages of Baft district, southeast of Iran.

  16. An overview of a diagnostic and epidemiologic reappraisal of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein; Shirazi, Hasti Atashi; Naeimi, Sabah; Farzanehnejad, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a widespread tropical infection which has a high incidence rate in Iran. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and Leishmania major, which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), are endemic in various parts of Iran with a high incidence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reappraisal of the diagnosis and epidemiology of CL in Iran, by different clinical, parasitological and molecular assays among patients suspected of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology, at the Pasteur Institute of Iran during 2006-2009. Two hundred samples from patients with ulcerative skin lesions were collected, clinical analyses were applied, data questionnaire was completed and samples were examined for CL by using both direct microscopic and culture methods. Moreover, PCR assay was applied for detection of Leishmania species in CL isolates resulting from parasitological assay. Clinical observation revealed that the majority (58%) of lesions was single; double lesions were observed in 22% of patients, and only 20% of CL had multiple lesions. Out of 200 patients, Leishman body was observed in 77 samples (38.5%) by direct smear and 40% by cultivation assay. Most patients (21.3%) had a travel history to the Isfahan province, one of the most important endemic areas of CL located in center of Iran. PCR assay by kDNA indicated 32 and 18 out of 50 isolates respectively had similar patterns with standard L. major and L. tropica. In conclusion, clinical manifestations and an appropriate diagnostic assay with a parallel molecular characterization of CL may lead to a screening evaluation of disease, prognosis, treatment and control strategies.

  17. An overview of a diagnostic and epidemiologic reappraisal of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran

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    Mahin Farahmand

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a widespread tropical infection which has a high incidence rate in Iran. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, and Leishmania major, which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL, are endemic in various parts of Iran with a high incidence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reappraisal of the diagnosis and epidemiology of CL in Iran, by different clinical, parasitological and molecular assays among patients suspected of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology, at the Pasteur Institute of Iran during 2006-2009. Two hundred samples from patients with ulcerative skin lesions were collected, clinical analyses were applied, data questionnaire was completed and samples were examined for CL by using both direct microscopic and culture methods. Moreover, PCR assay was applied for detection of Leishmania species in CL isolates resulting from parasitological assay. Clinical observation revealed that the majority (58% of lesions was single; double lesions were observed in 22% of patients, and only 20% of CL had multiple lesions. Out of 200 patients, Leishman body was observed in 77 samples (38.5% by direct smear and 40% by cultivation assay. Most patients (21.3% had a travel history to the Isfahan province, one of the most important endemic areas of CL located in center of Iran. PCR assay by kDNA indicated 32 and 18 out of 50 isolates respectively had similar patterns with standard L. major and L. tropica. In conclusion, clinical manifestations and an appropriate diagnostic assay with a parallel molecular characterization of CL may lead to a screening evaluation of disease, prognosis, treatment and control strategies.

  18. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Laamrani-Idrissi, Abderrahman; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-07-02

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively.The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  19. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

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    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  20. Liposomal adjuvant development for leishmaniasis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarizadeh, Anis; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Badiee, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to fatality. Since long-lasting protection is induced upon recovery from cutaneous leishmaniasis, development of an effective vaccine is promising. However, there is no vaccine for use in humans yet. It seems limited efficacy in leishmaniasis vaccines is due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant or delivery system. Hence, the use of particulate adjuvants such as liposomes for effective delivery to the antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a valuable strategy to enhance leishmaniasis vaccine efficacy. The extraordinary versatility of liposomes because of their unique amphiphilic and biphasic nature allows for using antigens or immunostimulators within the core, on the surface or within the bilayer, and modulates both the magnitude and the T-helper bias of the immune response. In this review article, we attempt to summarize the role of liposomal adjuvants in the development of Leishmania vaccines and describe the main physicochemical properties of liposomes like phospholipid composition, surface charge, and particle size during formulation design. We also suggest potentially useful formulation strategies in order for future experiments to have a chance to succeed as liposomal vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  1. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis Avaliação de amostras de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos de duas áreas endêmicas de leishmaniose visceral no Brasil através da eletroforese de isoenzimas

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    Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro Coutinho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 and Belo Horizonte (n = 96, where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP. RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.INTRODUÇÃO: Cães domésticos são considerados os reservatórios mais importantes no ciclo peridoméstico de transmissão de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. No entanto, a variabilidade genética de sub-populações que circulam neste hospedeiro é ainda pouco explorada no Brasil, sendo tal conhecimento de grande importância no contexto clínico-epidemiológico. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar a variabilidade fenotípica de 153 amostras de L. chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos dos municípios do Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 e Belo Horizonte (n = 96, onde a doença é endêmica. Foram selecionadas somente amostras isoladas de pele íntegra e analisadas por eletroforese de isoenzimas (MLEE empregando nove

  3. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Soluble Promastigote Antigen Detects Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Antibodies in Sera from Cases of Visceral and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jeffrey R.; Smithyman, Anthony M.; Rajasekariah, G-Halli; Hochberg, Lisa; Stiteler, John M.; Martin, Samuel K.

    2002-01-01

    Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality in areas where it is endemic. In areas where it is nonendemic, global travel and increased incidence of the disease in human immunodeficiency virus and intravenous-drug user populations are also causes for concern. The unavailability of rapid and reliable tests for diagnosis of the various leishmaniases makes patient management difficult. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that can detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in patients with visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. These practical assays are based on soluble antigens from promastigotes cultivated in a protein-free medium. In preliminary studies, 129 visceral (Brazil, Italy, North Africa, and Nepal) and 143 cutaneous (Brazil) leishmaniasis patients with controls were tested. Overall, the tests showed a sensitivity of 95.1%. In addition, the ELISA correctly identified 42 sera from Brazilian dogs with canine leishmaniasis and 10 healthy controls. Serological tests for the various clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis could be useful epidemiological and patient management tools in populations of areas of endemicity and nonendemicity. PMID:11880434

  4. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  5. Leishmaniasis vaccines: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabber, Farrokh

    2010-11-01

    No vaccine exists against any form of leishmaniasis. Because recovery from infection is usually accompanied by a strong immunity and because it is possible to protect experimental animals against live challenge, hope for the development of a vaccine for humans has been high. However, leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor and the market for a vaccine is very limited. Until a few years ago, with minimal resources, only a pragmatic approach was possible for testing the first-generation vaccines (i.e. killed whole parasites). Recently, funding has become available for developing defined second-generation vaccines, including recombinant proteins and DNA constructs. With new adjuvants also being developed there is new hope, and several new vaccines are in development against leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent developments in leishmaniasis vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sudipta; Ali, Nahid

    2008-07-01

    The observation that recovery from infection with Leishmania confers immunity to reinfection suggests that control of leishmaniasis by vaccination may be possible. New generation vaccines, particularly those based on recombinant proteins and DNA, are found to be less immunogenic. There is an urgent need for the development of new and improved vaccine adjuvants. Based on their principal mechanisms of action, adjuvants can be broadly separated into two classes: immunostimulatory adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems. Vaccine delivery systems can carry both antigen and adjuvant for effective delivery to the antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In this article, we review the adjuvants, the delivery systems and their combinations used in the search of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis. Based on current knowledge, cationic liposomes appear to have better prospects as effective delivery systems for developing a vaccine for leishmaniasis.

  7. [Visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompromised patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Portero, J L; Gazapo, T; Yebra, M; Portero, F; Martín, T

    1998-06-01

    Most patients who developed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in our country are ímmunocompromised (IC) host, frequently HIV-infected patients. One objective was to know if there were differences about the clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests or prognosis in IC patients who were infected or not with HIV (HIV+ and HIV-, respectively). Also we wonder if some features were associated with death during the initial episodes of VL. We studied 16 IC patients with VL, 9 were VIH+ and 7 were VIH-. Most frequently observed findings were fever (94%), splenomegaly (81%), hepatomegaly (69%), and constitutional syndrome (50%). HIV+ patients had symptoms during a lapse of time (70 +/- 78 days) larger than the VIH- cases had (17 +/- 12 days, p VIH patients). Seven patients (44%, 4 VIH- and 3 VIH+) died during the initial episode of VL. Nine patients (66%) who survived to it were followed-up during 68 +/- 49 months. Seven patients (4 VIH+ and 3 VIH-) showed several relapses (2.5 +/- 1.6 relapses/patient) through the follow-up. The patients who died during the initial episode had more frequently (p CD4+ lymphocyte counts in HIV+ patients were lower in patients who died during the initial episode of VL (19 +/- 15/mm) than in survivors (108 +/- 67/mm3, p = 0.07).

