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Sample records for leishmaniasis endemic region

  1. A comparative evaluation of endemic and non-endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar in India with ground survey and space technology

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    Shreekant Kesari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.

  2. Molecular characterization of Leishmania infantum in domestic cats in a region of Brazil endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Metzdorf, Isabel Parizotto; da Costa Lima, Manoel Sebastião; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; de Souza Filho, Antonio Francisco; de Souza Tsujisaki, Rosianne A; Franco, Karina Garcia; Shapiro, Julie Teresa; de Almeida Borges, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a "neglected tropical disease" and serious public health issue in Brazil. While dogs are recognized as particularly important reservoirs, recent reports of domestic cats infected with Leishmania sp. in urban areas suggest their participation in the epidemiological chain of the parasite in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to screen domestic cats for Leishmania sp. infection in an area where human and canine visceral leishmaniasis are endemic, followed by the identification of the species circulating in cats. We collected peripheral blood, lymph-node aspirates and bone marrow from 100 adult animals, both male and female, and analyzed the samples using cytological and molecular (PCR) detection techniques. We detected Leishmania in 6% of animals, which were then analyzed by RFLP-PCR to identify the species. Leishmania infantum (synonym: L. chagasi), a species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in humans and other animals, was identified from all six samples. Amastigotes were observed in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph-node aspirates in 4 of the 6 PCR-positive animals. The presence of infected cats in endemic areas should not be neglected, because it demonstrates the potential role of these animals in the biological cycle of the pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maxadilan-simile expression in Nyssomyia neivai, a sandfly vector in an endemic region of Brazil, and its immunogenicity in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Juliana Aires

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Maxadilan (Max is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926 is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in Brazil. OBJECTIVE We searched for Max expression in Ny. neivai and for antibodies against Max in ATL patients. METHODS cDNA and protein were extracted from the cephalic segment, including salivary glands, of Ny. neivai and analysed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and blotting assays. The results were compared with data obtained from Lu. longipalpis samples. We quantified antibodies against Max in serum samples from 41 patients with ATL (31 and 10 with the cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms, respectively and 63 controls from the endemic northeastern region of São Paulo state, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FINDINGS Recognition of a Max-simile peptide by specific antibodies confirmed expression of a Max sequence in Ny. neivai (GenBank EF601123.1. Compared to controls, patients with ATL presented higher levels of antibodies against Max (p = 0.004; 24.4% of the patients with ATL and 3.2% of the controls presented anti-Max levels above the cutoff index (p = 0.014. The anti-Max levels were not associated with the specific clinical form of ATL, leishmanin skin test response, absence or presence of amastigotes in histopathologic exam, results of indirect immunofluorescence testing for leishmaniasis, or duration of cutaneous form disease. MAIN CONCLUSION High serum anti-Max levels did not protect patients against ATL, but confirmed previous natural exposure to Ny. neivai bites in this ATL endemic region.

  4. Leishmania infection and host-blood feeding preferences of phlebotomine sandflies and canine leishmaniasis in an endemic European area, the Algarve Region in Portugal

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    Carla Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Algarve Region (AR in southern Portugal, which is an international tourist destination, has been considered an endemic region of zoonotic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum since the 1980s. In the present study, phlebotomine and canine surveys were conducted to identify sandfly blood meal sources and to update the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and dogs. Four sandfly species were captured: Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Sergentomyia minuta. In one P. perniciosus female, L. infantum DNA was detected. Blood meal tests showed that this species had no host preferences and was an opportunistic feeder. An overall canine leishmaniasis (CanL seroprevalence of 16.06% was found; the seroprevalence was 3.88% in dogs housed in kennels and 40.63% in dogs that attended veterinary clinics. The simultaneous occurrence of dogs and P. perniciosus infected with L. infantum in the AR indicates that the region continues to be an endemic area for CanL. Our results reinforce the need for the systematic spatial distribution of phlebotomine populations and their Leishmania infection rates and the need to simultaneously perform pathogen monitoring in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts to investigate the transmission, distribution and spreading of Leishmania infection.

  5. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India.

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    Singh, Rudra Pratap; Picado, Albert; Alam, Shahnawaz; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Shri Prakash; Ostyn, Bart; Chappuis, François; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a late cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in 16 VL-endemic communities in Bihar, India. The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Region in Sri Lanka

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    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Munasinghe, Asoka; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sivanantharajah, Sundaramoorthy; Seneviratne, Kamal; Bandara, Samantha; Athauda, Indira; Navaratne, Chaturi; Silva, Ositha; Wackwella, Hasini; Matlashewski, Greg; Wickremasinghe, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka reports significantly more cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases than visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, both of which are caused by Leishmania donovani MON-37. A cross-sectional study conducted in an area with a high prevalence of CL prevalent included 954 participants of an estimated population of 61,674 to estimate the number of CL cases, ascertain whether there is a pool of asymptomatic VL cases, and identify risk factors for transmission. A total of 31 cases of CL were identified, of whom 21 were previously diagnosed and 10 were new cases. Using rK39 rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies against Leishmania spp., we found that only one person was seropositive but did not have clinical symptoms of CL or VL, which indicated low transmission of VL in this area. χ2 test, independent sample t-test, and multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and spatial distribution of environmental risk factors showed that living near paddy fields is associated with increased risk for transmission of CL (P ≤ 0.01). PMID:23918217

  7. Leishmania mexicana in Proechimys iheringi denigratus Moojen (Rodentia, Echimyidae in a region endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Air C. Barretto

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates of Leishmania were recovered from five of 27 specimens of the rodent Proechimys iheringi denigratus Moojen captured near Três Braços in the Atlantic Forest region of Bahia, Brazil. Two of these isolates were recovered from hamsters inoculated with a pooled triturate of liver, spleen and skin tissue from apparently healthy P. i. denigratus. The third isolate was recovered from a triturate of only skin tissue from another. Metastasis was observed in the inoculated hamsters, the parasites grew abundantly in artificial media and a typical suprapylarial pattern of infection in Lutzomyia longipalpis was produced indicating that the parasites belong to the Leishmania mexicana complex. All isolates reacted with Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis monoclonal antibodies. The isoenzyme analysis differentiated these isolates from standard isolates of L. m. mexicana, L. m. amazonensis, L. m. aristedesi, L. m. pifanoi, L. m. garnhami and L. m. ssp.(Goiás-W. Barbosa. These isolates seem to be a subspecies of L. mexicana very closely related to L. m. amazonensis from which they differ by decreased electrophoretic mobility of GPI, PEP and ALAT. This is the first record of the isolation of a parasite of thegenus Leishmania in a rodent captured in the State of Bahia.Três isolados de Leishmania foram obtidos de cinco entre 27 exemplares do roedor Proechimys iheringi denigratus, capturados na região de Três Braços, na mata atlântica do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. O isolamento desse parasito foi feito através de inoculação de triturado de pele, baço e fígado em patas de hamsters. Em pelo menos um dos casos, (MTB-574, o parasito foi isolado da pele. Metas- tase foi observada nos hamsters inoculados, os parasitos cresceram abundantemente em meios artificiais de cultura e um padrão suprapapilario típico foi obtido em Lutzomyia longipalpis, indicando que o parasito pertence ao complexo L. mexicana. Todos os isolados

  8. Multiplex-PCR for detection of natural Leishmania infection in Lutzomyia spp. captured in an endemic region for cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Sucre, Venezuela.

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    Jorquera, Alicia; González, Ricardo; Marchán-Marcano, Edgar; Oviedo, Milagros; Matos, Mercedes

    2005-02-01

    We studied the natural infection of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) sp. with Leishmania in endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Paria peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Sand flies were collected between March 2001 and June 2003, using Shannon light-traps and human bait. Of the 1291 insects captured, only two species of phlebotomines were identified: L. ovallesi (82.75%) and L. gomezi (17.42%). A sample of the collected sand flies (51 pools of 2-12 individuals) were analyzed by using a multiplex-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of New Word Leishmaniaand Viannia subgenera. The results showed a total of 8 pools (15.68%) infected; of these, 7 were L. ovallesi naturally infected with L. braziliensis (2 pools) and L. mexicana (5 pools) and 1 pool of L. gomezi infected by L. braziliensis.

  9. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama.

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    Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2011-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

  10. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil.

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    Pimentel, Danillo de Souza; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Maia, Carina Scanoni; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida; da Silva, Hernande Pereira; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2015-01-01

    The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600), and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (S7(r)Biogene). Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600) presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  11. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil

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    Danillo de Souza Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600, and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (S7(rBiogene. RESULTS: Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600 presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  12. Antibodies against sand flies saliva in domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis

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    Košťálová, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to test sera of domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in north and northwest Ethiopia for antibodies against presumed vector P. orientalis salivary glands and to clarify behavior of the sand fly and the role of domestic animals in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. Specific IgG antibodies against P. orientalis saliva were tested in dogs, cattle, goats, sheep and donkeys. Above the cut-off value there was 76 % analyzed dogs, 15 % cat...

  13. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

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    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  14. [Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis].

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    Laguna-Torres, V A; Silva, C A; Correia, D; Carvalho, E M; Magalhães, A V; Macêdo, V de O

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250 mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), 20 mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

  15. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis.

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    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Giantsis, Ioannis A; Demir, Samiye; Bon, Marie Claude

    2016-06-01

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) along the outskirts of the city in areas of increased canine leishmania transmission. Six sand fly species (Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus tobbi, Phlebotomus simici, Plebotomus papatasi, Sergentomya minuta and Sergentomya dentata) were identified using both classical and molecular techniques. DNA barcodes were characterized for the first time for two (P. simici and S. dentata) of the six recorded species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the COI gene sequences confirmed the grouping of P. tobbi, P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi (subgenus Larrousius) and the monophyly of P. simici (subgenus Adlerius). By far the most prevalent species was P. perfiliewi, followed by P. simici and P. tobbi. The largest populations of sand flies were collected from animal facilities, followed by residential areas and open agricultural fields. Peak activity of sand flies overall occurred mid-August to mid-September and then declined sharply in October. Blood meal analysis showed that P. perfiliewi and P. simici feed preferentially on humans (88% & 95%, respectively) but also feed on chickens and goats. When designing a control strategy to alleviate sand fly nuisance in the region of Thessaloniki the following conclusions can be reached from this study: a) August and September are high risk months due to increased sand fly activity levels, b) animal facilities within or adjacent to urban settlements are high risk areas and may act as a maintenance and amplification foci for the vector as well as the parasite, and c) the abundance, ubiquity and feeding behavior of P. perfiliewi and P. simici establishes them as potentially important vectors of Leishmania in the region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Evaluation of antileishmanial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from plants issued from the leishmaniasis-endemic region of Sned (Tunisia).

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    Ahmed, S Ben Hadj; Sghaier, R M; Guesmi, F; Kaabi, B; Mejri, M; Attia, H; Laouini, D; Smaali, I

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we tested 10 essential oils (EOs) extracted from 10 plants issued from Sned region (Tunisia) to evaluate both their leishmanicidal effects against Leishmania major and L. infantum, and their cytotoxicity against murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (ATCC, TIB-71). The antioxidant activity was also monitored by the DDPH method, while the chemical composition of active EO was assessed by GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the EOs obtained from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis (rich on monoterpenoids, especially linalool at 17.62% and camphor at 13.82%) is significantly active against both L. major and L. infantum, whereas Ruta chalepensis EO (rich on 2-undecanone at 84.28%) is only active against L. infantum. Both oil extracts showed low cytotoxicity towards murine macrophages. The characteristic ratios (IC₈₀ Raw264.7 cells/IC₅₀ L. infantum and IC₈₀ Raw264.7 cells/IC₅₀ L. major) were, respectively, 2.7 and 1.57 for T. hirtus sp. algeriensis, and 1.34 and 0.19 for R. chalepensis. However, when measuring the antioxidant effects (DDPH method), the two latter EOs presented a moderate 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging effects compared to EOs from Eucaliptus globulus, Pinus halepensis, Pituranthos tortuosus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tetraclinis articulata or to BHT.

  17. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country.

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    Trentina Di Muccio

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs. A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20 of which 36 were visceral (VL (16 HIV-coinfections and 69 cutaneous (CL cases; 85 cases (52 CL were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants 'visiting friends and relatives' and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends

  18. Investigation of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis cases using western blot in an endemic area in Turkey.

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    Sakru, Nermin; Korkmaz, Metin; Ozbel, Yusuf; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Sengul, Mustafa; Toz, Seray Ozensoy

    2007-01-01

    In Turkey, Leishmania infantum is responsible for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is seen mainly in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia Regions. This study aimed to determine asymptomatic infections in an endemic area of VL in Turkey using the western blot technique. A total of 82 persons including children and adults were chosen randomly in Denizli province which is one of the endemic sites for VL. Serum samples were collected and screened using indirect immunofluorescent test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB). One year later, 35 of the 82 persons were sampled and screened serologically for the second time. Seven out of 82 samples were found to be positive by western blot analysis with the presence of 14 and/or 18 kDa bands. Two of these seven sera were also positive by IFAT, but only one of these two was positive by ELISA. Only one person showing seropositivity with all three tests had clinical symptoms and was diagnosed as VL with the presence of amastigotes in bone marrow aspirate. Because six people, including the one found to be seropositive in all two tests, had no clinical symptoms, they were accepted as asymptomatic carriers. The ratio of asymptomatic infection was calculated as 7.41% (6/81) in the region. In the second sampling, the western blot revealed antibodies against the same antigens in all seven subjects. Our findings showed that the presence of antibodies against 14 and 18 kDa antigens are important for the diagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Western blot was found to be effective in the detection of asymptomatic persons in the epidemiological studies in endemic areas.

  19. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

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    Day Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  20. One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.

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    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J

    2011-10-10

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  1. Modelling canine leishmaniasis spread to non-endemic areas of Europe.

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    Espejo, L A; Costard, S; Zagmutt, F J

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of sandflies and increasing pet travel have raised concerns about canine leishmaniasis (CanL) spread to new areas of Europe. This study aimed to estimate the probability of CanL introduction and persistence following movements of infected dogs. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the probabilities of (1) CanL infection during travels or imports of infected dogs (P inf and P infCA, respectively), (2) CanL persistence in a dog network with sandflies after introduction of an infected dog (P per), and (3) persistence in a CanL-free region (P per region) for N dogs moving between endemic and free regions. Different mitigation measures (MMs) were assessed. P inf [7.8%, 95% predictive interval (PI) 2.6-16.4] and P per (72.0%, 95% PI 67.8-76.0) were reduced by use of repellent, vaccine, prophylactic medication, and insecticide, in decreasing order of effectiveness. Testing and exclusion of positive dogs was most effective in reducing P per region for a small N. The spread of CanL to CanL-free areas with sandflies is thus likely, but can be reduced by MMs.

  2. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an agricultural settlement, endemic area for leishmaniasis

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    A.F. Brilhante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis has several species of Leishmania as agents, and a wide variety of wild and domestic animals as hosts and different species of phlebotomines as vectors. A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a dog coming from an agricultural settlement is described. This is the first report of parasitism in a dog by Le. (Viannia braziliensis in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Attention is called to the importance of including this protozoonosis in the differential diagnosis of dermopathies in dogs as also the need to assess the importance of the domestic dog as a possible reservoir of Le. braziliensis.

  3. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2014-01-01

    The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza.

  4. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da; Tomokane, Thaise Yumie; Pacheco, Acácio Duarte; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Marcondes, Mary; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanure, Aline; Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline TANURE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1% and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%. Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6% in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  8. Spatial and seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Dracena, a city in the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, that is endemic with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Moreira Holcman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vector seasonality knowledge is important for monitoring and controlling of vector-borne diseases. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lu. longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, which is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Methods Lu. longipalpis was monitored for 3 consecutive nights each month using light traps from the Centers for Disease Control in the peridomiciles and intradomiciles of 18 residences from January 2005 to December 2012 in the urban area of Dracena, a medium-sized city located in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil. Results A total of 54,820 Lu. longipalpis specimens were collected, and the proportion of positive samples was significantly higher in the peridomiciles than in the intradomiciles (p<0.05 in all 8 years of the study, except for 2005. The vector was present in all study years in the 9 sub-regions of the city, and the male/female ratio ranged from 3.19 to 4.26. The greatest vector abundance occurred in the first semester and peaked in March, confirming its seasonality. Conclusions The maintenance of this high abundance over an 8-year surveillance period demonstrates the vector adaptation to the urban conditions of the city. These characteristics present a major challenge for preventing human and canine contact with the vector and, consequently, controlling the spread of disease.

  9. Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area

    OpenAIRE

    Bortoletto, Danielly Vieira; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Ferreira, Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human rati...

  10. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  11. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Bats from an Area of Brazil Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, M B; Herrera, H M; Carvalho, C M E; Carvalho Anjos, E A; Ramos, C A N; de Araújo, F R; Torres, J M; de Oliveira, C E

    2017-12-01

    The multihost parasites Leishmania spp. infect a broad range of wild mammalian species including bats. Several species of bats have adapted to a variety of food resources and shelters in urban areas. This study aimed to detect Leishmania spp. DNA in bats present in forest fragments located in metropolitan areas endemic for leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 80 individuals, including eight species of Phyllostomidae and one species of Vespertilionidae. Thirty of the 80 bats were positive for Leishmania spp. using conventional PCR, all belonging to the family Phyllostomidae. Eighteen samples tested by real-time PCR (qPCR) using specific primers for the kDNA of Leishmania infantum were positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detecting Leishmania spp. in Platyrrhinus incarum in addition to being the first reported detection of L. infantum in the bat species Phyllostomus discolor, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Artibeus planirostris and Artibeus lituratus. Our results show that bats can host Leishmania spp. in areas endemic for leishmaniasis, which must be taken into account in disease control operations by public health authorities. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Sero-epidemiological assessment and diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic locality using Fast Agglutination Screening Test (FAST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, A.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Schoone, G. J.; Berhe, N.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Fast Agglutination Screening Test (FAST) was employed on sera obtained from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in southwestern Ethiopia, in February 2000. The study involved (i) active case detection among 1575 residents of two villages; and (ii) passive case detection in an outpatient

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients attending the Skin and STD department, JLN Hospital, Ajmer. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, demonstration of amastigotes (LT bodies in Giemsa stained smear of the lesion and response to intralesional / local anti-leishmanial drug therapy. In addition, culture of the promastigote forms of L. tropica from the lesion was successfully attempted in four of the smear negatives cases. By retrospective analysis, 23 new indigenous cases of CL have been diagnosed in the same setting during the period January 2004 - December 2005, based on clinical and therapeutic response alone. There was no clear-cut history of sandfly bite and travel outside the district or state to endemic area in any of the cases. However, all of them came from a common residential area (famous dargah of Ajmer and the peak incidence was seen in January, four months after the famous Urs fair of Ajmer, the location was urban and the lesions were characteristic of L. tropica. Therefore, the disease is suspected to be anthroponotic. These features are suggestive of a common mode of transmission, source and/or vector signalling introduction of this infection into a non-endemic area.

  14. Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Danielly Vieira; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Ferreira, Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2016-09-05

    The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human ratio of 1:7. The mean age of dogs was estimated at 1.73 years; the age pyramid indicated high birth and mortality rates at the first year of age with an estimated cumulative mortality of 78% at the third year of age and expected life span of 2.75 years. In spite of the high mortality, a growth projection simulation suggested that the population has potential to grow in a logarithmic scale over the years. The estimated parameters can be further applied in models to maximize the impact and minimize financial inputs of visceral leishmaniasis control measures.

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  16. Molecular and Serological Evidence of Leishmania Infection in Stray Dogs from Visceral Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shirin; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Nakao, Ryo; Yasin, Golam; Kato, Hirotomo; Katakura, Ken

    2016-10-05

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is mainly caused by two closely related Leishmania species, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani Leishmania infantum is responsible for zoonotic VL, with dogs as the main reservoir host in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, and South America. In the Indian subcontinent, VL is caused by L. donovani and is considered anthroponotic, although the only known vector, the sand fly, is zoophilic in nature. The role of domestic and stray dogs in VL transmission is still unclear in this area. We screened 50 stray dogs from VL-endemic areas of Bangladesh for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection. We detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in six (12%) dog serum samples using rK39 immunochromatographic tests. We observed Leishmania kinetoplast DNA in 10 (20%) buffy coat DNA samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), five of which were positive based on internal transcribed spacer 1-PCR. A sequencing analysis of the amplified products confirmed that the parasitic DNA was derived from L. donovani Our findings support the hypothesis that stray dogs are an animal reservoir for L. donovani in this endemic region. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of dogs in the epidemiology of VL in Bangladesh. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. A 22-Year Survey of Leishmaniasis Cases in a Tertiary-Care Hospital in an Endemic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Montecchini, Sara; Rossi, Sabina; Gorrini, Chiara; Dell’Anna, Maria Loretana; Piccolo, Giovanna; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    The northward spread of leishmaniasis from Mediterranean to Continental Europe affects our area where it is typically associated with Leishmania infantum infection. In this study a 22-year survey was performed in patients (including both patients with and without history of travel through endemic areas other than Italy) attending the University Hospital of Parma, Northern Italy, in order to make a contribution to describe the cases of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosed in this area. One hundred fifty-six samples from 134 patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis (96 suspected of having VL, 37 CL and one both VL and CL) were analyzed in our laboratory during 1992–2013 by microscopy, culture and, from 2005, also by real-time PCR. Leishmania spp. were detected in 23 samples of 15 patients (seven with VL and eight with CL), representing an infection rate of 11.2%. The figure of the cases of leishmaniasis herein reported, even if not comparable to that described for Italian areas other than Parma, underlines that suitable tools are mandatory for correct diagnosis. Moreover, the severity of this disease, particularly VL with its documented northward spread, requires physicians of continental Europe to increase their attention about the possibility of suspecting leishmaniasis in patients reporting related signs and symptoms and/or risk factors. PMID:24619118

  18. Leishmaniasis and textbook: how are endemic diseases addressed in public education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Batista Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis, considered a public health problem in Brazil, because of their magnitude, geographic expansion and lethality. The disease is the etiologic agent trypanosamatid Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis, an insect of the order Diptera that has hematophagous habits. Typically considered rural, the disease emerged in the urban scene in Teresina, Piauí state, in the 80´s, reaching the other urban producing several epidemiological outbreaks. Control of the disease, based on the slaughter of seropositive dogs, chemical vector control and treatment of human patients as strategies recommended by the Ministry of Health, do not have satisfactory results, it is imperative to integrate these strategies to the actions of health education. Considering the role of the school in the dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of health education actions and, above all, the importance of the textbook as an important educational tool for the teaching-learning process, this study aimed to analyze the books as they are atopted by public schools of the city of Floriano, Piauí state, address endemic diseases, particularly leishmaniasis. Physical criteria, as aspects of the brochure and binding aspects and the contents were used in the analyzes. The selection of books was made by teachers and managers of schools based on the National Textbook Program (PNLD tab and then were approved in the pedagogical evaluation of the Ministry of Education. Copies of each level of education (primary and secondary were analyzed according to conceptual and physical aspects. The analysis of conceptual and methodological aspects was based on the literature and a thorough observation of the images that complement the content. The physical aspects were evaluated according to the type of binding, size, font size and spacing employ, didactic presentation order of the content and illustrations. It was found

  19. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian endemic area: one out of five seronegative dogs are infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, E G; Sevá, A P; Ferreira, F; Nunes, C M; Keid, L B; Hiramoto, R M; Ferreira, H L; Oliveira, T M F S; Bigotto, M F D; Galvis-Ovallos, F; Galati, E A B; Soares, R M

    2017-09-01

    Euthanasia of infected dogs is one of the measures adopted in Brazil to control visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. To detect infected dogs, animals are screened with the rapid test DPP® Visceral Canine Leishmaniasis for detection of antibodies against K26/K39 fusion antigens of amastigotes (DPP). DPP-positives are confirmed with an immunoenzymatic assay probing soluble antigens of promastigotes (ELISA), while DPP-negatives are considered free of infection. Here, 975 dogs from an endemic region were surveyed by using DPP, ELISA and real-time PCR (qPCR) for the diagnosis of VL. When DPP-negative dogs were tested by qPCR applied in blood and lymph node aspirates, 174/887 (19·6%) were positive in at least one sample. In a second sampling using 115 cases, the DPP-negative dogs were tested by qPCR in blood, lymph node and conjunctival swab samples, and 36/79 (45·6%) were positive in at least one sample. Low-to-moderate pairwise agreement was observed between all possible pair of tests. In conclusion, the official diagnosis of VL in dogs in Brazilian endemic areas failed to accuse an expressive number of infected animals and the impact of the low accuracy of serological tests in the success of euthanasia-based measure for VL control need to be assessed.

  20. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  1. Behavioral aspects of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, E F; Silva, E A; Casaril, A E; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Gamarra, R M; Ribeiro, A A; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G

    2013-03-01

    The study of some of the behavioral aspects of the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas in the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), such as dispersion, population size, and vector survival rates, is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These parameters were studied by means of capture-mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area of Campo Grande municipality, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, situated in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Six capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken between November 2009 and November 2010 and once in January 2012 with a view to assessing the population size and survival rate of Lu. longipalpis. The insects were released in a peridomicile surrounded by 13 residences. The recaptures were undertaken with automatic light traps for four consecutive weeks after release in the surrounding area. In total, 3,354 sand flies were captured, marked, and released. The overall recapture rate during the capture-mark-release-recapture experiments was 4.23%, of which 92.45% were recaptured at the release site, indicating limited dispersal. The greatest distance recorded from the release site was 165 m for males and 241 m for females. The male daily survival rate, calculated on the basis of regressions from the numbers of marked recaptured insects during the 15 successive days after release was 0.897. The estimated male population size measured by the Lincoln Index was 10,947.127. Though Lu. longipalpis presented a limited dispersion the physical barriers typical of urban environments did not prevent the sand flies from flying long distances.

  2. Situational Analysis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Most Important Endemic Area of the Disease in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Moradi-Asl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector borne diseases in the world, transmitted by sand flies. Despite efforts to prevent the spread of the disease, cases continue worldwide. In Iran, the disease usually occurs in children under 10 years.  In the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rate is 95–100%. The main objective of this study was to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of visceral leishmaniasis as well as its correlation with climatic factors for determining high-risk areas in an endemic focus in northwestern Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data on VL cases were collected from local health centers in Ardabil Prov­ince, Iran during 2001–2015 to establish a geodatabase using ArcGIS10.3. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS23 and ArcMap Spatial Analyst. MaxEnt model was used to determine ecologically suitable nichesfor the disease.Results: Two hotspots were found in Meshkinshahr and Germi counties with 59% and 23% of total cases, respec­tively. There was an increase in the incidence rate of VL in Ardabil County from 2.9 in 2009 to 9.2/100,000 population in 2015. There was no spa­tial autocorrelation between county and total number of cases (P> 0.05. Higher NDVI, lower altitude and southern as­pects had positive effects on the presence probability of VL.Conclusion: The number of cases of this disease have been rising since 2013 and doubled in 2015. According to the derived distribution maps, the disease is spreading to new locations such as Ardabil and Namin counties.

  3. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the FOD? Foundation Levels of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest ... in which leishmaniasis is found range from rain forests in Central and South America (sometimes referred to ...

  4. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from the infe......Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  5. Ecological niches and blood sources of sand fly in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiying; Li, Kaili; Shi, Hua; Zhang, Yong; Ha, Yu; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yubin; Yang, Zhenzhou; Xu, Jiannong; Ma, Yajun

    2016-04-13

    Sand fly Phlebotomus chinensis is a principle vector for the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in China with a wide geographic distribution. Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan is a mountain type endemic area of VL in China. Long term effective control efforts in the region have successfully reduced VL transmission. To assess the current status of the sand flies and their ecological aspects in the region, a survey was conducted in the summer of 2014 and 2015. Sand fly specimens were collected by light traps in a village and blood sources were identified by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. In a rock cave, 65.2 %-79.8 % of collected sand flies were male. On a rabbit farm, 92.9 %-98.8 % of specimens were female. In pig pens, 61.1 % of specimens were female. Some females had visible blood residues. The feeding rate was 49.4 % from the pig pens, 12.3 % from the cave, and only 1.7 % from the rabbit farm. Pig, rabbit, chicken, dog, and human blood were detected in the fed specimens. Swine blood, present in all tested samples, was a preferred blood source, while chicken and dog blood were present in a third of the samples. In Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province of China, the considerable sandfly density and the peridomestic feeding behavior all increases the risk of VL transmission, and insecticide spraying in animal sheds could be exploited to reduce sand fly populations in human surroundings.

  6. Leishmania species and zymodemes isolated from endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimri, Laila; Soubani, Radwan; Gramiccia, Marina

    2002-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in the Middle Eastern countries. New cases are emerging in areas previously free of the disease. In Jordan, the diagnosis of cases during the 1960s and 1970s was mainly reported in military hospitals in Amman. Endemicity of the disease was ascertained after reporting a total of 524 cases during 1973–1978. Results Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were isolated from seventy-six autochthonous and imported cases of CL, during eight-year period. The highest infection rates recorded were in the central part of Jordan (60.5%), in males (72.4%) and in the age group 21–30 years (30.5%). Lesions were on the exposed sites of the body, mainly on the face (40%). Both Leishmania spp. were isolated from all parts of the country, although L. major was the predominant species (75% of cases) in all areas except in the north part of Jordan. Isoenzyme characterization of the isolates identified four previously undescribed zymodemes (Z). Four Leishmania major zymodemes were found, one of which was a new zymodeme (ZMON-103 variant in GLUD220); L. major ZMON-103 was the most common zymodeme. Four Leishmania tropica zymodemes were identified, of which three were previously unreported. Of these, ZMON-54 var PGD96–97 was isolated from autochthonous cases, whereas ZMON-59 var MDH100 and ZMON-75 var FH110 were obtained from both autochthonous and imported cases, or from an imported CL case, respectively. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate the emergence of the CL disease in new areas. New foci are reported, where the sporadic nature of the cases indicates recent spread of the disease to these areas and the urge for the implementation of control measures. PMID:12473179

  7. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorza José V.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.

  8. Phlebotomine sandflies and factors associated with their abundance in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Attiki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsini, Sofia; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Spanakos, Gregory; Ntousi, Dimitra; Dotsika, Eleni; Bisia, Marina; Papadopoulos, Elias

    2018-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease of animals and humans caused by several Leishmania species and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. The aim of the present study was to identify the species of field collected phlebotomine sandflies in the endemic area of the Attiki during 4 consecutive years, to isolate the Leishmania parasites from the infected sandflies, and identify possible factors associated with sandfly abundance in the area. A total of 542 trappings were made in 46 collection sites, in purely urban areas, periurban areas, and purely rural areas in Attiki. Out of the 3254 sandflies trapped, 1448 (44.43%) were female and 241 (16.64%) of the females were blood fed while Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in the 0.41% of them. Regarding sandfly species, the most prevalent was Phlebotomus tobbi (41.52%) followed by Sergentomyia minuta (27.44%), P. neglectus (14.83%), P. simici (11.08%), P. papatasi (3.68%), P. similis (0.89%), and P. alexandri (0.56%). Periurban areas were found to have the highest density of sandfly populations.

  9. Epidemiologic profile of oriental sore caused by Leishmania parasites in a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Moosa; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Sharafi, Mehdi; Rafat-Panah, Azam

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the first and most important vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand flies in Iran. As a parasitic disease in the Old World, it is a complex zoonosis with multiple vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors of pathogenic flagellate protozoan in the genus of Leishmania in different parts of its range. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven as vectors of this parasite which can be transmitted through the bite of an infected female sand fly distributed in almost all parts of Iran. This research performed on all CL patients as that were registered into special forms by physicians and experts during the study period 2006-2013 in the county town of Fasa, Iran. Data were analyzed by Chi square test using SPSS 17 statistics software. Overall, 1,908 patients (59.18 %) lived in rural and 1,316 (40.82 %) lived in urban areas. All ages were between 1 and ≥30 year. The most frequent age group was ≥20 years (54.6 %). Sex ratio of patients was almost 1:1 (1,561; 48.42 % male vs. 1,663; 51.58 % female). Most of them (66.84 %) had wet lesions and those with dry lesions were less frequent (33.16 %). There was a significant difference between the frequencies of these two groups (P counties in Iran showed that it was most likely an endemic disease in this region.

  10. Occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 and Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus 1977, in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Soares, Maria Regiane; Lopes Antunes, Jadson Emanuel; de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Lima, Rogério Nora; Nery Costa, Carlos Henrique

    2017-10-01

    Cerdocyon thous presents a wide geographic distribution in Brazil and its role as a possible Leishmania infantum reservoir in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission cycle regardless of dogs (Canis familiaris) has been discussed. From this perspective, this work describes the occurrence and use of the habitat by Cerdocyon thous in a Lutzomyia longipalpis occurrence area Teresina (Piaui - Brazil), VL endemic region. Three specimens of C. thous were monitored with the use of radio telemetry and trails and footprints, seeking to find possible natural dens in order to collect the sanflies from the site. Luminous CDC and Damasceno traps were simultaneously installed at the visited sites, where two specimens of L. longipalpis and one L. termitophila were captured. The identification of the dens and trails, allows us to infer that the dens are not used only by the C. thous. Finding the VL vector in natural C. thous natural dens, reinforces the hypothesis of transmission of Le. infantum in the outskirts of the large urban centers, in a cycle that independs from dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

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    Léa Cristina Castellucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA, northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  12. Epidemiological Study on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area, of Qom Province, Central Iran

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    Abedin Saghafipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of the most important health problems in many areas of Iran. There are two forms of the disease in Iran, anthroponotic and zoonotic CL. This study conducted to assess the epi­demiological situation of CL in an endemic area of Qom Province, central Iran from Apr to Nov 2015.Methods: The sticky paper traps and aspirating tubes were used for collecting adult sand flies. Sherman traps and small insect nets were used to capture rodents and small mammals. Giemsa staining was used for preparing the ex­panded smear and followed by PCR for identifying the causative agent in human, vectors, and reservoirs. In this study, relative frequency of CL was also calculated.Results: Fourteen species of Phlebotomine sand flies were collected. Phlebotomus papatasi (61.74% was the pre­dominant species through the period of activity. Overall, 62 Meriones libycus, 8 Nesokia indica, 4 Mus musculus, 16 Allactaga elater and 2 Hemiechinus auritis were caught. PCR technique showed 6 out of 150 P. papatasi (2%, two out of 62 M. libycus (3.23% and all of suspected human's skin tissue samples (100% were infected with Leishmania major. The relative frequency of CL was 0.30%. Conclusion: This is the first detection of L. major within P. papatasi, M. libycus and human in Kahak District in Qom Province of Iran. Zoonotic cycle of CL exists in this area, L. major is the causative agent, P. papatasi is the main vector and M. libycus is the main reservoir of the disease. 

  13. Leishmaniasis in northern Cyprus: Human cases and their association with risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruh, Emrah; Bostanci, Aysegul; Kunter, Vasfiye; Tosun, Ozgur; Imir, Turgut; Schallig, Henk; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cyprus is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Region where leishmaniasis is endemic. The primary objective of this study was to investigate human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the northern region of Cyprus where presence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and

  14. Molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. in reservoir hosts in endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Asadi, Mina; Mahmodi, Mohamad Reza; Amraei, Kamyar; Mirzaei, Asad

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an expanding disease and a public health issue in Iran. In the present study, rate of natural infection of rodent populations with Leishmania was investigated in six endemic foci including 28 villages in Golestan, Esfahan, Yazd, Fars, Khuzestan and Ilam provinces. A total of 593 rodents were captured and identified as Rhombomys opimus (n = 325), Meriones libycus (n = 171), Meriones persicus (n = 27), Tatera indica (n = 37), Nesokia indica (n = 12), Rattus rattus (n = 13) and Mus musculus (n = 8). Microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained smears showed that 108 out of 593 (18.2%) rodents were infected with Leishmania spp., whereas infection of 186 out of 593 (31.4%) rodents with Leishmania was then confirmed by ITS1-PCR. The highest rate of infection was found in R. opimus (prevalence of 35%) and M. libycus (31%). Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), 145 (78%) of 186 samples detected as Leishmania DNA were identified as L. major, 8 (4%) samples as L. turanica and 33 (18%) as mixed infection (L. major and L. turanica). Samples from infected rodents were inoculated subcutaneously at tail base of BALB/c mice. In 35 of them, nodules and ulcers containing amastigotes appeared at the inoculation site. The samples prepared from infected rodents were cultured in NNN medium and only two samples werepositive. Rhombomys opimus, M. libycus, M. persicus, T. indica and N. indica were confirmed as reservoir hosts of ZCL in the studied regions. Leishmania major infection was usually accompanied L. turanica in naturally infected gerbils (R. opimus and M. libycus) in Golestan, Esfahan and Fars provinces.

  15. Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, Ilana Mirian Almeida; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Kuppinger, Oliver; Santos, Max Diego Cruz; Rangel, Maurício Eduardo Salgado; Barbosa, David Soeiro; Barral, Aldina; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Caldas, Arlene de Jesus Mendes

    2011-03-01

    Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

  16. Species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Tahtay Adiyabo district, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Kirstein, Oscar David; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. orientalis in the VL endemic focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district. Methods Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps (n?=?602), sticky traps (n?=?9,350) ...

  17. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema: potential area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Pontes, Michelle Cristina de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Fuzari, Andressa Alencaste; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. Phlebotomine captures were conducted during 2008 and 2009 in a rural area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro. Among other species captured, we observed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This is the first report of the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in this region, demonstrating the potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the coastal area of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Therefore, active vigilance by all municipalities in the area is necessary.

  18. Características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma região endêmica do Estado da Bahia: III. Fauna flebotomínica Epidemiological characteristics of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia: III. Phlebotomine fauna

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    Julio A. Vexenat

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available A fauna flebotomínica da região de Três Braços, uma área endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea-mucosa localizada no sudeste do Estado da Bahia, na região cacaueira, é muito variada. Foram identificadas 30 espécies de Lutzomyia em 13.535 exemplares coletados entre os anos de 1976 e 1984. Lu. withmani foi a espécie altamente predominante no ambiente peridoméstico e no interior das residências, com percentuais de 99,0 e 97,5, respectivamente. Na floresta, as espécies predominantes foram Lu. ayrozai e Lu. yuilli, aparecendo Lu. whitmani com apenas 1,0% do total de exemplares examinados. Lu. flaviscutellata, vetor comprovado da Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, foi também coletada em baixos índices. Lu. wellcomei, vetor da L. braziliensis braziliensis na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil, não foi encontrada na região de Três Braços onde o parasito causando infecções humanas é predominantemente L. b. braziliensis. Embora não se tenha encontrado infecção natural por promastigotas em 1.832 fêmeas de diversas espécies examinadas, discute-se a possibilidade de Lu. whitmani ser um vetor da L.b. braziliensis na região, mantendo, provavelmente, a transmissão entre o cão e o homem.The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in três Braços, an endemic area american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, brazil. Thirty species of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 spcecimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyia whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% or flies in the periodomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yulli. Lu whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers, I.u. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Par

  19. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane; Santos, Márcio; Tunon, Gabriel; Cunha, Luana; Magalhães, Lucas; Moraes, Juliana; Ramalho, Danielle; Lima, Sanmy; Pacheco, José Antônio; Lipscomb, Michael; Ribeiro de Jesus, Amélia; Pacheco de Almeida, Roque

    2017-05-11

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  20. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

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    Roseane Campos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  1. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Cheryl Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N. intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector’s population and the contact between man and vectors.

  2. [Spatial and/or olfactory memory in sandflies in an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Janaína Sales de; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Casanova, Cláudio; Silva, Joseane Padilha da; Previdelli, Isolde; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2009-01-01

    The results from an investigation on the possibility that sandflies in an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the state of Paraná, may have memory are reported. Sandflies were caught in Recanto Marista, Doutor Camargo, State of Paraná, Brazil, using Falcão traps in two chicken sheds (G1 and G2), between November 15 and 26, 2007. A total of 2,080 sandflies were caught (1,000 in G1 and 1,080 in G2) and these were marked and released. Nyssomyia neivai was the most (90.5%) frequent species. Out of the total released, 168 sandflies (8%) were recaptured and the recapture rate in G2 was significant. The results show that it is possible that spatial or olfactory memory and/or host loyalty exists, and that this will guide the sandflies in recognizing the places where sources of blood are available.

  3. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

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    DA Cerino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

  4. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Cheryl; de Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães; Zwetsch, Adriana; Motta-Silva, Daniel; Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; de Santana, Antônio Ferreira; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector's population and the contact between man and vectors. PMID:22988458

  5. Relationship between dog culling and incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Pires, Marina Mota; da Silva, Karinne Marques; Assis, Filipe Daniel; Gonçalves Filho, Jesualdo; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli

    2010-05-28

    Domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas; one of the control measures adopted in Brazil is the elimination of this reservoir. In order to test the relationship between the euthanasia rate of the canine reservoir and the incidence of the disease in humans, data on dog culling from the Centre for Zoonosis Control of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 1999 to 2008 and visceral leishmaniasis human cases registered in the same period were analyzed. Reduction of human VL incidence was statistically correlated to dog euthanasia rate (P=0.0211; r(2)=0.616) when it was analyzed for the period of two years after application of this measure. Other factors that may influence this relationship are considered. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fauna, Abundance and Dispersion of Sandflies in Three Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rural Fars Province

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    F Ahmadipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of important tropical diseases caused by Leishmania parasites which is transmitted by biting of female phlebotomine sandfies. Regarding high densities' and distribution of sandflies in majority areas of Iran, understanding of sandflies identification and distribution as vectors is importation to control disease. Methods: This is a descriptive survey which was done temporarily, Sandflies were sampled from 17 villages of three studied regions to coordinate with authorities of sanitary province to provide the necessary facilities .foci using sticky papers and CDC traps. All sandflies were identified based on external and internal morphological characters of the head and abdominal terminalia, which were slide-mounted in Berlese fluid. Results: In total 3178 Sandflies were sampled and identified. Sandfies species are P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. alexandri, P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. tobbi and S. dentate, S. sintoni and S. tiberiadis. sandfly species identified and separated based on habitat collections. Females analysed according to their gonotrophic stage which majority were unfed. Conclusion: The collections contained the important putative vectors of Leishmaniasis in Iran. P. papatasi was abundant in three study foci. Of the sandflies recorded from Iran, only P. papatasi was judged to be a proven vector of Leishmaniasis. Understanding criteria of vectors, population variations and ecological aspect of sandflies can help to control better of diseases.

  7. Leishmaniasis in travelers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; Vitale, Giustina; Cascio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection whose clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Over the last decades, an increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries, have been pointed-out from a review of the international literature. Among the possible causes are increasing international tourism, influx of immigrants from endemic regions and military operations. The main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas, is represented from South America, whereas popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas to acquire visceral variant. Leishmaniasis should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years before. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas, should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Active surveillance of canine visceral leishmaniasis and american trypanossomiasis in rural dogs from non endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, Rozeani Olimpio; Gaio, Fernanda Conceição; Generoso, Diego; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Langoni, Helio

    2011-01-01

    The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and american trypanosomiasis are important zoonoses in public health and dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite for humans. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of circulating antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania sp. in sera of dogs from the rural area of Botucatu, SP, Brazil. During the annual vaccination campaign against canine rabies in rural area, 689 blood samples were taken and processed by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The serological tests revealed the absence of antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., but anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 3 (0.4%) dogs.

  9. Sandfly fauna in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil

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    Verónica de Lourdes Sierpe Jeraldo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, visceral leishmaniasis, a major public health problem, has been spreading from the rural to urban areas in many areas of Brazil, including Aracaju, the capital of the State of Sergipe. However, there are no studies of the sandfly fauna in this municipality or its variation over the year. METHODS: Phlebotomine sandflies were collected from a rural area of Aracaju from September 2007 to July 2009. Modified CDC ultra-violet (UV light traps were used to evaluate sandfly monthly distribution and their presence in the domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4% followed by Evandromyia lenti (9.6%. A chicken shed trap site had the highest proportion of L. longipalpis (51.1% and large numbers of L. longipalpis were also collected in the houses closest to the chicken shed. There was a positive correlation between monthly rainfall and L. longipalpis abundance. CONCLUSIONS: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most abundant species and is probably the main vector of the visceral leishmaniasis agent in the rural area of Aracaju. An increase in L. longipalpis frequency was observed during the rainy season. The peridomicile-intradomicile observations corroborate the importance of chicken sheds for the presence of L. longipalpis in the peridomestic environment. The great numbers of L. longipalpis inside the houses confirm the endophilic behaviour of this species and the possibility of visceral transmission in the intradomicile.

  10. The potential economic value of a cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine in seven endemic countries in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kristina M; Hotez, Peter J; Kruchten, Stephanie D; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-07

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and its associated complications, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL) have emerged as important neglected tropical diseases in Latin America, especially in areas associated with human migration, conflict, and recent deforestation. Because of the limitations of current chemotherapeutic approaches to CL, MCL, and DCL, several prototype vaccines are in different states of product and clinical development. We constructed and utilized a Markov decision analytic computer model to evaluate the potential economic value of a preventative CL vaccine in seven countries in Latin America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. The results indicated that even a vaccine with a relatively short duration of protection and modest efficacy could be recommended for use in targeted locations, as it could prevent a substantial number of cases at low-cost and potentially even result in cost savings. If the population in the seven countries were vaccinated using a vaccine that provides at least 10 years of protection, an estimated 41,000-144,784 CL cases could be averted, each at a cost less than the cost of current recommended treatments. Further, even a vaccine providing as little as five years duration of protection with as little as 50% efficacy remains cost-effective compared with chemotherapy; additional scenarios resembling epidemic settings such as the one that occurred in Chaparral, Colombia in 2004 demonstrate important economic benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sandfly fauna in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraldo, Verónica de Lourdes Sierpe; Góes, Marco Aurélio de Oliveira; Casanova, Claudio; Melo, Claudia Moura de; Araújo, Edilson Divino de; Brandão Filho, Sinval Pinto; Cruz, Danilo Esdras Rocha; Pinto, Mara Cristina

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, visceral leishmaniasis, a major public health problem, has been spreading from the rural to urban areas in many areas of Brazil, including Aracaju, the capital of the State of Sergipe. However, there are no studies of the sandfly fauna in this municipality or its variation over the year. Phlebotomine sandflies were collected from a rural area of Aracaju from September 2007 to July 2009. Modified CDC ultra-violet (UV) light traps were used to evaluate sandfly monthly distribution and their presence in the domestic and peridomestic environments. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%) followed by Evandromyia lenti (9.6%). A chicken shed trap site had the highest proportion of L. longipalpis (51.1%) and large numbers of L. longipalpis were also collected in the houses closest to the chicken shed. There was a positive correlation between monthly rainfall and L. longipalpis abundance. Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most abundant species and is probably the main vector of the visceral leishmaniasis agent in the rural area of Aracaju. An increase in L. longipalpis frequency was observed during the rainy season. The peridomicile-intradomicile observations corroborate the importance of chicken sheds for the presence of L. longipalpis in the peridomestic environment. The great numbers of L. longipalpis inside the houses confirm the endophilic behaviour of this species and the possibility of visceral transmission in the intradomicile.

