WorldWideScience

Sample records for leishmaniasis electronic resource

  1. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  2. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the FOD? Foundation Levels of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest ... in which leishmaniasis is found range from rain forests in Central and South America (sometimes referred to ...

  3. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from the infe......Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  4. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  5. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  6. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  7. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  8. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh V; Kumar Joginder

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is considered to be zoonotic disease, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by a bite of infected female sandfly. Primary cutaneous leishmaniasis is not common disease in Nepal, however, there were cases reported from Terai region of Nepal. The patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis present with a papule or nodule at the site of inoculation, followed by formation of crusts. Differential diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis include variety...

  11. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries. The cases of leishmaniasis evaluated in the United States reflect travel and immigration patterns. For example, many of the cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in U.S. civilian travelers have been acquired in common tourist ... found in the United States? Not usually. Almost all of the cases of ...

  12. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chandra Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is considered to be zoonotic disease, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by a bite of infected female sandfly. Primary cutaneous leishmaniasis is not common disease in Nepal, however, there were cases reported from Terai region of Nepal. The patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis present with a papule or nodule at the site of inoculation, followed by formation of crusts. Differential diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis include variety of skin diseases, inflammatory like impetigo, eczema, or granulomatous like sarcoidosis, lupus vulgaris, to skin tumor like basal cell carcinoma & squamous cell carcinoma. There are various procedures and laboratory techniques used to diagnose leishmaniasis. Punch skin biopsy is widely used & popular technique to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis. Different drugs like sodium stibogluconate, sodium antimony gluconate, Amphotericin B and Miltefosine: are used for its treatment. No vaccines are available for prevention. 

  13. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out ... New approaches in acquisition, accessing, selection, preservation and choices on whether to operate digital, or combine traditional print and digital resources in the library have to be worked out and adopted.

  14. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electronic resources, electronic books, electronic learning, electronic journals, as well as electronic archive among others is intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and sectors of the society. Electronic information resources (EIRS) as reported by Meitz (2004), are "Library materials produced in electronic format.

  15. The calculating rating of electronic resources

    OpenAIRE

    MUMINOV BAHODIR.BOLTAYEICH

    2016-01-01

    The rating of electron resources is devoted to count by theories, directions in this work. The calculating model of rating of ER by entering and exiting directions on bases of used widely PageRank is produced for calculating the rating of web pages in Google searching system. The rating of ER is taken into account for calculating the ratings of entering direction and the calculating exiting direction is accomplished by equitable distribution of ER. And also the calculating rating ER among kin...

  16. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  17. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Harman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is used to describe a spectrum of diseases caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania spp. and transmitted by infected female sandflies. There are three main forms of the disease; cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. According to the World Health Organization, almost 12 million people from 98 countries worldwide are currently infected with leishmaniasis, while 350 million people are at risk. It was reported that 2 million new cases are diagnosed every year, with three-fourth are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases. The scientific and medical communities have learnt a lot about CL during the 20th and early 21st centuries. However, the management and control of the disease remains a difficult task. This article was focused on the most common form of the disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and especially its epidemiological aspects and treatment.

  18. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  19. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  20. Utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... printer, and audio-visuals are equally available. Student have unlimited accessibility in the utilization of electronic resources, students frequently utilized electronic information resources in Ramat Library. It is recommended, among others, that registered students should utilize and access electronic information resources ...

  1. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Leishmaniasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ...

  2. Impact of electronic resources use on academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that use of electronic resources had a positive impact on students' academic performance. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that more emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of electronic resources so as to give room for wider and multiple access to information resources in order to ...

  3. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  4. The Evolution of Selection Activities for Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha L.

    1997-01-01

    Selection of electronic resources--CD-ROMs, dial access databases, electronic journals, and World Wide Web products--requires a more extensive set of criteria than do print resources. Discusses two factors influencing collection development of electronic products: technology options and licensing issues, and outlines how traditional selection…

  5. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  6. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, e-resources are not always accessible, lack of supporting structures (connection, downloading, printing limits) and too many resources.

  7. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  8. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  9. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  10. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  11. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  12. Use of electronic resources by undergraduates in two selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to know the extent of use of electronic resources and identify the type of electronic resources used by undergraduates in universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The study population includes all undergraduate students in the faculty of engineering in Niger Delta ...

  13. Leishmaniasis in humans: drug or vaccine therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Masoud; Farhoudi, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    Leishmania is an obligate intracellular pathogen that invades phagocytic host cells. Approximately 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies can transmit this parasite either anthroponotically or zoonotically through their bites. Leishmaniasis affects poor people living around the Mediterranean Basin, East Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia. Affected regions are often remote and unstable, with limited resources for treating this disease. Leishmaniasis has been reported as one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases, second only to malaria in parasitic causes of death. People can carry some species of Leishmania for long periods without becoming ill, and symptoms depend on the form of the disease. There are many drugs and candidate vaccines available to treat leishmaniasis. For instance, antiparasitic drugs, such as amphotericin B (AmBisome), are a treatment of choice for leishmaniasis depending on the type of the disease. Despite the availability of different treatment approaches to treat leishmaniasis, therapeutic tools are not adequate to eradicate this infection. In the meantime, drug therapy has been limited because of adverse side effects and unsuccessful vaccine preparation. However, it can immediately make infections inactive. According to other studies, vaccination cannot eradicate leishmaniasis. There is no perfect vaccine or suitable drug to eradicate leishmaniasis completely. So far, no vaccine or drug has been provided to induce long-term protection and ensure effective immunity against leishmaniasis. Therefore, it is necessary that intensive research should be performed in drug and vaccine fields to achieve certain results. PMID:29317800

  14. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  15. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...

  16. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  17. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  18. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  19. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  20. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  1. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  2. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  3. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stebut, E; Sunderkötter, C

    2007-05-01

    Infections with Leishmania are increasing worldwide because of tourism and job-related travel; central Europe is no exception. Infections often first become apparent after return from an endemic region. Depending on the Leishmania species and the host immune status, different forms of cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) (L. brasiliensis complex) or visceral leishmaniasis (L. donovani as well as L. infantum) may develop. CL may heal spontaneously with scarring but can evolve into diffuse CL (with reduced immune response to L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis, L. mexicana or L. aethiopica) or into recurrent CL. Diagnostic criteria include travel to an endemic area as well as ulcerated plaques or nodules on an exposed site which show no tendency towards healing over 3-4 weeks. Differential diagnostic considerations include ecthyma, other infectious ulcers, and malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding Leishmania in a smear or tissue biopsy, as well as by culture. Therapy options range from topical treatment of simple CL of the Old World caused by L. major to systemic therapy which is needed for most complex cases of CL as well as MCL. Miltefosine is a less toxic option to replace the antimony compounds.

  4. USE OF VIDEO IN MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Denisenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread introduction of electronic educational resources in the educational process requires the development of a scientific basis for all aspects related to their creation and use. These modern means are designed not just to convey to learners the required course material, but also to create conditions for its most effective study. This is possible in conditions of reasonable approach to the presentation of educational material on the screen. The article is devoted to consideration of the problem of presenting educational material in electronic educational resources. Visuals are powerful didactic tool that enhances the perception and understanding of educational information. Particular attention is paid to the use of such a powerful medium like video. Investigated the role and importance of video in the learning process, their educational opportunities and benefits. Shows types of video and their use in electronic educational resources. Grounded requirements for training videos. The recommendations are given on the use of video in combination with other media in electronic educational resources. Adduced the example a real electronic multimedia educational resource and shows the possibility of using video.

  5. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  6. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  7. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  8. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  9. Leishmaniasis in humans: drug or vaccine therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Masoud Ghorbani, Ramin Farhoudi Department of Viral Vaccine Production, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Research and Production Complex, Karaj, Iran Abstract: Leishmania is an obligate intracellular pathogen that invades phagocytic host cells. Approximately 30 different species of Phlebotomine sand flies can transmit this parasite either anthroponotically or zoonotically through their bites. Leishmaniasis affects poor people living around the Mediterranean Basin, East Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia. Affected regions are often remote and unstable, with limited resources for treating this disease. Leishmaniasis has been reported as one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases, second only to malaria in parasitic causes of death. People can carry some species of Leishmania for long periods without becoming ill, and symptoms depend on the form of the disease. There are many drugs and candidate vaccines available to treat leishmaniasis. For instance, antiparasitic drugs, such as amphotericin B (AmBisome, are a treatment of choice for leishmaniasis depending on the type of the disease. Despite the availability of different treatment approaches to treat leishmaniasis, therapeutic tools are not adequate to eradicate this infection. In the meantime, drug therapy has been limited because of adverse side effects and unsuccessful vaccine preparation. However, it can immediately make infections inactive. According to other studies, vaccination cannot eradicate leishmaniasis. There is no perfect vaccine or suitable drug to eradicate leishmaniasis completely. So far, no vaccine or drug has been provided to induce long-term protection and ensure effective immunity against leishmaniasis. Therefore, it is necessary that intensive research should be performed in drug and vaccine fields to achieve certain results. Keywords: leishmania, leishmania treatment, vaccine, recombinant antigens

  10. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  11. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  12. Electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the state of electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in Southern part of Nigeria, highlighting the prospects and the challenges. The study was an empirical research which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The questionnaire was used to collect data from the ...

  13. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, E- journals, CD-ROMs, AGORA, and ... to finance and geographical location. Furthermore, in developed countries like United Kingdom, students get access to .... databases, web sources and audio-video tapes. Furthermore, studies also ...

  14. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  15. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services in A.B.U & UNIBEN MTN Net Libraries. ... Lastly, management of the MTN Net Libraries should conduct user studies annually in order to have feedback from users on how well the library is meeting their information needs. The results of the survey should ...

  16. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  17. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an empirical study that examined the association between gender and the use of electronic information resources among postgraduate students at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in December 2005 and integrated both qualitative and quantitative research ...

  18. Use of electronic information resources among the undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at finding out the use of electronic information resources among undergraduate students in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The study is based on descriptive survey design method and the population consists of 16,962 undergraduate students across different schools at the Federal University ...

  19. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  20. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  1. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  2. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  3. Lupoid Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Amin Moghadam; Vahid Mashayekhi; Ali Taheriyan; Naeme Organji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease currently threatens 350 million people in 88 countries. Lupoid leishmaniasis occurs as a result of the host response, in which despite an intensified hypersensitivity the cell mediated immunity cannot sterilize lesions. A chronic granulomatous inflammation remains active for a long time. To summarize the articles published about Lupoid leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: a systematic web base search was conducted in PubMed up to July 2015...

  4. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  5. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  6. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasani, F.; Javanbakht, J.; Samani, R.; Shirani, D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammato...

  7. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate. PMID:24474115

  8. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER) for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process), described the requirements to the participants...

  9. Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Infobuttons provide context-aware educational materials to both providers and patients and are becoming an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR) and patient health records (PHR). However, the content from different electronic resources (e-resource) as responses from infobutton manager has not been fully analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically analyzing responses from infobutton manager. A tool is implemented to retrieve and analyze responses from infobutton manager. To test the tool, we extracted and sampled common and uncommon concepts from EHR usage data in Intermountain Healthcare's enterprise data warehouse. From the output of the tool, we evaluate infobutton performance by multiple categories, including against the most and less common used concepts, grouped by different modules in patient portal, by different e-resources, and by type of access (standardized Health Level Seven (HL7) vs not). Based on the results of our evaluation, we provide suggestions for further enhancements of infobuttons to the current implementation, including suggesting accessing priorities of e-resources and encouraging the use of the HL7 standard.

  10. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  11. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  12. Leishmaniasis vaccines: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabber, Farrokh

    2010-11-01

    No vaccine exists against any form of leishmaniasis. Because recovery from infection is usually accompanied by a strong immunity and because it is possible to protect experimental animals against live challenge, hope for the development of a vaccine for humans has been high. However, leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor and the market for a vaccine is very limited. Until a few years ago, with minimal resources, only a pragmatic approach was possible for testing the first-generation vaccines (i.e. killed whole parasites). Recently, funding has become available for developing defined second-generation vaccines, including recombinant proteins and DNA constructs. With new adjuvants also being developed there is new hope, and several new vaccines are in development against leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Numerous therapeutic strategies are used to treat leishmaniasis. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is solely depends on antimonate derivatives with safety issues and questionable efficacy and there is no fully effective modality to treat CL caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania braziliensis. There is no prophylactic vaccine available against any form of leishmaniasis. Immunotherapy for CL has a long history; immunotherapy trials of first and second generation vaccines showed promising results. The current article briefly covers the prophylactic vaccines and explains different immunotherapy strategies that have been used to treat leishmaniasis. This paper does not include experimental vaccines and only lays emphasis on human trials and those vaccines which reached human trials. Immunotherapy is currently used to successfully treat several disorders; Low cost, limited side effects and no possibility to develop resistance make immunotherapy a valuable choice especially for infectious disease with chemotherapy problems. Efforts are needed to explore the immunological surrogate marker(s) of cure and protection in leishmaniasis and overcome the difficulties in standardization of crude Leishmania vaccines. One of the reasons for anti-leishmaniasis vaccine failure is lack of an appropriate adjuvant. So far, not enough attention has been paid to develop vaccines for immunotherapy of leishmaniasis.

  14. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case......-case scenario, only 47% of the total materials in RVCs are ultimately recycled. While this low material recovery is mainly due to the lower plastic recycling rate, other market realities and the complex material flows in the recycling chain also contribute to it. The study provides a robust methodological...... approach for assessing the EoL performance based on the knowledge of a product and its complex recycling chain. The lessons learned can be used to support both the design and EoL processing of products with similar features, which carry a high potential for resource recovery, especially at the initial...

  15. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  16. Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Ciro Martins; Damasco,Fabiana dos Santos; Morais,Orlando Oliveira de; Paula,Carmen Dea Ribeiro de; Sampaio,Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because...

  17. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  18. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  19. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process, described the requirements to the participants of EER expertise, grounded EER accordance to didactic and methodological requirements, described an algorithm of preparation for  the examination object to determine compliance with the requirements of didactic. It is established that the assessment is aimed to the receipt from the experts of corresponding data and acceptance on their basis of competent decisions about expedience of the use in general educational establishments.

  20. The history of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2017-02-15

    In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented. Ancient documents and paleoparasitological data indicate that leishmaniasis was already widespread in antiquity. Identification of Leishmania parasites as etiological agents and sand flies as the transmission vectors of leishmaniasis started at the beginning of the 20 th century and the discovery of new Leishmania and sand fly species continued well into the 21 st century. Lately, the Syrian civil war and refugee crises have shown that leishmaniasis epidemics can happen any time in conflict areas and neighbouring regions where the disease was previously endemic.

  1. Social and Economic Burden of Human Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Leishmaniasis continues to pose a major public health problem worldwide. With new epidemics occurring in endemic areas and the spread of the disease to previously free areas because of migration, tourism, and military activities, there is a great need for the development of an effective vaccine. Leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor, occurring mostly in remote rural villages with poor housing and little or no access to modern health-care facilities. In endemic areas, diagnosis of any form of leishmaniasis puts a huge financial strain on an already meagre financial resource at both the individual and community levels. Most often families need to sell their assets (land and livestock) or take loans from informal financial outfits with heavy interest rates to pay for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. Here, we discuss the disease with special emphasis on its socioeconomic impact on the affected individual and community. In addition, we highlight the reasons why continued research aimed at developing an effective Leishmania vaccine is necessary. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  3. Lupoid Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amin Moghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease currently threatens 350 million people in 88 countries. Lupoid leishmaniasis occurs as a result of the host response, in which despite an intensified hypersensitivity the cell mediated immunity cannot sterilize lesions. A chronic granulomatous inflammation remains active for a long time. To summarize the articles published about Lupoid leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: a systematic web base search was conducted in PubMed up to July 2015. We included articles with available abstract in English language. Manual searching was done within the reference list of articles.  Results: Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed eligibility criteria, assessed quality, and extracted data. Conclusion: Some patients have periods of relapse and remission at the site of inoculation of parasites and others suffer from chronic injury for years. In the case of effective disease treatment several studies have been conducted, so far, no satisfactory results have been achieved.

  4. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  5. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishya B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is being reported from Assam, a North Eastern state of India. Clinical feature and direct smear examination of the case confirmed the diagnosis. Dramatic resolution of the lesions with sodium antimony gluconate during 10 days of therapy was achieved.

  6. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  7. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Moore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The available treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (VL have problems relating to efficacy, adverse effects and cost, making treatment a complex issue. We review the evidence relating to the different methods of treatment in relation to - efficacy and toxicity of the drugs in different areas of the world; ability to monitor side effects, length of treatment; ability of patients to pay for and stay safe during treatment, ability of the healthcare services to give intramuscular, intravenous or oral therapy; the sex and child-bearing potential of the patient and the immune status of the patient. The high mortality of untreated/ poorly treated VL infection makes the decisions paramount, but a unified and coordinated response by each area is likely to be more effective and informative to future policies than an ad hoc response. For patients in resource-rich countries, liposomal amphotericin B appears to be the optimal treatment. In South Asia, miltefosine is being used; the combination of single dose liposomal amphotericin B and short course miltefosine looks encouraging but has the problem of potential reproductive toxicities in females. In Africa, the evidence to switch from SSG is not yet compelling. The need to monitor and plan for evolving drug failure, secondary to leishmania parasite resistance, is paramount. With a few drugs the options may be limited; however, we await key ongoing trials in both Africa and India to explore the effects of combination treatment. If safe and reliable combinations are revealed by the ongoing studies, it is far from clear as to whether this will avoid leishmania parasite resistance. The development of new drugs to add to the armamentarium is paramount. Lessons can be learnt from the management of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria in terms of planning the switch to combination treatment. As important as establishing the best choice for specific antileishmanial agent is ensuring treatment centers

  8. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  9. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  10. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  11. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  12. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  13. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions.

  14. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that the study group has regular access to the internet , and preferred using free online resources from Google and Wikipedia to institutionally subscribed academic online resources in databases such as HINARI, EBSCO Host, Questia , JSTOR and High Beam.This shows that technology alone cannot help ...

  15. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  16. New world cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Trufant, Joshua W; Lewin, Jesse M; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2015-01-01

    A 24-year-old Bangladeshi man presented with a 12-week history of a pruritic papule on his left elbow that had enlarged and ulcerated. He was without any constitutional or systemic symptoms. He reported a history of extensive travel in the two years prior to presentation that included Bangladesh, South and Central America, and Mexico. Histopathologic features were consistent with leishmaniasis. Speciation by the Centers for Disease Control showed L. brasiliensis.

  17. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  18. [Leishmaniasis in Algiers: epidemiologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrat, Z; Belkaid, M

    2003-08-01

    The authors review the situation on human and canine leishmaniasis observed in Algiers during the period 1990-1997. 1800 sera have been tested by IFAT. The frequency of canine leishmaniasis rises to 37%. 25% of the positive dogs are asymptomatic. The canine leishmaniasis annual fluctuations seem to vary from one year to another, with an increase of number of cases comparing with the last period. Human leishmaniasis is also increasing in Algiers, where 22 cases of HVL and 40 cases CL have been notified. Nine strains of Leishmania (5 from dogs and 4 from human) were isolated and identified by isoenzymes eletrophoresis technique. All stocks were belonging to Leishmania infantum complex. To complete the study, the seasonal dynamic of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out in the same area where 2959 specimens have been captured. The results showed the predominance of P. perniciosus and P. longicuspis, the main vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria.

  19. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  20. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  1. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    reported using free Internet resources including the search engines, while only a small proportion uses scholarly databases. For example, 22% of researchers reported using the. African Journals Online (AJOL) while 7% use Gale databases (see Table 2 for details). Additionally, the frequency of use also varied significantly ...

  2. Challenges associated with cataloguing of electronic resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to identify challenges associated with the cataloguing of e resources in some selected university libraries in south –south Nigeria. The descriptive survey design involving the use of questionnaire as the research instrument was adopted. The population comprised of cataloguers in five selected ...

  3. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  4. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

  5. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  6. Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

  7. MODELING OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING RESOURCES: THE INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Results on modeling of quality management system of electronic information resources on the basis of the analysis of its elements functioning with use of the integrated and differentiated approaches are presented. Application of such model is illustrated on an example of calculation and optimization of parameters of a quality management system at the organization of the co-ordinated work of services of monitoring, an estimation of quality and support of electronic learning resources.

  8. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  9. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  10. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  11. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  12. Miltefosine in cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.B.; Mumtaz, N.; Bari, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of oral Miltefosine in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and its comparison with the most effective standard treatment, pentavalent antimony compound. Thirty patients, 12 years of age or older clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected. Fifteen patients received orally administered Miltefosine 2.5mg/kg/day for 28 days and remaining 15 received injectable pentavalent antimony 20mg/kg/day for 28 days. Pre-treatment complete physical examination was done along with necessary laboratory investigations in all cases. These were repeated again after 2 weeks and at the end of treatment to note any deviation from the normal limits. Groups were almost matched in terms of age, weight, parasitological score. The efficacy was evaluated by ulcer size, before therapy, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Patients were followed-up at 3 and 6 months. Efficacy of two groups was statistically compared by calculating p-value by z-test. All patients completed the study without any serious complication. Lesions improved significantly and only scarring and post-inflammatory pigmentation was left. At 3 months, cure rate was 93% in group A and it was 73.33% in group B while at the end of 6 months, it was 86% and 66.6% respectively. This difference between efficacies of two groups was not found to be statistically significant (p-value >0.5). Miltefosine appears to be a safe and effective alternative to currently used therapies. The striking advantage of Miltefosine is its oral administration and it may also be helpful in regions where parasites are resistant to current agents. (author)

  13. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  14. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen

    2014-10-01

    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  15. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  16. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  17. Conjunctival leishmaniasis in a case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghinejad, M Reza; Monabati, Ahmad; Kadivar, Mohammad Rahim; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2017-01-01

    A 15-year-old female patient presented with numerous, small, papulonodular skin lesions, and hepatosplenomegaly 9 months after a treated biopsy proved cutaneous leishmaniasis. In ocular examination there were two yellowish, raised gelatinous conjunctival lesions in the left eye. The exisional conjunctival lesion biopsy revealed many Leishman bodies inside tissue histiocytes. The patient had no systemic immunologic problems (normal serum immunoglobulins, nitroblue-tetrazolium test, complement CH50 test and flow cytometry of leukocytes). The indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for Leishmania tropica (titre of 1:1024) and the leishmanin skin test were positive. DNA of L. tropica was detected by a specific polymerase chain reaction on whole blood, bone marrow and skin biopsy specimens. The skin and conjunctival lesions disappeared with miltefosine and no intraocular tissue penetration of organism happened. Conjunctival leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of raised conjunctival lesions in a disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis patient and needs proper systemic therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air aud...

  19. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  20. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready PD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul D ReadyDisease Control Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKAbstract: Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control, surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis: an update of laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Tlamcani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis, is an infection due to obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There exist two varieties of visceral leishmaniasis, that vary in their transmission aspects: zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis and anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis. Their clinical features are comparable with sevral differences. Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis consists of microscopic observation of parasite, culture from appropriate samples, detection of antigen, serological tests, and identification of parasite DNA. In this review, we will discuss the different techniques of diagnosis and the interet of the recent methods such as rapid diagnostic test and direct agglutination test.

  2. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  3. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  4. Awareness and use of electronic resources at a university campus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looks into the use of electronic resources by the faculty members of College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Sixty-two copies of a questionnaire were sent to the entire faculty and 31 were returned which gave a response rate of 50%. The responses showed very ...

  5. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  6. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  7. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dutch military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is een tropische ziekte veroorzaakt door een parasiet die wordt overgebracht door de zandvlieg. Pieter-Paul van Thiel beschrijft de besmetting van militairen tijdens drie missies in Afghanistan, en jungletrainingen in Suriname en Belize. Bij een missie in Noord-Afghanistan in 2005

  9. Sandflies and leishmaniasis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naucke, T J; Menn, B; Massberg, D; Lorentz, S

    2008-12-01

    This study has provided evidence for the natural occurrence of sandflies in Germany. Two species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus were detected. Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus, a proven vector of leishmaniasis, was found in association with an autochthonous case of canine leishmaniasis near Kaiserslautern. Two hundred thirty-seven specimens of Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii were caught in 17 different locations in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate. The northernmost finding in Germany (and Europe) was near Cochem (Moselle). P. mascittii has not yet been confirmed as a vector of leishmaniasis, but its competence is strongly suspected. In addition to the detection of the vector, since 1991, there have been 11 cases of leishmaniasis in Germany in which an autochthonous origin was confirmed or which were highly likely to have been of indigenous origin. Data from the German meteorological service indicate that Germany currently has a Mediterranean climate, with an annual average temperature of 10 degrees C being reached or exceeded in several regions. This type of climate is also appropriate for the living conditions of sandflies. Therefore, it is assumed that sandflies have a greater geographical distribution in Germany than the first studies suggested, being mainly restricted to the southern region of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The risk of an autochthonous canine infection occurring in Germany is very low. The rapidly increasing number of imported cases of leishmaniasis in dogs means that special attention must be focused on veterinary advice to dog owners about prophylaxis. The results indicate that the use of repellents and preventive behavioural measures is vital.

  10. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  11. Directions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science of students of a teacher training college

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Анатольева Баженова

    2009-01-01

    Article is devoted questions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science in a teacher training college, principles of pedagogical expediency of use of electronic resources at training are specified computer science and positive aspects of such use for different forms of work of the student and the teacher are allocated.

  12. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  13. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  14. Diagnóstico molecular para Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysabel Montoya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial diagnóstico de epitopes inmunodominantes seleccionados fue ensayado satisfactoriamente a fin de obtener una prueba serodiagnóstica alternativa para la Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana. Dos proteínas recombinantes prometedoras de L. (v. peruviana referidas como T-26-U2/T26-U4 fueron reconocidas por sueros individuales de pacientes con Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana usando Western Blot. La sensibilidad de la prueba fue de 86% con sueros permanentes con Leishmaniasis peruana.

  15. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  16. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  17. Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Mohammad; Aadil, Khoksar; Sidiqi, Majeed; Erasmus, Panna; Coleman, Paul G.

    2003-01-01

    A prevalence survey in Kabul City showed that 2.7% and 21.9% of persons have active leishmaniasis lesions or scars, respectively. Incidence of disease was estimated to be 2.9% (29 cases/1,000 persons per year; 95% confidence interval 0.018 to 0.031). Disease was associated with age and gender; logistic regression analyses showed significant clustering of cases. PMID:12781016

  18. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. [Visceral leishmaniasis. Pediatric case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila H, Andrés; Vanzo, Carolina; Garnero, Analía; Peruzzo, Luisina; Badalotti, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad causada por parásitos obligados intracelulares pertenecientes al género Leishmania y que reconoce tres formas clínicas principales: cutánea, visceral y mucocutánea. Es una patología del grupo de las "enfermedades desatendidas". Es la única enfermedad tropical transmitida a través de vectores que se ha mantenido endémica por décadas en el sur de Europa. La leishmaniasis visceral representa la forma más grave. Se caracteriza por fiebre, pérdida de peso, anemia y hepatoesplenomegalia. Su período de incubación oscila entre 2 semanas y 18 meses. La leishmaniasis se considera una enfermedad reemergente a nivel mundial. Algunos de los factores que favorecen esta situación son los cambios en las condiciones climáticas, migraciones y urbanizaciones deficitarias en saneamiento ambiental. Se presenta el caso de un niño europeo que estaba vacacionando en Córdoba y fue derivado a nuestro Hospital por fiebre y pancitopenia, lo que generó un abordaje multidisciplinario con resolución clínica favorable. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  20. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  1. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  2. Profile Of Leishmaniasis In Central Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criton S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by several species of the genus leishmania. It is not prevalent in Kerala even though there are a few case reports. Recently, a focus of indigenous leishmaniasis is located in the north- east part of Kerala. We are also reporting probably indigenous cases along with those contracted from Middle- east countries.