  8. Mathematical modelling for Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis dynamics: A new analysis considering updated parameters and notified human Brazilian data

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    Helio Junji Shimozako

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the highest endemic countries for Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis: according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, the annual number of new human cases and deaths due to this disease has been increasing for the last 20 years. In addition, regarding the Americas, the specific relationship between canine and human for Visceral Leishmaniasis dynamics is still not well understood. In this work we propose a new model for Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis, based on the models previously published by Burattini et al. (1998 and Ribas et al. (2013. Herein, we modeled the disease dynamics using a modified set of differential equations from those two authors, considering the same assumptions (inclusion of human, dog and sandfly populations, all constants over time. From this set of equations we were able to calculate the basic reproduction number R0 and to analyze the stability and sensitivity of the system to the parameters variability. As main result, when the stability of the system is reached, the normalized reporting human cases rate is estimated in 9.12E-08/day. This estimation is very close to the 2015 report from Araçatuba city, 5.69E-08/day. We also observed from stability and sensitivity analysis that the activity of sandfly population is critical to introduction and maintenance of Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis in the population. In addition, the importance of dog as source of infection concentrates on latent dog, since it does not show clinical symptoms and signs and, therefore, has a great contribution to disease dissemination. As conclusion, considering the presently ethical issues regarding to elimination of positive dog in Brazil and the highly sensitivity of disease dynamics on sandfly population, we recommend that the sandfly population control should be prioritized. Keywords: Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis, Disease dynamics, Mathematical modelling, Epidemiology

  9. Indirect immunofluorescence test in new world Leishmaniasis: serological and clinical relation-ship

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    Sergio C. F. Mendonça

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available The indirect immunofluorescence test (IF for anti-Leishmania antibodies (IgC and IgM was performed with sera form the following groups of individuals: 214 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients, 28 healthy subjects with positive Montenegro's skin test (MST, 29 healthy subjects with negativeMST and 16 visceral leishmaniasis patients. The first four groups came from a suburban area of Rio de Janeiro (Jacarepaguá where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis is endemic. It was observed that IF-IgM titers were significantly higher amongst the cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with less than four months of disease as compared to those with longer periods and that IF-IgG titers were significantly higher in patients with multiple lesions as compared to those with single lesions. The visceral leishmaniasis patients had IF-IgG titers significantly higher than those from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. A group of 28 individuals selected amongst the 214 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients had their IF-titers (IgG and IgM compared to those of the two control groups of healthy subjects from the endemic area, respectively with positive and negative MST. Significantly higher titers of IF-IgG and IF-IgM were found in the group with active disease. The same group of patients showed IF-IgG titers significantly lower at the end of the antimonial therapy than those observed during this tratment.O teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IF para a detecção de anticorpos anti-Leismania nas classes IgG e IgM foi realizado em soros de indivíduos dos seguintes grupos: 214 pacientes com leismaniose cutânea, quatro pacientes com leismaniose mucocutânea, 28 indivíduos sadios com intradermorreação de Montenegro (IDRM positiva, 29 indivíduos sadios com IDRM negativa e 16 pacientes com leishmaniose visceral. Os indivíduos dos quatro primeiros grupos eram provenientes de uma área da periferia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro (Jacarepaguá onde a

  10. A sensitive new microculture method for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Uzun, Soner; Bagirova, Malahat; Durdu, Murat; Memisoglu, Hamdi R

    2004-03-01

    A sensitive microcapillary culture method (MCM) was developed for rapid diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The MCM is superior to the traditional culture method (TCM) as determined by the smaller inoculum size, the higher sensitivity for detection of promastigotes, and the more rapid time for emergence of promastigotes. With lesion amastigote loads from grade III to 0, the positive rates and the periods for promastigote emergence were 3-4-fold higher and faster with the MCM than with the TCM, e.g., 83-97% positive in 4-7 days versus 20-40% positive in 15-30 days (P = 0.0001). The higher Pco(2) and lower Po(2) and pH presumably encourage a rapid amastigote-to-promastigote differentiation and/or the survival or growth of the latter. This MCM has the advantage of simplicity, and may be suitable for diagnostic use and for parasite retrieval in many other endemic sites where parasites are known to be difficult to grow.

  11. Canine leishmaniasis surveillance program in a San Marino Republic kennel

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    Daniela Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of San Marino is an autonomous State that, in view of its geographical and environmental features, can be considered a part of the Northern Italian territory, where the canine leishmaniasis (CanL is endemic. In the past, a CanL focus in the Republic's kennel was described. As a consequence of this epidemiological situation, a surveillance program was carried-out covering a 6-year period (2006-2012. A total of 1,094 sera were collected from 420 kennel dogs and examined for antibodies to Leishmania infantum by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Eighty-eight (21% dogs resulted IFAT positive (antibody titre ≥1/40. The overall seroprevalence increased in the first 4 years (2006-2010, going from 5.5% to 26.8% and then decreased in the 2 following years going to 17.9% (2011 and 3.9% (2012. The cumulative incidence constantly increased from 0.6% to 2.6%. This trend could be attributed to a changed infection pressure due to the dog turnover in the kennels. According to the observed incidence values, the CanL focus seems to be stable, supported by autochthonous transmission, new case introduction and Leishmania spp. circulation in owned dogs in the same area.

  12. Leishmaniasis: focus on the design of nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroud, Delaram; Rafati, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Although mass vaccination of the entire population of an endemic area would be the most cost-effective tool to diminish Leishmania burden, an effective vaccine is not yet commercially available. Practically, vaccines have failed to achieve the required level of protection, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant and/or delivery system. Therefore, there is still an imperative demand for an improved, safe and efficient delivery system to enhance the immunogenicity of available vaccine candidates. Nanoparticles are proficient in boosting the quality and magnitude of immune responses in a predictable fashion. Herein, we discuss how nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems can be used to induce appropriate immune responses against leishmaniasis by controlling physicochemical properties of the vaccine. Stability, production reproducibility, low cost per dose and low risk-benefit ratios are desirable characteristics of an ideal vaccine formulation and solid lipid nanoparticles may serve as one of the most promising practical strategies to help to achieve such a leishmanial vaccine, at least in canine species in the developing world.

  13. Leishmaniose mucosa: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos Mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiological and clinical aspects

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    Marcus Miranda Lessa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tem sido documentada em diversos países, sendo estimada uma prevalência mundial de 12 milhões, com 400.000 casos novos de doença por ano. A leishmaniose tegumentar americana encontra-se situada entre as grandes endemias existentes no Brasil e na América Latina. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é complementar o conhecimento sobre leishmaniose mucosa, apresentando a experiência dos Serviços de Imunologia e de Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Universitário Professor Edgar Santos da Universidade Federal da Bahia. COMENTÁRIOS: A leishmaniose cutânea é a forma mais comum de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, contudo, concomitantemente ou após anos de doença cutânea podem ocorrer lesões mucosas. A leishmaniose mucosa é causada principalmente pela L. braziliensis braziliensis e, apesar de a mucosa nasal ser a área principalmente acometida, lesões podem também ser documentadas nos lábios, boca, na faringe e na laringe. Fatores do parasito, bem como da resposta imune do hospedeiro podem estar envolvidos na patogênese da lesão tissular na leishmaniose mucosa.Leishmaniasis has been documented in several countries, with an estimated prevalence of 12 million people and an incidence at around 400,000 new cases per year. Leishmaniasis in the New World is one the major endemic diseases in Brazil and Latin America. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to add to the current knowdlegde on mucosal leishmaniasis, bringing the experience of the Imunology and Otolaryngology Departments in the Professor Edgar Santos University Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia. CONCLUSION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of New World Leishmaniasis; mucosal legions may occur simultaneously or after years of disease. Mucosal leishmaniasis is caused mainly by L. braziliensis braziliensis; although the nasal mucosa is the most affected area, lesions may be found on the lips, mouth, pharynx and larynx. In addition to parasite

  14. Exploring Adaptation Scenarios : Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Adaptation Scenarios : Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Climate Change in Algeria. In Algeria, climate change is associated with modifications in land use and their interaction with water, with the result that the last 20 years have seen an increase in ... A new publication explores the ethics of these relationships.

  15. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dawadimi region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data from the patients included in this retrospective study were collected from the Leishmaniasis Control Center of Ad-Dawadimi District of Saudi Arabia. A total of 370 patients with CL were recorded from ...

  16. Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Correia Dalmo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated orally with a mefloquine dose of 4.2mg/kg/day for six days in the Teaching Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Three weeks later a new series was repeated. No patient was cured.

  17. Miltefosine: een nieuw geneesmiddel voor leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, T. P. C.; Eggelte, T. A.; Beijnen, J. H.; de Vries, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for a safe and effective oral treatment for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Miltefosine is the first oral drug that is efficacious against different forms ofleishmaniasis, however it is not equally effective against all Leishmania species. Miltefosine is an alkylphosphocholine,

  18. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... It lives in carpets of dead leaves, stumps, and rotten fruit that has fallen to the ground. ... "A few more days without treatment and we would have lost her," sighs her mother, Daniela. ... "Health care professionals need to be better trained so that they think about leishmaniasis when they have a patient. Without ...

  19. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the. Al-Hassa Oasis. The vector of the disease in. Saudi Arabia is the sand fly and the alternative natural hosts are desert rodents. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Al-Hassa Oasis, classically causes skin lesions without dissemination. The.

  20. Helping communities control leishmaniasis in rural Tunisia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... In a first phase of research, the team investigated the interactions between climate trends, socio-economic factors, local farming practices, and the ecology of vector and ... In addition, households are creating healthier communities by keeping domestic animals, manure, and garbage away from their homes.

  1. Isolation of Leishmania infantum, zymodeme MON-1 from canine and human visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa, O; Pratlong, F; Ulrich, M; Convit, J

    2001-10-01

    An increase in the incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) has been detected in recent years on Margarita Island, located off the NE coast of Venezuela. Recent studies have revealed reactivity to rK39 antigen (Leishmania chagasi) in 20% of 541 sera from domestic dogs in endemic communities; PCR reactions were positive using primers for the L. donovani complex. Here we report that isolates from human and canine infection, identified by isoenzyme analysis, correspond to L. infantum, zymodeme MON-1. This appears to be the first isolation and identification of an isolate from HVL on Margarita Island and demonstrates the presence of this zymodeme in the canine population.

