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Sample records for leipzig longitudinal study

  1. Time until institutionalization in incident dementia cases--results of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; Weber, Stephan; Matschinger, Herbert; Glaesmer, Heide; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2008-01-01

    Information on the time until institutionalization and its predictors in demented subjects has so far been based on studies with selected samples or prevalent dementia cases. Thus, the aim of the study is to analyze the time until institutionalization and associated patient-related factors in incident dementia cases. Data were derived from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+), a population-based study of individuals aged 75 years and older. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine the time until institutionalization. Factors associated with time until institutionalization were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. One hundred and nine subjects with incident dementia who resided in a private home setting at the time of the dementia diagnosis were identified. Fifty-two (47.7%) of these subjects had become residents of a nursing home by the end of the study. The median time until institutionalization was 1,005 days (95% CI = 808-1,202). Being widowed/divorced (compared to being married) was associated with a significantly shorter time until institutionalization (univariate model: HR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.09-18.57). Being without a spouse seems to be an important factor for a shorter time until institutionalization in incident dementia cases. Tailored interventions for these subjects at risk are required. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Enriched Environment at Work and the Incidence of Dementia: Results of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Francisca S.; Luppa, Melanie; Schroeter, Matthias L.; König, Hans-Helmut; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The high incidence of cognitive impairments in the aging population together with the challenges it imposes on health systems raise the question of what effect working life has on cognitive abilities. Animal models have demonstrated that so called enriched environments protect against neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia. The aim was to investigate the impact of enriched environment at work on the incidence of dementia. Methods The Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+) is an ongoing representative population cohort study that examines cognitive functioning and dementia in individuals aged 75 years and older. The participants’ occupational information was matched to O*NET SOC codes and the relevant job descriptors were used to create occupational context indices describing enriched environment at work. Results Results of logistic regression modeling suggest that a higher level of the index Executive was associated with a lower risk of incident dementia (odds ratio  = 0.61, 95% confidence interval  = 0.47–0.79, poccupational contexts enriched with independent planning/performance of work tasks might decrease the risk of developing dementia. A protective effect of enriched environment at work in general, namely high cognitive stimulation or confrontation with new tasks, could not be confirmed by the results. PMID:23923030

  3. [Gender-specific predictors of institutionalisation in the elderly--results of the Leipzig longitudinal study of the aged (LEILA 75+)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppa, Melanie; Gentzsch, Katrin; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Weyerer, Siegfried; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2011-05-01

    Especially given the different socialization and life conditions of men and women, it could not be assumed that factors leading to nursing home admission (NHA) can be equally applied to both genders. We aimed to determine gender-specific predictors of NHA. Data were derived from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a population-based study of individuals aged 75 years and older. 1,058 older adults were interviewed six times on average every 1.4 years. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychometric variables were obtained. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine predictors of NHA. 10.3 % of men and 19.5 % of women (p age for men and women; cognitive impairment, poor self-rated health status, and less than two specialist's visits in the preceding 12 months for women, and being unmarried, moderate educational status, and hospitalization in the preceding 12 months were predictors of NHA for men. Gender differences in prediction of NHA do actually exist. The inclusion of gender-specific factors in design and application of interventions to support individuals at home and delay or prevent NHA appears to be warranted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Umweltzone Leipzig

    OpenAIRE

    Löschau, Gunter; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Birmili, Wolfram; Rasch, Fabian; Spindler, Gerald; Müller, Konrad; Wolf, Uwe; Hausmann, Andrea; Böttger, Mathias; Anhalt, Mario; Dietz, Volker; Herrmann, Hartmut; Böhme, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Die Einführung der Umweltzone in Leipzig wird durch Messungen an Luftmessstationen wissenschaftlich begleitet. Neben den gesetzlich vorgegebenen Schadstoffen werden erstmalig Ruß und ultrafeine Partikel überwacht. Der dritte Teil der Berichterstattung dokumentiert die Ergebnisse bis 2013. Die Umweltzone bewirkte eine beschleunigte Modernisierung der Fahrzeugflotte in der Stadt. In verkehrsnaher Außenluft wurden ein deutlicher Rückgang von Ruß und ultrafeinen Partikeln und eine Stagnation von ...

  5. Rationale and design of the Leipzig (LIFE Heart Study: phenotyping and cardiovascular characteristics of patients with coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Beutner

    Full Text Available We established the Leipzig (LIFE Heart Study, a biobank and database of patients with different stages of coronary artery disease (CAD for studies of clinical, metabolic, cellular and genetic factors of cardiovascular diseases.The Leipzig (LIFE Heart Study (NCT00497887 is an ongoing observational angiographic study including subjects with different entities of CAD. Cohort 1, patients undergoing first-time diagnostic coronary angiography due to suspected stable CAD with previously untreated coronary arteries. Cohort 2, patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI requiring percutaneous revascularization. Cohort 3, patients with known left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD.We present preliminary results of demographics and phenotyping based on a 4-years analysis of a total of 3,165 subjects. Cohort 1 (n=2,274 shows the typical distribution of elective coronary angiography cohorts with 43% cases with obstructive CAD and 37% normal angiograms. Cohorts 2 and 3 consist of 590 and 301 subjects, respectively, adding patients with severe forms of CAD. The suitability of the database and biobank to perform association studies was confirmed by replication of the CAD susceptibility locus on chromosome 9p21 (OR per allele: 1.55 (any CAD, 1.54 (MI, 1.74 (LMCAD, p<10(-6, respectively. A novel finding was that patients with LMCAD had a stronger association with 9p21 than patients with obstructive CAD without LMCAD (OR 1.22, p=0.042. In contrast, 9p21 did not associate with myocardial infarction in excess of stable CAD.The Leipzig (LIFE Heart Study provides a basis to identify molecular targets related to atherogenesis and associated metabolic disorders. The study may contribute to an improvement of individual prediction, prevention, and treatment of CAD.

  6. Studies of ice nuclei at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Heike

    2013-04-01

    Ice containing clouds permanently cover 40% of the earth's surface. Ice formation processes have a large impact on the formation of precipitation, cloud radiative properties, cloud electrification and hence influence both, weather and climate. Our understanding of the physical and chemical processes underlying ice formation is limited. However what we know is that the two main pathways of atmospheric ice formation are homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation. The latter involves aerosol particles that act as ice nuclei inducing cloud droplet freezing at temperatures significantly above the homogeneous freezing threshold temperature. Particles acting as IN are e.g. dust particles, but also biological particles like bacteria, pollen and fungal spores. Different heterogeneous freezing mechanisms do exit, with their relative importance for atmospheric clouds still being debated. However, there are strong indications that immersion freezing is the most important mechanism when considering mixed phase clouds. What we are still lacking is a) the fundamental process understanding on how aerosol particles induce ice nucleation and b) means to quantify ice nucleation in atmospheric models. Concerning a) there most likely is not only one answer, considering the variety of IN found in the atmosphere. With respect to b) different approaches based on either the stochastic or singular hypotheses have been suggested. However it is still being debated which would be a suitable way to parameterize laboratory data for use in atmospheric modeling. In this presentation, both topics will be addressed. Using the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) (Hartmann et al., 2011), we examined different types of dust particles with and without coating, and biological particles such as bacteria and pollen, with respect to their immersion freezing behaviour. We will summarize our findings concerning the properties controlling the ice nucleation behaviour of these particles and

  7. Study of medicine 2.0 due to Web 2.0?! -- risks and opportunities for the curriculum in Leipzig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Gunther; Neef, Martin; Rotzoll, Daisy; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 is changing the study of medicine by opening up totally new ways of learning and teaching in an ongoing process. Global social networking services like Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Google Drive and Xing already play an important part in communication both among students and between students and teaching staff. Moreover, local portals (such as the platform [http://www.leipzig-medizin.de] established in 2003) have also caught on and in some cases eclipsed the use of the well-known location-independent social media. The many possibilities and rapid changes brought about by social networks need to be publicized within medical faculties. Therefore, an E-learning and New Media Working Group was set up at the Faculty of Medicine of Universität Leipzig in order to harness the opportunities of Web 2.0, analyse the resulting processes of change in the study of medicine, and curb the risks of the Internet. With Web 2.0 and the social web already influencing the study of medicine, the opportunities of the Internet now need to be utilized to improve the teaching of medicine.

  8. Study of medicine 2.0 due to Web 2.0?! - Risks and opportunities for the curriculum in Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Gunther; Neef, Martin; Rotzoll, Daisy; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 is changing the study of medicine by opening up totally new ways of learning and teaching in an ongoing process. Global social networking services like Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Google Drive and Xing already play an important part in communication both among students and between students and teaching staff. Moreover, local portals (such as the platform [http://www.leipzig-medizin.de] established in 2003) have also caught on and in some cases eclipsed the use of the well-known location-independent social media. The many possibilities and rapid changes brought about by social networks need to be publicized within medical faculties. Therefore, an E-learning and New Media Working Group was set up at the Faculty of Medicine of Universität Leipzig in order to harness the opportunities of Web 2.0, analyse the resulting processes of change in the study of medicine, and curb the risks of the Internet. With Web 2.0 and the social web already influencing the study of medicine, the opportunities of the Internet now need to be utilized to improve the teaching of medicine. PMID:23467440

  9. Semen quality in sub-fertile range for a significant proportion of young men from the general German population: a co-ordinated, controlled study of 791 men from Hamburg and Leipzig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, U.; Salzbrunn, A.; Glander, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    of a general trend in Europe. We therefore carried out a prospective study of semen quality of young men raised in the former East Germany (Leipzig) and West Germany (Hamburg). To enable inter-regional comparisons, we utilized a common European research protocol previously used in studies in the Nordic......-Baltic region. Three hundred and thirty-four young men representative of the general population from Hamburg, and 457 from Leipzig delivered semen samples, underwent physical examinations and provided information on life-style and reproductive health parameters. The study period in Hamburg was February 2003......--July 2004, and in Leipzig July 2003--April 2005. No significant differences were observed in sperm concentration (median 46, 42, and 44 million/mL for men from Hamburg, Leipzig and the combined Hamburg-Leipzig group respectively) or total sperm count (154,141 and 149 million), whereas the differences...