  3. Leishmaniasis — Surprise from the East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 4-year-old child is presented in the article. The child came to the Crimea from area where leishmaniasis is endemic — Republic of Uzbekistan. Clinical case is interesting for consideration in terms of differential diagnosis of specific rash.

  4. Comparing Electronic Human Resource Management Systems Efficiency In Production Organization amp Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management EHRM. In fact as the competitive complexity increases the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topics literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

  5. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  6. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  7. Obtaining membranes for alternative treatment hydrogels of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric Hydrogels formed by crosslinked polymeric chains were obtained by ionizing radiation process according to Rosiak technique. In the last 40 years the use of hydrogels has been investigated for various applications as curatives. In this work hydrogel membranes were synthesized with poly (N-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan and laponita clay for use as a vehicle for controlled glucantime release on the surface of skin tissues injured by leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomies sandfly. The traditional treatment of patients infected by these parasites is done with pentavalent antimony in injectable form. However, these antimonates are highly toxic and cause side effects in these patients. In addition, patients with heart and kidney disease can not use this treatment. In treatment with drug delivery hydrogel membrane applied on the surface of leishmaniasis injured tissues the drug is released directly to the wound in a controlled manner, reducing the side effects. Membranes prepared in this study were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), swelling, gel fraction, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations of cytotoxicity and drug release were made 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' with functional test according to ethical protocol of the Division of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases at the Hospital of Clinics, Sao Paulo University-School of Medicine, University. The 'in vivo' test of these membranes proved to be effective in controlled release of drugs directly into leishmaniasis damaged tissues. Results of 'in vivo' tests using PVP/PVAl / clay 1,5% and glucantime membrane showed remarkable contribution to wound reduction and cure in clinical therapy. (author)

  8. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  9. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  10. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  11. Domestic and peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: changing epidemiological patterns present new control opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictions that deforestation would reduce American cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence have proved incorrect. Presentations at a recent international workshop, instead, demonstrated frequent domestication of transmission throughout Latin America. While posing new threats, this process also increases the effectiveness of vector control in and around houses. New approaches for sand fly control and effective targeting of resources are reviewed.

  12. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Use of Electronic Resources by M.Sc. Chemistry Students at Arts Science and Commerce College Chopda Dist-Jalgaon

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Paithankar Rajeev; R., Mr.Kamble V.R.

    2017-01-01

    The libraries and information services has been changed due to the development of information and communication technology. Electronics resources role is very important as information repositories are use of information for various purposes like academic, research, teaching and learning process. E-resources gives solutions of the traditional libraries as like all data storage in digital format, users can access library without boundaries through internet so e-resources popularity is very cont...

  14. Making the Right Connections: Perceptions of Human Resource/Personnel Directors Concerning Electronic Job-Search Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joan C.; North, Alexa B.; Arjomand, H. Lari

    1997-01-01

    Examines methods used to search for entry-level managerial positions and assesses how human resource and personnel directors in Georgia perceive these methods. Findings indicate that few of the directors use electronic technology to fill such positions, but they view positively those applicants who use electronic job searching methods. (RJM)

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  16. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  17. Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElHassan, A M; Gaafar, A; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    In this study biopsies from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major were examined by immunohistochemistry, and by light and electron microscopy to identify the types of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and their location. APC...

  18. Vaccine candidates for leishmaniasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagill, Rajeev; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical manifestation of the disease varies from self-limiting cutaneous lesions to progressive visceral disease. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The key control measures mainly rely on early case detection and chemotherapy which has been hampered by the toxicity of drugs, side-effects and by the emergence of drug resistance in parasites. Control of reservoir host and vector is difficult due to operational difficulties and frequent relapses in the host. Therefore, the development of effective and affordable vaccine against leishmaniasis is highly desirable. Although considerable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding immune mechanisms underlying potential candidate antigens, including killed, live attenuated parasites, crude parasites, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins or DNA encoding leishmanial proteins, as well as immunomodulators from sand fly saliva, very few candidate vaccines have progressed beyond the experimental stage. As such there is no vaccine against any form of human leishmaniasis. In recent years, however, much interest has been stimulated towards vaccination against leishmaniasis focused mainly on cutaneous leishmaniasis with fewer attempts against visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral azithromycin versus its combination with miltefosine for the treatment of experimental Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Eglal I; Eissa, Maha M; Mossallam, Shereen F

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected infectious diseases included in the World Health Organization's list of the top guns of antimicrobial resistance. Miltefosine is the first and the only available oral effective therapy for leishmaniasis. For fear of its potential resistance, identification of alternative, effective and safe drugs is urgently needed. Therefore, in view of azithromycin promising activity against a number of Leishmania species, this work was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of oral azithromycin alone versus its combination with miltefosine against experimental Old World Cutaneous leishmaniasis thus, can provide another alternative oral therapy or for the first time an oral combination therapy for leishmaniasis. The experiment were carried out on Swiss strain albino mice which were treated either with miltefosine for 20 days, Azithromycin for 20 days or both drugs in combination therapy for shorter duration of 10 days. Efficacy of azithromycin mono and combination therapy with miltefosine was evaluated clinically, parasitologically and by examination of the cutaneous lesions by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The current work demonstrated superior activity of oral azithromycin over oral miltefosine in the treatment of experimentally infected mice with Leishmania major (MHOM/IL/81/FEBNI). Unfortunately, oral combination therapy of azithromycin and miltefosine for short duration though, induced dramatic clinical improvement yet, relapse rapidly developed after cessation of therapy. Oral azithromycin could be a promising oral antileishmanial agent. Further research is recommended to investigate its leishmanicidal activity against other Leishmania species thus; another alternative oral therapy for leishmaniasis can be rapidly available.

  20. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rudra Pratap; Picado, Albert; Alam, Shahnawaz; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Shri Prakash; Ostyn, Bart; Chappuis, François; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a late cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in 16 VL-endemic communities in Bihar, India. The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  2. Interstitial pneumonitis in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. S. Duarte

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one naturally infected dogs with visceral leishmaniasis from an urban area of Corumbá (Mato Grosso do Sul-BRAZIL were studied and three types of lung involvement due to visceral leishmaniasis were characterized; a cellular, a cellular-fibrotic and a fibrotic type. These types seem to represent a sequential evolutive proce'as. Visceral leishmaniasis frequently causes an interstitial pneu monitis in naturally infected dogs (80.5% as well as in man and experimentally infected hamsters.

  3. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  4. Drug Resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Maltezou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide. This illness was included by the World Health Organization in the list of neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination by 2015. The widespread emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials in India where half cases occur globally and the unavailability of a vaccine in clinical use constitute major obstacles in achieving this goal. The last decade new antileishmanials became available, including the oral agent miltefosine. However, in poor endemic countries their wide use was curtailed because of the high costs, and also due to concerns of toxicity and emergence of resistance. Various mechanisms of antileishmanial resistance were identified recently in field isolates. Their elucidation will boost the design of new drugs and the molecular surveillance of resistance. Combination regimens should be evaluated in large trials. Overall, the development of antileishmanials has been generally slow; new drugs are needed. In order to control visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, treatment advances should become affordable in the poorest countries, where they are needed most.

  5. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND USAGE OF THE ELECTRONIC VIDEO RESOURCES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav M. Hlynsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical foundation, the creation and implementation of the electronic educational video resources (EEVR in the example of the development and the usage of the collection of video tutorials in event-driven programming theme, which is studied in the framework of the subject "Informatics" by students of many specialties. It offers some development of the existing conceptual and categorical apparatus concerning EEVR development. It is alleged that the video tutorials allow you to automate the process of learning, redistribute instructional time for the benefit of students' independent work, to provide classroom release time for the teaching of the theoretical issues of the course that is aimed at improving the fundamental nature of training. Practical recommendations for the development of the effective EEVR, which may be useful for the authors of e-learning courses for students of different forms of training are proposed.

  7. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  8. Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-04-01

    A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

  9. [Case report: disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheno-Valencia, Alexandra; Cabezas-Arteaga, Julia; Sacoto-Aizaga, Ketty; Arenas-Guzmáno, Roberto

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified leishmaniasis as an uncontrolled and emerging disease. In Ecuador, the only anecdotal cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded in 1994 and have not been formally published. This form can be differentiated from classical localized cutaneous leishmaniasis by the number of injuries, the clinical type of the main elementary lesions (papular and acneform), and a weak response to standard treatments. The case we report is a 34-year-old woman who presented with disseminated nodular lesions and ulcers of various sizes with erythematous edges and scars. We report the case and review diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and the differences that can be found with the other cutaneous variants. The diagnosis requires to be considered by primary care physicians in endemic areas and specialists, taking into account that this presentation can also occur in immunocompetent hosts.

  10. T-cell response in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Kemp, K; Ismail, A

    1999-01-01

    from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma production following stimulation with Leishmania antigens whereas cells from patients recovered from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) showed a mixed pattern of IFN-gamma and IL-4 responses. The cells producing these cytokines were predominantly CD4......In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered......+. Furthermore, IL-10 plays an important role in the development of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) from VL. The balance between the parasitic-specific T-cell response plays an important regulatory role in determining the outcome of Leishmania infections in humans....

  11. T-cell response in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Kemp, K; Ismail, A

    1999-01-01

    In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered...... from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma production following stimulation with Leishmania antigens whereas cells from patients recovered from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) showed a mixed pattern of IFN-gamma and IL-4 responses. The cells producing these cytokines were predominantly CD4......+. Furthermore, IL-10 plays an important role in the development of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) from VL. The balance between the parasitic-specific T-cell response plays an important regulatory role in determining the outcome of Leishmania infections in humans....

  12. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  13. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  14. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  15. Leishmaniasis in travelers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; Vitale, Giustina; Cascio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection whose clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Over the last decades, an increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries, have been pointed-out from a review of the international literature. Among the possible causes are increasing international tourism, influx of immigrants from endemic regions and military operations. The main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas, is represented from South America, whereas popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas to acquire visceral variant. Leishmaniasis should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years before. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas, should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leishmaniasis, an emerging infection in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2010-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection with a wide clinical spectrum, which ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. A review of the recent literature indicates a sharp increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries over the last decade, in association with increasing international tourism, military operations, and the influx of immigrants from endemic countries. South America is the main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas are at particular risk. Popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas of acquisition of visceral leishmaniasis for European travelers. Leishmaniasis should be considered in patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years ago. Appropriate counseling should be provided to adventure travelers, military personnel, researchers, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sandflies in endemic areas. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvar, Jorge; Croft, Simon L; Kaye, Paul; Khamesipour, Ali; Sundar, Shyam; Reed, Steven G

    2013-04-18

    Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study. Two reasons for this are that leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by several different species of parasite that are highly related, thus raising the possibility of developing a single vaccine to protect against multiple diseases. Another reason is the demonstration that a leishmaniasis vaccine may be used therapeutically as well as prophylactically. Although there is no registered human leishmaniasis vaccine today, immunization approaches using live or killed organisms, as well as defined vaccine candidates, have demonstrated at least some degree of efficacy in humans to prevent and to treat some forms of leishmaniasis, and there is a vigorous pipeline of candidates in development. Current approaches include using individual or combined antigens of the parasite or of salivary gland extract of the parasites' insect vector, administered with or without formulation in adjuvant. Animal data obtained with several vaccine candidates are promising and some have been or will be entered into clinical testing in the near future. There is sufficient scientific and epidemiological justification to continue to invest in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE FACTOR-CRITERIA MODEL OF ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL GAME RESOURCES IN MATHEMATICS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M. Melnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proves the need for a comprehensive assessment of electronic educational game resources in mathematics for the primary school students; gives the definition of “the factor-criteria model of the electronic educational game resources (EEGR”. It also describes the created model, which consists of requirements for the content, methodological and program parts of the electronic resources for primary school; identifies the factors and the criteria to each of them. It was proposed to assess the ratios within the group of factors and each group of criteria according to the arithmetic progression. The presented model can be a convenient tool both for primary school teachers and EEGR developers. It can also be a basis for a unified state comprehensive system of assessment of the EEGR.

  19. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  20. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  1. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-06

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Keizer, Ron J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Beijnen, Jos H.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in leishmaniasis patients are, to a great extent, unknown. We examined and characterized the pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in a group of patients with Old World (Leishmania major) cutaneous leishmaniasis. Miltefosine plasma concentrations were determined in

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, W. R.; Wonders, J.; Jensema, A. J.; Chocholova, E.; Kager, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the

  4. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site . Credit: CDC Phlebotomus papatasi sand fly. Parasite & Vector NIAID scientists are researching different species of disease-causing Leishmania parasites and the varieties of sand flies that ...

  5. Miltefosine for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: An experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected diseases included in the World Health Organization's list of the top guns of antimicrobial resistance. Miltefosine (MIL) was the first successful oral agent used against visceral leishmaniasis in India. As regards cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), multiple experimental and ...

  6. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in HIV positive patient - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV dual-infection is seldom reported. Leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection may intensify the immune defect and is the chief reason for atypical presentation and widespread progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis and its defiance to conventional therapy. Here we report a ...

  7. Coinfection of cutaneous leishmaniasis and hiv infection | Lartey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was con-firmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported ...

  8. Case report: An unusual case of mucosal leishmaniasis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan is endemic for visceral, cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis. The latter is the least common of the three forms of leishmaniasis. It is caused by L. donovani, the same parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the country. Most of the cases were reported from VL endemic areas, the majority in adults.

  9. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  10. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  11. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  13. Liposomal adjuvant development for leishmaniasis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarizadeh, Anis; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Badiee, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to fatality. Since long-lasting protection is induced upon recovery from cutaneous leishmaniasis, development of an effective vaccine is promising. However, there is no vaccine for use in humans yet. It seems limited efficacy in leishmaniasis vaccines is due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant or delivery system. Hence, the use of particulate adjuvants such as liposomes for effective delivery to the antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a valuable strategy to enhance leishmaniasis vaccine efficacy. The extraordinary versatility of liposomes because of their unique amphiphilic and biphasic nature allows for using antigens or immunostimulators within the core, on the surface or within the bilayer, and modulates both the magnitude and the T-helper bias of the immune response. In this review article, we attempt to summarize the role of liposomal adjuvants in the development of Leishmania vaccines and describe the main physicochemical properties of liposomes like phospholipid composition, surface charge, and particle size during formulation design. We also suggest potentially useful formulation strategies in order for future experiments to have a chance to succeed as liposomal vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  14. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  16. Recent developments in leishmaniasis vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sudipta; Ali, Nahid

    2008-07-01

    The observation that recovery from infection with Leishmania confers immunity to reinfection suggests that control of leishmaniasis by vaccination may be possible. New generation vaccines, particularly those based on recombinant proteins and DNA, are found to be less immunogenic. There is an urgent need for the development of new and improved vaccine adjuvants. Based on their principal mechanisms of action, adjuvants can be broadly separated into two classes: immunostimulatory adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems. Vaccine delivery systems can carry both antigen and adjuvant for effective delivery to the antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In this article, we review the adjuvants, the delivery systems and their combinations used in the search of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis. Based on current knowledge, cationic liposomes appear to have better prospects as effective delivery systems for developing a vaccine for leishmaniasis.

  17. [Visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompromised patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Portero, J L; Gazapo, T; Yebra, M; Portero, F; Martín, T

    1998-06-01

    Most patients who developed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in our country are ímmunocompromised (IC) host, frequently HIV-infected patients. One objective was to know if there were differences about the clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests or prognosis in IC patients who were infected or not with HIV (HIV+ and HIV-, respectively). Also we wonder if some features were associated with death during the initial episodes of VL. We studied 16 IC patients with VL, 9 were VIH+ and 7 were VIH-. Most frequently observed findings were fever (94%), splenomegaly (81%), hepatomegaly (69%), and constitutional syndrome (50%). HIV+ patients had symptoms during a lapse of time (70 +/- 78 days) larger than the VIH- cases had (17 +/- 12 days, p VIH patients). Seven patients (44%, 4 VIH- and 3 VIH+) died during the initial episode of VL. Nine patients (66%) who survived to it were followed-up during 68 +/- 49 months. Seven patients (4 VIH+ and 3 VIH-) showed several relapses (2.5 +/- 1.6 relapses/patient) through the follow-up. The patients who died during the initial episode had more frequently (p CD4+ lymphocyte counts in HIV+ patients were lower in patients who died during the initial episode of VL (19 +/- 15/mm) than in survivors (108 +/- 67/mm3, p = 0.07).

  18. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  19. Leishmaniasis in Yemen: a clinicoepidemiological study of leishmaniasis in central Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in Yemen. This study was designed to identify clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in Yemen. The study was conducted at the Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center in central Yemen. Data sourced from the medical records of 152 patients with confirmed active leishmaniasis, managed during April-August 2013, were analyzed. A total of 94.1% of patients were rural residents. Al Bayda was the most endemic governorate (59.9%). Children represented the group at highest risk (57.2%), followed by adult females (32.9%); together these groups accounted for 90.1% of all patients. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was the most prevalent form (49.3%), followed by cutaneous leishmaniasis (47.4%), and visceral leishmaniasis (3.3%). The wet ulcer was the most common type of lesion (49.7%) and the single lesion (69.4%) represented the most common presentation. All patients were ignorant of the nature of the disease, and 55.9% had a history of using "popular" treatments. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniases have significant endemicity in Yemen, especially in central areas. Al Bayda is the governorate with the highest endemicity, and rural children and women represent the populations at highest risk. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis seems to be the most prevalent form and a single wet ulcer is the most common presentation. Infected refugees may represent new foci for imported Leishmania species. Ecology, geography, climate change, cultural gender- and age-specific duties, urban night activities, and use of popular treatments are among proven risk factors. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran from 1983 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Mohebali, Mehdi; Pakzad, Reza

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous Leshmaniasis (CL), a parasitic skin infection caused by Leishmania species, is endemic in some regions of Iran. In this study, the effect of location on the incidence and distribution of CL in Iran was studied. We collected datas including the number of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases and populations at-risk of disease in Iran's different provinces reported by the Iranian ministry of health and the National Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Spatial modeling was performed using Arc GIS software. Descriptive maps, hotspot analysis, and high/low clustering analysis were used to demonstrate distribution of the cutaneous leishmaniasis, to determine regions at risk of disease's incidence, and to reach the most appropriate method for clustering of disease. The total number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported through the study period was 589,913. The annual incidence of CL was estimated to be 30.9 per 100,000 in Iranian population. We also demonstrated that Cutaneous leishmaniasis most prominently occurs in regions with dry and desert climates as well as in central parts of Iran. It affected the southwest of Iran between 1983 and 1997, and subsequently developed towards the center and the eastern between 1998 and 2013. Disease hotspots were focused in the provinces of Yazd, Khozestan and Kohgiloyeh-Boyer-Ahmad (p<0.05). No pattern of spatial clustering was observed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem which could be a serious threat for inhabitants who live in high-risk provinces of Iran; much more resources need to be allocated in these areas, to warrant the prevention as well as effectively management of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reprint of "Spatial modeling of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran from 1983 to 2013".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Mohebali, Mehdi; Pakzad, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous Leshmaniasis (CL), a parasitic skin infection caused by Leishmania species, is endemic in some regions of Iran. In this study, the effect of location on the incidence and distribution of CL in Iran was studied. We collected datas including the number of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases and populations at-risk of disease in Iran's different provinces reported by the Iranian ministry of health and the National Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Spatial modeling was performed using Arc GIS software. Descriptive maps, hotspot analysis, and high/low clustering analysis were used to demonstrate distribution of the cutaneous leishmaniasis, to determine regions at risk of disease's incidence, and to reach the most appropriate method for clustering of disease. The total number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported through the study period was 589,913. The annual incidence of CL was estimated to be 30.9 per 100,000 in Iranian population. We also demonstrated that Cutaneous leishmaniasis most prominently occurs in regions with dry and desert climates as well as in central parts of Iran. It affected the southwest of Iran between 1983 and 1997, and subsequently developed towards the center and the eastern between 1998 and 2013. Disease hotspots were focused in the provinces of Yazd, Khozestan and Kohgiloyeh-Boyer-Ahmad (p<0.05). No pattern of spatial clustering was observed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem which could be a serious threat for inhabitants who live in high-risk provinces of Iran; much more resources need to be allocated in these areas, to warrant the prevention as well as effectively management of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre : a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Anisur

    2011-01-01

    Joint Master Degree in Digital Library Learning (DILL) The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis metho...

  3. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  4. Exploring Adaptation Scenarios : Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Adaptation Scenarios : Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Climate Change in Algeria. In Algeria, climate change is associated with modifications in land use and their interaction with water, with the result that the last 20 years have seen an increase in ... A new publication explores the ethics of these relationships.

  5. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dawadimi region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data from the patients included in this retrospective study were collected from the Leishmaniasis Control Center of Ad-Dawadimi District of Saudi Arabia. A total of 370 patients with CL were recorded from ...

  6. Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Dalmo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated orally with a mefloquine dose of 4.2mg/kg/day for six days in the Teaching Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Three weeks later a new series was repeated. No patient was cured.

  7. Miltefosine: een nieuw geneesmiddel voor leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, T. P. C.; Eggelte, T. A.; Beijnen, J. H.; de Vries, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for a safe and effective oral treatment for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Miltefosine is the first oral drug that is efficacious against different forms ofleishmaniasis, however it is not equally effective against all Leishmania species. Miltefosine is an alkylphosphocholine,

  8. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... It lives in carpets of dead leaves, stumps, and rotten fruit that has fallen to the ground. ... "A few more days without treatment and we would have lost her," sighs her mother, Daniela. ... "Health care professionals need to be better trained so that they think about leishmaniasis when they have a patient. Without ...

  9. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the. Al-Hassa Oasis. The vector of the disease in. Saudi Arabia is the sand fly and the alternative natural hosts are desert rodents. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Al-Hassa Oasis, classically causes skin lesions without dissemination. The.

  10. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  11. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  12. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  13. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  14. Lacrimal excretory system sequelae in patients treated for leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyama,Erika; Schellini,Silvana Artioli; Stolf,Hamilton Ometo; Nakajima,Vitor

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis infection may involve destruction of nasal tissues resulting in lacrimal drainage system alteration. PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of lacrimal excretory system sequelae in patients treated for leishmaniasis. METHODS: Forty-five leishmaniasis-treated patients (90 nasolacrimal ducts) were submitted to lacrimal excretory system evaluation. All were evaluated by Jones I test and when it was abnormal, dacryocystography and nasal endoscopy were performed. This situation occurred ...

  15. in experimental treatment of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo efficacy of oral and intraperitoneal administration of extracts of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae) in experimental treatment of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major .

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a patient with MALT lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Nørgaard, Peter; Himmelstrup, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 66-year-old female with a history of MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient presented with major hemorrhage per rectum and perforation of the small intestine. Due to unexplained decreasing platelets, lymphoma bone marrow involvement...... was suspected and bone marrow examination was performed. Surprisingly, Leishman-Donovan bodies were detected. The low platelet count, caused by the combination of MALT lymphoma and visceral leishmaniasis, appears to have aggravated the symptoms of the intestinal lymphoma. Leishmaniasis should be suspected even...... among asymptomatic patients with immune compromising illnesses and a travel history to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic....

  17. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  18. Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

  19. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  20. Primary laryngeal leishmaniasis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal leishmaniasis is extremely rare. We report a case of primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in a 70-year-old male who was admitted with complaints of gradual progressive hoarseness of the voice, dyspnea, cough for the past 3 months and noisy breathing for the past 5 days. An X-ray of the soft tissue of the neck showed a prevertebral soft tissue mass causing narrowing of the airway at the C6-C7 vertebral level. A computerized tomography (CT scan showed a soft tissue mass in the subglottic region causing significant narrowing of the airway. A direct laryngoscopy showed a pinkish-white, friable mass involving the subglottic region and the anterior half of the vocal cords. With the clinical suspicion of malignancy, an endoscopic biopsy was done. A histopathological examination showed diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in subepithelium with numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of histiocytes.

  1. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Talhari, Carolina; García Bustos, María F; Rosales, Tamara; Villamil-Gomez, Wilmer E; Marquez, Marilianna; Pérez Alvarez, Alexandra M; Tálamo Sánchez, Alejandra I; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2017-12-01

    Infant and young child skin diseases are among the most common features of morbidity throughout the tropics. Because the skin is directly exposed to the environment, it is considerably affected by climatic and local conditions such as vectors and microorganisms, as in the case of leishmaniasis. In America the observed magnitude of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children has led to the study of increased risk of exposure of this group due to the possibility of peri- and intradomiciliary transmission. The present review pretends to make a concrete approach all through the broad and main figures of this parasitic disease, including the clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, in order to be used as a practical source of reference for pediatricians leading with tropical cutaneous pathology in the region. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  3. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  4. Survey of the use of electronic information resources by students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For libraries to continue to lead in this industry generally and academic libraries in particular, deliberate effort must be made to bring the IT education to every potential user of the libraries. This however must be done based on available data. This is what this study sought to provide- a survey of the use of electronic ...