  12. Larval breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic urban areas in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T M; Sampaio, Susy M P; Marcoris, Maria L G; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E; Prado, Angelo P

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi.

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus) in a endemic area of the state of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Cruz Manuel; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

    1986-01-01

    É relatado o encontro de infecção por parasitos do gênero Leishmania, em lesão cutânea de uma mula (Equus caballus x Equus asinus) procedente de uma localidade endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.Leishmania parasites were found in a skin lesion of a mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus) from a locality with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Risk Mapping and Situational Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Central Iran: A GIS-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Astaneh, Fatemeh; Hajjaran, Homa; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is among the top 10 infectious disease priorities in the world, and the leading cause of morbidity in Iran. The present study was conducted to assess the risk of CL, and to determine some epidemiological features of the disease in endemic areas of Qom Province in Central Iran during 2009 to 2013. Data regarding human cases of the disease were obtained from the Qom Province Health Center, prepared and stored in a spatial database created in ArcGIS10.3. A total of 9 out of 212 Leishmania spp. positive slides taken in 2013 from patients residing in Qom city were examined using molecular methods and the species of Leishmania was identified by PCR-RFLP. Those 9 patients had no history of travel outside the city. Spatial analysis and clustering methods were applied to find major hot spots and susceptible areas for the establishment of novel foci of the disease. Transmission patterns were examined for spatial autocorrelation using the Moran's I statistical application, and for the clustering of high or low values using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics. During the period of study, a total of 1767 CL cases were passively reported in the area, out of which were 65% males and 35% females. The highest and lowest numbers of cases were reported in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Importantly, 979 cases were reported from urban areas, while the remainder came from rural areas. Leishmania major was detected as the causative agent of CL in the city of Qom. Remarkably, most patients recorded in Qom city were associated with a history of travel to the endemic areas of CL within the province, or to other endemic areas of the disease in Iran. Spatial distribution of CL cases revealed northeastern and southwestern quarters of the city were the major hot spots of the disease (P<0.05). Hot spot and CL transmission risk analysis across the province indicated that more than 40 villages were located in high and very high risk areas of CL transmission. Due to the

  15. Risk Mapping and Situational Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Central Iran: A GIS-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abedi-Astaneh

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is among the top 10 infectious disease priorities in the world, and the leading cause of morbidity in Iran. The present study was conducted to assess the risk of CL, and to determine some epidemiological features of the disease in endemic areas of Qom Province in Central Iran during 2009 to 2013.Data regarding human cases of the disease were obtained from the Qom Province Health Center, prepared and stored in a spatial database created in ArcGIS10.3. A total of 9 out of 212 Leishmania spp. positive slides taken in 2013 from patients residing in Qom city were examined using molecular methods and the species of Leishmania was identified by PCR-RFLP. Those 9 patients had no history of travel outside the city. Spatial analysis and clustering methods were applied to find major hot spots and susceptible areas for the establishment of novel foci of the disease. Transmission patterns were examined for spatial autocorrelation using the Moran's I statistical application, and for the clustering of high or low values using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics.During the period of study, a total of 1767 CL cases were passively reported in the area, out of which were 65% males and 35% females. The highest and lowest numbers of cases were reported in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Importantly, 979 cases were reported from urban areas, while the remainder came from rural areas. Leishmania major was detected as the causative agent of CL in the city of Qom. Remarkably, most patients recorded in Qom city were associated with a history of travel to the endemic areas of CL within the province, or to other endemic areas of the disease in Iran. Spatial distribution of CL cases revealed northeastern and southwestern quarters of the city were the major hot spots of the disease (P<0.05. Hot spot and CL transmission risk analysis across the province indicated that more than 40 villages were located in high and very high risk areas of CL transmission

  16. [Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Guilherme; Toledo; Ramos; Arraes; Bertolini; Spinoza; Barbosa

    1996-04-01

    An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

  17. Molecular detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in phlebotomine sandflies from a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in northwestern of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Brighente, Kate Bastos; Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Motoie, Gabriela; da Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Cristina; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2018-01-29

    This study identified the natural infection rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies collected in a neighborhood around a kennel, in Dracena, northwestern of São Paulo state. This region is highly endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Insects were captured during 2-3 nights monthly for 11 months (January-November 2012) using 10 automatic light traps around a kennel in a transition between periurban and urban neighborhood. Capture aimed the determination of the minimal infection rate (MIR) on the area. A total of 1690 Lu. longipalpis were captured during the studied period. Out of them, 292 (17.25%) were females and were grouped in 165 pools containing 1 to five insects for DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Positive results for L. (L) infantum in conventional PCR and real time PCR were shown in 7.28% (12/165) and 4.85% (8/165) of the analysis respectively. These data confirm that Lu. longipalpis captured in the study area were infected by L. (L.) infantum. The MIR of sandflies during the 11 months of captures was 4.10% for female the total of 292 female sandflies collected. A high DNA concentration of L. (L.) infantum was detected on sandflies especially in kennel, chicken coop and neighboring houses, where higher abundance of hosts for blood source were present. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

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    Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%, which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25% and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

  19. Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Melchior, Leonardo Augusto Kohatsu; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cardoso, Cristiane de Oliveira; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-04-13

    The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN), and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0%) and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3%) were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro's skin test predominated (66.4%), with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.

  20. Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Fernandes Brilhante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN, and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0% and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3% were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro’s skin test predominated (66.4%, with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.

  1. Situation analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area, south of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mansour; Nazari, Saman; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Najafi, Ali; Nazari, Sasan

    2017-01-01

    To update current situation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Kazerun County, southwest of Iran and to analyse the epidemiological aspects of the disease during 2005-2015. Data on CL were obtained from the Health Center of Kazerun County, and then were analysed and mapped using SPSS and Arc GIS 10.3. A total of 700 cases of CL were recorded during the study period with an overall decreasing trend from 2005 to 2015. More than 60% of the patients were inhabitants of rural areas and males were infected more than females. Although there was not a significant difference between gender, job categories, residence and CL infection (P > 0.05), age groups were significantly different (P  0.05). Most of the acute lesions were found to be present on the hand, leg and face, respectively. The average CL incidence in the study area was calculated as 24.9/100000 population. A hot spot for the disease was found in southern part of the area (P < 0.05). This study revealed that CL is present in Kazerun country. Thus, effective monitoring and sustained surveillance system is crucial in counteracting the disease, and if possible, to eliminate it. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dispersal and memory of sand flies in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; De Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Massafera, Rubens; Rossi, Robson Marcelo; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-09-01

    The dispersal of and the existence of memory in sand flies were measured in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná, Brazil. Sand flies were caught in a rural area, with Shannon trap installed in the forest and three Falcão traps installed in a human-inhabited environment (HIE) and three others in an impacted environment presently uninhabited by humans (EUH), from 1800 to 0600 hours. The captured sand flies were marked with yellow, blue, or red fluorescent powder, according to the environments where they were captured. All marked sand flies were released at 0700 hours at a point between the three environments. The recaptures were made with 28 Falcão traps, distributed in the environments from for 10 consecutive days. The sand flies recaptured were examined under a stereomicroscope and later identified. It was concluded that sand flies are able to disperse over an average distance of 73 m, reaching 130 m in 24 h, showing that: 1) the sand flies were attracted with different intensities to each environment, and the ability to move among different environments allows the existence of enzootic cycle of Leishmania; 2) the sand flies possess a spatial memory, olfactory memory, or both, that enable them to return to the environment where they were captured initially, although the distances were different.

  3. Trends in spatio-temporal dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis cases in a highly-endemic focus of Bihar, India: an investigation based on GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rakesh; Kesari, Shreekant; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2018-04-02

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Bihar State (India) continues to be endemic, despite the existence of effective treatment and a vector control program to control disease morbidity. A clear understanding of spatio-temporal distribution of VL may improve surveillance and control implementation. This study explored the trends in spatio-temporal dynamics of VL endemicity at a meso-scale level in Vaishali District, based on geographical information systems (GIS) tools and spatial statistical analysis. A GIS database was used to integrate the VL case data from the study area between 2009 and 2014. All cases were spatially linked at a meso-scale level. Geospatial techniques, such as GIS-layer overlaying and mapping, were employed to visualize and detect the spatio-temporal patterns of a VL endemic outbreak across the district. The spatial statistic Moran's I Index (Moran's I) was used to simultaneously evaluate spatial-correlation between endemic villages and the spatial distribution patterns based on both the village location and the case incidence rate (CIR). Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard error, confidence intervals and percentages were used to summarize the VL case data. There were 624 endemic villages with 2719 (average 906 cases/year) VL cases during 2012-2014. The Moran's I revealed a cluster pattern (P < 0.05) of CIR distribution at the meso-scale level. On average, 68 villages were newly-endemic each year. Of which 93.1% of villages' endemicity were found to have occurred on the peripheries of the previous year endemic villages. The mean CIR of the endemic villages that were peripheral to the following year newly-endemic villages, compared to all endemic villages of the same year, was higher (P < 0.05). The results show that the VL endemicity of new villages tends to occur on the periphery of villages endemic in the previous year. High-CIR plays a major role in the spatial dispersion of the VL cases between non-endemic and endemic villages

  4. Epidemiological study on sand flies in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, bushehr city, southwestern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Mohammad; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Jafari, Reza; Soleimani, Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Nastaran; Khajeian, Mohammad; Darabi, Hossein; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most important health problem in the city of Bushehr, southwestern Iran. The objective of the study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the city during 2010-2011. Sand flies were collected monthly from outdoors and indoors by sticky traps at four selected districts of the city. They were also dissected and examined by nested-PCR for identification of the parasite during August-September of 2011. A total of 1234 adult sand flies were collected and 6 species including 3 of Genus Phlebotomus and 3 of Genus Sergentomyia were identified. Four species including P. papatasi (3.98%), P. sergenti (1.14%), S. tiberiadis (87.18%), and S. baghdadis (7.7%) were found indoors. Six species including P. papatasi (3.47%), P. sergenti (3.17%), P. alexandri (0.1%), S. tiberiadis (77.74%), S. baghdadis (15.41%), and one female of S. clydei (0.11%) were collected from outdoors. Sand flies started to appear from March and disappear at the end of January. There was only one peak in the density curve in July. The study revealed that S. tiberiadis and S. baghdadis could enter indoors which 89 and 81.8% of them were found blood-fed, respectively. Moreover, P. papatasi, S. tiberiadis, and S. baghdadis were active indoors and outdoors in most months of the year. Nested-PCR of P. papatasi females was positive against kinetoplast DNA of L. major and L. turanica and also mixed natural infections were found by L. gerbilli and L. turanica. Moreover, mixed infections by L. major and L. turanica were observed in this species. Sergentomyia clydei and S. tiberiadis were found to be negative to any DNA of Leishmania species. Phlebotomus sergenti females were found infected with DNA of L. turanica and this is the first report of natural infection and detection of the parasite from this sand fly species in worldwide.

  5. Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune in Brazilian endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Silva-Antunes, Ilce; Morgado, Adilson de Aguiar; Menz, Ingrid; Palatnik, Marcos; Lavor, Carlile

    2009-06-02

    Leishmune, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We demonstrate here that vaccination with Leishmune does not interfere with the serological control campaign (110,000 dogs). Only 1.3% of positivity (76 among 5860) was detected among Leishmune uninfected vaccinees. We also analyzed the possible additive effect of Leishmune vaccination over dog culling, on the decrease of the incidence of CVL and VL in two Brazilian endemic areas, from 2004 to 2006. In Araçatuba, a 25% of decline was seen in CVL with a 61% decline in human cases, indicating the additive effect of Leishmune vaccination of 5.7% of the healthy dogs (1419 dogs), on regular dog culling. In Belo Horizonte (BH), rising curves of canine and human incidence were observed in the districts of Barreiro, Venda Nova and Noroeste, while the canine and human incidence of Centro Sul, Leste, Nordeste, Norte, Pampulha and Oeste, started to decrease or maintained a stabilized plateau after Leishmune vaccination. Among the districts showing a percent decrease of human incidence (-36.5%), Centro Sul and Pampulha showed the highest dog vaccination percents (63.27% and 27.27%, respectively) and the lowest dog incidence (-3.36% and 1.89%, respectively). They were followed by Oeste, that vaccinated 25.30% of the animals and experienced an increase of only 12.86% of dog incidence and by Leste and Nordeste, with lower proportions of vaccinees (11.72% and 10.76%, respectively) and probably because of that, slightly higher canine incidences (42.77% and 35.73%). The only exception was found in Norte district where the reduced human and canine incidence were not correlated to Leishmune vaccination. Much lower proportions of dogs were vaccinated in Venda Nova (4.35%), Noroeste (10.27%) and Barreiro (0.09%) districts, which according to that exhibited very

  6. Diversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Azar Shahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, North West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazratian, Teimour; Vatandoost, Hasan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Fallah, Esmael; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Akbarzadeh, Kameran; Rassi, Yavar

    2016-09-01

    There are nearly 1000 species of Phlebotomine sand flies in 6 genera, of which only two, Phlebotomus in the old world and Lutzomyia in the new world are medically important. Globally, leishmaniasis prevalent in 98 countries and affects estimated 12 million people with almost two million new cases per year. Some rural areas of Azarshahr District in East Azarbaijan Province have been reported to be endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study is the first attempt to determine the species diversity and density in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. Sand flies were collected form indoor and outdoor biweekly using sticky traps. Diversity index of the collected sand flies within different villages were estimated by the Shannon-Weaver. The activity of the sand flies extended from April to October with one peak in August. Diversity of sand flies within study area were estimated as 0.917, 1.867, 1.339, 1.673, and 1.562 in Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj, and Germezgol Vvillages, respectively. Identifying the diversity and seasonal abundance of the collected species is of importance for prediction of the period of maximum risk for leishmaniasis transmission and for the successful implementation of a control program. Species diversity is one of the most important factors in ecological studies.

  7. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The history of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2017-02-15

    In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented. Ancient documents and paleoparasitological data indicate that leishmaniasis was already widespread in antiquity. Identification of Leishmania parasites as etiological agents and sand flies as the transmission vectors of leishmaniasis started at the beginning of the 20 th century and the discovery of new Leishmania and sand fly species continued well into the 21 st century. Lately, the Syrian civil war and refugee crises have shown that leishmaniasis epidemics can happen any time in conflict areas and neighbouring regions where the disease was previously endemic.

  9. [Allopurinol therapy in imported dogs with leishmaniasis treated outside the endemic area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, M; Müller, W; Schaarschmidt, D; Grimm, F; Deplazes, P

    2013-10-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CL) has become one of the most frequently diagnosed travel associated infection in dogs in Switzerland and Germany. The aim of the study was to define recommendations for treatment with allopurinol and follow-up examinations of dogs with CL in a non endemic area. 31 dogs infected with Leishmania were treated with allopurinol (10 - 15 mg/kg twice daily, per os) and the effectiveness was examined. The diagnosis had been confirmed by the detection of specific anti-Leishmania antibodies and/or Leihmania-DNA. 22 dogs had clinical signs (skin lesions, lameness or lack of fitness) and 9 dogs were asymptomatic but showed abnormal laboratory parameters. Under treatment with allopurinol the symptoms disappeared within 1 - 5 months in 20 dogs.

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh V; Kumar Joginder

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is considered to be zoonotic disease, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by a bite of infected female sandfly. Primary cutaneous leishmaniasis is not common disease in Nepal, however, there were cases reported from Terai region of Nepal. The patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis present with a papule or nodule at the site of inoculation, followed by formation of crusts. Differential diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis include variety...

  11. Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Bhutto, Abdul Manan; Baloch, Javed Hussain; Soomro, Farooq Rahman; Kawamura, Yuta; Nakao, Ryo; Aoshima, Keisuke; Nonaka, Nariaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken

    2012-07-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors.

  12. Environmental factors associated with the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas of Bangladesh: modeling the ecological niche.

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    Abdullah, Abu Yousuf Md; Dewan, Ashraf; Shogib, Md Rakibul Islam; Rahman, Md Masudur; Hossain, Md Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic infection (also called kala-azar in South Asia) caused by Leishmania donovani that is a considerable threat to public health in the Indian subcontinent, including densely populated Bangladesh. The disease seriously affects the poorest subset of the population in the subcontinent. Despite the fact that the incidence of VL results in significant morbidity and mortality, its environmental determinants are relatively poorly understood, especially in Bangladesh. In this study, we have extracted a number of environmental variables obtained from a range of sources, along with human VL cases collected through several field visits, to model the distribution of disease which may then be used as a surrogate for determining the distribution of Phlebotomus argentipes vector, in hyperendemic and endemic areas of Mymensingh and Gazipur districts in Bangladesh. The analysis was carried out within an ecological niche model (ENM) framework using a maxent to explore the ecological requirements of the disease. The results suggest that VL in the study area can be predicted by precipitation during the warmest quarter of the year, land surface temperature (LST), and normalized difference water index (NDWI). As P. argentipes is the single proven vector of L. donovani in the study area, its distribution could reasonably be determined by the same environmental variables. The analysis further showed that the majority of VL cases were located in mauzas where the estimated probability of the disease occurrence was high. This may reflect the potential distribution of the disease and consequently P. argentipes in the study area. The results of this study are expected to have important implications, particularly in vector control strategies and management of risk associated with this disease. Public health officials can use the results to prioritize their visits in specific areas. Further, the findings can be used as a baseline to model how the

  13. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. METHODS The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. FINDINGS A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region. PMID:28327794

  14. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves de; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-04-01

    Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region.

  15. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: first clinical isolation of Leishmania major from 18 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in four geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Çulha, Gülnaz; Uzun, Soner; Harman, Mehmet; Topal, Suhan Günaştı; Okudan, Fulya; Zeyrek, Fadile; Gündüz, Cumhur; Östan, İpek; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Akyar, Işın; Erat, Ayşegül; Güngör, Dilek; Kayabaşı, Çağla; Çavuş, İbrahim; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Özbel, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    To report isolation of Leishmania major strains obtained from 18 Turkish autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected with L. major between 2011 and 2014. Initial diagnosis relied on microscopy and culture in enriched medium, prepared by adding specific amounts of liver extract, protein and lipid sources to NNN medium. Promastigotes were then transferred to RPMI medium including 10% of foetal calf serum for mass culture. Species-specific real-time PCR targeting ITS1 region of Leishmania spp. was performed using both lesion aspiration samples and cultured promastigotes. Two of 18 isolates were identified by isoenzyme analysis in the Leishmaniasis Reference Center in Montpellier, France. Each isolate was inoculated into the footpads of six mice to observe the pathogenicity of L. major. Developing lesions were observed, and the thickening of footpads was measured weekly. Melting curve analyses of 18 isolates showed a peak concordant with L. major, and two of them were confirmed by isoenzyme analyses as L. major zymodeme MON103. In the mouse model, acute lesions seen on day 21 were accepted as an indication of heavy infection. Severe impairments were observed on all mouse footpads over 3 weeks, which even progressed to extremity amputation. Cutaneous leishmaniasis-causing L. major was recently identified in Adana province in southern Turkey, with PCR. Our study shows that such CL cases are not limited to Adana but currently present from western to Southeastern Anatolia, and along the Mediterranean coast. The role of small mammals, the main reservoirs of L. major in Anatolia, needs to be elucidated, as do the underlying factors that cause severe clinical manifestations in L. major infections in Turkey, contrary to the infections in neighbouring countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  17. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stebut, E; Sunderkötter, C

    2007-05-01

    Infections with Leishmania are increasing worldwide because of tourism and job-related travel; central Europe is no exception. Infections often first become apparent after return from an endemic region. Depending on the Leishmania species and the host immune status, different forms of cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) (L. brasiliensis complex) or visceral leishmaniasis (L. donovani as well as L. infantum) may develop. CL may heal spontaneously with scarring but can evolve into diffuse CL (with reduced immune response to L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis, L. mexicana or L. aethiopica) or into recurrent CL. Diagnostic criteria include travel to an endemic area as well as ulcerated plaques or nodules on an exposed site which show no tendency towards healing over 3-4 weeks. Differential diagnostic considerations include ecthyma, other infectious ulcers, and malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding Leishmania in a smear or tissue biopsy, as well as by culture. Therapy options range from topical treatment of simple CL of the Old World caused by L. major to systemic therapy which is needed for most complex cases of CL as well as MCL. Miltefosine is a less toxic option to replace the antimony compounds.

  18. Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary

    2012-06-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Study of Sand Fly Fauna in an Endemic Focus for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fasa from April to October in the year 2013

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    Mehdi Sharafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Leishmaniasis as a zoonosis disease seen in three forms including Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral (kala- azar. The Leishmania transferred by sand flies is the causative agent of this disease. Considering that leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Fasa, this study was performed to determine the sand fly species of Fasa, Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional study from April to September 2014, the fauna of sand flies was investigated. Sampling was done in villages with above, medium, and low incidence by using sticky traps every 15 days. Then, captured specimens were mounted and identified by specific key. Results: 3842 sand flies were captured for ecological studies. 2305 of them (60% were males and the rest of them were females. 1152 specimens (30% of them were from indoors and the rest were from outdoors. Totally, 10 species were identified including Phlebotomus. Papatasi, Ph. Alexandri, Ph. Sergenti, Ph. Mongolensis, Ph. Bergeroti, Ph. Caucasicus, Sergentomyia theodori, S. Baghdadis, S. sintuni, and S. antennata. Among captured specimens Phlebotomus Papatasi, Ph. Sergenti had the first and the second places, respectively. Conclusion: Sandflies in Fasa are very active with high prevalence and species diversity. Phlebotomus Papatasi as the predominant species transfers Leishmania from rodents to humans. This subject is related to the prevalence of rural leishmaniasis in this area. According to the semi-domestic vector, spraying is not helpful in a rural foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. But the control of reservoir and educating the residents about prevention ways of bite are effective in disease control and prevention.

  20. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, Solomon; Gebresilassie, Araya; Akililu, Essayas; Deribe, Kebede; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-12-01

    a.s.l, the area could be at high risk of VL. P. longipes a vector of L. aethiopica, was recorded in the highland area in Tikil-Dingay and Gondar town, implicating the possibility of CL transmission. Hence, further investigation into vector competence in relation to leishmaniasis (VL and CL) in the region is very vital. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sand Flies of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius) comatus as a New Record for Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Kumar, Dinesh; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghian, Abdollah; Jafari, Reza; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Abdoli, Hamid; Soleimani, Hassan; Shareghi, Niloofar; Ghanei, Maryam; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country. Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters. A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females) including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%), P. longiductus (13.3%), P. balcanicus (23.3%), P. comatus (3.3%), and Adlerius spp. (13.3%) belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area. The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius.

  2. Sand Flies of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius comatus as a New Record for Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country.Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters.A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%, P. longiductus (13.3%, P. balcanicus (23.3%, P. comatus (3.3%, and Adlerius spp. (13.3% belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area.The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius.

  3. Ecological Aspects of Phebotomine (Diptera, Psychodidae in an Endemic Area of Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in the Northeastern Argentina, 1993-1998

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    Oscar D Salomón

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The first epidemic tegumentary leishmaniasis´ outbreak in the province of Misiones was recorded in 1998, in the locality of Puerto Esperanza. Phlebotominae collected in the region, previously or simultaneously to the outbreak (September 1993-December 1998 showed that the species Lutzomyia intermedia s. l. was prevalent (94%, n 6,150 at all the sites sampled with miniature light trap (10 and Shannon trap (3. L. pessoai, L. whitmani, L. migonei, L. shannoni, L. fischeri, L. misionensis, Brumptomyia avellari and B. guimaraesi were also captured. Sand fly distribution in time and space suggests that in the province of Misiones (1 the species already present before 1990 could give rise to the epidemic by the density/dispersion fluctuation of their local populations; (2 the abundance of L. intermedia s. l. was associated with environments with ecotones of primary-secondary vegetation, close to water bodies and with moderate human disturbance; (3 this species showed, towards the end of 1997, peaks of exceptional abundance, subsequent to rainfall peaks in 1996. This increase in abundance of potential vector sand fly populations close to houses with colonizable surroundings could have generated the 1998 epidemic outbreak.

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Ram Chandra Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is considered to be zoonotic disease, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by a bite of infected female sandfly. Primary cutaneous leishmaniasis is not common disease in Nepal, however, there were cases reported from Terai region of Nepal. The patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis present with a papule or nodule at the site of inoculation, followed by formation of crusts. Differential diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis include variety of skin diseases, inflammatory like impetigo, eczema, or granulomatous like sarcoidosis, lupus vulgaris, to skin tumor like basal cell carcinoma & squamous cell carcinoma. There are various procedures and laboratory techniques used to diagnose leishmaniasis. Punch skin biopsy is widely used & popular technique to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis. Different drugs like sodium stibogluconate, sodium antimony gluconate, Amphotericin B and Miltefosine: are used for its treatment. No vaccines are available for prevention. 

  5. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions.

  6. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

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    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  7. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

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    Tamalee Roberts

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55. Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94% with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans.

  8. Leishmaniasis in Yemen: a clinicoepidemiological study of leishmaniasis in central Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in Yemen. This study was designed to identify clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in Yemen. The study was conducted at the Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center in central Yemen. Data sourced from the medical records of 152 patients with confirmed active leishmaniasis, managed during April-August 2013, were analyzed. A total of 94.1% of patients were rural residents. Al Bayda was the most endemic governorate (59.9%). Children represented the group at highest risk (57.2%), followed by adult females (32.9%); together these groups accounted for 90.1% of all patients. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was the most prevalent form (49.3%), followed by cutaneous leishmaniasis (47.4%), and visceral leishmaniasis (3.3%). The wet ulcer was the most common type of lesion (49.7%) and the single lesion (69.4%) represented the most common presentation. All patients were ignorant of the nature of the disease, and 55.9% had a history of using "popular" treatments. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniases have significant endemicity in Yemen, especially in central areas. Al Bayda is the governorate with the highest endemicity, and rural children and women represent the populations at highest risk. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis seems to be the most prevalent form and a single wet ulcer is the most common presentation. Infected refugees may represent new foci for imported Leishmania species. Ecology, geography, climate change, cultural gender- and age-specific duties, urban night activities, and use of popular treatments are among proven risk factors. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran

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    Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (Psand flies. PMID:27047974

  10. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver

    2016-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (Pflies.

  11. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Miranda, José Carlos; Caranha, Lindenbergh; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L.) longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL. PMID:22315621

  12. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  13. Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps.

  14. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence- based detection of leishmania infection of sand flies in recently emerged endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Badzohreh, Abdollah; Sarkari, Bahador; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Kalantari, Mohsen; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Ali-Akbarpour, Mohsen

    2013-06-01

    Geographical distribution of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) has continuously been extended in recent years in Iran. The Beiza District is one of the newly-emerged endemic foci of ZCL in southern Iran. The main aim of the present study was to detect the vector(s) of ZCL in this area. To detect the fauna and vectors of ZCL in this district, sand flies were caught using sticky papers. Seventy randomly selected female sand flies out of 730 were molecularly investigated for Leishmania infection using species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay between April and October 2010. A total of 2543 sand flies were caught. The fauna was identified as 10 species (five Phlebotomus spp. and five Sergentomyia spp.). Phlebotomus papatasi was the most dominant species both indoors and outdoors (37.55% and 16.35 %, respectively). L. major was detected in 5 out of 48 investigated Phlebotomus papatasi (10.41%). Sequence-based characterization was carried out to confirm the PCR findings. The positive samples were shown to have 75-88% similarity with L. major sequences in GenBank. According to the findings of the present study, similar to the other foci of ZCL in Iran, P. papatasi is the proven and primary vector of CL. This study could be drawn upon for future strategy planning in this newly emerged endemic focus.

  15. Physiological Age Structure and Leishmania spp. Detection in Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis (Parrot, 1936) (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar David; Aklilu, Essayas; Yared, Solomon; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is endemic in northern Ethiopia, where P. orientalis is the most important presumed vector. This study was designed to determine the physiological age structure and the occurrence of Leishmania infection in the vector of VL in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps from peridomestic and agricultural fields between May 2011 and April 2012 and P. orientalis females were dissected for age determination and detection of Leishmania promastigotes. Sand flies were also analyzed for L. donovani detection using molecular methods. Of 1,282 P. orientalis examined for abdominal stages and age characterization, 66.2%, 28.2%, 4.1%, and 1.6% were unfed, freshly fed, half-gravid, and gravid. Parous rate in unfed females was 34.1% and 35.4% in peridomestic and agricultural fields, respectively. Out of 921 P. orientalis females dissected, one specimen (0.1%) was found naturally infected with promastigotes. Five pools (25 females) of unfed P. orientalis were also found with DNA of Leishmania spp. In particular, a single P. orientalis was positive for L. donovani (0.5%). Based on this and other evidences (abundance, human blood feeding, and xenodiagnostic studies), P. orientalis is the principal vector of VL in this endemic focus.

  16. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  17. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran

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    MohammadReza Jalilnavaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Do­mestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evalua­tion of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies.Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were trans­ferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or un­fed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope.Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (P< 0.0001. The blood feeding inhibition was 75.0–87.0 % and 41.0–46.0 % for the control and treated dogs (P< 0.0001, respectively.The total mortality rate was 94.0–100 % and 19.0–58.0 % respectively for the treated and control groups (P< 0.001.Conclustion: Application of pour-on flumethrin on dogs caused 90–100 % mortality until 2.5 month and inhibited the blood-feeding of sand flies. 

  18. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  19. Leishmaniasis in Northern and Western Africa: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albert Kimutai

    and disseminated lesions. Phlebotomus papatasi (sandfly) is the proven vector of L. major, and rodents. Psammomys obesus and Meriones spp. serve as animal reservoir hosts. Some countries of the region have endemic foci of zoonotic and anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, which could cause epidemics among.

  20. Detection of Leishmania spp in silvatic mammals and isolation of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis from Rattus rattus in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

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    Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira

    Full Text Available Knowledge of potential reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in an anthropic environment is important so that surveillance and control measures can be implemented. The aim of this study was to investigate the infection by Leishmania in small mammals in an area located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, that undergoes changes in its natural environment and presents autochthonous human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and visceral leishmaniasis (VL. For the capture of the animals, Sherman and Tomahawk traps were used and distributed in the peridomicile of houses with reports of autochthonous cases of CL or VL. Six catches were carried out on two consecutive nights with intervals of two months during one year and samples of spleen, liver, tail skin, ear skin and bone marrow of the animals were obtained. Parasitological and molecular methods were used to detect the infection. Identification of the Leishmania species was performed by PCR RFLPhsp70. Twenty five animals of four species were captured: ten Rattus rattus, nine Didelphis albiventris, five Cerradomys subflavus and one Marmosops incanus. In the PCR-hsp70, five animals were positive (20%. The Leishmania species identified in PCR-RFLPhsp70 were: Leishmania braziliensis in D. albiventris (2, C. subflavus (1 and R. rattus (1 and Leishmania infantum in R. rattus (1. The highest positivity rate for L. braziliensis was obtained in the liver samples. The spleen was the only tissue positive for L. infantum. It was isolated in culture medium L. braziliensis from two samples (liver and spleen of R. rattus. This is the first record of isolation of L. braziliensis from R. rattus in the southeastern region of Brazil. These results are relevant to the knowledge of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the region, mainly in the investigation of the presence of hosts and possible reservoirs of the parasite.

  1. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results

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    Ana Denise Fuenzalida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97% and Lutzomyia migonei (3% were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in both months. In January, the variable that most influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale.

  2. Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil

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    Kalidia Felipe de Lima Costa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regarding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, and significance was determined using chi-square (χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032. Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

  3. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla-Jacques, Fernanda Elisa; Casanova, Cláudio; Prado, Angelo Pires do

    2010-03-01

    Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  4. The new situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after Syrian civil war in Gaziantep city, Southeastern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkeklikçi, Ahmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health problem with around 2.000 autochthonous reported cases each year in Turkey. Due to the civil war in Syria, Turkey received around three million refugees and they are mainly located at either camps or homes in south/southeastern part of Turkey. In the present study, we aimed to collect samples from CL suspected patients admitting to State Hospital in Gaziantep City and perform parasitological and DNA-based techniques for diagnosis as well as species identification of the parasite for better understanding the prevalence of each species among Turkish and Syrian patients in the region. The collection of samples was carried out between January 2009 and July 2015. The lesion aspiration samples were taken and stained with Giemsa stain followed by microscopical examination for parasitological diagnosis. After the DNA extraction from Giemsa stained slides, real time and semi-nested PCRs both targeting ITS1 region were performed for molecular diagnosis and species identification. A total of 567 people were admitted to the hospital with the suspicion of CL and 263 (46.4%) of them were found to be positive by parasitological examination. One hundred seventy-four (66.15%), 88 (33.46%) and 1 (0.38%) of them were Turkish, Syrians and Afghan, respectively. Slide samples obtained from 34 CL suspected patients were analyzed by PCR and 20 of them were found positive. Eighteen (13 Turkish and 13 Syrians) of the positive samples were identified as L. tropica, while two (1 Turkish and 1 Syrian) of them were L. infantum. In conclusion, the effects of Syrian civil war on the epidemiology of CL in Gaziantep city is demonstrated in the present study. The use of molecular tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is effective, sensitive and time saving which will enable the species typing. Species typing of the causative agent in endemic areas will bring valuable data to epidemiological knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. The effect of education based on the theory of planned behavior on preventive behaviors of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in mothers living in endemic city of Natanz

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    MH Baghianimoghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the limited studies conducted on the educational interventions to change the preventive behaviors of cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL as well as mothers' critical role in creating and maintaining these behaviors, this study aimed to determine the impact of education based on theory of planned behavior on preventive behaviors of CL in mothers living in endemic city of Natanz. Methods: In this case experimental study, two health care centers in endemic areas of CL were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. Using list of mothers covered by each center, 80 patients were selected by simple random sampling, who were required to complete a questionnaire that has been designed based on the theory of planned behavior, and its reliability and validity had been confirmed in the previous studies. Then 4 sessions were held for the experimental group mothers and 2 training sessions were held for people who influenced them, whereas control group received no interventions. Two months after training intervention, the study data were collected again and were analyzed using the SPSS software (ver. 18 via independent statistical t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Mann Whitney tests. Results: Before the intervention, no significant differences were observed between the mean scores of different constructs of this theory in the two groups (p>0/005. Though after intervention, a significant increase was observed (p<0/005 in the mean score of knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention and action of groups and in control group, only a significant increase was observed in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude (p<0/005. Conclusions: As the findings of the present study revealed, training based on theory of planned behavior can promote preventive behaviors of CL in mothers.

  6. Comparison between active surveillance and passive detection of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic rural areas in Central Tunisia, 2009 to 2014

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    Hedia Bellali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the contribution of active surveillance of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL in rural areas in Sidi Bouzid from 2009 to 2014 in comparison with the passive case detection, and describe the pattern of the disease. Methods: The monitoring was based on the notification of all new cases in primary health care facilities, among pupils in all schools and a community-based active ZCL surveillance was also performed. The medical staff of health care facilities reviewed and confirmed cases notified in schools. Results: From July 2009 to June 2014, a total of 856 (51.1% male, 48.9% female cases were enrolled; the average incidence rate of the disease was 2 514.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. The median age was 11 years (inter quartile range: 7-28 and 68.9% were aged less than 20 years. Most ZCL lesions arose between August and January and 46.1% of cases were reported between July 2013 and June 2014. Active surveillance reported more cases mainly in the delegation of West Sidi Bouzid and most cases (66.7% were reported by the health care centers. Conclusions: The present study showed ZCL was still endemic in rural areas in Sidi Bouzid Governorate. Active surveillance's cost-effectiveness is not certain thus, it would be rational to improve routine passive detection of ZCL in Sidi Bouzid than to continue active research of cases.

  7. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Maria Marassa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai, which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%, pig (47.4% and 26.4%, chicken (25.7% and 36.8% and dog (3.9% and 0%, and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043. Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  8. The Seminested PCR Based Detection of Leishmania infantum Infection in Asymptomatic Dogs in a New Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran

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    Y Rassi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar is a serious health problem in some northern and south western parts of Iran. The incidence of kala-azar caused by Leishmania infantum has recently increased in Nourabad-Mamassani district of Fars Province, in the south of the country. This study was designed to determine the role of asymptomatic dogs as host reservoir of L. infantum in this new formed focus and detection of prevalence of infection near them. A total of 20 as¬ymptomatic stray and sheep dogs were randomly sampled. The Buffy coat layer of their peripheral blood was used for DNA extraction and PCR. A species specific seminested PCR was used for DNA amplification using LINR4, LIN17 and LIN19 primers. These primers amplified variable area of the minicircle kDNA of Leishmania parasites. Of the 20 sampled dogs checked for leishmanial kDNA, six (30% were found naturally infected. It is concluded that, dogs (Canis familiaris even if asympto¬matic, is considered as the domestic host reservoir of kala-azar in this endemic focus.

  9. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

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    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  10. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-05-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  11. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sero-prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL among dogs in VL endemic areas of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh

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    Ariful Islam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL among street and owned dogs at Trishal Upazila of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Blood was collected asceptically from targeted dogs and serum was separated out using standard centrifigation method. The rK39-antigen-based dipstick test was used to detect anti-leishmania antibodies in serum. Results: The study revealed that 35% of the dogs in the study area were sero-positive for L. donovani. Living status of the dogs (street or owned was a potential risk factor and sero-prevalence was significantly higher in free roaming street dogs (P=0.009 and dogs with skin lesions and enlarged lymph nodes (P<0.05. The female and adult dogs were more susceptible. Conclusion: VL is an important zoonotic disease wich is transmissible to humans by the bite of phlebotomine sand fly. Dogs are the main reservoir. The higher sero-prevalence of VL indicates the potential rule of dogs to maintain the zoonosis wich need to be explored more specifically by isolation and typing of the parasite. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 241-248

  13. Species composition of sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic foci, Morocco.

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    Boussaa, Samia; Kahime, Kholoud; Samy, Abdallah M; Salem, Abdelkrim Ben; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-02-02

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in Morocco. Leishmania major and L. tropica are the main culprits identified in all endemic foci across the country. These two etiological agents are transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, the two most prevalent sand fly species in Morocco. Previous studies reflected gaps of knowledge regarding the environmental fingerprints that affect the distribution of these two potential vectors across Morocco. The sand flies were collected from 48 districts across Morocco using sticky paper traps. Collected specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol for further processing and identification. Male and female densities were calculated in each site to examine their relations to the environmental conditions across these sites. The study used 19 environmental variables including precipitation, aridity, elevation, soil variables and a composite representing maximum, minimum and mean of day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A total of 11,717 specimens were collected during this entomological survey. These specimens represented 11 species of two genera; Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia. Correlations of the sand fly densities with the environmental variables were estimated to identify the variables which influence the distribution of the two potential vectors, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, associated with all CL endemic foci across the country. The density of P. papatasi was most affected by temperature changes. The study showed a significant positive correlation between the densities of both sexes of P. papatasi and night-time temperatures. Both P. papatasi and P. sergenti showed a negative correlation with aridity, but, such correlation was only significant in case of P. papatasi. NDVI showed a positive correlation only with densities of P. sergenti, while, soil PH and soil water stress were negatively correlated with the

  14. Case report: An unusual case of mucosal leishmaniasis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan is endemic for visceral, cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis. The latter is the least common of the three forms of leishmaniasis. It is caused by L. donovani, the same parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the country. Most of the cases were reported from VL endemic areas, the majority in adults.

  15. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ren younger than 5 years of age was evaluated in. Malawi. ... limitations in diagnostic technology and personnel, disease-specific clinical ... In practice, the World. Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that in highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated for malaria, because of the likeli- hood of ...

  16. Comparison of two commercial vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from endemic areas: IgG, and subclasses, parasitism, and parasite transmission by xenodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Consuelo Barreto; Junior, Jairo Torres Magalhães; de Jesus, Clauceane; Souza, Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Tavares Veras, Patricia Sampaio; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2014-03-05

    The incidence of zoonotic canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would decrease if dogs were effectively vaccinated; however, additional data on the efficacy of canine vaccines are required for their approved preventative use. To prospectively evaluate vaccination outcomes using two products commercially available in Brazil, with respect to adverse reactions (reactogenicity), humoral response, disease signs, parasitism, and parasite infectiousness in naturally exposed pet dogs in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). From 2010 to 2012, healthy dogs were vaccinated with Leishmune(®) (50 animals) or Leish-Tec(®) (50 animals). Each dog was examined to identify clinical signs during peri- and post-vaccination procedures every 2 months for 11 months to identify the presence of parasites or parasite DNA in splenic samples using culturing or PCR, respectively. Levels of anti-Leishmania IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 were quantified in sera by ELISA and infectiousness was assessed by xenodiagnosis. Adverse effects occurred in 2.2% (1/45) and 13.0% (6/46) of the animals in the Leishmune(®) and Leish-Tec(®) groups, respectively. IgG levels peaked on the 21st day following the first dose of Leishmune(®) and on the 21st day after the second dose of Leish-Tec(®). The final seropositivity rate for IgG was 32.5% (13/40) and 30.9% (13/42) in the Leishmune(®) and Leish-Tec(®) groups, respectively. The Leishmune(®) group presented higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2 compared to the Leish-Tec(®) group (p<0.001), and ELISA reactivity in both vaccinated groups was significantly lower (p<0.001) than in infected positive control dogs. Parasitism was observed in 12.2% (5/41) of the Leishmune(®) group, and 7.9% (3/38) of the Leish-Tec(®) group, with xenodiagnostic transmission rates of Leishmania to Lutzomyia longipalpis of 5.1% (2/39), and 5.4% (2/37), respectively. No significant differences were observed in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) or Leish-Tec(®), with respect to LVC

  17. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

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    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON CANINE POPULATION WITH THE USE OF IMMUNOLEISH SKIN TEST IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF HUMAN AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Elizabeth Gloria O. Barbosa Santos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey for canine tegumentary leishmaniasis (CTL has been carried out between 1986 and 1993 in seven endemic localities for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 270 dogs have been examined for their clinical aspects, the development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS with Immunoleish antigen and with immunofluorescent antibody research of IgG (IF. 28.2% of them had ulcer lesions and 3.3% had scars. The lesions consisted of single (39.5% and mucocutaneous lesions (31.6%, multiple cutaneous (25.0% and mucocutaneous lesions associated with cutaneous ulcers (4.0%. Twelve (15.8% isolates from biopsies were analyzed by zimodeme and schizodeme and identified as L. (V. braziliensis. The overall prevalence of canine infection that was evaluated with the skin test was of 40.5% and with IF it was of 25.5%. Both tests showed a high positive rate with relation to the animals with mucosal lesions, as in the case of human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The comparison of the two tests showed the skin test to have a better performance although there was no statistical difference (p>0.05 between them. The proportional sensitivity and specificity was of 84.0% and 74.0%, respectively. The Immunoleish skin test and IF are useful tools to be employed in CTL field epidemiological surveys.Um inquérito epidemiológico em população canina foi realizado em 7 localidades endêmicas de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA entre os anos de 1986 a 1993, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Duzentos e setenta cães foram examinados, segundo os parâmetros: clínicos, desenvolvimento de hipersensibilidade tardia e dosagem de anticorpos por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. 28,2% dos animais possuíam lesões e 3,3% eram portadores de cicatrizes compatíveis com infecção prévia de Leishmania sp. De um total de 98 lesões ulceradas detectadas, 39,5% eram cutâneas únicas, 25,0% lesões cutâneas múltiplas, 31,6% lesões de mucosa e 4,0% lesões de

  19. Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: spatial distribution and seasonal variations from 2009 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Iddawela, Devika

    2018-01-25

    Leishmaniasis is listed as one of the eight neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization and the number of cases in endemic areas has seen a sharp rise in the past decade. More alarmingly, reports have shown that leishmaniasis is spreading to non-endemic areas of the world due to co-infection with HIV. In Sri Lanka, leishmaniasis is considered as a notifiable disease from 2008 and has seen a rising trend of incidence since then. This is the first study describing the burden, seasonal variation and spatial distribution of leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka since the disease has been included as a notifiable disease. Data on health statistics from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from published databases maintained by the Epidemiology Unit of the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka. Climatic data for Sri Lanka were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and the populations in administrative districts were obtained from the Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. Descriptive spatiotemporal analysis, correlation between leishmaniasis incidence and climatic variables were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The total number of people reported with leishmaniasis during the study period was 8487. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the prominent form in Sri Lanka while few visceral and muco-cutaneous cases were reported. Although leishmaniasis patients were identified from all 25 districts in the island, almost 90% of the total caseload was reported from Anuradhapura, Hambantota, Polonnaruwa, Kurunegala and Matara districts. The highest number of patients was reported from the Anuradhapura district and the highest incidence per 100,000 persons was reported from the Hambantota district. The disease has a seasonal trend, a peak of leishmaniasis occur in July to September in the north-central region and in October to December in the southern region. Maximum temperature, humidity and wind speed are significantly associated climatic variables with leishmaniasis in

  20. Immunity to Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Genetically Defined Live-Attenuated Parasites

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    Angamuthu Selvapandiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease endemic to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with three major clinical forms, self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Drug treatments are expensive and often result in the development of drug resistance. No vaccine is available against leishmaniasis. Subunit Leishmania vaccine immunization in animal models has shown some efficacy but little or none in humans. However, individuals who recover from natural infection are protected from reinfection and develop life-long protection, suggesting that infection may be a prerequisite for immunological memory. Thus, genetically altered live-attenuated parasites with controlled infectivity could achieve such memory. In this paper, we discuss development and characteristics of genetically altered, live-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites and their possible use as vaccine candidates against VL. In addition, we discuss the challenges and other considerations in the use of live-attenuated parasites.

  1. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico.