  10. Medizinstudium 2.0 dank Web 2.0?! – Risiken und Chancen am Beispiel des Leipziger Medizinstudiums [Study of medicine 2.0 due to Web 2.0?! - Risks and opportunities for the curriculum in Leipzig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinke, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Web 2.0 is changing the study of medicine by opening up totally new ways of learning and teaching in an ongoing process. Global social networking services like Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Google Drive and Xing already play an important part in communication both among students and between students and teaching staff. Moreover, local portals (such as the platform [] established in 2003 have also caught on and in some cases eclipsed the use of the well-known location-independent social media. The many possibilities and rapid changes brought about by social networks need to be publicized within medical faculties. Therefore, an E-learning and New Media Working Group was set up at the Faculty of Medicine of Universität Leipzig in order to harness the opportunities of Web 2.0, analyse the resulting processes of change in the study of medicine, and curb the risks of the Internet. With Web 2.0 and the social web already influencing the study of medicine, the opportunities of the Internet now need to be utilized to improve the teaching of medicine.[german] Das Web 2.0 ändert das Medizinstudium, weil es Studierenden und Lehrenden völlig neue Möglichkeiten im Lern- und Lehrverhalten und im Umgang miteinander bietet. Der Änderungsprozess hat bereits eingesetzt und wird sich in den kommenden Jahren weiter fortsetzen. Überregionale soziale Medien wie Facebook, YouTube, StudiVZ, Google Drive oder Xing sind heute fest integrierter Bestandteil in der Kommunikation zwischen den Studierenden und in der Kommunikation zwischen Studierenden und Lehrenden. Darüber hinaus haben aber auch lokale Portale, wie die seit 2003 etablierte Plattform [], mittlerweile einen festen Stellenwert im Medizinstudium erlangt, der zum Teil über den der bekannten überregionalen sozialen Netze hinausgeht. Die vielen Möglichkeiten und raschen Veränderungen durch soziale Netzwerke sollten innerhalb der Medizinischen Fakultäten bekannt gemacht werden. Aus diesem Grund

  11. The canopy spiders (Araneae of the floodplain forest in Leipzig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The canopy spiders of the floodplain forest in Leipzig have become a focus of ecological studies in recent years. In 2006 we sampled 30 tree canopies in the ‘Burgaue’ nature reserve with pyrethrum knock-down fogging, recording 502 adult spiders belonging to 48 species and 11 families. Based on these data and the results of a previous fogging study, the studied spider community was dominated by forest and forest-edge species with a preference for the shrub and canopy strata as well as by spiders of the web spider feeding guild. The community structure was typical for arboreal spider communities from northern temperate forests but very different from communities in the tropics. Species richness and evenness were similar to the old growth near-primary Białowieża Forest in Poland. The checklist of 96 canopy spider species of the floodplain forest of Leipzig includes 54 additions to the spider fauna of Leipzig and vicinity by recent canopy studies and eight first canopy records for Leipzig from our field work. The theridiid Dipoena torva (Thorell, 1875 was recorded for the first time in Saxony. The floodplain forest of Leipzig sustains a large and species-rich arboreal spider community and is thus a valuable habitat for a large proportion of endangered species (12%.

  12. [Pathology of South American Camelids: a retrospective study of necropsies at the Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Leipzig, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuß, T; Goerigk, D; Rasenberger, S; Starke, A; Schoon, H-A

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American Camelids (New World Camelids) housed in Germany has increased in the recent years. While these species were formerly kept solely in zoological gardens, ever more private and commercial livestock is being established. Compared to indigenous livestock animals, they bear some distinctive differences, particularly in terms of digestive tract anatomy and physiology. Therefore, it is of considerable interest for veterinarians working with South American Camelids to obtain knowledge about the distinguishing features of these animals and the typical diseases affecting them in Germany. For this purpose, the necropsy reports, including the anamnestic data, and their diagnostic usefulness, from 1995 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Du- ring this period, a total of 233 New World Camelids were examined (195 alpacas and 38 llamas). Anamnestic data of diagnostic usefulness regarding the cause of disease were only submitted in a limited number of cases, because most of the animals died without specific symptoms. The following were the most frequent pathological findings: enteritis (n = 91), gastritis (n = 76), cachexia (n = 73), pneumonia (n = 30), stomatitis (n = 27), azotaemia (n = 22) and anaemia (n = 9). An endoparasitosis occurred in 107 cases and was considered the predominant cause of enteritis. As with indigenous ruminants, llamas and alpacas primarily suffered from diseases of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Other organ systems were affected to a lesser extent. Even in cases with severe alterations in the affected organs, South American Camelids do not show or show too late diagnostically indicative clinical symptoms. Therefore, a detailed clinical examination of these animals is important.

  13. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  14. LEIR longitudinal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, S; Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015 and during 2016 there were exten-sive studies of longitudinal beam dynamics in LEIR aimedat improving extracted intensities. As the driving source oflosses early in the ramp was shown to be transverse spacecharge tune spread a significant improvement came fromflattening the beam profile to increase the bunching factorby offsetting the RF frequency from the beam revolution fre-quency. Further benefits were provided by modulating theRF frequency during capture, leading to emittance blow-upand improved reproducibility. The use of two RF cavitiesduring operation was studied to try and further increase thecaptured emittance, however after careful alignment of theRF it was found that a hard limit in the bunch heigh of approx-imately 7 MeV exists. Due to the acceptance limit there wasno operational benefit to using both cavities simultaneously

  15. Longitudinal data driven study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Hauke; Gerth, Sven; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Fegeler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for processing EHR data into a longitudinal data model and examples for using this model to identify patients cross-sectionally and longitudinally as well as testing study designs retrospectively. Our data model describes measurements on four dimensions: the associated patient, observed feature, data source and time of survey. The transformation of structured source data into our model is defined by rules written in XML. To showcase the flexibility of the proposed longitudinal data model, we present an evolution of a retrospective study design as well as an example for interpreting biomarkers in emergency situations. With the proposed longitudinal data model complex queries can be performed, study designs tested and optimized.

  16. Indicator components of the outdoor pollution in Leipzig; Indikatorstoffe der Aussenluft in Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlink, U.; Rehwagen, M.; Herbarth, O. [Sektion Expositionsforschung und Epidemiologie, Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Fritz, G.J. [Medizinische Fakultaet, Univ. Leipzig (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    Between January and December 1994, the outdoor air quality of the city of Leipzig, Germany, was examined at 13 kindergardens. SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, O{sub 3}, total suspended particles, sedimentation dust and volatile organic compounds were measured. Although each monitoring site appears to have its own individual pollutant profile, two general pollution profiles could be identified as to Leipzig using principal component analysis. The profiles are largely attributable to two dominant emission sources, domestic heating and traffic. Indicator components were identified for both pollution profiles. Benzene was found to be the indicator component for traffic and SO{sub 2} for domestic heating. The predominating types of pollution are reflected in the prevalences of respiratory diseases among 519 children investigated based on parent-completed questionnaires. High traffic pollution was found to be associated with an increased occurrence of asthma and allergies and domestic heating with bronchitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Von Januar bis Dezember 1994 wurde an 15 Kindergaerten in Leipzig die Belastung mit Luftschadstoffen durch Messungen von SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, O{sub 3}, Schwebstaub und VOC untersucht. Es zeigte sich, dass jeder untersuchte Messort sein eigenes Schadstoffprofil besitzt. Mit einer Hauptkomponentenanalyse der Messdaten wurden zwei fuer Leipzig wesentliche Schadstoffprofile identifiziert. Diese entstehen durch ueberwiegende Emissionen des Hausbrandes oder durch ueberwiegende Verkehrsemissionen. Fuer beide Belastungssituationen wurden Indikatorkomponenten gefunden. Dies sind Benzol fuer die Verkehrsbelastung und erwartungsgemaess SO{sub 2} fuer die Hausbrandbelastung. Der Typ der Belastung spiegelt sich in der Praevalenz von Atemwegserkrankungen wider. Bei den 519 mit einem Fragebogen untersuchten Kindern war bei Vorliegen einer hohen Verkehrsbelastung eine erhoehte Praevalenz bei Asthma und Allergien zu verzeichnen. (orig.)

  17. Cannabis and suicide: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ceri; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Allebeck, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Some studies suggest that cannabis use is associated with suicidal ideation, but no detailed longitudinal study has examined suicide as an outcome. To examine the association between cannabis use and completed suicide. A longitudinal study investigated 50 087 men conscripted for Swedish military service, with cannabis use measured non-anonymously at conscription. Suicides during 33 years of follow-up were identified by linkage with the National Cause of Death Register. There were 600 (1.2% of cohort) suicides or deaths from undetermined causes. Cannabis use was associated with an increased risk of suicide (crude OR for 'ever use' 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.07), but this association was eliminated after adjustment for confounding (adjusted OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.65-1.20). Although there was a strong association between cannabis use and suicide, this was explained by markers of psychological and behavioural problems. These results suggest that cannabis use is unlikely to have a strong effect on risk of completed suicide, either directly or as a consequence of mental health problems secondary to its use.

  18. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  19. PAH analysis in Leipzig allotment soils; Untersuchungen zum Gefaehrdungspotential polycyclischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Leipziger Kleingartenboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittrich, R.; Butze, B.; Mueller, S.; Prawalsky, R.; Stoye, H. [Umwelt-Consult e.V., Leipzig (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    Soils in 29 allotments were analyzed systematically with a view to the following aspects: Concentration ratios of the 16 components analyzed. Occurrence and classification of so-called PAH patterns. Interdependences between PAH patterns and soil features. PAH concentrations and soil-immanent buffer characteristics (humus concentration, pH, clay concentration, sesquioxide concentrations, exchange capacity). [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit konzentriert sich auf die Untersuchung der PAK-Belastung kleingaertnerisch genutzter Boeden. Die hier vorgestellten Ergebnisse resultieren aus Probjekten von Umwelt-Consult e.V. aus den Jahren 1995 bis 1997 im Auftrag der Stadt Leipzig und dem unter fachlicher Begleitung des Referates Geochemie der Abt. Boden/Geochemie vom LfUG gefoerderten Forschungsvorhaben 'Untersuchungen zum Gefaehrdungspotential polycyclischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Boeden der Stadt Leipzig'. Hierbei wurden systematisch Boeden in 29 Kleingartenanlagen untersucht. Folgende Fragestellungen sollten beantwortet werden: Stehen die PAK-Konzentrationen der 16 analysierten Einzelkomponenten in bestimmten Groessenverhaeltnissen zueinander? Sind sogenannte PAK-Muster zu erkennen und lassen sich diese klassifizieren? Welche Beziehungen gibt es zwischen PAK-Mustern und Bodenmerkmalen? Korrespondieren die PAK-Konzentrationen (Gesamt-PAK, Einzelkomponenten) im Boden und deren bodenhorizont-bezogene Abfolge mit der Auspraegung bodenimmanenter Puffermerkmale (Humusgehalt, pH-Wert, Tongehalt, Gehalt an Sesquioxiden, Austauschkapazitaet)? (orig.)