  5. Bringing Up Gopher: Access to Local & Remote Electronic Resources for University Library Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melvin Marlo; And Others

    Some of the administrative and organizational issues in creating a gopher, specifically a library gopher for university libraries, are discussed. In 1993 the Electronic Collections Task Force of the New Mexico State University library administration began to develop a library-based gopher system that would enable users to have unlimited access to…

  6. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  7. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ∼105 patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk PMID:23220717

  8. Urbanization of human visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kholoud Kahime; Samia Boussaa; Haddou Nhammi; Ali Boumezzough

    2017-01-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis one of the seven most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In Morocco, HVL is widespread in all regions; but it is more common in the northern part with sporadic cases observed in the South. During the period between 2004 and 2013, the most affected Moroccan provinces were Taounate province, with 220 cases (16.09% of all cases), followed by Chefchaouen with 13.17% and Taza with 10.46% of the total cases. Children

  9. Macrophage specific drug delivery in experimental leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Mukul Kumar; Lala, Sanchaita

    2004-09-01

    Macrophage-specific delivery systems are the subject of much interest nowadays, because of the fact that macrophages act as host cells for many parasites and bacteria, which give rise to outbreak of so many deadly diseases(eg. leishmaniasis, tuberculosis etc.) in humans. To combat these deadly diseases initially macrophage specific liposomal delivery system were thought of and tested in vivo against experimental leishmaniasis in hamsters using a series of indigenous or synthetic antileishmanial compounds and the results were critically discussed. In vitro testing was also done against macrophages infected with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis. The common problem of liposome therapy being their larger size, stability and storage, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, niosomes were prepared, for their different drug distribution and release characteristics compared to liposomes. When tested in vivo, the retention capacity of niosomes was found to be higher than that of liposomes due to the absence of lipid molecules and their smaller size. Thus the therapeutic efficacy of certain antileishmanial compounds was found to be better than that in the liposomal form. The niosomes, being cheaper, less toxic, biodegradable and non-immunogenic, were considered for sometime as suitable alternatives to liposomes as drug carriers. Besides the advent of other classical drugs carriers(e.g. neoglycoproteins), the biggest challenge came from polymeric delivery vehicles, specially the polymeric nanoparticles which were made of cost effective biodegradable polymers and different natural polymers. Because of very small size and highly stable nature, use of nanoparticles as effective drug carriers has been explored in experimental leishmaniasis using a series of antileishmanial compounds, both of indigenous and synthetic origin. The feasibility of application in vivo, when tested for biological as well as for other physicochemical parameters, the polymeric

  10. Leishmaniasis mucosa y otras lesiones destructivas centrofaciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rodríguez

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias enfermedades producen lesiones del área centrofacial. Una de las más frecuentes en nuestro medio es la leishmaniasis destructivas mucosa. Como el INS es un centro de estudio de leishmaniasis, se atendieron pacientes o sus biopsias con afecciones del macizo centrofacial, primariamente remitidas con el diagnóstico clínico de leihsmaniasis mucosa. En un período de 7 años (1987-1993, se estudiaron 134 biopsias de estos pacientes. El diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucosa fue definitivo en 26 casos, por demostración del amastigote con la coloración de hematoxilina eosina y el mismo diagnóstico se estableció por patrón histopatológico solamente, en 27 casos. Una técnica inmunoenzimática para demostrar los amastigotes no fue satisfactoria. La perforación banal del tabique nasal (52 biopsias es la entidad que el clínico y el patólogo confunden con mayor frecuencia con la leishmaniasis mucosa. Otras entidades demostradas fueron la paracoccidioidomicosis (3, histoplasmosis (2, rinosporidiosis (2. esporotricosis (l, tuberculosis bucal (3, lepra leprornatosa (l, escleroma nasal (2, granulomatosis de Wegener (2, linfomas angiocéntricos (4, aspiración crónica de cocaína (l, y carcinoma escamocelular palatino (1. La biopsia, luego de la historia clínica, es el pilar esencial para identificar y manejar adecuadamente estas lesiones, que pueden originar destrucción facial grave, a veces letal, si no se dispone del diagnóstico preciso y del tratamiento oportuno.

  11. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  12. Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate Leishmania. There are more than 21 species causing human infection. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bites of female sandflies belonging to 30 species. The disease manifests mainly in 3 forms: the visceral, the cutaneous and the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral form is conventionally made by the demonstration of amastigotes of the parasite in the aspirated fluid from the bone marrow, the spleen, and rarely from the lymph nodes, or the liver. The parasite demonstration and isolation rates are rather poor from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions due to low parasite load and high rate of culture contamination. Recently several recombinant proteins have been developed to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Recombinant kinesin protein of 39 kDa called rK 39 is the most promising of these molecules. The antigen used in various test formats has been proved highly sensitive and specific for visceral leishmaniasis. It is useful in the diagnosis of HIV-Leishmania co-infection and as a prognostic marker. Molecular techniques targeting various genes of the parasite have also been reported, the PCR being the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and for differentiation of species.

  13. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – Dermoscopic Findings And Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev Hristo P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year-old male patient who, three months after a holiday in Southern Greece, found a small ‘pimple’ on his back, which gradually got as big as a small walnut, the central part becoming ulcerated and scabby. Dermatological examination found an erythematous-to-livid nodular lesion on the right shoulder; it was 16 mm in diameter with central ulceration, covered with brownish crust which discharged pus-like secretion upon pressure. Microscope examination of Romanowsky-Giemsa stained lesion material detected amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica. The culture investigation and serological tests for leishmaniasis were negative. Dermoscopy of the lesion found the following features: erythema, hyperkeratosis, central ulceration covered with brownish crust, “yellow tears-like” structures and “white starburst-like” patterns, and various vascular structures (including dotted vessels, comma-shaped vessels, hairpin- and glomerular-like vessels. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and underwent four cryotherapy sessions every other week with excellent therapeutic results - complete resolution of infiltrate with subsequent gentle hypopigmented scarring. In conclusion, dermoscopy is an easily accessible non-invasive method which can be useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cryotherapy is the treatment of choice for single skin lesions.

  14. Therapeutic modalities to combat leishmaniasis, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an emerging dermal disorder that causes high morbidity and mortality levels with a wide spectrum of clinical complications. Current situation of chemotherapeutic options with some attempts at immunotherapy has remained a dilemma for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Primary precautionary measure which relies on the managed control of the host and sandfly bite prevention is difficult to establish, as the transmission of the disease is manifested by various Leishmania species. Secondary and tertiary prevention is dependent on the medical assistance using clinical guidelines and adequate therapy. However, long course of duration and resistant nature of drugs with pronounced side effects often lead to reduction or cessation of treatment. The aim of this article is to view the current status of chemotherapeutic agents used against leishmaniasis; a review of natural plant extracts exhibiting antileishmanial activities in vitro or in vivo alone or in combination with recommended drugs seeming to validate their use in folk medicine, topical applications of ointments currently used to develop new compounds under trial, substantial efforts in vaccine development and insights about immunoregulation along with the recommendations and guidelines for future perspectives.

  15. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an agricultural settlement, endemic area for leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Brilhante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis has several species of Leishmania as agents, and a wide variety of wild and domestic animals as hosts and different species of phlebotomines as vectors. A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a dog coming from an agricultural settlement is described. This is the first report of parasitism in a dog by Le. (Viannia braziliensis in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Attention is called to the importance of including this protozoonosis in the differential diagnosis of dermopathies in dogs as also the need to assess the importance of the domestic dog as a possible reservoir of Le. braziliensis.

  16. Resource-efficient conception of waste electrical and electronic equipment collection groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Nadja von; Wilts, Claas Henning

    2014-01-01

    Critical metals are in great demand by the electrical and electronics industry, so waste electrical and eletronic equipment represents a significant source of secondary raw materials. Owing to low recycling rates and the concomitant supply risks associated with critical metals, the closure of the material cycles is highly relevant to the German economy. Losses of these metals occur from collection until their material recovery, along the entire disposal chain of waste electrical and electroni...

  17. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  18. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  19. The immune microenvironment in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, M N; Issa, G; Charafeddine, K; Simaan, Y; Karam, M; Khalifeh, H; Habib, R; Khalifeh, I

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infection that has spread to non-endemic regions, stimulating recent interest for the enhanced understanding of this disease. Downregulation of the CD1a receptor on Langerhans cells has been described in various cutaneous infections. In this study, the immune response across different Ridley patterns and parasitic indices is outlined in a case series of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Skin punch biopsies from the interface of normal and lesional cutaneous leishmaniasis were collected from 33 patients with molecularly confirmed Leishmania tropica or L. major infection. Ridley patterns (2-5) were assessed for various clinicopathological features including age, gender, disease duration, parasitic index and constituents of the inflammatory infiltrate. CD1a, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD138 stains were performed on normal skin tissue, cutaneous leishmaniasis biopsies and cytospin/cell block cytology preparations of cultured leishmania promastigotes. CD1a was quantified per mm2 in the epidermis and dermis. The remaining stains were graded according to a 4-tiered grading system [0 (0-4%); 1 (5-24%); 2 (25-49%); 3 (50-74%) and 4 (75-100%). Total CD1a expression significantly decreased (14-fold) from parasitic indices (0-2) to (5-6); (ρ < 0.001). CD1a expression in the epidermis was at least 5-fold lower than normal skin (58 vs. 400 cells/mm2), inversely correlating with the parasitic index. There was an increase in dermal CD1a Langerhans cells (33 vs. 0 cells/mm² in the dermis). CD1a and CD68 staining of amastigotes was strong and diffuse, whereas promastigotes were negative. The major inflammatory infiltrate, in all Ridley patterns, consisted of macrophages and double-negative CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes. The double-negative CD3 T cells formed a ring around the parasitic laden macrophages. Apart from CD1a, there was no significant difference in inflammatory markers between the various Ridley patterns and parasitic indices. Disease

  20. Miltefosine for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: An experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maha M. Eissa

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Abstract Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected diseases included in the World. Health Organization's list of the top guns of antimicrobial resistance. Miltefosine (MIL) was the first successful oral agent used against visceral leishmaniasis in India. As regards cutaneous leish- maniasis (CL) ...

  1. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.

  2. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  3. Bayesian geostatistical modeling of leishmaniasis incidence in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios-Alexios Karagiannis-Voules

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. METHODOLOGY: We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001-2010. Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676 for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288 for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence.

  4. Isolation of Leishmania tropica from an Ethiopian cutaneous leishmaniasis patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, Asrat; Di Muccio, Trentina; Abebe, Tamrat; Hunegnaw, Mesfin; Kager, Piet A.; Gramiccia, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Old World is caused mainly by three species of Leishmania: L. major, L. tropica and L. aethiopica, and sporadically by L. infantum and L. donovani. In Ethiopia, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by L. aethiopica, is a major public health problem affecting

  5. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan: an update | El Hassan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L.major is now endemic in many parts of the northern Sudan. In this up-date we discuss the clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis, its diagnosis and treatment. The most common clinical forms are nodular, noduloulcerative and ulcerative lesions. Less common forms are ...

  6. Biostatistics of leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia | Al Aboud | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... health planning and management. Both cutaneous and visceral types of leishmaniasis exist in Saudi Arabia with the predominance of the first type. This statistics commentary is written to review in numbers the cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia from 1983-2004. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology Vol.

  7. Leishmaniasis presenting as severe anaemia in an adult female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a rare cause of anaemia. We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis presenting as severe anaemia and pyrexia of unknown origin in an adult female Nigerian. The objective was to highlight the importance of exhaustive investigations in the diagnosis of anaemia and pyrexia of unknown origin in our ...

  8. The changing profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in a central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran is usually caused by Leishmania major or L. tropica. However, the direct examination or the cultures of biopsies for diagnosis are not very sensitive. The objective of this study was to identify the responsible species obtained from patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis referred to the ...

  9. Isolated cutaneous leishmaniasis over face – A diagnostic dilemma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated cutaneous leishmaniasis over face – A diagnostic dilemma. Santosh K. Swain, Ishwar C. Behera, Mahesh C. Sahu, Maitreyee Panda. Abstract. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoa belong to the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of a sandfly. It has diverse clinical ...

  10. The changing profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in a central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduced to non-endemic areas, leading to the emergence of new zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) foci, provided that ecological conditions such as the presence of potential vectors and reservoir hosts, are in favor of the parasite lifecycle. Therefore, we could hypothesize that zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis had ...

  11. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  12. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  13. [Nasal leishmaniasis in an HIV-positive patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, J M; Lorente, J; Crego, F; Naches, S; Subirana, F X; Calderón, J R; Pollán, C; Encarnación, L F; Quesada, P

    2000-03-01

    Leishmania is currently one of the most clinically important protozoa in otorhinolaryngology. Mediterranean countries, including Spain, have endemic HIV and L. infantum. Dogs are the most important Leishmania reservoir. Leishmaniasis is transmitted basically by the bite of infected female Phlebotomus sandflies. Its clinical development depends mainly on the host's cellular immunity (TCD4+ lymphocyte count). About 400 cases of HIV-visceral leishmaniasis have been reported in Spain. However, exclusively cutaneous presentation of HIV-leishmaniasis coinfection has been observed in only 2-3% of cases. We report the case of a female HIV+ patient who developed cutaneous leishmaniasis of the nasal vestibule by L. infantum. The patient was treated satisfactorily with a combination of parenteral Pentostam (sodium stilbogluconate) and periodic intralesional injections of Pentostam. The patient was included in a secondary prophylaxis protocol for visceral leishmaniasis with a monthly dose of Glucantime (meglumine antimoniate) for life.

  14. Local or systemic treatment for New World cutaneous leishmaniasis? Re-evaluating the evidence for the risk of mucosal leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Johannes; Lockwood, Diana N. J.; Visser, Leo; Harms, Gundel; Bailey, Mark S.; Caumes, Eric; Clerinx, Jan; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Morizot, Gloria; Hatz, Christoph; Buffet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses the question of whether the risk of developing mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) warrants systemic treatment in all patients with New World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) or whether local treatment might be an acceptable alternative. The risk of patients with New World CL developing ML

  15. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  16. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health sciences in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanu, Rmk; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Opare-Sem, O; Nkyekyer, K; Donkor, P; Lawson, A; Engleberg, N C

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether a group of Ghanaian students are able to easily use electronic learning material and whether they perceive this method of learning as acceptable. The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) and the School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty third year medical students at SMS and nineteen fifth year medical students at UGMS METHODS: Two e-learning materials were developed, one on the polymerase chain reaction and the other on total abdominal hysterectomy and these were distributed to selected medical students. Two weeks after the distribution of the programmes, a one-page, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target groups of students at the two institutions. Ninety three percent (139) of respondents at KNUST and 95% (18) at UG report having access to a computer for learning purposes. All of the UG students viewed the TAH programme; 82% (130) of the KNUST students viewed the PCR animations. All students who viewed the programmes at both institutions indicated that the e-learning pro-grammes were "more effective" in comparison to other methods of learning. Computer ownership or availability at both medical schools is sufficient to permit the distribution and viewing of e-learning materials by students and the medical students considered both programmes to be very helpful.

  17. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device function and longevity at autopsy: an underestimated resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sunil K; Crain, Barbara; Flickinger, Katie; Calkins, Hugh; Rickard, John; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald; Tomaselli, Gordon; Marine, Joseph E

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility and safety of postmortem cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED; pacemaker or defibrillator) retrieval for reuse has been shown. To date, studies indicate a low yield of reusable postmortem CIEDs (17%-30%). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a higher rate of reusable CIEDs would be identified upon postmortem retrieval when an institutional protocol for systematic and routine acquisition, interrogation, reprogramming, and manufacturer analysis was used. Over a 6-year period, all subjects referred for autopsy underwent concomitant CIED pulse generator retrieval and enrollment in the Johns Hopkins Post-Mortem CIED Registry. CIEDs were interrogated, reprogrammed, and submitted for manufacturer analysis. In total, 84 autopsies had CIEDs (37 pacemakers, 47 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators). CIEDs were implanted 2.84 ± 2.32 years before death, with 30% implanted 60% of pacemakers and >50% of defibrillators demonstrated normal functional status with projected longevities >7 years on average. Formation of a national hospital-based "CIED donor network" would facilitate larger scale charitable efforts in underserved countries. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immune Regulation during Chronic Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed. PMID:25010815

  19. Vectors control importance on leishmaniasis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo M. Oliveira Filho

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the control of transmission of leishmaniasis regarding chemotherapy, reservoirs elimination, vaccination and insect control through the use of chemical insecticides. We also discussed complementary measures like monitoring traps, impregnated bednets and curtains, repelents, pheromones, biological control, etc. A cost comparison of insecticide interventions through the use of products belonging to the four main chemical groups was also alone, comparing together conventional formulations versus a slow-release insecticide developed by the Núcleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. We finally did recommendations on the situation that would justify an insecticide intervention to control sandflies.

  20. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  1. Leishmaniasis vaccine candidates for development: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Ali; Rafati, Sima; Davoudi, Noushin; Maboudi, Fereidoun; Modabber, Farrokh

    2006-03-01

    A vaccine against different forms of leishmaniasis should be feasible considering the wealth of information on genetics and biology of the parasite, clinical and experimental immunology of leishmaniasis, and the availability of vaccines that can protect experimental animals against challenge with different Leishmania species. However, there is no vaccine against any form of leishmaniasis for general human use. One major factor is the lack of a conceived market for human leishmaniasis vaccines. Hence pharmaceutical industries involved in vaccine development are not interested in investing millions of dollars and a decade that is required for developing a new vaccine. Besides, leishmaniasis is a local/regional problem and not a global one. According to the estimates of the World Health Organization, 90 per cent of visceral leishmaniasis occurs in five countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal and Sudan). Those in need are amongst the poorest people in these countries. It should therefore be the objectives of these countries to develop a vaccine. Fortunately, both Brazil and India have designated the control of visceral leishmaniasis as a top priority for their respective Ministries of Health. The purpose of this review is to present only the vaccines in use and those in development for use in dogs or humans. This is not an exhaustive review of vaccine discovery or the principles of clinical immunology underlying vaccine development.

  2. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  3. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  4. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  5. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  6. A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschutter Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina. This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110 of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110 of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110. A total of 63 dogs (57.3% were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases.

  7. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – A Case Series from Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is world-wide one of the most common infectious disorders caused by protozoa. Due to the climate change, there is a risk of further spread of the disease to central and northern Europe. Another important issue is the high number of refugees from Syria since Syria is one of the hot spots of Old World leishmaniasis. We report on single-centre experience with leishmaniasis in the capital of Saxony, Dresden, during the years 2001 to 2017. We noted a substantial increase in the last five years. Once a very rare exotic disorder in Germany, cutaneous leishmaniasis has become a reality and physicians should be aware of it. A significant number of cases are from Syrian refugees; other cases had been acquired by tourists in the Mediterranean region!

  8. Two Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Seen in Trivandrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lohidakshan Unnithen

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Trivandrum acquired the infection while residing in Saudi Arabia. One patient responded to trivalent antimony (Fantorin and the other to dapsone.

  9. First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: a review of field efficacy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noazin, Sassan; Modabber, Farrokh; Khamesipour, Ali; Smith, Peter G; Moulton, Lawrence H; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Sharifi, Iraj; Khalil, Eltahir A G; Bernal, Ivan Dario Velez; Antunes, Carlos M F; Kieny, Marie Paule; Tanner, Marcel

    2008-12-09

    First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and several studies showed reasonable immunogenicity and some indication of protection, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is yet to be identified. Despite this overall failure, these trials contributed significantly to increasing knowledge on human leishmaniasis immunology. To provide a collective view, this review discusses the methods and findings of field efficacy trials of first generation leishmaniasis vaccine clinical trials conducted in the Old and New Worlds.

  10. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  11. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  12. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  13. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  14. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum associated with HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatta, B-A; Diallo, M; Diadie, S; Faye, B; Ndiaye, M; Hakim, H; Diallo, S; Seck, B; Niang, S-O; Kane, A; Dieng, M-T

    2016-10-01

    In Senegal, reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are often due to Leishmania major. Immunosuppression related to HIV infection contributes to the emergence of leishmaniasis in humans and to cutaneous localization of viscerotropic species. We report the first observed case in Senegal of opportunistic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum associated with HIV. A 5-year-old boy presented crusted ulcerative lesions of the scalp and left forearm, together with axillary and cervical lymphadenopathy present for two months. Direct parasitological examination of the scalp and arm lesions, coupled with liquid aspiration of lymph nodes and bone marrow, enabled identification of amastigote forms of Leishmania. Polymerase chain reaction performed on skin, lymph node and bone marrow biopsy samples allowed identification of L. infantum. The child was positive for HIV1. Treatment of HIV infection and leishmaniasis resulted in clinical improvement. Co-infection with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum and HIV is a complex combination in terms of the related therapeutic issues. The clinical and laboratory outcomes depend on restoration of immunity and on the efficacy, safety and availability of anti-leishmaniasis drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Overview of dendritic cell-based vaccine development for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagirova, M; Allahverdiyev, A M; Abamor, E S; Ullah, I; Cosar, G; Aydogdu, M; Senturk, H; Ergenoglu, B

    2016-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases in the world and is distributed over 98 countries. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk for leishmaniasis. There are three different generation of vaccines that have been developed to provide immunity and protection against leishmaniasis. However, their use has been limited due to undesired side effects. These vaccines have also failed to provide effective and reliable protection and, as such, currently, there is no safe and effective vaccine for leishmaniasis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a unique population of cells that come from bone marrow and become specialized to take up, process and present antigens to helper T cells in a mechanism similar to macrophages. By considering these significant features, DCs stimulated with different kinds of Leishmania antigens have been used in recent vaccine studies for leishmaniasis with promising results so far. In this review, we aim to review and combine the latest studies about this issue after defining potential problems in vaccine development for leishmaniasis and considering the importance of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-03

    A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  18. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caprio, Kimberley

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 5AB-0052, "Audit of the Management and Administration of Research Projects Funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency," will discuss the adequacy of the Defense Advanced Research...

  19. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  20. Proteome profiling of human cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions.

  1. Cutaneous Manifestations of Human and Murine Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Breanna M; Carvalho, Edgar M; Wilson, Mary E

    2017-06-18

    The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes. This review discusses the distinct cutaneous syndromes described in humans, and current knowledge of the inflammatory responses associated with divergent cutaneous pathologic responses to different Leishmania species. The contribution of key hematopoietic cells in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in mouse models are also reviewed and compared with those observed during human infection. We hypothesize that local skin events influence the ensuing adaptive immune response to Leishmania spp. infections, and that the balance between inflammatory and regulatory factors induced by infection are critical for determining cutaneous pathology and outcome of infection.

  2. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  3. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  4. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  5. Oral manifestations in the American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cesar Silva da Costa

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - MCL including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing.Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities.A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test and non parametric (Mann-Whitney tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant.The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9% have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites.Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL.

  6. Oral manifestations in the American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Silva, Fátima da Conceição; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL.

  7. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    OpenAIRE

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learnin...

  8. LeishMan recommendations for treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in travelers, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Johannes; Buffet, Pierre; Visser, Leo; Harms, Gundel; Bailey, Mark S; Caumes, Eric; Clerinx, Jan; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; Morizot, Gloria; Hatz, Christoph; Dorlo, Thomas P C; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) in travelers is still controversial. Over the last decade, national and international consortia have published recommendations for treating CL in travelers. These guidelines harmonize many issues, but there are some

  9. Clinical pharmacology and bioanalysis of antileishmanial drugs : Towards improved treatment strategies for leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Anke E

    2017-01-01

    The tropical infectious disease leishmaniasis almost exclusively affects low-income populations in developing countries, generally receiving limited treatment and research funding. Treatment options for leishmaniasis are therefore limited, making it crucial to optimize treatment with the currently

  10. Sustaining visceral leishmaniasis elimination in Bangladesh - Could a policy brief help?

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    Alyssa Fitzpatrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has made significant progress towards elimination of visceral leishmaniasis, and is on track to achieve its target of less than one case per 10,000 inhabitants in each subdistrict in 2017. As the incidence of disease falls, it is likely that the political capital and financial resources dedicated towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis may decrease, raising the prospect of disease resurgence. Policy memos may play a crucial role during the transition of the elimination plan from the 'attack' to the 'consolidation' and 'maintenance' phases, highlighting key stakeholders and areas where ongoing investment is crucial. An example of a policy brief is outlined in this paper. The background to the current elimination efforts is highlighted, with emphasis on remaining uncertainties including the impact of disease reservoirs and sustainable surveillance strategies. A stakeholder map is provided outlining the current and projected future activities of key bodies. Identification of key stakeholders subsequently frames the discussion of three key policy recommendations in the Bangladeshi context for the transition to the consolidation and maintenance phases of the elimination program. Recommendations include determining optimal vector control and surveillance strategies, shifting the emphasis towards horizontal integration of disease programs, and prioritising remaining research questions with a focus on operational and technical capacity. Achieving elimination is as much a political as a scientific question. Integrating the discussion of key stakeholders with policy priorities and the research agenda provides a novel insight into potential pathways forwards in the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh and in the rest of the Indian subcontinent.

  11. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis Thomas M. Mascari1... Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of...zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis . Methods and Findings: We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

  12. Leishmaniasis in northern Cyprus: Human cases and their association with risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruh, Emrah; Bostanci, Aysegul; Kunter, Vasfiye; Tosun, Ozgur; Imir, Turgut; Schallig, Henk; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cyprus is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Region where leishmaniasis is endemic. The primary objective of this study was to investigate human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the northern region of Cyprus where presence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and

  13. The case of diagnosis of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye

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    V. G. Savelyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Article presents the current data on the clinical and epidemiological issue of leishmaniasis. Methods and results. Leishmaniasis is endemic disease in 88 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Probability of importation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in our country is practically zero, but, given the rarity of this disease, we present own clinical observation of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye. At the beginning of the third millennium has greatly increased the urgency of tropical parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. According to WHO, the world's 14 million people are infected each year there is about 2 million new cases and about 350 million live in areas at risk. Leishmaniasis - a group of vector-borne protozoal disease in humans and animals characterized by lesions of the internal organs (visceral leishmaniasis or the skin and mucous membranes (cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is the vector mosquitoes. We present their own clinical observations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis imported. Patient S., 41 years was hospitalized in Zaporozhye Regional Clinical Hospital infectious on 07.17.2013, with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis. From the history of the disease is known that for the first time in February 2013 the patient have got relative to blade area redness and bump that appeared above the skin, and had a magnitude of 2,3 mm brownish-red. To the doctor the patient has not addressed. After 1,5-2 months bump grew and he began to stand out ichor, which dries and formed a crust on top of the hump. Further small ulcers that did not bring discomfort and pain to the patient appeared. However, every month ulcer increased. In July, after vacation at sea, rose weeping sores and perifocal inflammation appeared. Ulcer size reached 2 cm in diameter. The patient first applied to the dermatologist at the beginning of July 2013. Dermatologist excluded secondary syphilis and tuberculosis skin and sent to an

  14. Leishmaniasis, conflict, and political terror: A spatio-temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Isha; Berrang-Ford, Lea

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis has been estimated to cause the ninth largest burden amongst global infectious diseases. Occurrence of the disease has been anecdotally associated with periods of conflict, leading to its referral as a disease of 'guerrilla warfare.' Despite this, there have been few studies that quantitatively investigate the extent to which leishmaniasis coincides with conflict or political terror. This study employed a longitudinal approach to empirically test for an association between cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis incidence with occurrence of conflict and political terror at the national level, annually for 15 years (1995-2010). Leishmaniasis incidence data were collected for 54 countries, and combined with UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict and Amnesty International political terror datasets. Mixed effects negative binomial regression models clustered at the country-level were constructed to evaluate the incidence rate ratios against the predictors, while controlling for wealth. Additionally, to understand how and why conflict-terror may be associated with leishmaniasis incidence, we conducted a historical analysis. We identify and discuss posited causal mechanisms in the literature, and critically assessed pathways by which leishmaniasis might occur in places and times of conflict-terror. There was a significant dose-response relationship for disease incidence based on increasing levels of conflict and terror. Country-years experiencing very high levels of conflict-terror were associated with a 2.38 times higher [95% CI: 1.40-4.05] and 6.02 times higher [95% CI: 2.39-15.15] incidence of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. Historical analysis indicated that conflict and terror contribute to-or coincide with-leishmaniasis incidence through processes of population displacement and health system deterioration. This research highlights the potentially increased risks for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis incidence in areas of high conflict

  15. [Uncommon cutaneous presentation of visceral Leishmaniasis associated with HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossart, C; Le Moal, G; Garcia, M; Frouin, E; Hainaut-Wierzbicka, E; Roblot, F

    2016-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is not normally expressed in skin. Herein, we describe the case of an HIV-positive patient who developed two unusual skin manifestations during an episode of visceral leishmaniasis. A 48-year-old female patient consulted initially for infiltrated purpura of all four limbs. Skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with Leishman-Donovan bodies. Laboratory tests showed medullary, splenic, gastric and colic involvement, suggesting systemic disease, and enabling visceral leishmaniasis to be diagnosed. Two years later, despite prolonged treatment, the patient presented maculopapular exanthema, and histology revealed persistent Leishman-Donovan bodies. We report herein an association of two rare skin manifestations in an HIV-positive patient with visceral leishmaniasis: infiltrated purpura and maculopapular exanthema. However, the underlying mechanisms remain hypothetical. The initial leukocytoclastic exanthema could be secondary to either polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia or to IgA deposits, or possibly to mechanical impairment of blood vessels by the actual parasite. The maculopapular exanthema occurring later raised the possibility of post-Kala-Azar leishmaniasis due to blood-borne dissemination in an anergic subject or perhaps even immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Misdiagnosis and Mistreatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

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    Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a known complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by L. donovani. It is rare in VL caused by L. infantum and L. chagasi. In Sudan, it occurs with a frequency of 58% among successfully treated VL patients. In the majority of cases, PKDL can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical appearance, distribution of the lesions, and past history of treated VL. The ideal diagnostic method is to demonstrate the parasite in smears, by culture or PCR. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in patients who develop PKDL in the absence of previous history of visceral leishmaniasis. We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as PKDL and 3 cases of PKDL who were either misdiagnosed or mistreated as other dermatoses. This caused exacerbation of their disease leading to high parasite loads in the lesions and dissemination to internal organs in one of the patients, who was also diabetic. The latter patient had L. major infection. A fourth patient with papulonodular lesions on the face and arms of 17-year duration and who was misdiagnosed as having PKDL is also described. He turned out to have cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major. Fortunately, he was not treated with steroids. He was cured with intravenous sodium stibogluconate.