  2. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  3. Spatiotemporal and molecular epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

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    Ahmad Amro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a major public health problem in Libya. In this paper, we describe the eco-epidemiological parameters of CL during the armed conflict period from January 2011 till December 2012. Current spatiotemporal distributions of CL cases were explored and projected to the future using a correlative modelling approach. In addition the present results were compared with our previous data obtained for the time period 1995-2008.We investigated 312 CL patients who presented to the Dermatology Department at the Tripoli Central Hospital and came from 81 endemic areas distributed in 10 districts. The patients presented with typical localized lesions which appeared commonly on the face, arms and legs. Molecular identification of parasites by a PCR-RFLP approach targeting the ITS1 region of the rDNA was successful for 81 patients with two causative species identified: L. major and L. tropica comprised 59 (72.8% and 22 (27.2% cases, respectively. Around 77.3% of L. tropica CL and 57.7% of L. major CL caused single lesions. Five CL patients among our data set were seropositive for HIV. L. tropica was found mainly in three districts, Murqub (27.3%, Jabal al Gharbi (27.3% and Misrata (13.7% while L. major was found in two districts, in Jabal al Gharbi (61% and Jafara (20.3%. Seasonal occurrence of CL cases showed that most cases (74.2% admitted to the hospital between November and March, L. major cases from November till January (69.4%, and L. tropica cases mainly in January and February (41%. Two risk factors were identified for the two species; the presence of previously infected household members, and the presence of rodents and sandflies in patient's neighborhoods. Spatiotemporal projections using correlative distribution models based on current case data and climatic conditions showed that coastal regions have a higher level of risk due to more favourable conditions for the transmitting vectors.Future projection of CL until 2060

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

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    Beatrice Autino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Autino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  6. Lésion ulcérocroûteuse de l’angle interne de l’œil droit: a leishmaniose cutanée en est une cause [A crushing ulcerous lesion of the internal angle of the right eye: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laouali Salissou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Niger is a tropical country where leishmaniasis is endemic. The first case was reported in 1911. Leishmania major is practically the pathogen found in Niger, a country lying between 8° and 20° north latitudes from the Atlantic to the Chadian border. We report a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the type of ulcerative lesion, characterized by its localization at the internal angle of the right eye posing a diagnostic problem. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by parasitological examination. Anatomipathologic examination eliminated cutaneous tuberculosis, pyogenic granuloma, molluscum contagiosum and basal cell epithelioma. Metronidazole management has accelerated healing. Thus in a tropical country, in front of any chronic, painless ulcerative lesion and resistant to all therapeutics, the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis must be evoked, for a consequent management after confirmation.

  7. Transmission potential, skin inflammatory response, and parasitism of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

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    Goto H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and it is transmitted by sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. Dogs are an important domestic reservoir, and control of the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL to humans includes the elimination of infected dogs. However, though dogs are considered to be an important element in the transmission cycle of Leishmania, the identification of infected dogs representing an immediate risk for transmission has not been properly evaluated. Since it is not possible to treat infected dogs, they are sacrificed when a diagnosis of VL is established, a measure that is difficult to accomplish in highly endemic areas. In such areas, parameters that allow for easy identification of reservoirs that represents an immediate risk for transmission is of great importance for the control of VL transmission. In this study we aimed to identify clinical parameters, reinforced by pathological parameters that characterize dogs with potential to transmit the parasite to the vector. Results The major clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic area were onicogriphosis, skin lesions, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. The transmission potential of these dogs was assessed by xenodiagnosis using Lutzomyia longipalpis. Six of nine symptomatic dogs were infective to Lutzomyia longipalpis while none of the five asymptomatic dogs were infective to the sandfly. Leishmania amastigotes were present in the skin of all clinically symptomatic dogs, but absent in asymptomatic dogs. Higher parasite loads were observed in the ear and ungueal region, and lower in abdomen. The inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the ears and ungueal regions of both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In clinically affected dogs in which few or none Leishmania amastigotes were observed, the inflammatory infiltrate was constituted mainly of lymphocytes

  8. Lacrimal excretory system sequelae in patients treated for leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyama,Erika; Schellini,Silvana Artioli; Stolf,Hamilton Ometo; Nakajima,Vitor

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis infection may involve destruction of nasal tissues resulting in lacrimal drainage system alteration. PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of lacrimal excretory system sequelae in patients treated for leishmaniasis. METHODS: Forty-five leishmaniasis-treated patients (90 nasolacrimal ducts) were submitted to lacrimal excretory system evaluation. All were evaluated by Jones I test and when it was abnormal, dacryocystography and nasal endoscopy were performed. This situation occurred ...

  9. in experimental treatment of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo efficacy of oral and intraperitoneal administration of extracts of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae) in experimental treatment of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major .

  10. The use of radionuclide DNA probe technology for epidemiological studies of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Octavio [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Tropical; Heub, Marcia; Fontes, Cor Jesus [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Julio Muller; Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia

    2005-10-15

    DNA hybridisation, using probes labelled with 32 P, was used to type Leishmania samples isolated from patients living in endemic areas of Mato Grosso State (Brazil), and clinically diagnosed as having tegumentary leishmaniasis. k DNA cloned mini-circle probes specific for the Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania braziliensis complexes were used. The results showed that L. braziliensis is the predominant group infecting human patients in the state. Sixty-eight samples were typed, 64 samples (94.1%) belonging to the L. braziliensis complex and only four (5.9%) belonging to the L. mexicana complex. Accurate identification of the Leishmania permits better orientation of the medical follow-up, since clinical manifestations may vary depending on the complex to which the parasite belongs. The epidemiological information furnished by the identification of the Leishmania in given endemic area is also essential for the design of appropriate control measures. (author)

  11. Community knowledge, attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

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    Nigatu Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized community awareness creation through various means.

  12. Arginase I, polyamine, and prostaglandin E2 pathways suppress the inflammatory response and contribute to diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Costa, Jaqueline; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Boaventura, Viviane S; Luz, Nívea F; Malta-Santos, Hayna; Oliveira, Murilo Cezar Souza; Santos de Campos, Daniela Conceição; Saldanha, Ana Cristina; dos-Santos, Washington L C; Bozza, Patrícia T; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Costa, Jackson M; Borges, Valeria M

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is a rare clinical manifestation of tegumentary leishmaniasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying DCL pathogenesis remain unclear, and there is no efficient treatment available. This study investigated the systemic and in situ expression of the inflammatory response that might contribute to suppression in DCL. The plasma levels of arginase I, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were higher in patients with DCL, compared with patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) or with controls from an area of endemicity. In situ transcriptomic analyses reinforced the association between arginase I expression and enzymes involved in prostaglandin and polyamine synthesis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that arginase I, ODC, and cyclooxygenase2 expression was higher in lesion biopsy specimens from patients with DCL than in those from patients with LCL. Inhibition of arginase I or ODC abrogates L. amazonensis replication in infected human macrophages. Our data implicate arginase I, ODC, PGE2, and TGF-β in the failure to mount an efficient immune response and suggest perspectives in the development of new strategies for therapeutic intervention for patients with DCL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Necessity to adopt and disseminate therapeutic schemes for the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Paraná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, U; Spinoza, R P; La Salvia Filho, V; Guilherme, A L; Lima, A P; Junqueira, G M; Misuta, N M; Nerilo Sobrinho, A; de Lima, E M

    1991-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis has shown an endemic character in areas of North-North-west Paraná State, which were populated in 40's, where residual forests persist with intense modifications. The infection has been found mainly in males, but was found also in females and children and in many individuals of a same family. 513 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis notified to SUCAM by clinical diagnosis were investigated. Treatment was begun with Glucantime at State Health Centers or at SUCAM. Of 513 treated patients 260 (50.67%) were considered clinically cured. The remaining 253 (49.33%) abandoned treatment. The quantity of Glucantime supplied to the patients varied from 10 vials to more than 200, with or without intervals during the treatment. Two hundred and seventeen (85.46%) patients among 260 received from 10 to 75 vials. The occurrence of leishmaniasis in 163 (31.75%) women and in 34 (6.62%) children, of both sexes, up to 10 years old, suggests domiciliary transmission. It's not known if the 253 (49.33%) individuals who abandoned the treatment recovered. This high number shows the necessity of better knowledge of the consequences that can occur due to incomplete treatment.

  14. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cássia Regina de Abreu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi, which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological. It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification.

  15. American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis and HIV-AIDS Association in a Tertiary Care Center in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge Augusto O.; Coelho, Leíla I. R. C.; Pereira, Flávio R.; Siqueira, André M.; Ribeiro, Rogério L.; Almeida, Thiago Miranda L.; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius G.; Barbosa, Maria das Graças V.; Talhari, Sinésio

    2011-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both common infectious diseases in the Brazilian Amazon with overlapping expansion areas, which leads to the occurrence of Leishmania/HIV coinfection. Most ATL/HIV–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) association cases have been reported from areas where Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main pathogen; this finding is in contrast with the Amazon region, where L. (V.) guyanensis is the most implicated agent, implying distinct clinical and therapeutic aspects. We describe 15 cases of ATL/HIV coinfection treated in a tertiary care center in the Brazilian Amazon between 1999 and 2008. Thirteen patients presented with diverse clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and four of them had disseminated forms; two patients presented with mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Seven patients required more than one course of treatment. The particularities of ATL/HIV-AIDS association in L. (V.) guyanensis-endemic areas require efforts for an increased understanding of its burden and subsequent improvements in case management. PMID:21896816

  16. Expansion of gd T cells in patients infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis with and without glucantime therapy

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    Haideh Darabi

    Full Text Available The expansion of gd T cells in patients with active cutaneous leishmaniasis, with or without glucantime therapy, was investigated. Twenty patients with local cutaneous leishmaniasis including glucantime-treated (n=10 and untreated (n=10 patients were selected. The controls were healthy individuals (n=10 living in endemic areas. Whole blood was obtained and the T cell subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Significantly more gd CD3+ T cells were observed in untreated patients (15.9% ± 5.9, when compared with glucantime-treated patients (4.6% ± 1.4 and controls (5.3% ± 2.3. On the other hand, when the percentages of ab CD3+ T-cells were analyzed different results were obtained. A significant increase in ab T cells was seen in glucantime-treated patients (62.4% ± 7.6, when compared to the untreated patients (55.7% ± 5.5 and controls (55.1% ± 9.6. The percentage of total CD3+ T cells was statistically greater in both glucantime-treated (68.8% ± 7.4 and untreated patients (73.4% ± 5.9 when compared to the controls (61% ± 10.3. These results are consistent with previous results on the expansion of gdT cells during the course of cutaneous leishmaniasis. They also indicate that glucantime therapy can reverse the expansion of gdT cells and as a result increase the percentages of ab CD3+ T cells.