  2. Species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and bionomics of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Tahtay Adiyabo district, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Kirstein, Oscar David; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-04-25

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. orientalis in the VL endemic focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps (n = 602), sticky traps (n = 9,350) and indoor pyrethrum spray catches (n = 578 house visits) from indoor, peri-domestic and agricultural field habitats between May 2011 to April 2012. All sand fly specimens collected were identified to species level and counted. In total, 100,772 sand fly specimens, belonging to 25 sand fly species (nine Phlebotomus and sixteen Sergentomyia) were collected and identified. S. africana and P. orientalis made up 59.1% and 23.5% of the collected sand flies, respectively. As it could be determined from the proportion of collections from outdoor (peri-domestic and agricultural fields) and indoor locations, P. orientalis appears to exhibit increased exophilic behavior. The outdoor to indoor index was 79:1 on m(2) of sticky traps. Mean density of P. orientalis caught was significantly higher on horizontally placed sticky traps (mean = 60 ± 14.56/m(2)/night) than vertically deployed sticky traps (12 ± 3.57/m(2)/night). The highest abundance of P. orientalis occurred between March and April. Through July to September, there was a sharp decline in abundance of P. orientalis population. Regarding climatic variables, P. orientalis density in light traps and on sticky traps showed a significant positive and negative association with temperature and relative humidity, respectively. However, non-significant negative correlation was observed with rainfall pattern. Overall, P. orientalis was found to be the most abundant Phlebotomus species, showing marked seasonal abundance that mainly

  3. A case of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis in a post-partum woman

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    Claudia Colomba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand fly bites endemic in rural or periurban areas of the Mediterranean basin. Pregnancy is accompanied by changes in immune response, mainly a decrease in cellular immunity and a proportional increase in humoral immunity. These physiological events result in increased risk of infection by pathogens whose immunity is based on a T-helper 1 predominant response. We describe a case of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in a post-partum woman four days after delivery. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis should be considered in pregnant women with fever and haematologic abnormalities in endemic regions or if a history of exposure in endemic areas is reported.

  4. Identification of Leishmania tropica from micro-foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kenyan Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiwuor, Samwel; Muia, Alfred; Magiri, Charles; Maes, Ilse; Kirigi, George; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Wasunna, Monique; Mbuchi, Margaret; Auwera, Gert Van der

    2012-07-01

    We performed diagnosis and species identification of parasites in lesion samples from suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in four villages, three of which are in a known Leishmania tropica endemic region in Kenya. Samples were analyzed both by microscopy and PCR for Leishmania, and typed by an assay using four ribosomal DNA-based species-identification PCRs. The lesions were demonstrated to be caused by L. tropica, which confirms the re-emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis from this species after a period of reduced incidence in the endemic zone. Our report highlights the importance of an intervention and sustained Leishmania control program.

  5. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis during anti-TNFα therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Claudio; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Patterson, James W; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    The long-term use of novel antipsoriatic systemic biotechnological drugs may increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Several cases of visceral leishmaniasis have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals, including those who have been treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocking agents. Simultaneous occurrence of cutaneous and visceral involvement has been more rarely recorded in the medical literature. Herein, we describe a case of mucosal leishmaniasis occurring in a farmer living in an endemic region, who was treated with golimumab because of psoriatic arthritis. This highlights the importance of recognizing cutaneous lesions as a first indicator of possible underlying kala-azar disease.

  6. Q fever in an endemic region of North Queensland, Australia: A 10 year review

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    Pirathaban Sivabalan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: In this endemic region of north Queensland, exposure to wildlife and seasonal rainfall may be substantial exposure factors for the development of Q fever. The region studied is a popular tourist destination. An understanding of risk factors involved can help practitioners who see residents or returned travelers from the region, with an undifferentiated fever.

  7. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

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    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  8. A time series analysis of environmental and metrological factors impact on cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in an endemic area of Dehloran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonahad, Ali; Khorshidi, Ali; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Aval, Hamideh Ebrahimi; Miri, Mohammad; Amarloei, Ali; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Mohammadi, Amir

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the environmental and metrological variables and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission and its prediction in a region susceptible to this disease prevalence using a time series model. The accurate locations of 4437 CL diagnosed from 2011 to 2015 were obtained to be used in the time series model. Temperature, number of days with temperature over 30 °C, and number of earthquake were related to CL incidence using the Seasonal Auto-correlated Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model according to the Box-Jenkins method. In addition, the relationship between land use and surface soil type in 500- and 1000-m radius around the CL patients were investigated. The SARIMA models showed significant associations between environmental and meteorological variables and CL incidence adjusted for seasonality and auto-correlation. The result indicated that there are need more robust preventive programs in earthquake-prone areas with high temperature and inceptisol soil type than other areas. In addition, the region with these characteristics should be considered as high-risk areas for CL prevalence.

  9. Incidence of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma in Three Regions of Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Casabonne, Delphine; Carrilho, Carla; Ferro, Josefo; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Zaqueu, Clesio; Nhabomba, Augusto; Aguilar, Ruth; Bassat, Quique; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Dobaño, Carlota; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Data on the burden and incidence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) across Mozambique are scarce. We retrospectively retrieved information on eBL cases from reports of the three main hospitals of Mozambique: Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), Beira Central Hospital (BCH), and Nampula Central Hospital (NCH) between 2004 and 2014. For 2015, we prospectively collected information of new eBL cases attending these hospitals. A total of 512 eBL cases were reported between 2004 and 2015: 153 eBL cases were reported in MCH, 195 in BCH, and 164 in NCH. Mean age of cases was 6.9 years (standard deviation = 2.8); 63% (319/504) of cases were males. For 2015, the estimated incidence rate of eBL was 2.0, 1.7, and 3.9 per 106 person-year at risk in MCH, BCH, and NCH, respectively. Incidence was higher in NCH (northern Mozambique), where intensity of malaria transmission is higher. Data presented show that eBL is a common pediatric malignancy in Mozambique, as observed in neighboring countries. PMID:27799648

  10. Spontaneous regional heading of extensive skin lesions in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL

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    Jackson M.L. Costa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, with longstanding evolution and presenting with diffuse infiltrated lesions rich in amastigotes in the absence of mucosal involvement. In situ characterization with monoclonal antibodies revealed Leishmania amazonensis. Large regional lesions have presented spontaneous healing without specific therapy. Considering that DCL presents with a defect in the cellular immune response, thisfact demonstrate that this patient may develop a regional cellular immune response enough to destroy the parasites and to produce clearing of some lesions.Os autores relatam um caso de leishmaniose cutânea difusa, com longa evolução epresençade lesões infiltradas difusas ricas em amastigotas havendo ausência de envolvimento mucoso. A caracterização in situ com anticorpos monocbnais revelou Leishmania amazonensis. Durante a evolução de sua doença, extensas lesões regionais apresentaram cicatrizaçâo espontânea, Considerando que a LCD apresenta-se com um déficit na resposta imune celular, este fato demonstra que o paciente pode ter desenvolvido uma resposta imune celular regional capaz de destruir os parasitas e produzir cicatrizaçâo de algumas lesões.

  11. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Antonio; dos-Santos, Claudiney B.; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Pinto, Israel de-Souza; Fux, Blima; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2017-01-01

    Background Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein–saponin vaccine (Leish-tec®) had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations. Methodology/Principal findings This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months), which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months). After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016) between the vaccinated (27%) and unvaccinated (42%) dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of

  12. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates.

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    Gabriel Grimaldi

    Full Text Available Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein-saponin vaccine (Leish-tec® had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations.This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months, which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months. After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016 between the vaccinated (27% and unvaccinated (42% dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of vaccine recipients developed

  13. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Dos-Santos, Claudiney B; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Pinto, Israel de-Souza; Fux, Blima; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2017-01-01

    Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein-saponin vaccine (Leish-tec®) had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations. This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months), which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months). After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016) between the vaccinated (27%) and unvaccinated (42%) dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of vaccine recipients developed disease over

  14. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF Leishmania IN PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES IN A CUTANEOUS AND VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS ENDEMIC AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso Guimarães

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several phlebotomine sand fly species have been regarded as putative or proven vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania in Brazil, but data for the northeastern region remains incipient. In this study, a total of 600 phlebotomine sand flies were grouped in pools of 10 specimens each and tested by a Leishmania genus-specific PCR and by a PCR targeting Leishmania (Leishmania infantum. Fourteen out of 60 pools were positive by the genus-specific PCR, being five pools of L. migonei, seven of L. complexa, one of L. sordellii and one of L. naftalekatzi, which correspond to a minimal infection rate of 2.3% (14/600. Our results, associated with their known anthropophily and their abundance, suggest the participation of L. migonei and L. complexa as vectors of Leishmania in northeastern Brazil. Remarkably, this is the first time in this country that the detection of Leishmania DNA in L. sordellii and L. naftalekatzi has been reported, but future studies are necessary to better understand the significance of these findings.

  15. Detection of Leishmania major DNA within wild caught Phlebotomus papatasi and species composition of sand flies in endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, A; Rassi, Y; Oshaghi, M A; Sayyadi, M; Rafizadeh, S

    2016-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important public health problem in many developing countries. The present study was conducted to determine the vector(s), the parasite and the species composition of sand flies in the Dehloran County during May-November 2012. Sand flies were collected by sticky traps and mounted in Puri's medium for species identification. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used for identification of DNA of Leishmania parasites in infected sand flies. A total of 82443 specimens comprising 15 species of sand flies (5 Phlebotomus and 10 Sergentomyia) were collected and identified. The species of Phlebotomus papatasi was dominant in outdoor and indoor resting places. Among the 280 specimens of female P. papatasi tested by PCR of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA genes of the parasite followed by RFLP, only 5 of them (1.8 %) were positive to Leishmania major parasites. This is the first molecular detection of leishmania infection of P. papatasi to L. major in this region. The results indicated that, P. papatasi was only species found infected by L. major and the principal vector of disease agent to human.

  16. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to identify host-feeding preferences of Phlebotomus species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Ian; Roy, Lalita; Picado, Albert; Das, Murari; Rijal, Suman; Rogers, Matthew; Coosemans, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive; Cameron, Mary

    2010-09-01

    Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis, transmitted by Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale & Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies, is regarded as a major problem of public health importance in the Indian subcontinent. Understanding the feeding behavior of the vector can be used to investigate changes in human-vector contact during intervention programs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified to make it suitable to identify the origin of P. argentipes and Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) blood meals. The sensitivity and specificity of the precipitin ring test and ELISA were compared, as well as the stability of the tests across different stages of blood meal digestion. The ELISA was more sensitive and specific than the precipitin test for identifying the sources of blood meals. When using the ELISA method with a plate reader, it was possible to obtain 100% sensitivity and specificity. When comparing the techniques across digestion stages, it was found that there was a drop in sensitivity, 48 and 72 h postblood meal for precipitin and visually read ELISA, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA using a plate reader was not altered by the digestion time. The feeding habits of P. argentipes and P. papatasi from the Terai region of Nepal, determined by the ELISA developed, showed P. papatasi to be highly anthropophilic, and P. argentipes appeared to feed both on humans and animals, in particular bovines.

  17. Hepatitis A virus epidemiology in Turkey as universal childhood vaccination begins: seroprevalence and endemicity by region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Tayfur; Köroğlu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Özbek, Ahmet; Terzi, Hüseyin A; Altındiş, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive examination of current distribution of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence and endemicity in Turkey and the possible links between HAV endemicity and socioeconomic development. We performed a systematic search in online resources published between January 2000 and August 2015. The 22 provinces were able to be assigned a hepatitis A endemicity level based on this systematic review. The incidence rates for symptomatic hepatitis A infection are higher in the eastern part of Turkey than in the western and central region. These differences in socioeconomic indicators by region suggest the likelihood of lower seroprevalence rates in the western parts of the country and higher rates in the eastern region. Turkey's current policy of recommending hepatitis A immunization for all children without contraindications is an appropriate one and is likely to remain the best option for at least the next decade or two.

  18. The sandflies of the Satluj river valley, Himachal Pradesh (India): some possible vectors of the parasite causing human cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases in this endemic focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nand Lal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Ranjan, Nitin; Verma, Ghanshyam K; Negi, Ajit K; Mehta, Karan Inder S

    2009-06-01

    The recently recognized endemic focus of leishmaniasis in Satluj river valley in Himachal Pradesh (India) lies in north-western Himalayas (30 degrees N, 70 degrees E). This endemic focus of leishmaniasis appears peculiar where localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) co-exists with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and Leishmania donovani is predominant pathogen for LCL whereas only a few cases have been due to Leishmania tropica. This study was carried out to collect sandflies, identify and delineate their habitat and role in transmission of human leishmaniasis in this endemic focus. During June 2003 to September 2007, 142 (M-22, F-120) sandflies were collected with aspirators from 10 endemic villages of Kinnaur and Shimla districts. Sixty-two of the identified sandflies caught belonged to the genus Phlebotomus species, including some species that are known to act as vectors of the parasites causing human leishmaniasis. The Phlebotomus (Adlerius) chinensis longiductus (Parrot), 1928 (28 sandflies), P. major (8 sandflies), P. (Larroussius) kandelakii burneyi (Lewis), 1967 (8 sandflies) were identified. The identification of the main species of vector sandfly in the region is complicated because it is still uncertain which Leishmania species cause(s) the local human leishmaniasis. Circumstantially it seems likely, however, that Phlebotomus (Adlerius) chinensis longiductus is the main vector. Other species found, such as P. major and P. (Larroussius) kandelakii burneyi, may also be responsible for some cases. A more elaborate study is recommended.

  19. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  20. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  1. Experimental infections of wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) from nephropatia epidemica endemic and non-endemic regions revealed slight differences in Puumala virological course and immunological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Adélaïde; Castel, Guillaume; Murri, Séverine; Pulido, Coralie; Pons, Jean-Baptiste; Benoit, Laure; Loiseau, Anne; Lakhdar, Latifa; Galan, Maxime; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Marianneau, Philippe

    2017-05-02

    In Europe, the occurrence of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a human disease caused by Puumala virus (PUUV), exhibits considerable geographical heterogeneity despite the continuous distribution of its reservoir, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. To better understand the causes of this heterogeneity, wild voles sampled in two adjacent NE endemic and non-endemic regions of France were infected experimentally with PUUV. The responses of bank voles to PUUV infection, based on the levels of anti-PUUV IgG and viral RNA, were compared. Slight regional differences were highlighted despite the high inter-individual variability. Voles from the NE non-endemic region showed greater immune responsiveness to PUUV infection, but lower levels of RNA in their organs than voles from the endemic region. These results suggest the existence of regional variations in the sensitivity of bank voles that could contribute to the apparent absence of PUUV circulation among voles and the absence of NE in the non-endemic region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Borneo : a quantitative analysis of botanical richness, endemicity and floristic regions based on herbarium records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Based on the digitized herbarium records housed at the National Herbarium of the Netherlands I developed high spatial resolution patterns of Borneo's botanical richness, endemicity, and the floristic regions. The patterns are derived from species distribution models which predict a species

  3. Leishmaniasis in the middle East: incidence and epidemiology.

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    Nasir Salam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature.

  4. Aspects on the Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Guaraí, State of Tocantins, Brazil, Endemic Area for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; de Santana, Antônio Luís Ferreira; Graser, Carina; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Vilela, Maurício Luiz

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) ecology involves a diversity of Leishmania species transmitted by different sand fly species. Workers involved in agricultural activities are those mainly affected by ACL in some regions from Tocantins State (TO), Brazil, where the disease can be established in new settlements. The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and hourly frequency of sand fly species, focusing on the potential vectors of ACL, in a settlement in Guaraí (TO), an ACL transmission area. Sand flies were captured in forested area close to Pedra Branca Agricultural Project settlement, from March 2006 until December 2007, using Shannon trap. Monthly captures were made from 06:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., and 24-h captures were done twice per semester, from 06:00 a.m. to 06:00 a.m. A total of 10,089 specimens from 30 species were identified. Psychodopygus complexus Mangabeira, Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, and Nyssomyia antunesi Coutinho were the most abundant species. Nyssomyia antunesi was more frequent during the dry period, whereas Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi had high frequencies during the rainy season. Precipitation was positively correlated with Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi abundance, and negatively correlated with Ny. antunesi During 24-h captures, the majority of specimens were captured during the night followed by a decrease at dawn. The behavior and previous finding of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis of Ps. complexus led us to the conclusion that this species can be a potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis during the rainy season in Guaraí. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

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    Mobegi Victor A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values  Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region.

  6. Leishmaniasis — Surprise from the East

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    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 4-year-old child is presented in the article. The child came to the Crimea from area where leishmaniasis is endemic — Republic of Uzbekistan. Clinical case is interesting for consideration in terms of differential diagnosis of specific rash.

  7. Screening of Hemoglobin disorder in non-endemic region

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    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are group of inherited disorders which can broadly be classified into qualitative and quantitative defects. Qualitative defects include Sickle cell anemia whereas quantitative defect includes Thalassemia.  Sickle cell anemia is characterised by abnormality in the structure of haemoglobin in particular substitution of adenine in sixth codon of β gene (GAG-GTG, thereby encoding valine instead of glutamic acid in sixth position of β chain.1 In thalassemia there is reduced production of one or more globin chains. Thalassemia is generally classified into two broad categories: α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia usually caused by deletions of one or all four alleles of α- genes and point mutation β gene respectively. This results in reduction or absence in globin chain synthesis.Hemoglobinopathies can be either in trait or disease condition. People with traits do not require medical or follow-up care after the initial diagnosis is made. People with β-thalassemia trait should be warned that their condition can be misdiagnosed as the more common iron deficiency anemia and should avoid routine use of iron supplements. Counselling is indicated in all persons with genetic disorders, especially when the family is at risk of a severe form of disease that may be prevented.In Nepal, though actual data is not available, increased incidence of hemoglobinopathies is observed among the ethnic community of Terai region. As we know, inherited haemoglobin disorders (sickle-cell disorders and thalassaemias were originally characteristic of the tropics and subtropics. However, due to migration it has become common worldwide.2-5 In Nepal; hemoglobinopathies are seen in other population than from Terai. Hemoglobinopathies can be controlled cost-effectively by programmes that integrate treatment with carrier detection and genetic counselling, WHO has recommended global development of these services.5 A policy of detecting carriers and informing

  8. Military Relevant Infectious Diseases Endemic to Kenya: Vaccine and Clinical Trials and Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    have historically impacted military operations. Malaria is hyper-endemic in the coastal lowlands and lake regions of Kenya, leishmaniasis focally...al., Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 in blood, plasma, and serum . Clin Vaccine

  9. Bank vole immunoheterogeneity may limit Nephropatia Epidemica emergence in a French non-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A; Castel, G; Murri, S; Pulido, C; Pons, J-B; Benoit, L; Loiseau, A; Lakhdar, L; Galan, M; Marianneau, P; Charbonnel, N

    2018-03-01

    Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.

  10. Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2013-03-01

    In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors. Three main foci were identified in eighty's decade: Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region, Lisbon region and Algarve region, but according to OnLeish observatory data, canine leishmaniasis cases have been reported from several other regions, for which sand fly species and their infection rates are unknown. This study is the first phlebotomine survey in Torres Novas municipality, Santarém District, Portugal. The main objectives were to identify the phlebotomine species, their bioecological aspects, Leishmania infection rate and the risk factors for the presence of phlebotomine species in the municipality. From June to November, 2010, 275 biotopes were surveyed with CDC light-traps. Captures covered the 17 parishes of the municipality and included domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic biotopes. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania and bloodmeal identification. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for phlebotomine presence. Nonparametric tests were used to compare densities of independent groups. A total of 1262 sand flies were captured and identified, and four species detected: P. perniciosus (73.69%), P. ariasi (8.16%), P. sergenti (6.58%) and Sergentomyia minuta (11.57%). In 71.4% localities at least one L. infantum proven vector species was present. Risk factors were identified as: high average temperatures and low relative humidities, sheltered locations and absence of strong wind, presence of pine trees as dominant vegetation, peridomestic biotopes, particularly sheep pens or proximity of sheep, poultry and house martin nests. L. infantum infection rate was 4% for P. ariasi and 0.48% for the total of Larroussius females. P. perniciosus females exhibited an opportunistic behavior, feeding in a wide variety of

  11. Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission.

  12. Locally Confined Clonal Complexes of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Two Buruli Ulcer Endemic Regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolz, Miriam; Bratschi, Martin W; Kerber, Sarah; Minyem, Jacques C; Um Boock, Alphonse; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre Franklin; Junghanss, Thomas; Brites, Daniela; Harris, Simon R; Parkhill, Julian; Pluschke, Gerd; Lamelas Cabello, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU), which has been reported from over 30 countries worldwide. The majority of notified patients come from West African countries, such as Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin and Cameroon. All clinical isolates of M. ulcerans from these countries are closely related and their genomes differ only in a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We performed a molecular epidemiological study with clinical isolates from patients from two distinct BU endemic regions of Cameroon, the Nyong and the Mapé river basins. Whole genome sequencing of the M. ulcerans strains from these two BU endemic areas revealed the presence of two phylogenetically distinct clonal complexes. The strains from the Nyong river basin were genetically more diverse and less closely related to the M. ulcerans strain circulating in Ghana and Benin than the strains causing BU in the Mapé river basin. Our comparative genomic analysis revealed that M. ulcerans clones diversify locally by the accumulation of SNPs. Case isolates coming from more recently emerging BU endemic areas, such as the Mapé river basin, may be less diverse than populations from longer standing disease foci, such as the Nyong river basin. Exchange of strains between distinct endemic areas seems to be rare and local clonal complexes can be easily distinguished by whole genome sequencing.

  13. Locally Confined Clonal Complexes of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Two Buruli Ulcer Endemic Regions of Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bolz

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU, which has been reported from over 30 countries worldwide. The majority of notified patients come from West African countries, such as Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin and Cameroon. All clinical isolates of M. ulcerans from these countries are closely related and their genomes differ only in a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs.We performed a molecular epidemiological study with clinical isolates from patients from two distinct BU endemic regions of Cameroon, the Nyong and the Mapé river basins. Whole genome sequencing of the M. ulcerans strains from these two BU endemic areas revealed the presence of two phylogenetically distinct clonal complexes. The strains from the Nyong river basin were genetically more diverse and less closely related to the M. ulcerans strain circulating in Ghana and Benin than the strains causing BU in the Mapé river basin.Our comparative genomic analysis revealed that M. ulcerans clones diversify locally by the accumulation of SNPs. Case isolates coming from more recently emerging BU endemic areas, such as the Mapé river basin, may be less diverse than populations from longer standing disease foci, such as the Nyong river basin. Exchange of strains between distinct endemic areas seems to be rare and local clonal complexes can be easily distinguished by whole genome sequencing.

  14. Borneo: a quantitative analysis of botanical richness, endemicity and floristic regions based on herbarium records

    OpenAIRE

    Raes, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Based on the digitized herbarium records housed at the National Herbarium of the Netherlands I developed high spatial resolution patterns of Borneo's botanical richness, endemicity, and the floristic regions. The patterns are derived from species distribution models which predict a species occurrence based on the identified relationships between species recorded presences and the ecological circumstances at those localities. A new statistical method was developed to test the species distribut...

  15. Abundance, composition and natural infection of Anopheles mosquitoes from two malaria-endemic regions of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Montoya; Priscila Bascuñán; Julián Rodríguez-Zabala; Margarita M. Correa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In Colombia there are three Anopheles species implicated in malaria transmission as primary vectors; however, the local role of some Anopheles species must still be defined. Objective: To determine the abundance, composition and natural infection rates for Anopheles mosquitoes with Plasmodium spp. in two malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. Materials and methods: Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using the human-landing catches and while resting in livestock corrals in n...

  16. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munguía-Pérez; E. Díaz-Cabrera; N. Martínez-Montiel; J. Muñoz-Rojas; R. Martínez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico), a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%), T. rubrum (7.5%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.5...

  17. Indigenous Vibrio cholerae strains from a non-endemic region are pathogenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atiqul; Labbate, Maurizio; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Alam, Munirul; Darling, Aaron; Melvold, Jacqueline; Holmes, Andrew J.; Johura, Fatema T.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Charles, Ian G.; Stokes, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Of the 200+ serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, only O1 or O139 strains are reported to cause cholera, and mostly in endemic regions. Cholera outbreaks elsewhere are considered to be via importation of pathogenic strains. Using established animal models, we show that diverse V. cholerae strains indigenous to a non-endemic environment (Sydney, Australia), including non-O1/O139 serogroup strains, are able to both colonize the intestine and result in fluid accumulation despite lacking virulence factors believed to be important. Most strains lacked the type three secretion system considered a mediator of diarrhoea in non-O1/O13 V. cholerae. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the Sydney isolates did not form a single clade and were distinct from O1/O139 toxigenic strains. There was no correlation between genetic relatedness and the profile of virulence-associated factors. Current analyses of diseases mediated by V. cholerae focus on endemic regions, with only those strains that possess particular virulence factors considered pathogenic. Our data suggest that factors other than those previously well described are of potential importance in influencing disease outbreaks. PMID:23407641

  18. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes -environmental and water bug transmission- to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission.

  19. Leishmaniasis, an emerging infection in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2010-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection with a wide clinical spectrum, which ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. A review of the recent literature indicates a sharp increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries over the last decade, in association with increasing international tourism, military operations, and the influx of immigrants from endemic countries. South America is the main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas are at particular risk. Popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas of acquisition of visceral leishmaniasis for European travelers. Leishmaniasis should be considered in patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years ago. Appropriate counseling should be provided to adventure travelers, military personnel, researchers, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sandflies in endemic areas. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nível de conhecimentos sobre Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA e uso de terapias alternativas por populações de uma área endêmica da Amazônia do Maranhão, Brasil Awareness of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and use of alternative therapies in an endemic area in the Amazon Region in the State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene da Conceição R. Moreira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo visando identificar e comparar que conhecimentos básicos e uso de terapias alternativas relativos à Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, têm populações residentes em cinco áreas rurais (Sexta Vicinal, Quinta Vicinal, Trilha 410, Vila União e Buritizinho pertencentes ao município de Buriticupu, Maranhão. No período de setembro de 1997 a janeiro de 1998, aplicou-se questionários com perguntas abertas e fechadas, abordando aspectos epidemiológicos, modos de prevenção, clínica e terapêutica alternativa. A população estudada foi de 378 (19% indivíduos de um total de 1980 habitantes. Na Sexta Vicinal (35 indivíduos, Quinta Vicinal (63, Trilha 410 (96, Vila União (85 e Buritizinho (99. Dos entrevistados, 72% tinham poucos conhecimentos dos modos de transmissão, 96,9% já ouviram falar da doença, a maioria obteve informações com amigos, 60,7% conheciam a LTA como lésh. O Glucantime foi a droga mais citada para o tratamento, 29,6% relataram uso de plantas no local da lesão. O Citrus limon (limão foi a planta mais citada (15,4% dos entrevistados, o modo de uso mais freqüente era o pó espalhado sobre a lesão. Conclui-se que o nível de conhecimento sobre LTA foi incipiente, principalmente na prevenção e terapêutica, situação similar nas cinco áreas estudadas.The level of knowledge concerning American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and use of alternative therapies was evaluated in five rural communities in Buriticupu, Maranhão State, Brazil. The study lasted from September 1997 to January 1998. Local inhabitants answered an interview on housing conditions, epidemiological aspects, prevention, standard clinical treatment, and alternative therapies. The study population was 378 (19% out of a total of 1,980 inhabitants, from Sexta Vicinal (35, Quinta Vicinal (63, Trilha 410 (96, Vila União (85, and Buritizinho (99. Of the interviewees, 72% had little knowledge of ATL transmission, 96% had heard

  1. Karyosystematic and morphometric characterization of the rodents as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani Bidabadi, L; Nilforoushzadeh, M A; Akhavan, A A; Abdoli, H; Siadat, A H; Jaffary, F; Hejazi, S H; Shareghi, N; Ghanei, M; Arandian, M; Moradi, S H

    2009-03-01

    Rodents belonging to Gerbillinae subfamily are the main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Iran. Regarding the important role of these rodents in the maintenance of Leishmania major in the nature, their identification with morphometric, cytogenetic and molecular methods seems to be essential. The karyotype study of these species, captured from a new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the south of Isfahan Province was carried out in 2007. Twenty specimens containing seventeen Meriones persicus and three Nesokia indica were captured from Mobarakeh rural district south of Isfahan. Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these two species were prepared from bone marrow chromosome preparations. Systematic important characters of the body and cranium (incisors, molars, occipitonasal, condylobasal, zygomatic, tympanic bullae, etc.) of these rodents were studied. Cranium size was measured using a Vernier calipers. Specimens of M. persicus and N. indica had 2n = 42. The karyotype study of these species included metacentric, sub-metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes. Morphological studies were completely matched with the reported characters of these species and further confirmed the diagnoses. Based on the results of this study, M. persicus and N. indica are two completely differentiated rodents species that were collected from a new focus and they can also be differentiated morphologically.

  2. Diversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Two Different Eco-Climatic and Endemic Zones of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mali, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, C A; Sissoko, I; Traore, B; Diallo, A; Samake, S; Traore, S F; Doumbia, S

    2016-07-01

    Being the only established vectors of the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, sand flies have become very important in all countries where leishmaniasis exists. To better understand the sand fly fauna, a taxonomic inventory study was carried out between January and March 2012 in Soudan savannah (Boundioba, Sikasso) and Sahelian (Tieneguebougou, Koulikoro) areas of Mali. CDC light traps were used to collect the sand flies. Collected sand flies specimens were cleaned with lacto-phenol and examined under a light microscope for species identification. In total, 14 species belonging to the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia were identified. The genus Sergentomyia constituted 98.05% of collected sand flies versus 1.95% for the genus Phlebotomus. The most abundant species were Sergentomyia dubia Parrot, Mornet, & Cadenat, Sergentomyia shwetzi, Sergentomyia clydei Sinton, and Sergentomyia antennata Newstead. In Boundioba, the genus Phlebotomus was represented by two species (Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu-Lemaire and Phlebotomus rodhaini Parrot), whereas only one species, Ph. duboscqi, was captured in Tieneguebougou. For the first time, three new species, Sergentomyia madagascariensis, Sergentomyia congolensis, and Sergentomyia dureni, were identified in Mali. More investigations are needed for a better entomological assessment of the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the different eco-climatic zones of Mali. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Faunal Distribution and Seasonal Bio-Ecology of Naturally Infected Sand Flies in a New Endemic Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus of Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Parvinjahromi, Hayedeh; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Sarkari, Bahador; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Iran in spite of implementation of control program. This infectious disease caused morbidity in less than 27000 people in 2010. This study was set to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in Fasa district, Fars Province, southern Iran during 2011-2012. A total of 4792 sand flies were captured by means of sticky paper and CDC miniature light traps in 10 selected villages from the beginning to the end of the active season, from which 1115 specimens were captured for abundance study and 3677 specimens captured for monitoring monthly activities in Fasa. After species identification, extracted DNA was processed for detection of Leishmania parasite infection in sand flies. Twelve species (6 Phlebotomus , 6 Sergentomyia ) were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi (82.4%) which represented 86.6% of sand flies from indoors and 82.7% from outdoors. The monthly activity of the species extended from April to the end of November. There were two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in September. Natural infection to L. major was detected in P. papatasi (25 out of 130 sand flies, 19.2%) . Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fasa, Fars Province, south of Iran.

  4. Ecological aspects of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of phlebotomine behavior were investigated in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The insects were captured weekly during December 2003 to November 2005, with Centers for Disease Control light traps at seven different sites including forests and residential areas. In total, 11,024 specimens (7,805 males and 3,219 females) were collected, from which 9,963 (90.38%) were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the proven vector of American visceral leishmaniasis agent. The remaining 9.62% comprised 21 species. L. longipalpis was the most frequent species in all sampled sites, and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index. In residential areas this species clearly predominated in the peridomicile (90.96%), in contrast to the intradomicile (9.04%); in animal shelters, it was more numerous in hen houses and prevailed at ground level, inside, and at forest edge around the residences; this aspect is worrying because this insect may remain sheltered in forested environments during the use of insecticides in homes. In the forest environment, other probable or proven vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis agents were also captured such as Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati), Lutzomyia antunesi (=Nyssomyia antunesi, sensu Galati), and Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (=Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, sensu Galati).

  5. Detection of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis in Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the major salivary glands: Predictors of survival in a non-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kevin Y; Nicolli, Elizabeth A; Khaja, Sobia F; Day, Terry A

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) of the salivary glands is extremely rare worldwide, with studies limited to small case reports and case series from endemic areas (Southern China, Arctic Inuits) and strong association to Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Studies on non-endemic regions are even more limited given the reality of only sporadic cases in these areas. Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we present the largest study on salivary LEC from a non-endemic region, the United States. A retrospective review of the NCDB from 1998-2012 for LEC of the major salivary glands was performed. Demographic and clinical variables were extracted for analysis. Multivariate COX regression was used to assess predictors of survival. Two hundred and thirty-eight cases were identified (0.66% of all salivary cancers). Median age at diagnosis was 62 with peak incidence in ages 50-70. Most patients were Caucasian (81.2%), without gender preference. Regional metastasis was common (45.1%) and did not significantly impact survival. Distant metastasis was rare (2%). Overall survival (OS) at 5- and 10 years was 77% and 56%. Surgery and radiotherapy significantly showed better survival outcomes than surgery alone (p62, advanced stage, and dual modality therapy were significant predictors of survival in multivariate analysis. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the US mostly affects an older, Caucasian demographic. Regional metastasis is common and survival is fair at 5- and 10 years. Surgery and radiation are recommended for early and advanced disease stages. Age, stage, and therapy are significant predictors of survival outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymorphic sequence in the ND3 region of Java endemic Ploceidae birds mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SUSANTI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Susanti R (2011 Polymorphic sequence in the ND3 region of Java endemic Ploceidae birds mitochondrial DNA. Biodiversitas 12: 70-75. As part of biodiversity, Ploceidae bird family must be kept away from extinction and degradation of gene-diversity. This research was aimed to analyze ND3 gene from mitochondrial DNA of Java Island endemic of Ploceidae bird. Each species of Ploceidae birds family was identified based on their morphological character, then the blood sample was taken from the birds nail vein. DNA was isolated from blood using Dixit method. Fragment of ND3 gene was amplified using PCR method with specific primer pairs and sequenced using dideoxy termination method with ABI automatic sequencer. Multiple alignment of ND3 nucleotide sequences were analyzed using ClustalW of MEGA-3.1 program. Estimation of genetic distance and phylogenetic tree construction were analyzed with Neighbor-Joining method and calculation of distance matrix with Kimura 2 –parameter. The result of Java Island endemic of Ploceidae bird family exploration showed that Erythrura hyperythra and Lonchura ferruginosa can not be found anymore in nature, but the Lonchura malacca that are not actually Java island endemic was also found. Nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial ND3 gene of Ploceidae bird family showed a quite high polymorphism, with 122 substitutions from 334 nucleotides analyzed. Phylogenetic tree of nucleotide sequence of Ploceidae bird family formed 2 clusters. One cluster consisted of the Ploceus hypoxanthus, Ploceus philippinus, Ploceus manyar and Passer montanus, and the others species were included in the second cluster. ND3 gene sequence data from this Ploceidae family need to be analyzed further to see possible relationship with a particular phenotype.

  8. Didelphis marsupialis (common opossum): a potential reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; da Silva, Eduardo S.; van der Meide, Wendy F.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Gontijo, Celia M. F.

    2007-01-01

    Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte,

  9. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries. The cases of leishmaniasis evaluated in the United States reflect travel and immigration patterns. For example, many of the cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in U.S. civilian travelers have been acquired in common tourist ... found in the United States? Not usually. Almost all of the cases of ...

  10. A field study of the survival and dispersal pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Claudio; Pimentel Bergamaschi, Denise

    2018-01-01

    Zoonotic Visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a neglected tropical disease that in the Americas is caused by the infection of Leishmania infantum and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is the main parasite reservoir in urban areas. The parasite is mainly transmitted by populations of the sibling species Lutzomyia longipalpis that has been spreading in countries including Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and more recently Uruguay. Although bionomic parameters such as population survival and the duration of the gonotrophic cycle are critical in evaluating vector capacity, field studies have rarely been applied to sand fly populations. The present study sought to evaluate basic bionomic parameters related to the vectorial capacity of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area of Sao Paulo state. The daily survival rate, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle and the dispersal pattern were evaluated through the mark- release-recapture method. A total of 1,547 males and 401 females were marked and released in five experiments carried out between February 2013 and February 2014. The higher recapture rates occurred within 100 meters of the release point and the estimated daily survival rates varied between 0.69 and 0.89 for females and between 0.69 and 0.79 for males. The minimum duration of the gonotrophic cycle observed was five days. The absolute population size, calculated ranged from 900 to 4,857 females and from 2,882 to 9,543 males. Our results demonstrate a high survival rate of this vector population and low dispersal that could be associated with the presence of all necessary conditions for its establishment and maintenance in the peridomiciles of this area. Our findings contribute to the basic data necessary for the understanding of ZVL dynamics and the evaluation of the implementation of prevention and control measures. PMID:29608563

  11. A field study of the survival and dispersal pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Casanova, Claudio; Pimentel Bergamaschi, Denise; Bianchi Galati, Eunice Aparecida

    2018-04-01

    Zoonotic Visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a neglected tropical disease that in the Americas is caused by the infection of Leishmania infantum and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is the main parasite reservoir in urban areas. The parasite is mainly transmitted by populations of the sibling species Lutzomyia longipalpis that has been spreading in countries including Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and more recently Uruguay. Although bionomic parameters such as population survival and the duration of the gonotrophic cycle are critical in evaluating vector capacity, field studies have rarely been applied to sand fly populations. The present study sought to evaluate basic bionomic parameters related to the vectorial capacity of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area of Sao Paulo state. The daily survival rate, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle and the dispersal pattern were evaluated through the mark- release-recapture method. A total of 1,547 males and 401 females were marked and released in five experiments carried out between February 2013 and February 2014. The higher recapture rates occurred within 100 meters of the release point and the estimated daily survival rates varied between 0.69 and 0.89 for females and between 0.69 and 0.79 for males. The minimum duration of the gonotrophic cycle observed was five days. The absolute population size, calculated ranged from 900 to 4,857 females and from 2,882 to 9,543 males. Our results demonstrate a high survival rate of this vector population and low dispersal that could be associated with the presence of all necessary conditions for its establishment and maintenance in the peridomiciles of this area. Our findings contribute to the basic data necessary for the understanding of ZVL dynamics and the evaluation of the implementation of prevention and control measures.

  12. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Codeço de OLIVEIRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT. The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%. Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4, animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6, and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1 were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area.

  13. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de OLIVEIRA, Amanda Codeço; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; SANTOS, Fernanda Nunes; de SOUZA, Marcos Barbosa; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; PÉRISSÉ, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area. PMID:26422157

  14. The case of diagnosis of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Savelyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Article presents the current data on the clinical and epidemiological issue of leishmaniasis. Methods and results. Leishmaniasis is endemic disease in 88 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Probability of importation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in our country is practically zero, but, given the rarity of this disease, we present own clinical observation of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye. At the beginning of the third millennium has greatly increased the urgency of tropical parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. According to WHO, the world's 14 million people are infected each year there is about 2 million new cases and about 350 million live in areas at risk. Leishmaniasis - a group of vector-borne protozoal disease in humans and animals characterized by lesions of the internal organs (visceral leishmaniasis or the skin and mucous membranes (cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is the vector mosquitoes. We present their own clinical observations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis imported. Patient S., 41 years was hospitalized in Zaporozhye Regional Clinical Hospital infectious on 07.17.2013, with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis. From the history of the disease is known that for the first time in February 2013 the patient have got relative to blade area redness and bump that appeared above the skin, and had a magnitude of 2,3 mm brownish-red. To the doctor the patient has not addressed. After 1,5-2 months bump grew and he began to stand out ichor, which dries and formed a crust on top of the hump. Further small ulcers that did not bring discomfort and pain to the patient appeared. However, every month ulcer increased. In July, after vacation at sea, rose weeping sores and perifocal inflammation appeared. Ulcer size reached 2 cm in diameter. The patient first applied to the dermatologist at the beginning of July 2013. Dermatologist excluded secondary syphilis and tuberculosis skin and sent to an

  15. Phylogeography of the endemic grasshopper genus Betiscoides (Lentulidae) in the South African Cape Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenaar, Daniela; Fingerle, Marcus; Heym, Eva; Wirtz, Sarah; Hochkirch, Axel

    2018-01-01

    Vicariance and dispersal are two important processes shaping biodiversity patterns. The South African Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is known for its high biotic diversity and endemism. However, studies on the phylogeography of endemic invertebrates in this biodiversity hotspot are still scarce. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of the flightless grasshopper genus Betiscoides, which is endemic to the CFR and strongly associated with restio plants (Restionaceae). We hypothesized that the genus originated in the southwestern part of the CFR, that differentiation within the genus is mainly an effect of vicariance and that the three known species only represent a minor fraction of the real genetic diversity of the genus. We inferred the phylogeny based on sequences of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from 99 Betiscoides specimens collected across the CFR. Furthermore, we conducted a SDIVA analysis to detect distributions of ancestral nodes and the possible spatial origin of these lineages. Strong differentiation among genetic lineages was shown. The ancestor of this genus was most likely distributed in the southwestern CFR. Five major lineages were detected, three of which were ancestrally distributed in the southwestern CFR. The ancestors of the two other lineages were distributed in the northern and eastern margins of the CFR. A total of 24 divergent evolutionary lineages were found, reflecting the geographical isolation of restio-dominated fynbos habitats. Dispersal played a more prominent role than expected in differentiation of Betiscoides. While the five main lineages were separated during a first phase via dispersal, differentiation occurred later and on smaller spatial scale, predominantly driven by isolation in montane refugia (i.e. vicariance). Our study also suggests that flightless insect taxa likely show high levels of differentiation in biodiversity hotspots with their taxonomy often being incomplete. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Molecular diagnosis of Leishmania mexicana in a cutaneous leishmaniasis case in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Diaz, Yssete O; Lopez-Moreno, Carmina Y; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose G; Lopez-Moreno, Hector S

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has been considered endemic in Sinaloa, Mexico, since 1994. Despite that Leishmania mexicana is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in other regions of Mexico, the species causing CL in patients from Sinaloa state has not been previously established, although Leishmania braziliensis has been found in the neighboring southern state, Nayarit. L. braziliensis is also associated with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a more complicated clinical variant. Due to the implications on individual and public health, the objective of this report was to identify the Leishmania species present in Sinaloa, Mexico. Using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, we identified L. mexicana in a CL patient from Sinaloa and confirmed the extended distribution of this parasite in Mexico.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Sand Fly Vectors and Eco-Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Cristina; López, Marla; Fuya, Patricia; Lugo, Ligia; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; González, Camila

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania is transmitted by Phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector’s search for blood source. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (CL), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on th...

  18. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

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    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  19. A Case of Presumed Tuberculosis Uveitis with Occlusive Vasculitis from an Endemic Region

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    Berna Başarır

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a case with presumed unilateral tuberculosis uveitis from an endemic region. A 23-year-old male presented with decreased vision in his left eye for 15 days. Visual acuities were 1.0 in his right eye and 0.3 in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination was normal for the right eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed 2+ cells in the vitreous without anterior chamber reaction in his left eye. Fundus examination revealed occlusive vasculitis and granuloma. His history revealed that he had a respiratory infection with fever 3 months ago while visiting his native country, Rwanda, and was treated with non-specific antibiotic therapy. His visual symptom started 2 weeks after his systemic symptoms resolved. Laboratory findings included 15 mm induration in purified protein derivative tuberculin skin test, HIV negativity, and parenchymal lesions in chest X-ray. Bronchoalveolar lavage was negative for acid-fast bacillus. A pulmonary disease consultant reported presumed tuberculosis because of the patient’s history. Anti-tuberculosis treatment was initiated. The patient’s visual acuity improved rapidly and his signs regressed. A careful history should be taken from patients with uveitis. Travel to tuberculosis-endemic areas may be important for diagnosis and should be asked about directly.

  20. A new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central area of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Schnell e Schühli, Guilherme; de Carvalho, Yanê; Marques, Ellen; Pereira, Elisângela de Fátima; Alcantara, Fernanda de Souza; Machado, Angela Maria; Kowalthuk, Wolodymir; Membrive, Norberto; Luz, Ennio

    2009-09-01

    We report a new endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the central area of the State of Paraná (Municipality of Prudentópolis), in southern Brazil. This region was not previously considered endemic for CL, and this work constitutes the first report of CL endemicity there. Leishmaniasis was confirmed by smear, culture, and ELISA. Parasites were isolated and identified by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD). Phylogeographical analysis, based on two different criteria, was able to distinguish between RAPD profiles from different geographical regions. In total, 100 patients were diagnosed with leishmaniasis by culture and serology methods. The reported incidence rate was 4.32%. Of the 100 patients, 92% of the patients had single lesions, and 79.98% of these lesions were located on their limbs. The fact that 61% of patients were male rural workers points to an extradomiciliar type of transmission. In houses where human leishmaniasis was diagnosed, 29% of the dogs presented anti-Leishmania antibodies. A total of 1663 phlebotomines, representing 5 species, were captured in the studied area with CDC-like light minitraps. Lutzomyia intermedia s.l. was the most prevalent species (94.40%). The isolated parasites were grouped with Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The epidemiological implications are discussed in the present article.

  1. Isolation and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis species by PCR-RFLP in Ilam province, the west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanjani, Ali; Akhlaghi, Lame; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Hadighi, Ramtin

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most common parasitic diseases and public health problems in Iran. CL is endemic in most parts of Ilam province, in the west of Iran. The distance from the center of country, the great number of divers rural areas, and lack of specialists and laboratory facilities have been the major causes of Leishmania species remaining unknown in this region. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to identify the Leishmania species in 61 patients with cutaneous lesions. Eventually L. major was confirmed as the cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilam province, the west of Iran.

  2. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Mehmet Harman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is used to describe a spectrum of diseases caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania spp. and transmitted by infected female sandflies. There are three main forms of the disease; cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. According to the World Health Organization, almost 12 million people from 98 countries worldwide are currently infected with leishmaniasis, while 350 million people are at risk. It was reported that 2 million new cases are diagnosed every year, with three-fourth are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases. The scientific and medical communities have learnt a lot about CL during the 20th and early 21st centuries. However, the management and control of the disease remains a difficult task. This article was focused on the most common form of the disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and especially its epidemiological aspects and treatment.

  3. [Antimicrobial resistance of Bartonella bacilliformis strains from regions endemic to bartonellosis in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Mujica, Giovanna; Flores-León, Diana

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol (CHL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in strains of Bartonella bacilliformis from areas that are endemic to Bartonellosis in Peru, through three laboratory methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility to CHL and CIP from 100 strains of Bartonella bacilliformis isolated in patients from the regions of Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima and La Libertad were evaluated. Strains were evaluated by: disk diffusion, E-test and agar dilution. 26% of the strains of Bartonella bacilliformis evaluated were resistant to CIP and 1% to CHL. Similar patterns of antimicrobial sensitivity / resistance were obtained in all three methods. Bartonella bacilliformis strains circulating in Peru have high levels of in vitro resistance to CIP, so it is advisable to expand research on the use of drug treatment regimens of the Bartonellosis. The methods of E-test and disk diffusion were the most suitable for assessment in vitro of antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganism.