  17. Lacrimal excretory system sequelae in patients treated for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyama, Erika; Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Stolf, Hamilton Ometo; Nakajima, Vitor

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis infection may involve destruction of nasal tissues resulting in lacrimal drainage system alteration. To evaluate the frequency of lacrimal excretory system sequelae in patients treated for leishmaniasis. Forty-five leishmaniasis-treated patients (90 nasolacrimal ducts) were submitted to lacrimal excretory system evaluation. All were evaluated by Jones I test and when it was abnormal, dacryocystography and nasal endoscopy were performed. This situation occurred in 13 patients (26 nasolacrimal ducts). The majority of evaluated patients had the cutaneous form (64.4%) of leishmaniasis, however, 69.23% of the patients with lacrimal excretory system alterations had the mucocutaneous form of infection before treatment. In these, the most common alteration detected was bilateral permeable and dilated nasolacrimal ducts (92.30%). Only 3.84% (1/26) of the evaluated nasolacrimal ducts were obstructed. Nasal endoscopy showed turbinate hypertrophy (53.84%), septum deviation (53.84%) and nasal septum perforation (23.07%). Permeable and dilated lacrimal excretory system were the most common sequelae related to leishmaniasis infection.

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis treatment outcome and its determinants in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welay, Getachew Mebrahtu; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for the high mortality rate of this condition in resource-limited settings such as Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify the proportion of poor VL treatment outcomes in northwest Ethiopia and to evaluate the determinants associated with poor outcomes. A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital in northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7.0 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the determinants of VL treatment outcomes. Adjusted odds ratio (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used, and p -values <0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. The proportion of poor treatment outcomes was 23.7%. Late diagnosis (≥29 days) (aOR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.22 to 8.46), severe illness at admission (inability to walk) (aOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.40) and coinfection with VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (aOR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.40 to 5.20) were found to be determinants of poor VL treatment outcomes. Poor treatment outcomes, such as death, treatment failure, and non-adherence, were found to be common. Special attention must be paid to severely ill and VL/HIV-coinfected patients. To improve VL treatment outcomes, the early diagnosis and treatment of VL patients is recommended.

  19. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachfouti, Nabil; Najdi, Adil; Alonso, Sergi; Sicuri, Elisa; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderahmane; Nejjari, Chakib; Picado, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco.

  20. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Bats from an Area of Brazil Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, M B; Herrera, H M; Carvalho, C M E; Carvalho Anjos, E A; Ramos, C A N; de Araújo, F R; Torres, J M; de Oliveira, C E

    2017-12-01

    The multihost parasites Leishmania spp. infect a broad range of wild mammalian species including bats. Several species of bats have adapted to a variety of food resources and shelters in urban areas. This study aimed to detect Leishmania spp. DNA in bats present in forest fragments located in metropolitan areas endemic for leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 80 individuals, including eight species of Phyllostomidae and one species of Vespertilionidae. Thirty of the 80 bats were positive for Leishmania spp. using conventional PCR, all belonging to the family Phyllostomidae. Eighteen samples tested by real-time PCR (qPCR) using specific primers for the kDNA of Leishmania infantum were positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detecting Leishmania spp. in Platyrrhinus incarum in addition to being the first reported detection of L. infantum in the bat species Phyllostomus discolor, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Artibeus planirostris and Artibeus lituratus. Our results show that bats can host Leishmania spp. in areas endemic for leishmaniasis, which must be taken into account in disease control operations by public health authorities. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Obtaining membranes for alternative treatment hydrogels of cutaneous leishmaniasis; Obtencao de membranas de hidrogeis para tratamento alternativo da leishmaniose tegumentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose Alves de

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric Hydrogels formed by crosslinked polymeric chains were obtained by ionizing radiation process according to Rosiak technique. In the last 40 years the use of hydrogels has been investigated for various applications as curatives. In this work hydrogel membranes were synthesized with poly (N-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan and laponita clay for use as a vehicle for controlled glucantime release on the surface of skin tissues injured by leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomies sandfly. The traditional treatment of patients infected by these parasites is done with pentavalent antimony in injectable form. However, these antimonates are highly toxic and cause side effects in these patients. In addition, patients with heart and kidney disease can not use this treatment. In treatment with drug delivery hydrogel membrane applied on the surface of leishmaniasis injured tissues the drug is released directly to the wound in a controlled manner, reducing the side effects. Membranes prepared in this study were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), swelling, gel fraction, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations of cytotoxicity and drug release were made 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' with functional test according to ethical protocol of the Division of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases at the Hospital of Clinics, Sao Paulo University-School of Medicine, University. The 'in vivo' test of these membranes proved to be effective in controlled release of drugs directly into leishmaniasis damaged tissues. Results of 'in vivo' tests using PVP/PVAl / clay 1,5% and glucantime membrane showed remarkable contribution to wound reduction and cure in clinical therapy. (author)

  2. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  3. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Leishmaniasis in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Kazinian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the clinical and laboratory characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis according to the data from Clinical hospital of infectious diseases «Nork» in Yerevan for 2013. It is shown that Armenia is a country endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Most patients (81 % were males. About half of the patients were young children (up to 2 years. It was found that the majority of patients had acute onset of the disease with fever up to 40 °C, severe symptoms of intoxication and single hemorrhages on the skin. Enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in all patients. The enlargement of the spleen was more pronounced, and it reached the level of the pelvis. One of the cardinal symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis — anemia — developed in all patients admitted to the hospital, and a significant change in the hemogram was observed in young children.

  4. Foveal hemorrhage in an immunocompetent patient with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibils Farrés, P; Bedoya Ayala, P; Burga Kuroda, G H; Zegarra Domínguez, M; Luna, J D; Velazco Casapía, J

    2015-12-01

    To report a case of foveal and macular intraretinal hemorrhages in an immunocompetent male patient with visceral leishmaniasis. An immunocompetent, 42 year-old male, presented with progressive visual loss and metamorphopsia in his right eye. The fundus examination showed a foveal round yellow lesion and intraretinal hemorrhages in the macula. The patient was hospitalized with fever, anorexia, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and progressive anemia. Laboratory studies were conducted and a positive test for leishmaniasis and hepatitis A was reported. Treatment was begun with amphotericin B 50mg/day up to a total dose of 1400mg. Bilateral retinal hemorrhages in an endemic country could suggest the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiological profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboudi, M

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of our study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco. We therefore conducted a retrospective descriptive study covering the decade 2004-2013. Data were collected from the Moroccan Ministry of Health's annual reports about the national program against leishmaniasis. These data show a regression in the cases due to Leishmania major and the persistence of L. tropica transmission. Mapping cutaneous leishmaniasis cases reported between 2004 and 2013 showed geographical changes ; the number of cases due to L. tropica were concentrated in the regions of Marrakech-Tensift-Elhaouz, Souss Massa-Draa Tadla-Azila, and Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate. Cutaneous disease due to L. major was most common in the Souss-Massa-Draa region. Continuous monitoring of the epidemiological situation is important to assess the actions taken to reduce its incidence.

  6. Determinants for the development of visceral leishmaniasis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Isobel McCall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. Among the most important questions in Leishmania research is why some species like L. donovani infect visceral organs, whereas other species like L. major remain in the skin. The determinants of visceral leishmaniasis are still poorly understood, although genomic, immunologic, and animal models are beginning to provide important insight into this disease. In this review, we discuss the vector, host, and pathogen factors that mediate the development of visceral leishmaniasis. We examine the progression of the parasite from the initial site of sand fly bite to the visceral organs and its ability to survive there. The identification of visceral disease determinants is required to understand disease evolution, to understand visceral organ survival mechanisms, and potentially to develop better interventions for this largely neglected disease.

  7. Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported. PMID:15200848

  8. Experimental visceral leishmaniasis in the opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M R; Chapman, W L; Hanson, W L; Latimer, K S; Greene, C E

    1989-07-01

    Adult wild-trapped opossums were infected with Leishmania donovani (Khartoum strain, WR 378) and evaluated as an animal model of visceral leishmaniasis. All infected opossums died within 32 days. Loss of body fat, hepatomegaly, and petechiae of skin and abdominal musculature were seen at necropsy. Microscopically, numerous amastigote-laden macrophages were seen in histologic sections of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes; fewer parasite-laden macrophages were in the bronchial-associated lymphoid tissues and renal glomeruli. Hematological findings included thrombocytopenia (terminal), neutropenia, and lymphopenia. Blood lymphocyte blastogenesis in response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin was decreased markedly at day 24 post-infection (PI). Serum antibodies (1:40 dilution) to promastigotes of L. donovani were detected in five of eight infected opossums tested on days 10 and 24 PI. Total bilirubin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were increased after day 25 PI. Activated partial thromboplastin times and one-stage prothrombin times were prolonged before death. Concurrently, factors V, VIII, and XII activities were decreased.

  9. Cutaneous Manifestations of Human and Murine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna M. Scorza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes. This review discusses the distinct cutaneous syndromes described in humans, and current knowledge of the inflammatory responses associated with divergent cutaneous pathologic responses to different Leishmania species. The contribution of key hematopoietic cells in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in mouse models are also reviewed and compared with those observed during human infection. We hypothesize that local skin events influence the ensuing adaptive immune response to Leishmania spp. infections, and that the balance between inflammatory and regulatory factors induced by infection are critical for determining cutaneous pathology and outcome of infection.

  10. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement.

  11. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj Wiwanitkit1–31Wiwanitkit House, Bang Khae, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, People's Republic of China; 3Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, NigeriaAbstract: Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy.Keywords: visceral, leishmaniasis, paromomycin

  12. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, José M; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Bolaños-Pizarro, Máxima

    2013-03-07

    Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author's institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research.

  13. Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Mosteiro, Julio; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Pinart, Mariona; Lopez Pereira, Patricia; Reveiz, Ludovic; Garcia-Carrasco, Emely; Campuzano Cuadrado, Pedro; Royuela, Ana; Mendez Roman, Irene; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2017-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2008. To assess the effects of therapeutic interventions for the localised form of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. We updated our searches of the following databases to November 2016: the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We wrote to national programme managers, general co-ordinators, directors, clinicians, WHO-EMRO regional officers of endemic countries, pharmaceutical companies, tropical medicine centres, and authors of relevant papers for further information about relevant unpublished and ongoing trials. We undertook a separate search for adverse effects of interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in September 2015 using MEDLINE. Randomised controlled trials of either single or combination treatments in immunocompetent people with OWCL confirmed by smear, histology, culture, or polymerase chain reaction. The comparators were either no treatment, placebo/vehicle, and/or another active compound. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias and extracted data. We only synthesised data when we were able to identify at least two studies investigating similar treatments and reporting data amenable to pooling. We also recorded data about adverse effects from the

  14. The electronic Trauma Health Record: design and usability of a novel tablet-based tool for trauma care and injury surveillance in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Eiman; Schuurman, Nadine; Nicol, Andrew J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Taulu, Tracey; Ricker, Britta; Garbutt Brown, David Ross; Navsaria, Pradeep; Hameed, S Morad

    2014-01-01

    Ninety percent of global trauma deaths occur in under-resourced or remote environments, with little or no capacity for injury surveillance. We hypothesized that emerging electronic and web-based technologies could enable design of a tablet-based application, the electronic Trauma Health Record (eTHR), used by front-line clinicians to inform trauma care and acquire injury surveillance data for injury control and health policy development. The study was conducted in 3 phases: 1. Design of an electronic application capable of supporting clinical care and injury surveillance; 2. Preliminary feasibility testing of eTHR in a low-resource, high-volume trauma center; and 3. Qualitative usability testing with 22 trauma clinicians from a spectrum of high- and low-resource and urban and remote settings including Vancouver General Hospital, Whitehorse General Hospital, British Columbia Mobile Medical Unit, and Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The eTHR was designed with 3 key sections (admission note, operative note, discharge summary), and 3 key capabilities (clinical checklist creation, injury severity scoring, wireless data transfer to electronic registries). Clinician-driven registry data collection proved to be feasible, with some limitations, in a busy South African trauma center. In pilot testing at a level I trauma center in Cape Town, use of eTHR as a clinical tool allowed for creation of a real-time, self-populating trauma database. Usability assessments with traumatologists in various settings revealed the need for unique eTHR adaptations according to environments of intended use. In all settings, eTHR was found to be user-friendly and have ready appeal for frontline clinicians. The eTHR has potential to be used as an electronic medical record, guiding clinical care while providing data for injury surveillance, without significantly hindering hospital workflow in various health-care settings. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published

  15. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We...... report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected...

  16. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Dutta, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  17. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  18. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis during anti-TNFα therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Claudio; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Patterson, James W; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    The long-term use of novel antipsoriatic systemic biotechnological drugs may increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Several cases of visceral leishmaniasis have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals, including those who have been treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocking agents. Simultaneous occurrence of cutaneous and visceral involvement has been more rarely recorded in the medical literature. Herein, we describe a case of mucosal leishmaniasis occurring in a farmer living in an endemic region, who was treated with golimumab because of psoriatic arthritis. This highlights the importance of recognizing cutaneous lesions as a first indicator of possible underlying kala-azar disease.

  19. Study of African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. Volume 1. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    mediopunctatus and Ae. dentatus. RECOMMENDATIONS African Trypanosomiasis It is recommended that human treatment studies and Lambwe Valley monitoring continue. The...AD-A139 365 STUDS OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASIS(U) f/f ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH UNITKENYA Apo NEW YORK 09675 M J REARDON ET AL DEC 83...STUDY OF AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASIS FINAL REPORT CID LTC M.J. Reardon, VC I.E. Muriithi LTC J.D. Chulay, MC LTC L.D. Hendricks, MSC ym 4

  20. [Interpretation of laboratory data during cryptic leishmaniasis in dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravino, A E

    2004-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by an intracellular parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. In Europe, Africa, South America and China, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by L. infantum. The vectors of leishmaniasis are phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genera Phlebotomus. According to the World Health Organization there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. Leishmaniasis is considered a zoonosis and human are generally accidental hosts. The animal reservoir includes rodents, dog and other mammals. Several studies have indicate that half of the dogs with antileishmanial antibodies have no signs of disease although, animal with subclinical infections are potentially infectious to sand flies. The factors determining susceptibility or resistence to visceral leishmaniasis remain unclear, but the genetics of the host may play a major role. Clinical signs are: intermittent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, skin lesions and ulcers, alopecia, onychogryphosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In mice, the outcome of infection depends on the polarized activation of one of two subsets of CD4+ T cells, Th1 or Th2, the subdivision into Th1 and Th2 cells is based on the pattern of cytokines that they produce. Th1 cells produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin -2 (IL-2), whereas Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. An important difference between susceptible and resistant mice is that the resistant mice are able to switch to a Th1 profile and control the disease. An important factor in the "decision" to form a Th1 or Th2 phenotype is the early cytokine environment, and IL-12 is one of the cytokines that contributes significantly to the establishment of the Th1 phenotype. Canine leishmaniosis is endemic in the Mediterranean basin and, in most cases is caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum. The main clinical findings are skin lesions, local or generalized lymphoadenopathy, loss of

  1. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  2. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  3. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; Van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-09-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for understanding its tropism in in vivo conditions. Clinical samples (lesion aspirations and bone marrow) obtained from CL/VL patients were investigated using parasitological (smear/NNN) and DNA-based techniques. For species identification, a real time ITS1-PCR was performed using isolates and results were confirmed by hsp70 PCR-N/sequencing and cpb gene PCR/sequencing in order to reveal Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum discrimination. Clinical materials from CL and VL patients were also inoculated into two experimental groups (Group CL and Group VL) of Balb/C mice intraperitoneally for creating clinical picture of Turkish L. donovani strains. After 45days, the samples from visible sores of the skin were taken, and spleens and livers were removed. Measurements of the internal organs were done and touch preparations were prepared for checking the presence of amastigotes. The strains were isolated from all patients and amastigotes were seen in all smears of the patients, and then isolates were immediately stored in liquid nitrogen. In real time ITS1-PCR, the melting temperatures of all samples were out of range of L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major. Sequencing of hsp70 PCR-N showed that all isolates highly identical to previously submitted L. donovani sequences in GenBank, and cpb gene sequencing showed five isolates had longer cpbF allele, whereas one isolate contained a mixed sequence of both cpbF and cpbE. All mice in both experimental groups became infected. Compared to controls, the length and width of both liver and spleen were significantly elevated (pTurkey. Animal models using clinical samples were successfully established and important clinical

  4. Cost of visceral leishmaniasis care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isis Polianna Silva Ferreira; Peixoto, Henry Maia; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the Brazilian direct and indirect costs of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in 2014. Cost-of-illness study on the Brazilian public health system and societal perspective. VL cases registered in the Notifiable Diseases Information System in the year of 2014 were considered. Direct medical costs regarding diagnostic, treatment and care provided to patients with VL were estimated through the top-down approach. The indirect costs related to productivity loss due to premature mortality and morbidity were estimated by means of the human-capital method. In 2014, 9895 suspected cases of VL were reported in the Notifiable Diseases Information System, and 3453 were later confirmed. There were 234 patients with Leishmania-HIV coinfection underwent a secondary prophylaxis. The total cost of VL in Brazil was US$ 14 190 701.50 (US$ 14 189 150.10 to 14 199 940.53) that varied according to the sensitivity analysis. The total of direct medical costs corresponded to US$ 1 873 681.96 (US$1 872 130.55 to 1 882 920.99), and the majority of costs was associated with hospitalisation (40%), followed by treatment (22%), and secondary prophylaxis (18%). Productivity loss corresponded to US$ 11 421 683.37 for premature mortality and US$ 895 336.18 for work absence due to hospitalisation by the illness. VL represents an expensive health problem for the Brazilian public health system and society, mainly because of its productivity loss due to premature mortality. Interventions to reduce VL lethality could have a great impact on decreasing the cost of illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clinical and dermoscopic evaluation of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Erhan; Ucmak, Derya; Baykara, Sule Nergiz; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Arica, Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    Dermoscopy is a method to aid in the visualization of the epidermis and dermis. In recent years, the use of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of non-melanocytic lesions such as those of leishmania cutis has increased. This study was intended to establish whether dermoscopic investigation has any diagnostic value in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Fifty-five patients diagnosed with CL at the Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, between February and October 2012, were included in the study. Collectively, the patients exhibited a total of 127 lesions. The mean ± standard deviation age of the patients was 25.7 ± 21.3 years (range: 4-86 years). Twenty-three (41.8%) patients were male, and 32 (58.2%) were female. In dermoscopy, teardrop-like structures were observed in 42.5% of the lesions. Vascular structures were detected in 115 (90.6%) lesions; no vascular structures were observed in 12 (9.4%) lesions. Branching, linear, comma-like, and polymorphic vessels were seen more commonly in lesions on the face; pin-point and hairpin-like vessels were seen more commonly in lesions on the upper extremities. When the findings obtained in this study were evaluated along with those reported in the literature, it became apparent that follicular plugs, also called "teardrop-like structures", seen on the face and neck may be a dermoscopic feature specific to CL. As hairpin-like vessels seen in an asymmetric radial arrangement were often observed on parts of the body other than the face, further dermoscopic studies comparing the lesions of CL with other ulcerating lesions are necessary. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. A decade bibliometric analysis of global research on leishmaniasis in Web of Science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaraei, Masoud; Khasseh, Ali Akbar; Fakhar, Mahdi; Hezarjaribi, Hajar Ziaei

    2018-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is an extremely relevant tropical disease, with global distribution. It still remains a main public health concern in low-income countries, and it is necessary to support more research on this common disease. Thus, a bibliometric analysis of the global scientific production on leishmaniasis was carried out. All the articles registered in Web of Science with the subject of leishmaniasis between 2006 and 2015 were analysed, using Pajek and VOS viewer as tools. 13,658 records in the field of leishmaniasis were indexed in the Web of Science database for this ten-year study period (2006-2015). This shows that studies on leishmaniasis have been growing, from 1071 in 2006 to 1537 in 2015. "Sundar S" is the most active researcher in the field of leishmaniasis, compiling and participating in 232 Articles. Brazil ranks first in scientific production, by performing 3315 studies on leishmaniasis. The United States, United Kingdom and Australia had the most collaboration in performing the studies of leishmaniasis with each other. In addition, PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES published the most articles, with 483. Our data shows an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. In addition, Brazil, USA, and India lead scientific production on leishmaniasis research.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Karak, Pakistan: Report of an outbreak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 339 patients with clinically suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were studied from March to April, 2010 in three villages of Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan where an epidemic of the disease was in question. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 78.17% (265/339) were observed having CL.

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis in Northern Ethiopia | Haile | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been well documented by the Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) VL treatment programmeme in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, but reports are limited from other facilities in this region where this disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe ...

  9. Clinical pharmacology in leishmaniasis: treatment optimization of a neglected disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, T.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents various novel applications of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the treatment of leishmaniasis, by which diverse clinically relevant issues, mainly related to the efficacy and safety of miltefosine, could be elucidated. Throughout this thesis, the added value of

  10. Changing pattern of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegelaar, J. E.; Steketee, W. H.; van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; Wetsteyn, J. C. F. M.; Kager, P. A.; Faber, W. R.

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in western countries seems to be appearing more frequently. Our aim was to determine if there has been a shift in countries where CL is acquired and whether the incidence has changed, and to assess current diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities. In a

  11. Evaluation of treatment with pentamidine for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meide, Wendy F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; Jensema, Annigje J.; Peekel, Inge; Faber, William R.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Fat, Rudy F. M. Lai A.

    2009-01-01

    In Suriname, pentamidine isethionate (PI) is the only drug available for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Recently, local dermatologists have observed an increase in CL patients not responding adequately to the standard doses. In this study, patient compliance to PI treatment was

  12. Immunoglobulin E Antileishmanial Antibody Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Atta, Maria L. B.; Salamé, Gregório S.; D’Oliveira, Argemiro; Almeida, Roque P.; Atta, Ajax M.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2002-01-01

    High levels of antileishmanial immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are associated with disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis. Herein, we report our observations about the relationship between antileishmanial IgE antibodies and clinical aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study was carried out with 45 patients (29 male and 16 female), with ages ranging from 11 to 48 years. All subjects were from an area to which leishmaniasis is endemic, Corte de Pedra (Bahia, Brazil), and the duration of the illness was ≤30 days. The patients were classified as positive or negative for IgE serology in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with leishmanial antigens. IgE antibodies were detected in 18 patients (optical density, 0.421 ± 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.57), and only 3 (17%) had more than one ulcer. In this group the diameter of Montenegro’s reaction was 18 ± 12.2 mm. In the group with negative IgE serology, 11 of 27 patients (48%) presented two or more cutaneous ulcers, and the mean of the skin test result was 9 ± 6.9 mm. There was a positive correlation between IgE antibody levels and Montenegro’s reaction size and an inverse correlation between IgE antileishmanial antibodies and the number of skin ulcers. The presence of antileishmanial IgE antibodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis may be a result of immunoregulatory events with clinical implications. PMID:11777837

  13. The wound repair response controls outcome to cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Elso, Colleen M.; Simpson, Ken; Curtis, Joan M.; Kumar, Beena; Speed, Terence P.; Handman, Emanuela; Foote, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic microbial infections are associated with fibrotic and inflammatory reactions known as granulomas showing similarities to wound-healing and tissue repair processes. We have previously mapped three leishmaniasis susceptibility loci, designated lmr1, -2, and -3, which exert their effect independently of T cell immune responses. Here, we show that the wound repair response is critically important for the rapid cure in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Mice congenic for leishmaniasis resistance loci, which cured their lesions more rapidly than their susceptible parents, also expressed differentially genes involved in tissue repair, laid down more ordered collagen fibers, and healed punch biopsy wounds more rapidly. Fibroblast monolayers from these mice repaired in vitro wounds faster, and this process was accelerated by supernatants from infected macrophages. Because these effects are independent of T cell-mediated immunity, we conclude that the rate of wound healing is likely to be an important component of innate immunity involved in resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:16223880

  14. Application of nanotechnology in treatment of leishmaniasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Maryam; Oryan, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2017-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by a protozoan species of the genus Leishmania affecting mostly the developing countries. The disease with current mortality rate of 50,000 deaths per year threatens approximately 350 million people in more than 90 countries all over the world. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are the most frequent forms of the disease. Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosin. Treatment of leishmaniasis has remained insufficient since the current antileishmanial agents have several limitations including low efficacy, toxicity, adverse side effects, drug-resistance, length of treatment and cost lines. Consequently, there is an immediate requirement to search for new antileishmanial compounds. New drug delivery devices transport antileishmanial drug to the target cell specifically with minimizing the toxic effects to normal cells. This study attempts to present a comprehensive overview of different approaches of nanotechnology in treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and application of 'simple' diagnostic tools for visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; Schoone, G. J.; Kroon, C. C.; Hailu, A.; Chappuis, F.; Veeken, H.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis is difficult. Due to the limitations of direct methods to detect parasites, indirect immunological methods are widely employed. The simple affordable and sensitive/specific direct agglutination test (DAT) is perhaps the most important diagnostic tool under

  16. Importation of visceral leishmaniasis in returning Romanian workers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana-Maria; Merkler, Carmen; Marincu, Iosif; Moldovan, Roxana; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades visceral leishmaniasis cases and foci have increased in Romania, where the disease has also become a medical concern. The following study aimed to provide essential knowledge on early diagnosis and management of visceral leishmaniasis cases in Romania acquired especially by traveling and working in the Mediterranean countries. Retrospective analysis of the medical records of the patients diagnosed with imported visceral leishmaniasis in a western Romanian county. Three patients with visceral leishmaniasis imported from Spain were admitted to hospital in Timisoara in 2005. Detailed case histories along with clinical and laboratory features are presented. In all the patients the final laboratory confirmation of the disease was by Giemsa-stained blood smears obtained by bone marrow biopsy. Since 2004, many Romanian citizens left their homeland looking for a better job in the Mediterranean region. Unaware of the risks of outdoor labor in warm climatic conditions, they accepted to live and work in improper sanitary conditions. Late identification of the disease resulted mainly from failure of the physicians to diagnose and associate the syndrome with travel.