  20. Longitudinal study of keratoconus progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Huiying; Rabinowitz, Yaron S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine if differences in topographic progression between unaffected keratoconus relatives and normal controls can predict factors associated with the development of keratoconus in a longitudinal study. We recruited 369 unaffected keratoconus relatives and 119 normal controls in Los Angeles. Both eyes of subjects were examined at baseline clinically and by quantitative videokeratography and at a period ranging from 1 year to 8 years. Progression to keratoconus was evaluated by quantitative videokeratography variables. Unaffected relatives had higher Central K (CK), I-S and KISA values and were younger than normal controls (CK: 44.70 vs 44.01, Pkeratoconus (Pkeratoconus. After grouped unaffected relatives as the high risk (age=47.2 or I-S >=1.2 or KISA>=60) and the low risk (age>30 and Central Kkeratoconus quicker than normal controls. However, relatives in a high risk group may have a greater risk of progression to keratoconus. PMID:17681291

  1. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Nina; Bauer, Annette; Haase, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

  2. Technical Note: Dosimetry of Leipzig and Valencia applicators without the plastic cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, D.; Candela-Juan, C.; Vijande, J.; Ballester, F.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Jacob, D.; Mourtada, F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treatment of small skin lesions using the Leipzig and Valencia applicators is a widely used technique. These applicators are equipped with an attachable plastic cap to be placed during fraction delivery to ensure electronic equilibrium and to prevent secondary electrons from reaching the skin surface. The purpose of this study is to report on the dosimetric impact of the cap being absent during HDR fraction delivery, which has not been explored previously in the literature. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations (version 10.0) have been performed for the Leipzig and Valencia applicators with and without the plastic cap. In order to validate the Monte Carlo simulations, experimental measurements using radiochromic films have been done. Results: Dose absorbed within 1 mm of the skin surface increases by a factor of 1500% for the Leipzig applicators and of 180% for the Valencia applicators. Deeper than 1 mm, the overdosage flattens up to a 10% increase. Conclusions: Differences of treating with or without the plastic cap are significant. Users must check always that the plastic cap is in place before any treatment in order to avoid overdosage of the skin. Prior to skin HDR fraction delivery, the timeout checklist should include verification of the cap placement.

  3. Technical Note: Dosimetry of Leipzig and Valencia applicators without the plastic cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granero, D., E-mail: dgranero@eresa.com [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Candela-Juan, C. [National Dosimetry Centre (CND), Instituto Nacional de Gestión Sanitaria, Valencia 46009 (Spain); Vijande, J. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and Instituto de Física Corpuscular (UV-CSIC), Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Ballester, F. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (UV-CSIC), Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J. [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and Department of Radiotherapy, Clínica Benidorm, Benidorm 03501 (Spain); Jacob, D.; Mourtada, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treatment of small skin lesions using the Leipzig and Valencia applicators is a widely used technique. These applicators are equipped with an attachable plastic cap to be placed during fraction delivery to ensure electronic equilibrium and to prevent secondary electrons from reaching the skin surface. The purpose of this study is to report on the dosimetric impact of the cap being absent during HDR fraction delivery, which has not been explored previously in the literature. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations (version 10.0) have been performed for the Leipzig and Valencia applicators with and without the plastic cap. In order to validate the Monte Carlo simulations, experimental measurements using radiochromic films have been done. Results: Dose absorbed within 1 mm of the skin surface increases by a factor of 1500% for the Leipzig applicators and of 180% for the Valencia applicators. Deeper than 1 mm, the overdosage flattens up to a 10% increase. Conclusions: Differences of treating with or without the plastic cap are significant. Users must check always that the plastic cap is in place before any treatment in order to avoid overdosage of the skin. Prior to skin HDR fraction delivery, the timeout checklist should include verification of the cap placement.

  4. EDITORIAL Methodological Implications of Longitudinal Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    EDITORIAL. Methodological Implications of Longitudinal Studies in Public. Health Research: Examples from Jimma Longitudinal Family. Survey of Youth. Tefera Belachew1. State of the ... security, nutrition, reproductive health, mental health, life ... of risky adolescent sexual behaviour and perceived access to condoms than.

  5. Ausländerfeindlichkeit unter Jugendlichen in Leipzig

    OpenAIRE

    Petermann, Sören; Goldenberg, Olga

    2017-01-01

    In kommunalen Umfragen erhobene Einstellungen gegenüber Ausländern repräsentieren ein Bild gelebter Toleranz. Selten werden Jugendliche zu ihren ausländerbezogenen Einstellungen gefragt und mit altersspezifischen Faktoren in Verbindung gesetzt. Dieser Beitrag bezieht sich auf theoretische Ansätze der Anomietheorie, der Sozialisations- und Deprivationsforschung, um Kompensationsprozesse und Konfliktpotenziale als Wirkungsmechanismen für Ausländerfeindlichkeit unter Leipziger Jugendlichen zu un...

  6. SU-F-T-63: Dosimetric Relevance of the Valencia and Leipzig HDR Applicators Plastic Cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granero, D [ERESA-Hospital General Universitario, Valencia (Spain); Candela-Juan, C [National Dosimetry Centre (CND), Valencia (Spain); Vijande, J; Ballester, F [University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J [Hospital La Fe, Valencia (Spain); Jacob, D; Mourtada, F [Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Utilization of HDR brachytherapy treatment of skin lesions using collimated applicators, such as the Valencia or Leipzig is increasing. These applicators are made of cup-shaped tungsten material in order to focalize the radiation into the lesion and to protect nearby tissues. These applicators have an attachable plastic cap that removes secondary electrons generated in the applicator and flattens the treatment surface. The purpose of this study is to examine the dosimetric impact of this cap, and the effect if the cap is not placed during the HDR fraction delivery. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations have been done using the code Geant4 for the Valencia and Leipzig applicators. Dose rate distributions have been obtained for the applicators with and without the plastic cap. An experimental study using EBT3 radiochromic film has been realized in order to verify the Monte Carlo results. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations show that absorbed dose in the first millimeter of skin can increase up to 180% for the Valencia applicator if the plastic cap is absent and up to 1500% for the Leipzig applicators. At deeper distances the increase of dose is smaller being about 10–15%. Conclusion: Important differences have been found if the plastic cap of the applicators is absent in the treatment producing an overdosage in the skin. The user should have a checklist to remind him check always before HDR fraction delivery to insure the plastic cap is placed on the applicator. This work was supported in part by Generalitat Valenciana under Project PROMETEOII/2013/010, by the Spanish Government under Project No. FIS2013-42156, and by a research agreement with Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal, The Netherlands.

  7. SU-F-T-63: Dosimetric Relevance of the Valencia and Leipzig HDR Applicators Plastic Cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, D; Candela-Juan, C; Vijande, J; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J; Jacob, D; Mourtada, F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Utilization of HDR brachytherapy treatment of skin lesions using collimated applicators, such as the Valencia or Leipzig is increasing. These applicators are made of cup-shaped tungsten material in order to focalize the radiation into the lesion and to protect nearby tissues. These applicators have an attachable plastic cap that removes secondary electrons generated in the applicator and flattens the treatment surface. The purpose of this study is to examine the dosimetric impact of this cap, and the effect if the cap is not placed during the HDR fraction delivery. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations have been done using the code Geant4 for the Valencia and Leipzig applicators. Dose rate distributions have been obtained for the applicators with and without the plastic cap. An experimental study using EBT3 radiochromic film has been realized in order to verify the Monte Carlo results. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations show that absorbed dose in the first millimeter of skin can increase up to 180% for the Valencia applicator if the plastic cap is absent and up to 1500% for the Leipzig applicators. At deeper distances the increase of dose is smaller being about 10–15%. Conclusion: Important differences have been found if the plastic cap of the applicators is absent in the treatment producing an overdosage in the skin. The user should have a checklist to remind him check always before HDR fraction delivery to insure the plastic cap is placed on the applicator. This work was supported in part by Generalitat Valenciana under Project PROMETEOII/2013/010, by the Spanish Government under Project No. FIS2013-42156, and by a research agreement with Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal, The Netherlands.

  8. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  9. The Czech longitudinal study of optimal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 266-266 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : optimal development * Prague longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  10. Burnout development among dentists : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, H.; Smits, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  11. ACQUIRING SCOPE: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ling Hsieh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the spontaneous data of a Chinese-speaking child collected from 1 year old up to 4+ years old, this study focuses on the development of his scope by examining the scope interaction between negation and quantified NPs that occur in preverbal positions. It is found that the child is sensitive to scope at 3;2, an age much earlier than the age reported in other studies (e.g., age of 6 in Lee 1991. Further evidence shows that the child has mastered scope of negation and scope in general at the age of 4. First, starting from age 4;3, the child has managed to mark universal quantifiers and wh-phrases as well as duration phrases occurring in the preverbal position with scope markers such as dou ‘all’ and you ‘have’. Second, by the age of 4;5, the child has placed duration phrases in target positions in relation to negation.

  12. Die „Leipziger schule”. Zur geschichte der kirchenmusik Im 20. jahrhundert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loos Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Auf die Initiative Karls Straubes ging die Gründung des Instituts für Kirchenmusik am Leipziger Konservatorium im Jahre 1921 zurück. Zusammen mit seinem Meisterschüler Günther Ramin gestaltete er über lange Jahre hinweg die Kirchenmusik in St. Thomas. Nach dem Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs gewann die Bach-Bewegung für den Protestantismus eine zentrale Bedeutung, zumal sich Leipzig als richtungsweisendes Zentrum profilierte und mit der „Ära Straube-Ramin” eine „Leipziger Schule” ausbildete. Obwohl Straube und Ramin nicht selbst komponierten, war insbesondere ihr Wirken am Konservatorium der Musik zu Leipzig wesentlich für die Bildung der „Leipziger Schule” als Erneuerungsbewegung evangelischer Kirchenmusik. In dem Artikel wird das Schicksal dieser Bestrebungen und ihrer Protagonisten während der katastrophalen ökonomischen Umstände und des anwachsenden Nationalisozialismus analysiert.

  13. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  14. Qualitative longitudinal study of micro-entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rövekamp, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative longitudinal study 30 founders from small companies – small busi-nesses, liberal professions and self-employed – were examined. Types of successful and less successful founders are constructed, which are posed with factors of suc-cess. On the one hand the typology is based on material and immaterial personal goals that are pursued with the start up, on the other hand on biographical striv-ings: (1A) conventional enterpriser or persons who are (1B) double- and multio-riented, ...

  15. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on Remand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...

  17. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  19. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  20. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children's Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Jennie K; Coffman, Jennifer L; Ornstein, Peter A; Morrison, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children's cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children's basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one's research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development.