  4. Pathogens vectored by the tick, Dermacentor reticulatus, in endemic regions and zones of expansion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Radkowski, Marek; Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Bajer, Anna

    2015-09-24

    Dermacentor reticulatus plays an important role in the maintenance of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance in the environment. Currently two isolated populations of D. reticulatus are present in Poland--Western and Eastern. The range of the Eastern population covers endemic areas in eastern Poland but this population is expanding westwards creating an expansion zone in the centre of the country. The expansion zone in western Poland is occupied by the recently discovered Western population, spreading eastwards. Questing adult ticks (n = 2585) were collected in 2012-2014 in endemic regions of north-eastern (Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship) and central Poland (Masovian Voivodeship) and in the expansion zones in central and western Poland, in the region between the Vistula River and the western border of the country. Amplification of Babesia, Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNAs was performed using specific starters. RNA of the TBE virus was detected using RT-PCR and representative PCR products were sequenced and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. Of the total 2585 examined ticks, 1197 (46.3 %) were infected with at least one pathogen. Overall prevalence of pathogens was 4.18 % (108/2585) for Babesia spp., 44.10 % (1140/2585) for Rickettsia spp., 0.09 % (1/1107) for Borrelia afzelii and 7.6 % (7/92) for TBEV. Sequence analysis of DNA showed 99.86 % similarity to R. raoulti and 99.81 % to B. canis. One male from north-eastern Poland was infected with B. microti. Prevalence of R. raoulti was highest in the Western population (52.03 %) and lowest in the Eastern population in north-eastern Poland (34.18 %). Babesia canis was not detected in 592 ticks collected in the Western population, while in the Eastern population overall prevalence was 5.42 %. There were significant differences in the prevalence of B. canis between tick samples from northern (0.68 %), central (1.18 %) and southern (14.8 %) areas of the expansion zone in

  5. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge - A review

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    Manuel Calvopina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan: an update | El Hassan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L.major is now endemic in many parts of the northern Sudan. In this up-date we discuss the clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis, its diagnosis and treatment. The most common clinical forms are nodular, noduloulcerative and ulcerative lesions. Less common forms are ...

  7. The changing profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in a central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduced to non-endemic areas, leading to the emergence of new zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) foci, provided that ecological conditions such as the presence of potential vectors and reservoir hosts, are in favor of the parasite lifecycle. Therefore, we could hypothesize that zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis had ...

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient receiving methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; Güell, Elena; Martínez Montauti, Joaquín; Pineda, Antonio; Corominas, Hèctor

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are susceptible to severe infections such as leishmaniasis. As L. infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean region, it is necessary to rule this infectious process out in any RA patient presenting with fever and pancytopenia. An early diagnosis based on a high suspicion can prevent a fatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. Common variants in the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 HLA class II region are associated with susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakiola, Michaela; Strange, Amy; Cordell, Heather J; Miller, E Nancy; Pirinen, Matti; Su, Zhan; Mishra, Anshuman; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Monteiro, Gloria R; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Dronov, Serge; Edkins, Sarah; Freeman, Colin; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Gray, Emma; Hunt, Sarah E; Lacerda, Henio G; Langford, Cordelia; Pearson, Richard; Pontes, Núbia N; Rai, Madhukar; Singh, Shri P; Smith, Linda; Sousa, Olivia; Vukcevic, Damjan; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Wilson, Mary E; Deloukas, Panos; Peltonen, Leena; Christiansen, Frank; Witt, Campbell; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Sundar, Shyam; Spencer, Chris C A; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Donnelly, Peter

    2013-02-01

    To identify susceptibility loci for visceral leishmaniasis, we undertook genome-wide association studies in two populations: 989 cases and 1,089 controls from India and 357 cases in 308 Brazilian families (1,970 individuals). The HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 locus was the only region to show strong evidence of association in both populations. Replication at this region was undertaken in a second Indian population comprising 941 cases and 990 controls, and combined analysis across the three cohorts for rs9271858 at this locus showed P(combined) = 2.76 × 10(-17) and odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-1.52. A conditional analysis provided evidence for multiple associations within the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 region, and a model in which risk differed between three groups of haplotypes better explained the signal and was significant in the Indian discovery and replication cohorts. In conclusion, the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 HLA class II region contributes to visceral leishmaniasis susceptibility in India and Brazil, suggesting shared genetic risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis that cross the epidemiological divides of geography and parasite species.

  10. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological profile of patients treated in Londrina from 1998 to 2009*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Rubens Pontello; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Ogama, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a dermatozoonosis of compulsory notification with relevant morbidity. The disease is considered endemic in northern Paraná. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological aspects of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis treated at Clinics Hospital, State University of Londrina, Brazil (Paraná). METHODS This was an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study. The medical records of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis treated at the University Hospital of Londrina - Paraná, from 1998 to 2009 were evaluated. RESULTS A total of 470 patients, with prevalence of 8.72 cases / 100,000 inhabitants, participated in the study. Most patients were male, aged 21-40 years, with a single ulcerated lesion as the most common clinical presentation, located mainly in an exposed area of the body. With regard to immunological tests, the Montenegro intradermal reaction was positive in 84.4% of cases. Treatment with pentavalent antimony was well tolerated, and patient follow-up for a year occurred in 59% of cases. CONCLUSION American cutaneous leishmaniasis is still an endemic disease in the region, with a high potential for morbidity, but with a cure rate of around 95% after treatment. The use of immunological techniques facilitates the diagnosis of clinically suspicious cases. PMID:24173180

  11. Epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients: experience from thirty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Avelar Alves; Pacheco e Silva Filho, Álvaro; Sesso, Ricardio de Castro Cinta; Esmeraldo, Ronaldo de Matos; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Costa; Fernandes, Paula Frassinetti; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves; de Silva, Leila Silveira Veira; de Carvalho, Valencio Pereira; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Andrade, Jesusmar Ximenes; da Silva, Diana Marisa Barros; Chaves, Roosevelt Valente

    2015-02-25

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania sp. and is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis (sand fly). In renal transplant recipients, visceral leishmaniasis causes severe damage to the liver, spleen, and hematopoietic system, as well as poor outcomes for patients with transplanted kidneys. This study describes the largest series of cases of visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients, providing important information about the diagnostic routines and therapeutic strategies in this patient population. A retrospective, descriptive study was performed to analyze the distribution and evaluate the extent of the epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of 30 renal transplant recipients from endemic regions who presented with visceral leishmaniasis in the post-transplantation period. In this study, visceral leishmaniasis was more frequent in men (80%). The mean age of presentation was 40 ± 10.5 years. The majority of patients worked in urban areas (66.7%), cohabitated with domestic animals (90%), and were from low-income households. In 73.3% of cases, diagnosis was made by direct isolation of Leishmania forms. Patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin, resulting in a high degree of disease remission (80%). This study describes the largest series of visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients and expands clinical-epidemiological knowledge for transplantation teams to perform adequate disease management for this specific patient population.

  12. [Update on tegumentary leishmaniasis and carrion's disease vectors in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; Vásquez, Gissella; Espada, Liz; Ramírez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Among approximately 190 species of Lutzomyia in Peru, only a small number have been identified as vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Western and inter-Andean valleys. These include L. peruensis, L. verrucarum, L. tejadai, L. ayacuchensis, and L. pescei. In the Amazon region, L. yuilli yuilli, L. chagasi, L. davisi, and L. auraensis are naturally infected, among the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. L. auraensis is newly reported as a potential vector of leishmaniasis in neotropical regions. Among the primary and most widely distributed vectors of human bartonellosis or Carrión's disease, L. verrucarum and L. peruensis are predominant in the Andean regions of northern, central, and southern Peru. Other potential vectors of Carrion's disease are L. serrana in the Monzon Valley, Huamalies, and Huanuco; L. pescei in Apurímac and Cusco; and L. robusta and L. maranonensis in Jaén, San Ignacio, and Utcubamba provinces, and the high forests of Peru. Because of the high prevalence of leishmaniasis and bartonellosis outside of known endemic areas in Peru, it is necessary to update data and distribution maps of these disease vectors. This may improve both prevention and control measures. Existing information about sandfly vectors in Peru is also provided in this article.

  13. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bajalan, Mariwan M M; Al-Jaf, Sirwan M A; Niranji, Sherko S; Abdulkareem, Dler R; Al-Kayali, Khudhair K; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017. For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran. In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  14. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis

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    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  15. Dispersal and survival of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the speleological province of the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice AB Galati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal and survival of the phlebotomines Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (both implicated as vectors of the cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in an endemic area was investigated using a capture-mark-release technique in five experiments from August-December 2003 in municipality of Iporanga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1,749 males and 1,262 females of Ny. intermedia and 915 males and 411 females of Ny. neivai were marked and released during the five experiments. Recapture attempts were made using automatic light traps, aspiration in natural resting places and domestic animal shelters and Shannon traps. A total of 153 specimens (3.48% were recaptured: 2.59% (78/3,011 for Ny. intermedia and 5.35% (71/1,326 for Ny. neivai. Both species were recaptured up to 144 h post-release, with the larger part of them recaptured within 48 h. The median dispersion distances for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were 109 m and 100 m. The greatest dispersal range of Ny. intermedia was 180 m, while for Ny. neivai one female was recaptured in a pasture at 250 m and another in a pigsty at 520 m, showing a tendency to disperse to more open areas. The daily survival rates calculated based on regressions of the numbers of marked insects recaptured on the six successive days after release were 0.746 for males and 0.575 for females of Ny. intermedia and 0.649 for both sexes of Ny. neivai. The size of the populations in the five months ranged from 8,332-725,085 for Ny. intermedia males, 2,193-104,490 for Ny. intermedia females, 1,687-350,122 for Ny. neivai males and 254-49,705 for Ny. neivai females.

  16. The immune microenvironment in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, M N; Issa, G; Charafeddine, K; Simaan, Y; Karam, M; Khalifeh, H; Habib, R; Khalifeh, I

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infection that has spread to non-endemic regions, stimulating recent interest for the enhanced understanding of this disease. Downregulation of the CD1a receptor on Langerhans cells has been described in various cutaneous infections. In this study, the immune response across different Ridley patterns and parasitic indices is outlined in a case series of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Skin punch biopsies from the interface of normal and lesional cutaneous leishmaniasis were collected from 33 patients with molecularly confirmed Leishmania tropica or L. major infection. Ridley patterns (2-5) were assessed for various clinicopathological features including age, gender, disease duration, parasitic index and constituents of the inflammatory infiltrate. CD1a, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD138 stains were performed on normal skin tissue, cutaneous leishmaniasis biopsies and cytospin/cell block cytology preparations of cultured leishmania promastigotes. CD1a was quantified per mm2 in the epidermis and dermis. The remaining stains were graded according to a 4-tiered grading system [0 (0-4%); 1 (5-24%); 2 (25-49%); 3 (50-74%) and 4 (75-100%). Total CD1a expression significantly decreased (14-fold) from parasitic indices (0-2) to (5-6); (ρ < 0.001). CD1a expression in the epidermis was at least 5-fold lower than normal skin (58 vs. 400 cells/mm2), inversely correlating with the parasitic index. There was an increase in dermal CD1a Langerhans cells (33 vs. 0 cells/mm² in the dermis). CD1a and CD68 staining of amastigotes was strong and diffuse, whereas promastigotes were negative. The major inflammatory infiltrate, in all Ridley patterns, consisted of macrophages and double-negative CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes. The double-negative CD3 T cells formed a ring around the parasitic laden macrophages. Apart from CD1a, there was no significant difference in inflammatory markers between the various Ridley patterns and parasitic indices. Disease

  17. A novel recombinant Leishmania donovani p45, a partial coding region of methionine aminopeptidase, generates protective immunity by inducing a Th1 stimulatory response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Reema; Kushawaha, Pramod K; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2012-05-01

    The development of a vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge. Identification and proteomic characterization of parasite proteins led to the detection of p45, a member of the methionine aminopeptidase family. To our knowledge the present study is the first known report that describes the molecular and immunological characterization of p45. Recombinant Leishmania donovani p45 (rLdp45) induced cellular responses in cured hamsters and generated Th1-type cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cured/endemic VL patients. Immunization with rLdp45 exerted considerable prophylactic efficacy (∼85%) supported by an increase in mRNA expression of iNOS, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 and decrease in TGF-β and IL-4, indicating its potential as a vaccine candidate against VL. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

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    Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro Coutinho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 and Belo Horizonte (n = 96, where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP. RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary nodules: accuracy in a granulomatous disease-endemic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henz Concatto, Natalia; Watte, Guilherme; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus; Felicetti, Jose Carlos; Camargo, Jose Jesus; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of signal intensity of the lesion-to-spinal cord ratio (LSR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary nodules suspicious for lung cancer in granulomatous lung disease-endemic regions. Forty-nine patients with indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules detected by chest computed tomography and histopathologically confirmed diagnoses were included in the study. DW images were analysed semiquantitatively by focusing regions of interest on the lesion and spinal cord at the same level (for LSR calculation). ADCs were estimated from ratios of the two image signal intensities. Ratios of T1 and T2 signal intensity between nodules and muscle were calculated for comparison. Mean ADCs ± standard deviations for lung cancer and benign lesions were 0.9 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.2 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. Mean LSRs were 1.4 ± 0.3 for lung cancer and 1 ± 0.1 for benign lesions. ADCs and LSRs differed significantly between malignant and benign lesions (P < 0.001). Mean T2 signal intensity ratios also differed significantly between benign and malignant lesions (0.8 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2; P < 0.05). DWI can help to differentiate malignant from benign lesions according to ADC and the LSR with good accuracy. (orig.)

  20. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad District, Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran

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    V Barati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is present in different parts of Iran. Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Iran and other Mediterranean regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis as animal reservoir host for human visceral leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad dis­trict in southwest of Iran.Methods: A seroepidemiological study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL among ownership dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT in 23 of 182 villages of Boyer Ahmad district, during August 2009 to August 2010. One hundred and seventy serum samples from ownership dogs were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling in villages of Boyer Ahmad district. All samples were tested by DAT and anti-Leishmania antibodies titers at ≥ 1:320 was considered as positive.Results: Of the 170 serum samples, 10% were positive by DAT at titers of 1:320 and higher. No statistical significant difference was found between male (10.7% and female (8.3% seroprevalence. The highest seroprevalence rate (15.1% was observed among the ownership dogs of four to seven years age. Altogether, seventeen (25.4% of the seropositive dogs had clinical signs and symptoms.Conclusion: It seems that Boyer Ahmad district is an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran.

  1. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  2. Epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

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    Miskelyemen Abdelatti Elmekki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012–2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%. Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively. Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively. Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5% were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%. Few cases (2.5% were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. Conclusion: CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed.

  3. Transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in a risk area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    E.G.P. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has spread rapidly across cities in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. The aim of this study was to investigate VL dynamics in a prospective cohort study of dogs in Juatuba, between 2010 and 2011, to confirm the incidence of Leishmania infantum, and to assess possible risk factors associated with infection. An observational and prospective closed cohort study was performed using serology testing in dogs, randomly selected from the whole municipality. All seronegative dogs, or dogs with inconclusive results were monitored using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF at 6-month intervals. The dog's owners completed a semi-structured questionnaire to assess possible causal factors of seroconversion, and the responses were assessed using logistic regression. The canine incidence coefficient was 206/1,000 dogs per year (CI: 178-238, and a cluster was identified in an area with a high concentration of seropositive dogs, but a low overall canine population. Large dogs were identified as a risk factor and the following variables were identified as protection factors: dogs aged over 4 years, daily peridomicile cleaning, and better socioeconomic conditions. VL is spreading over a large area in Juatuba in a short period of time.

  4. G6PD deficiency alleles in a malaria-endemic region in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jamille G; Souza, Rodrigo M; Curry, Jonathan; Hinton, Laura; Silva, Natercia R M; Grignard, Lynn; Gonçalves, Ligia A; Gomes, Ana Rita; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Drakeley, Chris; Huggett, Jim; Clark, Taane G; Campino, Susana; Marinho, Claudio R F

    2017-06-15

    Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria. In Brazil, few studies have reported the frequency of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) present in malaria-endemic areas. This is particularly important, as G6PDd screening is not currently performed before primaquine treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PDd in the region of Alto do Juruá, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, an area characterized by a high prevalence of P. vivax infection. Five-hundred and sixteen male volunteers were screened for G6PDd using the fluorescence spot test (Beutler test) and CareStart™ G6PD Biosensor system. Demographic and clinical-epidemiological data were acquired through an individual interview. To assess the genetic basis of G6PDd, 24 SNPs were genotyped using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR assay. Twenty-three (4.5%) individuals were G6PDd. No association was found between G6PDd and the number of malaria cases. An increased risk of reported haemolysis symptoms and blood transfusions was evident among the G6PDd individuals. Twenty-two individuals had the G6PDd A(-) variant and one the G6PD A(+) variant. The Mediterranean variant was not present. Apart from one polymorphism, almost all SNPs were monomorphic or with low frequencies (0-0.04%). No differences were detected among ethnic groups. The data indicates that ~1/23 males from the Alto do Juruá could be G6PD deficient and at risk of haemolytic anaemia if treated with primaquine. G6PD A(-) is the most frequent deficiency allele in this population. These results concur

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a patient with MALT lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Nørgaard, Peter; Himmelstrup, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 66-year-old female with a history of MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient presented with major hemorrhage per rectum and perforation of the small intestine. Due to unexplained decreasing platelets, lymphoma bone marrow involvement...... was suspected and bone marrow examination was performed. Surprisingly, Leishman-Donovan bodies were detected. The low platelet count, caused by the combination of MALT lymphoma and visceral leishmaniasis, appears to have aggravated the symptoms of the intestinal lymphoma. Leishmaniasis should be suspected even...... among asymptomatic patients with immune compromising illnesses and a travel history to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic....

  6. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  7. Leishmaniose tegumentar em uma mula (Equus caballus x equus asinus em área endêmica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus in a endemic area of the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o encontro de infecção por parasitos do gênero Leishmania, em lesão cutânea de uma mula (Equus caballus x Equus asinus procedente de uma localidade endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.Leishmania parasites were found in a skin lesion of a mule (Equus caballus x Equus asinus from a locality with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  8. Reverse osmosis plant maintenance and efficacy in chronic kidney disease endemic region in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Ranasinghe, Omesh; Ranasinghe, Sachini; Siriwardhana, Imalka; Gunatilake, Sarath; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-11-01

    Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC) causes major morbidity and mortality for farmers in North-Central province (NCP) of Sri Lanka. To prevent the CINAC, reverse osmosis (RO) plants are established to purify the water and reduce the exposure to possible nephrotoxins through drinking water. We assessed RO plant maintenance and efficacy in NCP. We have interviewed 10 RO plant operators on plant establishment, maintenance, usage and funding. We also measured total dissolved solids (TDS in ppm) to assess the efficacy of the RO process. Most RO plants were operated by community-based organizations. They provide clean and sustainable water source for many in the NCP for a nominal fee, which tends to be variable. The RO plant operators carry out RO plant maintenance. However, maintenance procedures and quality management practices tend to vary from an operator to another. RO process itself has the ability to lower the TDS of the water. On average, RO process reduces the TDS to 29 ppm. The RO process reduces the impurities in water available to many individuals within CINAC endemic regions. However, there variation in maintenance, quality management, and day-to-day care between operators can be a cause for concern. This variability can affect the quality of water produced by RO plant, its maintenance cost and lifespan. Thus, uniform regulation and training is needed to reduce cost of maintenance and increase the efficacy of RO plants.

  9. Two cases of Hantavirus infection in Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever endemic region

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    Mustafa Sünbül

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF and Leptospirosis are endemic in our region. Hantavirus infections may beconfused with similar clinical picture zoonotic infections. Two patients with fever, malaise, cough, phlegm, nausea, vomiting,thrombocytopenia, renal failure, elevated transaminases, and a history of mouse contact were hospitalized in ourclinic with a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis, pneumonia, CCHF and Hantavirus infections. Empirical antibiotictreatment was initiated and CCHF and leptospirosis was ruled out with laboratory tests. Hantavirus immunoglobulin(Ig-G and Ig-M antibodies were detected positive by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA method in both cases but,Dobrova virus was detected in only one patient with immunoblotting methods. Both patients were discharged aftertreatment. Hantavirus infections may be misdiagnosed as zoonotic infections since they have similar clinical picture. Itshould be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of contact with mouse. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 117-120Key words: Hantavirus, hemorrhagic fever, renal syndrome, pulmonary syndrome

  10. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in Drinking Water from an Endemic Region in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cortazar, Ivonne B; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Segura-Correa, Jose C; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis can be acquired through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, highly resistant to the routinely disinfection processes; based on chlorination commonly used in the water supply industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in samples of public drinking water from an endemic region of southern Mexico. In total 74 samples of water (5 L each) were collected from the three well fields (I, II, and III) and 71 independent wells, distributing public drinking water to the city of Merida Yucatan, after passing through the chlorination process. Water samples were filtered and concentrated by a sucrose solution, then DNA was extracted and evaluated through a nested-PCR (nPCR) specific for T. gondii. Positive samples were detected in 5.4% (4/74) of the water samples. This is the first report of the presence of T. gondii DNA in public drinking water from a large city in southern Mexico, where their consumption without any postpurification treatment could pose a risk for acquiring the infection in the urban population.

  11. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Leishmaniasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ...

  12. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G.; Erdogan, M.F.; Delange, F.; Sav, H.; Guellue, S.; Kamel, N.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 μg/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  13. [Case report: disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheno-Valencia, Alexandra; Cabezas-Arteaga, Julia; Sacoto-Aizaga, Ketty; Arenas-Guzmáno, Roberto

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified leishmaniasis as an uncontrolled and emerging disease. In Ecuador, the only anecdotal cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded in 1994 and have not been formally published. This form can be differentiated from classical localized cutaneous leishmaniasis by the number of injuries, the clinical type of the main elementary lesions (papular and acneform), and a weak response to standard treatments. The case we report is a 34-year-old woman who presented with disseminated nodular lesions and ulcers of various sizes with erythematous edges and scars. We report the case and review diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and the differences that can be found with the other cutaneous variants. The diagnosis requires to be considered by primary care physicians in endemic areas and specialists, taking into account that this presentation can also occur in immunocompetent hosts.

  14. The direct agglutination test as an alternative method for the diagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terán-Angel, Guillermo; Schallig, Henk; Zerpa, Olga; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Ulrich, Marian; Cabrera, Maira

    2007-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe clinical form of leishmaniasis and is often fatal without proper treatment. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is important, but often difficult in endemic areas. The aim was to evaluate a direct agglutination test as a potential visceral leishmaniasis

  15. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  16. [Chronic facial ulceration in France and potential involvement of Leishmania infantum cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenvers, P; Marty, P; Peyron, F

    2013-11-01

    In France, cutaneous leishmaniasis is frequently seen in patients returning from North Africa or South America. Autochthonous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum causes rather visceral forms. Nevertheless, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by this parasite is occasionally seen in immunocompetent patients who have never been outside France. An 8-year-old girl living in the Haute-Savoie region and who had never travelled overseas presented with chronic ulceration of the right cheekbone that failed to regress under topical therapy. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of L. infantum. Following cryotherapy and intralesional injections of meglumine antimonite, the lesion resolved within a month. The patient's medical history revealed repeated journeys to the Pyrénées-Orientales region of southern France. For chronic ulceration on an uncovered area that does not resolve with topical therapy, cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis even if the patient has never left France. Trips to the South of France (an endemic region) should be sought in the history. In addition to direct examination of the product from curettage of the lesion and histopathology, non-invasive methods such as Western blotting with PCR run on filter paper impressions allow accurate diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiological and entomological survey in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Pap district (Fergana Valley) of Namangan region, Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, M; Krasnonos, L; Gafurov, I

    2001-12-21

    An active focus of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is present in Uzbekistan, Namangan region, Pap district, situated along the Fergana Valley at an altitude of 900-1300 m a.s.l. An overall total of 19 VL cases, all recorded in children less than 14 years of age, have been reported during the period of 1987-99 in three villages, namely Oltinkon (9 cases), Chodak (7 cases) and Guliston (3 cases). Clinical and epidemiological features suggest that the disease is zoonotic in nature and that it is possibly caused by Leishmania infantum, though no characterization of the causative agent was performed due to the failure in isolating the parasite. Currently, diagnosis is made exclusively on the basis of clinical manifestations followed by demonstration of parasites in bone marrow aspirates. Standardized monthly sandfly collections (July-September 1999) were made with sticky traps and hand captures from houses and peri-domestic areas. Twenty houses were monitored over two consecutive days every month in five villages scattered along the valley, three of which were the VL foci (Oltinkon, Chodak, Guliston) and the other two, Kandigan and Khonabad, were located at the top (>1300 m a.s.l.) and at the bottom of the valley (740 m a.s.l.), respectively. Among the sandfly species identified, Phlebotomus sergenti (46.0%) was the most prevalent species through the entire period, followed by P. papatasi (18.8%), P. longiductus (15.5%), P. alexandri (10.3%), P. angustus (6.6%), S. sumbarica (2.2%), P. keshishiani (0.6%) and S. grekovi (0.1%). The role of the suspected vector, P. longiductus in the transmission of VL cases in the Fergana focus is discussed in relation to its abundance and distribution in the valley.

  18. Efficacy of Different Sampling Methods of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Endemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kashan District, Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesam-Mohammadi, Marzieh; Rassi, Yavar; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Karimi, Fatemeh; Rafizadeh, Sina; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Sharafkhah, Maryam

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency and practicality of seven trapping methods for adult phlebotominae sand flies. The results of this investigation provide information to determine the species composition and nocturnal activity pattern of different sand fly species. The study was carried out in both plain region (about 5km far from northeast) and mountainous region (about 40km far from southwest of Kashan City). Seven traps were selected as sampling methods and sand flies were collected during 5 interval times starting July to September 2011 and from 8:00PM to 6:00AM in outdoors habitats. The traps include: sticky traps (4 papers for 2 hours), Disney trap, Malaise, CDC and CO2 light traps, Shannon traps (black and white nets) and animal-baited trap. A total of 1445 sand flies belonging to 15 species of Phlebotomus spp. and five of Sergentomyia spp. were collected. Females and males comprised 44.91% and 55.09% of catches, respectively. Of the collected specimens, Se. sintoni was found to be the most prevalent (37.86%) species, while Ph. papatasi, accounted for 31.76% of the sand flies. Disney trap and sticky traps exhibited the most productivity than other traps. In addition, in terms of the efficiency of sampling method, these two trapping methods appeared to be the most productive for both estimating the number of sand flies and the species composition in the study area.

  19. Efficacy of Different Sampling Methods of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Endemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kashan District, Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hesam-Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency and practicality of seven trapping methods for adult phlebotominae sand flies. The results of this investigation provide information to determine the species composition and nocturnal activity pattern of different sand fly species.The study was carried out in both plain region (about 5km far from northeast and mountainous region (about 40km far from southwest of Kashan City. Seven traps were selected as sampling methods and sand flies were collected during 5 interval times starting July to September 2011 and from 8:00PM to 6:00AM in outdoors habitats. The traps include: sticky traps (4 papers for 2 hours, Disney trap, Malaise, CDC and CO2 light traps, Shannon traps (black and white nets and animal-baited trap.A total of 1445 sand flies belonging to 15 species of Phlebotomus spp. and five of Sergentomyia spp. were collected. Females and males comprised 44.91% and 55.09% of catches, respectively. Of the collected specimens, Se. sintoni was found to be the most prevalent (37.86% species, while Ph. papatasi, accounted for 31.76% of the sand flies.Disney trap and sticky traps exhibited the most productivity than other traps. In addition, in terms of the efficiency of sampling method, these two trapping methods appeared to be the most productive for both estimating the number of sand flies and the species composition in the study area.

  20. Ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar em cães de área endêmica no Estado do Paraná Occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs of endemic area, Paraná State

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    E. Pittner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a infecção por parasitas do complexo Leishmania braziliensis em 50 cães da cidade de Maringá, PR, onde ocorreram casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA, entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Os casos humanos de LTA ocorreram nos anos de 2003 a 2004. Nenhum animal apresentou lesão, mas 12 (24,0% tinham sorologia e/ou PCR positivas, e a positividade tanto da IFI como da PCR foi de 14,0%. Trinta e cinco animais eram de residências, e oito deles (22,8% tiveram testes laboratoriais para LTA positivos. Os outros 15 eram cães errantes, sendo que quatro deles (26,7% apresentaram PCR positiva. A presença de animais com infecção assintomática por Leishmania em área onde a LTA é endêmica pode ser um indicador do potencial de sua transmissão para o homem e uma referência para a implantação de medidas de controle e prevenção da doença.The infection by Leishmania braziliensis complex was studied in 50 dogs from Maringá, PR, where American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in humans have been detected. Data were collected from August to December 2006 in an area in which ACL cases in humans were reported from 2003 to 2004. Indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were applied. No lesions were found in the animals, although 12 (24.0% had positive IIF and/or PCR. Positiveness was 14.0% for IIF and PCR. Lab tests showed that eight (22.8% out of the 35 home animals were ACL positive. The other 15 animals were stray dogs, out of which four (26.7% were PCR positive. The appearance of asymptomatic Leishmania-infected dogs in an ACL endemic area may be an indicator of ACL transmission potential for humans and a reference for the establishment of control measures and disease prevention.

  1. Electrocardiographic findings in Mexican chagasic subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection

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    Francisca Sosa-Jurado

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In México the first human chronic chagasic case was recognized in 1940. In spite of an increasing number of cases detected since that time, Chagas disease in México has been poorly documented. In the present work we studied 617 volunteers subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with seroprevalence of 22% and 4% respectively. Hemoculture performed in those seropositive subjects failed to demonstrate circulating parasites, however polymerase chain reaction identified up to 60% of them as positives. A higher level of anti-T. cruzi antibodies was observed in seropositive residents in high endemic region, in spite of similar parasite persistence (p < 0.05. On standard 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG 20% to 22% seropositive individuals from either region showed right bundle branch block or ventricular extrasystoles which were more prevalent in seropositive than in seronegative individuals (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the frequency or type of ECG abnormality was influenced by serologic status but not by endemicity or parasite persistence. Furthermore, Mexican indeterminate patients have a similar ECG pattern to those reported in South America.

  2. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela Edad fisiológica de poblaciones de Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae de una área endémica de leishmaniasis cutánea

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    José V. Scorza

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.Con lotes de hembras silvestres de Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae capturadas con trampa de Shannon en doce ocasiones a lo largo de un año, en una localidad endémica para leishmaniasis tegumentaria, próxima a la ciudad de Trujillo, Venezuela, se estudio: 1 los percentajes de hembras paridas según criterios previamente establecidos y 2 el número medio de huevos puestos espontaneamente por hembras aisladas, en el curso de 7 días postigestión, ingurgitadas también sobre hámsteres. Se comparó la data de lotes de hembras capturadas, en noches de días anteriores a los per

  3. Nutritional and functional characteristics of Erophaca baetica seeds, a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region

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    Cortés-Giraldo, I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Erophaca baetica is a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region. Although the fruits and seeds are large, the presence of the “locoism” which produces the alkaloid, swainsonine has prevented its use as animal feed or for human nutrition. Their protein content and chromatographic profile, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, and polyphenol contents have been determined in order to explore the potential of the E. baetica seeds as a source of dietary protein with functional components. The protein content was found to be 36% (w/w, and an amino acid analysis revealed a deficiency in sulphur amino acids, tryptophane, and lysine. The low lysine content is probably due to the abundance of alkaloids metabolically derived from this amino acid. Oleic and linoleic acids are the major fatty acids in the seeds. The antioxidant activity of polyphenol extracts was higher than the activity of the polyphenols extracted from most edible legume seeds. Hence, E. baetica seeds represent a promising source of functional and nutritional components on the condition that the anti-nutritional alkaloids are previously removed.Erophaca baetica es una leguminosa endémica de la región mediterránea. Aunque los frutos y las semillas son grandes, la presencia del alcaloide swainsonina causante de locoismo, ha impedido su uso como alimento para animales o para nutrición humana. El contenido proteico y su perfil cromatográfico, la composición de aminoácidos, de ácidos grasos, y contenido de polifenoles se han determinado con el fin de explorar el potencial de las semillas de E. baetica como una fuente de proteínas y de componentes funcionales de la dieta. El contenido de proteínas es del 36% (w / w, y el análisis de aminoácidos reveló deficiencia en aminoácidos azufrados, triptófano y lisina. El contenido de lisina bajo es probablemente debido a la abundancia de alcaloides metabólicamente derivados de este aminoácido. Los ácidos oleicos y

  4. The shadows of a ghost: a survey of canine leishmaniasis in Presidente Prudente and its spatial dispersion in the western region of São Paulo state, an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

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    D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida Zampieri; Fonseca, Elivelton da Silva; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Guimarães, Raul Borges; Yamashita, Renata Corrêa; Soares, Célio Nereu; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo

    2015-10-26

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an emerging zoonosis and its geographic distribution is restricted to tropical and temperate regions. Most of the individuals infected in Latin America are in Brazil. Despite the control measures that have been adopted, the disease is spreading throughout new regions of the country. Domestic dogs are involved in the transmission cycle and are considered to be the main epidemiologic reservoir of Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CL) and Ehrlichiosis infection in Presidente Prudente as well as the spatial dispersion of the disease in the western region of São Paulo state. Dogs underwent clinical examination and symptoms related to CL were recorded. Anti- Leishmania antibodies were detected using ELISA, rK39-immunocromatographic tests (DPP), and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Anti-E. canis antibodies were detected by IFAT. A follow-up was conducted in dogs that were positive in the ELISA at the baseline study. Data on the spatial distribution of L. longipalpis and CL in São Paulo state were obtained from Brazilian public health agencies. Serum samples from 4547 dogs were analyzed. The seroprevalence of CL was 11.2% by ELISA and 4.5 % by IFAT. In the follow-up, seroprevalence was 32.9% by ELISA, 15.3% by IFAT, 11.8 % by DPP test, and 66.5% for E. canis. There was a significant positive association between Leishmania and E. canis infection (P < 0.0001). In the follow-up, clinical examinations revealed symptoms compatible with CL in 33.5% of the dogs. L. longipalpis was found in 24 and CL in 15 counties of the Presidente Prudente mesoregion. The dispersion route followed the west frontier of São Paulo state toward Paraná state. Low CL and high ehrlichiosis prevalence rates were found in Presidente Prudente city. This emerging focus of CL is moving through the western region of São Paulo state toward the border of Paraná state. Integrated actions to

  5. [Study on malaria vectors in malaria endemic areas of Tibet autonomous region].

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    Wu, Song; Huang, Fang; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Tang, Lin-Hua

    2012-12-01

    The malaria situation in Tibet has been in an active status and the malaria incidence reached the second in China in 2010. Malaria vector prevention and control is one of the important methods for malaria control, while the malaria vectors are still unknown in Tibet. The author summarized the past researches on malaria vectors in Tibet, so as to provide the evidence for improving malaria control investigation in malaria endemic areas of Tibet, with hopes to provide useful vector message for other researcher.

  6. The use of radionuclide DNA probe technology in epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Octavio [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Tropical; Gomes, Rosangela Fatima; Melo, Maria Norma de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia]|[Cor Jesus Fontes Mato Grosso Univ., Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Julio Muller

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis are due to different species that belongs to Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana complex and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex, respectively. Cutaneous leishmaniasis ulcers may persist for months to years but eventually they heal, while mucocutaneous leishmaniasis can result in destructive lesions on the nose, oral pharynx, lips or face. The specific diagnosis of the disease is important because of the high cost and toxicity of the treatment and the subsequent medical follow-up depends on the precise identification of the complex that causes the infection. The epidemiological information furnished by the identification of parasites of a given endemic region is also essential for the design of appropriate control measures. In this work we typed, using specific DNA probes labelled with {sup 32}P radionuclide, samples collected from patients living in endemic areas of Mato Grosso state. The results showed that L. braziliensis is the predominant group infecting human patients in the state. We have typed, up to the moment 68 samples. 64 samples (94.1%) belonged to the L. braziliensis complex and only 4 (5.9%) belonged to the L. mexicana complex. (author)

  7. Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran from 1983 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Mohebali, Mehdi; Pakzad, Reza

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous Leshmaniasis (CL), a parasitic skin infection caused by Leishmania species, is endemic in some regions of Iran. In this study, the effect of location on the incidence and distribution of CL in Iran was studied. We collected datas including the number of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases and populations at-risk of disease in Iran's different provinces reported by the Iranian ministry of health and the National Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Spatial modeling was performed using Arc GIS software. Descriptive maps, hotspot analysis, and high/low clustering analysis were used to demonstrate distribution of the cutaneous leishmaniasis, to determine regions at risk of disease's incidence, and to reach the most appropriate method for clustering of disease. The total number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported through the study period was 589,913. The annual incidence of CL was estimated to be 30.9 per 100,000 in Iranian population. We also demonstrated that Cutaneous leishmaniasis most prominently occurs in regions with dry and desert climates as well as in central parts of Iran. It affected the southwest of Iran between 1983 and 1997, and subsequently developed towards the center and the eastern between 1998 and 2013. Disease hotspots were focused in the provinces of Yazd, Khozestan and Kohgiloyeh-Boyer-Ahmad (p<0.05). No pattern of spatial clustering was observed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem which could be a serious threat for inhabitants who live in high-risk provinces of Iran; much more resources need to be allocated in these areas, to warrant the prevention as well as effectively management of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reprint of "Spatial modeling of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran from 1983 to 2013".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Mohebali, Mehdi; Pakzad, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous Leshmaniasis (CL), a parasitic skin infection caused by Leishmania species, is endemic in some regions of Iran. In this study, the effect of location on the incidence and distribution of CL in Iran was studied. We collected datas including the number of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases and populations at-risk of disease in Iran's different provinces reported by the Iranian ministry of health and the National Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Spatial modeling was performed using Arc GIS software. Descriptive maps, hotspot analysis, and high/low clustering analysis were used to demonstrate distribution of the cutaneous leishmaniasis, to determine regions at risk of disease's incidence, and to reach the most appropriate method for clustering of disease. The total number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported through the study period was 589,913. The annual incidence of CL was estimated to be 30.9 per 100,000 in Iranian population. We also demonstrated that Cutaneous leishmaniasis most prominently occurs in regions with dry and desert climates as well as in central parts of Iran. It affected the southwest of Iran between 1983 and 1997, and subsequently developed towards the center and the eastern between 1998 and 2013. Disease hotspots were focused in the provinces of Yazd, Khozestan and Kohgiloyeh-Boyer-Ahmad (p<0.05). No pattern of spatial clustering was observed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem which could be a serious threat for inhabitants who live in high-risk provinces of Iran; much more resources need to be allocated in these areas, to warrant the prevention as well as effectively management of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leishmaniasis in humans: drug or vaccine therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Masoud; Farhoudi, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    Leishmania is an obligate intracellular pathogen that invades phagocytic host cells. Approximately 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies can transmit this parasite either anthroponotically or zoonotically through their bites. Leishmaniasis affects poor people living around the Mediterranean Basin, East Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia. Affected regions are often remote and unstable, with limited resources for treating this disease. Leishmaniasis has been reported as one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases, second only to malaria in parasitic causes of death. People can carry some species of Leishmania for long periods without becoming ill, and symptoms depend on the form of the disease. There are many drugs and candidate vaccines available to treat leishmaniasis. For instance, antiparasitic drugs, such as amphotericin B (AmBisome), are a treatment of choice for leishmaniasis depending on the type of the disease. Despite the availability of different treatment approaches to treat leishmaniasis, therapeutic tools are not adequate to eradicate this infection. In the meantime, drug therapy has been limited because of adverse side effects and unsuccessful vaccine preparation. However, it can immediately make infections inactive. According to other studies, vaccination cannot eradicate leishmaniasis. There is no perfect vaccine or suitable drug to eradicate leishmaniasis completely. So far, no vaccine or drug has been provided to induce long-term protection and ensure effective immunity against leishmaniasis. Therefore, it is necessary that intensive research should be performed in drug and vaccine fields to achieve certain results. PMID:29317800

  10. The fate of endemic insects of the Andean region under the effect of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara I; Melo, María Cecilia; Scattolini, María Celeste; Pocco, Martina E; Del Río, María Guadalupe; Dellapé, Gimena; Scheibler, Erica E; Roig, Sergio A; Cazorla, Carla G; Dellapé, Pablo M

    2017-01-01

    Three independent but complementary lines of research have provided evidence for the recognition of refugia: paleontology, phylogeography and species distributional modelling (SDM). SDM assesses the ecological requirements of a species based on its known occurrences and enables its distribution to be projected on past climatological reconstructions. One advantage over the other two approaches is that it provides an explicit link to environment and geography, thereby enabling the analysis of a large number of taxa in the search for more general refugia patterns. We propose a methodology for using SDM to recognize biogeographical patterns of endemic insects from Southern South America. We built species distributional models for 59 insect species using Maxent. The species analyzed in the study have narrow niche breadth and were classified into four assemblages according to the ecoregion they inhabit. Models were built for the Late Pleistocene, Mid-Holocene and Present. Through the procedure developed for this study we used the models to recognize: Late Pleistocene refugia; areas with high species richness during all three periods; climatically constant areas (in situ refugia); consistent patterns among in situ refugia, Pleistocene refugia and current distribution of endemic species. We recognized two adjacent Pleistocene refugia with distinct climates; four in situ refugia, some of which are undergoing a process of fragmentation and retraction or enlargement. Interestingly, we found a congruent pattern among in situ refugia, Pleistocene refugia and endemic species. Our results seem to be consistent with the idea that long-term climate stability is known to have a key role in promoting persistence of biodiversity in an area. Our Pleistocene and in situ refugia are consistent with refugia identified in studies focusing on different taxa and applying other methodologies, showing that the method developed can be used to identify such areas and prove their importance for

  11. [Nasal leishmaniasis in an HIV-positive patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, J M; Lorente, J; Crego, F; Naches, S; Subirana, F X; Calderón, J R; Pollán, C; Encarnación, L F; Quesada, P

    2000-03-01

    Leishmania is currently one of the most clinically important protozoa in otorhinolaryngology. Mediterranean countries, including Spain, have endemic HIV and L. infantum. Dogs are the most important Leishmania reservoir. Leishmaniasis is transmitted basically by the bite of infected female Phlebotomus sandflies. Its clinical development depends mainly on the host's cellular immunity (TCD4+ lymphocyte count). About 400 cases of HIV-visceral leishmaniasis have been reported in Spain. However, exclusively cutaneous presentation of HIV-leishmaniasis coinfection has been observed in only 2-3% of cases. We report the case of a female HIV+ patient who developed cutaneous leishmaniasis of the nasal vestibule by L. infantum. The patient was treated satisfactorily with a combination of parenteral Pentostam (sodium stilbogluconate) and periodic intralesional injections of Pentostam. The patient was included in a secondary prophylaxis protocol for visceral leishmaniasis with a monthly dose of Glucantime (meglumine antimoniate) for life.

  12. Visceral Leishmaniasis Treated with Antimonials/Paromomycin followed by Itraconazole/Miltefosine after Standard Therapy Failures in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán, Patricia; López-Velez, Rogelio; Olmo, Montserrat; Podzamczer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an opportunistic infection that affects human immunodeficiency virus–infected persons in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. The standard treatment may not be effective and relapses are common. We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-1–infected patient who had several relapses of visceral leishmaniasis after treatment with standard therapies and responded to a combined therapy.

  13. Neurobrucellosis: clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic features and outcome. Unusual clinical presentations in an endemic region

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    Nurgul Ceran

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection and has endemic characteristics. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. The aim of this study was to present unusual clinical manifestations and to discuss the management and outcome of a series of 18 neurobrucellosis cases. Initial clinical manifestations consist of pseudotumor cerebri in one case, white matter lesions and demyelinating syndrome in three cases, intracranial granuloma in one case, transverse myelitis in two cases, sagittal sinus thrombosis in one case, spinal arachnoiditis in one case, intracranial vasculitis in one case, in addition to meningitis in all cases. Eleven patients were male and seven were female. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (83% and fever (44%. All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Duration of treatment (varied 3-12 months was determined on basis of the CSF response. In four patients presented with left mild sequelae including aphasia, hearing loss, hemiparesis. In conclusion, although mortality is rare in neurobrucellosis, its sequelae are significant. In neurobrucellosis various clinical and neuroradiologic signs and symptoms can be confused with other neurologic diseases. In inhabitants or visitors of endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be kept in mind in cases that have unusual neurological manifestations.

  14. Safety of antimalarial medications for use while scuba diving in malaria Endemic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kyle; Regis, David P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational diving occurs annually in areas of the world where malaria is endemic. The safety and efficacy of antimalarials for travelers in a hyperbaric environment is unknown. Of particular concern would be medications with adverse effects that could either mimic diving related illnesses such as barotrauma, decompression sickness (DCS) and gas toxicities, or increase the risk for such illnesses. We conducted a review of PubMed and Cochrane databases to determine rates of neurologic adverse effects or other effects from antimalarials that may be a problem in the diving environment. One case report was found on diving and mefloquine. Multiple case reports and clinical trials were found describing neurologic adverse effects of the major chemoprophylactic medications atovaquone/proguanil, chloroquine, doxycycline, mefloquine, and primaquine. Of the available literature, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are most likely the safest agents and should be preferred; atovaquone/proguanil is superior due to reduced rates of sunburn in the marine environment. Primaquine also appears to be safe, but has reduced efficacy against P. falciparum ; mefloquine possesses the highest rate of neurologic side effects and therefore these agents should be limited to extreme cases of patients intolerant to other agents. Chloroquine appears unsafe in the hyperbaric environment and should be avoided. More studies are required to include database reviews of returned divers traveling to malaria endemic areas and randomized controlled trials in the hyperbaric environments.

  15. Multiplicity and diversity of Plasmodium vivax infections in a highly endemic region in Papua New Guinea.

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    Cristian Koepfli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is highly endemic in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea and accounts for a large proportion of the malaria cases in children less than 5 years of age. We collected 2117 blood samples at 2-monthly intervals from a cohort of 268 children aged 1 to 4.5 years and estimated the diversity and multiplicity of P. vivax infection. All P. vivax clones were genotyped using the merozoite surface protein 1 F3 fragment (msp1F3 and the microsatellite MS16 as molecular markers. High diversity was observed with msp1F3 (H(E = 88.1% and MS16 (H(E = 97.8%. Of the 1162 P. vivax positive samples, 74% harbored multi-clone infections with a mean multiplicity of 2.7 (IQR = 1-3. The multiplicity of P. vivax infection increased slightly with age (P = 0.02, with the strongest increase in very young children. Intensified efforts to control malaria can benefit from knowledge of the diversity and MOI both for assessing the endemic situation and monitoring the effects of interventions.