  17. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  18. Leishmaniasis in South West Africa: preliminary notes on host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were undertaken to determine the sandfly fauna of South West Africa with the view to finding possible vectors of leishmaniasis, and to locate a host reservoir. A possible vector species belonging to the Synphlebotomus group of sandflies, which have been incriminated as leishmania vectors in Kenya, has been found ...

  19. Alternative to Chemotherapy—The Unmet Demand against Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didwania, Nicky; Shadab, Md.; Sabur, Abdus; Ali, Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected protozoan disease that mainly affects the tropical as well as subtropical countries of the world. The primary option to control the disease still relies on chemotherapy. However, a hindrance to treatments owing to the emergence of drug-resistant parasites, enormous side effects of the drugs, their high cost, and requirement of long course hospitalization has added to the existing problems of leishmaniasis containment program. This review highlights the prospects of immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy to address the limitations for current treatment measures for leishmaniasis. In addition to the progress in alternate therapeutic strategies, the possibility and advances in developing preventive measures against the disease have been pointed. The review highlights our recent understandings of the protective immunology that can be exploited to develop an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis. Moreover, an update on the approaches that have evolved over the recent years are predominantly focused to overcome the current challenges in developing immunotherapeutic as well as prophylactic antileishmanial vaccines is discussed. PMID:29312309

  20. Leishmaniasis in northern and western Africa: a review | Kimutai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leishmaniasis, one of the highly neglected diseases is currently a significant health problem in northern Africa with a rising concern in western Africa because of co-infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). In this review, we present a summarized analysis of the epidemiology, infective species, parasites ...

  1. Leishmaniasis in the middle East: incidence and epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Salam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature.

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Karak, Pakistan: Report of an outbreak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... of Yucutan leishmaniasis in old world and new world CL. (Philip et al., 1975). CL pathogens are carried by sand flies (Phlebotomus) vector and in Pakistan, some 29 species of Phlebotomus are present (Lewis, 1967). Phlebotomus papatasi was found in Kashmore, Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Idak, Tank.

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: recent developments in diagnosis and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.; Reedijk, Sophia H.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, management, and strategies for the prevention and control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by both Old and New World Leishmania species. CL is caused by the vector-borne protozoan parasite Leishmania and is transmitted via

  4. Leishmaniasis in Northern and Western Africa: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albert Kimutai

    and disseminated lesions. Phlebotomus papatasi (sandfly) is the proven vector of L. major, and rodents. Psammomys obesus and Meriones spp. serve as animal reservoir hosts. Some countries of the region have endemic foci of zoonotic and anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, which could cause epidemics among.

  5. New serological tools for improved diagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lourena E; Salles, Beatriz C S; Alves, Patrícia T; Dias, Ana C S; Vaz, Emília R; Ramos, Fernanda F; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Duarte, Mariana C; Roatt, Bruno M; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Tavares, Carlos A P; Gonçalves, Denise U; Rocha, Manoel O C; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-07-01

    Human tegumentary leishmaniasis (HTL), characterized by skin ulcers that may spread and cause dreadful and massive tissue destruction of the nose and mouth, is considered a neglected tropical disease, and it is a serious threat to global health due to its continuous expansion, favored by the lifecycle of its causative organism that is maintained in domestic animal reservoirs and anthropophilic sand fly species. Serodiagnosis of HTL is a great challenge due to many biological factors, including hampered specificity and/or sensitivity. This investigation addresses the unmet need for new diagnostic markers of HTL, and describes a simple platform to improve the serodiagnosis. A constrained conformational phage display random peptide library combined with a magnetic microsphere-based subtraction strategy was used to identify ligands with potential diagnostic applications. Six clones were selected against IgG antibodies from HTL patients, characterized by sequencing and confirmed by a phage-ELISA using sera from patients developing visceral leishmaniasis (n=20), Chagas disease (n=10), mucosal (n=30) and cutaneous (n=20) leishmaniasis; as well as from healthy subjects living in endemic (n=20) and non-endemic (n=30) areas of leishmaniasis. A wild-type M13-phage clone and a soluble Leishmania antigenic extract were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Three clones reached 100% sensitivity and specificity, without any cross-reactivity with sera from patients with leishmaniasis-related diseases. Briefly, we describe for the first time a set of serological markers based on three immunodominant mimotopes that showed 100% accuracy, and that could be used in a phage-ELISA assay for the HTL serodiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adenosine and Immune Imbalance in Visceral Leishmaniasis: The Possible Role of Ectonucleotidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is responsible for most Leishmania-associated deaths. VL represents a serious public health problem that affects many countries. The immune response in leishmaniasis is very complex and is poorly understood. The Th1 versus Th2 paradigm does not appear to be so clear in visceral leishmaniasis, suggesting that other immunosuppressive or immune-evasion mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of VL. It has been demonstrated that generation of adenosine, a potent endogenous immunosuppressant, by extracellular enzymes capable to hydrolyze adenosine tri-nucleotide (ATP) at the site of infection, can lead to immune impairment and contribute to leishmaniasis progression. In this regard, this paper discusses the unique features in VL immunopathogenesis, including a possible role for ectonucleotidases in leishmaniasis. PMID:22007242

  7. [The Assesment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients Admiting to Gaziantep University of Medicine Faculty Leishmaniasis Diagnosis and Treatment Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Selma; Özgöztaşı, Orhan; Kayıran, Nuriye

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a curable clinical condition characterized by atrophic scars caused by the Leishmania species of protozoan parasites. In the period following the beginning of the Syrian Civil War, there has been a dramatic increase in number of CL cases in Gaziantep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of CL patients admitted to Gaziantep University of Medicine Faculty Leishmaniasis diagnosis and treatment center in Gaziantep. Within the context of this study, a total of 635 CL patients admitted between 01 April 2013 and 01 April 2014 to the Leishmaniasis diagnosis and treatment center of the Gaziantep were evaluated retrospectively. Patient data regarding age, sex, the location of lesions, the number of lesions, the duration of the lesions, and the months in which the lesions appeared were recorded and statistically analyzed. Of these patients, 67 (10.6%) were Turkish citizens, while 568 (89.4%) were Syrian citizens. In addition, 299 (47.1%) of the patients were female, while 336 (52.9%) were male. The large majority of the cases were between 5-9 (n=140, 22%) and 10-19 (n=168, 26.5%) years of age; 66% of all cases were below 20 years of age. An evaluation of the distribution of cases according to the months revealed that the lowest number of cases occurred in the months of July (n=14, 2.2%) and August (n=13, 2.0%), while the highest number of cases occurred in the months of January (n=122, 19.2%) and February (n=106, 16.7%). Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a condition that affects individuals of all ages and genders. It is thus necessary to conduct regular health screenings for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, and to inform and educate vulnerable communities and the society in general regarding this condition.

  8. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  9. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  10. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  11. Sand Fly Surveillance and Control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as Part of a Leishmaniasis Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Vol. 38, no. 2 Journal of Vector Ecology 411 Scientific Note Sand fly surveillance and control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as part of a leishmaniasis ...following the 2003 invasion experienced serious risk of infection by several vector-borne pathogens, specifically cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis ...as part of a leishmaniasis control program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  12. A Novel Field-Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0195. Log Number: PR130282 TITLE: A Novel Field-Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis ...SUBTITLE A Novel Field-Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...14. ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania and is generally transmitted by the bite of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia or

  13. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamalee Roberts

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55. Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94% with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans.

  14. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    3] Recently, the emergence of the novel 2009 influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus and the SARS coronavirus have demonstrated how rapidly pathogens can spread...standards in both minimum data sets for disease surveillance and routine diagnosis and care. Analysis & Visualization. As previously discussed, the...g002 SAGES Electronic Disease Surveillance PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 May 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 5 | e19750 for pandemic influenza as well as

  15. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  16. The sesquiterpene (-)-α-bisabolol is active against the causative agents of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis through the induction of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas-López, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Díaz-Sáez, V; Morillas-Márquez, F; Navarro-Moll, M C; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2016-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment remains challenging due to the absence of a satisfactory treatment. The screening of natural compounds is a valuable strategy in the search of new drugs against leishmaniasis. The sesquiterpene (-)-α-bisabolol is effective in vivo against visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum, but its mechanism of action remains elusive. The aim of this study is to validate this promising compound against the causative species of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis and to get an insight into its antileishmanial mode of action. The compound was evaluated on L. tropica promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes using bone marrow-derived macrophages and its cytotoxicity was evaluated on L929 fibroblasts. The reactive oxygen species generation was evaluated using a sensitive probe. Mitochondrial depolarization was assessed evaluating the fluorescence due to rhodamine 123 in a flow cytometer. Apoptosis was investigated by measuring the fluorescence due to annexin V and propidium iodide in a flow cytometer. The ultrastructure of treated promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes was analysed through transmission electron microscopy. (-)-α-Bisabolol was active against L. tropica intracellular amastigotes displaying an inhibitory concentration 50 % of 25.2 µM and showing low cytotoxicity. This compound induced time and dose-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial depolarization and phosphatidilserine externalization (a marker of apoptosis). These effects were noticed at a low concentration and short exposure time. In the ultrastructural analyses, the treated parasites showed mitochondrial disruption, presence of electron-dense structures and chromatin condensation. These results suggest that this natural compound induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis on Leishmania without disturbing the plasma membrane.

  17. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  18. Gingival leishmaniasis in an HIV-negative patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Rosalino, Claúdia Maria Valette; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Morgado, Fernanda Nazaré; da Costa Martins, Ana Cristina; Moreira, João; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Conceição-Silva, Fátima

    2007-12-01

    Gingival leishmaniasis is unusual and is mainly observed in immunocompromised patients. We report a case involving the palate, uvula, and gingiva of an HIV-negative patient who was initially diagnosed as having paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient underwent a biopsy for parasite isolation and in situ histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The Leishmania spp. were detected in lesions of the uvula and gingiva. Despite the poor state of teeth, the gingival lesions were caused by American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). The gingival lesions presented an intense inflammatory infiltrate permeated by neutrophils. Immunohistochemistry revealed a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate. The patient responded well to treatment, with no reactivation during follow-up. The rarity of gingival involvement in immunocompetent patients and the need for inclusion of ATL in the differential diagnosis of gingival lesions are discussed.

  19. Assessment of the electrocardiogram in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos G. Sousa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As myocarditis and arrhythmias have been shown to occur in both human beings and dogs with leishmaniasis, electrocardiograms of 105 dogs serologically positive for this disease were assessed for rhythm disturbances and changes in ECG waves. A few expressive alterations were seen, including sinus arrest, right bundle branch block, and atrial premature beats in 14.3%, 4.8%, and 4.8% of the studied subjects, respectively. Also, the analysis of ECG waves showed changes suggestive of left atrium and ventricle enlargements, and myocardial hypoxia in some animals. Although cardiac compromise has been previously reported in dogs with leishmaniasis, only a small subset of dogs showed any alteration in the electrocardiogram, which cannot support the occurrence of myocarditis in this investigation.

  20. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumour associated with Leishmaniasis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizan, J T; Carreira, J T; Souza, N C; Carvalho, I R; Gomes, P B C; Lima, V M F; Orlandi, C M B; Rozza, D B; Koivisto, M B

    2012-12-01

    This report addresses an atypical transmissible venereal tumour in an 8-year-old bitch that was pluriparous and seropositive for leishmaniasis. There were ascites and a serosanguineous discharge from the vulva, but no lesions on the external genital mucosa. An aspirate of the peritoneal fluid showed mononuclear round cells characteristic of transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). Exploratory laparotomy revealed light red, granulomatous structures in the peritoneum, omentum, spleen, liver and uterine horns. Cytological and histopathological tests confirmed the diagnosis of intra-abdominal TVT. Dissemination of the TVT to several organs inside the abdominal cavity probably resulted from immunosuppression caused by leishmaniasis, which favoured the presence and aggressiveness of TVT. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Arnica Tincture Cures Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Golden Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Robledo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In search for potential therapeutic alternatives to existing treatments for cutaneous Leishmaniasis, we have investigated the effect of Arnica tincture Ph. Eur. (a 70% hydroethanolic tincture prepared from flowerheads of Arnica montana L. on the lesions caused by infection with Leishmania braziliensis in a model with golden hamsters. The animals were treated topically with a daily single dose of the preparation for 28 days. Subsequently, the healing process was monitored by recording the lesion size in intervals of 15 days up to day 90. As a result, Arnica tincture fully cured three out of five hamsters while one animal showed an improvement and another one suffered from a relapse. This result was slightly better than that obtained with the positive control, meglumine antimonate, which cured two of five hamsters while the other three showed a relapse after 90 days. This result encourages us to further investigate the potential of Arnica tincture in the treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

  2. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America and therapy perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Tovar A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum. In this geographical area, main vectors associated with transmission are Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi, with dogs being incriminated as the main reservoir involved in transmission of the disease. This pathology primarily affects children between 0 - 5 years, a highly susceptible population where socio-economic, environmental and nutritional factors affects the pathological outcome and increase the likelihood of vector-human contact. According to the World Health Organization (WHO recommended treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis is liposomal amphotericin B, a drug with a limited and variable availability between countries depending on market prices, which leaves pentavalent antimonial as the most widely used treatment despite the associated toxic effects. In the Americas, evidence on the efficacy of single-dose (monotherapy and combination therapies as options for treating these parasites is required.

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Horta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects millions of people around the world. Several species of Leishmania infect mouse strains, and murine models closely reproduce the cutaneous lesions caused by the parasite in humans. Mouse models have enabled studies on the pathogenesis and effector mechanisms of host resistance to infection. Here, we review the role of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and peroxynitrite (ONOO− in the control of parasites by macrophages, which are both the host cells and the effector cells. We also discuss the role of neutrophil-derived oxygen and nitrogen reactive species during infection with Leishmania. We emphasize the role of these cells in the outcome of leishmaniasis early after infection, before the adaptive Th-cell immune response.

  4. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  5. Development of Novel Therapeutics for Neglected Tropical Disease Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    geralc.baldeviano.fn@mail.mil 14. ABSTRACT Infections caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania include cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and...forms of leishmaniasis including CL involves multiple injections of antimonial drugs (GlucantimeTM or PentostamTM) for 20 days or more. Therefore...under development do not offer new alternatives because they are either reformulations or combinations of existing drugs . Hence, there is pressing

  6. Assessment of the electrocardiogram in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Marlos G.; Carareto, Roberta; Silva, Jeanna G.; Oliveira, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    As myocarditis and arrhythmias have been shown to occur in both human beings and dogs with leishmaniasis, electrocardiograms of 105 dogs serologically positive for this disease were assessed for rhythm disturbances and changes in ECG waves. A few expressive alterations were seen, including sinus arrest, right bundle branch block, and atrial premature beats in 14.3%, 4.8%, and 4.8% of the studied subjects, respectively. Also, the analysis of ECG waves showed changes suggestive of left atrium a...

  7. Budgetary impact of diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, Tália Santana Machado de; Azeredo-da-Silva, André Luís Ferreira de; Oliveira, Diana; Cota, Gláucia; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Rabello, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of the present study was to estimate the financial costs of the incorporation and/or replacement of diagnostic tests for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) over a period of three years. Six diagnostic tests were evaluated: the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), the IT LEISH rapid test, the parasitological examination of bone marrow aspirate, the dire...

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria: quadrennial assessment (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelmouffok, A B; Sellami, M; Boughoufalah, A

    2017-08-01

    To study the prevalence and epidemiological factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria from 2008 through 2011. The endemic site of M'Sila is the most important in Algeria after the historic site of Biskra, but the disease has spread rapidly and created new and important sites of infection, including Batna, Bechar, El Oued and Ghardaïa. The increased number of cases and the spread of this zoonosis require increased surveillance of its evolution and the application of adequate control measures.

  9. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M

    1998-08-01

    Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These

  10. One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J

    2011-10-10

    'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  11. Leishmaniose cutânea em cobaias (Cavia porcellus Cutaneous leishmaniasis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene Ecco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos três casos de leishmaniose cutânea em cobaias (Cavia porcellus machos de dois anos de idade que eram criadas como animais de estimação. As lesões macroscópicas eram semelhantes em duas cobaias e consistiam de nódulos cutâneos ulcerados no aspecto dorsal do pavilhão auricular de ambas as orelhas. Na outra cobaia, a lesão consistia de engrossamentos irregulares na pele do escroto que apareceram após uma orquiectomia realizada dois meses antes. A histopatologia era semelhante nos três casos e consistia de acentuada dermatite granulomatosa, com ulceração e numerosas formas protozoárias amastigotas no citoplasma de macrófagos, sugestivas de Leishmania sp. A microscopia eletrônica confirmou o diagnóstico de leishmaniose.Three cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in three two-year-old male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus raised as pets are described. Gross lesions were similar in two of the guinea pigs and consisted of raised and ulcerated cutaneous nodules in the dorsal aspect of the pinna of both ears. In another guinea pig the lesion consisted of irregular thickenning in the skin of the scrotum which followed an orchiectomy performed two months before. Histopathology was similar in the three cases and consisted of severe diffuse granulomatous dermatitis with ulceration and numerous intrahistiocytic protozoal amastigotes resembling Leishmania sp. Electron microscopy confirmed the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

  12. Therapeutic enhancement of protective immunity during experimental leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senad Divanovic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Available therapies are problematic due to toxicity, treatment duration and emerging drug resistance. Mouse models of leishmaniasis have demonstrated that disease outcome depends critically on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4(+ T cell responses, something mirrored in descriptive studies of human disease. Recombinant IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (rIL-2/DTx, a drug that is FDA-approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, has been reported to deplete regulatory CD4(+ T cells.We investigated the potential efficacy of rIL-2/DTx as adjunctive therapy for experimental infection with Leishmania major. Treatment with rIL-2/DTx suppressed lesional regulatory T cell numbers and was associated with significantly increased antigen-specific IFN-γ production, enhanced lesion resolution and decreased parasite burden. Combined administration of rIL-2/DTx and sodium stibogluconate had additive biological and therapeutic effects, allowing for reduced duration or dose of sodium stibogluconate therapy.These data suggest that pharmacological suppression of immune counterregulation using a commercially available drug originally developed for cancer therapy may have practical therapeutic utility in leishmaniasis. Rational reinvestigation of the efficacy of drugs approved for other indications in experimental models of neglected tropical diseases has promise in providing new candidates to the drug discovery pipeline.

  13. Low-cost thermotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sharaf Ali; Memon, Abdul Aziz; Auwj-e-Shamim; Baqi, Shehla; Witzig, Richard

    2014-12-01

    To study the efficacy of a low-cost heating pack device used for thermotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The study was conducted at the Department of Dermatology, Civil Hospital Sukkur, Pakistan, from April 20, 2012, to January 3, 2013. Thermotherapy with Hand-Held Exothermic Crystallisation Therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis was performed on each lesion of the participating subjects at an average initial temperature of 51.6°C for 3 minutes daily for 7 days. Patients were followed regularly for 6 months after the therapy. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Even though all 27 patients completed 1 week of thermotherapy, only 23(85.2%) patients could be evaluated for full treatment response since 4(14.8%) were lost to complete follow-up. By the final 180-day evaluation, 19 (83%) patients had been cured. Applications were well tolerated with no side effects. The devise was a convenient, safe, non-toxic and effective treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis at a fraction of the cost of standard antimonial treatment. Further studies are needed to certify its safety and efficacy as monotherapy for the condition.

  14. A new scenario in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2017-12-01

    Cutaneous lesions of leishmaniasis are easy to diagnose when clinically obvious or when amastigotes are numerous in the biopsy. However, this is not always the case. In difficult cases, the diagnosis of leishmaniasis requires a reliable tool to identify the microorganisms. The identification of the parasite via microscope has a superior sensitivity to that of culture, and molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), highly improve the sensitivity of the diagnosis. Alternatively, immunohistochemistry has emerged as an affordable alternative to PCR. Several laboratories have produced their own antibodies against Leishmania and seem satisfied with the results. Nevertheless, most of these antibodies are not commercialized or standardized. Pathology also welcomed the unexpected positivity of amastigotes with certain clones of anti-CD1a. The latter does not universally stain all species of Leishmania, with a low sensitivity for New World species. In conclusion, although anti-CD1a is a reliable complementary tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis, pathologists should familiarize themselves with one of the specific antibodies against Leishmania and globalize its use, standardizing and adapting the technique. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test in canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ochoa, Pablo; Lara, Ana; Couto, Guillermo; Marcen, Jose Miguel; Peris, Ana; Gascón, Manuel; Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2010-08-27

    The nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test (NBT) is a quick, easy and cheap assay based on the activation percentage of neutrophils in peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the NBT on healthy dogs and in dogs affected by different degrees of leishmaniasis (Stages I and IV). Forty healthy dogs, 20 dogs in Stage I and 20 dogs in Stage IV were included in the study. Three millilitres of blood were extracted from all the dogs via jugular venipuncture in tubes with EDTA. Incubation with NBT was performed depositing 0.05 ml of the leukocyte suspension in the same quantity of 0.1% concentration NBT. The results of the test were reported as NBT reduction rate which represents the percentage of the total of neutrophils evaluated that presented cytoplasmatic accumulations of formazan, meaning a positive NBT reduction. The mean NBT reduction rate for the healthy dogs group was 4.57%, 34% for Stage I dogs (mild disease) and 3.7% for dogs in Stage IV (severe disease), showing that dogs affected with leishmaniasis but with no clinical development of disease have a significantly higher neutrophil reactivity (pNBT with other tests prior to and during treatment are needed, NBT could be a good assay in canine leishmaniasis evaluation. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Update on tegumentary leishmaniasis and carrion's disease vectors in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; Vásquez, Gissella; Espada, Liz; Ramírez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Among approximately 190 species of Lutzomyia in Peru, only a small number have been identified as vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Western and inter-Andean valleys. These include L. peruensis, L. verrucarum, L. tejadai, L. ayacuchensis, and L. pescei. In the Amazon region, L. yuilli yuilli, L. chagasi, L. davisi, and L. auraensis are naturally infected, among the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. L. auraensis is newly reported as a potential vector of leishmaniasis in neotropical regions. Among the primary and most widely distributed vectors of human bartonellosis or Carrión's disease, L. verrucarum and L. peruensis are predominant in the Andean regions of northern, central, and southern Peru. Other potential vectors of Carrion's disease are L. serrana in the Monzon Valley, Huamalies, and Huanuco; L. pescei in Apurímac and Cusco; and L. robusta and L. maranonensis in Jaén, San Ignacio, and Utcubamba provinces, and the high forests of Peru. Because of the high prevalence of leishmaniasis and bartonellosis outside of known endemic areas in Peru, it is necessary to update data and distribution maps of these disease vectors. This may improve both prevention and control measures. Existing information about sandfly vectors in Peru is also provided in this article.

  17. A partnership model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited primary care settings: experiences from two nurse-managed health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Patricia; White, Mary P; Hamilton, Andrew; Pohl, Joanne M; Tanner, Clare; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Zheng, Kai

    2011-01-01

    To present a partnership-based and community-oriented approach designed to ease provider anxiety and facilitate the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in resource-limited primary care settings. The approach, referred to as partnership model, was developed and iteratively refined through the research team's previous work on implementing health information technology (HIT) in over 30 safety net practices. This paper uses two case studies to illustrate how the model was applied to help two nurse-managed health centers (NMHC), a particularly vulnerable primary care setting, implement EHR and get prepared to meet the meaningful use criteria. The strong focus of the model on continuous quality improvement led to eventual implementation success at both sites, despite difficulties encountered during the initial stages of the project. There has been a lack of research, particularly in resource-limited primary care settings, on strategies for abating provider anxiety and preparing them to manage complex changes associated with EHR uptake. The partnership model described in this paper may provide useful insights into the work shepherded by HIT regional extension centers dedicated to supporting resource-limited communities disproportionally affected by EHR adoption barriers. NMHC, similar to other primary care settings, are often poorly resourced, understaffed, and lack the necessary expertise to deploy EHR and integrate its use into their day-to-day practice. This study demonstrates that implementation of EHR, a prerequisite to meaningful use, can be successfully achieved in this setting, and partnership efforts extending far beyond the initial software deployment stage may be the key.

  18. Electrospray Encapsulation of Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Resiquimod in Polymer Microparticles for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the intracellular protozoan, Leishmania. A current treatment for cutaneous... leishmaniasis involves the delivery of imidazoquinolines via a topical cream. However, there are no parenteral formulations of imidazoquinolines for the most...deadly version of the disease, visceral leishmaniasis . This work investigates the use of electrospray to encapsulate the imidazoquinoline adjuvant

  19. The direct agglutination test as an alternative method for the diagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terán-Angel, Guillermo; Schallig, Henk; Zerpa, Olga; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Ulrich, Marian; Cabrera, Maira

    2007-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe clinical form of leishmaniasis and is often fatal without proper treatment. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is important, but often difficult in endemic areas. The aim was to evaluate a direct agglutination test as a potential visceral leishmaniasis

  20. High levels of C-reactive protein in the peripheral blood during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Theander, T G; ElHassan, A M

    2000-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a known sequel to visceral leishmaniasis in India and East Africa, and in Sudan about 50% of the kala-azar patients develop PKDL. In this study we followed kala-azar patients from diagnosis and up to 2 years after initiation of treatment. During...... and in keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of PKDL. The method however requires expensive equipment and reagents. The results of the present study indicate that kala-azar patients, who have a high risk of developing PKDL after treatment can be identified by measuring plasma CRP....

  1. Oronasal leishmaniasis caused by a parasite with an unusual isoenzyme profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, M.; Suliman, A.; Hashim, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    A 45-year-old Sudanese man from western Sudan presented with oronasal leishmaniasis of three years duration. He had no history of previous kala-azar or cutaneous leishmaniasis. The parasite isolated from the oral mucosa was characterized by isoenzymes using 12 enzymes and by polymerase chain...

  2. Serum neopterin concentrations during treatment of leishmaniasis: useful as test of cure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamerlinck, F. F.; van Gool, T.; Faber, W. R.; Kager, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Neopterin, a product of gamma-interferon-activated macrophages, was measured in sera from 28 patients (12 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and 16 patients with visceral leishmaniasis) to determine the utility as a marker of disease activity and therapeutic efficacy. Patients originated from

  3. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K

    1999-01-01

    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...

  4. Leishmaniasis isoleret til larynx som årsag til kronisk laryngitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mikkel; Munch-Petersen, Helga Richert; Møller, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis is uncommon outside Central and South America, where it is commonly caused by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis detected in a 78-year-old male, who presented with chronic hoarseness. Histologic examination of biopsies taken...

  5. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in an 11-year-old girl with ataxia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LETTER TO THE EDITOR. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in an 11-year-old girl with ataxia telangectasia Бcase report. Leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease caused by flagellates of the genus Leishmania and transmit- ted by sand fly. The reservoir hosts are humans, dogs, and rodents. It has three different morphological.