  17. An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Modena province (Northern Italy): report of 35 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesinaro, A M; Nosseir, S; Mataca, E; Mengoli, M C; Cavatorta, C; Gennari, W

    2017-12-01

    Canine Leishmaniasis is a disease endemic in many parts of Europe, carried by insects of phlebotomous species. Humans are occasional hosts of the parasites. Cases of human leishmaniasis have been registered in Italy, particularly in the southern and coastal regions. In the period 1997-2016, we collected a series of 35 patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis, uncovered by skin biopsy and histological examination, 21 of them found in last 3 years. The patients, 28 males and 7 female, aged between 19 and 91, resided in a restricted area of Northern Italy, and none, but two, had travelled abroad. Lesions presented clinically mostly as single nodule or plaque, often ulcerated, and involved predominantly head-neck and upper extremities. Histology showed a diffuse, granulomatous inflammation including numerous plasma cells. Variable numbers of amastigotes were visible, usually in the superficial part of the dermis, in all cases but two. In these two cases, highly suspicious by clinico-pathologic features, PCR analysis allowed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Our attention was then focused on the geographical residence of the patients, that turned out to be mostly in the piedmont area, whereas only one lived in the alluvial area corresponding to Padana plain. These data underline the diffusion of phlebotomus in northern areas of Italy, and particularly on the hills, characterized by a type of soil more favorable to vector survival; also, they indicate the adaptation of leishmania to hosts other than dogs, such as foxes and small rodents. Histology alone resulted sufficient to make diagnosis in most cases, but PCR analysis is recommended in those cases showing a suspicious background, in absence of amastigotes. © Copyright Società Italiana di Anatomia Patologica e Citopatologia Diagnostica, Divisione Italiana della International Academy of Pathology.

  18. Topical terbinafine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: triple blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Saeedeh; Heshmatkhah, Amireh; Vares, Behrooz; Mohebbi, Elham; Mohebbi, Azadeh; Aflatoonian, Mahin; Eybpoosh, Sana; Sharifi, Iraj; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Fekri, Ali Reza; Mostafavi, Mahshid

    2016-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of disease condition with considerable health impacts, caused by different species of Leishmania . This disease is currently endemic in 98 countries and territories in the world. There are many treatment modalities for cutaneous leishmaniasis. The use of topical terbinafine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been considered. Eighty-eight participants more than two years old with proven acute CL by a positive direct smear were randomly allocated to one of the two study arms: first group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) 20 mg/kg/day intramuscular injection (IM) plus a placebo ointment (Mahan Vaseline) for 20 days. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) 20 mg/kg/day IM plus topical terbinafine, for 20 days and were monitored closely by dermatologist during the course of the study. Crude regression analysis showed that there was no significant difference between placebo and intervention group regarding partial or complete treatment (partial treatment: HR crude  = 1.1, CI 95 % = 0.7-1.7; complete treatment: HR crude  = 1.1, CI 95 % = 0.8-1.7). Although, there was no statistically significant different between the two treatment groups, but clinically it seems that the treatment rate in those who receive glucantime plus terbinafine was more effective than the other group. However this rate depended on the type of lesions. As data indicated ulcerated nodules, papules and plaque in experimental group have been completely improved two times faster than placebo group. Ulcerated nodules, nodules and plaque were partially improved faster in those used tebinafine than placebo ointment.

  19. Molecular characterization ofLeishmaniaparasites isolated from sandflies species of a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Musiyan south west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavarizadeh, Farzaneh; Khademvatan, Shahram; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Feizhaddad, Mohammad Hossein; Zarean, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is vector borne parasitic disease, considered as public health problem especially in border of Iran and Iraq, Dehloran County (Musian district). The aim of this study was molecular identification of Leishmania parasites in sandfly as vectors of Leishmaniasis. Totally 280 female sandflies were trapped by sticky traps from 7 rural areas of Musiyan in September-November 2012. All sandflies were identified using morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia. DNA was extracted from female sandflies and Leishmania was identified using PCR and sequencing. All 280 trapped sandflies were identified as Phelobotumus Papatasi and Leishmania infections were detected in 3.2 % out of 280 female sandflies. All leishmania were identified as L. major and submitted in Gene bank as: LC014642.1, LC014641.1, LC014640.1 and LC014639.1. Frequency of Phlebotomus Papatasi and infection with L. major in studied regions showed that this vector is dominant in these areas.

  20. A Comparison between the Effects of Glucantime, Topical Trichloroacetic Acid 50% plus Glucantime, and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser plus Glucantime on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Pentavalent antimonial drugs have been the first line of therapy in cutaneous leishmaniasis for many years. However, the cure rate of these agents is still not favorable. This study was carried out to compare the efficacies of intralesional glucantime with topical trichloroacetic acid 50% (TCA 50% + glucantime and fractional carbon dioxide laser + glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods. A total of 90 patients were randomly divided into three groups of 30 to be treated with intralesional injection of glucantime, a combination of topical TCA 50% and glucantime, or a combination of fractional laser and glucantime. The overall clinical improvement and changes in sizes of lesions and scars were assessed and compared among three groups. Results. The mean duration of treatment was 6.1±2.1 weeks in all patients (range: 2–12 weeks and 6.8±1.7, 5.2±1.0, and 6.3±3.0 weeks in glucantime, topical TCA plus glucantime, and fractional laser plus glucantime groups, respectively (P=0.011. Complete improvement was observed in 10 (38.5%, 27 (90%, and 20 (87% patients of glucantime, glucantime + TCA, and glucantime + laser groups, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Compared to glucantime alone, the combination of intralesional glucantime and TCA 50% or fractional CO2 laser had significantly higher and faster cure rate in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  1. Sandflies in an urban area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cristaldo, Geucira; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião Costa; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment. © M.E.C. Dorval et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  2. Molecular and histological tools to diagnose an imported case of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Ana M; De Armas, Yaxsier; Fraga, Jorge; Blanco, Orestes; Menéndez, Reinaldo; Montoto, Vicente; Capó de Paz, Virginia

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis represents a polymorphous group of diseases caused by around 20 different species of Leishmania parasite. Increases in the number of cases of leishmaniasis reported as a consequence of the growth in travel and migration are of concern to epidemiologists and are diagnostically challenging in non-endemic areas. Molecular and histological analyses of a paraffin-embedded skin biopsy were used in parallel to detect Leishmania parasites in a Cuban woman with suspicious lesions arriving in Cuba from Venezuela. Primers based on the 18S fragment of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and heat shock protein 70 genes (hsp70) were used for molecular detection. Histological studies detected the presence of the parasite. A small fragment of Leishmania DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S fragment using, for the first time, nucleic acid obtained from paraffin-embedded tissue as a template. Amplification of a larger fragment from the hsp70 gene did not occur. The detection of Leishmania DNA from paraffin-embedded tissue by means of 18S-targeted PCR is a feasible approach to diagnosis. In combination with classical methods such as histology, the molecular detection of the parasite was demonstrated to be useful in confirming Leishmania infection in a traveler. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  4. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

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    Denise Amaro da SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease.

  5. A Novel Molecular Test to Diagnose Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis at the Point of Care

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    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Saldarriaga, Omar A.; Tartaglino, Lilian; Gacek, Rosana; Temple, Elissa; Sparks, Hayley; Melby, Peter C.; Travi, Bruno L.

    2015-01-01

    Dogs are the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but current serological methods are not sensitive enough to detect all subclinically infected animals, which is crucial to VL control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have greater sensitivity but require expensive equipment and trained personnel, impairing its implementation in endemic areas. We developed a diagnostic test that uses isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to detect Leishmania infantum. This method was coupled with lateral flow (LF) reading with the naked eye to be adapted as a point-of-care test. The L. infantum RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity similar to real time-PCR, detecting DNA of 0.1 parasites spiked in dog blood, which was equivalent to 40 parasites/mL. There was no cross amplification with dog or human DNA or with Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, or Trypanosoma cruzi. The test also amplified Leishmania donovani strains (N = 7). In a group of clinically normal dogs (N = 30), RPA-LF detected more subclinical infections than rK39 strip test, a standard serological method (50% versus 13.3% positivity, respectively; P = 0.005). Also, RPA-LF detected L. infantum in noninvasive mucosal samples of dogs with a sensitivity comparable to blood samples. This novel molecular test may have a positive impact in leishmaniasis control programs. PMID:26240156

  6. Parasite prolyl oligopeptidases and the challenge of designing chemotherapeuticals for Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis.

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    Bastos, I M D; Motta, F N; Grellier, P; Santana, J M

    2013-01-01

    The trypanosomatids Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis, respectively. It is estimated that over 10 million people worldwide suffer from these neglected diseases, posing enormous social and economic problems in endemic areas. There are no vaccines to prevent these infections and chemotherapies are not adequate. This picture indicates that new chemotherapeutic agents must be developed to treat these illnesses. For this purpose, understanding the biology of the pathogenic trypanosomatid- host cell interface is fundamental for molecular and functional characterization of virulence factors that may be used as targets for the development of inhibitors to be used for effective chemotherapy. In this context, it is well known that proteases have crucial functions for both metabolism and infectivity of pathogens and are thus potential drug targets. In this regard, prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, both members of the S9 serine protease family, have been shown to play important roles in the interactions of pathogenic protozoa with their mammalian hosts and may thus be considered targets for drug design. This review aims to discuss structural and functional properties of these intriguing enzymes and their potential as targets for the development of drugs against Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis.

  7. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Denise Amaro da; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease.

  8. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

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    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence. We find the correlation between the rainy season precipitation and the same year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to be strong for both regions while the number of cases of ZCL incidence lags the precipitation and NDVI by 2 years. The zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis seasonal dynamic appears to be controlled by minimum temperatures and presents a 2-month lag between the reported infection date and the presumed date when the infection actually occurred. The decadal increase in the number of ZCL occurrence in the region suggests that changes in climate increased minimum temperatures sufficiently and created conditions suitable for endemicity that did not previously exist. We also find that temperatures above a critical range suppress ZCL incidence by limiting the vector's reproductive activity.