  1. Factors related to caregiver strain in ALS: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, Huub; de Morée, Sandra; Veldink, Jan H.; Nollet, Frans; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Beelen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between caregiver strain and patients' clinical and psychosocial characteristics as well as caregivers' psychosocial characteristics. At 4-month intervals during the 12 months study period, longitudinal data on caregiver strain and patient and caregiver

  2. Bullying and parasomnias: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya

    2014-10-01

    Environmental factors such as serious trauma or abuse and related stress can lead to nightmares or night terrors. Being bullied can be very distressing for children, and victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences. Unknown is whether being bullied by peers may increase the risk for experiencing parasomnias such as nightmares, night terrors, or sleepwalking. A total of 6796 children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort were interviewed at elementary school age (8 and 10 years) about bullying experiences with a previously validated bullying interview and at secondary school age (12.9 years) about parasomnias such as nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking by trained postgraduate psychologists. Even after adjusting for pre-existing factors related to bullying and parasomnias, being bullied predicted having nightmares (8 years odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.44; 10 years OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.35-1.94) or night terrors (8 years OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.75; 10 years OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.18-1.98) at age 12 to 13 years. Especially being a chronic victim was associated with both nightmares (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.46-2.27) and night terrors (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.48-2.74). Being a bully/victim also increased the risk for any parasomnia at ages 8 or 10 years (8 years OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88; 10 years OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.30-2.36). In contrast, bullies had no increased risk for any parasomnias. Being bullied increases the risk for having parasomnias. Hence, parents, teachers, school counselors, and clinicians may consider asking about bullying experiences if a child is having parasomnias. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  4. Johann Sebastian Bach en zijn musici in de beide hoofdkerken te Leipzig : Een onderzoek naar hun rol, inzet en opstelling in het algemeen en naar de continuogroep en de daarin participerende instrumenten in het bijzonder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    The study is devoted to Johann Sebastian Bach and his musicians in Leipzig’s two main churches, and to the question to which extent current opinions in musicology regarding historically-informed practice are actually correct. The core of Bach’s first Sunday choir in Leipzig consisted of the eight

  5. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  7. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  8. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  9. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  10. A longitudinal study of tooth erosion in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidi, H El; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinal study aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9

  11. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Idiom and Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…

  13. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  14. Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng

    2018-01-01

    Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…

  15. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  16. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  17. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  18. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  19. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  20. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  1. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  2. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Relational and Physical Aggression in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Burr, Jean E.; Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Jansen-Yeh, Elizabeth; Ralston, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys ("M" age=39.0; "SD"=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinal study. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted…

  4. Strategies to bring about change: a longitudinal study on challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategies they most used to get away from abusive home situations were to inform a relative about the mistreatment or to run away. Children's and adolescents' limitations concerning strategies for improving their adverse living situations are also discussed. Keywords: coping, family relationships, longitudinal study, ...

  5. Body Image Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they…

  6. EDITORIAL Methodological Implications of Longitudinal Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    State of the art public health evidence is a critical element for health policy and program development. The implication and level of use of the evidence for policy ... generated and communicated to key stakeholders including the general community. Multi-disciplinary and trans disciplinary long term follow studies, randomised ...

  7. [Development of child neuropsychiatry at the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebelt, H

    1978-05-01

    The development of pedoneuropsychiatry at the University of Leipzig is marked by the opening in 1926 of the first "Department of Pedopsychiatric Observation", the establishment of the Clinic of Pedoneuropsychiatry as an independent unit of the Department of Medicine, Karl Marx University, and the setting up in 1976 of a Chair of Pedoneuropsychiatry. Paul Schröder's and R. A. Pfeifer's services to their university are particularly appreciated.

  8. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  9. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    investigated four different proximity markers which lead to significantly improved marker values between NC and AD after correction for whole brain and hippocampus volume. Based on the different proximity markers we have chosen the surface connectivity marker that gave the best separation to investigate......This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning....... The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...

  10. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Huizink, A.C.; Menting, B.; De Moor, M.H.M.; Verhage, M. L.; Kunseler, F.C.; Schuengel, C.; Oosterman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child’s early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations2, which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out t...

  11. Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Lima, Arinilson Moreira Chaves; Lolli, Luiz Fernando; Saliba, Orlando; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2014-01-01

    Background: The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion.Methods: This is a longitudinal study in whi...

  12. HRI in the home: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study with Roomba

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Julia; Bauwens, Valérie; Mubin, Omar; Kaplan, Frédéric; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Personal service robots, such as the iRobot Roomba vacuum cleaner provide a promising opportunity to study human-robot interaction (HRI) in domestic environments. Still rather little is known about long-term impacts of robotic home appliances on people’s daily routines and attitudes and how they evolve over time. We investigate these aspects through a longitudinal ethnographic study with nine households, to which we gave a Roomba cleaning robot. During six months, data is gathered through a c...

  13. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Konkol? Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Background Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data ...

  14. Academic dishonesty among Italian nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macale, Loreana; Ghezzi, Valerio; Rocco, Gennaro; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  16. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Procedural justice and prisoners' mental health problems: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Eichelsheim, Veroni I; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the longitudinal relationship between prisoners' perceptions of procedural justice--including fairness, respect, humanity and relationships with officers--and their mental health and (2) the moderating role of coping style in this relationship. Data were obtained from the Prison Project, a longitudinal study of adult male prisoners in the Netherlands, interviewed both 3 weeks and 3 months after their reception into pre-trial detention (N = 824). A cross-lagged structural equation model was employed to investigate associations. Prisoners who reported experiencing a higher level of procedural justice 3 weeks after their arrival in custody reported fewer mental health problems after 3 months. No evidence was found that coping style moderated this relationship. These findings suggest a causal relationship between procedural justice and psychological well-being. Fair and respectful treatment of prisoners is a predictor not only of prison order and prisoners' compliance but also of prisoners' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Longitudinal cognitive screening study in community-dwelling individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina P.M. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive changes in normal aging can be similar to the alterations that take place in the initial stages of a dementia process. Longitudinal studies can provide a better understanding of this progression. Objectives: To evaluate the cognitive and functional evolution of community-dwelling individuals without dementia through a three-year longitudinal study. Methods: 168 individuals were evaluated in 2006. Three years later in 2009, 73 of these subjects were reevaluated as regards cognition and functionality using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. The statistical analysis included descriptive measurements, the Wilcoxon's test for intra-group comparison, and the Spearman's correlation coefficient test for comparing cognitive and functionality scores. Results: After three years, the Wilcoxon's test showed a discreet yet significant cognitive decline (MMSE: -0.7 points; p=0.02; Z= -2.29; and global score on the BCB: +3.6 points; p=0.02; Z= -2.29, in addition to functional decline (Pfeffer: +0.7 points; p= 0.001; Z= -3.38. Conclusions: After three years of follow-up we observed a discreet yet significant functional and cognitive decline in the subjects. Longitudinal cognitive screening represents an important strategy in the early identification of changes from normal conditions to a dementia process.

  19. To the punishability of manipulations of the trade at the electricity market EEX in Leipzig; Zur Strafbarkeit von Manipulationen des Handels an der Stromboerse EEX in Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Matthias [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Strafrecht und Strafprozessrecht

    2009-01-15

    The reproaches of the manipulation of the price formation at the electricity market EEX (Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) require supervision-legal, cartel legal and European legal attention. On 12 June 2008, the European Commission (Brussels, Belgium) expressed doubts, E.ON AG (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) possibly used its dominating market position. So far, the criminal content of the manipulation reproaches was not considered yet. Circumstances can justify the first suspicion due to criminal experience on criminal offences. This is valid not only for the facts constituting an offence of the stock exchange fraud towards the electricity market EEX for the disadvantage of the customer, but also for the current trade at the EEX in accordance with paragraph 20 of the law of securities transactions.

  20. Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): intercomparison of four online ice nucleation counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert-Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Welti, André; Hartmann, Susan; Grawe, Sarah; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Atkinson, James D.; Stratmann, Frank; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2017-09-01

    Ice crystal formation in atmospheric clouds has a strong effect on precipitation, cloud lifetime, cloud radiative properties, and thus the global energy budget. Primary ice formation above 235 K is initiated by nucleation on seed aerosol particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs). Instruments that measure the ice-nucleating potential of aerosol particles in the atmosphere need to be able to accurately quantify ambient INP concentrations. In the last decade several instruments have been developed to investigate the ice-nucleating properties of aerosol particles and to measure ambient INP concentrations. Therefore, there is a need for intercomparisons to ensure instrument differences are not interpreted as scientific findings.In this study, we intercompare the results from parallel measurements using four online ice nucleation chambers. Seven different aerosol types are tested including untreated and acid-treated mineral dusts (microcline, which is a K-feldspar, and kaolinite), as well as birch pollen washing waters. Experiments exploring heterogeneous ice nucleation above and below water saturation are performed to cover the whole range of atmospherically relevant thermodynamic conditions that can be investigated with the intercompared chambers. The Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) and the Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber coupled to the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PIMCA-PINC) performed measurements in the immersion freezing mode. Additionally, two continuous-flow diffusion chambers (CFDCs) PINC and the Spectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN) are used to perform measurements below and just above water saturation, nominally presenting deposition nucleation and condensation freezing.The results of LACIS and PIMCA-PINC agree well over the whole range of measured frozen fractions (FFs) and temperature. In general PINC and SPIN compare well and the observed differences are explained by the ice crystal growth and different residence times in

  1. Objective markers for sleep propensity: comparison between the Multiple Sleep Latency Test and the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Fischer, Marie M; Sander, Christian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Wirtz, Hubert; Bosse-Henck, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    The regulation of wakefulness is important for high-order organisms. Its dysregulation is involved in the pathomechanism of several psychiatric disorders. Thus, a tool for its objective but little time-consuming assessment would be of importance. The Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig allows the objective measurement of sleep propensity, based on a single resting state electroencephalogram. To compare the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig with the standard for objective assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness, a four-trial Multiple Sleep Latency Test in 25 healthy subjects was conducted. Between the first two trials, a 15-min, 25-channel resting electroencephalogram was recorded, and Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig was used to classify the sleep propensity (i.e., type of vigilance regulation) of each subject. The results of both methods showed significant correlations with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ρ = -0.70; ρ = 0.45, respectively) and correlated with each other (ρ = -0.54). Subjects with a stable electroencephalogram-vigilance regulation yielded significant increased sleep latencies compared with an unstable regulation (multiple sleep latency 898.5 s versus 549.9 s; P = 0.03). Further, Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig classifications allowed the identification of subjects with average sleep latencies Sleep Latency Test. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity for large sleep propensity, Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig could be an effective and reliable alternative to the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, for example for screening purposes in large cohorts, where objective information about wakefulness regulation is needed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. [Tracing back for the basis. Research of Medieval medical manuscripts in Leipzig by Karl Sudhoff and Henry Ernest Sigerist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Anette

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, two known medical historians, Karl Sudhoff and Henry Ernst Sigerist, were among the first persons, who took up thorough investigations of medical manuscripts in Leipzig. Above all, it was Mr. Sudhoff, who developed his own procedure, in order to exploit the unknown stocks. Apart from the only means available to him, the so-called Leyser-papers, written by the Leipzig librarian Hermann Leyser, at least once Sudhoff made a complete check-up of all manuscripts over the period of 22 years. On 315 sheets he took down various more or less extensive notes regarding these Codices, which are kept today as manuscript collection (Ms 01269) in the library of the university of Leipzig. Many publications were written on the basis of these readings. Sigerist was only looking through a small number of Leipzig manuscripts, as could be seen from his remarks written onto the users' cards. However, he could rely on Sudhoff's notes and look for specific manuscripts that he was interested in and review them. This was a first and very important step for the investigation of Leipzig medical manuscripts.

  3. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  4. SCC präsentiert HPC- und Big-Data-Forschung in Leipzig

    OpenAIRE

    Kirner, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Das SCC nahm vom 23. - 25. Juni 2014 an der HPC-Ausstellung, welche im Rahmen der International Supercomputing Conference (ISC'14) in Leipzig stattfand, mit einem Messestand teil. Der Messestand zog durch mehrere Wanddrucke, eine PowerPoint Präsentation auf zwei Großbildschirmen und Tassen im modischen KITDesign mehrere hundert Besucher an. Besonderes Interesse erweckte unser Exponat, das Prototyp-Panel des CMS-Detektors am Large Hadron Collider (LHC) des CERN (Genf), eine der Hauptquellen fü...