  6. Experimental challenge models for canine leishmaniasis in hamsters and dogs, optimization and application in vaccine research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    In dogs, leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum is a serious and potentially fatal disease. This parasite can also cause zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in children and immunocompromised adults. A vaccine for dogs would not only be of great value in veterinary medicine

  7. Presence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors surrounding the city of Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agudelo Luz A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia hartmanni, as a vector of Leishmania colombiensis and L. columbiana (Verrucarum group, recently incriminated in the transmission of leishmaniasis, and L. pia (Verrucarum group are reported for the first time in a periurban area of Medellín city. There is thus a risk of leishmaniasis transmission in this town.

  8. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  9. Immunity to Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Genetically Defined Live-Attenuated Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angamuthu Selvapandiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease endemic to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with three major clinical forms, self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Drug treatments are expensive and often result in the development of drug resistance. No vaccine is available against leishmaniasis. Subunit Leishmania vaccine immunization in animal models has shown some efficacy but little or none in humans. However, individuals who recover from natural infection are protected from reinfection and develop life-long protection, suggesting that infection may be a prerequisite for immunological memory. Thus, genetically altered live-attenuated parasites with controlled infectivity could achieve such memory. In this paper, we discuss development and characteristics of genetically altered, live-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites and their possible use as vaccine candidates against VL. In addition, we discuss the challenges and other considerations in the use of live-attenuated parasites.

  10. Toxicological analysis and effectiveness of oral Kalanchoe pinnata on a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, E C; Da Silva, S A G; Costa, S S; Santos, A P P T; Almeida, A P; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2003-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is an extremely difficult disease to treat. Previously, it was shown that oral Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis. Here, it is shown that the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), urea and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in mice orally treated with supraoptimal Kp doses for 30 days, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity to the liver, heart or kidney. Additionally, evidence is presented that human leishmaniasis may also be controlled with oral Kp. A 36-year-old man with an active cutaneous leishmaniasis was orally treated with 30 g wet weight of Kp leaves/day for 14 days. During the Kp treatment, the lesion stopped growing and slightly decreased. No adverse reactions or toxicity was observed. This study reports for the first time that Kalanchoe pinnata contains substances potentially active and safe for the oral treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Melchior, Leonardo Augusto Kohatsu; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cardoso, Cristiane de Oliveira; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-04-13

    The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN), and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0%) and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3%) were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro's skin test predominated (66.4%), with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.

  12. Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Fernandes Brilhante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN, and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0% and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3% were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro’s skin test predominated (66.4%, with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  14. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

    頁次:89-93

  15. Blood pressure and renal injury in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos G. Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract: Systemic hypertension is known to be a common consequence of chronic renal disease, which is frequently diagnosed in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. Although many veterinary investigations have looked at the renal injury caused by Leishmania spp., the role played by this complication in the development of arterial hypertension documented in some animals with visceral leishmaniasis is not completely understood. In this study, 18 adult dogs with naturally-occurring visceral leishmaniasis and varying clinical signs underwent an indirect blood pressure measurement. Also, sera and spot urine were used for laboratory tests. The median systolic blood pressure was 135.2mmHg (95% confidence interval: 128.5-147.7, median mean arterial pressure was 105.8mmHg (98.3-110.4, and median diastolic arterial pressure was 88.5mmHg (77.8-92.5. No differences existed between asymptomatic and symptomatic animals regarding arterial pressure, and no correlations were documented between blood pressure and serum creatinine, blood urea, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, urine specific gravity, and the fractional excretion of sodium and potassium. Although an association between hypertension and the identification of inflammation on histopathology could not be demonstrated in hypertensive animals, the assessment of kidney samples from 12 dogs indicated mild inflammation with a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate (6/12, moderate inflammation with multifocal lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic infiltrates (3/12, and multifocal degeneration and protein casts (2/12. Anti-Leishmania spp. immunohistochemistry assays stained the renal epithelium in 2/12 of the animals. Even though mild systemic hypertension was documented in a small subset of animals, no relationship between the severity of clinical signs and hypertension could be anticipated.

  16. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA, isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae, were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L. infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  17. Molecular prevalence and estimated risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. El-Badry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Cutanoeus leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area including Libya. The aim of the present study is to detect the prevalent Leishmania species obtained from smeared cutaneous lesions in addition to studying the diverse sociodemographic risk factors of the reported cases from different provinces of Libya. Methods: A total of 250 archived microscopic slides from clinically suspected cases of CL attending the leishmaniasis clinic in the Dermatology Department, Tripoli Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, were microscopically examined. Leishmania-DNA was amplified using combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting kinetoplast-DNA (kDNA and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1-DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for direct Leishmania species identification. Results: Using kDNA and ITS1-PCR, 22.5% and 20% of cases were positive, respectively. Only 14.4% of cases were positive using microscopy. Nominating ITS1-PCR as the reference standard, kDNA-PCR assay was highly sensitive while microscopy was 100% specific but of limited sensitivity (72% with a substantial agreement and an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were the predominant species reported from the north-western provinces including Tripoli, Zintan, and Gharyan with their related subprovinces; Asabaa, Mizdan, Alkawasem, and Alorban. CL prevailed more among men and residents of rural areas. House wives and students were the most affected professions. Children were the least affected, while the middle-aged were the most affected age group. Conclusion: L. major and L. tropica are the predominant species in the north-western regions of Libya. ITS1-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay offered a sensitive, specific, and faster diagnostic method especially with negative parasitologic examination. Keywords: Archived microscopic slides, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, ITS1-PCR, kDNA-PCR

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

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    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  19. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, Marcia Rosa de; TAFURI, Wagner Luis; NICOLI, Jacques Robert; VIEIRA, Enio Cardillo; MELO, Maria Norma; VIEIRA, Leda Quercia

    1999-01-01

    Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g) and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecti...

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient receiving methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; Güell, Elena; Martínez Montauti, Joaquín; Pineda, Antonio; Corominas, Hèctor

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are susceptible to severe infections such as leishmaniasis. As L. infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean region, it is necessary to rule this infectious process out in any RA patient presenting with fever and pancytopenia. An early diagnosis based on a high suspicion can prevent a fatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. Antissaliva Antibodies of Lutzomyia Longipalpis in area of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Thiago Leite; Fernandes, Magda Freitas; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Levay, Ana Paula Silva; Almeida da Cunha, Elenice Brandão; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of antissaliva antibodies of Lutzomyia longipalpis in human hosts living in area of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the Center-West region of Brazil. The presence of antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis exhibited a strong correlation with the protection and development of antibodies against Leishmania sp. Of the 492 children studied, elevated antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis were detected in 38.4% of the participants. There was a higher percentage of positivity (64.7%) among children who exhibited anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies and among those who were positive in the delayed hypersensitivity test (34.8%).

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis: immunology and prospects for a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, P M; Aebischer, T

    2011-10-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is the most severe clinical form of a spectrum of neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Caused mainly by L. donovani and L. infantum/chagasi, HVL accounts for more than 50 000 deaths every year. Drug therapy is available but costly, and resistance against several drug classes has evolved. Here, we review our current understanding of the immunology of HVL and approaches to and the status of vaccine development against this disease. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  4. Mouse genetic model for clinical and immunological heterogeneity of leishmaniasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie; Svobodová, M.; Havelková, Helena; Krulová, Magdalena; Badalová, Jana; Nohýnková, E.; Hart, A. A. M.; Schlegel, David; Volf, P.; Demant, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2002), s. 174-183 ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA MZd NM28; GA ČR GA310/00/0760; GA MŠk OK 394 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI55000323; WHO(XX) TDR I.D. 970772; EC(XE) ERBI-C15-CT98-0317; EC(XE) BIO-4-CT98-0445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Leishmaniasis * mouse model * complex disease Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2002

  5. [THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION OF LEISHMANIASIS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: THE FIRST VALID CASES OF LOCAL TRANSMISSION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponrovsky, E N; Strelkova, M V; Zavoikin, V D; Tumolskaya, N I; Mazmanyan, M V; Baranets, M S; Zhirenkina, E N

    2015-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data available in the literature and statistical offices and the results of their observations of the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in the Russian Federation (RF). In October 1991 to December 2014, the RF registered 89, leishmaniasis cases, including 83 imported cases from 24 countries and 6 local cases. Out of the 83 imported cases, there were those diagnosed with anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (n=31), zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (n=20), visceral leishmaniasis (n=31), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (n=1). The Republic of Dagestan and Eastern Crimea are visceral Ieishmaniasis-enderpic, areas. The obtained data on the local cases of visceral leisimaniasis in Dagestan and on its sporadic cases in Crimea suggest that it is necessary to conduct epidemiological, epizootological, and entomological surveys in the above areas and to develop a system for visceral leishmaniasis epidemiological surveillance encompassing the whole package of antiepidemic measures. The effective treatment of leishmaniases requires that the RF Ministry of Health should register some current antileishmanial drugs (such as Glucantime) as soon as possible.

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thiel, P P A M; Zeegelaar, J E; van Gool, T; Faber, W R; Kager, P A

    2011-05-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic investigations for cutaneous leishmaniasis included Giemsa stain, culture, PCR and NASBA and histopathology of biopsies. Treatment of leishmaniasis was with sodium stibogluconate, given intravenously or intralesionally, the latter with cryotherapy. In 1998 and 2004 cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania mexicana infection was diagnosed in 25 persons out of 99 (attack rate 25.2%) and 14 persons out of 80 (attack rate 17.5%) respectively. In 2009 cutaneous leishmaniasis was not acquired. Skin problems were common during and after jungle training. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was important in the first two cohorts but not observed in the third cohort. Factors that could have played a role in the absence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the third cohort include variability in transmission and availability of better preventive measures and adherence to these. Sodium stibogluconate treatment, intralesional or intravenous, was effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reevaluating leishmanin skin test as a marker for immunity against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Boroujeni, Amir; Aminjavaheri, Malih; Moshtaghian, Bahador; Momeni, Arash; Momeni, Ali Z

    2013-07-01

    The leishmanin skin test (LST) has been used for clinical diagnosis of leishmaniasis and epidemiological studies of the disease. Thus far, evidence has suggested that LST conversion indicates a degree of protection against leishmaniasis. In this study, we have put this assumption to test. A total of 273 participants with positive LST living in a hyperendemic area for leishmaniasis were followed for three years for any occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Twenty-two of the 273 participants contracted leishmaniasis during the 3-year follow-up. These new cases included participants who had a previous history of active disease, those who had a history of leishmanization, or those who were suspected of having a history of subclinical infection. In this study, the incidence of leishmaniasis in individuals with positive LST was close to the general incidence of the disease in the same hyperendemic area. These results suggest that although LST conversion may be a marker for partial immunity towards leishmaniasis, it may not, however, indicate complete protection against the disease, and consequently there is a need for revision of current vaccine development approaches which are based on rendering vaccinated individuals LST positive. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. A survey of sandflies in the affected areas of leishmaniasis, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukra, Kotchapan; Kanjanopas, Kobkarn; Amsakul, Sakultip; Rittaton, Virot; Mungthin, Mathirut; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania siamensis was firstly described as a causative agent of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in southern provinces of Thailand since 2008. The spread of leishmaniasis depends on the distribution of the vectors and reservoir hosts. Unfortunately, little is known about these vital factors. The objective of this study was to identify the distribution of sandfly species, their density, and their habitats in the affected areas of leishmaniasis, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey of sandflies was conducted in three provinces of southern Thailand where leishmaniasis cases were previously reported. The collection of sandflies was performed using CDC light traps for four consecutive months, from March to June 2009. A total of 2,698 sandflies were collected in the affected areas. Among 1,451 female sandflies, six species of genus Sergentomyia were identified, i.e., Sergentomyia gemmea, Sergentomyia iyengari, Sergentomyia barraudi, Sergentomyia indica, Sergentomyia silvatica, and Sergentomyia perturbans. S. gemmea (81.4 %) was the most predominant species in all areas. In addition, one species of the genus Phlebotomus, Phlebotomus argentipes, a known vector of leishmaniasis was also detected. The distribution of sandfly species in these leishmaniasis-affected areas was different from the previous studies in other areas of Thailand. Further studies are needed to proof whether these sandflies can be the natural vectors of leishmaniasis.

  9. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  10. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: first clinical isolation of Leishmania major from 18 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in four geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Çulha, Gülnaz; Uzun, Soner; Harman, Mehmet; Topal, Suhan Günaştı; Okudan, Fulya; Zeyrek, Fadile; Gündüz, Cumhur; Östan, İpek; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Akyar, Işın; Erat, Ayşegül; Güngör, Dilek; Kayabaşı, Çağla; Çavuş, İbrahim; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Özbel, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    To report isolation of Leishmania major strains obtained from 18 Turkish autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected with L. major between 2011 and 2014. Initial diagnosis relied on microscopy and culture in enriched medium, prepared by adding specific amounts of liver extract, protein and lipid sources to NNN medium. Promastigotes were then transferred to RPMI medium including 10% of foetal calf serum for mass culture. Species-specific real-time PCR targeting ITS1 region of Leishmania spp. was performed using both lesion aspiration samples and cultured promastigotes. Two of 18 isolates were identified by isoenzyme analysis in the Leishmaniasis Reference Center in Montpellier, France. Each isolate was inoculated into the footpads of six mice to observe the pathogenicity of L. major. Developing lesions were observed, and the thickening of footpads was measured weekly. Melting curve analyses of 18 isolates showed a peak concordant with L. major, and two of them were confirmed by isoenzyme analyses as L. major zymodeme MON103. In the mouse model, acute lesions seen on day 21 were accepted as an indication of heavy infection. Severe impairments were observed on all mouse footpads over 3 weeks, which even progressed to extremity amputation. Cutaneous leishmaniasis-causing L. major was recently identified in Adana province in southern Turkey, with PCR. Our study shows that such CL cases are not limited to Adana but currently present from western to Southeastern Anatolia, and along the Mediterranean coast. The role of small mammals, the main reservoirs of L. major in Anatolia, needs to be elucidated, as do the underlying factors that cause severe clinical manifestations in L. major infections in Turkey, contrary to the infections in neighbouring countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Leishmaniasis cutánea difusa en un paciente con sida Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with AIDS

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    Carlos Pérez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar un paciente con leishmaniasis cutánea difusa y sida y comentar el tema.
    Materiales y métodos. Soldado de 29 años, procedente de San José del Guaviare, con pérdida de 18 kilos de peso en los últimos 10 meses y erupción generalizada de dos meses de evolución. El Elisa y el Western blot fueron positivos para virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Tenía 92 LT CD4/mm3. Presentaba máculas, pápulas y placas eritematoescamosas, psoriasiformes y generalizadas, cuyas biopsias demostraron abundantes microorganismos fagocitados por macrófagos, que se teñían de negro con la coloración de Gomory. Se diagnosticó histoplasmosis diseminada. Se inició tratamiento antirretroviral y antimicótico con itraconazol sin observar mejoría.
    Resultados. La anfotericina B produjo mejoría, pero las lesiones recidivaron más numerosas y nodulares con compromiso oral. Once meses después del comienzo de su enfermedad, nuevas biopsias de piel y la revisión de las anteriores confirmaron que el paciente tenía leishmaniasis cutánea difusa. El cultivo no permitió aislar el parásito. La miltefosina produjo mejoría importante. Las pápulas y máculas recidivaron varios meses después; recibió 52 ampollas de glucantime® durante dos meses, consiguiéndose la curación clínica, situación que permanece dos años y medio después de iniciada la enfermedad.
    Conclusiones. La leishmaniasis cutánea difusa debe plantear sospecha de sida. El tratamiento es difícil; debe ser antirretroviral y antileishmaniásico, con profilaxis antiparasitaria. Los amastigotes de Leishmania no son positivos con la coloración de Gomory en técnicas controladas; se diferencian del histoplasma por morfología, cultivo, inmunohistoquímica, anticuerpos específicos y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. La asociación leishmaniasissida es beneficiosa para ambos gérmenes; es posible el aumento de casos en Colombia por el auge de ambas entidades

  12. Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: spatial distribution and seasonal variations from 2009 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Iddawela, Devika

    2018-01-25

    Leishmaniasis is listed as one of the eight neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization and the number of cases in endemic areas has seen a sharp rise in the past decade. More alarmingly, reports have shown that leishmaniasis is spreading to non-endemic areas of the world due to co-infection with HIV. In Sri Lanka, leishmaniasis is considered as a notifiable disease from 2008 and has seen a rising trend of incidence since then. This is the first study describing the burden, seasonal variation and spatial distribution of leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka since the disease has been included as a notifiable disease. Data on health statistics from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from published databases maintained by the Epidemiology Unit of the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka. Climatic data for Sri Lanka were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and the populations in administrative districts were obtained from the Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. Descriptive spatiotemporal analysis, correlation between leishmaniasis incidence and climatic variables were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The total number of people reported with leishmaniasis during the study period was 8487. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the prominent form in Sri Lanka while few visceral and muco-cutaneous cases were reported. Although leishmaniasis patients were identified from all 25 districts in the island, almost 90% of the total caseload was reported from Anuradhapura, Hambantota, Polonnaruwa, Kurunegala and Matara districts. The highest number of patients was reported from the Anuradhapura district and the highest incidence per 100,000 persons was reported from the Hambantota district. The disease has a seasonal trend, a peak of leishmaniasis occur in July to September in the north-central region and in October to December in the southern region. Maximum temperature, humidity and wind speed are significantly associated climatic variables with leishmaniasis in

  13. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Raju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoal parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Immune suppression caused by HIV infection is an important factor for atypical presentation and widespread progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Diffuse (disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection is emerging as an extremely serious new disease. A 38-year-old HIV-positive man presented with a 12-month history of a progressive papule and nodular eruptions on face and extremities with infiltrations of nasal and oral mucosa. We report the case due to its atypical, widespread muco-cutaneous presentation masquerading as lepromatous leprosy.

  14. Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg

    2013-02-27

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Evaluation of the organization of health services as a strategy for the prevention and control of visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Miriam Nogueira; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Luz, Zélia Maria Profeta da

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the organization of health services as a strategy for the prevention and control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ribeirão das Neves, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2010 to 2012. this was a case study evaluation of the degree of implementation of a strategy for the integration of health care services, control of zoonosis and epidemiological surveillance; it consisted of observing the work process, interviewing health professionals and analysing secondary data from information systems. implementation was partially adequate (84%); in terms of structure, the human resources component had the worst evaluation (64%) whilst in terms of work process, evaluation was 80% for reorganization of care and 77% for surveillance; in the period 2010-2012 there was a 20% increase in reported cases of VL and a 20% reduction in the time interval between reporting a case and starting treatment. the strategy contributed to the improvement of the organization of VL prevention and control actions.

  16. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

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    Andreina de Carvalho ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality ofPetrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%. Most of the patients were males (59.4%. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%, with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  17. Topical liposomal azithromycin in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Omid; Layegh, Pouran; Hashemzadeh, Sara; Khoddami, Mohsen

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment is based on pentavalant antimony (sbv) drugs which are accompanied by many side effects and are facing ever-increasing resistance. Topical treatment of CL is an attractive alternative avoiding toxicities of parenteral therapy while being administered through a simple painless route. The liposomal formulations of different drugs have recently been increasingly used in the treatment of several types of leishmaniasis. The efficacy of a topical liposomal azithromycin formulation was compared with intralesional meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) in the treatment of CL. Sixty-six patients with 97 lesions who met our inclusion criteria were randomly divided into two groups. One group was administered with the topical liposomal form of azithromycin twice daily. The other group was treated by weekly intralesional injections of glucantime with a volume of 0.5-2 cm3 into each lesion till complete blanching of the lesion occurred. Clinical evaluations were performed weekly during the treatment course (8 weeks) by a single dermatologist for both groups. Per-protocol analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.764 (0.714-0.821). Serious drug side effects were not observed in either group. Topical liposomal azithromycin has the same efficacy as intralesional glucantime in the treatment of CL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Prata Aluízio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present open pilot study was conducted to assess the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Araçuaí and Varzelândia, MG. Twenty-four patients with less of six months of disease evolution were treated after clinical examination, Montenegro test and a biopsy. The treatment schemes consisted of oral doses of 500 mg per day for 3, 5 and 10 days and of 1000 mg for two days. A clinical control was performed monthly and treatment cycles were repeated when necessary until full reepithelialization of the lesions. On the occasion of the final evaluation, 20 patients had completed the study and 17 of them (85% were cured. The time to obtain a cure was 60 days ifor 6 (30% patients, 90 days for 7 (35%, and 120 for 4 (20%. The three patients with treatment failure received a pentavalent antimonial for 20 days. No adverse reactions to the medication were observed and a 14 month follow-up did not show recurrence in any patient. These results suggest that azithromycin can be a good therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania Viannia brasiliensis.

  19. Cytotoxic T cells mediate pathology and metastasis in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Fernanda O Novais

    Full Text Available Disease progression in response to infection can be strongly influenced by both pathogen burden and infection-induced immunopathology. While current therapeutics focus on augmenting protective immune responses, identifying therapeutics that reduce infection-induced immunopathology are clearly warranted. Despite the apparent protective role for murine CD8⁺ T cells following infection with the intracellular parasite Leishmania, CD8⁺ T cells have been paradoxically linked to immunopathological responses in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Transcriptome analysis of lesions from Leishmania braziliensis patients revealed that genes associated with the cytolytic pathway are highly expressed and CD8⁺ T cells from lesions exhibited a cytolytic phenotype. To determine if CD8⁺ T cells play a causal role in disease, we turned to a murine model. These studies revealed that disease progression and metastasis in L. braziliensis infected mice was independent of parasite burden and was instead directly associated with the presence of CD8⁺ T cells. In mice with severe pathology, we visualized CD8⁺ T cell degranulation and lysis of L. braziliensis infected cells. Finally, in contrast to wild-type CD8⁺ T cells, perforin-deficient cells failed to induce disease. Thus, we show for the first time that cytolytic CD8⁺ T cells mediate immunopathology and drive the development of metastatic lesions in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  20. IL-22 Protects against Tissue Damage during Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

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    Ciara Gimblet

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease characterized by ulcerating skin lesions, the resolution of which requires an effective, but regulated, immune response that limits parasite growth without causing permanent tissue damage. While mechanisms that control the parasites have been well studied, the factors regulating immunopathologic responses are less well understood. IL-22, a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines, can contribute to wound healing, but in other instances promotes pathology. Here we investigated the role of IL-22 during leishmania infection, and found that IL-22 limits leishmania-induced pathology when a certain threshold of damage is induced by a high dose of parasites. Il22-/- mice developed more severe disease than wild-type mice, with significantly more pathology at the site of infection, and in some cases permanent loss of tissue. The increased inflammation was not due to an increased parasite burden, but rather was associated with the loss of a wound healing phenotype in keratinocytes. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that during cutaneous leishmaniasis, IL-22 can play a previously unappreciated role in controlling leishmania-induced immunopathology.

  1. Unusual forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M; Greenberger, S; Baum, S; Pavlotsky, F; Barzilai, A; Schwartz, E

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania major (L. major) is common in the Middle East; however, this skin infection may be under-diagnosed when it presents atypically. To highlight the occurrence of uncommon presentations of CL that may elude diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed among patients who presented at The Sheba Medical Center between 2005 and 2014 with atypical clinical presentations of CL due to L. major. Twelve patients with unusual clinical presentations of L. major CL were identified. All infections were acquired in L. major - endemic areas of Israel. The average age was 37 years. The average number of lesions was 2. Nine patients presented with a form that mimicked other forms of CL, such as lupoid, giant ulcer, sporotrichoid and recidivans, and three had a variant resembling other infectious skin diseases, such as erysipeloid and verruciform. All patients required systemic therapy. Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major can masquerade as many other infectious and inflammatory diseases. In addition, it can mimic clinical forms of New World CL. We suggest that in endemic countries or in travellers returning from countries where L. major is endemic, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania-specific DNA should be performed routinely in cases of unusual presentations of dermatitis with a single or a few lesions, even if a diagnosis of CL was not considered by the referring clinician. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmaniose recidiva cútis

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    Ciro Martins Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because of the challenges imposed by treatment.Paciente do sexo masculino, 18 anos. Dois anos após tratamento insuficiente para leishmaniose tegumentar americana, apresentou, na mesma localização, lesão formada por cicatriz atrófica central e nódulos verrucosos na periferia. Era imunocompetente, hígido e negava qualquer trauma local. O diagnóstico de leishmaniose recidiva cutis foi feito através de cultura do aspirado da lesão. Realizou tratamento com N-metilglucamina (20mgSbV/kg/dia associado à pentoxifilina (1200mg/dia durante 30 dias alcançando cura clínica. Os casos semelhantes requerem atenção diferenciada pela dificuldade ao tratamento.

  3. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  4. Leprosy Associated with Atypical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nicaragua and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Lucrecia Acosta; Caballero, Nelson; Fuentes, Lesny Ruth; Muñoz, Pedro Torres; Gómez Echevarría, Jose Ramón; López, Montserrat Pérez; Bornay Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Stanford, John L; Stanford, Cynthia A; Donoghue, Helen D

    2017-10-01

    In Central America, few cases of leprosy have been reported, but the disease may be unrecognized. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and histology. Preliminary field work in Nicaragua and Honduras found patients, including many children, with skin lesions clinically suggestive of atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis or indeterminate leprosy. Histology could not distinguish these diseases although acid-fast organisms were visible in a few biopsies. Lesions healed after standard antimicrobial therapy for leprosy. In the present study, patients, family members, and other community members were skin-tested and provided nasal swabs and blood samples. Biopsies were taken from a subgroup of patients with clinical signs of infection. Two laboratories analyzed samples, using local in-house techniques. Mycobacterium leprae , Leishmania spp. and Leishmania infantum were detected using polymerase chain reactions. Mycobacterium leprae DNA was detected in blood samples and nasal swabs, including some cases where leprosy was not clinically suspected. Leishmania spp. were also detected in blood and nasal swabs. Most biopsies contained Leishmania DNA and coinfection of Leishmania spp. with M. leprae occurred in 33% of cases. Mycobacterium leprae DNA was also detected and sequenced from Nicaraguan and Honduran environmental samples. In conclusion, leprosy and leishmaniasis are present in both regions, and leprosy appears to be widespread. The nature of any relationship between these two pathogens and the epidemiology of these infections need to be elucidated.

  5. Novel low-cost thermotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

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    Braulio M Valencia

    Full Text Available Thermotherapy is an accepted alternative therapy for new-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, but current heat-delivery modalities are too costly to be made widely available to endemic populations. We adapted a low-cost heat pack named the HECT-CL device that delivers safe, reliable, and renewable conduction heat. 25 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis completed treatment with the device at an initial temperature of 52°C ± 2°C for 3 minutes to each lesion, repeated daily for 7 days, and were followed up for 6 months by direct observation. The overall definitive clinical cure rate was 60%. Concurrently, 13 patients meeting minimally significant exclusion criteria received identical compassionate use treatment with a cumulative definitive cure rate of 68.4%, 75% for those who had experienced CL relapse after prior antimonial treatment. Therapy was well tolerated. Reversible second-degree burns occurred in two patients and no bacterial super-infections were observed. HECT-CL is a promising treatment and deserves further study to verify its safety and efficacy as adjuvant and mono- therapy.