  9. Primary laryngeal leishmaniasis: A rare case report

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    Kumar Bipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal leishmaniasis is extremely rare. We report a case of primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in a 70-year-old male who was admitted with complaints of gradual progressive hoarseness of the voice, dyspnea, cough for the past 3 months and noisy breathing for the past 5 days. An X-ray of the soft tissue of the neck showed a prevertebral soft tissue mass causing narrowing of the airway at the C6-C7 vertebral level. A computerized tomography (CT scan showed a soft tissue mass in the subglottic region causing significant narrowing of the airway. A direct laryngoscopy showed a pinkish-white, friable mass involving the subglottic region and the anterior half of the vocal cords. With the clinical suspicion of malignancy, an endoscopic biopsy was done. A histopathological examination showed diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in subepithelium with numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of histiocytes.

  10. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Talhari, Carolina; García Bustos, María F; Rosales, Tamara; Villamil-Gomez, Wilmer E; Marquez, Marilianna; Pérez Alvarez, Alexandra M; Tálamo Sánchez, Alejandra I; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2017-12-01

    Infant and young child skin diseases are among the most common features of morbidity throughout the tropics. Because the skin is directly exposed to the environment, it is considerably affected by climatic and local conditions such as vectors and microorganisms, as in the case of leishmaniasis. In America the observed magnitude of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children has led to the study of increased risk of exposure of this group due to the possibility of peri- and intradomiciliary transmission. The present review pretends to make a concrete approach all through the broad and main figures of this parasitic disease, including the clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, in order to be used as a practical source of reference for pediatricians leading with tropical cutaneous pathology in the region. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Forecasting temporal dynamics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil.

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    Joseph A Lewnard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions.We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation.These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets.

  12. Forecasting Temporal Dynamics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Jirmanus, Lara; Júnior, Nivison Nery; Machado, Paulo R.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Ko, Albert I.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. Significance These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets. PMID:25356734

  13. Comparative evaluation of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39, soluble antigen ELISA and IFAT for the sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mniouil, Meryem; Fellah, Hajiba; Amarir, Fatima; Sadak, Abderrahim; Et-Touys, Abdeslam; Bakri, Youssef; Moustachi, Aziza; Tassou, Fatima Zahraa; Hida, Mostapha; Lyagoubi, Mohamed; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Sebti, Faiza

    2018-06-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39. Bone marrow smears were examined for microscopic detection of Leishmania amastigotes obtained from the admitted patients. Only PCR and smear positive cases were considered as gold standard as well as confirmed cases of VL. Out of 49 suspected patients, twenty four (48.9%) were found PCR and smear-positive and twenty three (46.9%) were positive for ICT rk39. Voluntary healthy controls, which included twenty persons from the endemic zone and twenty from non-endemic zone of VL, were found all negative for the strip test. The sensitivity in sera was 75% by ELISA and 87.5% by IFAT, compared with 95.8% for ICT rk39. Specificity was 95.8%, with both tests ELISA and IFAT, and 100% by ICT rk39 respectively. Present study findings again reinforce that the ICT rk39 is a simple, reliable and easy-to-perform non-invasive diagnostic tool for visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Morocco. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a New Host Cell in Latent Leishmaniasis

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    Allahverdiyev, Adil M.; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N.

    2011-01-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs have been isolated, cultured, characterized, and infected with different species of Leishmania parasites (L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum). Infectivity was examined by Giemsa staining, microculture, and polymerase chain reaction methods. As a result, infectivity of ADMSCs by Leishmania parasites has been determined for the first time in this study. According to our findings, it is very important that donors are screened for Leishmania parasites before stem cell transplantations in regions where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:21896818

  15. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America.

  16. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

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    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  17. Development of Leishmania vaccines in the era of visceral leishmaniasis elimination.

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    Engwerda, Christian R; Matlashewski, Greg

    2015-07-01

    A visceral leishmaniasis (VL) elimination target set for the Indian subcontinent in 2005 is being met in many endemic areas without a vaccine. This begs a question: is a VL vaccine needed if elimination targets can be met with current control programs? Here, we argue that a vaccine will be critical if the success of recent VL control efforts are to be sustained. However, not only do we require a safe and effective vaccine, but we also need to know how this should be used for maximum impact. In particular, identifying appropriate target populations to vaccinate will be crucial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Urbanization of human visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco

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    Kholoud Kahime; Samia Boussaa; Haddou Nhammi; Ali Boumezzough

    2017-01-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis one of the seven most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In Morocco, HVL is widespread in all regions; but it is more common in the northern part with sporadic cases observed in the South. During the period between 2004 and 2013, the most affected Moroccan provinces were Taounate province, with 220 cases (16.09% of all cases), followed by Chefchaouen with 13.17% and Taza with 10.46% of the total cases. Children

  19. Macrophage specific drug delivery in experimental leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Mukul Kumar; Lala, Sanchaita

    2004-09-01

    Macrophage-specific delivery systems are the subject of much interest nowadays, because of the fact that macrophages act as host cells for many parasites and bacteria, which give rise to outbreak of so many deadly diseases(eg. leishmaniasis, tuberculosis etc.) in humans. To combat these deadly diseases initially macrophage specific liposomal delivery system were thought of and tested in vivo against experimental leishmaniasis in hamsters using a series of indigenous or synthetic antileishmanial compounds and the results were critically discussed. In vitro testing was also done against macrophages infected with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis. The common problem of liposome therapy being their larger size, stability and storage, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, niosomes were prepared, for their different drug distribution and release characteristics compared to liposomes. When tested in vivo, the retention capacity of niosomes was found to be higher than that of liposomes due to the absence of lipid molecules and their smaller size. Thus the therapeutic efficacy of certain antileishmanial compounds was found to be better than that in the liposomal form. The niosomes, being cheaper, less toxic, biodegradable and non-immunogenic, were considered for sometime as suitable alternatives to liposomes as drug carriers. Besides the advent of other classical drugs carriers(e.g. neoglycoproteins), the biggest challenge came from polymeric delivery vehicles, specially the polymeric nanoparticles which were made of cost effective biodegradable polymers and different natural polymers. Because of very small size and highly stable nature, use of nanoparticles as effective drug carriers has been explored in experimental leishmaniasis using a series of antileishmanial compounds, both of indigenous and synthetic origin. The feasibility of application in vivo, when tested for biological as well as for other physicochemical parameters, the polymeric

  20. Leishmaniasis mucosa y otras lesiones destructivas centrofaciales

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    G. Rodríguez

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias enfermedades producen lesiones del área centrofacial. Una de las más frecuentes en nuestro medio es la leishmaniasis destructivas mucosa. Como el INS es un centro de estudio de leishmaniasis, se atendieron pacientes o sus biopsias con afecciones del macizo centrofacial, primariamente remitidas con el diagnóstico clínico de leihsmaniasis mucosa. En un período de 7 años (1987-1993, se estudiaron 134 biopsias de estos pacientes. El diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucosa fue definitivo en 26 casos, por demostración del amastigote con la coloración de hematoxilina eosina y el mismo diagnóstico se estableció por patrón histopatológico solamente, en 27 casos. Una técnica inmunoenzimática para demostrar los amastigotes no fue satisfactoria. La perforación banal del tabique nasal (52 biopsias es la entidad que el clínico y el patólogo confunden con mayor frecuencia con la leishmaniasis mucosa. Otras entidades demostradas fueron la paracoccidioidomicosis (3, histoplasmosis (2, rinosporidiosis (2. esporotricosis (l, tuberculosis bucal (3, lepra leprornatosa (l, escleroma nasal (2, granulomatosis de Wegener (2, linfomas angiocéntricos (4, aspiración crónica de cocaína (l, y carcinoma escamocelular palatino (1. La biopsia, luego de la historia clínica, es el pilar esencial para identificar y manejar adecuadamente estas lesiones, que pueden originar destrucción facial grave, a veces letal, si no se dispone del diagnóstico preciso y del tratamiento oportuno.

  1. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  2. Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

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    Singh S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate Leishmania. There are more than 21 species causing human infection. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bites of female sandflies belonging to 30 species. The disease manifests mainly in 3 forms: the visceral, the cutaneous and the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral form is conventionally made by the demonstration of amastigotes of the parasite in the aspirated fluid from the bone marrow, the spleen, and rarely from the lymph nodes, or the liver. The parasite demonstration and isolation rates are rather poor from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions due to low parasite load and high rate of culture contamination. Recently several recombinant proteins have been developed to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Recombinant kinesin protein of 39 kDa called rK 39 is the most promising of these molecules. The antigen used in various test formats has been proved highly sensitive and specific for visceral leishmaniasis. It is useful in the diagnosis of HIV-Leishmania co-infection and as a prognostic marker. Molecular techniques targeting various genes of the parasite have also been reported, the PCR being the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and for differentiation of species.

  3. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – Dermoscopic Findings And Cryotherapy

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    Dobrev Hristo P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year-old male patient who, three months after a holiday in Southern Greece, found a small ‘pimple’ on his back, which gradually got as big as a small walnut, the central part becoming ulcerated and scabby. Dermatological examination found an erythematous-to-livid nodular lesion on the right shoulder; it was 16 mm in diameter with central ulceration, covered with brownish crust which discharged pus-like secretion upon pressure. Microscope examination of Romanowsky-Giemsa stained lesion material detected amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica. The culture investigation and serological tests for leishmaniasis were negative. Dermoscopy of the lesion found the following features: erythema, hyperkeratosis, central ulceration covered with brownish crust, “yellow tears-like” structures and “white starburst-like” patterns, and various vascular structures (including dotted vessels, comma-shaped vessels, hairpin- and glomerular-like vessels. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and underwent four cryotherapy sessions every other week with excellent therapeutic results - complete resolution of infiltrate with subsequent gentle hypopigmented scarring. In conclusion, dermoscopy is an easily accessible non-invasive method which can be useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cryotherapy is the treatment of choice for single skin lesions.