  16. Genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study with regional comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, Udeshika Lakmini; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Rai, Keshav; Wani, Tasaduq Hussain; Ahuja, Kavita; Beg, Mizra Adil; Premathilake, Hasitha Upendra; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Siriwardena, Yamuna Deepani; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa; Rijal, Suman; Nakhasi, Hira; Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2017-12-22

    Leishmania donovani is the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. However, it is also known to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan L. donovani differs from other L. donovani strains, both at the molecular and biochemical level. To investigate the different species or strain-specific differences of L. donovani in Sri Lanka we evaluated sequence variation of the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA). Parasites isolated from skin lesions of 34 CL patients and bone marrow aspirates from 4 VL patients were genotyped using the kDNA minicircle PCR analysis. A total of 301 minicircle sequences that included sequences from Sri Lanka, India, Nepal and six reference species of Leishmania were analyzed. Haplotype diversity of Sri Lankan isolates were high (H d  = 0.757) with strong inter-geographical genetic differentiation (F ST  > 0.25). In this study, L. donovani isolates clustered according to their geographic origin, while Sri Lankan isolates formed a separate cluster and were clearly distinct from other Leishmania species. Within the Sri Lankan group, there were three distinct sub-clusters formed, from CL patients who responded to standard antimony therapy, CL patients who responded poorly to antimony therapy and from VL patients. There was no specific clustering of sequences based on geographical origin within Sri Lanka. This study reveals high levels of haplotype diversity of L. donovani in Sri Lanka with a distinct genetic association with clinically relevant phenotypic characteristics. The use of genetic tools to identify clinically relevant features of Leishmania parasites has important therapeutic implications for leishmaniasis.

  17. Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

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    Adolfo Vasquez Trujillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia. Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89% and Lutzomyia walkeri (5% were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi were present in very low abundance (< 2%. Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February, directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance.

  18. Serological markers of sand fly exposure to evaluate insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal: a cluster-randomi trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidwani, K; Picado, A; Rijal, S

    2011-01-01

    and Nepal we tested the effect of LNs on sand fly biting by measuring the antibody response of subjects to the saliva of Leishmania donovani vector Phlebotomus argentipes and the sympatric (non-vector) Phlebotomus papatasi. Fifteen to 20 individuals above 15 years of age from 26 VL endemic clusters were......Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is the world’ second largest vector-borne parasitic killer and a neglected tropical disease, prevalent in poor communities. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) are a low cost proven vector intervention method for malaria control; however, their effectiveness...... against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is unknown. This study quantified the effect of LNs on exposure to the sand fly vector of VL in India and Nepal during a two year community intervention trial. Methods: As part of a paired-cluster randomized controlled clinical trial in VL-endemic regions of India...

  19. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) in bovine tuberculosis-endemic regions of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, E O; Olea-Popelka, F; Buss, P; de Klerk-Lorist, L-M; Cooper, D; van Helden, P D; Parsons, S D C; Miller, M A

    2018-03-08

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), has been reported in many species including suids. Wild boar are important maintenance hosts of the infection with other suids, that is domestic and feral pigs, being important spillover hosts in the Eurasian ecosystem and in South Africa, warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) may play a similar role in M. bovis-endemic areas. However, novel diagnostic tests for warthogs are required to investigate the epidemiology of bTB in this species. Recent studies have demonstrated that serological assays are capable of discriminating between M. bovis-infected and uninfected warthogs (Roos et al., ). In this study, an indirect ELISA utilizing M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) as a test antigen was used to measure the prevalence and investigate risk factors associated with infection in warthogs from uMhkuze Nature Reserve and the southern region of the Greater Kruger National Park (GKNP). There was a high overall seroprevalence of 38%, with adult warthogs having a higher risk of infection (46%). Seroprevalence also varied by geographic location with warthogs from Marloth Park in the GKNP having the greatest percentage of positive animals (63%). This study indicates that warthogs in M. bovis-endemic areas are at high risk of becoming infected with mycobacteria. Warthogs might present an under-recognized disease threat in multi-species systems. They might also serve as convenient sentinels for M. bovis in endemic areas. These findings highlight the importance of epidemiological studies in wildlife to understand the role each species plays in disease ecology. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Social and Economic Burden of Human Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Leishmaniasis continues to pose a major public health problem worldwide. With new epidemics occurring in endemic areas and the spread of the disease to previously free areas because of migration, tourism, and military activities, there is a great need for the development of an effective vaccine. Leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor, occurring mostly in remote rural villages with poor housing and little or no access to modern health-care facilities. In endemic areas, diagnosis of any form of leishmaniasis puts a huge financial strain on an already meagre financial resource at both the individual and community levels. Most often families need to sell their assets (land and livestock) or take loans from informal financial outfits with heavy interest rates to pay for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. Here, we discuss the disease with special emphasis on its socioeconomic impact on the affected individual and community. In addition, we highlight the reasons why continued research aimed at developing an effective Leishmania vaccine is necessary. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Bayesian geostatistical modeling of leishmaniasis incidence in Brazil.

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    Dimitrios-Alexios Karagiannis-Voules

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. METHODOLOGY: We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001-2010. Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676 for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288 for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence.

  2. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapella, Jorge O.; Demaio, Pablo H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 – 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area. PMID:25878555

  3. Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    nitric oxide killing. These properties of sandfly saliva are the focus of current research on an antileishmania vaccine.11 At the site of inoculation...patients, classic parasitologic diagnostic methods are preferred. For ex- ample, cultures or amplification of parasite specific DNA by PCR of the buffy... parasitologic diagnostic methods are satisfactory. In endemic areas, VL should never be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of immunocom- promised

  4. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Laamrani-Idrissi, Abderrahman; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unkno...

  5. Factors affecting the use of anti-amoebiasis protective measures among Taiwan immigrants returning to amoebiasis-endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S C; Tsai, Y T; Hu, S C; Lin, C L; Chen, K L; Chen, K H; Chen, K T

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the predictors of use of anti-amoebiasis protective measures (AAPMs) among Taiwan immigrants returning to their country of origin, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) to guide the investigation. Cross-sectional study. Between March and May 2011, all permanent immigrants originating from amoebiasis-endemic countries who received services at the immigrant service centres in Taipei or Tainan and who reported that they had returned to their country of origin within the past five years were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and items related to the constructs of the HBM was used as the data collection instrument. Complete information was collected from 384 immigrants, with a response rate of 80% (384/480). The mean age of the subjects was 38.4 years (standard deviation 10.6 years). The majority (70%) of participants did not receive travel information through a pretravel consultation, and more than 17% reported that they did not use measures to prevent amoebiasis. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Chinese proficiency, pretravel consultation and lower barriers to using protective measures were significantly associated with the use of AAPMs during return trips to country of origin (R(2) = 0.45; F = 77.5; P amoebiasis-endemic regions who return to their country of origin. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in a dengue-endemic region: lessons for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farheen; Saleem, Taimur; Khalid, Umair; Mehmood, Syed Faisal; Jamil, Bushra

    2010-04-15

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are endemic in Pakistan. However, the overlap of geographic distribution and early clinical features between the two conditions make a reliable diagnosis difficult in the initial stage of illness. A 16-year-old boy presented with a history of hematemesis and high-grade fever. A preliminary diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever was made and supportive treatment was instituted; however, the patient continued to deteriorate clinically. Dengue IgM antibody testing was negative on the third day of admission. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction test for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viral RNA was sent but the patient expired shortly after the results became available on the sixth day of admission. Considerable resources had to be expended on contact tracing and administration of ribavirin prophylaxis to all the health-care workers who had come in contact with the patient. It is crucial that Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever be recognized and treated at an early stage because of longer term financial and health implications for contacts such as health-care workers in the setting of a developing country. Increased surveillance of dengue and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever cases is warranted for the derivation of reasonably reliable, cost-effective and prompt predictors of disease diagnosis. These predictors can help guide future decisions in the management of similar cases. Ultimately, such a strategy may translate into better cost containment in resource-poor settings. Institution of ribavirin prophylaxis in selected patients also merits consideration.

  7. Turf wars: exploring splenomegaly in sickle cell disease in malaria-endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Venée N; Makani, Julie

    2017-06-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of recessively inherited disorders of erythrocyte function that presents an ongoing threat to reducing childhood and adult morbidity and mortality around the world. While decades of research have led to improved survival for SCD patients in wealthy countries, survival remains dismal in low- and middle-income countries. Much of the early mortality associated with SCD is attributed to increased risk of infections due to early loss of splenic function. In the West, bacterial infections with encapsulated organisms are a primary concern. In sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of infants with SCD are born, the same is true. However malaria presents an additional threat to survival. The search for factors that define variability in sickle cell phenotypes should include environmental modifiers, such as malaria. Further exploration of this relationship could lead to novel strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality attributable to infections. In this review, we explore the interactions between SCD, malaria and the spleen to better understand how splenomegaly and splenic (dys)function may co-exist in patients with SCD living in malaria-endemic areas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddawela, Devika; Vithana, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda; Atapattu, Dhilma; Wijekoon, Lanka

    2018-03-06

    Leishmaniasis, a vector borne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study. A sample of 509 clinically suspected cases of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology from all across Sri Lanka between 2005 and 2015 was selected consecutively. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic visualization of the Leishmania amastigote from the slit skin smear. A structured questionnaire was used to identify exposure related risk factors and a clinical examination was performed to identify lesion characteristics. Out of 509 clinical cases, 41.5% (n = 211) were smear positive. The study population ranged from ages 1 to 80 years (mean age = 34.76) and the most affected age group was 40-49. Of the smear positives, 58.85% were males. Majority (47.86%) were from the North Western region (Kurunegala) of the country and were exposed to scrub jungles. Sand fly exposure (p = 0.04) and positive contact history (p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for smear positivity. Erythema (p = 0.02), lack of pruritus (p = 0.02) and scaly appearance (p = 0.003) were significant lesion characteristics in smear positivity. Lesions were commonly found in the exposed areas and the commonest morphological type was papulo-nodular. An increasing trend in the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis from endemic to non-endemic areas has become evident. Positive contact history and sandfly exposure

  9. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Laamrani-Idrissi, Abderrahman; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-07-02

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively.The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  10. Rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis and deaths in a region of endemic canine rabies.

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    Katie Hampson

    Full Text Available Thousands of human deaths from rabies occur annually despite the availability of effective vaccines following exposure, and for disease control in the animal reservoir. Our aim was to assess risk factors associated with exposure and to determine why human deaths from endemic canine rabies still occur.Contact tracing was used to gather data on rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP delivered and deaths in two rural districts in northwestern Tanzania from 2002 to 2006. Data on risk factors and the propensity to seek and complete courses of PEP was collected using questionnaires. Exposures varied from 6-141/100,000 per year. Risk of exposure to rabies was greater in an area with agropastoralist communities (and larger domestic dog populations than an area with pastoralist communities. Children were at greater risk than adults of being exposed to rabies and of developing clinical signs. PEP dramatically reduced the risk of developing rabies (odds ratio [OR] 17.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.39-60.83 and when PEP was not delivered the risks were higher in the pastoralist than the agro-pastoralist area (OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.60-14.58. Low socioeconomic class and distance to medical facilities lengthened delays before PEP delivery. Over 20% of rabies-exposed individuals did not seek medical treatment and were not documented in official records and <65% received PEP. Animal bite injury records were an accurate indicator of rabies exposure incidence.Insufficient knowledge about rabies dangers and prevention, particularly prompt PEP, but also wound management, was the main cause of rabies deaths. Education, particularly in poor and marginalized communities, but also for medical and veterinary workers, would prevent future deaths.

  11. Socioeconomic and demographic characterization of an endemic malaria region in Brazil by multiple correspondence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Raquel M; Riback, Thais I S; Lima, Tiago F M; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Cruz, Oswaldo G; Oliveira, Francisco G S; Moresco, Gilberto G; Honório, Nildimar A; Codeço, Cláudia T

    2017-10-02

    In the process of geographical retraction of malaria, some important endemicity pockets remain. Here, we report results from a study developed to obtain detailed community data from an important malaria hotspot in Latin America (Alto Juruá, Acre, Brazil), to investigate the association of malaria with socioeconomic, demographic and living conditions. A household survey was conducted in 40 localities (n = 520) of Mâncio Lima and Rodrigues Alves municipalities, Acre state. Information on previous malaria, schooling, age, gender, income, occupation, household structure, habits and behaviors related to malaria exposure was collected. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was applied to characterize similarities between households and identify gradients. The association of these gradients with malaria was assessed using regression. The first three dimensions of MCA accounted for almost 50% of the variability between households. The first dimension defined an urban/rurality gradient, where urbanization was associated with the presence of roads, basic services as garbage collection, water treatment, power grid energy, and less contact with the forest. There is a significant association between this axis and the probability of malaria at the household level, OR = 1.92 (1.23-3.02). The second dimension described a gradient from rural settlements in agricultural areas to those in forested areas. Access via dirt road or river, access to electricity power-grid services and aquaculture were important variables. Malaria was at lower risk at the forested area, OR = 0.55 (1.23-1.12). The third axis detected intraurban differences and did not correlate with malaria. Living conditions in the study area are strongly geographically structured. Although malaria is found throughout all the landscapes, household traits can explain part of the variation found in the odds of having malaria. It is expected these results stimulate further discussions on modelling approaches targeting a

  12. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

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    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement.

  13. The stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera) of the Talladega Mountain region, Alabama, USA: distribution, elevation, endemism, and rarity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Scott A; Sheldon, Andrew L

    2018-01-01

    Background The Talladega Mountain region of eastern Alabama is the southernmost outlier of the ancient Appalachian Mountains, including the highest peaks and ranges in the state. Collections of stoneflies (Plecoptera) previously here have been sporadic yet has led to several new species descriptions in modern times (James 1974, James 1976, Stark and Szczytko 1976, Kondratieff and Kirchner 1996, Szczytko and Kondratieff 2015) and expanded our understanding of southeastern US stoneflies. During the period 2003-2012 we conducted an intensive inventory of the stonefly fauna of the Talladega Mountain region. We collected across all months from 192 unique localities, covering a broad range of stream sizes and elevation gradients present in the region. New information A total of 57 confirmed species across eight of the nine Nearctic families were collected as adults (Table 4), including four species described as new during the study period (Table 2). Leuctra crossi James, 1974 was easily the most common species collected. Median elevations per species ranged from 174 m ( Clioperla clio (Newman, 1839)) to 410 m ( Leuctra triloba Claassen, 1923 (Fig. 3). Dot distribution maps were included for all 57 species plus one for undetermined nymphs of Pteronarcys Newman, 1838 (Figs. 4-19). As many as seven species may be endemic to the region but sampling efforts northeastward into Georgia, plus additional focused sampling in Alabama and a comprehensive examination of all available material held in museums and personal collections, are needed for confirmation.

  14. The stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera of the Talladega Mountain region, Alabama, USA: distribution, elevation, endemism, and rarity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Grubbs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The Talladega Mountain region of eastern Alabama is the southernmost outlier of the ancient Appalachian Mountains, including the highest peaks and ranges in the state. Collections of stoneflies (Plecoptera previously here have been sporadic yet has led to several new species descriptions in modern times (James 1974, James 1976, Stark and Szczytko 1976, Kondratieff and Kirchner 1996, Szczytko and Kondratieff 2015 and expanded our understanding of southeastern US stoneflies. During the period 2003–2012 we conducted an intensive inventory of the stonefly fauna of the Talladega Mountain region. We collected across all months from 192 unique localities, covering a broad range of stream sizes and elevation gradients present in the region. New information A total of 57 confirmed species across eight of the nine Nearctic families were collected as adults (Table 4, including four species described as new during the study period (Table 2. Leuctra crossi James, 1974 was easily the most common species collected. Median elevations per species ranged from 174 m (Clioperla clio (Newman, 1839 to 410 m (Leuctra triloba Claassen, 1923 (Fig. 3. Dot distribution maps were included for all 57 species plus one for undetermined nymphs of Pteronarcys Newman, 1838 (Figs. 4–19. As many as seven species may be endemic to the region but sampling efforts northeastward into Georgia, plus additional focused sampling in Alabama and a comprehensive examination of all available material held in museums and personal collections, are needed for confirmation.

  15. Sandflies and leishmaniasis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naucke, T J; Menn, B; Massberg, D; Lorentz, S

    2008-12-01

    This study has provided evidence for the natural occurrence of sandflies in Germany. Two species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus were detected. Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus, a proven vector of leishmaniasis, was found in association with an autochthonous case of canine leishmaniasis near Kaiserslautern. Two hundred thirty-seven specimens of Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii were caught in 17 different locations in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate. The northernmost finding in Germany (and Europe) was near Cochem (Moselle). P. mascittii has not yet been confirmed as a vector of leishmaniasis, but its competence is strongly suspected. In addition to the detection of the vector, since 1991, there have been 11 cases of leishmaniasis in Germany in which an autochthonous origin was confirmed or which were highly likely to have been of indigenous origin. Data from the German meteorological service indicate that Germany currently has a Mediterranean climate, with an annual average temperature of 10 degrees C being reached or exceeded in several regions. This type of climate is also appropriate for the living conditions of sandflies. Therefore, it is assumed that sandflies have a greater geographical distribution in Germany than the first studies suggested, being mainly restricted to the southern region of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The risk of an autochthonous canine infection occurring in Germany is very low. The rapidly increasing number of imported cases of leishmaniasis in dogs means that special attention must be focused on veterinary advice to dog owners about prophylaxis. The results indicate that the use of repellents and preventive behavioural measures is vital.

  16. Molecular prevalence and estimated risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya

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    Ayman A. El-Badry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Cutanoeus leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area including Libya. The aim of the present study is to detect the prevalent Leishmania species obtained from smeared cutaneous lesions in addition to studying the diverse sociodemographic risk factors of the reported cases from different provinces of Libya. Methods: A total of 250 archived microscopic slides from clinically suspected cases of CL attending the leishmaniasis clinic in the Dermatology Department, Tripoli Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, were microscopically examined. Leishmania-DNA was amplified using combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting kinetoplast-DNA (kDNA and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1-DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for direct Leishmania species identification. Results: Using kDNA and ITS1-PCR, 22.5% and 20% of cases were positive, respectively. Only 14.4% of cases were positive using microscopy. Nominating ITS1-PCR as the reference standard, kDNA-PCR assay was highly sensitive while microscopy was 100% specific but of limited sensitivity (72% with a substantial agreement and an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were the predominant species reported from the north-western provinces including Tripoli, Zintan, and Gharyan with their related subprovinces; Asabaa, Mizdan, Alkawasem, and Alorban. CL prevailed more among men and residents of rural areas. House wives and students were the most affected professions. Children were the least affected, while the middle-aged were the most affected age group. Conclusion: L. major and L. tropica are the predominant species in the north-western regions of Libya. ITS1-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay offered a sensitive, specific, and faster diagnostic method especially with negative parasitologic examination. Keywords: Archived microscopic slides, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, ITS1-PCR, kDNA-PCR

  17. Radiology services for children in HIV- and TB-endemic regions: scope for greater collaboration between radiologists and clinicians caring for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dramowski, Angela; Morsheimer, Megan M.; Schaaf, H.S.; Rabie, Helena; Sorour, Gillian; Cotton, Mark F.; Frigati, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    There is limited literature documenting the interaction between radiologists and clinicians caring for children, especially in regions where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are endemic. The dual burden of these diseases in resource-limited settings creates unique challenges for radiographic interpretation and utilization. This review aims to heighten awareness of issues confronting radiologists and clinicians caring for children and to encourage greater collaboration between these two disciplines in HIV- and TB-endemic regions. The Child-Friendly Healthcare Initiative is discussed, emphasizing opportunities to promote child friendliness in radiology services. (orig.)

  18. Radiology services for children in HIV- and TB-endemic regions: scope for greater collaboration between radiologists and clinicians caring for children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dramowski, Angela; Morsheimer, Megan M.; Schaaf, H.S.; Rabie, Helena; Sorour, Gillian; Cotton, Mark F. [Tygerberg Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, P.O. Box 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa); Frigati, Lisa [Red Cross Children' s Hospital and University of Cape Town, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    There is limited literature documenting the interaction between radiologists and clinicians caring for children, especially in regions where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are endemic. The dual burden of these diseases in resource-limited settings creates unique challenges for radiographic interpretation and utilization. This review aims to heighten awareness of issues confronting radiologists and clinicians caring for children and to encourage greater collaboration between these two disciplines in HIV- and TB-endemic regions. The Child-Friendly Healthcare Initiative is discussed, emphasizing opportunities to promote child friendliness in radiology services. (orig.)

  19. An AFLP estimation of the outcrossing rate of Spondias tuberosa (Anacardiaceae), an endemic species to the Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, Carlos Antonio; de Souza Gama, Renata Natália Cândido

    2013-06-01

    The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa) is one of the most important endemic species to the Brazilian tropical semiarid region. The umbu tree has edible fruits with a peculiar flavor that are consumed in natura or in a semi-industrialized form, such as jams, candies and juices. The majority of endemic species to Brazilian semiarid region have not been studied or sampled to form germ-plasm collections, which increases the risk of losing genetic variability of the adapted species to xerophytic conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate outcrossing rates in S. tuberosa using a multilocus mixed model in order to guide genetic resources and breeding programs of this species. DNA samples were extracted from 92 progenies of umbu trees, which were distributed among 12 families. These trees were planted by seed in 1991 in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block, with a total of 42 progenies sampled in three regions. The experimental units were composed by five plants and five replications. The outcrossing rate was estimated by the multilocus model, which is available in the MLTR software, and was based on 17 polymorphic AFLP bands obtained from AAA_CTG and AAA_CTC primer combinations. The observed heterozygotes ranged from 0.147 to 0.499, with a maximum frequency estimated for the AAA_CTC 10 amplicon. The multilocus outcrossing estimation (t(m)) was 0.804 +/- 0.072, while the single-locus (t(s)) was 0.841 +/- 0.079, which suggests that S. tuberosa is predominantly an outcrossing species. The difference between t(m) and t(s) was -0.037 +/- 0.029, which indicates that biparental inbreeding was nearly absent. The mean inbreeding coefficient or fixation index (F) among maternal plants was--0.103 +/- 0.045, and the expected F was 0.108, which indicates that there was no excess of heterozygotes in the maternal population. The outcrossing estimates obtained in the present study indicate that S. tuberosa is an open-pollinated species. Biometrical

  20. Infectiousness of Ixodes Persulcatus Ticks with Pathogens of Various Diseases in Endemic Regions of European Russia

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    O.N. Lyubeznova

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion. Kirov region is an active natural focus of transmissible infections. Quite often tick contains two or three pathogens. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of the natural foci to develop more adequate preventive measures against tick-borne infections.

  1. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  2. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

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    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  3. Species Distribution Modelling of Aedes aegypti in two dengue-endemic regions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Hira; Atif, Salman; Rasheed, Syed Basit; Zaidi, Farrah; Hussain, Ejaz

    2016-03-01

    Statistical tools are effectively used to determine the distribution of mosquitoes and to make ecological inferences about the vector-borne disease dynamics. In this study, we utilised species distribution models to understand spatial patterns of Aedes aegypti in two dengue-prevalent regions of Pakistan, Lahore and Swat. Species distribution models can potentially indicate the probability of suitability of Ae. aegypti once introduced to new regions like Swat, where invasion of this species is a recent phenomenon. The distribution of Ae. aegypti was determined by applying the MaxEnt algorithm on a set of potential environmental factors and species sample records. The ecological dependency of species on each environmental variable was analysed using response curves. We quantified the statistical performance of the models based on accuracy assessment and spatial predictions. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti is widely distributed in Lahore. Human population density and urban infrastructure are primarily responsible for greater probability of mosquito occurrence in this region. In Swat, Ae. aegypti has clumped distribution, where urban patches provide refuge to the species in an otherwise hostile heterogeneous environment and road networks are assumed to have facilitated in passive-mediated dispersal of species. In Pakistan, Ae. aegypti is expanding its range northwards; this could be associated with rapid urbanisation, trade and travel. The main implication of this expansion is that more people are at risk of dengue fever in the northern highlands of Pakistan. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lupoid Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Amin Moghadam; Vahid Mashayekhi; Ali Taheriyan; Naeme Organji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease currently threatens 350 million people in 88 countries. Lupoid leishmaniasis occurs as a result of the host response, in which despite an intensified hypersensitivity the cell mediated immunity cannot sterilize lesions. A chronic granulomatous inflammation remains active for a long time. To summarize the articles published about Lupoid leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: a systematic web base search was conducted in PubMed up to July 2015...

  5. Autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino de; Bredt, Angelika; Bofil, Maria Isabel Rao; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Menna Barreto; Silva, Ailton Domício da; Cortez, Sandra Maria Felipe Coelho; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health threat in Brazil considering the high lethality rates and increasing geographical dispersion to large urban conglomerates over the past 25 years. This study aimed to confirm suspected autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis reported from 2005 to 2009 among individuals living in Brasilia, Federal District. A retrospective review of the surveillance data obtained on a regular basis and clinical records of the reported cases were performed in 2009. Data from entomological and canine surveys revealed the presence of both Lutzomyia longipalpis and positive serology for Leishmania in dogs within 19 of the 21 neighborhoods where human cases occurred since 2005. The review of surveillance data and medical records, together with the entomological and canine survey data, permitted confirmation of 21 autochthonous human cases in the Federal District. The disease predominantly affected children (12/21) and those from the Sobradinho region (16/21); the typical presentation of fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia was observed in 67% of cases. Three deaths occurred during the study period. Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi was successfully isolated from one human case and twelve canine cases. Visceral leishmaniasis should be considered endemic in Brasilia based on the documented epidemiological behavior herein described and the confirmed autochthony of human cases.

  6. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

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    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  7. Whole genome comparisons suggest random distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans genotypes in a Buruli ulcer endemic region of Ghana.

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    Anthony S Ablordey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to control the spread of Buruli ulcer--an emerging ulcerative skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans--have been hampered by our poor understanding of reservoirs and transmission. To help address this issue, we compared whole genomes from 18 clinical M. ulcerans isolates from a 30 km2 region within the Asante Akim North District, Ashanti region, Ghana, with 15 other M. ulcerans isolates from elsewhere in Ghana and the surrounding countries of Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Contrary to our expectations of finding minor DNA sequence variations among isolates representing a single M. ulcerans circulating genotype, we found instead two distinct genotypes. One genotype was closely related to isolates from neighbouring regions of Amansie West and Densu, consistent with the predicted local endemic clone, but the second genotype (separated by 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] from other Ghanaian strains most closely matched M. ulcerans from Nigeria, suggesting another introduction of M. ulcerans to Ghana, perhaps from that country. Both the exotic genotype and the local Ghanaian genotype displayed highly restricted intra-strain genetic variation, with less than 50 SNP differences across a 5.2 Mbp core genome within each genotype. Interestingly, there was no discernible spatial clustering of genotypes at the local village scale. Interviews revealed no obvious epidemiological links among BU patients who had been infected with identical M. ulcerans genotypes but lived in geographically separate villages. We conclude that M. ulcerans is spread widely across the region, with multiple genotypes present in any one area. These data give us new perspectives on the behaviour of possible reservoirs and subsequent transmission mechanisms of M. ulcerans. These observations also show for the first time that M. ulcerans can be mobilized, introduced to a new area and then spread within a population. Potential reservoirs of M. ulcerans

  8. Whole genome comparisons suggest random distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans genotypes in a Buruli ulcer endemic region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablordey, Anthony S; Vandelannoote, Koen; Frimpong, Isaac A; Ahortor, Evans K; Amissah, Nana Ama; Eddyani, Miriam; Durnez, Lies; Portaels, Françoise; de Jong, Bouke C; Leirs, Herwig; Porter, Jessica L; Mangas, Kirstie M; Lam, Margaret M C; Buultjens, Andrew; Seemann, Torsten; Tobias, Nicholas J; Stinear, Timothy P

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to control the spread of Buruli ulcer--an emerging ulcerative skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans--have been hampered by our poor understanding of reservoirs and transmission. To help address this issue, we compared whole genomes from 18 clinical M. ulcerans isolates from a 30 km2 region within the Asante Akim North District, Ashanti region, Ghana, with 15 other M. ulcerans isolates from elsewhere in Ghana and the surrounding countries of Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Contrary to our expectations of finding minor DNA sequence variations among isolates representing a single M. ulcerans circulating genotype, we found instead two distinct genotypes. One genotype was closely related to isolates from neighbouring regions of Amansie West and Densu, consistent with the predicted local endemic clone, but the second genotype (separated by 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] from other Ghanaian strains) most closely matched M. ulcerans from Nigeria, suggesting another introduction of M. ulcerans to Ghana, perhaps from that country. Both the exotic genotype and the local Ghanaian genotype displayed highly restricted intra-strain genetic variation, with less than 50 SNP differences across a 5.2 Mbp core genome within each genotype. Interestingly, there was no discernible spatial clustering of genotypes at the local village scale. Interviews revealed no obvious epidemiological links among BU patients who had been infected with identical M. ulcerans genotypes but lived in geographically separate villages. We conclude that M. ulcerans is spread widely across the region, with multiple genotypes present in any one area. These data give us new perspectives on the behaviour of possible reservoirs and subsequent transmission mechanisms of M. ulcerans. These observations also show for the first time that M. ulcerans can be mobilized, introduced to a new area and then spread within a population. Potential reservoirs of M. ulcerans thus might include

  9. Geo(spatial) Health Investigation of Rotavirus in an Endemic Region: Hydroclimatic Influences and Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. A.; Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea among children under 5. Over 80% of the approximate half a million child deaths every year occur in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa alone. Although less explored than cholera as a climate driven and influenced global health problem, recent studies have showed that the disease shown strong seasonality and spatio-temporal variability depending on regional hydroclimatic and local environmental conditions. Understanding the epidemiology of this disease, especially the spatio-temporal incidence patterns with respect to environmental factors is vitally important to allow for identification of "hotspots", preventative preparations, and vaccination strategies to improve wellbeing of the vulnerable populations. With climate change, spatio-temporal signatures and footprints of the disease are changing along with increasing burden. However, a robust understanding of the relationships between rotavirus epidemiology and hydroclimatic drivers is yet to be developed. In this study, we evaluate the seasonality and epidemiologic characteristics of rotavirous infection and its spatio-temporal incidence patterns with respect to regional hydroclimatic variables and their extremes in an endemic region in South Asia. Hospital-based surveillance data from different geographic locations allowed us to explore the detailed spatial and temporal characteristics of rotavirus propagation under the influence of climate variables in both coastal and inland areas. The rotavirus transmission patterns show two peaks in a year in the capital city of Dhaka, where winter season (highest in January) shows a high peak and the July-August monsoon season shows a smaller peak. Correlation with climate variables revealed that minimum temperature has strong influence on the winter season outbreak, while rainfall extremes show a strong positive association with the secondary monsoon peak. Spatial analysis also revealed that humidity and soil

  10. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leishmaniasis in humans: drug or vaccine therapy?

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    Ghorbani M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Masoud Ghorbani, Ramin Farhoudi Department of Viral Vaccine Production, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Research and Production Complex, Karaj, Iran Abstract: Leishmania is an obligate intracellular pathogen that invades phagocytic host cells. Approximately 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies can transmit this parasite either anthroponotically or zoonotically through their bites. Leishmaniasis affects poor people living around the Mediterranean Basin, East Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia. Affected regions are often remote and unstable, with limited resources for treating this disease. Leishmaniasis has been reported as one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases, second only to malaria in parasitic causes of death. People can carry some species of Leishmania for long periods without becoming ill, and symptoms depend on the form of the disease. There are many drugs and candidate vaccines available to treat leishmaniasis. For instance, antiparasitic drugs, such as amphotericin B (AmBisome, are a treatment of choice for leishmaniasis depending on the type of the disease. Despite the availability of different treatment approaches to treat leishmaniasis, therapeutic tools are not adequate to eradicate this infection. In the meantime, drug therapy has been limited because of adverse side effects and unsuccessful vaccine preparation. However, it can immediately make infections inactive. According to other studies, vaccination cannot eradicate leishmaniasis. There is no perfect vaccine or suitable drug to eradicate leishmaniasis completely. So far, no vaccine or drug has been provided to induce long-term protection and ensure effective immunity against leishmaniasis. Therefore, it is necessary that intensive research should be performed in drug and vaccine fields to achieve certain results. Keywords: leishmania, leishmania treatment, vaccine, recombinant antigens

  12. Ecological aspects of the sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study was undertaken to identify determinant factors in the occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil. The ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna were investigated. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled with automatic light traps from February 2004 to June 2006 at 25 sites in the urban and rural areas of Itambaracá, and in Porto Almeida and São Joaquim do Pontal. RESULTS: A total of 3,187 sandflies of 15 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai predominated (34.4%, followed by Pintomyia pessoai (32.6%, Migonemyia migonei (11.6%, Nyssomyia whitmani (8.8%, and Pintomyia fischeri (2.7%, all implicated in the transmission of Leishmania. Males predominated for Ny. neivai, and females for the other vector species, with significant statistical differences (p < 0.001. Nyssomyia neivai, Pi. pessoai, Ny. whitmani, Brumptomyia brumpti, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri presented the highest values for the Standardized Species Abundance Index (SSAI. The highest frequencies and diversities were found in the preserved forest in Porto Almeida, followed by forests with degradation in São Joaquim do Pontal and Vila Rural. CONCLUSIONS: Sandflies were captured in all localities, with the five vectors predominating. Ny. neivai had its highest frequencies in nearby peridomestic environments and Pi. pessoai in areas of preserved forests. The highest SSAI values of Ny. neivai and Pi. pessoai reflect their wider dispersion and higher frequencies compared with other species, which seems to indicate that these two species may be transmitting leishmaniasis in the area.

  13. Drug Resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    Helena C. Maltezou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide. This illness was included by the World Health Organization in the list of neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination by 2015. The widespread emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials in India where half cases occur globally and the unavailability of a vaccine in clinical use constitute major obstacles in achieving this goal. The last decade new antileishmanials became available, including the oral agent miltefosine. However, in poor endemic countries their wide use was curtailed because of the high costs, and also due to concerns of toxicity and emergence of resistance. Various mechanisms of antileishmanial resistance were identified recently in field isolates. Their elucidation will boost the design of new drugs and the molecular surveillance of resistance. Combination regimens should be evaluated in large trials. Overall, the development of antileishmanials has been generally slow; new drugs are needed. In order to control visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, treatment advances should become affordable in the poorest countries, where they are needed most.

  14. Fatores sócio-econômicos e atitudes em relação à prevenção domiciliar da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, em uma área endêmica do sul da Bahia, Brasil Socioeconomic factors and attitudes towards household prevention of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area in southern Bahia, Brazil

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    João Barberino Santos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito visando identificar condições sócio-econômicas e atitudes de uma população em relação à prevenção domiciliar da LTA, na localidade de Corte de Pedra, Município de Tancredo Neves, área endêmica do sul da Bahia, Brasil. O questionário foi aplicado em julho de 1997, com perguntas sobre aspectos sociais e econômicos, hábitos e atitudes da população em relação à prevenção contra a picada de artrópodos. Foram entrevistadas 100% das famílias habitantes da área selecionada, distribuídas em 168 moradias, correspondendo a 851 pessoas. Cerca de 66,7% das famílias percebem um ou menos de um salário mínimo mensal para o sustento de uma média de 5,1 moradores por residência. A maioria das famílias (57,2% não usa qualquer tipo de proteção. O meio de prevenção mais comum é a fumegação pela incineração de diversos tipos de materiais. As medidas de proteção individual são raramente usadas. Uma vez que na área de estudo têm sido relatadas evidências de transmissão intra e peridomiciliar de LTA, o uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com inseticida seria uma alternativa à proteção intradomiciliar.A survey was conducted to identify socioeconomic conditions and attitudes towards household prevention of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Corte de Pedra, located in the county of Tancredo Neves, an endemic region in southern Bahia, Brazil. A questionnaire was applied in July 1997, focusing on social and economic variables, habits, and attitudes towards prevention of arthropod bites. All families (100% living in the study area were surveyed, comprising 168 households with 851 individuals. Approximately 66.7% of the families earned up to one minimum wage, supporting an average of 5.1 residents per household. Most (57.2% of the families did not use any type of protection against bites. Fumigation by burning various types of materials was the most customary form of prevention. Individual

  15. Urban malaria transmission in a non-endemic area in the Andean region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Pablo E; Molina, Karen; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2017-12-01

    Rapid urbanisation in difficult socio-economic conditions such as inadequate housing infrastructure, lack of public services, improper sanitation, and poor water drainage systems in vegetation-rich areas lead to ecological conditions that are conducive to the breeding of mosquitoes and transmission of malaria, in semi-urban and urban settings. This study aimed to describe the cases of malaria that were reported in the peri-urban areas of Pereira (Colombia), between 2008 and 2015. A retrospective study was conducted using data from the Malaria Surveillance System 2009-2015 and an outbreak study (between December 2008 and March 2009). Frequency distributions and summary measures, as well as univariate analysis were performed for all the variables in consideration. The annual parasite index (API) was calculated. Data on 214 cases were obtained from the surveillance system. A majority of the cases were reported in men (63.1%), followed by in children houses in these areas. This population did not use protective measures against mosquitoes and chemical control was conducted through residual and spatial insecticide spraying. This study suggested the presence of autochthonous malaria transmission, in Pereira, between 2008 and 2015, most of which were cases of P. vivax. A greater intensity was observed between 2008 and 2009 when malaria was possibly reintroduced to the region. During the years of the study, a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases of malaria was observed in Pereira, except for the time period between 2008 and 2009 when a spike was noted (estimated using the API); this was most likely caused by an outbreak. Interventions that are more aggressive in nature are required to prevent further malarial transmission and dissemination.

  16. Urban malaria transmission in a non-endemic area in the Andean region of Colombia

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    Pablo E Chaparro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rapid urbanisation in difficult socio-economic conditions such as inadequate housing infrastructure, lack of public services, improper sanitation, and poor water drainage systems in vegetation-rich areas lead to ecological conditions that are conducive to the breeding of mosquitoes and transmission of malaria, in semi-urban and urban settings. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to describe the cases of malaria that were reported in the peri-urban areas of Pereira (Colombia, between 2008 and 2015. METHODS A retrospective study was conducted using data from the Malaria Surveillance System 2009-2015 and an outbreak study (between December 2008 and March 2009. Frequency distributions and summary measures, as well as univariate analysis were performed for all the variables in consideration. The annual parasite index (API was calculated. FINDINGS Data on 214 cases were obtained from the surveillance system. A majority of the cases were reported in men (63.1%, followed by in children < 15 years (23.8%, and were caused predominantly by Plasmodium vivax (86.0%, with most of the infection occurring in the urban areas (52.8% of Pereira. The API, by sex and age group, was higher among men ≥ 80 years. The outbreak study reported 14 cases of malaria in rural/peri-urban neighborhoods, and it was observed that the anopheline breeding sites were in close proximity to the houses in these areas. This population did not use protective measures against mosquitoes and chemical control was conducted through residual and spatial insecticide spraying. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study suggested the presence of autochthonous malaria transmission, in Pereira, between 2008 and 2015, most of which were cases of P. vivax. A greater intensity was observed between 2008 and 2009 when malaria was possibly reintroduced to the region. During the years of the study, a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases of malaria was observed in Pereira, except for the time period

  17. The frequency of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis in skin ulcers in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Abdullah, F.H.; Khan, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (OWCL) is a preventable skin infection that leads to morbidity and social isolation. It is spreading rapidly. The sore of OWCL may be a non-ulcerative red papule, nodule or a large mutilating ulcer. The ulcer is typically painless and can leave a disfiguring scar. Methods: This was a descriptive study. The diagnosis of OWCL was established by finding LD bodies in skin smear preparation. Results: This study identified 1680 cutaneous leishmaniasis in 1767 skin ulcers. Children (n=924) were infected more than other age groups (n=756). There were typical skin sore of OWCL in 1512 cases while 168 patients had atypical presentation. The ulcers were painless in 1603 patients. History of insect bite was present in 1366 cases, thorn prick in 156 patients, religious visit to endemic areas in 256 patients, and 4 patients had post surgical non healing wound. Lesions with 4 to 6 months of age had a maximum yield of LD bodies. There were 498 patients from different areas of Peshawar; 688 cases from leishmania endemic belt of FATA while 89 patients came from other urban and rural areas of NWFP. Conclusions: There is a tremendous increase in cases of OWCL and the disease became endemic in many regions of Pakistan. The bordering areas along Afghanistan have constituted an endemic belt that had invaded the neighboring urban and rural areas. Several chronic non healing ulcers had been diagnosed as OWCL. Many cases have been detected in Peshawar. People need education about the nature of the diseases and the efficacy of personal protective measures. Spray with suitable insecticides is required in all residential areas. (author)

  18. Pollen morphology of Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora, a group endemic to the Eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Bin; Wang, Hong

    2008-02-01

    Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora is a distinctive group endemic to the eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region. It was regarded as a 'grex' or section and included all four general corolla types of Pedicularis. A unique feature of it is that the leaf and bract bases are fused together to form a cup-like structure around the stem at each node. Pollen morphology of seven species in sect. Cyathophora was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Two different pollen apertures could be distinguished (i.e. trisyncolpate and bisyncolpate) using LM, while examination with SEM made it possible to recognize three types of exine ornamentation (i.e. microscabrate, microfoveolate and microreticulate). The microfoveolate exine ornamentation was found in trisyncolpate pollen grains for the first time. Possible relationships between pollen data and the corolla types were discussed. Comparisons of floral and phyllotaxy characters of the genus Pedicularis, together with the pollen characters of sect. Cyathophora, could help us to better understand the evolutionary trends in Pedicularis.

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection among leprosy patients in a leprosy-endemic region of central Brazil

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    José María Hernández Ramos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy and hepatitis B virus (HBV are highly endemic in some regions of the state of Mato Grosso, in central Brazil. The association of leprosy with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV was assessed using a seroprevalence study and 191 leprosy outpatients were included. Demographic data and the clinical classification of leprosy were recorded. Evidence of previous HBV infection was present in 53 patients (27.7%, 95% confidence interval: 21.9-34.5 and two (1% were HBsAg positive. Five (2.6% had antibodies to HCV. The prevalence of previous exposure to HBV was higher than expected for an adult population in central Brazil. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was not much higher regarding the age range of participants. HBV markers were associated with a higher number of sex partners and the use of injections without proper sterilisation of the syringes. The number of HBV carriers was small, suggesting that there was no increased likelihood of chronification among these patients.

  20. Phylogeography and genetic effects of habitat fragmentation on endemic Urophysa (Ranunculaceae) in Yungui Plateau and adjacent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Deng-Feng; Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Price, Megan; Xiao, Qun-Ying; Zhou, Song-Dong; Yu, Yan; He, Xing-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Urophysa is a Chinese endemic genus with only two species (U. rockii and U. henryi) distributed in Yungui Plateau (Guizhou Province) and adjacent regions (i.e., Provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Sichuan). The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity and population differentiation within Urophysa and investigate the effect of the Yungui Plateau uplift and climate oscillations on evolution of Urophysa. In this study, micro-morphological characteristics, nine microsatellite loci (SSR), two nuclear loci (ITS and ETS) and two chloroplast fragments (psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF) were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships and assess genetic and phylogeographical structure of Urophysa. Isolation by distance (IBD) was performed to research the effects of geographical isolation. We detected high genetic diversity at the species level but low genetic diversity within populations. Striking genetic differentiation (AMOVA) among populations and a significant phylogeographical structure (NST > GST, p habitat fragmentation played an important role in the genetic diversity and population differentiation of U. rockii and U. henryi. Heterogenous geomorphological configuration and complicated environment resulted from rapid uplift of the Yungui Plateau were inferred as important incentives for the modern phylogeograhpical pattern and species divergence of Urophysa. The geographical isolation, limited gene flow, specialized morphologies and the Pleistocene climatic oscillation greatly contributed to the allopatric divergence of U. rockii. Significant genetic drift and inbreeding were detected in these two species, in situ measures should be implemented to protect them.

  1. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002-2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the "Floresta Nacional do Tapajós", Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B(45) medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. © A.A.A. de Souza et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  2. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002–2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the “Floresta Nacional do Tapajós”, Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B45 medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. PMID:27235194

  3. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasani, F.; Javanbakht, J.; Samani, R.; Shirani, D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammato...

  4. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate. PMID:24474115

  5. Miltefosine in cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.B.; Mumtaz, N.; Bari, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of oral Miltefosine in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and its comparison with the most effective standard treatment, pentavalent antimony compound. Thirty patients, 12 years of age or older clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected. Fifteen patients received orally administered Miltefosine 2.5mg/kg/day for 28 days and remaining 15 received injectable pentavalent antimony 20mg/kg/day for 28 days. Pre-treatment complete physical examination was done along with necessary laboratory investigations in all cases. These were repeated again after 2 weeks and at the end of treatment to note any deviation from the normal limits. Groups were almost matched in terms of age, weight, parasitological score. The efficacy was evaluated by ulcer size, before therapy, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Patients were followed-up at 3 and 6 months. Efficacy of two groups was statistically compared by calculating p-value by z-test. All patients completed the study without any serious complication. Lesions improved significantly and only scarring and post-inflammatory pigmentation was left. At 3 months, cure rate was 93% in group A and it was 73.33% in group B while at the end of 6 months, it was 86% and 66.6% respectively. This difference between efficacies of two groups was not found to be statistically significant (p-value >0.5). Miltefosine appears to be a safe and effective alternative to currently used therapies. The striking advantage of Miltefosine is its oral administration and it may also be helpful in regions where parasites are resistant to current agents. (author)

  6. Polymorphism of the promoter region and exon 1 of the CTLA4 gene in endemic pemphigus foliaceus (fogo selvagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Pavoni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune bullous skin disease characterized by acantholysis and antibodies against a desmosomal protein, desmoglein 1. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to development of this multifactorial disease. HLA class II and some cytokine gene polymorphisms are the only genetic markers thus far known to be associated with susceptibility to or protection from EPF. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 gene (CTLA4 encodes a key immunoreceptor molecule that regulates and inhibits T-cell proliferation. It participates in the regulatory process controlling autoreactivity and therefore has been considered a strong candidate gene in autoimmune diseases. In the search for genes that might influence EPF pathogenesis, we analyzed variants of the CTLA4 gene in a sample of 118 patients and 291 controls from a Brazilian population. This is the first study investigating the possible role of polymorphisms of the 2q33 chromosomal region in differential susceptibility to pemphigus foliaceus. Promoter region and exon 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms -318 (C,T and 49 (A,G were genotyped using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes after amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. The allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ significantly between the patient and the control groups (-318T: 9.8 and 10.9%, 49G: 33.0 and 35.2% were the allelic frequencies in patients and controls, respectively. In addition, no significant difference was found when the patient and control population samples were stratified by the presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles. We conclude that the CTLA4 -318 (C,T and 49 (A,G polymorphisms do not play a major role in EPF development.