  6. Histopathologic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis and use of CD1a staining for amastigotes in Old World and New World leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundharkrishnan, Lohini; North, Jeffrey P

    2017-12-01

    Positive CD1a staining of Leishmania has been reported in Old World leishmaniasis, but the sensitivity of such staining for other Leishmania species is unknown. A retrospective review was done on skin biopsies of proven cutaneous leishmaniasis based on histology, immunohistochemistry, culture and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We assessed the pattern of inflammation present and assessed for CD1a (MTB1 clone) positivity in amastigotes. Patients without a clearly documented travel history to delineate Old vs New World leishmaniasis and cases without tissue for CD1a staining were excluded. Various patterns of granulomatous inflammation were observed including sarcoidal (31%), diffuse (25%), suppurative and granulomatous (25%), palisaded (13%) and lichenoid (6%). CD1a staining was positive in amastigotes in 9 of 16 cases (56%). Five of 7 (71%) cases of Old World disease were CD1a positive, while 4 of 9 cases (44%) of New World cases were positive. Multiple patterns of granulomatous inflammation occur in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Our results confirm CD1a (MTB1 clone) can be a diagnostic adjunct to highlight amastigotes in biopsies of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with variable positivity in both Old World and New World forms of the disease. As 44% of cases were CD1a negative in our cohort, there are significant limitations to this screening approach. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Political Unrest and Educational Electronic Resource Usage in a Conflict Zone, Kashmir (Indian Administered Kashmir): Log Analysis as Politico Analytical Tool=Hindistan Tarafından Yönetilen Keşmir Anlaşmazlık Bölgesi’nde Siyasi Karışıklık ve Eğitimle İlgili Elektronik Kaynakların Kullanımı: Siyasi Analiz Aracı Olarak Log Analizleri

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeer Gul; Samrin Nabi; Samina Mushtaq; Tariq Ahmad Shah; Suhail Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Electronic resource usage has proved as one of the best decision making tools in the library setups. Electronic resource usage in relation to the political disturbance can act as one of the tools to highlight the impact of political disturbance on educational setups in general and the electronic resource usage in particular. The study takes a serious look in the electronic resource usage in Kashmir and the impact of unrest on it. The paper highlights a relational platform between educat...

  8. First Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Infection in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, Pieter-Paul A. M.; van Gool, Tom; Kager, Piet A.; Bart, Aldert

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective

  9. New perspectives for leishmaniasis chemotherapy over current anti-leishmanial drugs: a patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Silva, Alice; Guimarães, Pedro Pires Goulart; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Sinisterra, Rubén Dario

    2015-03-01

    Although leishmaniasis is estimated to cause the ninth largest disease burden among individual infectious diseases, it is still one of the most neglected diseases in terms of drug development. Current drugs are highly toxic, resistance is common and compliance of patients to treatment is low, as treatment is long and drug price is high. In this review, the authors carried out a patent landscape in search for new perspectives for leishmaniasis therapy. This search encompassed patent documents having priority date between 1994 and 2014. Selected compounds were compared to current anti-leishmanial drugs regarding efficacy and toxicity, when experimental data were available. Most patents related to drugs for leishmaniasis have not been produced by the pharmaceutical industry but rather by public research institutes or by universities, and the majority of the inventions disclosed are still in preclinical phase. There is an urgent need to find new ways of funding research for leishmaniasis drugs, incentivizing product development partnerships and pushing forward innovation.

  10. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  11. Case Report: First Case of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Ricardo V. P. F.; Kent, Alida D.; Adams, Emily R.; van der Veer, Charlotte; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; Mans, Dennis R. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Fat, Rudy F. M. Lai A.

    2012-01-01

    The main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname is Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. This case report presents a patient infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a species never reported before in Suriname. This finding has clinical implications, because L. braziliensis

  12. Epidemiological role of a rodent in Morocco: Case of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Mohamed Echchakery

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commensal rodents as well as wild ones may present a potential risk to public health. They are reservoirs or vectors of many pathogens. This review provides an update on their epidemiological role in the spread of leishmaniasis in Morocco. In Morocco, the order Rodentia is represented by 7 families and 32 species of which Rattus norvegicus, Psammomys obesus, Mastomys erythrolecus, Meriones shawi, Meriones crassus and Meriones libycus are considered reservoirs of leishmaniasis in Asia, Midle East and Africa. With the aim to define the extent of zoonotic leishmaniasis risk in Morocco, we represent and discuss the geographical distribution of these potential reservoirs in relation to that of Phlebotomus papatasi, proven vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania major in Morocco.

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis after travel to Cyprus and successful treatment with miltefosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Walochnik, Julia; Pustelnik, Tom; Auer, Herbert; Mooseder, Gerhard

    2011-04-01

    A patient presenting with an atypical manifestation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after travel to Cyprus was successfully treated with miltefosine. The K26 typing revealed a hitherto undescribed strain of the Leishmania donovani/infantum complex as the causing agent.

  14. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous symptoms in a patient treated with infliximab followed by fatal consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzlova, Katerina; Votrubova, Jana; Kacerovska, Denisa; Lukas, Milan; Bortlik, Martin; Rohacova, Hana; Nohynkova, Eva; Vojackova, Nadezda; Fialova, Jorga; Hercogova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by parasitic flagellates of the genus Leishmania. The authors present a case of 44-year-old man with Crohn's disease treated successfully with infliximab. This case report shows rare visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous symptoms in an immunocompromised patient. Skin manifestations may occur before or after the visceral infection and they are often diverse. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Antibodies against sand flies saliva in domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Košťálová, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to test sera of domestic animals from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in north and northwest Ethiopia for antibodies against presumed vector P. orientalis salivary glands and to clarify behavior of the sand fly and the role of domestic animals in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis. Specific IgG antibodies against P. orientalis saliva were tested in dogs, cattle, goats, sheep and donkeys. Above the cut-off value there was 76 % analyzed dogs, 15 % cat...

  16. Vulnerability to the transmission of human visceral leishmaniasis in a Brazilian urban area

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    Celina Roma Sánchez de Toledo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the determinants for the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis linked to the conditions of vulnerability. METHODS This is an ecological study, whose spatial analysis unit was the Territorial Analysis Unit in Araguaína, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. We have carried out an analysis of the sociodemographic and urban infrastructure situation of the municipality. Normalized primary indicators were calculated and used to construct the indicators of vulnerability of the social structure, household structure, and urban infrastructure. From them, we have composed a vulnerability index. Kernel density estimation was used to evaluate the density of cases of human visceral leishmaniasis, based on the coordinates of the cases. Bivariate global Moran’s I was used to verify the existence of spatial autocorrelation between the incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis and the indicators and index of vulnerability. Bivariate local Moran’s I was used to identify spatial clusters. RESULTS We have observed a pattern of centrifugal spread of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality, where outbreaks of the disease have progressively reached central and peri-urban areas. There has been no correlation between higher incidences of human visceral leishmaniasis and worse living conditions. Statistically significant clusters have been observed between the incidences of human visceral leishmaniasis in both periods analyzed (2007 to 2009 and 2010 to 2012 and the indicators and index of vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS The environment in circumscribed areas helps as protection factor or increases the local vulnerability to the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis. The use of methodology that analyzes the conditions of life of the population and the spatial distribution of human visceral leishmaniasis is essential to identify the most vulnerable areas to the spread/maintenance of the disease.

  17. Topical treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) with formulations containing pentamidine

    OpenAIRE

    COMANDOLLI-WYREPKOWSKI, Claudia Dantas; GRAFOVA, Iryna; NAIFF, Maricleide de Farias; AVELLA, Maurizio; GENTILE, Gennaro; GRAFOV, Andriy; FRANCO, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies mainly on pentavalent antimonials salts and second-line drugs include pentamidine and amphotericin B, but these therapies have side effects and require parenteral administration. The aim of this work was to evaluate the topical formulations containing pentamidine isethionate (PI) in the experimental treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected in the nose with Leishmania (Leish...

  18. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Azar; Fakhar, Mahdi; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is considered an endemic zoonosis in some parts of Iran and dogs are main reservoirs, which play role in the transmission cycle of human leishmaniasis. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1982 to 2015 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, Iran medex and Scientific Information Database (SID). A total of 39 articles concerning dogs, 6 articles on jackals, 4 articles on wolves and 4 articles on foxes, reporting the prevalence of CVL from different regions of Iran fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Totally, 19903 dogs, 151 jackals, 42 wolves and 44 foxes were examined and the overall prevalence rate of CVL in Iran was estimated to be as following: in dogs 16% (95% CI: 13-19%), in jackals 10% (95% CI: 5-15%), in wolves 10% (95% CI: 5-15%) and in foxes 10% (95% CI: 1k19%), respectively. There was a significant difference in infection rate between male and female dogs, the infection in males 9% (95% CI: 8.8-10.5%) was more than females 7% (95% CI: 5.5-7.5%) (p=0.024). Also, the rate of infection was significantly higher in older dogs than younger ones (p<0.047) while in dogs younger than 1year was 12% (95% CI: 6-18%), in 1-2 years 10% (95% CI: 6-14%), in 3-5 years 16% (95% CI: 9-22%) and in those which were over 7 years 31% (95% CI: 19-44%), respectively. Our meta- regression analysis revealed the significant correlation between stray and owned dogs: the infection rate in stray 10% (95% CI: 5-4%) was higher than those owned 6% (95% CI: 3- 8%) (p=0.037). Also, the prevalence of infection in rural dogs 36% (95% CI: -1-72%) is significantly higher than urban dogs, 19% (95% CI:-1-40%) (p=0.013). Although most (81%) of infected dogs had no clinical signs (asymptomatic), meta-regression analysis showed that the infection rate in

  19. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddawela, Devika; Vithana, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda; Atapattu, Dhilma; Wijekoon, Lanka

    2018-03-06

    Leishmaniasis, a vector borne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study. A sample of 509 clinically suspected cases of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology from all across Sri Lanka between 2005 and 2015 was selected consecutively. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic visualization of the Leishmania amastigote from the slit skin smear. A structured questionnaire was used to identify exposure related risk factors and a clinical examination was performed to identify lesion characteristics. Out of 509 clinical cases, 41.5% (n = 211) were smear positive. The study population ranged from ages 1 to 80 years (mean age = 34.76) and the most affected age group was 40-49. Of the smear positives, 58.85% were males. Majority (47.86%) were from the North Western region (Kurunegala) of the country and were exposed to scrub jungles. Sand fly exposure (p = 0.04) and positive contact history (p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for smear positivity. Erythema (p = 0.02), lack of pruritus (p = 0.02) and scaly appearance (p = 0.003) were significant lesion characteristics in smear positivity. Lesions were commonly found in the exposed areas and the commonest morphological type was papulo-nodular. An increasing trend in the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis from endemic to non-endemic areas has become evident. Positive contact history and sandfly exposure

  20. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease.

  1. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Emerging role of Amiodarone and Dronedarone, as antiarrhythmic drugs, in treatment of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, A; Bemani, E; Bahrami, S

    2018-04-21

    Leishmaniasis is a group of human and animal diseases causing 20,000 to 40,000 annual deaths and its etiological agents belong to the Leishmania genus. The most current treatment against leishmaniasis is chemotherapy. Pentavalent antimonials such as glucantime and pentostam have been administrated as the first-line drugs in treatment of various forms of leishmaniasis. The second-line drugs such as amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, pentamidine, azole drugs and paromomycin are used in resistant cases to pentavalent antimonials. Because of drawbacks of the first-line and second-line drugs including adverse side effects on different organs, increasing resistance, high cost, need to hospitalization and long-term treatment, it is necessary to find an alternative drug for leishmaniasis treatment. Several investigations have reported the effectiveness of amiodarone, the most commonly used antiarrhythmic drug, against fungi, Trypanosomes and Leishmania spp. in vitro, in vivo and clinical conditions. Moreover, the beneficial effects of dronedarone, amiodarone analogues, against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania mexicana have recently been demonstrated and such treatment regimens resulted in lower side effects. The anti- leishmanial and anti- trypanosomal effectiveness of amiodarone and dronedarone has been attributed to destabilization of intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis, inhibition of sterol biosynthesis and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Because of relative low cost, excellent pharmacokinetic properties, easy accessibility and beneficial effects of amiodarone and dronedarone on leishmaniasis, they are proper candidates to replace the current drugs used in leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantations in Tabasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrada Figueroa, Georgina Del Carmen; Leal Ascencio, Víctor Javier; Jiménez Sastré, Alejandro; López Álvarez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Tabasco is the Mexican state that reported the highest number (37.4%) of patients with leishmaniasis during 1990-2011. Close to 90% of these patients lived in Chontalpa, where the municipality of Cunduacán accounted for the majority of the cases. One of the characteristics of this region is that houses are located within cacao plantations. To determine if cacao plantations are a risk factor for leishmaniasis transmission in locations of Cunduacán, Tabasco. We performed an analytical and retrospective study of 115 locations in Cunduacán, analyzing the number of localities with or without patients with leishmaniasis registered between 2000-2011 and, additionally, if they had cacao plantations, using a map where different crops were georeferenced. We measured the magnitude of the association (odds ratio, 95% CI). During the period 2000-2011, cases of leishmaniasis were reported in 77 (67.0%) Cunduacán locations, of these, 55 (71.4%) had cocoa plantations, five (6.5%) of banana, five (6.5%) of cane, and 12 (15.6%) had no crops georeferenced. We found that cocoa crops are a risk factor for the transmission of leishmaniasis (OR: 3.438; 95% CI: 1,526-7,742). The probability of transmission of leishmaniasis in areas with cocoa crops is greater than in communities without this crop.

  4. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  5. Leishmaniosis cutánea en Colombia y género Gender and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Velez

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, tradicionalmente se ha visto la leishmaniosis como un problema de Salud Pública para hombres adultos dado que se considera que la transmisión es selvática y que ellos empiezan a infectarse cuando entran a los biotopos del vector con el fin de utilizar los recursos naturales. Sin embargo, el Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales (PECET ha observado iguales proporciones de hombres y mujeres con leishmaniosis activa y pruebas cutáneas positivas. Algunos factores, hasta ahora nunca analizados, parecen distorsionar el patrón de la enfermedad y al parecer existen diferencias inherentes al género relacionadas con el acceso a la atención en salud. Como consecuencia, el sufrimiento humano no es aliviado y las repercusiones socio-económicas para las amas de casa son significativas. El Ministerio de Salud subestima la magnitud de la transmisión intra y peridomiciliaria y la detección de casos activos se descuida para mujeres, por lo cual se deben mejorar los programas de control de leishmaniosis, especialmente en lo relacionado con la detección de casos activos, entrenamiento y educación, de tal forma que el diagnóstico se realice en forma más rápida.Leishmaniasis in Colombia has traditionally been seen as a health risk for adult males, as they become infected when they enter the vector's biotopes to tap natural resources. National health statistics seem to confirm this theory. However, during field studies, the Program for the Study and Control of Tropical Diseases (PECET observed both equal proportions of men and women with active leishmaniasis and delayed hypersensitivity skin tests and equal proportions of males and females having had contact with the parasite from early childhood. Several factors that have not been analyzed in depth in Colombia thus far appear to distort the disease's epidemiological pattern in the country, and gender-linked differences in access to health care appear to exist. As a

  6. Diabetes melutus associated with pentamidine isethionate in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Mauricio Lopes Costa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of a male patient from Bacabal, MA with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL, for at least nine years, with 168 lesions on his body. These were tumour-like nodules with some ulceratmi. He usedpentavalent antimonial (glucantime® and an association of gamma interferon plus glucantime with improvement of the lesions but relapsed later. Recently, pentamidine isethionate (pentacarinat® was given a dosage of 4mg/kg/weight/day on alternate days for 20 applications. After 3 months a similar course of 10 application was given 2 times. Later he developed diabetic signs with weight loss of 10kg, polydypsia, polyuria and xerostomia. The lower limbs lesions showed signs of activity. Blood glucose levels normalised and remain like this at moment. Attention is drawn to the fact that pentamidine isethionate should be used as a therapy option with care, obeyng rigorous laboratory controls including a glucose tolerance test.

  7. Leishmania RNA virus controls the severity of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Annette; Ronet, Catherine; Prevel, Florence; Ruzzante, Giulia; Fuertes-Marraco, Silvia; Schutz, Frederic; Zangger, Haroun; Revaz-Breton, Melanie; Lye, Lon-Fye; Hickerson, Suzanne M; Beverley, Stephen M; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Launois, Pascal; Fasel, Nicolas; Masina, Slavica

    2011-02-11

    Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by infections with intracellular parasites of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus, including Leishmania guyanensis. The pathology develops after parasite dissemination to nasopharyngeal tissues, where destructive metastatic lesions form with chronic inflammation. Currently, the mechanisms involved in lesion development are poorly understood. Here we show that metastasizing parasites have a high Leishmania RNA virus-1 (LRV1) burden that is recognized by the host Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) to induce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Paradoxically, these TLR3-mediated immune responses rendered mice more susceptible to infection, and the animals developed an increased footpad swelling and parasitemia. Thus, LRV1 in the metastasizing parasites subverted the host immune response to Leishmania and promoted parasite persistence.

  8. Tratamento da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana Treatment of american cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Borges de Lima

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana é doença infecciosa da pele e mucosa, cujo agente etiológico é um protozoário do gênero Leishmania. Seu tratamento é desafio porque as drogas disponíveis apresentam elevada toxicidade, e nenhuma delas é bastante eficaz. A recidiva, a falha terapêutica em pacientes imunodeprimidos e a resistência ao tratamento são fatores que motivam a busca de uma droga ideal.American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of the skin and mucosa caused by a protozoon of the genus Leishmania. Its treatment is a challenge since the drugs available are highly toxic and none is completely effective. Recurrence, therapeutic failure in immunosuppressed patients and treatment resistance are some factors that encourage searching an ideal drug.

  9. The unwelcome trio: HIV plus cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, C; Tchernev, G; Bevelacqua, V; Lotti, T; Nunnari, G

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) coinfection has emerged as an extremely serious and increasingly frequent health problem in the last decades. Considering the insidious and not typical clinical picture in presence of immunosuppressive conditions, the increasing number of people travelling in endemic zones, the ability to survive, within both human and vector bodies, of the parasite, clinicians and dermatologists as the first line should be aware of these kind of "pathologic alliances," to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment. In this setting, the occurrence of cutaneous lesions can, paradoxically, aid the physician in recognition and approaching the correct staging and management of the two (or three) diseases. Treatment of these unwelcome synergies is a challenge: apart from the recommended anti-retroviral protocols, different anti-leishmanial drugs have been widely used, according with the standard guidelines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with no successful treatment regimen still been established. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively.

  11. A cluster of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with human smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Anthony P; Nguyen, Bichchau M; Piggott, Caroline D; Lee, Robert A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2011-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is rarely seen in the United States, and the social and geographic context of the infection can be a key to its diagnosis and management. Four Somali and one Ethiopian, in U.S. Border Patrol custody, came to the United States by the same human trafficking route: Djibouti to Dubai to Moscow to Havana to Quito; and then by ground by Columbia/Panama to the United States-Mexico border where they were detained. Although traveling at different times, all five patients simultaneously presented to our institution with chronic ulcerative skin lesions at different sites and stages of evolution. Culture of biopsy specimens grew Leishmania panamensis. Soon thereafter, three individuals from East Africa traveling the identical route presented with L. panamensis CL to physicians in Tacoma, WA. We document here the association of a human trafficking route and new world CL. Clinicians and public health officials should be aware of this emerging infectious disease risk.

  12. Experimental models in vaccine research: malaria and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C; Gomes, R

    2013-02-01

    Animal models have a long history of being useful tools, not only to test and select vaccines, but also to help understand the elaborate details of the immune response that follows infection. Different models have been extensively used to investigate putative immunological correlates of protection against parasitic diseases that are important to reach a successful vaccine. The greatest challenge has been the improvement and adaptation of these models to reflect the reality of human disease and the screening of vaccine candidates capable of overcoming the challenge of natural transmission. This review will discuss the advantages and challenges of using experimental animal models for vaccine development and how the knowledge achieved can be extrapolated to human disease by looking into two important parasitic diseases: malaria and leishmaniasis.

  13. Vaccines for leishmaniasis: from proteome to vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Juliane; Aebischer, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania spp. cause a wide spectrum of tropical diseases which are threatening an estimated 350 million people around the globe. While in most cases non-fatal, the disease is associated with high morbidity, social stigmata and poverty. However, the most severe form visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal if left untreated. Chemotherapeutics are available but show high toxicity, costs and are prone to resistance development due to prolonged treatment periods. Healing is associated with a life-long resistance to re-infection and this argues for the feasibility of vaccination. However, despite much effort, no such vaccine has become available yet. Here, the status of vaccine development in this field is briefly summarized before the focus is set on the promise of reverse vaccinology for anti-Leishmania vaccine development in the post-genomic era. We report on our own experience with this approach using an instructive example of successful candidate vaccine antigen identification.

  14. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A

    1998-01-01

    report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected...... in the keratinocytes and/or sweat glands of all patients who later developed PKDL (group 1) and not in any of the patients who did not develop PKDL (group 2). Furthermore, the levels of IL-10 in plasma as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants were higher in group 1 than in group 2....

  15. High visceral leishmaniasis mortality rate in Barra Mansa, a new area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nine cases of visceral leishmaniasis occurred recently in Barra Mansa, State of Rio de Janeiro, with a high mortality rate. Methods We reviewed the medical records of the patients. Results Eight were male; 7 were adults. Patients who died progressed to death quickly and presented with aggravating factors: systemic steroid therapy before diagnosis, bleeding, severe liver involvement, infection, and/or refusal to receive transfusion. Conclusions We warn clinicians to be aware of the emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in new areas and to keep in mind the possibility of atypical clinical pictures and aggravating factors, so timely diagnosis can be made and prompt and adequate treatment can be initiated.

  16. Molecular prevalence and estimated risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Ayman A; El-Dwibe, Hamida; Basyoni, Maha M A; Al-Antably, Abeer S A; Al-Bashier, Wafaa A

    2017-12-01

    Cutanoeus leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area including Libya. The aim of the present study is to detect the prevalent Leishmania species obtained from smeared cutaneous lesions in addition to studying the diverse sociodemographic risk factors of the reported cases from different provinces of Libya. A total of 250 archived microscopic slides from clinically suspected cases of CL attending the leishmaniasis clinic in the Dermatology Department, Tripoli Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, were microscopically examined. Leishmania-DNA was amplified using combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting kinetoplast-DNA (kDNA) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for direct Leishmania species identification. Using kDNA and ITS1-PCR, 22.5% and 20% of cases were positive, respectively. Only 14.4% of cases were positive using microscopy. Nominating ITS1-PCR as the reference standard, kDNA-PCR assay was highly sensitive while microscopy was 100% specific but of limited sensitivity (72%) with a substantial agreement and an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were the predominant species reported from the north-western provinces including Tripoli, Zintan, and Gharyan with their related subprovinces; Asabaa, Mizdan, Alkawasem, and Alorban. CL prevailed more among men and residents of rural areas. House wives and students were the most affected professions. Children were the least affected, while the middle-aged were the most affected age group. L. major and L. tropica are the predominant species in the north-western regions of Libya. ITS1-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay offered a sensitive, specific, and faster diagnostic method especially with negative parasitologic examination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Study of the scientific production on leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilla-Gonzalez, Yuliana; Gomez-Suta, Daniela; Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Hurtado-Hurtado, Natalia; Baquero-Rodriguez, Juan D; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a highly relevant neglected tropical disease. It has important consequences in affected populations, including a high fatality rate in its visceral form. It is present in Latin America, then it is necessary to promote more research on it. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American scientific production in leishmaniasis was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index. At SCI, 2857 articles were found (17.7% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (58.1%), followed by Colombia (9.9%) and Venezuela (5.6%); the region received 41186 citations, 54.2% of Brazil (H index=62), 12.1% Colombia (H index=30) and 4.5% of Venezuela (H index=25). At Scopus, there are 3681 (14.7% of the total), 53.2% Brazil, 6.8% Colombia and 6.0% Venezuela; 38.46% at Brazil were from Fundação Oswaldo Cruz; 30.6% of Colombia corresponded to Universidad de Antioquia; 31.34% at Venezuela were from Universidad Central de Venezuela. At Medline there are 4525 records (60.6% of Brazil). At SciELO there are 1068 records (67.5% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1740 records (56.0% Brazil). Scientific production of Brazil predominates in the region, with one single institution generating more articles than Colombia and Venezuela together. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is still relatively low, and the disease neglected when compared to other tropical conditions such as dengue and malaria.

  18. Vaccines for leishmaniasis in the fore coming 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2008-03-25

    Human vaccination against leishmaniasis using live Leishmania was used in Middle East and Russia (1941-1980). First-generation vaccines, composed by killed parasites induce low efficacies (54%) and were tested in humans and dogs Phase III trials in Asia and South America since 1940. Second-generation vaccines using live genetically modified parasites, or bacteria or viruses containing Leishmania genes, recombinant or native fractions are known since the 1990s. Due to the loss of PAMPs, the use of adjuvants increased vaccine efficacies of the purified antigens to 82%, in Phase III dog trials. Recombinant second-generation vaccines and third-generation DNA vaccines showed average values of parasite load reduction of 68% and 59% in laboratory animal models, respectively, but their success in field trials had not yet been reported. This review is focused on vaccine candidates that show any efficacy against leishmaniasis and that are already in different phase trials. A lot of interest though was generated in recent years, by the studies going on in experimental models. The promising candidates may find a place in the forth coming years. Among them most probably are the multiple-gene DNA vaccines that are stable and do not require cold-chain transportation. In the mean time, second-generation vaccines with native antigens and effective adjuvants are likely to be licensed and used in Public Health control programs in the fore coming 25 years. To date, only three vaccines have been licensed for use: one live vaccine for humans in Uzbekistan, one killed vaccine for human immunotherapy in Brazil and a second-generation vaccine for dog prophylaxis in Brazil.