  4. Therapeutic modalities to combat leishmaniasis, a review

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    Hamid Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an emerging dermal disorder that causes high morbidity and mortality levels with a wide spectrum of clinical complications. Current situation of chemotherapeutic options with some attempts at immunotherapy has remained a dilemma for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Primary precautionary measure which relies on the managed control of the host and sandfly bite prevention is difficult to establish, as the transmission of the disease is manifested by various Leishmania species. Secondary and tertiary prevention is dependent on the medical assistance using clinical guidelines and adequate therapy. However, long course of duration and resistant nature of drugs with pronounced side effects often lead to reduction or cessation of treatment. The aim of this article is to view the current status of chemotherapeutic agents used against leishmaniasis; a review of natural plant extracts exhibiting antileishmanial activities in vitro or in vivo alone or in combination with recommended drugs seeming to validate their use in folk medicine, topical applications of ointments currently used to develop new compounds under trial, substantial efforts in vaccine development and insights about immunoregulation along with the recommendations and guidelines for future perspectives.

  5. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

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    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  6. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Maciel, Marcel Gonçalves; Guerra, Marcus Vinítius de Farias; Talhari, Anette Chursciack; Prestes, Suzane Ribeiro; Fernandes, Marcos Antonio; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Martins, Alessandra; Coelho, Leíla Ines de Aguiar Raposo Camara; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010). The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%), in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6%) and in extractive workers (43.7%); 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.

  7. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010. The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%, in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6% and in extractive workers (43.7%; 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.

  8. [Epidemiological aspects of canine American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, G M; Marzochi, M C; Massard, C L; Lima, G P; Confort, E M

    1999-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the highest incidence observed in the municipalities along the Southern coast. A total of 169 human cases were reported from 1993 to 1995 in the municipality of Paraty, representing 15% of all case reports in the State of Rio de Janeiro during that period. From March to December, 1996, a survey was conducted in endemic american tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) areas (Praia Grande, Taquari, Várzea do Machado, and Graúna) in Paraty. 326 households with 215 pet dogs were surveyed. The initial study consisted of taking venous blood samples to perform RIFI and ELISA tests. The canine skin test was performed during the same visit and was positive in 8.8% of dogs. Of the 215 dogs, 5 presented lesions suspected of ATL; biopsies and the vacuum aspiration technique were performed on these cases. Correlating the study areas with the results obtained, some dogs presented sub-clinical infection, highly relevant to studies on canine ATL infection in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  9. Five-year field results and long-term effectiveness of 20 mg/kg liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome for visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.

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    Sakib Burza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL; also known as Kala-azar is an ultimately fatal disease endemic in Bihar. A 2007 observational cohort study in Bihar of 251 patients with VL treated with 20 mg/Kg intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome demonstrated a 98% cure rate at 6-months. Between July 2007 and August 2012, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF and the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute (RMRI implemented a VL treatment project in Bihar, India-an area highly endemic for Leishmania donovani-using this regimen as first-line treatment. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous Ambisome 20 mg/kg was administered in four doses of 5 mg/kg over 4-10 days, depending on the severity of disease. Initial clinical cure at discharge was defined as improved symptoms, cessation of fever, and recession of spleen enlargement. This observational retrospective cohort study describes 8749 patients with laboratory-confirmed primary VL treated over a 5-year period: 1396 at primary healthcare centers, 7189 at hospital, and 164 at treatment camps. Initial clinical cure was achieved in 99.3% of patients (8692/8749; 0.3% of patients (26/8749 defaulted from treatment and 0.4% (31/8749 died. Overall, 1.8% of patients (161/8749 were co-infected with HIV and 0.6% (51/8749 with tuberculosis. Treatment was discontinued because of severe allergic reactions in 0.1% of patients (7/8749. Overall, 27 patients (0.3% were readmitted with post Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL. Risk factors for late presentation included female sex, age >15 years and being from a scheduled caste. In 2012, a long-term efficacy survey in the same area of Bihar determined relapse rates of VL after 5 years' intervention with Ambisome. Of 984 immunocompetent patients discharged between September 2010 and December 2011, 827 (84.0% were traced in order to determine their long-term outcomes. Of these, 20 patients (2.4% had relapsed or received further treatment for VL. Of those completing 6

  10. SisLeish: A multi-country standardized information system to monitor the status of Leishmaniasis in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Background In the Americas, leishmaniasis is endemic in 18 countries, and from 2001 through 2015, 17 countries reported 843,931 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 countries reported 52,176 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. A Regional Information System (SisLeish) was created in order to provide knowledge of the distribution and tendency of this disease to analyze and monitor the leishmaniasis status. This article analyses the performance and progress of SisLeish from 2012–2015. Methodology The performance of SisLeish was evaluated by country adhesion, data completeness and delay in entering the data, and also by the SWOT technique. Furthermore, we outlined the structure and modus operandi of the system and indicators utilized. Results In 2012, only 18% of the countries entered the data in SisLeish before the deadline, where 66.7% and 50% of the countries with autochthonous CL/ML and VL reported their cases to the system, respectively. Whereas in 2015, 59% of the countries reached the deadline, where 94.4% and 58.3% of the countries reported their CL/ML and VL data, respectively. Regarding data completeness, there was great progress for different variables since its launch, such as gender, which had an approximately 100% improvement from 2012 to 2015. The SWOT analysis of SisLeish showed 12 strengths, 11 opportunities, seven weaknesses and six threats. Conclusions From 2012–2015 there has been an improvement in the adhesion, quality and data completeness, showing the effort of the majority of the countries to enhance their national database. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that strengths and opportunities exceed weaknesses and threats; however, it highlighted the system frailties and challenges that need to be addressed. Furthermore, it has stimulated several National Programs to advance their surveillance system. Therefore, SisLeish has become an essential tool to prioritize areas, assist in decision-making processes, and to guide

  11. SisLeish: A multi-country standardized information system to monitor the status of Leishmaniasis in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Elkhoury, Ana N S; O B Valadas, Samantha Y; Puppim-Buzanovsky, Lia; Rocha, Felipe; Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J

    2017-09-01

    In the Americas, leishmaniasis is endemic in 18 countries, and from 2001 through 2015, 17 countries reported 843,931 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 countries reported 52,176 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. A Regional Information System (SisLeish) was created in order to provide knowledge of the distribution and tendency of this disease to analyze and monitor the leishmaniasis status. This article analyses the performance and progress of SisLeish from 2012-2015. The performance of SisLeish was evaluated by country adhesion, data completeness and delay in entering the data, and also by the SWOT technique. Furthermore, we outlined the structure and modus operandi of the system and indicators utilized. In 2012, only 18% of the countries entered the data in SisLeish before the deadline, where 66.7% and 50% of the countries with autochthonous CL/ML and VL reported their cases to the system, respectively. Whereas in 2015, 59% of the countries reached the deadline, where 94.4% and 58.3% of the countries reported their CL/ML and VL data, respectively. Regarding data completeness, there was great progress for different variables since its launch, such as gender, which had an approximately 100% improvement from 2012 to 2015. The SWOT analysis of SisLeish showed 12 strengths, 11 opportunities, seven weaknesses and six threats. From 2012-2015 there has been an improvement in the adhesion, quality and data completeness, showing the effort of the majority of the countries to enhance their national database. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that strengths and opportunities exceed weaknesses and threats; however, it highlighted the system frailties and challenges that need to be addressed. Furthermore, it has stimulated several National Programs to advance their surveillance system. Therefore, SisLeish has become an essential tool to prioritize areas, assist in decision-making processes, and to guide surveillance and control actions.

  12. Miltefosine for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: An experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maha M. Eissa

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected diseases included in the World. Health Organization's list of the top guns of antimicrobial resistance. Miltefosine (MIL) was the first successful oral agent used against visceral leishmaniasis in India. As regards cutaneous leish- maniasis (CL) ...

  13. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.

  14. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  15. Isolation of Leishmania tropica from an Ethiopian cutaneous leishmaniasis patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, Asrat; Di Muccio, Trentina; Abebe, Tamrat; Hunegnaw, Mesfin; Kager, Piet A.; Gramiccia, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Old World is caused mainly by three species of Leishmania: L. major, L. tropica and L. aethiopica, and sporadically by L. infantum and L. donovani. In Ethiopia, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by L. aethiopica, is a major public health problem affecting

  16. Biostatistics of leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia | Al Aboud | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... health planning and management. Both cutaneous and visceral types of leishmaniasis exist in Saudi Arabia with the predominance of the first type. This statistics commentary is written to review in numbers the cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia from 1983-2004. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology Vol.

  17. Leishmaniasis presenting as severe anaemia in an adult female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a rare cause of anaemia. We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis presenting as severe anaemia and pyrexia of unknown origin in an adult female Nigerian. The objective was to highlight the importance of exhaustive investigations in the diagnosis of anaemia and pyrexia of unknown origin in our ...

  18. The changing profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in a central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran is usually caused by Leishmania major or L. tropica. However, the direct examination or the cultures of biopsies for diagnosis are not very sensitive. The objective of this study was to identify the responsible species obtained from patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis referred to the ...

  19. Isolated cutaneous leishmaniasis over face – A diagnostic dilemma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated cutaneous leishmaniasis over face – A diagnostic dilemma. Santosh K. Swain, Ishwar C. Behera, Mahesh C. Sahu, Maitreyee Panda. Abstract. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoa belong to the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of a sandfly. It has diverse clinical ...