  7. Leishmaniose visceral: características clínico-epidemiológicas em crianças de área endêmica Visceral leishmaniasis: clinical and epidemiological features of children in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia J. A. Queiroz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínico-epidemiológicas, o tratamento e a letalidade das crianças internadas com leishmaniose visceral em um hospital pediátrico de referência. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos dados biológicos, demográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais das crianças internadas no Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco, em Recife, no período compreendido entre 1996 e 2001. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas 431 crianças, de 4 meses a 13,7 anos de idade, sendo que 50,3% eram do sexo feminino, e 82,5% eram do interior do estado de Pernambuco. Cerca de 70% dos domicílios eram de alvenaria, 70% não dispunham de água encanada ou sistema de esgoto sanitário, e o tempo médio de permanência das mães na escola foi de 3 anos. Esplenomegalia e febre estavam presentes em 97% e 95,6% dos casos, respectivamente, e 44,5% dos pacientes eram subnutridos. Em 47 (10,9% dos pacientes foi detectada infecção na admissão. O nível médio de hemoglobina foi de 6 g/dl, de leucócitos 3.516/mm³ e de plaquetas 118.641/mm³. O tratamento de escolha foi o glucantime (98% dos casos, e em sete pacientes, a anfotericina B foi utilizada. A letalidade foi de 10,2%, sendo que as principais causas imediatas de óbito foram atribuídas a infecções associadas, hemorragias e insuficiência hepática. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores destacam as características clínicas, epidemiológicas e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em área endêmica, além do diagnóstico tardio e alta letalidade, sugerindo a capacitação de profissionais de saúde para o reconhecimento precoce e tratamento adequado da doença e suas complicações.OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of children with visceral leishmaniasis admitted to a pediatric referral hospital, and to describe treatment measures and the case fatality rate . METHODS: Retrospective analysis of biological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data from children with

  8. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-03

    A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usseglio, Paolo; Friedlander, Alan M; DeMartini, Edward E; Schuhbauer, Anna; Schemmel, Eva; Salinas de Léon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2-3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L ∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = - 1.7 years) show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female) was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F), with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%). Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability.

  10. So Long and Thanks for All the Fish: Overexploitation of the Regionally Endemic Galapagos Grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usseglio, Paolo; Friedlander, Alan M; Koike, Haruko; Zimmerhackel, Johanna; Schuhbauer, Anna; Eddy, Tyler; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2016-01-01

    The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch. Over the assessed period, none of the indicators reached values associated with healthy populations, with all indicators declining over time. Furthermore, the most recent landings data show that the vast majority of the bacalao caught (95.7%,) were below Lm, the number of fish within the Lopt interval was extremely low (4.7%), and there were virtually no mega-spawners (0.2%). Bacalao fully recruit to the fishery 15 cm below the size at which 50% of the population matures. The Spawning Potential Ratio is currently 5% of potential unfished fecundity, strongly suggesting severe overfishing. Our results suggest the need for bacalao-specific management regulations that should include minimum (65 cm TL) and maximum (78 cm TL) landing sizes, slot limits (64-78 cm TL), as well as a closed season during spawning from October to January. It is recognized that these regulations are harsh and will certainly have negative impacts on the livelihoods of fishers in the short term, however, continued inaction will likely result in a collapse of this economically and culturally valuable species. Alternative sources of income should be developed in parallel with the establishment of fishing regulations to limit the socio-economic disruption to the fishing community during the transition to a more sustainable management regime.

  11. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Usseglio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2–3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = − 1.7 years show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F, with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%. Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability.

  12. An epidemiologic review of enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana: shifting patterns of resistance in an HIV endemic region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack S Rowe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of diarrheal disease in Botswana, an HIV endemic region, is largely unknown. Our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens.A retrospective cross-sectional study examined laboratory records of stool specimens analyzed by the Botswana National Health Laboratory in Gaborone, Botswana from February 2003 through July 2008. In 4485 specimens the median subject age was 23 [interquartile range 1.6-34] years. Overall, 14.4% (644 of 4485 of samples yielded a pathogen. Bacteria alone were isolated in 8.2% (367 of 4485, parasites alone in 5.6% (253 of 4485 and both in 0.5% (24 of 4485 of samples. The most common bacterial pathogens were Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp., isolated from 4.0% (180 of 4485 and 3.9% (175 of 4485 of specimens, respectively. Escherichia coli (22 of 4485 and Campylobacter spp. (22 of 4485 each accounted for 0.5% of pathogens. Comparing antimicrobial resistance among Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. between two periods, February 2003 to February 2004 and July 2006 to July 2008, revealed an increase in ampicillin resistance among Shigella spp. from 43% to 83% (p<0.001. Among Salmonella spp., resistance to chloramphenicol decreased from 56% to 6% (p<0.001. The absence of stool white and red blood cells correlated with a high specificity and negative predictive value.Most gastroenteritis stools were culture and microscopy negative suggesting that viral pathogens were the majority etiologic agents in this Botswana cohort. Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. were the most common bacteria; Isospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most common parasites. Resistance to commonly used antimicrobials is high and should be closely monitored.

  13. Climate and land-use changes effects on the distribution of a regional endemism: Melanophryniscus sanmartini (Amphibia, Bufonidae

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    Nicole Rosenstock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate group according to the IUCN. Land-use and land cover change (LULCC and climate change (CC are two of the main factors related to declining amphibian populations. Given the vulnerability of threatened and rare species, the study of their response to these impacts is a conservation priority. The aim of this work was to analyze the combined impact of LULCC and CC on the regionally endemic species Melanophryniscus sanmartini Klappenbach, 1968. This species is currently categorized as near threatened by the IUCN, and previous studies suggest negative effects of projected changes in climate. Using maximum entropy methods we modeled the effects of CC on the current and mid-century distribution of M. sanmartini under two IPCC scenarios - A2 (severe and B2 (moderate. The effects of LULCC were studied by superimposing the potential distribution with current land use, while future distribution models were evaluated under the scenario of maximum expansion of soybean and afforestation in Uruguay. The results suggest that M. sanmartini is distributed in eastern Uruguay and the south of Brazil, mainly related to hilly and grasslands systems. Currently more than 10% of this species' distribution is superimposed by agricultural crops and exotic forest plantations. Contrasting with a recent modelling study our models suggest an expansion of the distribution of M. sanmartini by mid-century under both climate scenarios. However, despite the rise in climatically suitable areas for the species in the future, LULCC projections indicate that the proportion of modified habitats will occupy up to 25% of the distribution of M. sanmartini. Future change in climate conditions could represent an opportunity for M. sanmartini, but management measures are needed to mitigate the effects of habitat modification in order to ensure its survival and allow the eventual expansion of its distribution.

  14. Therapeutic vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Numerous therapeutic strategies are used to treat leishmaniasis. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is solely depends on antimonate derivatives with safety issues and questionable efficacy and there is no fully effective modality to treat CL caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania braziliensis. There is no prophylactic vaccine available against any form of leishmaniasis. Immunotherapy for CL has a long history; immunotherapy trials of first and second generation vaccines showed promising results. The current article briefly covers the prophylactic vaccines and explains different immunotherapy strategies that have been used to treat leishmaniasis. This paper does not include experimental vaccines and only lays emphasis on human trials and those vaccines which reached human trials. Immunotherapy is currently used to successfully treat several disorders; Low cost, limited side effects and no possibility to develop resistance make immunotherapy a valuable choice especially for infectious disease with chemotherapy problems. Efforts are needed to explore the immunological surrogate marker(s) of cure and protection in leishmaniasis and overcome the difficulties in standardization of crude Leishmania vaccines. One of the reasons for anti-leishmaniasis vaccine failure is lack of an appropriate adjuvant. So far, not enough attention has been paid to develop vaccines for immunotherapy of leishmaniasis.

  15. Unusual presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiry Anup Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leis hmaniasis is endemic in some regions of Saudi Arabia. A case with uncommon hyperkeratotic type of lesion was seen. Being an endemic zone, a slit- skin smear was done and stained with Giemsa′s stain. Smears howed Leishman Donovan bodies within and outside the macrophages. Significant improvement, followed by complete resolution of the lesion was seen with ketoconazole treatment.

  16. Awareness of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour among persons with acute undifferentiated fever in the endemic regions of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Phyo Aung; Maung, Thae Maung; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar has a high burden of malaria with two-third of the population at risk of malaria. One of the basic elements of the Roll Back Malaria Initiative to fight against malaria is early diagnosis and treatment within 24 h of fever. Public awareness about malaria is a key factor in malaria prevention and control and in improving treatment-seeking behaviour. A large community-based survey was carried out in 27 townships of malaria endemic regions in Myanmar in 2015 which reported on the knowledge, behaviour and practices around malaria in the general population. We used the data already collected in this survey to assess (i) general public awareness of malaria and (ii) treatment-seeking behaviour and associated factors among persons with acute undifferentiated fever. A total of 6597 respondents from 6625 households were interviewed (response rate of 99.5%). About 85% of the respondents were aware that mosquito bite was the mode of transmission of malaria and 90% mentioned that malaria was preventable. However, only 16% of the respondents knew about anti-malaria drug resistance. There were certain misconceptions about the transmission of malaria such as dirty water, same blood group, sharing shelter, sleeping/eating together and poor hygiene. Health facility staff were the most common source of information about malaria (80%). Nearly one-fourth (23%) of the respondents with fever resorted to self-medication. Around 28% of the respondents with fever underwent blood testing, less than half of whom (44%) were tested within 24 h. Elderly age group, females, those with poor knowledge about malaria and those residing in non-Regional Artemisinin Resistance Initiative townships were associated with poor treatment-seeking behaviour in case of fever. Although there is fair knowledge on mosquito bite as a mode of transmission and prevention of malaria, there are some misconceptions about transmission of malaria. Those having poor knowledge about malaria have poor treatment

  17. Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Ciro Martins; Damasco,Fabiana dos Santos; Morais,Orlando Oliveira de; Paula,Carmen Dea Ribeiro de; Sampaio,Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because...

  18. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence. We find the correlation between the rainy season precipitation and the same year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to be strong for both regions while the number of cases of ZCL incidence lags the precipitation and NDVI by 2 years. The zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis seasonal dynamic appears to be controlled by minimum temperatures and presents a 2-month lag between the reported infection date and the presumed date when the infection actually occurred. The decadal increase in the number of ZCL occurrence in the region suggests that changes in climate increased minimum temperatures sufficiently and created conditions suitable for endemicity that did not previously exist. We also find that temperatures above a critical range suppress ZCL incidence by limiting the vector's reproductive activity.

  19. American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis and HIV-AIDS Association in a Tertiary Care Center in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge Augusto O.; Coelho, Leíla I. R. C.; Pereira, Flávio R.; Siqueira, André M.; Ribeiro, Rogério L.; Almeida, Thiago Miranda L.; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius G.; Barbosa, Maria das Graças V.; Talhari, Sinésio

    2011-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both common infectious diseases in the Brazilian Amazon with overlapping expansion areas, which leads to the occurrence of Leishmania/HIV coinfection. Most ATL/HIV–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) association cases have been reported from areas where Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main pathogen; this finding is in contrast with the Amazon region, where L. (V.) guyanensis is the most implicated agent, implying distinct clinical and therapeutic aspects. We describe 15 cases of ATL/HIV coinfection treated in a tertiary care center in the Brazilian Amazon between 1999 and 2008. Thirteen patients presented with diverse clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and four of them had disseminated forms; two patients presented with mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). Seven patients required more than one course of treatment. The particularities of ATL/HIV-AIDS association in L. (V.) guyanensis-endemic areas require efforts for an increased understanding of its burden and subsequent improvements in case management. PMID:21896816

  20. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dawadimi region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data from the patients included in this retrospective study were collected from the Leishmaniasis Control Center of Ad-Dawadimi District of Saudi Arabia. A total of 370 patients with CL were recorded from ...

  1. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  2. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Leishmaniasis in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Kazinian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the clinical and laboratory characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis according to the data from Clinical hospital of infectious diseases «Nork» in Yerevan for 2013. It is shown that Armenia is a country endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Most patients (81 % were males. About half of the patients were young children (up to 2 years. It was found that the majority of patients had acute onset of the disease with fever up to 40 °C, severe symptoms of intoxication and single hemorrhages on the skin. Enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in all patients. The enlargement of the spleen was more pronounced, and it reached the level of the pelvis. One of the cardinal symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis — anemia — developed in all patients admitted to the hospital, and a significant change in the hemogram was observed in young children.

  3. Foveal hemorrhage in an immunocompetent patient with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibils Farrés, P; Bedoya Ayala, P; Burga Kuroda, G H; Zegarra Domínguez, M; Luna, J D; Velazco Casapía, J

    2015-12-01

    To report a case of foveal and macular intraretinal hemorrhages in an immunocompetent male patient with visceral leishmaniasis. An immunocompetent, 42 year-old male, presented with progressive visual loss and metamorphopsia in his right eye. The fundus examination showed a foveal round yellow lesion and intraretinal hemorrhages in the macula. The patient was hospitalized with fever, anorexia, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and progressive anemia. Laboratory studies were conducted and a positive test for leishmaniasis and hepatitis A was reported. Treatment was begun with amphotericin B 50mg/day up to a total dose of 1400mg. Bilateral retinal hemorrhages in an endemic country could suggest the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready PD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul D ReadyDisease Control Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKAbstract: Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control, surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL

  5. Molecular prevalence and estimated risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Ayman A; El-Dwibe, Hamida; Basyoni, Maha M A; Al-Antably, Abeer S A; Al-Bashier, Wafaa A

    2017-12-01

    Cutanoeus leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area including Libya. The aim of the present study is to detect the prevalent Leishmania species obtained from smeared cutaneous lesions in addition to studying the diverse sociodemographic risk factors of the reported cases from different provinces of Libya. A total of 250 archived microscopic slides from clinically suspected cases of CL attending the leishmaniasis clinic in the Dermatology Department, Tripoli Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, were microscopically examined. Leishmania-DNA was amplified using combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting kinetoplast-DNA (kDNA) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for direct Leishmania species identification. Using kDNA and ITS1-PCR, 22.5% and 20% of cases were positive, respectively. Only 14.4% of cases were positive using microscopy. Nominating ITS1-PCR as the reference standard, kDNA-PCR assay was highly sensitive while microscopy was 100% specific but of limited sensitivity (72%) with a substantial agreement and an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were the predominant species reported from the north-western provinces including Tripoli, Zintan, and Gharyan with their related subprovinces; Asabaa, Mizdan, Alkawasem, and Alorban. CL prevailed more among men and residents of rural areas. House wives and students were the most affected professions. Children were the least affected, while the middle-aged were the most affected age group. L. major and L. tropica are the predominant species in the north-western regions of Libya. ITS1-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay offered a sensitive, specific, and faster diagnostic method especially with negative parasitologic examination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Transmission potential, skin inflammatory response, and parasitism of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

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    Goto H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi and it is transmitted by sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. Dogs are an important domestic reservoir, and control of the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL to humans includes the elimination of infected dogs. However, though dogs are considered to be an important element in the transmission cycle of Leishmania, the identification of infected dogs representing an immediate risk for transmission has not been properly evaluated. Since it is not possible to treat infected dogs, they are sacrificed when a diagnosis of VL is established, a measure that is difficult to accomplish in highly endemic areas. In such areas, parameters that allow for easy identification of reservoirs that represents an immediate risk for transmission is of great importance for the control of VL transmission. In this study we aimed to identify clinical parameters, reinforced by pathological parameters that characterize dogs with potential to transmit the parasite to the vector. Results The major clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic area were onicogriphosis, skin lesions, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. The transmission potential of these dogs was assessed by xenodiagnosis using Lutzomyia longipalpis. Six of nine symptomatic dogs were infective to Lutzomyia longipalpis while none of the five asymptomatic dogs were infective to the sandfly. Leishmania amastigotes were present in the skin of all clinically symptomatic dogs, but absent in asymptomatic dogs. Higher parasite loads were observed in the ear and ungueal region, and lower in abdomen. The inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the ears and ungueal regions of both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. In clinically affected dogs in which few or none Leishmania amastigotes were observed, the inflammatory infiltrate was constituted mainly of lymphocytes

  7. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

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    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  8. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

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    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria: quadrennial assessment (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelmouffok, A B; Sellami, M; Boughoufalah, A

    2017-08-01

    To study the prevalence and epidemiological factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria from 2008 through 2011. The endemic site of M'Sila is the most important in Algeria after the historic site of Biskra, but the disease has spread rapidly and created new and important sites of infection, including Batna, Bechar, El Oued and Ghardaïa. The increased number of cases and the spread of this zoonosis require increased surveillance of its evolution and the application of adequate control measures.

  10. Suppression of circulating IgD+CD27+ memory B cells in infants living in a malaria-endemic region of Kenya

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    Asito Amolo S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum infection leads to alterations in B cell subset distribution. During infancy, development of peripheral B cell subsets is also occurring. However, it is unknown if infants living a malaria endemic region have alterations in B cell subsets that is independent of an age effect. Methods To evaluate the impact of exposure to P. falciparum on B cell development in infants, flow cytometry was used to analyse the distribution and phenotypic characteristic of B cell subsets in infant cohorts prospectively followed at 12, 18 and 24 months from two geographically proximate regions in western Kenya with divergent malaria exposure i.e. Kisumu (malaria-endemic, n = 24 and Nandi (unstable malaria transmission, n = 21. Results There was significantly higher frequency and absolute cell numbers of CD19+ B cells in Kisumu relative to Nandi at 12(p = 0.0440, 18(p = 0.0210 and 24 months (p = 0.0493. No differences were observed between the infants from the two sites in frequencies of naïve B cells (IgD+CD27- or classical memory B cells (IgD-CD27+. However, immature transitional B cells (CD19+CD10+CD34- were higher in Kisumu relative to Nandi at all three ages. In contrast, the levels of non-class switched memory B cells (CD19+IgD+CD27+ were significantly lower overall in Kisumu relative to Nandi at significantly at 12 (p = 0.0144, 18 (p = 0.0013 and 24 months (p = 0.0129. Conclusions These data suggest that infants living in malaria endemic regions have altered B cell subset distribution. Further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these changes and long-term impact on ability of these infants to develop antibody responses to P. falciparum and heterologous infections.

  11. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  12. Leishmaniasis vaccine candidates for development: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Ali; Rafati, Sima; Davoudi, Noushin; Maboudi, Fereidoun; Modabber, Farrokh

    2006-03-01

    A vaccine against different forms of leishmaniasis should be feasible considering the wealth of information on genetics and biology of the parasite, clinical and experimental immunology of leishmaniasis, and the availability of vaccines that can protect experimental animals against challenge with different Leishmania species. However, there is no vaccine against any form of leishmaniasis for general human use. One major factor is the lack of a conceived market for human leishmaniasis vaccines. Hence pharmaceutical industries involved in vaccine development are not interested in investing millions of dollars and a decade that is required for developing a new vaccine. Besides, leishmaniasis is a local/regional problem and not a global one. According to the estimates of the World Health Organization, 90 per cent of visceral leishmaniasis occurs in five countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal and Sudan). Those in need are amongst the poorest people in these countries. It should therefore be the objectives of these countries to develop a vaccine. Fortunately, both Brazil and India have designated the control of visceral leishmaniasis as a top priority for their respective Ministries of Health. The purpose of this review is to present only the vaccines in use and those in development for use in dogs or humans. This is not an exhaustive review of vaccine discovery or the principles of clinical immunology underlying vaccine development.

  13. SisLeish: A multi-country standardized information system to monitor the status of Leishmaniasis in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Background In the Americas, leishmaniasis is endemic in 18 countries, and from 2001 through 2015, 17 countries reported 843,931 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 countries reported 52,176 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. A Regional Information System (SisLeish) was created in order to provide knowledge of the distribution and tendency of this disease to analyze and monitor the leishmaniasis status. This article analyses the performance and progress of SisLeish from 2012–2015. Methodology The performance of SisLeish was evaluated by country adhesion, data completeness and delay in entering the data, and also by the SWOT technique. Furthermore, we outlined the structure and modus operandi of the system and indicators utilized. Results In 2012, only 18% of the countries entered the data in SisLeish before the deadline, where 66.7% and 50% of the countries with autochthonous CL/ML and VL reported their cases to the system, respectively. Whereas in 2015, 59% of the countries reached the deadline, where 94.4% and 58.3% of the countries reported their CL/ML and VL data, respectively. Regarding data completeness, there was great progress for different variables since its launch, such as gender, which had an approximately 100% improvement from 2012 to 2015. The SWOT analysis of SisLeish showed 12 strengths, 11 opportunities, seven weaknesses and six threats. Conclusions From 2012–2015 there has been an improvement in the adhesion, quality and data completeness, showing the effort of the majority of the countries to enhance their national database. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that strengths and opportunities exceed weaknesses and threats; however, it highlighted the system frailties and challenges that need to be addressed. Furthermore, it has stimulated several National Programs to advance their surveillance system. Therefore, SisLeish has become an essential tool to prioritize areas, assist in decision-making processes, and to guide

  14. SisLeish: A multi-country standardized information system to monitor the status of Leishmaniasis in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Elkhoury, Ana N S; O B Valadas, Samantha Y; Puppim-Buzanovsky, Lia; Rocha, Felipe; Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J

    2017-09-01

    In the Americas, leishmaniasis is endemic in 18 countries, and from 2001 through 2015, 17 countries reported 843,931 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 countries reported 52,176 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. A Regional Information System (SisLeish) was created in order to provide knowledge of the distribution and tendency of this disease to analyze and monitor the leishmaniasis status. This article analyses the performance and progress of SisLeish from 2012-2015. The performance of SisLeish was evaluated by country adhesion, data completeness and delay in entering the data, and also by the SWOT technique. Furthermore, we outlined the structure and modus operandi of the system and indicators utilized. In 2012, only 18% of the countries entered the data in SisLeish before the deadline, where 66.7% and 50% of the countries with autochthonous CL/ML and VL reported their cases to the system, respectively. Whereas in 2015, 59% of the countries reached the deadline, where 94.4% and 58.3% of the countries reported their CL/ML and VL data, respectively. Regarding data completeness, there was great progress for different variables since its launch, such as gender, which had an approximately 100% improvement from 2012 to 2015. The SWOT analysis of SisLeish showed 12 strengths, 11 opportunities, seven weaknesses and six threats. From 2012-2015 there has been an improvement in the adhesion, quality and data completeness, showing the effort of the majority of the countries to enhance their national database. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that strengths and opportunities exceed weaknesses and threats; however, it highlighted the system frailties and challenges that need to be addressed. Furthermore, it has stimulated several National Programs to advance their surveillance system. Therefore, SisLeish has become an essential tool to prioritize areas, assist in decision-making processes, and to guide surveillance and control actions.

  15. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a New Host Cell in Latent Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M.; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N.

    2011-01-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs have been isolated, cultured, characterized, and infected with different species of Leishmania parasites (L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum). Infectivity was examined by Giemsa staining, microculture, and polymerase chain reaction methods. As a result, infectivity of ADMSCs by Leishmania parasites has been determined for the first time in this study. According to our findings, it is very important that donors are screened for Leishmania parasites before stem cell transplantations in regions where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:21896818

  16. Lupoid Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Review

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    Maryam Amin Moghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease currently threatens 350 million people in 88 countries. Lupoid leishmaniasis occurs as a result of the host response, in which despite an intensified hypersensitivity the cell mediated immunity cannot sterilize lesions. A chronic granulomatous inflammation remains active for a long time. To summarize the articles published about Lupoid leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: a systematic web base search was conducted in PubMed up to July 2015. We included articles with available abstract in English language. Manual searching was done within the reference list of articles.  Results: Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed eligibility criteria, assessed quality, and extracted data. Conclusion: Some patients have periods of relapse and remission at the site of inoculation of parasites and others suffer from chronic injury for years. In the case of effective disease treatment several studies have been conducted, so far, no satisfactory results have been achieved.

  17. Does timing of breeding matter less where the grass is greener? Seasonal declines in breeding performance differ between regions in an endangered endemic raptor

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    Marie-Sophie Garcia-Heras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The timing of breeding can strongly influence individual breeding performance and fitness. Seasonal declines in breeding parameters have been often documented in birds, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer studies have investigated whether seasonal declines in productivity vary in space, which would have implications for a species’ population dynamics across its distributional range. We report here on variation in the timing of breeding in the Black Harrier (Circus maurus, an endangered and endemic raptor to Southern Africa. We investigated how key breeding parameters (clutch size, nesting success and productivity varied with the timing of breeding, weather conditions (rainfall and temperature and between contrasted regions (coastal vs. interior-mountain. Black Harrier onset of breeding extended over an 8-month period, with a peak of laying between mid-August and end of September. We show a marked seasonal decline in all breeding parameters. Importantly, for clutch size and productivity these seasonal declines differed regionally, being more pronounced in interior-mountain than in coastal regions, where the breeding season was overall shorter. Timing of breeding, clutch size and productivity were also partly explained by weather conditions. In coastal regions, where environmental conditions, in particular rainfall, appear to be less variable, the timing of breeding matters less for breeding output than in interior-mountain regions, and breeding attempts thus occurred over a longer period. The former areas may act as population sources and be key in protecting the long-term population viability of this threatened endemic raptor. This study provides unique evidence for a regionally variable seasonal decline in breeding performance with implications for population biology and conservation.

  18. Asociación entre la incidencia de leishmaniosis cutánea y el índice de desarrollo humano y sus componentes en cuatro estados endémicos de Venezuela Association between cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and the human development index and its components in four endemic states of Venezuela

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    Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar las posibles asociaciones entre el índice de desarrollo humano (IDH y sus componentes, y la incidencia de Leishmaniosis cutánea (LC en cuatro estados endémicos de Venezuela (Mérida, Trujillo, Lara y Sucre en el período 1994 al 2003. Materiales y métodos. La data socioeconómica (clasificada de acuerdo al Banco Mundial se obtuvo del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y la epidemiológica del Ministerio de Salud, ambos de Venezuela. Para este estudio ecológico se evaluó la variación anual de las variables y se realizó modelos de regresión. Resultados. El IDH varió en el período, de 0,6746 en 1994 a 0,8144 en 2003 (p=0,90, asimismo, se observó un aumento de la incidencia acumulada de Leishmaniosis, en especial del año 1998 (7,3 casos/100 000 hab a 1999 (11,3 casos/100 000 hab. Al analizar con los modelos de regresión lineal, se observó que la relación entre las variables epidemiológicas y sociales era diferente a nivel de los Estados evaluados. Para Mérida y Trujillo se observó un descenso significativo de la incidencia de LC con relación al aumento del porcentaje de alfabetización (pObjectives. Assess potential relationships between the Human Development Index (HDI and its components and the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in four endemic States of Venezuela (Mérida, Trujillo, Lara and Sucre in the period 1994-2003. Material and methods. Socioeconomical data (classified according the World Bank was obtained from the National Institute of Statistics, and the epidemiological data from the Ministry of Health, both from Venezuela. For this ecological study the annual variation of the variables was assessed and also regression models were done. Results. The HDI varied in the period from 0.6746 in 1994 to 0.8144 in 2003 (p=0.90. During this time an increase in the cumulative incidence of Leishmaniasis was observed, particularly from 1998 (7.3 cases/100,000 pop to 1999 (11.3 cases/100,000 pop. Analyzing

  19. Fatores relacionados com a positividade de cães para leishmaniose visceral em área endêmica do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Factors related to positive testing of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in endemic area in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou descrever alguns fatores relacionados à positividade de cães para leishmaniose visceral, em área endêmica do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram analisados 198 cães, dos quais 62 foram recrutados de propriedades rurais e 136 de residências urbanas. O diagnóstico foi realizado através dos testes de imunofluorescência indireta e imunoadsorção enzimática. Dos cães analisados, 45% dos positivos eram provenientes da área rural e 35% da área urbana. Analisando a função dos animais, a prevalência foi de 50% dos cães de guarda nas áreas rural e de 43% na área urbana. Quanto aos cães que tinham contato com outros cães de origem rural ou urbana, a prevalência observada de foi 54% e 32%, respectivamente. No que se refere ao sexo, as fêmeas da zona rural foram mais prevalentes. Estes resultados sugerem uma atenção maior sobre o papel destes animais como reservatório dessa zoonose, como também na urbanização da leishmaniose visceral e o inquérito epidemiológico desta doença, no qual estas informações poderão contribuir para o planejamento de estratégias de controle do cão como reservatório doméstico.This study aimed at describing several factors related to positive testing of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis, in an endemic area of the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Sera of 198 dogs were analyzed, 62 from rural properties and 136 from urban residences. Diagnosis was performed through indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty five percent of positive dogs were from the rural area and 35% came from the urban area. Concerning the analysis of dogs' function, the watchdogs showed greater prevalence, with 50% prevalence in the rural area and 43% in the urban area. With regard to contact with other dogs and origin in rural or urban areas, the prevalence was 54% and 32% respectively. In relation to gender, females from the rural area were more prevalent. These results

  20. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax subclinical infection in non-endemic region: implications for blood transfusion and malaria epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Luciana M F; Levy, Debora; Laporta, Gabriel Z; Monteiro, Aline M; Fukuya, Linah A; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria F; Daniel-Ribeiro, Claudio T; Dorlhiac-Llacer, Pedro E; Sallum, Maria Anice M; Bydlowski, Sérgio P

    2014-06-06

    In Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon River basin and non-endemic in the extra-Amazon region, which includes areas of São Paulo state. In this state, a number of autochthonous cases of malaria occur annually, and the prevalence of subclinical infection is unknown. Asymptomatic infections may remain undetected, maintaining transmission of the pathogen, including by blood transfusion. In these report it has been described subclinical Plasmodium infection in blood donors from a blood transfusion centre in São Paulo, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, representative samples of blood were obtained from 1,108 healthy blood donors at the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, the main blood transfusion centre in São Paulo. Malaria exposure was defined by the home region (exposed: forest region; non-exposed: non-forest region). Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Subclinical malaria cases were geo-referenced. Eighty-four (7.41%) blood donors tested positive for Plasmodium; 57 of these were infected by P. falciparum, 25 by P. vivax, and 2 by both. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was 5.14 and 2.26, respectively. The overall prevalence ratio (PR) was 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03, 5.13); P. falciparum PR was 16.11 (95% CI 5.87, 44.21) and P. vivax PR was 0.47 (95% CI 0.2, 1.12). Plasmodium falciparum subclinical malaria infection in the Atlantic Forest domain was present in the mountain regions while P. vivax infection was observed in cities from forest-surrounded areas. The presence of Plasmodium in healthy blood donors from a region known as non-endemic, which is important in the context of transfusion biosafety, was described. Infected recipients may become asymptomatic carriers and a reservoir for parasites, maintaining their transmission. Furthermore, P. falciparum PR was positively associated with the forest environment, and P. vivax was associated with forest fragmentation.

  1. An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Modena province (Northern Italy): report of 35 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesinaro, A M; Nosseir, S; Mataca, E; Mengoli, M C; Cavatorta, C; Gennari, W

    2017-12-01

    Canine Leishmaniasis is a disease endemic in many parts of Europe, carried by insects of phlebotomous species. Humans are occasional hosts of the parasites. Cases of human leishmaniasis have been registered in Italy, particularly in the southern and coastal regions. In the period 1997-2016, we collected a series of 35 patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis, uncovered by skin biopsy and histological examination, 21 of them found in last 3 years. The patients, 28 males and 7 female, aged between 19 and 91, resided in a restricted area of Northern Italy, and none, but two, had travelled abroad. Lesions presented clinically mostly as single nodule or plaque, often ulcerated, and involved predominantly head-neck and upper extremities. Histology showed a diffuse, granulomatous inflammation including numerous plasma cells. Variable numbers of amastigotes were visible, usually in the superficial part of the dermis, in all cases but two. In these two cases, highly suspicious by clinico-pathologic features, PCR analysis allowed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Our attention was then focused on the geographical residence of the patients, that turned out to be mostly in the piedmont area, whereas only one lived in the alluvial area corresponding to Padana plain. These data underline the diffusion of phlebotomus in northern areas of Italy, and particularly on the hills, characterized by a type of soil more favorable to vector survival; also, they indicate the adaptation of leishmania to hosts other than dogs, such as foxes and small rodents. Histology alone resulted sufficient to make diagnosis in most cases, but PCR analysis is recommended in those cases showing a suspicious background, in absence of amastigotes. © Copyright Società Italiana di Anatomia Patologica e Citopatologia Diagnostica, Divisione Italiana della International Academy of Pathology.

  2. [Interpretation of laboratory data during cryptic leishmaniasis in dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravino, A E

    2004-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by an intracellular parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. In Europe, Africa, South America and China, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by L. infantum. The vectors of leishmaniasis are phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genera Phlebotomus. According to the World Health Organization there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. Leishmaniasis is considered a zoonosis and human are generally accidental hosts. The animal reservoir includes rodents, dog and other mammals. Several studies have indicate that half of the dogs with antileishmanial antibodies have no signs of disease although, animal with subclinical infections are potentially infectious to sand flies. The factors determining susceptibility or resistence to visceral leishmaniasis remain unclear, but the genetics of the host may play a major role. Clinical signs are: intermittent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, skin lesions and ulcers, alopecia, onychogryphosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In mice, the outcome of infection depends on the polarized activation of one of two subsets of CD4+ T cells, Th1 or Th2, the subdivision into Th1 and Th2 cells is based on the pattern of cytokines that they produce. Th1 cells produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin -2 (IL-2), whereas Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. An important difference between susceptible and resistant mice is that the resistant mice are able to switch to a Th1 profile and control the disease. An important factor in the "decision" to form a Th1 or Th2 phenotype is the early cytokine environment, and IL-12 is one of the cytokines that contributes significantly to the establishment of the Th1 phenotype. Canine leishmaniosis is endemic in the Mediterranean basin and, in most cases is caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum. The main clinical findings are skin lesions, local or generalized lymphoadenopathy, loss of

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishya B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is being reported from Assam, a North Eastern state of India. Clinical feature and direct smear examination of the case confirmed the diagnosis. Dramatic resolution of the lesions with sodium antimony gluconate during 10 days of therapy was achieved.

  4. New serological tools for improved diagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lourena E; Salles, Beatriz C S; Alves, Patrícia T; Dias, Ana C S; Vaz, Emília R; Ramos, Fernanda F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Duarte, Mariana C; Roatt, Bruno M; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Tavares, Carlos A P; Gonçalves, Denise U; Rocha, Manoel O C; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-07-01

    Human tegumentary leishmaniasis (HTL), characterized by skin ulcers that may spread and cause dreadful and massive tissue destruction of the nose and mouth, is considered a neglected tropical disease, and it is a serious threat to global health due to its continuous expansion, favored by the lifecycle of its causative organism that is maintained in domestic animal reservoirs and anthropophilic sand fly species. Serodiagnosis of HTL is a great challenge due to many biological factors, including hampered specificity and/or sensitivity. This investigation addresses the unmet need for new diagnostic markers of HTL, and describes a simple platform to improve the serodiagnosis. A constrained conformational phage display random peptide library combined with a magnetic microsphere-based subtraction strategy was used to identify ligands with potential diagnostic applications. Six clones were selected against IgG antibodies from HTL patients, characterized by sequencing and confirmed by a phage-ELISA using sera from patients developing visceral leishmaniasis (n=20), Chagas disease (n=10), mucosal (n=30) and cutaneous (n=20) leishmaniasis; as well as from healthy subjects living in endemic (n=20) and non-endemic (n=30) areas of leishmaniasis. A wild-type M13-phage clone and a soluble Leishmania antigenic extract were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Three clones reached 100% sensitivity and specificity, without any cross-reactivity with sera from patients with leishmaniasis-related diseases. Briefly, we describe for the first time a set of serological markers based on three immunodominant mimotopes that showed 100% accuracy, and that could be used in a phage-ELISA assay for the HTL serodiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – A Case Series from Dresden

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    Uwe Wollina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is world-wide one of the most common infectious disorders caused by protozoa. Due to the climate change, there is a risk of further spread of the disease to central and northern Europe. Another important issue is the high number of refugees from Syria since Syria is one of the hot spots of Old World leishmaniasis. We report on single-centre experience with leishmaniasis in the capital of Saxony, Dresden, during the years 2001 to 2017. We noted a substantial increase in the last five years. Once a very rare exotic disorder in Germany, cutaneous leishmaniasis has become a reality and physicians should be aware of it. A significant number of cases are from Syrian refugees; other cases had been acquired by tourists in the Mediterranean region!

  6. Spatiotemporal and molecular epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

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    Ahmad Amro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a major public health problem in Libya. In this paper, we describe the eco-epidemiological parameters of CL during the armed conflict period from January 2011 till December 2012. Current spatiotemporal distributions of CL cases were explored and projected to the future using a correlative modelling approach. In addition the present results were compared with our previous data obtained for the time period 1995-2008.We investigated 312 CL patients who presented to the Dermatology Department at the Tripoli Central Hospital and came from 81 endemic areas distributed in 10 districts. The patients presented with typical localized lesions which appeared commonly on the face, arms and legs. Molecular identification of parasites by a PCR-RFLP approach targeting the ITS1 region of the rDNA was successful for 81 patients with two causative species identified: L. major and L. tropica comprised 59 (72.8% and 22 (27.2% cases, respectively. Around 77.3% of L. tropica CL and 57.7% of L. major CL caused single lesions. Five CL patients among our data set were seropositive for HIV. L. tropica was found mainly in three districts, Murqub (27.3%, Jabal al Gharbi (27.3% and Misrata (13.7% while L. major was found in two districts, in Jabal al Gharbi (61% and Jafara (20.3%. Seasonal occurrence of CL cases showed that most cases (74.2% admitted to the hospital between November and March, L. major cases from November till January (69.4%, and L. tropica cases mainly in January and February (41%. Two risk factors were identified for the two species; the presence of previously infected household members, and the presence of rodents and sandflies in patient's neighborhoods. Spatiotemporal projections using correlative distribution models based on current case data and climatic conditions showed that coastal regions have a higher level of risk due to more favourable conditions for the transmitting vectors.Future projection of CL until 2060

  7. Developing regional weight-for-age growth references for malaria-endemic countries to optimize age-based dosing of antimalarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel J; van Buuren, Stef; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Stasinopoulos, D Mikis; Rigby, Robert A; Terlouw, Dianne J

    2015-02-01

    To derive regional weight-for-age growth references to help optimize age-based dosing of antimalarials in Africa, the Americas, South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. A weight-for-age database was constructed from pre-existing population-based anthropometric data obtained from household surveys and research groups. It contained data collected between 1995 and 2012 on 1,263,119 individuals (909,368 female, 353,751 male) older than 14 days and younger than 50 years in 64 malaria-endemic countries. Regional growth references were generated using a generalized additive model for location, scale and shape by combining data with varying distributions from a range of sources. Countries were weighted by their population at risk of malaria to enable references to be used in optimizing the dosing of antimalarials. Large differences in weight-for-age distributions existed between the regions and between the regions and global growth standards. For example, the average adult male from the Americas weighed 68.1 kg – 6.0 kg more than males in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific (average: 62.1 kg). For adult women, the difference was over 10.4 kg: the average was 60.4 kg in the Americas and 50.0 kg in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. There were substantial variations in weight-for-age growth curves between malaria-endemic areas. The growth reference charts derived here can be used to guide the evidence-based optimization of aged-based dosing regimens for antimalarials and other drugs often prescribed by age.

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thiel, P P A M; Zeegelaar, J E; van Gool, T; Faber, W R; Kager, P A

    2011-05-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic investigations for cutaneous leishmaniasis included Giemsa stain, culture, PCR and NASBA and histopathology of biopsies. Treatment of leishmaniasis was with sodium stibogluconate, given intravenously or intralesionally, the latter with cryotherapy. In 1998 and 2004 cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania mexicana infection was diagnosed in 25 persons out of 99 (attack rate 25.2%) and 14 persons out of 80 (attack rate 17.5%) respectively. In 2009 cutaneous leishmaniasis was not acquired. Skin problems were common during and after jungle training. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was important in the first two cohorts but not observed in the third cohort. Factors that could have played a role in the absence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the third cohort include variability in transmission and availability of better preventive measures and adherence to these. Sodium stibogluconate treatment, intralesional or intravenous, was effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, José M; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Bolaños-Pizarro, Máxima

    2013-03-07

    Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author's institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research.

  10. Dengue type 4 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: case characterization following its introduction in an endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringer, Manoela; Souza, Thiara Manuele A; Lima, Monique da Rocha Q; Nunes, Priscila Conrado G; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues da C; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; Chouin-Carneiro, Thaís; Nogueira, Rita Maria R; Dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-06-09

    Due to the populations' susceptibility, DENV-4 introduction in 2010 led to the occurrence of explosive epidemics in the following years in Brazil. In 2011, DENV-4 was identified in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and it was prevalent in 2012 and 2013. Here, we aimed to characterize clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial aspects of DENV-4 cases after this serotype introduction in an endemic scenario. Dengue suspected cases (n = 3727) were received and analyzed from January 2011 to December 2013, during outbreaks occurred in RJ, Brazil. Samples were submitted to virological, serological and molecular methods for case confirmation. DENV-4 cases (n = 705) were characterized according to the type of infection, disease severity and, viremia levels and NS1 antigenemia were accessed. Representative strains were partial sequenced for genotyping. DENV-4 was identified in 44.2% (705/1593) of dengue positive cases, virus isolated in 48.7% of the cases. Anti-DENV IgM was detected in 39.4% of the cases, however an increased detection was observed in cases with ≥4 days of symptoms (57.0%). NS1 antigen was identified in 41.5% of DENV-4 cases however, after immune complexes dissociation, the detection significantly increased (87.6%). Females were more affected than males, so did children aged 11-15 years old. Primary cases were more frequently observed than secondary ones and most of them were classified as dengue. No differences on NS1 antigenemia and viraemia within the groups were observed. Despite the higher frequency of severe disease on individuals >65 years old, no differences were observed among the groups and type of infection. However, DENV-4 fatal cases were more frequent on secondary infections (57.1%). DENV-4 Genotype II was identified with a probable origin from Venezuela and Colombia. It has been shown that laboratorial diagnosis is still a reliable tool for the disease surveillance, detecting and confirming emerging epidemics. Despite the occurrence of secondary

  11. Diversity and Dynamics of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae of Two Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Foci in the Fes-Boulemane Region of Northern Morocco

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    Fatima Zahra Talbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania and transmitted by several species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae. In order to evaluate the risk of leishmaniasis transmission in Fes-Boulemane, an investigation was carried out in two localities, Aichoun and Bouasseme, during 2011. From January to December, 1120 specimens were collected in Aichoun comprising six species belonging to two genera: Phlebotomus sergenti (76.07%, Phlebotomus longicuspis (9.01%, Phlebotomus perniciosus (8.48%, Phlebotomus papatasi (4.82%, Sergentomyia minuta, and Sergentomyia fallax. For Bouasseme, seven species were identified with Phlebotomus sergenti (60.39% dominating, followed by Phlebotomus perniciosus (20% and Phlebotomus longicuspis (12.15%. The remaining species, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus ariasi, Sergentomyia minuta, and Sergentomyia fallax, were less prevalent. The activity of sand flies in both localities is marked by the dominance of Ph. sergenti with two peaks occurring in June and September. In order to obtain a better understanding of sand fly diversity among their species, results were analyzed by the ecological indices determinant: specific richness, the relative abundance, and Shannon-Weiner index (H′. Further studies of sand fly diversity should employ statistical tests and molecular analyses. This study can be useful in the implementation of appropriate future control measures.

  12. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; Zeegelaar, J. E.; van Gool, T.; Faber, W. R.; Kager, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data

  13. Primary laryngeal leishmaniasis: A rare case report

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    Kumar Bipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal leishmaniasis is extremely rare. We report a case of primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in a 70-year-old male who was admitted with complaints of gradual progressive hoarseness of the voice, dyspnea, cough for the past 3 months and noisy breathing for the past 5 days. An X-ray of the soft tissue of the neck showed a prevertebral soft tissue mass causing narrowing of the airway at the C6-C7 vertebral level. A computerized tomography (CT scan showed a soft tissue mass in the subglottic region causing significant narrowing of the airway. A direct laryngoscopy showed a pinkish-white, friable mass involving the subglottic region and the anterior half of the vocal cords. With the clinical suspicion of malignancy, an endoscopic biopsy was done. A histopathological examination showed diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in subepithelium with numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of histiocytes.

  14. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Peridomestic and Wild Animals and Ticks in an Endemic Region (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Noe F; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2017-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65). Globally, eight rodents (8%) and two rabbits (1.5%) were found to be positive, with the spleen being the most affected organ. Tick species identified were Hyalomma lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Hyalomma lusitanicum (80%) was the main species identified in vegetation, livestock, and wild animals, whereas Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most prevalent in domestic dogs. Overall, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 6.1% of the processed ticks, distributed between those removed from livestock (11.3%), domestic dogs (6.9%), and from wild animals (6%). Ticks from vegetation were all negative. Results suggest that, in the Canary Islands, C. burnetii develops in a peridomestic rather than a wild cycle.

  15. Urbanization of human visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kholoud Kahime; Samia Boussaa; Haddou Nhammi; Ali Boumezzough

    2017-01-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis one of the seven most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In Morocco, HVL is widespread in all regions; but it is more common in the northern part with sporadic cases observed in the South. During the period between 2004 and 2013, the most affected Moroccan provinces were Taounate province, with 220 cases (16.09% of all cases), followed by Chefchaouen with 13.17% and Taza with 10.46% of the total cases. Children

  16. Herramientas no invasivas en Venezuela: comparación entre las pruebas inmunoserológicas DAT, rK26 y rK39 en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis visceral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terán-Ángel, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Silva, Rosilved; Zerpa, Olga; Schallig, Henk; Ulrich, Marian; Cabrera, Maira

    2010-01-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in endemic countries because of its high potential lethality, particularly in children. Rapid diagnosis is essential to early treatment and control of visceral leishmaniasis. The aim was to compare three serodiagnostic tools for human

  17. Eco-epidemiological survey of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ribeira Valley River, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2005-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed.