  5. Longitudinal Study of Caries Development from Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Scullin, E; Whitehead, H; Milsom, K; Tickle, M; Su, T-L; Walsh, T

    2017-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) stated that globally, dental caries is the most important oral condition. To develop effective prevention strategies requires an understanding of how this condition develops and progresses over time, but there are few longitudinal studies of caries onset and progression in children. The aim of the study was to establish the pattern of caries development from childhood into adolescence and to explore the role of potential risk factors (age, sex, ethnicity, and social deprivation). Of particular interest was the disease trajectory of dentinal caries in the permanent teeth in groups defined by the presence or absence of dentinal caries in the primary teeth. Intraoral examinations to assess oral health were performed at 4 time points by trained and calibrated dentist examiners using a standardized, national diagnostic protocol. Clinical data were available from 6,651 children. Mean caries prevalence (% D 3 MFT > 0) was 16.7% at the first clinical examination (ages 7-9 y), increasing to 31.0%, 42.2%, and 45.7% at subsequent examinations. A population-averaged model (generalized estimating equations) was used to model the longitudinal data. Estimated mean values indicated a rising D 3 MFT count as pupils aged (consistent with new teeth emerging), which was significantly higher (4.49 times; 95% confidence interval, 3.90-5.16) in those pupils with caries in their primary dentition than in those without. This study is one of the few large longitudinal studies to report the development of dental caries from childhood into adolescence. Children who developed caries in their primary dentition had a very different caries trajectory in their permanent dentition compared to their caries-free contemporaries. In light of these results, caries-free and caries-active children should be considered as 2 separate populations, suggesting different prevention strategies are required to address their different risk profiles.

  6. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  7. Xenobiotics in groundwater and surface water of the city of Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, A.; Leschik, S.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.; Möder, M.

    2007-09-01

    Xenobiotics are increasingly being considered as ecotoxicologically relevant for the aquatic environment and human health. Their behaviour and the effects on the environment have not yet been comprehensively investigated and, therefore, are currently the subject of the project WASSER Leipzig initiated by the UFZ. The results of this article are based on groundwater and surface water analyses of a watershed within the town of Leipzig. Here the industrial chemicals bisphenol-A and t-nonylphenol, the polycyclic fragrances galaxolide and tonalide, the antiepileptic drug carbamacepine and caffeine where investigated. Xenobiotics showed ubiquitous occurrence in the rivers, which were contaminated from treated and untreated sewage, as well as in groundwater, contaminated by leaky sewers. Mean concentrations up to several hundred ng/l were found in the rivers, while groundwater concentrations, except for bisphenol-A, tended to be lower. Applying the statistical factor analysis on the hydrochemical measurements, a differentiation of the xenobiotics with regard to their hydrochemical behaviour in groundwater was performed.

  8. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  9. Association between bacterial vaginosis and partner concurrency: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien; Klebanoff, Mark; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to test if there was an association between prevalent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and women reporting that their partner had other partners at the same time (partner concurrency). This association has not been assessed in a longitudinal cohort. The Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora recruited a cohort of 3620 non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years who presented for routine primary healthcare at 12 clinics in Birmingham, Alabama. Behavioural questionnaires and vaginal smears were obtained quarterly for a year and BV was defined by a Nugent score 7 or higher as well as Amsel criteria. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between prevalent BV and reporting that one's partner had other partners in the preceding 3-6 months time interval. Nugent score prevalent BV was associated with both reporting that one's partner definitely (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) and possibly (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) engaged in partner concurrency in the preceding 3-6 months time period. Prevalent BV diagnosed by Amsel criteria was similar. A diagnosis of prevalent BV was associated with reporting that one's partner possibly or definitely engaged in partner concurrency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university.

  11. Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kathryn B; Kasperski, Sarah J; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Arria, Amelia M

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university.

  12. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, K.C.; Twisk, J.W.; Rong, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy,

  13. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  14. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2011-04-01

    The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers.

  15. Longitudinal study of workers of an aluminium die casting factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discalzi, G L; Capellaro, F; Baracco, A

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study on 76 workers of a high and medium aluminium alloy die-casting factory. As in a previous cross-sectional study conducted in 1986 and in accordance with the data in the literature, the 1990 follow-up study showed: a low prevalence of chronic bronchitis (as defined by the ECSC questionnaire on respiratory symptoms); normal mean functional values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%. We did not find any significant difference in the levels of lung function over the period of 1986-90. These results show that workers in the secondary aluminium industry are not exposed to a significant risk of chronic pulmonary disease.

  16. Relationship between urban structures for using areas and climatic conditions, using the example of the city of Leipzig region. Final report; Beziehungen zwischen urbanen Flaechennutzungsstrukturen und klimatischen Verhaeltnissen am Beispiel der Stadtregion Leipzig. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U.

    1997-08-01

    Based on the continuous stationary measurements of climate carried out since the summer of 1992 at various sites in the Leipzig area and for mobile air temperature and humidity measurements carried out for in situ weather in the city area at selected test areas, relationships were carried out between urban structures for using areas and climatic conditions of the air layer near the ground in the city of Leipzig region. The data on the sealing of the functional types of structures obtained in the context of a further part project were used as an important indicator for the use of areas. A basic precondition for these city climate investigations is the preparation of the extensive data obtained in the form of tables and graphs. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Auf der Basis der seit Sommer 1992 an verschiedenen Standorten im Raum Leipzig kontinuierlich vorgenommenen stationaeren Klimamessungen und bei autochthonen Wetterlagen im Stadtgebiet und in ausgewaehlten Testgebieten durchgefuehrten mobilen Lufttemperatur- und -feuchtemessungen wurden Beziehungen zwischen urbanen Flaechennutzungsstrukturen und klimatischen Verhaeltnissen der bodennahen Luftschicht in der Stadtregion Leipzig erarbeitet. Als wesentlicher Indikator fuer die Flaechennutzung fanden die im Rahmen eines weiteren Teilvorhabens gewonnenen Angaben zur Versiegelung der funktionalen Strukturtypen Verwendung. Eine Grundvoraussetzung fuer diese stadtklimatischen Untersuchungen stellt die Aufarbeitung des gewonnenen umfangreichen Datenmaterials in Form von Tabellen und Grafiken dar. (orig./KW)

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  18. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  19. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... (emphatic frication) and a phonemic Dari contrast (fricative voicing) as stimuli for both groups. We saw an effect of learning on the Dari learners’ identification of the Dari stimuli already after three weeks of language training, which was sustained, but not improved, after six and 20 months. The extents...

  20. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  1. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2002-01-01

    Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 455...... women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking...... habits were obtained from medical records. Serum placental GH concentrations were detectable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation and increased during pregnancy in all individuals (P GH levels at second examination were found to be higher in women carrying female fetuses...

  2. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  3. Patterns of bruising in preschool children--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Alison M; Dunstan, Frank; Nuttall, Diane; Hamilton, M; Collins, Peter; Maguire, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to identify the prevalence and pattern of bruises in preschool children over time, and explore influential variables Prospective longitudinal study of children (chart, weekly for up to 12 weeks. The number and location of bruises were analysed according to development. Longitudinal analysis was performed using multilevel modelling. 3523 bruises recorded from 2570 data collections from 328 children (mean age 19 months); 6.7% of 1010 collections from premobile children had at least one bruise (2.2% of babies who could not roll over and 9.8% in those who could), compared with 45.6% of 478 early mobile and 78.8% of 1082 walking child collections. The most common site affected in all groups was below the knees, followed by 'facial T' and head in premobile and early mobile. The ears, neck, buttocks, genitalia and hands were rarely bruised (patterns, although having a sibling increased the mean number of bruises. There was considerable variation in the number of bruises recorded between different children which increased with developmental stage and was greater than the variation between numbers of bruises in collections from the same child over time. These data should help clinicians understand the patterns of 'everyday bruising' and recognise children who have an unusual numbers or distribution of bruises who may need assessment for physical abuse or bleeding disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. [Fresh fruit and occultism as ways to salvation: conversions in Leipzig's alternative culture at around 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigalke, Bernadett

    2008-01-01

    During the time of the Wilhelmine Empire, there were multiple interdependencies between adherents of the life reform movement (vegetarians, naturopathists, nudists, etc.) and new religious movements such as esoteric groups like the theosophists in the alternative cultural milieu around 1900. These networks became visible in the form of double memberships in associations. However, there were also ambiguous affiliations, migration between groups and syncretistic beliefs without institutional belonging. The similarity between patterns of argumentation for this specific lifestyle and the congruence of chosen goals, ways and goods of salvation become particularly clear in this context. These forms of "methodical lifestyle" may lead to the development of a specific ethos or habitus (Max Weber). To illustrate these processes, this article analyses the report of a Leipzig lady who ate raw fruits and vegetables only, and examines her broader social context. Thereby the analysis will employ sociological theories of conversion to explain the case of Hedwig Bresch.

  5. Bacteriological findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, 1985-1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonitzki, C; Hoffmann, F A

    1989-01-01

    The results of the bacteriological surveillance cultures for 26 patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, G.D.R., 1985-1987) are presented. 5.9% of all surveillance cultures contained facultatively pathogenic germs (with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the most frequent representative, which was the reason of a sepsis in two patients). Coagulasenegative Staphylococci and other germs with an obscure pathogenicity were isolated upon a large scale, especially from the mucous membrane regions. There are hints, that above all special strains of coagulasenegative Staphylococci "colonize" the patient's body (also for longer periods) and turn into the blood too. During the total decontamination intestinal anaerobic flora is absent. After closing of total decontamination Clostridium perfringens is the first detectable anaerobic species. During the selective decontamination systemic applications of antibiotics are able to obliterate anaerobic findings for certain periods. Recommendations for an effective arrangement of the surveillance cultures of bone marrow transplantation patients are given.

  6. Assessment of trace metal levels in size-resolved particulate matter in the area of Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2018-03-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations at four sites in Leipzig (Germany) and its surrounding were assessed between the winter of 2013 and the summer of 2015. The measurements were performed in parallel at; traffic dominated (Leipzig - Mitte, LMI), traffic and residential dominated (Eisenbahnstrasse, EIB), urban background (TROPOS, TRO) and regional background (Melpitz, MEL) sites. In total, 19 trace metals, i.e. K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ba, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Sr, Sn, Sb, Co and Rb were analysed using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The major metals were Fe, K and Ca with concentrations ranging between; 31-440 ng/m3, 42-153 ng/m3 and 24-322 ng/m3, respectively, while the trace metals with the lowest concentrations were Co, Rb and Se with concentrations of; fine mode. Trace metal sources were related to crustal matter and road dust re-suspension for metals such as Ca, Fe, Co, Sr, and Ti, brake and tire wear (Cu, Sb, Ba, Fe, Zn, Pb), biomass burning (K, Rb), oil and coal combustion (V, Zn, As, Pb). Crustal matter contributed 5-12% in winter and 8-19% in summer of the PM10 mass. Using Cu and Zn as markers for brake and tire wear, respectively, the estimated brake and tire wear contributions to the PM10 mass were 0.1-0.8% and 1.7-2.9%, respectively. The higher contributions were observed at the traffic sites while the lower contributions were observed at the regional background site. In total, non-exhaust emissions could account for about 10-22% of the PM10 mass in the summer and about 7-15% of the PM10 mass in the winter.