  19. Histological grading patterns in patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Ayaz, B.; Shaikh, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the histological grading patterns in a cohort of hospitalized patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis. One hundred patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), admitted in dermatology wards at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, were examined. Only admitted patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study. Patients of CL, who had received or were receiving systemic treatment were excluded. The lesions having marked secondary bacterial infection were also excluded. Initial diagnosis was clinical. History of being to an endemic area supported the diagnosis. The lesions were divided in two groups. Early, with duration less than 03 months and late, with duration between 3 and 12 months. The clinical lesions were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers, crusted ulcers, lupoid lesions and plaques with scarring. Three types of skin smears (slit skin smear, saline aspirate smear and dab smear) were taken and examined with Giemsa stain. Cultures were performed on Nicolle-Novy-MacNeal (NNN) culture medium from Defense Scientific and Technology Organization (DESTO) Lab., Pakistan. Incisional skin biopsies were done. The biopsy specimens were examined by hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E stain). The number of Leishmania Tropica (LT) bodies was graded according to modified Ridley's parasitic index 1983. Clinical features were correlated with the histological patterns. Five histological patterns were identified in current study: 1) diffuse dermal infiltration without necrosis, 2) patchy dermal infiltration, 3) diffuse dermal infiltration with necrosis, 4) early reactive granuloma formation and 5) established epithelioid granuloma formation. LT bodies were identified in 75% of cases. Epidermal features were non-specific. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions showed granuloma formation. Five distinct types of histological patterns of CL have been recognized in this study. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions

  20. Transmisión de la Leishmaniasis tegumentaria en la Argentina Transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Salomón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis tegumentaria ha experimentado en Argentina, desde 1985, un incremento de casos totales, de la frecuencia, intensidad y distribución de brotes epidémicos, y de la incidencia relativa en mujeres y en niños. Es necesario caracterizar los nuevas circunstancias de transmisión generadas en las últimas décadas para el diseño de estrategias apropiadas de control. Con dicho objeto, basados en indicadores epidemiológicos, entomológicos y en el análisis cualitativo de imágenes satelitales, se describen cuatro brotes epidémicos tomados como casos de estudio: Urugua-í (2004, Esperanza (1998, Alberdi (2003 y Monteros-Simoca (2004. A partir de dichas descripciones se caracterizaron cuatro ciclos: a silvestre con transmisión en vegetación primaria o residual; b silvestre con transmisión eventual peridoméstica por alteración de parches de vegetación residual; c silvestre con transmisión peridoméstica por contigüidad con vegetación residual; d peridoméstico en ambientes rurales, periurbano ruralizado o interfase urbano-rural. Todos los brotes epidémicos ocurridos desde 1985 se correspondieron con uno de estos ciclos, demostrando ser hasta el momento una tipificación abarcativa de la transmisión de leishmaniasis tegumentaria en la Argentina. De esta manera se categorizaron cuatro patrones epidémicos en el país, destacando a su vez la utilidad del análisis cualitativo, de datos de terreno e imágenes satelitales, como herramientas para comprender la epidemiología de la enfermedad y poder desarrollar medidas adecuadas de prevención y control.The total cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina increased since 1985, as the frequency, intensity and geographic distribution of the epidemic outbreaks, and the relative incidence in women and children. The characterization of the new scenarios of transmission generated in the last decades is needed for the design of appropriate control measures. With this aim, four

  1. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Laamrani-Idrissi, Abderrahman; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unkno...

  2. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  3. DSFL database: A hub of target proteins of Leishmania sp. to combat leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Khusro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne chronic infectious tropical dermal disease caused by the protozoa parasite of the genus Leishmania that causes high mortality globally. Among three different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar is a systemic public health disease with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries, caused by Leishmania donovani, Leishmania infantum or Leishmania chagasi. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine available till date for the treatment of leishmaniasis. On the other hand, the therapeutics approved to treat this fatal disease is expensive, toxic, and associated with serious side effects. Furthermore, the emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania parasites in most endemic countries due to the incessant utilization of existing drugs is a major concern at present. Drug Search for Leishmaniasis (DSFL is a unique database that involves 50 crystallized target proteins of varied Leishmania sp. in order to develop new drugs in future by interacting several antiparasitic compounds or molecules with specific protein through computational tools. The structure of target protein from different Leishmania sp. is available in this database. In this review, we spotlighted not only the current global status of leishmaniasis in brief but also detailed information about target proteins of various Leishmania sp. available in DSFL. DSFL has created a new expectation for mankind in order to combat leishmaniasis by targeting parasitic proteins and commence a new era to get rid of drug resistance parasites. The database will substantiate to be a worthwhile project for further development of new, non-toxic, and cost-effective antileishmanial drugs as targeted therapies using in vitro/in vivo assays.

  4. Visceral Leishmaniasis Treated with Antimonials/Paromomycin followed by Itraconazole/Miltefosine after Standard Therapy Failures in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán, Patricia; López-Velez, Rogelio; Olmo, Montserrat; Podzamczer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an opportunistic infection that affects human immunodeficiency virus–infected persons in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. The standard treatment may not be effective and relapses are common. We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-1–infected patient who had several relapses of visceral leishmaniasis after treatment with standard therapies and responded to a combined therapy.

  5. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Eduardo S; Campos, Bruno L S; Jesus, Jéssica A; Laurenti, Márcia D; Ribeiro, Susan P; Kallás, Esper G; Rafael-Fernandes, Mariana; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Silva, Marcelo S; Sessa, Deborah P; Lago, João H G; Levy, Débora; Passero, Luiz F D

    2015-01-01

    Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo). Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50) was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for the treatment

  6. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA and oleanolic acid (OA were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo. Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50 was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for

  7. Case Report: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Cuban Immigrants to Texas who Traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Meagan A.; Koshelev, Misha V.; Sun, Grace S.; Grekin, Sarah J.; Stager, Charles E.; Diwan, A. Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A.; Murray, Kristy O.; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:24865687

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Cuban immigrants to Texas who traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Meagan A; Koshelev, Misha V; Sun, Grace S; Grekin, Sarah J; Stager, Charles E; Diwan, A Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A; Murray, Kristy O; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad District, Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran

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    V Barati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is present in different parts of Iran. Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Iran and other Mediterranean regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis as animal reservoir host for human visceral leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad dis­trict in southwest of Iran.Methods: A seroepidemiological study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL among ownership dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT in 23 of 182 villages of Boyer Ahmad district, during August 2009 to August 2010. One hundred and seventy serum samples from ownership dogs were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling in villages of Boyer Ahmad district. All samples were tested by DAT and anti-Leishmania antibodies titers at ≥ 1:320 was considered as positive.Results: Of the 170 serum samples, 10% were positive by DAT at titers of 1:320 and higher. No statistical significant difference was found between male (10.7% and female (8.3% seroprevalence. The highest seroprevalence rate (15.1% was observed among the ownership dogs of four to seven years age. Altogether, seventeen (25.4% of the seropositive dogs had clinical signs and symptoms.Conclusion: It seems that Boyer Ahmad district is an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran.

  11. Emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka 2008-2011.

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    Sandanayaka, Rohana; Kahawita, Indra; Gamage, Ajith; Siribaddana, Sisira; Agampodi, Suneth

    2014-02-01

    To report cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. The study population included all patients with CL reported from Polonnaruwa district from January 2008 through April 2012. Data were collected in the dermatology unit of Polonnaruwa General Hospital and the regional epidemiology unit of Polonnaruwa. Four hundred and forty six patients with leishmaniasis were detected; clinical details were available for 362. Mean annual incidence of leishmaniasis between 2008 and 2012 in Polonnaruwa district was 26.2 per 100,000. The case incidence steadily increased during the study period. Case distribution by month peaked between August and November. Cases were geographically clustered in three administrative divisions with a mean annual incidence ranging from 94.7 to 54.1 per 100,000 population. Significantly more (n = 294, 65.9%) males than females were affected (χ(2) for goodness of fit = 48.4, P < 0.001). The commonest type of lesion was nodules (n = 157, 43.4%) followed by crust (n = 116, 32.0%). The majority of patients had lesions on upper limbs (n = 144, 39.8%) or the face (n = 117, 32.3%). Cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasing in Polonnaruwa, with clear spatial and temporal clustering. Sri Lanka needs more vigilant leishmaniasis surveillance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge - A review

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    Manuel Calvopina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  13. Efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in treatment of atrophic scar of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (high efficacy of fractional CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.

  14. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

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    Abdallah M. Samy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinational military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major, suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  15. Nanoliposomal artemisinin for the treatment of murine visceral leishmaniasis

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    Want MY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Muzamil Y Want,1 Mohammad Islammudin,1 Garima Chouhan,1 Hani A Ozbak,2 Hassan A Hemeg,2 Asoke P Chattopadhyay,3 Farhat Afrin2 1Parasite Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a fatal, vector-borne disease caused by the intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Most of the therapeutics for VL are toxic, expensive, or ineffective. Sesquiterpenes are a new class of drugs with proven antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with potent antileishmanial activity, but with limited access to infected cells, being a highly lipophilic molecule. Association of artemisinin with liposome is a desirable strategy to circumvent the problem of poor accessibility, thereby improving its efficacy, as demonstrated in a murine model of experimental VL. Nanoliposomal artemisinin (NLA was prepared by thin-film hydration method and optimized using Box–Behnken design with a mean particle diameter of 83±16 nm, polydispersity index of 0.2±0.03, zeta potential of -27.4±5.7 mV, and drug loading of 33.2%±2.1%. Morphological study of these nanoliposomes by microscopy showed a smooth and spherical surface. The mechanism of release of artemisinin from the liposomes followed the Higuchi model in vitro. NLA was free from concomitant signs of toxicity, both ex vivo in murine macrophages and in vivo in healthy BALB/c mice. NLA significantly denigrated the intracellular infection of Leishmania donovani amastigotes and the number of infected macrophages ex vivo with an IC50 of 6.0±1.4 µg/mL and 5.1±0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Following treatment in a murine model of VL, NLA demonstrated superior efficacy compared to artemisinin with a

  16. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications- ...

  17. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

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    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  18. A case of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis in a post-partum woman

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    Claudia Colomba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand fly bites endemic in rural or periurban areas of the Mediterranean basin. Pregnancy is accompanied by changes in immune response, mainly a decrease in cellular immunity and a proportional increase in humoral immunity. These physiological events result in increased risk of infection by pathogens whose immunity is based on a T-helper 1 predominant response. We describe a case of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in a post-partum woman four days after delivery. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis should be considered in pregnant women with fever and haematologic abnormalities in endemic regions or if a history of exposure in endemic areas is reported.

  19. First case report of atypical disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in an opium abuser in Iran

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    Seyed Ahmad Hashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a worldwide tropical infectious disease caused by different species of intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania . Herein, we report a 78-year-old man with unusual diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL who had a history of opium abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. He had multiple papular, crusted and severely ulcerated lesions extended to his arm and chest. Direct smears and skin punch biopsy of the lesions were suggestive of leishmaniasis. Parasite DNA was amplified from ulcers, and identified as Leishmania major by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing analyses. The aim of the current study was to bring to attention this atypical form of disease in CL endemic countries. Thus, this is the first case of DCL in an opium abuser with COPD due to L. major in Northeastern Iran indicating that atypical and extensive forms of CL (DCL owing to L. major are increasing in Iran.

  20. Concurrent cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a kidney transplant patient

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    Gontijo Célia MF

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of leishmaniasis co-infection have been described in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients as well as those who have undergone organ transplants, to our knowledge, the present report is the first documented case of simultaneous cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a transplant patient. The patient had been using immunosuppressive drugs since receiving a transplanted kidney. The first clinical signs of leishmaniasis included fever, thoracic pain, hepatosplenomegaly, leucopenia and anemia. The cutaneous disease was revealed by the presence of amastigotes in the skin biopsy. After three months, the patient presented fever with conjunctive hyperemia, intense ocular pain and low visual acuity. Parasites isolated from iliac crest, aqueous humor and vitreous body were examined using a range of molecular techniques. The same strain of L. (V. braziliensis was responsible for the different clinical manifestations. The immunosuppressive drugs probably contributed to the dissemination of Leishmania.

  1. [Ankle and foot ulcerations in a diabetic patient revealing cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclot, J; Stansal, A; Lazareth, I; Galloula, A; Duchatelle, V; Laurent-Bellue, A; Priollet, P

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that typically manifests as a typical crusted ulcer called the oriental sore. Its localization on the lower limbs can be mistaken for a leg ulcer. An 81-year-old male, native of Algeria, with type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and arteriopathy developed a chronic ulceration of the right ankle and foot compatible with the diagnosis of infectious diabetic foot. Non-improvement with antibiotics, local treatment and rest, and the absence of any hemodynamic arteriopathy led to skin biopsies. Polymerase chain reaction performed on biopsy samples for parasitological investigations yielded the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major. Complete healing was obtained with topical care alone, the patient having declined an etiological treatment. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the rare infectious etiologies of chronic leg ulcers. Several therapeutic options, including abstention, can be proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential Expression of the Eicosanoid Pathway in Patients With Localized or Mucosal Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Costa, Jaqueline; Andrade, Bruno B; Khouri, Ricardo; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Malta-Santos, Hayna; da Silva Santos, Claire; Brodyskn, Cláudia I; Costa, Jackson M; Barral, Aldina; Bozza, Patrícia T; Boaventura, Viviane; Borges, Valeria M

    2016-04-01

    Unfettered inflammation is thought to play critical role in the development of different clinical forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Eicosanoids are potent mediators of inflammation and tightly associated with modulation of immune responses. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, we addressed whether targets from the eicosanoid biosynthetic pathway, assessed by multiplexed expression assays in lesion biopsy and plasma specimens, could highlight a distinct biosignature in patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) or localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Differences in immunopathogenesis between MCL and LCL may result from an imbalance between prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which may serve as targets for future host-directed therapies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Detection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by PCR in Fasa district in 2012

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    Mehdi Sharafi

    2013-09-01

    Material & Methods: Slit biopsies were collected from 138 suspected cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis who were presented, consecutively, in Fasa district from April 2011 to February 2012. After the microscopy, the entire smear was then scraped off the slide surface for DNA extraction and PCR assay. Results: All 138 investigated smears were reported positive by microscopy and nested PCR assay. In PCR, One of the smears had the 750-bp band, indicative of L. tropica and the rest had the 560-bp band indicative of L. major. Conclusion: In conclusion, the cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Fasa district is predominantly Rural Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The PCR-based assay used in the present study appears to be a suitable and powerful tool for the characterization of Leishmanial species.

  4. The development and clinical evaluation of second-generation leishmaniasis vaccines.

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    Duthie, Malcolm S; Raman, Vanitha S; Piazza, Franco M; Reed, Steven G

    2012-01-05

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. Control of Leishmania parasite transmission is extremely difficult due to the large number of vectors and potential reservoirs, and none of the current treatments are ideal. Vaccination could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates are briefly discussed. The variety of clinical trials conducted using the only current second generation vaccine approved for clinical use, LEISH-F1+MPL-SE, are described. Given that epidemiological evidence suggests that reducing the canine reservoir also positively impacts human incidence, efforts at providing a vaccine for leishmaniasis in dogs are highlighted. Finally, potential refinements and surrogate markers that could expedite the introduction of a vaccine that can limit the severity and incidence of leishmaniasis are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular diagnosis of Leishmania mexicana in a cutaneous leishmaniasis case in Sinaloa, Mexico.

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    Ochoa-Diaz, Yssete O; Lopez-Moreno, Carmina Y; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose G; Lopez-Moreno, Hector S

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has been considered endemic in Sinaloa, Mexico, since 1994. Despite that Leishmania mexicana is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in other regions of Mexico, the species causing CL in patients from Sinaloa state has not been previously established, although Leishmania braziliensis has been found in the neighboring southern state, Nayarit. L. braziliensis is also associated with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a more complicated clinical variant. Due to the implications on individual and public health, the objective of this report was to identify the Leishmania species present in Sinaloa, Mexico. Using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, we identified L. mexicana in a CL patient from Sinaloa and confirmed the extended distribution of this parasite in Mexico.

  6. Forecasting temporal dynamics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil.

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    Joseph A Lewnard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions.We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation.These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets.

  7. A sensitive new microculture method for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Uzun, Soner; Bagirova, Malahat; Durdu, Murat; Memisoglu, Hamdi R

    2004-03-01

    A sensitive microcapillary culture method (MCM) was developed for rapid diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The MCM is superior to the traditional culture method (TCM) as determined by the smaller inoculum size, the higher sensitivity for detection of promastigotes, and the more rapid time for emergence of promastigotes. With lesion amastigote loads from grade III to 0, the positive rates and the periods for promastigote emergence were 3-4-fold higher and faster with the MCM than with the TCM, e.g., 83-97% positive in 4-7 days versus 20-40% positive in 15-30 days (P = 0.0001). The higher Pco(2) and lower Po(2) and pH presumably encourage a rapid amastigote-to-promastigote differentiation and/or the survival or growth of the latter. This MCM has the advantage of simplicity, and may be suitable for diagnostic use and for parasite retrieval in many other endemic sites where parasites are known to be difficult to grow.

  8. An improved microculture method for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagheh, Abdolsattar; Fakhar, Mahdi; Mesgarian, Fatemeh; Gholami, Shirzad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the performance of three diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Patients who came to the Health Center Laboratory of Gonbad-e-Qabus in Golestan Province, Iran, were enrolled in the study. Skin scraping smear, improved microculture (IMC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. A total of 303 subjects were recruited, among whom 273 subjects fulfilled the criteria for CL. Sensitivity and specificity were 88.8 % (95 % CI = 84.2-92.2 %) and 100.0 % for smears, 98.4 % (95 % CI = 96.1-99.1 %) and 100.0 % for IMC, both of them 100.0 % for PCR. Although, PCR was relatively more sensitive than the IMC, the high correlation (agreement = 96 %, Kappa = 0.82) between IMC and PCR along with the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, adequate sensitivity and as a needle free method, offers the IMC as a valuable alternative diagnostic method for PCR in diagnosis of CL.

  9. Forecasting Temporal Dynamics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Jirmanus, Lara; Júnior, Nivison Nery; Machado, Paulo R.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Ko, Albert I.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. Significance These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets. PMID:25356734

  10. Control strategies and sensitivity analysis of anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Muhammad; Zaman, Gul; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a mathematical model of Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis epidemic with saturated infection rate and recommends different control strategies to manage the spread of this disease in the community. To do this, first, a model formulation is presented to support these strategies, with quantifications of transmission and intervention parameters. To understand the nature of the initial transmission of the disease, the reproduction number [Formula: see text] is obtained by using the next-generation method. On the basis of sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number [Formula: see text], four different control strategies are proposed for managing disease transmission. For quantification of the prevalence period of the disease, a numerical simulation for each strategy is performed and a detailed summary is presented. Disease-free state is obtained with the help of control strategies. The threshold condition for globally asymptotic stability of the disease-free state is found, and it is ascertained that the state is globally stable. On the basis of sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number, it is shown that the disease can be eradicated by using the proposed strategies.

  11. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

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    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  12. Evolution of coauthorship networks: worldwide scientific production on leishmaniasis

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    Gregorio Gonzalez-Alcaide

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Collaboration is one of the defining features of contemporary scientific research, and it is particularly important with regard to neglected diseases that primarily affect developing countries. Methods The present study has identified publications on leishmaniasis in the Medline database from 1945 to 2010, analyzing them according to bibliometric indicators and statistics from social network analysis. Examining aspects such as scientific production, diachronic evolution, and collaboration and configuration of the research groups in the field, we have considered the different types of Leishmania studied and the institutional affiliation and nationality of the authors. Results Seven-hundred and thirty-five authors participate in 154 prominent research clusters or groups. Although the most predominant and consolidated collaborations are characterized by members from the same country studying the same type of Leishmania, there are also notable links between authors from different countries or who study different clinical strains of the disease. Brazil took the lead in this research, with numerous Brazilian researchers heading different clusters in the center of the collaboration network. Investigators from the USA, India, and European countries, such as France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Italy, also stand out within the network. Conclusions Research should be fostered in countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Ethiopia, where there is a high prevalence of different forms of the disease but limited research development with reference authors integrated into the collaboration networks.

  13. Intralesional isotype profiles in human localized cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions

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    Aragort De Rossell, Raiza; Calcagno, Marina; Rossell, Osmán; Maizo De Segnini, Zulay; Rodríguez, Ana María

    2001-01-01

    This immunocytochemical study evaluates the presence of IgG1–4, IgA and IgE immunoglobulins in active lesions of 25 localized cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from three bioclimatic areas (Awa, Afa and Bsha) in Mérida State, Venezuela. All immunoglobulin isotypes except IgE were detected, with variable intensity, in one or more of the epidermal or dermal components of skin lesions. IgG1 and IgG2 were detected significantly more frequently than IgG3, IgG4 and IgA. The ranking of the isotypes according to frequency of detection was the same in all areas: IgG1 = IgG2 > IgG3 = IgG4 = IgA, but considered as whole, all isotypes were detected significantly more frequently in patients from the Awa area than in those from the Bsha area. The predominant expression of isotypes IgG1 and IgG2 suggests a preferential Th1 like immune response. Anti-Leishmania immunoserum stained only parasites and their debris, suggesting that most of the immunostaining was nonspecific. PMID:11454104

  14. Misdiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and recurrence after surgical excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mark S; Langman, G

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) occurs in British troops deployed to Belize, Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere. From 1998 to 2009, 156 (45%) of 343 confirmed cases seen in the UK were in military personnel. CL is a rare disease and requires specialist clinical management because numerous pitfalls exist during diagnosis and treatment. A 19-year-old soldier developed CL on his neck 6 weeks after taking part in jungle warfare training in Belize. However, this was not suspected and the diagnosis was not made from either a skin biopsy or following surgical excision. The travel history and the patient's own photograph prompted retrospective investigations that confirmed this was CL due to Leishmania mexicana. Three months after surgery, the disease recurred locally and was treated appropriately with a good outcome. British military personnel with suspected CL should be referred to the UK Role 4 Military Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine Service. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Canine leishmaniasis surveillance program in a San Marino Republic kennel

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    Daniela Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of San Marino is an autonomous State that, in view of its geographical and environmental features, can be considered a part of the Northern Italian territory, where the canine leishmaniasis (CanL is endemic. In the past, a CanL focus in the Republic's kennel was described. As a consequence of this epidemiological situation, a surveillance program was carried-out covering a 6-year period (2006-2012. A total of 1,094 sera were collected from 420 kennel dogs and examined for antibodies to Leishmania infantum by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Eighty-eight (21% dogs resulted IFAT positive (antibody titre ≥1/40. The overall seroprevalence increased in the first 4 years (2006-2010, going from 5.5% to 26.8% and then decreased in the 2 following years going to 17.9% (2011 and 3.9% (2012. The cumulative incidence constantly increased from 0.6% to 2.6%. This trend could be attributed to a changed infection pressure due to the dog turnover in the kennels. According to the observed incidence values, the CanL focus seems to be stable, supported by autochthonous transmission, new case introduction and Leishmania spp. circulation in owned dogs in the same area.

  16. Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Intermediates in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Erel Ozcan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolisms of reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates (RNI and ROI in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL were investigated and compared with those of healthy subjects. To determine RNI metabolism, nitrite plus nitrate concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Nitrite concentration in plasma was determined directly by the Griess method. Nitrate levels in plasma were measured after reduction into nitrite by using copper-cadmium-zinc. ROI metabolism was evaluated by measuring erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Plasma nitrite plus nitrate levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were higher in the patient group than healthy subjects (p<0.01. In contrast, erythrocyte catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. ROI metabolism was altered in relation to hydrogen peroxide elevation in patients with CL. These alterations in ROI enable nitric oxide (NO to amplify its leishmanicidal effect. The determination of ROI and RNI in patients with CL may be a useful tool to evaluate effector mechanisms of NO and clinical manifestations.

  17. Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Prevalence Among Farmers in Central Tunisia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Hedia; Chemak, Fraj; Nouiri, Issam; Ben Mansour, Dorra; Ghrab, Jamila; Chahed, Mohamed Kouni

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in central Tunisia and is more prevalent in rural agricultural areas. The aim of this work was to determine ZCL prevalence among farmers and to test their availability to take ownership of the problem and participate actively to fight and address the disease. A sample of farmers from Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia, was selected randomly. Farmers were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about ZCL lesion occurrence, its date of onset among family members, and the farmers' availability to contribute to fighting this disease. ZCL occurred in at least one of the family members of 38.5% interviewed farmers. The disease was endemic with recurrent epidemics every 4 or 5 years. ZCL among farmers was associated with irrigation management. With regard to ZCL preventive measures, the majority of farmers agreed and expressed willingness to collaborate (93.1%), to follow health care facilities instructions (73.1%), and to join the nongovernmental organization (NGO) (56.9%). However, they did not agree to reduce irrigation activities mainly at night, to live far from their irrigated fields, or to sleep out of their houses at night. ZCL is more prevalent in farmers engaged in irrigation activities. Farmers are not agreeable to reducing their activity to avoid exposure to the sand fly bites. Thus, population involvement and commitment is required to implement effective control measures to fight and address ZCL.

  18. [Clinical and histological study of lupoid cutaneous leishmaniasis (16 cases)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Boudaya, Sonia; Ayadi, Narjes; Bouassida, Samir; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Meziou, Taha Jalel; Akrout, Feryel; Sallemi, Tahia; Turki, Hamida; Zahaf, Abdelmajid

    2007-12-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is characterised by a major clinical polymorphism, especially the lupoid type. The aim of our study was to precise the anatomic and clinical particularities of this clinical form of CL. The present work was a prospective 1-year study. In all patients, the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics were identified, together with those regarding disease progression. Standard cutaneous biopsies were carried out for all study patients. The lupoid form was observed in 15% of the patients. It was clinically characterised by a lupoid aspect with papular and squamous placard surrounded by a satellite papule, a short duration of disease progression (28 months in average) and a preferential localisation at the level of the face and the elbow, statistically proven. At the histological level, epidermic hyperplasia was found in 93.8% of the cases; an inflammatory polymorphic dermic infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes and plasmocytes was found in all patients; granulomas were noted in 50% of the cases, and isolated epitheloid cells were observed in the derm of 3 patients. Amastigotes were rarely observed. In our series, the lupoid form was characterised with a short and non chronic evolution and two preferential sites for the affection: the face and the elbow. At the histological level, the lupoid type of CL appeared characterized by a high frequency of granuloma, usually organized, and rare amastigotes. However, the histology of authentic lupoid forms can be non granolomatosic.

  19. Leishmaniasis: focus on the design of nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroud, Delaram; Rafati, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Although mass vaccination of the entire population of an endemic area would be the most cost-effective tool to diminish Leishmania burden, an effective vaccine is not yet commercially available. Practically, vaccines have failed to achieve the required level of protection, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant and/or delivery system. Therefore, there is still an imperative demand for an improved, safe and efficient delivery system to enhance the immunogenicity of available vaccine candidates. Nanoparticles are proficient in boosting the quality and magnitude of immune responses in a predictable fashion. Herein, we discuss how nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems can be used to induce appropriate immune responses against leishmaniasis by controlling physicochemical properties of the vaccine. Stability, production reproducibility, low cost per dose and low risk-benefit ratios are desirable characteristics of an ideal vaccine formulation and solid lipid nanoparticles may serve as one of the most promising practical strategies to help to achieve such a leishmanial vaccine, at least in canine species in the developing world.

  20. Recent understanding in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenthal E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe disease associated with infection of the reticuloendothelial system by Leishmania species. The infection is acquired through sandfly bites. Recent large scale epidemics of VL in east Africa and India and the emergence of a HIV epidemic make VL a priority for the World Health Organization. Pentavalent antimonials have been cornerstone of treatment for the last six decades. The appearance of antimonial-resistance and the development of lipid formulations of amphotericin B have changed the pattern of VL treatment. Within the past five years, miltefosine has been demonstrated as the first effective and safe oral treatment against VL. The price of miltefosine is yet to be determined. However, miltefosine will certainly be cheaper than lipid formulations of amphotericin B, which are beyond the financial capacity of the poor countries. Because it can be administered orally, miltefosine is suited for the treatment of large number of patients who get affected during epidemics, particularly in regions where the parasites are resistant to the currently used agents. Here, we recommend different treatment schedules according to the resistance pattern and the region-specific socio-economical and cultural factors.