  20. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescent antibody (difma test using Leishmania genus - specific monoclonal antibody in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Martha E. Chico

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct immunofluorescent antibody (DIFMA test using a Leishmania genus- specific monoclonal antibody was evaluated in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador. This test was compared with the standard diagnostic techniques of scrapings, culture and histology. Diagnostic samples were taken from a total of 90 active dermal ulcers from patients from areas of Ecuador known to be endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DIFMA was positive in all lesions. It was shown to be significantly superior to standard diagnostic methods either alone or in combination. The sensitivity of DIFMA did not diminish with chronicity of lesions. This test proved to be extremely useful in the routine diagnosis of CL because it is highly sensitive, is easy to use and produces rapid results.

  1. Local or systemic treatment for New World cutaneous leishmaniasis? Re-evaluating the evidence for the risk of mucosal leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Johannes; Lockwood, Diana N. J.; Visser, Leo; Harms, Gundel; Bailey, Mark S.; Caumes, Eric; Clerinx, Jan; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Morizot, Gloria; Hatz, Christoph; Buffet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses the question of whether the risk of developing mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) warrants systemic treatment in all patients with New World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) or whether local treatment might be an acceptable alternative. The risk of patients with New World CL developing ML

  2. Epidemiological surveillance of tegumentary leishmaniasis: local territorial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Valdenir Bandeira; Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão

    2017-06-26

    To propose a new operational unit in the locality scale capable of subsidizing the construction of an information system to control the transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis at this scale, in a region of high endemicity of the Atlantic Forest. We examined the adequacy of data and instruments in an area of high endemicity in the Atlantic Forest located in the South of the State of Rio de Janeiro from 1990 to 2012. The study proposed an operational unit called Local Surveillance Unit to make all used databases compatible by adjusting census sectors. This enabled the overlap and comparison of information in different periods. The spreading process of the transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Baía da Ilha Grande region does not depend on great population movements, and can occur in areas with population growth or decrease. The data information system allowed the adequate identification and characterization of the place of residence. We identified relevant characteristics of the place of transmission, such as self-limited in time and not associated with recent deforestation. The results also highlight the lack of synchronicity in the case production in territorial units involved in the endemic-epidemic process, noting that this process is in constant motion. The transmission process seems more connected to the presence and movement of rodents that move continuously in the region than to the local density of vectors or the permanence of infected dogs at home. New control strategies targeted at the foci of transmission must be considered. The construction of a new operational unit, called Local Surveillance Unit, was instrumental in the endemic-epidemic process analysis. Propor uma nova unidade operacional na escala de localidade capaz de subsidiar a construção de um sistema de informação orientado para o controle da transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar nesse nível. Uma região de alta endemicidade da Mata Atlântica no sul do estado do Rio de

  3. Immune Regulation during Chronic Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed. PMID:25010815

  4. Vectors control importance on leishmaniasis transmission

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    Alfredo M. Oliveira Filho

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the control of transmission of leishmaniasis regarding chemotherapy, reservoirs elimination, vaccination and insect control through the use of chemical insecticides. We also discussed complementary measures like monitoring traps, impregnated bednets and curtains, repelents, pheromones, biological control, etc. A cost comparison of insecticide interventions through the use of products belonging to the four main chemical groups was also alone, comparing together conventional formulations versus a slow-release insecticide developed by the Núcleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. We finally did recommendations on the situation that would justify an insecticide intervention to control sandflies.

  5. Leishmaniasis vaccine candidates for development: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Ali; Rafati, Sima; Davoudi, Noushin; Maboudi, Fereidoun; Modabber, Farrokh

    2006-03-01

    A vaccine against different forms of leishmaniasis should be feasible considering the wealth of information on genetics and biology of the parasite, clinical and experimental immunology of leishmaniasis, and the availability of vaccines that can protect experimental animals against challenge with different Leishmania species. However, there is no vaccine against any form of leishmaniasis for general human use. One major factor is the lack of a conceived market for human leishmaniasis vaccines. Hence pharmaceutical industries involved in vaccine development are not interested in investing millions of dollars and a decade that is required for developing a new vaccine. Besides, leishmaniasis is a local/regional problem and not a global one. According to the estimates of the World Health Organization, 90 per cent of visceral leishmaniasis occurs in five countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal and Sudan). Those in need are amongst the poorest people in these countries. It should therefore be the objectives of these countries to develop a vaccine. Fortunately, both Brazil and India have designated the control of visceral leishmaniasis as a top priority for their respective Ministries of Health. The purpose of this review is to present only the vaccines in use and those in development for use in dogs or humans. This is not an exhaustive review of vaccine discovery or the principles of clinical immunology underlying vaccine development.

  6. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: seroprevalence and risk factors in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil Leishmaniose visceral canina: soroprevalência e fatores de risco em Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is endemic and the number of cases in humans and dogs has increased in the Midwest region. A transversal study was carried out in endemic areas from Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, to assess data on seroprevalence and risk factors associated to canine infection. Four hundred and thirty (430 dogs were randomly evaluated through indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT considering variables related to the animals, the environment and the knowledge by owners on CVL aspects and control. From 430 dogs, 95 (22.1% were seroreagent for leishmaniasis and animals living in rural environments present risk 1.9 times higher for acquiring the disease than those in urban environments (p = 0.01; OR 1.9. Factors related to animals' habits, such as free access to the street and guard function were considered indicators to predict infection by Leishmania sp. (p No Brasil, a leishmaniose visceral canina (CLV é endêmica e, na região Centro-Oeste, o número de casos em humanos e cães tem aumentado. Um estudo transversal foi realizado em áreas endêmicas de Cuiabá (MT com objetivo de avaliar dados sobre a soroprevalência e determinar os fatores de risco associados à infecção canina. Quatrocentos e trinta (430 cães foram aleatoriamente avaliados pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta, considerando-se variáveis relacionadas aos animais, o ambiente e o conhecimento por parte dos proprietários sobre aspectos da CLV e seu controle. Dos 430 cães, 95 (22,1% apresentaram-se soros reagentes para leishmaniose, e os animais que viviam em ambiente rural apresentaram risco 1,9 vezes maior de adquirir a infecção dos que aqueles em ambiente urbano (p = 0,01; OR 1,9. Fatores relacionados aos hábitos dos animais, tais como o livre acesso à rua e função de guarda, foram considerados indicadores para prever a infecção por Leishmania sp. (p.< 0,05 em análise estatística univariada. A presença de atividade agr

  7. Factores de riesgo que determinan la transmisión de la leishmaniasis en el valle Llaucano, Chota-Cajamarca

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    Víctor Zorrilla

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar los factores de riesgo asociados con la transmisión de leishmaniasis. Material y Métodos: Se entrevistó 727 personas en 140 viviendas de 8 localidades del valle Llaucano, Chota, Cajamarca. Los factores de riesgo fueron analizados mediante el cálculo del odds ratio, con límites de confianza al 95%, utilizando el pro­grama EpiInfo 2000. Resultados: Se diagnosticó 206 casos de leishmaniasis, 63 lesiones activas y 143 cicatrices. La leishmaniasis se presenta en todos los grupos de edad y ambos sexos están afectados en proporciones similares, siendo más frecuente en menores de 10 años. El alto porcentaje de lesiones en cara y miembros superiores, sugiere una transmisión domiciliaria de la enfermedad. Los factores de riesgo asociados con la transmisión de la leishmaniasis en el valle de Llaucano, son los siguientes: viviendas dispersas ubicadas en áreas rurales (OR 3,97, IC95% 1,94-8,14, dormir en viviendas improvisadas en medio de las chacras en condiciones precarias (OR 4,59, IC95% 3,22-6,54, cultivos de café (OR 7,83, IC95% 3,57-17,17, caña de azúcar (OR 4,99, IC95% 2,42-10,27 y frutas (OR 3,62, IC95% 1,72-7,61 en peridomicilio; hacinamiento con 6 ó más personas por vivienda (OR=3,25, IC95% 1,50-7,10; animales domésticos en el domicilio, principalmente perros (OR=4,03, IC95% 1,98-8,20; flebotominos en el ambiente domiciliario (OR=5,62, IC95% 2,68-11,82, que ingresan a través de las paredes de "tapial". Paccha Baja, Chontabamba y Matibamba son los focos de más alta transmisión de leishmaniasis. La prevalencia acumulada fue de 283,4/1000 hab. Conclusiones: El valle de Llaucano es zona endémica con elevada velocidad de propagación de la leishmaniasis; la transmisión de la enfermedad está asociada a factores de vivienda y comportamiento humano.

  8. Epidemiological and immunological aspects of human visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa, Olga; Ulrich, Marian; Benitez, Margarita; Avila, Concepción; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Centeno, Marta; Belizario, Doris; Reed, Steven G; Convit, Jacinto

    2002-12-01

    Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on Margarita Island in the decade from 1990 to1999; 86.2% were <= 3 years old. All were leishmanin-negative at diagnosis. Evaluation of 23 cured patients in 1999 revealed that 22/23 had converted to leishmanin-positive; five had persisting antibodies to rK39 antigen, with no clinical evidence of disease. Leishmanin tests were positive in 20.2% of 1,643 healthy individuals from 417 households in endemic areas. Of the positive reactors, 39.8% were identified in 35 (8.4%) of the households, 15 of which had an antecedent case of VL, a serologically positive dog or both. Weak serological activity to rK39 antigen was detected in 3 of 488 human sera from the endemic areas. The presence of micro-foci of intense peri-urban transmission and the apparent absence of other Trypanosomatidae causing human disease offer a unique opportunity for the study of reservoirs, alternative vectors and evaluation of control measures on the Island.