  18. Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Mosteiro, Julio; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Pinart, Mariona; Lopez Pereira, Patricia; Reveiz, Ludovic; Garcia-Carrasco, Emely; Campuzano Cuadrado, Pedro; Royuela, Ana; Mendez Roman, Irene; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2017-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2008. To assess the effects of therapeutic interventions for the localised form of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. We updated our searches of the following databases to November 2016: the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We wrote to national programme managers, general co-ordinators, directors, clinicians, WHO-EMRO regional officers of endemic countries, pharmaceutical companies, tropical medicine centres, and authors of relevant papers for further information about relevant unpublished and ongoing trials. We undertook a separate search for adverse effects of interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in September 2015 using MEDLINE. Randomised controlled trials of either single or combination treatments in immunocompetent people with OWCL confirmed by smear, histology, culture, or polymerase chain reaction. The comparators were either no treatment, placebo/vehicle, and/or another active compound. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias and extracted data. We only synthesised data when we were able to identify at least two studies investigating similar treatments and reporting data amenable to pooling. We also recorded data about adverse effects from the

  19. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  20. Immunoglobulin E Antileishmanial Antibody Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Atta, Maria L. B.; Salamé, Gregório S.; D’Oliveira, Argemiro; Almeida, Roque P.; Atta, Ajax M.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2002-01-01

    High levels of antileishmanial immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are associated with disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis. Herein, we report our observations about the relationship between antileishmanial IgE antibodies and clinical aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study was carried out with 45 patients (29 male and 16 female), with ages ranging from 11 to 48 years. All subjects were from an area to which leishmaniasis is endemic, Corte de Pedra (Bahia, Brazil), and the duration of the illness was ≤30 days. The patients were classified as positive or negative for IgE serology in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with leishmanial antigens. IgE antibodies were detected in 18 patients (optical density, 0.421 ± 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.57), and only 3 (17%) had more than one ulcer. In this group the diameter of Montenegro’s reaction was 18 ± 12.2 mm. In the group with negative IgE serology, 11 of 27 patients (48%) presented two or more cutaneous ulcers, and the mean of the skin test result was 9 ± 6.9 mm. There was a positive correlation between IgE antibody levels and Montenegro’s reaction size and an inverse correlation between IgE antileishmanial antibodies and the number of skin ulcers. The presence of antileishmanial IgE antibodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis may be a result of immunoregulatory events with clinical implications. PMID:11777837

  1. Efficacy of indoor residual spraying using lambda-cyhalothrin for controlling nontarget vector fleas (Siphonaptera) on commensal rats in a plague endemic region of northwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Jeff N; Eisen, Rebecca J; Atiku, Linda A; Delorey, Mark J; Mpanga, Joseph T; Babi, Nackson; Enscore, Russell E; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the majority of human plague cases have been reported from areas in Africa, including Uganda. In an effort to develop affordable plague control methods within an integrated vector control framework, we evaluated the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (IRS) techniques commonly used for mosquito control for controlling fleas on hut-dwelling commensal rodents in a plague-endemic region of Uganda. We evaluated both the standard IRS spraying (walls and ceiling) and a modified IRS technique that included insecticide application on not only on walls and ceiling but also a portion of the floor of each treated hut. Our study demonstrated that both the standard and modified IRS applications were effective at significantly reducing the flea burden and flea infestation of commensal rodents for up to 100 d after application, suggesting that IRS could potentially provide simultaneous control of mosquito and fleaborne diseases.

  2. Rickettsia in Synanthropic and Domestic Animals and Their Hosts from Two Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Barcelos, Rafael M.; Gomes, Gabriel G.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Pena, Dárlen C. H.; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A.; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Freitas, Renata N.; Walker, David H.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvao, Márcio A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

  3. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum.

  4. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

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    Barber Bridget E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy performed by an experienced research microscopist, for the diagnosis of PCR-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum, P. knowlesi, and Plasmodium vivax malaria. Results A total of 304 patients with PCR-confirmed Plasmodium infection were enrolled, including 130 with P. knowlesi, 122 with P. falciparum, 43 with P. vivax, one with Plasmodium malariae and eight with mixed species infections. Among patients with P. knowlesi mono-infection, routine and cross-check microscopy both identified 94 (72% patients as “P. malariae/P. knowlesi”; 17 (13% and 28 (22% respectively were identified as P. falciparum, and 13 (10% and two (1.5% as P. vivax. Among patients with PCR-confirmed P. falciparum, routine and cross-check microscopy identified 110/122 (90% and 112/118 (95% patients respectively as P. falciparum, and 8/122 (6.6% and 5/118 (4.2% as “P. malariae/P. knowlesi”. Among those with P. vivax, 23/43 (53% and 34/40 (85% were correctly diagnosed by routine and cross-check microscopy respectively, while 13/43 (30% and 3/40 (7.5% patients were diagnosed as “P. malariae/P. knowlesi”. Four of 13 patients with PCR-confirmed P. vivax and misdiagnosed by routine microscopy as “P. malariae/P. knowlesi” were subsequently re-admitted with P. vivax malaria. Conclusions Microscopy does not reliably distinguish between P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. knowlesi in a region where all three species frequently occur. Misdiagnosis of P. knowlesi as both P. vivax and P. falciparum, and

  5. First evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in vivax malaria endemic regions in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Ji, So-Young; Shin, Hyun-Il; Moon, Jun-Hye; Cho, Shin-Hyung; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jung-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect and affects more than 400 million people worldwide. This deficiency is believed to protect against malaria because its global distribution is similar. However, this genetic disorder may be associated with potential hemolytic anemia after treatment with anti-malarials, primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines. Although primaquine is used for malaria prevention, no study has previously investigated the prevalence of G6PD variants and G6PD deficiency in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Two commercialized test kits (Trinity G-6-PDH and CareStart G6PD test) were used for G6PD deficiency screening. The seven common G6PD variants were investigated by DiaPlexC kit in blood samples obtained living in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Of 1,044 blood samples tested using the CareStart G6PD test, none were positive for G6PD deficiency. However, a slightly elevated level of G6PD activity was observed in 14 of 1,031 samples tested with the Trinity G-6-PDH test. Forty-nine of the 298 samples with non-specific amplification by DiaPlexC kit were confirmed by sequencing to be negative for the G6PD variants. No G6PD deficiency was observed using phenotypic- or genetic-based tests in individuals residing in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Because massive chemoprophylaxis using primaquine has been performed in the ROK military to kill hypnozoites responsible for relapse and latent stage vivax malaria, further regular monitoring is essential for the safe administration of primaquine.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses circulating in two rabies endemic provinces of Laos, 2011-2012: regional diversity in Southeast Asia.

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    Kamruddin Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos.We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses.Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions.There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses circulating in two rabies endemic provinces of Laos, 2011-2012: regional diversity in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kamruddin; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Vorachith, Phengphet; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lamaningao, Pheophet; Mori, Daisuke; Takaki, Minako; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Nishizono, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos. We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses. Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions. There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies Viruses Circulating in Two Rabies Endemic Provinces of Laos, 2011–2012: Regional Diversity in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kamruddin; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Vorachith, Phengphet; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lamaningao, Pheophet; Mori, Daisuke; Takaki, Minako; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Nishizono, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos. Methods We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry’s National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses. Results Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions. Conclusion There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion. PMID:25825907

  9. Age-dependent sensitization to the 7S-vicilin-like protein Cor a 11 from hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in a birch-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, M M; Hagendorens, M M; Trashin, S; Cucu, T; De Meulenaer, B; Devreese, B; Bridts, C H; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2012-01-01

    Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) allergy exhibits age and geographically distinct sensitization patterns that have not yet been fully resolved. To study sensitization to Cor a 11 in different age groups of hazelnut-allergic patients and infants with atopic dermatitis (AD) sensitized to hazelnut in a birch-endemic region. Sera from 80 hazelnut-allergic patients, 33 infants under 1 year of age with AD (24 sensitized and 9 not sensitized to hazelnut), 32 healthy control individuals, and 29 birch pollen-allergic but hazelnut-tolerant individuals were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) E reactivity to Cor a 11 by ImmunoCAP. IgE reactivity to Cor a 1.01, Cor a 1.04, Cor a 8, and Cor a 9 was studied by ISAC microarray. Forty patients (22 preschool children, 10 schoolchildren, and 8 adults) with systemic reactions on consumption of hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 11 (respective rates of 36%, 40%, and 12.5%). Forty patients (6 preschool children, 10 schoolchildren, and 24 adults) reported oral allergy syndrome but only 2 of them (of preschool age) were sensitized to Cor a 11. Two (8%) of the AD infants sensitized to hazelnut showed IgE reactivity to Cor a 11. This reactivity was not observed in any of the AD infants without sensitization to hazelnut, in any of the birch-pollen allergic patients without hazelnut allergy, or in any of the healthy control individuals. Sensitization to Cor a 11 in a birch-endemic region is predominantly found in children with severe hazelnut allergy, a finding that is consistent with observations concerning sensitization to Cor a 9.

  10. First evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in vivax malaria endemic regions in the Republic of Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyoung Goo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect and affects more than 400 million people worldwide. This deficiency is believed to protect against malaria because its global distribution is similar. However, this genetic disorder may be associated with potential hemolytic anemia after treatment with anti-malarials, primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines. Although primaquine is used for malaria prevention, no study has previously investigated the prevalence of G6PD variants and G6PD deficiency in the Republic of Korea (ROK. METHODS: Two commercialized test kits (Trinity G-6-PDH and CareStart G6PD test were used for G6PD deficiency screening. The seven common G6PD variants were investigated by DiaPlexC kit in blood samples obtained living in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. RESULTS: Of 1,044 blood samples tested using the CareStart G6PD test, none were positive for G6PD deficiency. However, a slightly elevated level of G6PD activity was observed in 14 of 1,031 samples tested with the Trinity G-6-PDH test. Forty-nine of the 298 samples with non-specific amplification by DiaPlexC kit were confirmed by sequencing to be negative for the G6PD variants. CONCLUSIONS: No G6PD deficiency was observed using phenotypic- or genetic-based tests in individuals residing in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Because massive chemoprophylaxis using primaquine has been performed in the ROK military to kill hypnozoites responsible for relapse and latent stage vivax malaria, further regular monitoring is essential for the safe administration of primaquine.

  11. An Abattoir Study of Ovine Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Lesions and the Respective Serum T3 andT4 Levels in an Endemic Goiter Region in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Barati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of histologic thyroids lesions and the respective thyroid hormones changes of ewes in an endemic goiter region and to find out any impact of this condition on the fetal thyroid structures and serum thyroid hormones. In the present study a total number of 100 pregnant ewes and their fetuses slaughtered at slaughterhouse were selected for the study. The sera were prepared from the jugular vein blood of ewes and fetuses umbilical cords. The ewes and fetuses thyroids subjected to histopathological examination and radioimmunoassay procedure was used for sera T3 and T4 assay. The results showed a high prevalence of thyroid lesions in ewes and their fetuses. The different kinds of lesions including cysts, follicular hyperplasia, hemorrhage and inflammation were seen in ewes. In the fetuses thyroid structural changes were cysts resemble structures; hemorrhage and hyperemia. Mean T4 concentration was significantly higher in the ewes with pathologic thyroid compared to normal animals. However, there was not any significant difference between pathologic and normal ewes’ thyroids on serum T3. Although, existence of lesions on fetal thyroids did not affect the serum concentrations of T4 and T3, there was a significant correlation between T4 and T3 serum concentrations of fetuses and their age. In conclusion, the significant prevalence of fetal and maternal thyroid pathological changes in the endemic goiter region raises a question about probable congenital source of these variations. The thyroid lesions significantly influenced the functions of mothers' gland but not fetuses.

  12. New world cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Trufant, Joshua W; Lewin, Jesse M; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2015-01-01

    A 24-year-old Bangladeshi man presented with a 12-week history of a pruritic papule on his left elbow that had enlarged and ulcerated. He was without any constitutional or systemic symptoms. He reported a history of extensive travel in the two years prior to presentation that included Bangladesh, South and Central America, and Mexico. Histopathologic features were consistent with leishmaniasis. Speciation by the Centers for Disease Control showed L. brasiliensis.

  13. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

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    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  14. Blood meal identification in off-host cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from a plague-endemic region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Borchert, Jeff N; Black, William C; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Boegler, Karen A; Moore, Sean M; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the West Nile region, an established plague focus in northwest Uganda. To determine if C. felis might serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in the West Nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host C. felis that had fed on humans and the proportion that had fed on potentially infectious rodents or shrews. Our findings indicate that cat fleas in human habitations in the West Nile region feed primarily on domesticated species. We conclude that C. felis is unlikely to serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in this region.

  15. Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Abdala, Edson; Morris, Michele I; Azevedo, Luiz S; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Petersen, Eskild; Camargo, Luis Fernando A; Wright, Alissa Jade; Beeching, Nicholas J; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme; Len, Oscar; Stucchi, Raquel S B; Manuel, Oriol; Faria, Luciana Costa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Huprikar, Shirish; Molina, Israel; Mourão, Paulo Henrique Orlandi; Kotton, Camille N; Aguado, José María

    2018-02-01

    The Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America clinical practice guideline is intended to guide clinicians caring for solid-organ transplant (SOT) donors, candidates and recipients regarding infectious diseases (ID) issues related to this geographical region, mostly located in the tropics. These recommendations are based on both systematic reviews of relevant literature and expert opinion from both transplant ID and travel medicine specialists. The guidelines provide recommendations for risk evaluation and laboratory investigation, as well as management and prevention of infection of the most relevant endemic diseases of Latin America. This summary includes a brief description of the guideline recommendations but does not include the complete rationale and references for each recommendation, which is available in the online version of the article, published in this journal as a supplement. The supplement contains 10 reviews referring to endemic or travel diseases (eg, tuberculosis, Chagas disease [ChD], leishmaniasis, malaria, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, travelers diarrhea, arboviruses, endemic fungal infections, viral hepatitis, and vaccines) and an illustrative section with maps (http://www.pmourao.com/map/). Contributors included experts from 13 countries (Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Italy, Peru, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay) representing four continents (Asia, the Americas and Europe), along with scientific and medical societies.

  16. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Talhari, Carolina; García Bustos, María F; Rosales, Tamara; Villamil-Gomez, Wilmer E; Marquez, Marilianna; Pérez Alvarez, Alexandra M; Tálamo Sánchez, Alejandra I; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2017-12-01

    Infant and young child skin diseases are among the most common features of morbidity throughout the tropics. Because the skin is directly exposed to the environment, it is considerably affected by climatic and local conditions such as vectors and microorganisms, as in the case of leishmaniasis. In America the observed magnitude of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children has led to the study of increased risk of exposure of this group due to the possibility of peri- and intradomiciliary transmission. The present review pretends to make a concrete approach all through the broad and main figures of this parasitic disease, including the clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, in order to be used as a practical source of reference for pediatricians leading with tropical cutaneous pathology in the region. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. [Leishmaniasis in Algiers: epidemiologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrat, Z; Belkaid, M

    2003-08-01

    The authors review the situation on human and canine leishmaniasis observed in Algiers during the period 1990-1997. 1800 sera have been tested by IFAT. The frequency of canine leishmaniasis rises to 37%. 25% of the positive dogs are asymptomatic. The canine leishmaniasis annual fluctuations seem to vary from one year to another, with an increase of number of cases comparing with the last period. Human leishmaniasis is also increasing in Algiers, where 22 cases of HVL and 40 cases CL have been notified. Nine strains of Leishmania (5 from dogs and 4 from human) were isolated and identified by isoenzymes eletrophoresis technique. All stocks were belonging to Leishmania infantum complex. To complete the study, the seasonal dynamic of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out in the same area where 2959 specimens have been captured. The results showed the predominance of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis, the main vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria.

  18. Autoantibodies in a Three-Year-Old Girl with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

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    Gholamreza Pouladfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a life-threatening parasitic infection, is endemic in the Mediterranean region. Diagnosis of VL is based on epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings. However, sometimes, clinical features and laboratory findings overlap with those of autoimmune diseases. In some cases, autoantibodies are detected in patients with VL and this could be a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this study, we have reported on a three-year-old girl from a VL-endemic area in Iran, who presented with prolonged fever and splenomegaly. Bone marrow examination, serologic tests, and the molecular PCR assay were performed; however, results were inconclusive. The levels of anti-double stranded DNA, cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody, and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody were elevated and, at the end, splenic biopsy was performed. The splenic tissue PCR test detected the DNA of Leishmania infantum. The patient’s condition improved with anti-Leishmania therapy, and the autoantibodies disappeared within the following four months. Clinical presentations and laboratory findings of VL and autoimmune diseases may overlap in some patients.

  19. Meta-analysis study of lymph node staging by 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan in non-small cell lung cancer: Comparison of TB and non-TB endemic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chih-Ying, E-mail: jine871@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Taichung Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Integrated Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jin-Hua, E-mail: chenjh12@gmail.com [Biostatistics Center and Graduate Institute of Biostatistics, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Ji-An, E-mail: hope.jal@msa.hinet.net [Institute of Clinical Medicine Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Jun-Jun, E-mail: anvin.funlan@msa.hinet.net [Institute of Clinical Medicine Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Research, PingTung Christian Hospital and Meiho University, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chia-Hung, E-mail: d10040@mail.cmuh.org.tw [Institute of Clinical Medicine Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    Lymph node staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is challenging and important for deciding treatment policy. The role of PET/CT scans in lymph node staging of NSCLC remains controversial when comparing TB and non-TB endemic regions. This study systematically reviews the literature regarding the diagnostic performance of PET/CT in lymph node staging of patients with NSCLC, and determines its pooled sensitivity and specificity. Methods: The databases of PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane library were searched for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each study. A meta-analysis of the reported sensitivity and specificity of each study was performed. Results: Seven of 86 studies were included. These studies had moderate to good methodological quality. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio for patient-based analyses (five studies) were 66%, 92.7%, 5.86%, and 0.41%, respectively, and those for lesion-based analyses (six studies) were 59.4%, 96.5%, 9.37%, and 0.31%, respectively. Subanalysis of endemic regions of tuberculosis (TB) showed that these regions had lower sensitivity and similar specificity to non-TB endemic regions. Conclusion: PET/CT showed high specificity in the lymph node staging of NSCLC and lower sensitivity in TB endemic regions.

  20. Aspectos da ecologia e do comportamento de flebotomíneos em área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral, Minas Gerais Aspects of the ecology and behaviour of phlebotomines in endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis in State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento e hábitos alimentares de algumas espécies da flebotomíneos têm sido útil na compreensão da epidemiologia das leishmanioses. No município de Porteirinha (MG, foram realizadas capturas mensais sistematizadas utilizando-se 28 armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC, durante o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2002. Foram capturadas 14 espécies de flebotomíneos, totalizando 1.408 exemplares. De acordo com o ambiente, os resultados obtidos mostraram que o peridomicílio apresentou a maior (53,3% porcentagem dos espécimens encontrados na região, embora parte (46,7% da fauna também tenha sido encontrada no intradomicílio. O repasto sanguíneo de 38 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis, provenientes do campo, foi identificado através da reação de precipitina. Os resultados indicam que Lutzomyia longipalpis foi a espécie predominante (65,1%, mostrando-se oportunista, podendo sugar uma ampla variedade de vertebrados.Studies on the behavioral and feeding habits of some species of phlebotominae sand flies have contributed to the comprehension of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. In the present work, systematic captures were performed monthly in the municipality of Porteirinha (MG using 28 light traps (CDC from January to December 2002. Fourteen different species of phlebotomine were captured in a total of 1,408 specimens. The highest percentage of individuals (53.3% was collected in the peridomicile against 46.7% in the intradomicile. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species in that region. The blood feeding of 38 females of this species from the field was analyzed by precipitin reaction. The results indicated that Lutzomyia longipalpis is an opportunist (65.1% species that feeds on a wide variety of vertebrates in nature.

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in Northern Ethiopia | Haile | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been well documented by the Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) VL treatment programmeme in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, but reports are limited from other facilities in this region where this disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe ...

  2. Avaliação do nível de conhecimento que populações residentes em áreas endêmicas têm sobre leishmaniose visceral, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil Evaluation of the level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis in endemics areas of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Mônica Elinor Alves Gama

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo prospectivo visando identificar e comparar que conhecimentos básicos relativos à leishmaniose visceral (LV têm as populações com características distintas, residentes em áreas periurbanas (Maracanã ­ instalação e ocorrência de casos de LV antigas; Vila Nova/Bom Viver ­ instalação e ocorrência recentes e rural, Município de Codó ­ instalação antiga e ocorrência recentes. No período compreendido entre agosto de 1996 a janeiro de 1997, aplicou-se questionário com perguntas abertas e fechadas, sendo abordados aspectos referentes à epidemiologia, prevenção, clínica e terapêutica. A população de estudo foi formada pelos casos de LV registrados pela FNS/MA e seus vizinhos. Foram entrevistados os residentes de 283 casas: 53 do Maracanã; 103, em Vila Nova/Bom Viver; 127, em Codó. Foi referido ambiente favorável para o desenvolvimento e manutenção da doença. Do total dos entrevistados, 93,8%, percentual significativo, ouviram falar de LV, por meio de fontes não oficiais. No Maracanã, 50,9% referiram transmissão pelo mosquito; 87,2% reconheciam o envolvimento do cão na cadeia epidemiológica da doença. Os entrevistados estão cientes da gravidade do mal, sendo capazes de identificar casos suspeitos, humano ou canino. Medidas de controle são desconhecidas por 77,8%. Sete pessoas sabiam que o Glucantime® é usado no tratamento da LV. Concluiu-se que o nível de conhecimento sobre LV foi baixo, principalmente em relação à prevenção e à terapêutica, situação semelhantes nas três áreas.A prospective study was performed to identify knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis (VL in endemic areas of Maranhão, amongst the rural population of the Codó township and in a peripheral urban area (an old settlement, Maracanã, on the outskirts of the city of São Luís, and Vila Nova/Bom Viver, Paço do Lumiar township. A total of 283 persons were interviewed, including 53 from Maracanã, 103 from Vila Nova

  3. Unusual forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M; Greenberger, S; Baum, S; Pavlotsky, F; Barzilai, A; Schwartz, E

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania major (L. major) is common in the Middle East; however, this skin infection may be under-diagnosed when it presents atypically. To highlight the occurrence of uncommon presentations of CL that may elude diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed among patients who presented at The Sheba Medical Center between 2005 and 2014 with atypical clinical presentations of CL due to L. major. Twelve patients with unusual clinical presentations of L. major CL were identified. All infections were acquired in L. major - endemic areas of Israel. The average age was 37 years. The average number of lesions was 2. Nine patients presented with a form that mimicked other forms of CL, such as lupoid, giant ulcer, sporotrichoid and recidivans, and three had a variant resembling other infectious skin diseases, such as erysipeloid and verruciform. All patients required systemic therapy. Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major can masquerade as many other infectious and inflammatory diseases. In addition, it can mimic clinical forms of New World CL. We suggest that in endemic countries or in travellers returning from countries where L. major is endemic, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania-specific DNA should be performed routinely in cases of unusual presentations of dermatitis with a single or a few lesions, even if a diagnosis of CL was not considered by the referring clinician. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Molecular detection of Leishmania parasites and host blood meal identification in wild sand flies from a new endemic rural region, south of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Askari, Mohammad Bagher; Kalantari, Mohsen; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniosis (ZCL) remains the most crucial vector-borne public health disease particularly in endemic rural parts of Iran. The main aim of this study is to identify wild sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), determine their infection rate, and differentiate their host blood meal sources using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Sand fly populations were caught with sticky paper traps from 10 different villages in the county of Darab, Fars province, southern Iran. Following their species identification, they were used in one step PCR to determine their infection with Leishmania spp. parasites. They were then subjected to PCR-RFLP protocol to identify and differentiate their blood meal sources. Two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia comprising 13 species of sand flies were identified in this region. From a total of 150 parous female sand flies, encompassing 4 different medically important species, 7 specimens (4.7%) including 6 Phlebotomus papatasi and 1 Phlebotomus bergeroti were infected with Leishmania major. Molecular data indicated that about 32% of female sand flies fed on man, while nearly 43% fed on rodent and canine hosts. Molecular detection is an efficient way of differentiating the source of blood meals in female sand flies feeding on different vertebrate hosts. It is suggested that P. papatasi is not highly anthropophagic and appears to be an opportunistic feeder on man. This species is, however, the primary vector of ZCL in this region.

  5. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  6. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

  7. Spatio-temporal evolution of Leucophyllum pringlei and allies (Scrophulariaceae): a group endemic to North American xeric regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Etelvina; Sosa, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    The taxa of the Leucophyllum pringlei clade were used to understand the influence of the Neogene orogenesis and the Quaternary climate cycles on the diversification of the flora of the xeric regions of North America. This clade includes the five southernmost species of the genus: L. ambiguum, L. flyrii, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola, which are distributed throughout the Chihuahuan Desert north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and L. pringlei in the region of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán south of this mountain range. Here we test whether these species diverged during the pluvial periods of the Pleistocene, and whether L. pringlei diverged earlier from the other species during the uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Using three plastid regions (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, trnL-F) and a nuclear (ITS) marker, phylogenetic analyses were carried out, along with a reconstruction of their ancestral area. Trees retrieved the five species in a monophyletic group with the most recent common ancestor distributed in the Sinaloan dry forest during the Late Miocene (8.08Ma), from where it dispersed to the Chihuahuan Desert during the Late Miocene (6.35Ma). The secondary uplift of the Sierra Madre Occidental during the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene influenced a vicariance event. Divergence between L. pringlei and the species from north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occurred during the second volcanic episode in the Late Miocene (7.5-3Ma). The most recent common ancestor of L. ambiguum, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola was widely distributed in the southern part of the Chihuahuan Desert during the Early to Late Pliocene (3.50Ma). The diversification of these three species occurred in the Middle Pleistocene (0.9Ma) during the pluvial and inter-pluvial cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New epidemiological pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis in two pre-Saharan arid provinces, southern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Kbaich, Mouad; Mhaidi, Idriss; Ezzahidi, Abdelkacem; Dersi, Nouredine; El Hamouchi, Adil; Riyad, Myriam; Akarid, Khadija; Lemrani, Meryem

    2017-09-01

    Three Leishmania species are responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Morocco. Zoonotic CL due to Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum, the first is known as established in the eastern arid regions, whereas the latter evolves sporadically, especially in the North. While Leishmania tropica, classically considered anthroponotic, is endemic in the semi-arid regions and is largely distributed throughout the country. The aim of this study was to identify the Leishmania species causing CL in two Provinces in arid pre-Saharan region known as zoonotic CL foci, and to contribute an update to the national data concerning the distribution of Leishmania species in both regions. The recruitment of patients was done in six localities in Ouarzazate and Zagoura provinces in 2015 and 2016. Out of 81 samples collected, 66 were positive (81%) by ITS1-PCR amplification of Leishmania DNA extracted from stained smears. The highest rate of Leishmania infection was registered in children aged 9 years or less (71,2%). The ITS1-PCR- RFLP analysis revealed the predominance of L. major infecting 52 patients (79%), followed by L. tropica in 12 patients (18%) and L. infantum in 2 patients who had no history of travel outside the studied area (3%). The sequencing of the ITS1 of both L. infantum, showed 100% similarities with L. infantum strains isolated from dogs and visceral leishmaniasis patients from the south and north of Morocco. The coexistence of the 3 Leishmania species in the same focus, and the difficult distinction of infections associated to the different Leishmania species based only on clinical lesions' aspects complicate the diagnosis and then the national control strategy, as well as the therapeutic management. The epidemiological pattern of CL in the studied areas appears to have changed during the last decades, from a predominant zoonotic CL caused by L. major to a polymorphic disease that can be due to any of the 3 Leishmania species. The expansion of L. infantum and

  9. Epidemiological profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboudi, M

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of our study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco. We therefore conducted a retrospective descriptive study covering the decade 2004-2013. Data were collected from the Moroccan Ministry of Health's annual reports about the national program against leishmaniasis. These data show a regression in the cases due to Leishmania major and the persistence of L. tropica transmission. Mapping cutaneous leishmaniasis cases reported between 2004 and 2013 showed geographical changes ; the number of cases due to L. tropica were concentrated in the regions of Marrakech-Tensift-Elhaouz, Souss Massa-Draa Tadla-Azila, and Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate. Cutaneous disease due to L. major was most common in the Souss-Massa-Draa region. Continuous monitoring of the epidemiological situation is important to assess the actions taken to reduce its incidence.

  10. Development and Validation of a Serologic Test Panel for Detection of Powassan Virus Infection in U.S. Patients Residing in Regions Where Lyme Disease Is Endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomm, Angela M; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Dupuis, Alan P; Kramer, Laura D; Frost, Holly M; Fritsche, Thomas R; Harrington, Yvette A; Knox, Konstance K; Kehl, Sue C

    2018-01-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is an emerging tick-borne arbovirus presenting a public health threat in North America. POWV lineage II, also known as deer tick virus, is the strain of the virus most frequently found in Ixodes scapularis ticks and is implicated in most cases of POWV encephalitis in the United States. Currently, no commercial tests are available to detect POWV exposure in tick-borne disease (TBD) patients. We describe here the development and analytical validation of a serologic test panel to detect POWV infections. The panel uses an indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to screen. EIA-positive samples reflex to a laboratory-developed, POWV-specific immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The analytical sensitivity of the test panel was 89%, and the limit of detection was a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titer of 1:20. The analytical specificity was 100% for the IgM assay and 65% for the IgG assay when heterologous-flavivirus-positive samples were tested. On samples collected from regions where Lyme disease is endemic, seroprevalence for POWV in TBD samples was 9.4% (10 of 106) versus 2% when tested with non-TBD samples (2 of 100, P = 0.034). No evidence of POWV infection was seen in samples collected from a region where Lyme disease was not endemic (0 of 22). This test panel provides a sensitive and specific platform for detecting a serologic response to POWV early in the course of infection when neutralizing antibodies may not be detectable. Combined with clinical history, the panel is an effective tool for identifying acute POWV infection. IMPORTANCE Approximately 100 cases of POWV disease were reported in the United States over the past 10 years. Most cases have occurred in the Northeast (52) and Great Lakes (45) regions (https://www.cdc.gov/powassan/statistics.html). The prevalence of POWV in ticks and mammals is increasing, and POWV poses an increasing threat in a greater geographical range. In areas of the Northeast and Midwest where Lyme disease is

  11. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Integrated mapping of establishment risk for emerging vector-borne infections: a case study of canine leishmaniasis in southwest France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Hartemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the northeast Pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled in 2005 using sticky traps placed uniformly over an area of approximately 100 by 150 km. High- and low-resolution satellite data for the area were combined to construct a model of the sandfly data, which was then used to predict sandfly abundance throughout the area on a pixel by pixel basis (resolution of c. 1 km. Using literature- and expert-derived estimates of other variables and parameters, a spatially explicit R(0 map for leishmaniasis was constructed within a Geographical Information System. R(0 is a measure of the risk of establishment of a disease in an area, and it also correlates with the amount of control needed to stop transmission. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that combines a vector abundance prediction model, based on remotely-sensed variables measured at different levels of spatial resolution, with a fully mechanistic process-based temperature-dependent R(0 model. The resulting maps should be considered as proofs-of-principle rather than as ready-to-use risk maps, since validation is currently not possible. The described approach, based on integrating several modeling methods, provides a useful new set of tools for the study of the risk of outbreaks of vector-borne diseases.

  13. Hosts and vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in the Chagas disease endemic region of the Paraguayan Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nidia; López, Elsa; Lewis, Michael D; Llewellyn, Martin S; Gómez, Ana; Román, Fabiola; Miles, Michael A; Yeo, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Active Trypanosoma cruzi transmission persists in the Gran Chaco region, which is considered hyperendemic for Chagas disease. Understanding domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles and therefore the relationship between vectors and mammalian hosts is crucial to designing and implementing improved effective control strategies. Here we describe the species of triatomine vectors and the sylvatic mammal reservoirs of T. cruzi, in different localities of the Paraguayan and Bolivian Chaco. We identify the T. cruzi genotypes discrete typing units (DTUs) and provide a map of their geographical distribution. A total of 1044 triatomines and 138 sylvatic mammals were captured. Five per cent of the triatomines were microscopically positive for T. cruzi (55 Triatoma infestans from Paraguay and one sylvatic Triatoma guasayana from Bolivia) and 17 animals (12·3%) comprising eight of 28 (28·5%) Dasypus novemcinctus, four of 27 (14·8%) Euphractus sexcinctus, three of 64 (4·7%) Chaetophractus spp. and two of 14 (14·3%) Didelphis albiventris. The most common DTU infecting domestic triatomine bugs was TcV (64%), followed by TcVI (28%), TcII (6·5%) and TcIII (1·5%). TcIII was overwhelmingly associated with armadillo species. We confirm the primary role of T. infestans in domestic transmission, armadillo species as the principal sylvatic hosts of TcIII, and consider the potential risk of TcIII as an agent of Chagas disease in the Chaco.

  14. The Pituitary-Thyroid Axis and Prolactin Secretion in Hemodialysis Patients in Two Endemic Regions of Eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Franz Maximilian; Rettig, Ronny; Frese, Thomas; Rasche, Wilma Gertrud; Barinka, Filip; Roesl, Guenter; Keller, Frieder; Lindner, Tom H; Schneider, Jochen G; Beige, Joachim; Ebert, Thomas; Schiekofer, Stephan

    2018-02-23

    Endocrine disorders of the pituitary axes are frequent in patients with hemodialysis (CKD5D). The aim of this multicenter study (Leipzig (L), Quedlinburg and Blankenburg in the Harz region (Hz)) in CKD5D patients was to evaluate influences of CKD5D related factors, morphological and biochemical parameters, and serum iodine and prolactin concentrations on the pituitary-thyroid axis. 170 patients (L n=58; Hz n=112) were included in this prospective, non-interventional, cross-sectional study. Mann-Whitney-U-test and bivariate correlation analyses with Spearman-Rho test (r correlation coefficient) were used in statistical analysis. TSH was higher in patients with prolactin concentrations>370 mIU/l (p=0.013), in patients with high flux membranes (p=0.0013) and in patients with longer dialysis vintage (p=0.04). Median iodine serum concentrations were slightly elevated in the Leipzig cohort (p=0.001) and correlated with fT4 (p217). In the assessment of the thyroid status in CKD5D patients, the synopsis of the clinical and nutritional status, comorbidities, ultrasound of the thyroid gland and laboratory results is necessary for further intervention with hormone replacement. Standardized reference values of the pituitary-thyroid axis should be critically evaluated and are still lacking in CKD5D. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Arzamani, Kourosh; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeghi, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Motavalli-Haghi, Seyed Mousa; Elikaee, Samira; Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Ahmad; Kakoei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serol...

  16. Evaluation of rodent bait containing imidacloprid for the control of fleas on commensal rodents in a plague-endemic region of northwest Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Jeff N; Enscore, Russell E; Eisen, Rebecca J; Atiku, Linda A; Owor, Nicholas; Acayo, Sarah; Babi, Nackson; Montenieri, John A; Gage, Kenneth L

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades, the majority of human plague cases (caused by Yersinia pestis) have been reported from Africa. In an effort to reduce the risk of the disease in this area, we evaluated the efficacy of a host-targeted rodent bait containing the insecticide imidacloprid for controlling fleas on house-dwelling commensal rodents in a plague-endemic region of northwestern Uganda. Results demonstrated that the use of a palatable, rodent-targeted, wax-based bait cube was effective at reducing the prevalence of fleas on commensal rodents and flea burdens on these animals at day 7 postbait exposure, but lacked significant residual activity, allowing flea populations to rebound in the absence of additional bait applications. Our results indicate the use of a palatable host-targeted bait block containing imidacloprid was an effective technique for quickly reducing flea numbers on rodents in northwest Uganda and, thus, could be useful for lowering the potential risk of human flea bite exposures during plague outbreaks if applied continuously during the period of risk.

  17. Incidence of pemphigus vulgaris exceeds that of pemphigus foliaceus in a region where pemphigus foliaceus is endemic: analysis of a 21-year historical series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gilson Antonio Pereira; Brito, Moema Mignac Cumming; Salathiel, Adriana Martinelli; Ferraz, Thais Serraino; Alves, Domingos; Roselino, Ana Maria Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    There are two main clinical subsets of pemphigus: pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. Clinical and epidemiological changes related to both types of pemphigus have been observed in the last years. To analyze a 21-year historical case series of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus in the northeast region of the state of Sao Paulo, where pemphigus foliaceus is endemic. In this descriptive study, data related to annual incidence and age of onset of symptoms compatible with pemphigus vulgaris or pemphigus foliaceus were analyzed, comparing both forms, in the period from 1988 to 2008. The overall results cover a period of 21 years, with 103 cases of pemphigus vulgaris and 163 cases of pemphigus foliaceus. An evaluation of the trend lines regarding incidence has shown that pemphigus foliaceus is decreasing while pemphigus vulgaris is increasing. There was great variation in the age ranges, with persistence of the minimum range, from 10 to 20 years old, for pemphigus foliaceus (mean age = 32.1 years old), and clear downward in the minimum age for pemphigus vulgaris (mean age = 41.5 years old), especially from the middle of the first decade of the total period studied. The incidence of pemphigus vulgaris has been exceeding that of pemphigus foliaceus since 1998. The results of this case series comprehending 21 years corroborate the change in the epidemiology of both clinical forms of pemphigus in Brazil, raising new hypotheses for their etiology and pathogenesis.

  18. Hand Hygiene Practices and Microbial Investigation of Hand Contact Swab among Physiotherapists in an Ebola Endemic Region: Implications for Public Health

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    S. Ibeneme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand hygiene practices (HHP, as a critical component of infection prevention/control, were investigated among physiotherapists in an Ebola endemic region. Method. A standardized instrument was administered to 44 randomly selected physiotherapists (23 males and 21 females, from three tertiary hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria. Fifteen participants (aged 22–59 years participated in focus group discussions (FGDs and comprised 19 participants in a subsequent laboratory study. After treatment, the palms/fingers of physiotherapists were swabbed and cultured, then incubated aerobically overnight at 37°C, and examined for microbial growths. An antibiogram of the bacterial isolates was obtained. Results. The majority (34/77.3% of physiotherapists were aware of the HHP protocol, yet only 15/44.1% rated self-compliance at 71–100%. FGDs identified forgetfulness/inadequate HHP materials/infrastructure as the major barriers to HHP. Staphylococcus aureus were the most prevalent organisms, prior to (8/53.33% and after (4/26.67% HPP, while Pseudomonas spp. were acquired thereafter. E. coli were the most antibiotic resistant microbes but were completely removed after HHP. Ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were the most effective antibiotics. Conclusion. Poor implementation of HPP was observed due to inadequate materials/infrastructure/poor behavioral orientation. Possibly, some HPP materials were contaminated; hence, new microbes were acquired. Since HPP removed the most antibiotic resistant microbes, it might be more effective in infection control than antibiotic medication.

  19. First report of the use of meglumine antimoniate for treatment of canine leishmaniasis in a pregnant dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Groppetti, Debora; Perego, Roberta; Grieco, Valeria; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis during pregnancy is rarely reported, even in countries where the infection in dogs is endemic. The authors report a case of a 4 yr old bitch with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate during pregnancy. The pregnancy and delivery were normal and the bitch presented improvement of the infection during treatment. Three puppies died within 2 days of birth and tested negative via real-time PCR for L. infantum. The two surviving puppies were followed clinically, serologically, and by real-time PCR until 1 yr of age with no evidence of congenital leishmaniasis. L. infantum DNA was detected with real-time PCR analysis of uterine tissue from the bitch at the time of ovariohysterectomy. PCR analysis was performed after an ovariohysterectomy of the bitch that was performed two months after parturition. Meglumine antimoniate use in the pregnant bitch may have prevented vertical transmission of leishmaniasis.

  20. Analysis of Individuals from a Dengue-Endemic Region Helps Define the Footprint and Repertoire of Antibodies Targeting Dengue Virus 3 Type-Specific Epitopes

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    Daniela V. Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1 to 4 cause dengue, a major public health problem worldwide. Individuals exposed to primary DENV infections develop serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, including strongly neutralizing antibodies targeting quaternary epitopes. To date, no studies have measured the levels and kinetics of serum antibodies directed to such epitopes among populations in regions where dengue is endemic. Here, we use a recombinant DENV4 (rDENV4/3-M14 displaying a major DENV3 type-specific quaternary epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody 5J7 to measure the proportion, magnitude, and kinetics of DENV3 type-specific neutralizing antibody responses targeting this epitope. Primary DENV3 sera from 30 individuals in a dengue hospital-based study in Nicaragua were studied 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-infection, alongside samples collected annually 1 to 4 years post-primary DENV3 infection from 10 individuals in a cohort study in Nicaragua. We found substantial individual variation in the proportion of DENV3 type-specific neutralizing antibody titers attributed to the 5J7 epitope (range, 0 to 100%, with the mean significantly increasing from 22.6% to 41.4% from 3 to 18 months. We extended the transplanted DENV3 5J7 epitope on the virion (rDENV4/3-M16, resulting in increased recognition in several individuals, helping define the footprint of the epitope. However, 37% and 13% of the subjects still showed little to no recognition of the 5J7 epitope at 3 and 18 months, respectively, indicating that one or more additional DENV3 type-specific epitopes exist. Overall, this study demonstrates how DENV-immune plasma from populations from areas of endemicity, when coupled with structurally guided recombinant viruses, can help characterize the epitope-specific neutralizing antibody response in natural DENV infections, with direct implications for design and evaluation of dengue vaccines.

  1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pediatric Patients in a Single Tertiary Hospital in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaman, Ayşe; Tanır, Gönül; Gayretli Aydın, Zeynep Gökçe; Metin, Özge; Aydın Teke, Türkan; Öz, Fatma Nur; Mungan, Mesut

    2017-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is caused by a protozoan parasite of the Leishmania genus and that occurs worldwide. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southeastern Turkey and the neighboring Middle Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). A total of 16 CL patients [11 (69%) boys and five (31%) girls] were admitted between January 2014 and December 2015. The data of the patients were retrospectively recorded from their medical records. Their mean age was 74.3±32.3 months (range: 1-10.5 years). Double lesions were most commonly seen in eight (50%) patients. The face and neck was the most commonly involved site (87.5% of the patients). Skin smears for a parasitological examination were positive in nine (56%) patients. Two patients (12.5%) with limb lesions were treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate. Fourteen patients were treated with systemic agents. We felt that the increase in human movement that include travels and forced migration due to the war might make it possible for CL to appear in non-endemic provinces such as Ankara. In particular, in patients with painless cutaneous lesion(s) who came from endemic areas such as Syria, CL should be kept in mind by the clinicians that residing in even non-endemic areas .

  2. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya. A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, K. U.; Kurtzhals, J. A.; Sherwood, J. A.; Githure, J. I.; Kager, P. A.; Muller, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is endemic in Baringo District, Kenya. The disease has a focal distribution in the dry, hot areas below 1500 metres. Infections may be characterized as follows: 1) asymptomatic, 2) subclinical and self-limiting (not medically identifiable),

  3. A low-altitude mountain range as an important refugium for two narrow endemics in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Todd P.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Yates, Colin J.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Byrne, Margaret; Schut, Antonius G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Low-altitude mountains constitute important centres of diversity in landscapes with little topographic variation, such as the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). They also provide unique climatic and edaphic conditions that may allow them to function as refugia. We investigate whether the Porongurups (altitude 655 m) in the SWAFR will provide a refugium for the endemic Ornduffia calthifolia and O. marchantii under forecast climate change. Methods We used species distribution modelling based on WorldClim climatic data, 30-m elevation data and a 2-m-resolution LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) to predict current and future distributions of the Ornduffia species at local and regional scales based on 605 field-based abundance estimates. Future distributions were forecast using RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 projections. To determine whether local edaphic and biotic factors impact these forecasts, we tested whether soil depth and vegetation height were significant predictors of abundance using generalized additive models (GAMs). Key Results Species distribution modelling revealed the importance of elevation and topographic variables at the local scale for determining distributions of both species, which also preferred shadier locations and higher slopes. However, O. calthifolia occurred at higher (cooler) elevations with rugged, concave topography, while O. marchantii occurred in disturbed sites at lower locations with less rugged, convex topography. Under future climates both species are likely to severely contract under the milder RCP2.6 projection (approx. 2 °C of global warming), but are unlikely to persist if warming is more severe (RCP4.5). GAMs showed that soil depth and vegetation height are important predictors of O. calthifolia and O. marchantii distributions, respectively. Conclusions The Porongurups constitute an important refugium for O. calthifolia and O. marchantii, but limits to this capacity may be reached if global

  4. A chromosome 5q31.1 locus associates with tuberculin skin test reactivity in HIV-positive individuals from tuberculosis hyper-endemic regions in east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Rafal S; Stein, Catherine M; Kodaman, Nuri; Maro, Isaac; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Igo, Robert P; Magohe, Albert; Malone, LaShaunda L; Chervenak, Keith; Hall, Noemi B; Matee, Mecky; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses; Moore, Jason H; Scott, William K; Lahey, Timothy; Boom, W Henry; von Reyn, C Fordham; Williams, Scott M; Sirugo, Giorgio

    2017-06-01

    One in three people has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and the risk for MTB infection in HIV-infected individuals is even higher. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic regions who do not get infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are genetically resistant. Using an "experiment of nature" design that proved successful in our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study of tuberculin skin test positivity using 469 HIV-positive patients from prospective study cohorts of tuberculosis from Tanzania and Uganda to identify genetic loci associated with MTB infection in the context of HIV-infection. Among these individuals, 244 tested were tuberculin skin test (TST) positive either at enrollment or during the >8 year follow up, while 225 were not. We identified a genome-wide significant association between a dominant model of rs877356 and binary TST status in the combined cohort (Odds ratio = 0.2671, p = 1.22x10-8). Association was replicated with similar significance when examining TST induration as a continuous trait. The variant lies in the 5q31.1 region, 57kb downstream from IL9. Two-locus analyses of association of variants near rs877356 showed a haplotype comprised of rs877356 and an IL9 missense variant, rs2069885, had the most significant association (p = 1.59x10-12). We also replicated previously linked loci on chromosomes 2, 5, and 11. IL9 is a cytokine produced by mast cells and TH2 cells during inflammatory responses, providing a possible link between airway inflammation and protection from MTB infection. Our results indicate that studying uninfected, HIV-positive participants with extensive exposure increases the power to detect associations in complex infectious disease.

  5. Ausência da Lutzomyia longipalpis em algumas áreas de ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral no Município do Rio de Janeiro Absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in some endemic visceral leishmaniasis areas in Rio de Janeiro municipality

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    Marcos Barbosa de Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 1977 foi diagnosticado o primeiro caso autóctone de leishmaniose visceral (LV humano no Município do Rio de Janeiro. A partir de 1980, foram diagnosticados 54 casos autóctones em diversas localidades, sendo que desde 1993 ocorreram 17 casos humanos autóctones notificados. Oito deles ocorreram no bairro de Barra de Guaratiba e o restante distribuído pelos bairros: Camorim, Colônia, Grota Funda, Grumari, Ilha de Guaratiba e Carapiá. Entre setembro de 1996 a dezembro de 1999, foram realizadas capturas de flebotomíneos em 18 localidades nas encostas do maciço da Pedra Branca, no município, e coletados 18.303 espécimes com predomínio de L. intermedia (87,33%, L. migonei (6,59%, L. longipalpis (3,10% e L. firmatoi (1,90%. A espécie L. longipalpis predominou em Barra de Guaratiba (46,80%, permanecendo ausente nas outras seis localidades onde também ocorreram casos de LV, o que sugere a participação de outras espécies tais como L. migonei e L. firmatoi, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo parafilético da espécie vetora, na cadeia de transmissão da LV na região.The first autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro was diagnosed in 1977. Since 1980, 54 autochthonous cases have been diagnosed in various locations, and since 1993 some 17 autochthonous human cases have been reported. Eight of these occurred in the neighborhood of Barra de Guaratiba and the others were distributed in the following neighborhoods: Camorim, Colônia, Grota Funda, Grumari, Ilha de Guaratiba, and Carapiá. From September 1996 to December 1999, phebotomine sandfly captures were performed at 18 sites on the mountainsides of the Pedra Branca Massif, in the Municipality, and a total of 18,303 specimens were collected, with a predominance of L. intermedia (87.33%, L. migonei (6.59%, L. longipalpis (3.10%, and L. firmatoi (1.90%. The species L. longipalpis predominated in Barra de Guaratiba (46.80% and was absent from the

  6. First case report of atypical disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in an opium abuser in Iran

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    Seyed Ahmad Hashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a worldwide tropical infectious disease caused by different species of intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania . Herein, we report a 78-year-old man with unusual diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL who had a history of opium abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. He had multiple papular, crusted and severely ulcerated lesions extended to his arm and chest. Direct smears and skin punch biopsy of the lesions were suggestive of leishmaniasis. Parasite DNA was amplified from ulcers, and identified as Leishmania major by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing analyses. The aim of the current study was to bring to attention this atypical form of disease in CL endemic countries. Thus, this is the first case of DCL in an opium abuser with COPD due to L. major in Northeastern Iran indicating that atypical and extensive forms of CL (DCL owing to L. major are increasing in Iran.