  7. Illness representations in patients with traumatic injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih-O; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the illness representations of patients with traumatic injury and to examine what extent their illness representations change over time. Traumatic injury has attracted global concern because it is the major reason for death and disability in people under 45 years old. One model, the Common Sense Model of Illness Representation (CSMIR), has the potential to help individuals adjust to changes in health status such as traumatic injury. Longitudinal study design. This study was conducted using a and collected data prior to hospital discharge and at three and six months after hospital discharge. One individual question form and the Chinese Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R) (Trauma) were used to collect demographic data, clinical data and illness representations. A total of 114 participants completed the survey three times. The overall response rate was 79.7%. Six subscales of the Chinese (Trauma): identity, emotional representations, consequences, controllability, illness coherence and causes of the Chinese IPQ-R (Trauma) changed significantly over time. Two subscales, Timeline (acute/chronic) and Timeline Cyclical, did not change significantly. Based on these findings, there may be a window of opportunity to provide appropriate interventions to individuals with traumatic injury at each time point. The results of this study have implications for nursing practice and further nursing research. Understanding illness representation in patients with traumatic injury may help nurses to provide anticipatory guidance and to design nursing interventions before and after hospital discharge, ultimately to improve health outcomes of those patients.

  8. [Prevalence of Gastroschisis, Omphalocele, Spina Bifida and Orofacial Clefts of Neonates from January 2000 to December 2010 in Leipzig, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, S; Kiess, W; Thome, U; Knüpfer, M; Bühligen, U; Vogel, M; Friedrich, A; Janisch, U; Rißmann, A

    2016-03-18

    Background: Malformations are the most common cause of death in infancy. Numerous studies indicate an increased prevalence of malformations in neonates in recent years in some countries around the world. This study analyzed local and national trends of the prevalences of gastroschisis, omphalocele, spina bifida and orofacial clefts during 2000 till 2010 in Leipzig, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Germany. Methods: The prevalence of neonatal malformations was studied retrospectively from January 2000 till December 2010 using 4 sources from Leipzig, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Germany. Results: Between 2000 and 2010, the prevalence in Germany and in Saxony, respectively was 1.97/2.12 (gastroschisis), 1.63/1.48 (omphalocele), 5.80/8.11 (orofacial clefts) and 2.92/2.50 (spina bifida) of 10 000 live births. In Saxony, a small increase in prevalence was detected (OR/year: 1.01-1.09). In Germany, the prevalence of malformations also increased significantly (OR/year: 1.01-1.04) with the exception of the prevalence of spina bifida which seemed to decline (OR/year 0.986 (0.97-1.0), p-adjust=0.04). Conclusion: Whether or not there has been an actual increase in the prevalence of neonatal malformations in Germany over the years or the apparent increase is just due to bias, coding errors, multiple reporting and/or false registration and codification remains unclear. Importantly, in Germany, since prevalence of malformations is monitored prospectively only in Saxony-Anhalt and Rhineland-Palatinate, only in these states is it possible to recognize recent changes. For early identification of changes in prevalence and timely implementation of preventive measures, a nationwide register or additional regional registers are deemed necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical

  10. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  11. Studies of the longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Goals for our first-year period are as follows: To study the evolution of a small perturbation in the current pulse (introduced via the grid voltage on the electron gun) when the beam propagates through our 5-m long periodic solenoid channel. Specifically, to see if the perturbation is reflected from the rear end of the pulse. So far these objectives have been met without any delays. We were able to launch different perturbations on the beam resulting in either a slow space-charge wave or a fast wave or both waves. The relative strength of each wave was found to depend on the electron emission temperature of the cathode. The propagation of these waves on an initially rectangular longitudinal beam profile was measured with fast current monitors and the kinetic energy was measured with sensitive energy analyzers at various positions along the 5-m long solenoidal focusing channel. We have also begun to study the behavior of the waves when they reach the respective edge of the beam. But this work is still of a preliminary nature, and we need to refine the beam conditions and measurements in future studies to reach any firm conclusions. Preparations for the resistive-wall instability experiment are in progress

  12. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  13. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Compensating for Missing Data from Longitudinal Studies Using WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Carrigan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in survey based research. There are many packages that compensate for missing data but few can easily compensate for missing longitudinal data. WinBUGS compensates for missing data using multiple imputation, and is able to incorporate longitudinal structure using random effects. We demonstrate the superiority of longitudinal imputation over cross-sectional imputation using WinBUGS. We use example data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We give a SAS macro that uses WinBUGS to analyze longitudinal models with missing covariate date, and demonstrate its use in a longitudinal study of terminal cancer patients and their carers.

  15. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  16. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  17. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid.......Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case...

  18. Depression in medical students: insights from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa; Costa, Patrício; Pereira, Inês; Faria, Ricardo; Salgueira, Ana P; Costa, Manuel J; Sousa, Nuno; Cerqueira, João J; Morgado, Pedro

    2017-10-10

    Factors associated with depression of medical students are poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of depression in medical students, its change during the course, if depression persists for affected students, what are the factors associated with depression and how these factors change over time. A prospective, longitudinal observational study was conducted at the Medical School of the University of Minho, Portugal, between academic years 2009-2010 to 2012-2013. We included students who maintained their participation by annually completing a questionnaire including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Anxiety and burnout were assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Surveys on socio-demographic variables were applied to evaluate potential predictors, personal and academic characteristics and perceived difficulties. ANOVA with multiple comparisons were used to compare means of BDI score. The medical students were organized into subgroups by K-means cluster analyses. ANOVA mixed-design repeated measurement was performed to assess a possible interaction between variables associated with depression. The response rate was 84, 92, 88 and 81% for academic years 2009-2010, 2010-2011,2011-2012 and 2012/2013, respectively. Two hundred thirty-eight medical students were evaluated longitudinally. For depression the prevalence ranged from 21.5 to 12.7% (academic years 2009/2010 and 2012/2013). BDI scores decreased during medical school. 19.7% of students recorded sustained high BDI over time. These students had high levels of trait-anxiety and choose medicine for anticipated income and prestige, reported more relationship issues, cynicism, and decreased satisfaction with social activities. Students with high BDI scores at initial evaluation with low levels of trait-anxiety and a primary interest in medicine as a career tended to improve their mood and reported reduced burnout, low perceived learning problems

  19. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  20. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  1. A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies of Mathematics Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gena; Powell, Sarah R

    2017-06-01

    Some students may be diagnosed with a learning disability in mathematics or dyscalculia, whereas other students may demonstrate below-grade-level mathematics performance without a disability diagnosis. In the literature, researchers often identify students in both groups as experiencing math difficulty. To understand the performance of students with math difficulty, we examined 35 studies that reported longitudinal results of mathematics achievement (i.e., mathematics performance measured across at least a 12-month span). Our primary goal was to conduct a systematic review of these studies and to understand whether the growth of students with math difficulty was comparable or stagnant when compared with that of students without math difficulty. We also analyzed whether identification of math difficulty was predictive of mathematics achievement in later grades and whether a diagnosis of math difficulty was stable across grade levels. Results indicate that students with math difficulty demonstrate growth on mathematics measures, but this growth still leads to lower performance than that of students without math difficulty. Identification of math difficulty is strongly related to math performance in subsequent grades, and this diagnosis is often stable. Collectively, this literature indicates that students with math difficulty continue to struggle with mathematics in later grades.

  2. VALPROIC ACID-INDUCED THROMBOCYTOPENIA: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sahu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Valproate shows the most promising efficiency in treating mood as well as anxiety disorders; however, thrombocytopenia is one of the most common side effects associated with it. The perceived novelty and under recognition of the platelet lowering effects of valproate is illustrated by various case reports of thrombocytopenia associated with valproate in psychiatric populations. AIMS Present study aims is to investigate the relationship between platelet count & VPA therapy, age, and duration of medication. SETTINGS AND DESIGN It was a longitudinal observational study conducted at Department of Psychiatry, Pt. JNM Medical College, Raipur. METHODS AND MATERIAL The sample consisted of patients of either sex, aged between 18 to 65 years who were prescribed valproate therapy by the treating doctor. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at every month up to three months and at six months. The platelet counts were determined using an automatic haematology analyser. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Correlation statistics were used to analyse the collected data. CONCLUSION Most of the time thrombocytopenia is mild and transient which resolves spontaneously. Regular monitoring of platelet level is required in the high risk groups.

  3. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  4. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  5. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

  6. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  7. Indicadores precoces da dislexia de desenvolvimento: um estudo longitudinal || Early indicators of dyslexia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dislexia do desenvolvimento é frequentemente diagnosticada quando os problemas na aprendizagem da leitura já afetaram negativamente outras áreas académicas e até o bem-estar emocional. A pesquisa internacional aponta para a existência de alguns preditores desta perturbação da aprendizagem, permitindo uma intervenção atempada e preventiva. No entanto, as diferenças relativas ao código ortográfico do Português Europeu não nos permitem tirar ilações de estudos realizados noutros contextos linguísticos. Com este problema em mente, desenvolvemos um estudo longitudinal que pretende destacar os preditores da dislexia em crianças portuguesas. A investigação seguiu um plano longitudinal ao longo de três anos e os resultados obtidos junto de uma amostra de 200 crianças permitem identificar a existência de poder preditivo em duas variáveis: no conhecimento que a criança tem do nome das letras e no seu desempenho em tarefas de fluência verbal, mostrando a influência que os fatores relativos às dificuldades na aquisição do princípio alfabético e no acesso ao léxico terão na manifestação posterior de problemas na aquisição da leitura.

  8. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  9. Cognitive measures in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuokko, Holly; Griffith, Lauren E; Simard, Martine; Taler, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    We describe the implementation of cognitive measures within the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), a nationwide, epidemiological study of aging, and relate CLSA Tracking cohort data (n over 20,000) to previous studies using these measures. CLSA participants (aged 45-85, n over 50,000) provided demographic, social, physical/clinical, psychological, economic, and health service utilization information relevant to health and aging through telephone interviews (Tracking cohort, n over 20,000) or in-person (i.e. Comprehensive cohort, n over 30,000) in both official languages (i.e. English, French). Cognitive measures included: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) - Trial 1 and five-minute delayed recall; Animal Fluency (AF), the Mental Alternation Test (MAT) (both cohorts); Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Stroop Test, Prospective Memory Test, and Choice reaction times (Comprehensive Cohort). Performance on the RAVLT Trial 1 and AF were very similar to comparable groups studied previously; CLSA sample sizes were far larger. Within the CLSA Tracking cohort, main effects of age and language were observed for all cognitive measures except RAVLT delayed recall. Interaction effects (language × age) were observed for AF. This preliminary examination of the CLSA Tracking cognitive measures lends support to their use in large studies of aging. The CLSA has the potential to provide the 'best' comparison data for adult Canadians generated to date and may also be applicable more broadly. Future studies examining relations among the psychological, biological, health, lifestyle, and social measures within the CLSA will make unique contributions to understanding aging.