  9. Autoantibodies in a Three-Year-Old Girl with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

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    Gholamreza Pouladfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a life-threatening parasitic infection, is endemic in the Mediterranean region. Diagnosis of VL is based on epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings. However, sometimes, clinical features and laboratory findings overlap with those of autoimmune diseases. In some cases, autoantibodies are detected in patients with VL and this could be a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this study, we have reported on a three-year-old girl from a VL-endemic area in Iran, who presented with prolonged fever and splenomegaly. Bone marrow examination, serologic tests, and the molecular PCR assay were performed; however, results were inconclusive. The levels of anti-double stranded DNA, cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody, and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody were elevated and, at the end, splenic biopsy was performed. The splenic tissue PCR test detected the DNA of Leishmania infantum. The patient’s condition improved with anti-Leishmania therapy, and the autoantibodies disappeared within the following four months. Clinical presentations and laboratory findings of VL and autoimmune diseases may overlap in some patients.

  10. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  11. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  12. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

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    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  13. A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina

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    Deschutter Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina. This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110 of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110 of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110. A total of 63 dogs (57.3% were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases.

  14. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – A Case Series from Dresden

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    Uwe Wollina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is world-wide one of the most common infectious disorders caused by protozoa. Due to the climate change, there is a risk of further spread of the disease to central and northern Europe. Another important issue is the high number of refugees from Syria since Syria is one of the hot spots of Old World leishmaniasis. We report on single-centre experience with leishmaniasis in the capital of Saxony, Dresden, during the years 2001 to 2017. We noted a substantial increase in the last five years. Once a very rare exotic disorder in Germany, cutaneous leishmaniasis has become a reality and physicians should be aware of it. A significant number of cases are from Syrian refugees; other cases had been acquired by tourists in the Mediterranean region!

  15. Two Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Seen in Trivandrum

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    M Lohidakshan Unnithen

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Trivandrum acquired the infection while residing in Saudi Arabia. One patient responded to trivalent antimony (Fantorin and the other to dapsone.

  16. First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: a review of field efficacy trials.

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    Noazin, Sassan; Modabber, Farrokh; Khamesipour, Ali; Smith, Peter G; Moulton, Lawrence H; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Sharifi, Iraj; Khalil, Eltahir A G; Bernal, Ivan Dario Velez; Antunes, Carlos M F; Kieny, Marie Paule; Tanner, Marcel

    2008-12-09

    First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and several studies showed reasonable immunogenicity and some indication of protection, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is yet to be identified. Despite this overall failure, these trials contributed significantly to increasing knowledge on human leishmaniasis immunology. To provide a collective view, this review discusses the methods and findings of field efficacy trials of first generation leishmaniasis vaccine clinical trials conducted in the Old and New Worlds.

  17. American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: main clinical and epidemiologic characteristics.

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    de Oliveira-Neto, M P; Mattos, M S; Perez, M A; Da-Cruz, A M; Fernandes, O; Moreira, J; Gonçalves-Costa, S C; Brahin, L R; Menezes, C R; Pirmez, C

    2000-07-01

    Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil is an endemic area of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) induced by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Objective Our purpose was to describe the main clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the disease in Rio de Janeiro State. Patients from endemic areas of Rio de Janeiro State attending the Evandro Chagas Hospital were included in the study. A general physical, dermatologic, and otorhinolaryngologic examination was performed in all patients, as well as a Leishmanin skin test. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained and utilized for touch preparations (stained with Leishman dye), culture in special media (Nicolle, Nevy and McNeal; NNN), and histopathologic examination after hematoxylin and eosin stain. Positive cultures were identified with regard to species by the isoenzyme technique. Therapy with pentavalent antimonial compounds was employed in all cases. Eco-epidemiologic characteristics were studied through regular field visits to endemic foci. Cutaneous disease was present in 87.2% of patients, and mucosal disease in only 12.7%. A single ulcerative cutaneous lesion was the most common clinical presentation. Demonstration of the parasite was always difficult and culture in special media gave the best results for diagnosis. The species involved in transmission was Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Vectors included phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the genus Lutzomyia, and the most common species was Lutzomyia intermedia, captured mainly on the external walls of houses. ATL in Rio de Janeiro is mostly a cutaneous disease. In general, the cases showed great sensitivity to antimony. A pattern of peridomestic transmission seems to be the rule.

  18. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum associated with HIV].

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    Diatta, B-A; Diallo, M; Diadie, S; Faye, B; Ndiaye, M; Hakim, H; Diallo, S; Seck, B; Niang, S-O; Kane, A; Dieng, M-T

    2016-10-01

    In Senegal, reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are often due to Leishmania major. Immunosuppression related to HIV infection contributes to the emergence of leishmaniasis in humans and to cutaneous localization of viscerotropic species. We report the first observed case in Senegal of opportunistic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum associated with HIV. A 5-year-old boy presented crusted ulcerative lesions of the scalp and left forearm, together with axillary and cervical lymphadenopathy present for two months. Direct parasitological examination of the scalp and arm lesions, coupled with liquid aspiration of lymph nodes and bone marrow, enabled identification of amastigote forms of Leishmania. Polymerase chain reaction performed on skin, lymph node and bone marrow biopsy samples allowed identification of L. infantum. The child was positive for HIV1. Treatment of HIV infection and leishmaniasis resulted in clinical improvement. Co-infection with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum and HIV is a complex combination in terms of the related therapeutic issues. The clinical and laboratory outcomes depend on restoration of immunity and on the efficacy, safety and availability of anti-leishmaniasis drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of dendritic cell-based vaccine development for leishmaniasis.

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    Bagirova, M; Allahverdiyev, A M; Abamor, E S; Ullah, I; Cosar, G; Aydogdu, M; Senturk, H; Ergenoglu, B

    2016-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases in the world and is distributed over 98 countries. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk for leishmaniasis. There are three different generation of vaccines that have been developed to provide immunity and protection against leishmaniasis. However, their use has been limited due to undesired side effects. These vaccines have also failed to provide effective and reliable protection and, as such, currently, there is no safe and effective vaccine for leishmaniasis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a unique population of cells that come from bone marrow and become specialized to take up, process and present antigens to helper T cells in a mechanism similar to macrophages. By considering these significant features, DCs stimulated with different kinds of Leishmania antigens have been used in recent vaccine studies for leishmaniasis with promising results so far. In this review, we aim to review and combine the latest studies about this issue after defining potential problems in vaccine development for leishmaniasis and considering the importance of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Clinical study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kashmir Valley

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    Gh Mohiuddin Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an infectious disease of tropical and semitropical areas of the world. The cold and harsh winter conditions of the Kashmir Valley do not favor the survival and growth of the Leishmania parasite or its vector, the sand fly, and the disease was until now practically unheard of in the Kashmir Valley. Aims: There has been a recent rise in the number of cases of CL in the Kashmir Valley. Against this background, the present study was taken up to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and management outcomes of CL in the Kashmir Valley, where it represents a new phenomenon. Materials and Methods: Patients with direct smear-confirmed CL were evaluated. For each patient, we noted age, gender, geographical origin, stays in endemic areas, clinical aspects, number, site and size of lesions, treatment, and outcome. All the infected patients were treated with sodium stibogluconate. The dose, route of administration, adverse effects, and the clinical response in each patient was noted down. Results: Eighteen patients, 11 males (61.12% and 7 females (38.88% were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 60 years (mean age 29.8. The majority of our patients (16, 88.9% belonged to two hilly areas, Uri and Karnah. Duration of the disease ranged from a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 18 months (mean duration 4.6 months. Lesions in most of our patients (16, 88.9% were located on the face including the lip and nose. The size of lesions varied from 4 to about 50 mm (average 2-3 cm. Most of our patients (13, 73.3% had only a single lesion and a few (5, 26.7% had two or three lesions. The clinical type of lesion in most of our patients (16, 88.9% was noduloulcerative, only two (11.1% had nodular (nonulcerative lesions. Sixteen patients; all with facial lesions were treated with intravenous sodium stibogluconate. A complete response was seen in 14 (87%, without any major adverse effect. Two adult patients with

  1. Mathematical analysis of a model for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis

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    Nafiu Hussaini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL, caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum and transmitted to humans and reservoir hosts by female sandflies, is endemic in many parts of the world (notably in Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean. This study presents a new mathematical model for assessing the transmission dynamics of ZVL in human and non-human animal reservoir populations. The model undergoes the usual phenomenon of backward bifurcation exhibited by similar vector-borne disease transmission models. In the absence of such phenomenon (which is shown to arise due to the disease-induced mortality in the host populations, the nontrivial disease-free equilibrium of the model is shown to be globally-asymptotically stable when the associated reproduction number of the model is less than unity. Using case and demographic data relevant to ZVL dynamics in Arac̣atuba municipality of Brazil, it is shown, for the default case when systemic insecticide-based drugs are not used to treat infected reservoir hosts, that the associated reproduction number of the model (ℛ0 ranges from 0.3 to 1.4, with a mean of ℛ0=0.85. Furthermore, when the effect of such drug treatment is explicitly incorporated in the model (i.e., accounting for the additional larval and sandfly mortality, following feeding on the treated reservoirs, the range of ℛ0 decreases to ℛ0∈[0.1,0.6], with a mean of ℛ0=0.35 (this significantly increases the prospect of the effective control or elimination of the disease. Thus, ZVL transmission models (in communities where such treatment strategy is implemented that do not explicitly incorporate the effect of such treatment may be over-estimating the disease burden (as measured in terms of ℛ0 in the community. It is shown that ℛ0 is more sensitive to increases in sandfly lifespan than that of the animal reservoir (so, a strategy that focuses on reducing sandflies, rather than the animal reservoir (e.g., via culling, may be

  2. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods.

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    Mohebali, Mehdi; Arzamani, Kourosh; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeghi, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Motavalli-Haghi, Seyed Mousa; Elikaee, Samira; Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Ahmad; Kakoei, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare. This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT). Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes. Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes ( Vulpes vulpes , n=21), Jackals ( Canis aureus , n=60) and wolves ( Canis lupus , n=3) were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti- Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320-1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture) positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis. The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran.

  3. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

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    Mehdi Mohebali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, in