  7. American visceral leishmaniasis: disease control strategies in dracen microregion in alta paulista, SP, Brazil

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    LAZ D'Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite measures adopted to control American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, the disease is spreading in a fast and worrying way throughout western São Paulo state. The aim of this work was to study the variables involved in the disease cycle as well as the effectiveness of controlling measures. The study was carried out in the microregion of Dracena, which is composed of twelve cities and belongs to Alta Paulista, a region of western São Paulo. The necessary data were provided by the Superintendence for Endemic Disease Control and Adolfo Lutz Institute, Regional Laboratory of Presidente Prudente. From August 2005 to January 2008, the following factors were observed: detection of phlebotomine sandflies in the cities and periods in which dogs or humans were diagnosed; number of human deaths; prevalence of suspected dogs tested by serology; percentage of euthanasia in suspected dogs; a possible correlation between positive dogs and cases of the disease in humans; and the disease prevalence among municipalities from the studied region. It was verified that, despite the strategies adopted in Dracena microregion to control AVL, the disease continues to rise. Thus, some procedures of the AVL Monitoring and Control Program should be reviewed, to grant the initiative more credibility and effectiveness.

  8. Relationship between pemphigus and American tegumentary leishmaniasis: insights from serological and genetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Priscilla; Brochado, Maria J F; Vernal, Sebastian; Machado, Aline R; Turatti, Aline; de Paula, Natalia A; Donadi, Eduardo A; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2017-08-01

    Antibodies against Leishmania peptides (Lbr-peps) and desmogleins (Dsgs) have been reported in pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and leishmaniasis patients, respectively. We aimed to compare serological and genetic features in a Brazilian region endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and pemphigus. Commercial anti-Dsg ELISA and in-house ELISA with Lbr-peps were used to determine the serological profile, in addition to immunoblotting (IB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assays. HLA-DRB1 and -DQA1/DQB1 alleles were characterized by PCR combined with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP). The serological and genetic profiles were compared using 78 PF, 62 pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and 58 ATL patients against 163 and 1592 healthy controls, respectively. Some ATL patients showed positive results for anti-Dsg1 and/or anti-Dsg3 antibodies. They also revealed 130, 160 and/or 230 kDa epidermal peptides in IB. Moreover, some ATL samples exhibited pemphigus or a bullous pemphigoid pattern in IIF. ELISA and IB assays showed Lbr-peps in pemphigus patients. HLA-DQA1*01 and -DQA1*01:02 were protective and susceptibility alleles for ATL, respectively, but the opposite for pemphigus. Anti-Dsgs in ATL may represent epiphenomena. Anti-Lbr-pep antibodies in pemphigus suggest a previous infection. A differential association of the HLA profile may contribute to the lack of co-association between pemphigus and ATL. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Relationship between Eating and Lifestyle Habits and Cancer in Van Lake Region: Another Endemic Region for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Sebahattin; Y?lmaz, E. Murat; ?zden, Ferhat; Kotan, Cetin; Okut, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randoml...

  10. Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-01-01

    This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country's mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples' migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

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    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area: Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral canina autóctone em uma área não-endêmica: Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Marcio Roberto Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by describing a dog with characteristic symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis. A serum sample from this animal was positive by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF performed in anti-Leishmania total IgG in 1999. Tissues from the same dog were also positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 2004, identifying Leishmania DNA in the cerebellum, liver, kidney, and intestine. This is the first report of a dog with autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in the county of Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The finding of this IIF-positive dog led to a canine visceral leishmaniasis epidemiological investigation in the county. The investigation was conducted from March 1999 to December 2005. IIF was positive for Leishmania in 22 (3% of 734 examined dogs. Among the 22 IIF-positive dogs, six presented characteristic symptoms of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The results of this epidemiological investigation were sent to local and State public health authorities, requesting visceral leishmaniasis control and preventive measures to interrupt transmission of the disease and avoid the occurrence of human cases.O presente trabalho descreve inicialmente um cão com sintomas característicos de leishmaniose visceral. Amostra de soro desse cão foi positiva por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI conduzida no IgG total anti-Leishmania em 1999. Além disso, tecidos desse cão foram positivos por reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR conduzida em 2004, identificando DNA de Leishmania no cerebelo, fígado, rim e intestino. Esta é a primeira vez que um cão com leishmaniose visceral autóctone foi descrito no Município de Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O achado desse cão reagente à IFI levou a uma investigação epidemiológica nesse município. Essa investigação foi conduzida de março de 1999 a dezembro de 2005. Vinte e dois de um total de 734 (3% cães examinados foram reagentes à IFI. Entre os 22 cães IFI reagentes, seis apresentaram

  13. Assessing the Health Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets in the Control of Malaria in Endemic Regions

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    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a protozoan disease caused in humans by the genus Plasmodium of which four species are known: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. It is transmitted through the bite of infected female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Malaria is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high fever, sweating, shaking chills, and anemia. Approximately 40% of the world's population, mostly those living in the poorest nations, are at risk. Much of the deaths due to malaria occur in Africa, mostly among children. The search for prevention and control interventions that are effective and sustainable remains an abiding challenge for national governments and international health agencies. To this end, the World Health Organization and several nongovernmental organizations are investing in the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITMNs as a viable option. Trials of ITMNs in the 1980s and 1990s showed that they reduce deaths in young children by an average of 20% and multilateral agencies, spearheaded by Roll Back Malaria (RBM, seek to have 60% of the populations at risk sleeping under ITMNs by 2005. All pesticides are toxic by nature and present risks of adverse effects that depend on toxicity of the chemical and the degree of exposure. While there is agreement that ITMNs can be effective in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality under field trials, a number of factors relating to their sustainability and contribution to health improvement in less-developed countries have yet to be determined. In particular, the adverse effects associated with their long-term use and misuse has yet to be fully evaluated. Although this paper examines potential neurotoxic and neurobehavioral effects of long-term use of ITMNs and discusses priority public health actions for protecting the health of users, it forms the basis for further research.

  14. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

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    Andreina de Carvalho ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality ofPetrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%. Most of the patients were males (59.4%. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%, with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  15. DSFL database: A hub of target proteins of Leishmania sp. to combat leishmaniasis

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    Ameer Khusro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne chronic infectious tropical dermal disease caused by the protozoa parasite of the genus Leishmania that causes high mortality globally. Among three different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar is a systemic public health disease with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries, caused by Leishmania donovani, Leishmania infantum or Leishmania chagasi. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine available till date for the treatment of leishmaniasis. On the other hand, the therapeutics approved to treat this fatal disease is expensive, toxic, and associated with serious side effects. Furthermore, the emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania parasites in most endemic countries due to the incessant utilization of existing drugs is a major concern at present. Drug Search for Leishmaniasis (DSFL is a unique database that involves 50 crystallized target proteins of varied Leishmania sp. in order to develop new drugs in future by interacting several antiparasitic compounds or molecules with specific protein through computational tools. The structure of target protein from different Leishmania sp. is available in this database. In this review, we spotlighted not only the current global status of leishmaniasis in brief but also detailed information about target proteins of various Leishmania sp. available in DSFL. DSFL has created a new expectation for mankind in order to combat leishmaniasis by targeting parasitic proteins and commence a new era to get rid of drug resistance parasites. The database will substantiate to be a worthwhile project for further development of new, non-toxic, and cost-effective antileishmanial drugs as targeted therapies using in vitro/in vivo assays.

  16. Efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in treatment of atrophic scar of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (high efficacy of fractional CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.

  17. Conjunctival leishmaniasis in a case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Razeghinejad, M Reza; Monabati, Ahmad; Kadivar, Mohammad Rahim; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2017-01-01

    A 15-year-old female patient presented with numerous, small, papulonodular skin lesions, and hepatosplenomegaly 9 months after a treated biopsy proved cutaneous leishmaniasis. In ocular examination there were two yellowish, raised gelatinous conjunctival lesions in the left eye. The exisional conjunctival lesion biopsy revealed many Leishman bodies inside tissue histiocytes. The patient had no systemic immunologic problems (normal serum immunoglobulins, nitroblue-tetrazolium test, complement CH50 test and flow cytometry of leukocytes). The indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for Leishmania tropica (titre of 1:1024) and the leishmanin skin test were positive. DNA of L. tropica was detected by a specific polymerase chain reaction on whole blood, bone marrow and skin biopsy specimens. The skin and conjunctival lesions disappeared with miltefosine and no intraocular tissue penetration of organism happened. Conjunctival leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of raised conjunctival lesions in a disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis patient and needs proper systemic therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The Relationship between Eating and Lifestyle Habits and Cancer in Van Lake Region: Another Endemic Region for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sebahattin; Yılmaz, E Murat; Özden, Ferhat; Kotan, Cetin; Okut, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits) and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P = 0.0013). As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012-1.022). Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  19. Aeromonas caviae mimicking Vibrio cholerae infectious enteropathy in a cholera-endemic region with possible public health consequences: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwetselaar, Marco; Nyombi, Balthazar; Sonda, Tolbert; Kumburu, Happiness; Chamba, Nyasatu; Dekker, Marieke C J; Kilonzo, Kajiru G; Urasa, Sarah J; Mmbaga, Blandina T

    2018-03-17

    . cholerae in cholera-endemic regions suggests the possibility that a proportion of suspected cholera cases may be Aeromonas infections. However, with close to no epidemiological data available on Aeromonas infection in cases of diarrhea and dysentery in Sub-Saharan Africa, it is not currently possible to establish the extent of misdiagnosis to any degree of certainty. Whole genome sequencing was shown to readily exclude V. cholerae as the etiological agent and establish the presence of Aeromonas species.

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis: an update of laboratory diagnosis

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    Zineb Tlamcani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis, is an infection due to obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There exist two varieties of visceral leishmaniasis, that vary in their transmission aspects: zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis and anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis. Their clinical features are comparable with sevral differences. Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis consists of microscopic observation of parasite, culture from appropriate samples, detection of antigen, serological tests, and identification of parasite DNA. In this review, we will discuss the different techniques of diagnosis and the interet of the recent methods such as rapid diagnostic test and direct agglutination test.

  1. Epidemiological surveillance of tegumentary leishmaniasis: local territorial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Valdenir Bandeira; Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão

    2017-06-26

    To propose a new operational unit in the locality scale capable of subsidizing the construction of an information system to control the transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis at this scale, in a region of high endemicity of the Atlantic Forest. We examined the adequacy of data and instruments in an area of high endemicity in the Atlantic Forest located in the South of the State of Rio de Janeiro from 1990 to 2012. The study proposed an operational unit called Local Surveillance Unit to make all used databases compatible by adjusting census sectors. This enabled the overlap and comparison of information in different periods. The spreading process of the transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Baía da Ilha Grande region does not depend on great population movements, and can occur in areas with population growth or decrease. The data information system allowed the adequate identification and characterization of the place of residence. We identified relevant characteristics of the place of transmission, such as self-limited in time and not associated with recent deforestation. The results also highlight the lack of synchronicity in the case production in territorial units involved in the endemic-epidemic process, noting that this process is in constant motion. The transmission process seems more connected to the presence and movement of rodents that move continuously in the region than to the local density of vectors or the permanence of infected dogs at home. New control strategies targeted at the foci of transmission must be considered. The construction of a new operational unit, called Local Surveillance Unit, was instrumental in the endemic-epidemic process analysis. Propor uma nova unidade operacional na escala de localidade capaz de subsidiar a construção de um sistema de informação orientado para o controle da transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar nesse nível. Uma região de alta endemicidade da Mata Atlântica no sul do estado do Rio de

  2. Distribution and Dispersal of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus, the Northern Negev, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshan, Laor; Elbaz, Shirly; Ben-Ari, Yossi; Akad, Fouad; Afik, Ohad; Ben-Avi, Ira; Dias, Debora; Ish-Shalom, Dan; Studentsky, Liora; Zonstein, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Background Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. In recent years reported incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis increased and endemic transmission is being observed in a growing number of communities in regions previously considered free of the disease. Here we report the results of an intensive sand fly study carried out in a new endemic focus of Leishmania major. The main objective was to establish a method and to generate a data set to determine the exposure risk, sand fly populations' dynamics and evaluate the efficacy of an attempt to create "cordon sanitaire" devoid of active jird burrows around the residential area. Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were trapped in three fixed reference sites and an additional 52 varying sites. To mark sand flies in the field, sugar solutions containing different food dyes were sprayed on vegetation in five sites. The catch was counted, identified, Leishmania DNA was detected in pooled female samples and the presence of marked specimens was noted. Phlebotomus papatasi, the vector of L. major in the region was the sole Phlebotomus species in the catch. Leishmania major DNA was detected in ~10% of the pooled samples and the highest risk of transmission was in September. Only a few specimens were collected in the residential area while sand fly numbers often exceeded 1,000 per catch in the agricultural fields. The maximal travel distance recorded was 1.91km for females and 1.51km for males. The calculated mean distance traveled (MDT) was 0.75km. Conclusions The overall results indicate the presence of dense and mobile sand fly populations in the study area. There seem to be numerous scattered sand fly microsites suitable for development and resting in the agricultural fields. Sand flies apparently moved in all directions, and reached the residential area from the surrounding agricultural fields. The travel distance noted in the current work, supported previous findings that P. papatasi like P

  3. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011–2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013–2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4–39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of

  4. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011-2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013-2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4-39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of MDA can

  5. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

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    Gao Weimin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Results Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4% compared to controls (47.2% with an odds ratio (OR of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07, especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01. No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic parameters and genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may play important roles in the development of ESCC in Huaian

  6. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zemin; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Tang, Lili; Sun, Guiju; Tang, Yuntian; Xie, Yin; Wang, Shaokang; Hu, Xu; Gao, Weimin; Cox, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P < 0.05). Regular clean up of food storage utensils, green tea consumption, and alcohol abstinence were protective factors for ESCC (P < 0.01). The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4%) compared to controls (47.2%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07), especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01). No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05). Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic

  7. Low Prevalence of Conjunctival Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in a Treatment-Naïve Trachoma-Endemic Region of the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Robert M. R.; Sokana, Oliver; Jack, Kelvin; Macleod, Colin K.; Marks, Michael E.; Kalae, Eric; Sui, Leslie; Russell, Charles; Tutill, Helena J.; Williams, Rachel J.; Breuer, Judith; Willis, Rebecca; Le Mesurier, Richard T.; Mabey, David C. W.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Roberts, Chrissy h.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island states. Recent surveys across the Solomon Islands indicated that whilst trachomatous inflammation—follicular (TF) was present at levels warranting intervention, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was low. We set out to determine the relationship between chlamydial infection and trachoma in this population. Methods We conducted a population-based trachoma prevalence survey of 3674 individuals from two Solomon Islands provinces. Participants were examined for clinical signs of trachoma. Conjunctival swabs were collected from all children aged 1–9 years. We tested swabs for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) DNA using droplet digital PCR. Chlamydial DNA from positive swabs was enriched and sequenced for use in phylogenetic analysis. Results We observed a moderate prevalence of TF in children aged 1–9 years (n = 296/1135, 26.1%) but low prevalence of trachomatous inflammation—intense (TI) (n = 2/1135, 0.2%) and current Ct infection (n = 13/1002, 1.3%) in children aged 1–9 years, and TT in those aged 15+ years (n = 2/2061, 0.1%). Ten of 13 (76.9%) cases of infection were in persons with TF or TI (p = 0.0005). Sequence analysis of the Ct-positive samples yielded 5/13 (38%) complete (>95% coverage of reference) genome sequences, and 8/13 complete plasmid sequences. Complete sequences all aligned most closely to ocular serovar reference strains. Discussion The low prevalence of TT, TI and Ct infection that we observed are incongruent with the high proportion of children exhibiting signs of TF. TF is present at levels that apparently warrant intervention, but the scarcity of other signs of trachoma indicates the phenotype is mild and may not pose a significant public health threat. Our data suggest that, whilst conjunctival Ct infection appears to be present in the region, it is present at levels that are unlikely to be the dominant driving force for TF in the population. This could be one reason for the

  8. The burden of leishmaniasis in Iran, acquired from the global burden of disease during 1990–2010

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    Alireza Badirzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report and measure the burden of leishmaniasis in Iran using the global burden of disease (GBD results, conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation for the years 1990 to 2010, and provide some recommendations for reaching better conclusions about the burden of disease. Methods: GBD burden and fatality rates of leishmaniasis were compared with the findings registered by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME. Data obtained from the GBD for the years 1990 to 2010 were used to estimate the disability-adjusted life-years and fatality rates of leishmaniasis in Iran. Results: The GBD estimated 229 714 disability-adjusted life-years due to leishmaniasis in Iranian people of all ages and both sexes. The number of deaths caused by visceral leishmaniasis (VL had decreased significantly in recent years. MOHME registered data on fewer than 30 deaths in Iran from 1990 to 2010. Conclusions: The underreporting of VL deaths is always more pronounced. Findings indicate that the GBD estimation of mortality rates was surprisingly higher than MOHME’s data. The burden of leishmaniasis decreased significantly between the years 1990 and 2010 in both data sources. The possible explanation for this decrease has been discovered through the establishment of a VL surveillance system in various parts of Iran, particularly in endemic areas.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia shawi shawi

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    Jennings Yara Lins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs. Identifications revealed 11 (25.6% strains of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, 4 (9.3% of L. (V. shawi shawi, 7 (16.3% of L. (V. shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9% of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. lainsoni, 2 (4.7% of L. (L. amazonensis, and 7 (16.3% of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V. braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V. shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V. guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V. s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V. shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V. s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V. guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V. s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. s. shawi exchange genetic information.

  10. Serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a peptide sequence from gene B protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Gaafar, A; Ismail, A

    1996-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a 28 amino acid sequence of the repetitive element of gene B protein (GBP) from Leishmania major was developed for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was compared to ELISAs using crude amastigote and promastigote antigens from...... samples from healthy Sudanese individuals living in an area endemic for malaria but free of leish-maniasis were negative in all the assays. Significantly higher levels of antibodies were found in the patients who had suffered from the disease for more than eight weeks than in patients with a shorter...

  11. Importation of visceral leishmaniasis in returning Romanian workers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana-Maria; Merkler, Carmen; Marincu, Iosif; Moldovan, Roxana; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades visceral leishmaniasis cases and foci have increased in Romania, where the disease has also become a medical concern. The following study aimed to provide essential knowledge on early diagnosis and management of visceral leishmaniasis cases in Romania acquired especially by traveling and working in the Mediterranean countries. Retrospective analysis of the medical records of the patients diagnosed with imported visceral leishmaniasis in a western Romanian county. Three patients with visceral leishmaniasis imported from Spain were admitted to hospital in Timisoara in 2005. Detailed case histories along with clinical and laboratory features are presented. In all the patients the final laboratory confirmation of the disease was by Giemsa-stained blood smears obtained by bone marrow biopsy. Since 2004, many Romanian citizens left their homeland looking for a better job in the Mediterranean region. Unaware of the risks of outdoor labor in warm climatic conditions, they accepted to live and work in improper sanitary conditions. Late identification of the disease resulted mainly from failure of the physicians to diagnose and associate the syndrome with travel.

  12. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dutch military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is een tropische ziekte veroorzaakt door een parasiet die wordt overgebracht door de zandvlieg. Pieter-Paul van Thiel beschrijft de besmetting van militairen tijdens drie missies in Afghanistan, en jungletrainingen in Suriname en Belize. Bij een missie in Noord-Afghanistan in 2005

  13. Epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwest of Iran during 2001–2011

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    Mohammad Hossien Feiz Haddad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence process and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL during 2001–2011. Methods: This was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study examining 2 637 patients with CL in Susangerd county during 2001–2011. The data of all patients who referred to the Prevention Unit of Susangerd Health Center were registered in CL epidemiologic data summary forms. The data and parameters included age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural, and lesion location. Results: Out of 2 637 patients, 1 174 cases (44.5% were females and 1463 patients (55.5% were males. The maximum rate of infection was recorded in under 10-year-old age group (45.32% and its minimum rate was seen among those aged over 60 years (0.87%. Among them, 1 557 patients (59.0% were living in urban and 1 080 (41.0% were in rural areas. The maximum and minimum occupational frequency distributions were seen in students (49.9% and farmers (0.6%, respectively. The study showed that the maximum and minimum frequencies were observed in winter (52.33% and summer (7.62% correspondingly. The most lesion frequencies from lesion location point of view were related to hands (37.5%, faces (30.0%, feet (26.3% and other organs (6.2% and the number of lesions ranged from 1–5 and sized varied from 0.5–5.5 cm Conclusions: Epidemiological parameters such as age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural and lesion location in endemic regions have had significant effects on the prevalence of CL in Susangerd county and the findings can be effective for assessing disease prevention programs. In addition, CL might become a serious dermatological health problem in the near future due to a great population movement to the neighboring country Iraq with a high incidence to an endemic area.

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria: clinical features, current status and the effects of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayani, Kinan; Dandashli, Anwar; Weisshaar, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide disease caused by an infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania transmitted via sand flies. It is endemic in many of the poorest countries of all continents. "Aleppo boil" is one of the recognised names given to this disease in the medical literature. Although CL used to be well-controlled and well-documented in Syria, its incidence has dramatically increased since the beginning of the war; however, there is lack of documentation. Here, we present the past and current epidemiological situation of the disease in Syria. We also draw attention to gross and highly unusual clinical variants of CL presented to the Department of Dermatology in Aleppo covering the important differential clinical diagnoses, since this disease is already known to mimic other conditions. Diagnostic procedures and treatment as well as prevention are summarised. Due to the increased ability to travel, and especially the flight of Syrians to neighbouring countries, as well as to Europe, CL may become a new threat in formerly unaffected regions. Through this account, we hope to give weight to the aspiration that CL does not remain a neglected and often clinically overlooked tropical dermatosis.

  15. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

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    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  16. [Endemic plants for medicine use in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gang-Qiang; Li, Hai-Tao; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Li-Xia; Li, Ya-Jing; Huang, Lu-Qi; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Based on plant species databases, species lists and literature records, general situation of the Chinese medicinal endemic plant (vascular plant) has been systematically summarized, and its quantity and distribution characteristics of Chinese medicinal endemic plants are presented in this paper. The results showed that 3 150 endemic species are Chinese medicinal plants belonging to 785 genera in 153 families, which includes 38 species of 22 genera in 12 families of pteridophyta, 42 species of 14 genera in7 families of gymnosperms, and 3 070 species of 749 genara in 134 families of angiosperms. The top four families involving medicinal endemic species are Asteraceae (218 species), Ranunculaceae (182 species), Labiatae (151 species), and Liliaceae (133 species). The top four provincial administration distributed medicinal endemic species are Sichuan (1 568 species), Yunnan (1 533 species), Guizhou (955 species) and Hubei (930 species).On the regional scale, the most abundant one is the southwest region (2 465 species), followed by the central region (1 226 species) and the northwest region (949 species). Localization characteristics for domestication and artificial cultivation of medicinal endemic species are more prominent due to their narrower and limited distribution areas, indicating it is possible for these species acting as local potential resource for reasonable economic development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

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    E M Moore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The available treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (VL have problems relating to efficacy, adverse effects and cost, making treatment a complex issue. We review the evidence relating to the different methods of treatment in relation to - efficacy and toxicity of the drugs in different areas of the world; ability to monitor side effects, length of treatment; ability of patients to pay for and stay safe during treatment, ability of the healthcare services to give intramuscular, intravenous or oral therapy; the sex and child-bearing potential of the patient and the immune status of the patient. The high mortality of untreated/ poorly treated VL infection makes the decisions paramount, but a unified and coordinated response by each area is likely to be more effective and informative to future policies than an ad hoc response. For patients in resource-rich countries, liposomal amphotericin B appears to be the optimal treatment. In South Asia, miltefosine is being used; the combination of single dose liposomal amphotericin B and short course miltefosine looks encouraging but has the problem of potential reproductive toxicities in females. In Africa, the evidence to switch from SSG is not yet compelling. The need to monitor and plan for evolving drug failure, secondary to leishmania parasite resistance, is paramount. With a few drugs the options may be limited; however, we await key ongoing trials in both Africa and India to explore the effects of combination treatment. If safe and reliable combinations are revealed by the ongoing studies, it is far from clear as to whether this will avoid leishmania parasite resistance. The development of new drugs to add to the armamentarium is paramount. Lessons can be learnt from the management of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria in terms of planning the switch to combination treatment. As important as establishing the best choice for specific antileishmanial agent is ensuring treatment centers

  18. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  19. Genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs identifies candidate genes involved in T helper cells and macrophage signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2....

  20. Diagnóstico molecular para Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysabel Montoya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial diagnóstico de epitopes inmunodominantes seleccionados fue ensayado satisfactoriamente a fin de obtener una prueba serodiagnóstica alternativa para la Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana. Dos proteínas recombinantes prometedoras de L. (v. peruviana referidas como T-26-U2/T26-U4 fueron reconocidas por sueros individuales de pacientes con Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana usando Western Blot. La sensibilidad de la prueba fue de 86% con sueros permanentes con Leishmaniasis peruana.

  1. Naturally-acquired humoral immune responses against the N- and C-termini of the Plasmodium vivax MSP1 protein in endemic regions of Brazil and Papua New Guinea using a multiplex assay

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    Alonso Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress towards the development of a malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, will require a better understanding of the immune responses that confer clinical protection to patients in regions where malaria is endemic. Methods Glutathione S-transferase (GST and GST-fusion proteins representing the N- terminus of the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. vivax, PvMSP1-N, and the C-terminus, PvMSP1-C, were covalently coupled to BioPlex carboxylated beads. Recombinant proteins and coupled beads were used, respectively, in ELISA and Bioplex assays using immune sera of P. vivax patients from Brazil and PNG to determine IgG and subclass responses. Concordances between the two methods in the seropositivity responses were evaluated using the Kappa statistic and the Spearman's rank correlation. Results The results using this methodology were compared with the classical microtitre enzyme-linked immnosorbent assay (ELISA, showing that the assay was sensitive, reproducible and had good concordance with ELISA; yet, further research into different statistical analyses seems desirable before claiming conclusive results exclusively based on multiplex assays. As expected, results demonstrated that PvMSP1 was immunogenic in natural infections of patients from different endemic regions of Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG, and that age correlated only with antibodies against the C-terminus part of the molecule. Furthermore, the IgG subclass profiles were different in these endemic regions having IgG3 predominantly recognizing PvMSP1 in Brazil and IgG1 predominantly recognizing PvMSP1 in PNG. Conclusions This study validates the use of the multiplex assay to measure naturally-acquired IgG antibodies against the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. vivax.

  2. Risk factors for diagnostic delay in Crohn's disease and their impact on long-term complications: how do they differ in a tuberculosis endemic region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, R; Pal, P; Girish, B G; Reddy, D N

    2018-03-24

    The diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) can be delayed in clinical practice. In tuberculosis endemic areas, empirical anti-tubercular therapy further delays treatment. To assess risk factors for diagnostic delay and its impact on the long-term complications of Crohn's disease in India where tuberculosis is endemic. Data from a large prospectively established inflammatory bowel disease registry were analysed retrospectively. The time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) was calculated and categorised into two groups based on median diagnostic delay. The risk factors for delay including anti-tubercular therapy were analysed. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess impact of diagnostic delay on development of stenotic and fistular complications including need for surgery. Seven hundred and twenty Crohn's disease patients (60.3% male, median: 28 years) were included. Main outcome measures were stenosis, fistula and need for surgery. Subjects with diagnostic delay >18 months (median) developed significantly higher stenotic complications and surgery (OR 4.12; 95% CI: 2.74-6.33, P 100). Moreover, the incidence of stenotic complications was significantly higher in patients who had received prior anti-tubercular therapy (55/193 (28.49%) vs 78/527 (14.8%), P < 0.001, OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.64-4.12). Diagnostic delay in Crohn's disease is associated with significantly higher stenotic complications and need for surgery. Empirical anti-tubercular therapy is the single largest contributor to diagnostic delay in tuberculosis endemic areas. Despite initial clinical response to anti-tubercular therapy, long-term stenotic complications are higher. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.

    2012-01-01

    variables (soil, elevation, and slope). Environmental variables and species occurrence data were obtained respectively from the WorldClim database and from herbarium specimens kept at the National Botanic Garden of Belgium and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Our results suggest that the distribution...... of endemic species is influenced by a combination of climatic and non-climatic variables. Soil type, temperature annual range and precipitation of the driest month were the most important predictor variables. Overlaying the potential distributions of the seven selected species indicated three areas...

  4. [Transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantations in Tabasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrada Figueroa, Georgina Del Carmen; Leal Ascencio, Víctor Javier; Jiménez Sastré, Alejandro; López Álvarez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Tabasco is the Mexican state that reported the highest number (37.4%) of patients with leishmaniasis during 1990-2011. Close to 90% of these patients lived in Chontalpa, where the municipality of Cunduacán accounted for the majority of the cases. One of the characteristics of this region is that houses are located within cacao plantations. To determine if cacao plantations are a risk factor for leishmaniasis transmission in locations of Cunduacán, Tabasco. We performed an analytical and retrospective study of 115 locations in Cunduacán, analyzing the number of localities with or without patients with leishmaniasis registered between 2000-2011 and, additionally, if they had cacao plantations, using a map where different crops were georeferenced. We measured the magnitude of the association (odds ratio, 95% CI). During the period 2000-2011, cases of leishmaniasis were reported in 77 (67.0%) Cunduacán locations, of these, 55 (71.4%) had cocoa plantations, five (6.5%) of banana, five (6.5%) of cane, and 12 (15.6%) had no crops georeferenced. We found that cocoa crops are a risk factor for the transmission of leishmaniasis (OR: 3.438; 95% CI: 1,526-7,742). The probability of transmission of leishmaniasis in areas with cocoa crops is greater than in communities without this crop.

  5. The current spectrum and prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Campania (region of southern Italy) and their relationship with migration from endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Alberta; Coppola, Maria Grazia; Petrullo, Luciana; Lettieri, Gennaro; Palumbo, Cristiana; Dell'Isola, Chiara; Smeraglia, Riccardo; Triassi, Maria; Spada, Enea; Amoroso, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    In Italy, the current clinical-epidemiological features of intestinal parasitosis and the impact of recent massive migration flows from endemic areas on their distribution are not very well known. An analysis was carried out involving 1766 patients (720 natives and 1046 immigrants) observed during the period 2009-2010 (the 'current group') and 771 native patients observed during the period 1996-1997 (the 'historical group'), a time at which immigration in the area was minimal. Patients were analyzed for intestinal parasitosis at four healthcare centres in Campania. A wide variety of intestinal parasites was detected in the study subjects. Immigrants had a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis and multiple simultaneous infections than natives in both groups. In both study groups of natives, the detection of at least one parasite was significantly associated with a history of travel to endemic areas. Among immigrants, we found an inverse correlation between the frequency of parasite detection and the amount of time spent in Italy. No circulation of parasites was found among contacts of parasitized patients. Intestinal parasites are still a cause of intestinal infection in Campania. Although immigrants have a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis than natives, this does not increase the risk of infection for that population. This is likely due to the lack of suitable biological conditions in our area. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi Isolates of horse breeding farms from an endemic region in South of Brazil by multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewer, Cristina da Costa; Spricigo, Dênis Augusto; de Avila Botton, Sônia; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schrank, Irene; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2008-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coco-bacillus and an intracellular opportunistic pathogen which causes pneumonia in foals. It is widely detected in environment and has been isolated from several sources, as soil, feces and gut from health and sick foals. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological status (endemic, sporadic or no infection) of horse breeding farms from Bage County in South of Brazil, using a multiplex PCR. One hundred and eighteen R. equi isolates were identified by biochemical tests and submitted to a specie-specific and vapA multiplex PCR. These isolates were obtained from: three farms where the R. equi infection has been noticed, two farms where the disease has been not reported and one farm where the disease is frequent. All clinical isolates from horse breeding farms where the disease is endemic and/or sporadic were vapA-positive. None environmental isolates were vapA-positive. In three horse breeding farms with sporadic R. equi infection, 11.54% of the isolates from adult horse feces were vapA-positive. The multiplex PCR technique has proven to be effective for the molecular and epidemiological characterization of the R. equi isolates in horse breeding farms. An important finding in this study was the isolation of vapApositive R. equi from adult horse feces, which is an evidence for other routes of dissemination of this pathogen in the farms. PMID:24031201

  7. In silico search of energy metabolism inhibitors for alternative leishmaniasis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lourival A; Vinaud, Marina C; Castro, Ana Maria; Cravo, Pedro Vítor L; Bezerra, José Clecildo B

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that affects mammals and is caused by approximately 20 distinct protozoa from the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease that exerts a large socioeconomic impact on poor and developing countries. The current treatment for leishmaniasis is complex, expensive, and poorly efficacious. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more selective, less expensive new drugs. The energy metabolism pathways of Leishmania include several interesting targets for specific inhibitors. In the present study, we sought to establish which energy metabolism enzymes in Leishmania could be targets for inhibitors that have already been approved for the treatment of other diseases. We were able to identify 94 genes and 93 Leishmania energy metabolism targets. Using each gene's designation as a search criterion in the TriTrypDB database, we located the predicted peptide sequences, which in turn were used to interrogate the DrugBank, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), and PubChem databases. We identified 44 putative targets of which 11 are predicted to be amenable to inhibition by drugs which have already been approved for use in humans for 11 of these targets. We propose that these drugs should be experimentally tested and potentially used in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  8. Revisiting leishmaniasis in the time of war: the Syrian conflict and the Lebanese outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawieh, Ali; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Jaber, Amani; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Bizri, Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in many worldwide foci including the Middle East. Several outbreaks have occurred in the Middle East over the past decades, mostly related to war-associated population migration. With the start of the Syrian war, the frequency and magnitude of these outbreaks increased alarmingly. We describe the epidemiology of Leishmania infection in Lebanon and the most recent outbreak relevant to the Syrian war. We reviewed all leishmaniasis cases reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and the first quarter of 2014. The demographics and distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon were linked to reports of new Leishmania cases. In total, 1033 new cases of leishmaniasis were reported in 2013 compared to a previous annual number in the range of 0-6 cases. The majority of cases reported in 2013 involved Syrian refugees and their relevant areas of concentration. This new outbreak of leishmaniasis in Lebanon is the first of its kind for more than a decade. The sudden increase in Leishmania cases in Lebanon in 2013 is attributed to the increasing numbers and wide distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. This serves as an example of the risks associated with military conflicts and the ability of communicable diseases to cross borders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel low-cost thermotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

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    Braulio M Valencia

    Full Text Available Thermotherapy is an accepted alternative therapy for new-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, but current heat-delivery modalities are too costly to be made widely available to endemic populations. We adapted a low-cost heat pack named the HECT-CL device that delivers safe, reliable, and renewable conduction heat. 25 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis completed treatment with the device at an initial temperature of 52°C ± 2°C for 3 minutes to each lesion, repeated daily for 7 days, and were followed up for 6 months by direct observation. The overall definitive clinical cure rate was 60%. Concurrently, 13 patients meeting minimally significant exclusion criteria received identical compassionate use treatment with a cumulative definitive cure rate of 68.4%, 75% for those who had experienced CL relapse after prior antimonial treatment. Therapy was well tolerated. Reversible second-degree burns occurred in two patients and no bacterial super-infections were observed. HECT-CL is a promising treatment and deserves further study to verify its safety and efficacy as adjuvant and mono- therapy.

  10. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sidi Kacem Province, Northwestern Morocco (2006–2014

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    Aziz El Aasri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Sidi Kacem Province, North-Western Morocco between 2006 and 2014. Methods: The Leishmania parasite (amastigotes was identified by direct microscopic identification after staining. May-Grünwald Giemsa was the method used to diagnose CL in Sidi Kacem Province between 2006 and 2014. The collected data were exploited by using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and the geographical distribution was prepared by the Geographical Information System ArcGIS Version 10.2. Results: From 2006 to 2014, 415 cases of CL were reported in Sidi Kacem area. The incidence of this skin disease that had affected all age groups was 49.1 cases per year and the sex ratio (M/F was 0.85. Children aged 15 to 19 represented the most affected class with more than 28.2% of the study population. Also, CL affected virtually the rural and urban areas but with an uneven incidence. It is more important in rural areas where they were registered 56.85% of cases against 43.15% in urban areas. Conclusions: The retrospective analysis has showed that cutaneous leishmaniasis is still major public health problem in Sidi Kacem Province. Indeed, this disease which presented an evolution according hyperendemic fashion can become endemic to the future in this province which borders the endemic area of Ouazzane. We highlight the cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence through the Sidi Kasem area during the last 8 years (2006-2014.

  11. Reactivation of cutaneous and mucocutaneous tegumentary leishmaniasis in rheumatoid arthritis patients: an emerging problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maia de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic condition that is frequent in patients living in tropical areas exposed to leishmaniasis. RA therapy involves immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate (MTX, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and prednisone. We report an unusual presentation of cutaneous (CL or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML in RA patients from an endemic area of leishmaniasis. A 51-year-old woman noted a cutaneous ulcer on her left ankle during MTX and prednisone RA therapy. Initially diagnosed as a venous stasis ulcer, the aspirate of the injury revealed the presence of Leishmania DNA. A 73-year-old woman presenting non-ulcerated, infiltrated and painful erythematous nodules inside her nostrils while receiving MTX, anti-TNF mAb, and prednisone for RA, had also the aspirate of injuries showing the presence of Leishmania DNA. Both patients healed after the therapy with liposomal amphotericin. The RA therapy has changed to low-dose prednisone, without further reactivation episodes. Both cases suggest that CL or ML can reactivate after administration of an immunosuppressant for RA treatment. Therefore, immunosuppressive treatments for RA should be carefully prescribed in patients from endemic areas or with a history of CL and ML.

  12. The unwelcome trio: HIV plus cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, C; Tchernev, G; Bevelacqua, V; Lotti, T; Nunnari, G

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) coinfection has emerged as an extremely serious and increasingly frequent health problem in the last decades. Considering the insidious and not typical clinical picture in presence of immunosuppressive conditions, the increasing number of people travelling in endemic zones, the ability to survive, within both human and vector bodies, of the parasite, clinicians and dermatologists as the first line should be aware of these kind of "pathologic alliances," to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment. In this setting, the occurrence of cutaneous lesions can, paradoxically, aid the physician in recognition and approaching the correct staging and management of the two (or three) diseases. Treatment of these unwelcome synergies is a challenge: apart from the recommended anti-retroviral protocols, different anti-leishmanial drugs have been widely used, according with the standard guidelines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with no successful treatment regimen still been established. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Mohammad; Aadil, Khoksar; Sidiqi, Majeed; Erasmus, Panna; Coleman, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    A prevalence survey in Kabul City showed that 2.7% and 21.9% of persons have active leishmaniasis lesions or scars, respectively. Incidence of disease was estimated to be 2.9% (29 cases/1,000 persons per year; 95% confidence interval 0.018 to 0.031). Disease was associated with age and gender; logistic regression analyses showed significant clustering of cases. PMID:12781016

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Visceral leishmaniasis. Pediatric case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila H, Andrés; Vanzo, Carolina; Garnero, Analía; Peruzzo, Luisina; Badalotti, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad causada por parásitos obligados intracelulares pertenecientes al género Leishmania y que reconoce tres formas clínicas principales: cutánea, visceral y mucocutánea. Es una patología del grupo de las "enfermedades desatendidas". Es la única enfermedad tropical transmitida a través de vectores que se ha mantenido endémica por décadas en el sur de Europa. La leishmaniasis visceral representa la forma más grave. Se caracteriza por fiebre, pérdida de peso, anemia y hepatoesplenomegalia. Su período de incubación oscila entre 2 semanas y 18 meses. La leishmaniasis se considera una enfermedad reemergente a nivel mundial. Algunos de los factores que favorecen esta situación son los cambios en las condiciones climáticas, migraciones y urbanizaciones deficitarias en saneamiento ambiental. Se presenta el caso de un niño europeo que estaba vacacionando en Córdoba y fue derivado a nuestro Hospital por fiebre y pancitopenia, lo que generó un abordaje multidisciplinario con resolución clínica favorable. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  16. Rapid tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with suspected disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelaert, Marleen; Verdonck, Kristien; Menten, Joris; Sunyoto, Temmy; van Griensven, Johan; Chappuis, Francois; Rijal, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in patients with fever and a large spleen relies on showing Leishmania parasites in tissue samples and on serological tests. Parasitological techniques are invasive, require sophisticated laboratories, consume time, or lack accuracy. Recently, rapid diagnostic tests that are easy to perform have become available. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for diagnosing VL in patients with suspected disease presenting at health services in endemic areas. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CIDG SR, CENTRAL, SCI-expanded, Medion, Arif, CCT, and the WHO trials register on 3 December 2013, without applying language or date limits. Selection criteria This review includes original, phase III, diagnostic accuracy studies of rapid tests in patients clinically suspected to have VL. As reference standards, we accepted: (1) direct smear or culture of spleen aspirate; (2) composite reference standard based on one or more of the following: parasitology, serology, or response to treatment; and (3) latent class analysis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed quality of included studies using the QUADAS-2 tool. Discrepancies were resolved by a third author. We carried out a meta-analysis to estimate sensitivity and specificity of rapid tests, using a bivariate normal model with a complementary log-log link function. We analysed each index test separately. As possible sources of heterogeneity, we explored: geographical area, commercial brand of index test, type of reference standard, disease prevalence, study size, and risk of bias (QUADAS-2). We also undertook a sensitivity analysis to assess the influence of imperfect reference standards. Main results Twenty-four studies containing information about five index tests (rK39 immunochromatographic test (ICT), KAtex latex agglutination test in urine, FAST agglutination test, rK26 ICT, and r

  17. Occurrence of two autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the neighborhood of Caju, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Bonatto, Danielle Cristine; Martins, Gustavo; Maier, Leonardo de Medeiros; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2014-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis is in full geographic expansion in Brazil and it is considered among the infectious and parasitic diseases of utmost importance worldwide, not only by its frequency, but mainly by therapeutic difficulties, deformities and sequelae that may result. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, the first autochthonous case of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was registered by Rabello in 1913. The authors report two cases of the disease in the region around the Cemetery São Francisco Xavier, in the Caju neighborhood, Rio de Janeiro city, and emphasize the need for actions that aim to early diagnosis and treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases.

  18. Occurrence of two autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the neighborhood of Caju, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Bonatto, Danielle Cristine; Martins, Gustavo; Maier, Leonardo de Medeiros; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2014-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis is in full geographic expansion in Brazil and it is considered among the infectious and parasitic diseases of utmost importance worldwide, not only by its frequency, but mainly by therapeutic difficulties, deformities and sequelae that may result. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, the first autochthonous case of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was registered by Rabello in 1913. The authors report two cases of the disease in the region around the Cemetery São Francisco Xavier, in the Caju neighborhood, Rio de Janeiro city, and emphasize the need for actions that aim to early diagnosis and treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases. PMID:25184938

  19. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbel, Yusuf; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Kalkan, Şaban Orçun; Töz, Seray

    2016-03-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported from 38 provinces of Turkey and dogs are accepted as main reservoir hosts. Kuşadası town, belonging to Aydın province and located in western part of Turkey, is endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum MON1 and MON98. In this study, phlebotomine survey was conducted to determine the vector sand fly species and to identify sand fly blood meal sources. In August and September 2012, 1027 sand fly specimens were caught using CDC light traps. Eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species with the dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi (61.34%) were detected. A total of 622 female sand flies (571 Phlebotomus; 51 Sergentomyia) were checked for Leishmania infection by direct dissection of the midgut. The half of the midgut content was inoculated into NNN culture for isolation of the parasite. Leishmania species-specific ITS1 real time PCR, conventional PCR assays of ITS1 and hsp70 genes and subsequent sequencing were performed from extracted DNAs. A region of cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of vertebrates based PCR was used to determine the source of blood meal of sand flies. In microscopical examinations, two female specimens (0.32%) were found naturally infected with high number and different stages of promastigotes. No growth was observed in NNN culture but Leishmania DNA was obtained from both specimens. First positive specimen was identified as P. tobbi and L. infantum DNA was detected. Second specimen was Sergentomyia dentata, but Leishmania DNA could not be identified on species level. A total of 16 blood-fed female P. tobbi specimens were used for blood meal analysis and eight, three and one specimens were positive for human, dog and mouse, respectively. This is the first detection of Leishmania promastigotes using microscopical examination in P. tobbi and S. dentata in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in western part of Turkey. Our results indicate that, (i) P. tobbi is

  20. Effect of topical honey application along with intralesional injection of glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Moradi Shahram

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Although many treatments have been suggested for this disease, there hasn't been an effective and safe treatment yet. Regarding the healing effect of honey in the chronic ulcers and its reported therapeutic effect in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we performed a study to better evaluate the efficacy of honey in cutaneous leishmaniasis and its final scar. Methods In a prospective clinical trial, 100 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected and randomized into 2 groups. Group A were treated with topical honey twice daily along with intralesional injection of glucantime once weekly until complete healing of the ulcer or for maximum of 6 weeks. Group B were treated with intralesional injection of glucantime alone until complete healing of the ulcer or for a maximum of 6 weeks, too. The patients were followed for 4 months. The collected data were analyzed statistically using statistical tests including Chi-square, Mann Whitney and Kaplan – Mayer tests. Results In this study, 45 patients that had cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with intralesional glucantime alone and 45 patients were treated with topical honey and glucantime . Ten patients left out the study. In the glucantime alone treated group, 32 patients (71.1% had complete cure whereas in the group treated with both glucantime & topical honey, 23 patie