  10. A longitudinal study of work loss related to dental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisine, S; Miller, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of dental conditions on social functioning by measuring the incidence of work loss days associated with dental problems and treatments in 1 year. A longitudinal study of 1992 employed adults in the Hartford, Conn. area was conducted. Participants were interviewed at baseline to collect data on sociodemographic, health care and health status factors and were followed for 1 year to assess the incidence of dental work loss days. The results showed that 26.4% of the sample reported an episode of dentally-related work, with a mean of 1.26 hours per person per year. The most important predictors of having work loss were high number of dental visits, previously having an episode of work loss, being young and being in the higher social classes. The most important variables explaining total hours of work loss were treatment severity, previous work loss, low income and being non-white. While work loss rates varied by some important treatment and sociodemographic factors, more sensitive outcome indicators are needed to detect individual differences in the effects of dental conditions on social functioning. Yet, the results do suggest that work loss days may be a useful population statistic in measuring oral health status because of the high prevalence of dental disease.

  11. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  12. Mental health problems of homeless children and families: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostanis, P; Grattan, E; Cumella, S

    1998-03-21

    To establish the mental health needs of homeless children and families before and after rehousing. Cross sectional, longitudinal study. City of Birmingham. 58 rehoused families with 103 children aged 2-16 years and 21 comparison families of low socioeconomic status in stable housing, with 54 children. Children's mental health problems and level of communication; mothers' mental health problems and social support one year after rehousing. Mental health problems remained significantly higher in rehoused mothers and their children than in the comparison group (mothers 26% v 5%, P = 0.04; children 39% v 11%, P = 0.0003). Homeless mothers continued to have significantly less social support at follow up. Mothers with a history of abuse and poor social integration were more likely to have children with persistent mental health problems. Homeless families have a high level of complex needs that cannot be met by conventional health services and arrangements. Local strategies for rapid rehousing into permanent accommodation, effective social support and health care for parents and children, and protection from violence and intimidation should be developed and implemented.

  13. Contraceptive Dynamics in Rural Northern Malawi: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aisha Nandini Zoe; Zaba, Basia; Crampin, Amelia C

    2015-09-01

    Increased use of contraceptives in Malawi has not translated into a commensurate reduction in fertility, but the reason is unknown. Insight into contraceptive switching and discontinuation may shed light on this conundrum and on whether the commonly used modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) is the best indicator of family planning program performance. A one-year prospective longitudinal data set was created from patient-held family planning cards of 4,678 reproductive-age women living in a demographic surveillance site in rural northern Malawi. Contraceptive service data recorded on the women's cards by providers were linked to their socioeconomic, demographic and health data. Contraceptive point prevalence estimates calculated from these data were compared with mCPR estimates from cross-sectional surveys. Survival analyses examined contraceptive adherence. The contraceptive point prevalence of 35% was slightly lower than comparable cross-sectional estimates of mCPR. Only 51% of users of the injectable-the most widely used modern method-received their first reinjection on time, and just 15% adhered to the method for 12 months. Although various study variables were associated with contraceptive use, none were associated with adherence. Gaps in and discontinuation of use of the injectable may play a role in the discrepancy between mCPR and fertility. Interventions to help women adhere to injectable use and to promote long-acting methods should be strengthened.

  14. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  15. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  16. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  17. Vocal aging and the impact on daily life: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de I.M.; Mahieu, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies on vocal aging are scarce, and information on the impact of age-related voice changes on daily life is lacking. This longitudinal study reports on age-related voice changes and the impact on daily life over a time period of 5 years on 11 healthy male speakers, age ranging from

  18. Reducing Bias Due to Systematic Attrition in Longitudinal Studies: The Benefits of Multiple Imputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos

    2014-01-01

    Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is possible and nowadays technically easy. This is…

  19. Reducing bias due to systematic attrition in longitudinal studies : The benefits of multiple imputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos

    Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is

  20. Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Lima, Arinilson Moreira Chaves; Lolli, Luiz Fernando; Saliba, Orlando; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2014-08-04

    The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient = 0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion.

  1. Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. Methods This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient = 0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Results Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Conclusions Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion. PMID:25091288

  2. Longitudinal study of low and high achievers in early mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose I; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2012-03-01

    Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years. A randomly selected sample of 127 students (64 female; 63 male) participated. At the start of the study, the students were approximately 5 years old (M= 5.2; SD= 0.28; range = 4.5-5.8). The students were assessed using the Early Numeracy Test and then allocated to a high (n= 26), middle (n= 76), or low (n= 25) achievers group. The same children were assessed again with the Early Numeracy Test at 6 and 7 years old, respectively. Eight socio-demographic characteristics were also evaluated: family model, education of the parent(s), job of the parent(s), number of family members, birth order, number of computers at home, frequency of teacher visits, and hours watching television. Early Numeracy Test scores were more consistent for the high-achievers group than for the low-achievers group. Approximately 5.5% of low achievers obtained low scores throughout the study. A link between specific socio-demographic characteristics and early achievement in mathematics was only found for number of computers at home. The level of mathematical ability among students aged 5-7 years remains relatively stable regardless of the initial level of achievement. However, early screening for mathematics learning disabilities could be useful in helping low-achieving students overcome learning obstacles. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  4. Reactor accidents and the actions of fire brigades. Plea for nuclear phaseout. An analytic report on Leipzig, Windscale, Chernobyl and Fukushima; Reaktorunfaelle und die Handlungen der Feuerwehr. Plaedoyer fuer den Atomausstieg. Ein Analysebericht zu Leipzig, Windscale, Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffler, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    The report covers the historically first fire brigade action at the ''uranium machine'' on June 23th 1942 in Leipzig, and the fire brigade actions in Windscale (October 11, 1957), Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi. Further issues are the behavior of the media, selected features of the fire brigade actions, and a discussion of questions concerning the preparedness of the fire brigades.

  5. Documentation of the 40th scientific symposium of the Society for Environmental Law e.V., Leipzig 2016; Dokumentation zur 40. wissenschaftlichen Fachtagung der Gesellschaft fuer Umweltrecht e.V. Leipzig 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-01

    The documentation for the 40th scientific symposium of the Society for Environmental Law (GfU) in November 2016 in Leipzig offers illuminating insights into the state of discussions among German environmental law experts. TThe following focal points were at the centre of the jurisprudence debate: Four decades of immission control law (Prof. Dr. Alexander Schink, Bonn) - Legal problems of change approval (Prof. Dr. Olaf Reidt, Berlin) - Species protection law in the project approval (Judge at the BVerwG Dr. Dr. Ulrike Bick, Leipzig, Dr. Katrin Wulfert, Bochum) - Over-planning of infrastructure on the example of energy route planning (Dr. Tom Pleiner, Berlin) - The Nagoya Protocol and its implementation in the EU and Germany - Background and possible consequences for legal practice (Thomas Ebben, LL.M., Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, Bonn). The conference proceedings contain these articles of the symposium, the summary of the subsequent discussions as well as the contributions of the GfU-Forum, which is aimed especially at young environmental lawyers. [German] Die Dokumentation zur 40. wissenschaftlichen Fachtagung der Gesellschaft fuer Umweltrecht (GfU) im November 2016 in Leipzig bietet aufschlussreiche Einblicke in den Diskussionsstand unter deutschen Umweltrechtsexperten. Im Zentrum der rechtswissenschaftlichen Auseinandersetzung standen folgende Schwerpunkte: Vier Jahrzehnte Immissionsschutzrecht (RA Prof. Dr. Alexander Schink, Bonn) Rechtsprobleme der Aenderungsgenehmigung (RA Prof. Dr. Olaf Reidt, Berlin) Artenschutzrecht in der Vorhabenzulassung (Richterin am BVerwG Dr. Ulrike Bick, Leipzig; Dr.-Ing. Katrin Wulfert, Bochum) Ueberplanung von Infrastruktur am Beispiel energiewirtschaftlicher Streckenplanungen (Dr. Tom Pleiner, Berlin) Das Nagoya-Protokoll und seine Umsetzung in der EU und Deutschland - Hintergruende und moegliche Folgen fuer die Rechtspraxis (Thomas Ebben, LL.M., Bundesministerium fuer

  6. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Laarhoven

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of

  7. Distress and job satisfaction after robbery assaults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, G; Leon Perez, J M; Montani, F; Courcy, F; Arcangeli, G

    2015-06-01

    External/intrusive violence at work can result in psychological distress and can be an important risk to employee health and safety. However, the vast majority of workplace violence studies have employed cross-sectional and correlational research, designed to examine immediate reactions after being assaulted at work. To explore whether exposure to robbery as a traumatic event may contribute to the onset of typical symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety depression, dysphoria and loss of confidence) and job dissatisfaction over time. We collected data by using a two-wave panel design, in which employees working the days of bank robberies, in an Italian bank, filled in a questionnaire between 48h and 1 week after the robbery (T1) and 2 months after the robbery (T2). We performed structural equation models to evaluate the fit of different models to our data. There were 513 participants at T1 (58% women) and 175 (34%) participants at T2 (62% women). There was a simultaneous association in which psychological distress leads to job dissatisfaction both following robbery and 2 months later. Our findings support a synchronous effects model and suggest that interventions after suffering physical assaults, apart from helping employees to recover their health, should consider restoring their trust and confidence in the organization. This study contributes to understanding the dynamic relationships between a robbery at work and its outcomes over time, by addressing several methodological deficiencies in previous longitudinal studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  9. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  10. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  11. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  12. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: a cross-cultural longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Atroszko, PA; Andreassen, CS; Griffiths, MD; Pallesen, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical studies investigating “study addiction” have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction,\\ud defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related v...

  13. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  14. Volatile organic compounds in urban atmospheres: Long-term measurements of ambient air concentrations in differently loaded regions of Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.; Engewald, W. [University of Leipzig, Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    For the comprehensive characterization of ambient air concentrations of a broad spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) an analytical method is described, consisting of adsorptive enrichment, thermal desorption without cryofocusing, and capillary gas chromatographic separation. The method was applied during two-week measuring campaigns in winter and summer 1995, and in the winter of 1996. Long-term sampling was carried out at sampling points in residential areas in the suburbs and near the city center of Leipzig. About 70 VOCs - mainly hydrocarbons from propene to hexadecane - were identified both by GC-MS and chromatographic retention data and quantified after external calibration. Mean values of VOC concentrations obtained during the sampling periods are reported and discussed with regard to the topographical location of the sampling points in the Leipzig area, seasonal variations, and possible emission sources. (orig.) With 7 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  15. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  16. Cultural Orientation Trajectories and Substance Use: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rick A.; King, Kevin M.; Cauce, Ana M.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Cultural adaptation may influence Latino youth substance use (SU) development, yet few longitudinal studies have examined cultural change over time and adolescent SU outcomes. Using longitudinal data collected annually across ages 10-16 from 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female), the authors characterized cultural adaptation patterns for language…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  18. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  19. The interpretation of the Battle of Leipzig (October 16–19, 1813 in the German patriotic sermon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterkhov Dmitry Vladimirovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the impact of the religion on the national consciousness of European nations in the 19th century. As an example of this impact can serve the sermons of the German protestant clergy dedicated to the victory of the German and Allied troops over Napoleon armies in the Battle of Leipzig on 16–19 October, 1813. On the battlefield of Leipzig there emerged a very powerful national myth, partly created by means of the patriotic preaching of German pastors. This myth of Leipzig, propagandized by the protestant clergy, consisted of several components; one of them was the popular idea of “God’s Judgment” which was imposed by God on Napoleon and the French nation. The salvation of Germany was thus explained by God’s direct intervention in the Liberation Wars against France. The pastors create a dark and unattractive image of Napoleon who is exposed as tyrant, theomachist and even Antichrist. Not less negative is the image of the French who are described in the sermons as unreligious and immoral. Their direct opposites are the Germans whom the protestant preachers endow with such qualities as piety and morality. In the eyes of the pastors the Germans constitute a single nation united by common features, such as the German language, the German traditions and the German religiousness. As considerable national symbols in the sermons appear the German national heroes such as Martin Luther, the Swedish King Gustav Adolph and the most notable hero Hermann, the leader of one of the ancient German tribes. Consequently the French are compared with ancient Romans who overindulged in sins and immorality and were defeated by the brave Germans with the help of God. As a result the German protestant clergy contribute to the creating of the myth of Leipzig which became a considerable symbol of the German national history.

  20. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  1. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  2. Effects of organizational and team commitment - a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neininger, A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.; Henschel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially teamcommitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of

  3. Treatment of non-response in longitudinal network studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Mark; Steglich, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The collection of longitudinal data on complete social networks often faces the problem of actor non-response. The resulting incomplete data pose a challenge to statistical analysis, as there typically is no natural way to treat the missing cases. This paper examines the problems caused by actors

  4. Predictors of HPV vaccination uptake: A longitudinal study among parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hofman (Robine); P. van Empelen (Pepijn); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); H.J. de Koning (Harry); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); I.J. Korfage (Ida)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTo assess among parents longitudinal predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake for their daughters, random samples of parents were identified via municipal services and sent baseline questionnaires in June 2009 and follow-up questionnaires in November 2011 after their

  5. Predictors of hpv vaccination uptake: a longitudinal study among parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Empelen, P. van; Richardus, J.H.; Kok, I.M.C.M. de; Koning, H.J. de; Ballegooijen, M. van; Korfage, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    To assess among parents longitudinal predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake for their daughters, random samples of parents were identified via municipal services and sent baseline questionnaires in June 2009 and follow-up questionnaires in November 2011 after their uptake

  6. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  7. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  8. Study Addiction: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Study Examining Temporal Stability and Predictors of Its Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Atroszko, Pawe? Andrzej; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, St?le

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: "Study addiction" has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far. \\ud Methods: The BStAS and the Ten Item Persona...

  9. Bone loss rate in adrenal incidentalomas: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, I; Torlontano, M; Carnevale, V; Guglielmi, G; Cammisa, M; Trischitta, V; Scillitani, A

    2001-11-01

    Although by definition patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) do not have evident clinical syndromes, they may frequently suffer from subclinical hypercortisolism (SH). This is of some importance because of evidence that SH may lead to clinical complications, including bone loss. Thus, the understanding of bone involvement due to SH may be extremely important in the management of AI. Unfortunately, the available data on bone mineral density (BMD) in AI patients come from cross-sectional studies, which, to further complicate our understanding, are also conflicting, probably due to a different selection of patients and/or the variability in cortisol secretion (CS) often described in AI. To gain further insight about this topic, we performed a longitudinal study evaluating the rate of spinal and femoral bone loss levels in 24 females with AI. AI subjects were subdivided in two groups on the basis of the median of urinary cortisol secretion (UFC): group I (n = 12; UFC, 140.4 nmol/24 h). Spinal BMD was measured by both single energy quantitative computed tomography (L1-L4) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; L2-L4), and femoral BMD was determined by DXA. Bone loss rate was expressed as the change in z-score per yr. The spinal bone loss rate was higher (P < 0.005) in group II than in group I when measured by both quantitative computed tomography (-0.19 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.15) and DXA (-0.19 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.11). Moreover, CS and spinal bone loss rate were significantly correlated when patients were considered together. In conclusion, our data show that 1) AI patients with higher CS have increased lumbar trabecular bone loss rate than those with lower CS; and 2) the degree of spinal bone loss rate is related to the degree of CS. Thus, lumbar spine (LS) BMD has to be evaluated for well balanced decision-making on the treatment of choice for AI female patients.

  10. The harmonisation of longitudinal data: a case study using data from cohort studies in The Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bath, P.A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Poppelaars, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the challenges and requirements associated with harmonising data from two independently-conceived datasets from The Netherlands and the United Kingdom: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and the Nottingham Longitudinal Study of Activity and Ageing

  11. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  12. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  13. Longitudinal studies on somatic growth and motor performance: designs, challenges, needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonete Pereira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p130 The principle purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the major longitudinal and mixed longitudinal studies that focused on somatic growth, biological maturation and more recently also on physical performance. Only selected studies that were conducted in USA, Europe and Portuguese speaking countries will be considered. First, the main theoretical considerations, general characteristics, the study design and statistical analyses and the methodological challenges of the data will be outlined. Further, an overview is provided of the most important longitudinal and mixed longitudinal studies. Finally, the major challenges of the ongoing studies are highlighted.

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE LONGITUDINAL STRIPS AND THE HUMAN CORPUS CALLOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Boiagina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is established that there is an anatomical relationship between the corpus callosum and longitudinal strips. These formations must correlate to the common commissural system of the corpus callosum conductors. At present this issue in such a formulation is not considered in literature on Neuromorphology. Objective. The study was aimed to determine the commutations between the longitudinal strips and commissural conductors of the corpus callosum. Methods. The corpus callosum of people aged from 36 to 60 was studied. Some slices of the corpus callosum stem were used for impregnation and then inserted in paraffin blocks. Another part of these slices was subjected to plastination in epoxy resin. Results. Lateral longitudinal strips contain significantly greater mass of nerve conductors. Most of them compactly pass along limbic ring, while the other part is combined to nerve fibres of the corpus callosum commissural cords. The longitudinal strips are coated with an outer limiting glial membrane (grey coating. Conclusions. By means of the corpus callosum the connections between conscious and subconscious brain areas are structurally fixed. It can be assumed that longitudinal strips have relation to hippocampal area, related to the ancient formation of the pallium. This does not exclude the fact that the nerve fibres, found within longitudinal strips may have projections on the cortical cells of vaulted gyrus, which is considered to be paleopallium sphere. So, this interaction between the ancient and the old cortex should presumably be carried out by means of lateral longitudinal strips.

  15. Effects of Nicotine Dependence and Depressive Symptoms on Smoking Cessation: A Longitudinal Study Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, C.S.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Harakeh, Z.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been shown to hamper successful smoking cessation in adolescents. Nicotine dependence and depression are highly comorbid, but the relation between depression and smoking cessation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present study examines both the longitudinal

  16. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  17. Carotid Artery Longitudinal Displacement, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available Associations between carotid artery longitudinal displacement, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and events were evaluated in a large, multi-ethnic cohort.A novel, reproducible protocol was developed for measuring right common carotid artery longitudinal displacement using ultrasound speckle-tracking. Total longitudinal displacement was measured in 389 randomly selected participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis that were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Univariate analyses and Pearson Correlations were used to define relationships between longitudinal displacement with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and traditional measures of arterial stiffness. Hazard ratios of longitudinal displacement for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease events were compared using Cox proportional hazards models.Participants were a mean (standard deviation 59.0 (8.7 years old, 48% female, 39% White, 26% Black, 22% Hispanic, and 14% Chinese. They had 19 (4.9% cardiovascular disease and 14 (3.6% coronary heart disease events over a mean 9.5 years of follow-up. Less longitudinal displacement was associated with Chinese (β = -0.11, p = 0.02 compared to White race/ethnicity and greater longitudinal displacement was associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.26, p = 0.004. Longitudinal displacement was not associated with other cardiovascular disease risk factors or markers of arterial stiffness. After adjustment for age and sex, and heart rate, Chinese race/ethnicity (β = -0.10, p = 0.04 and carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.30 p = 0.003 were associated independently with longitudinal displacement. Longitudinal displacement predicted coronary heart disease (Hazard ratio [HR] 3.3, 95% Confidence intervals [CI] 0.96-11.14, p = 0.06 and cardiovascular disease (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.3, p = 0.23 events.Less longitudinal displacement is associated with Chinese ethnicity and greater carotid artery

  18. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals’ recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. ...

  19. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  20. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  1. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  2. Brief Report: Parenting Styles and Obesity in Mexican American Children: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Olvera, Norma; Power, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Methods Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status....

  3. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  4. A longitudinal twin study of cluster A personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Aggen, S H; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Krueger, R F; Tambs, K; Czajkowski, N; Ystrom, E; Ørstavik, R E; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2015-05-01

    While cluster A personality disorders (PDs) have been shown to be moderately heritable, we know little about the temporal stability of these genetic risk factors. Paranoid PD (PPD) and schizotypal PD (STPD) were assessed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality in 2793 young adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel at wave 1 and 2282 twins on average 10 years later at wave 2. Using the program Mx, we fitted a longitudinal latent factor model using the number of endorsed criteria for PPD and STPD. The stability over time of the criteria counts for PPD and STPD, estimated as polychoric correlations, were +0.34 and +0.40, respectively. The best-fit longitudinal model included only additive genetic and individual-specific environmental factors with parameter estimates constrained to equality across the two waves. The cross-wave genetic and individual-specific environmental correlations for a latent cluster A factor were estimated to equal +1.00 and +0.13, respectively. The cross-time correlations for genetic and environmental effects specific to the individual PDs were estimated at +1.00 and +0.16-0.20, respectively. We found that 68% and 71% of the temporal stability of PPD and STPD derived, respectively, from the effect of genetic factors. Shared genetic risk factors for two of the cluster A PDs are highly stable in adults over a 10-year period while environmental risk factors are relatively transient. Over two-thirds of the long-term stability of the common cluster A PD liability can be attributed to genetic influences.

  5. Child Abuse, Neural Structure, and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Daniel S; McLaughlin, Katie A; Brueck, Stephanie; Peverill, Matthew; Gold, Andrea L; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2017-04-01

    Child abuse exerts a deleterious impact on a broad array of mental health outcomes. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate this association remain poorly characterized. Here, we use a longitudinal design to prospectively identify neural mediators of the association between child abuse and psychiatric disorders in a community sample of adolescents. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and assessments of mental health were acquired for 51 adolescents (aged 13-20; M=16.96; SD=1.51), 19 of whom were exposed to physical or sexual abuse. Participants were assessed for abuse exposure (time 1), participated in MRI scanning and a diagnostic structured interview (time 2), and 2 years later were followed-up to assess psychopathology (time 3). We examined associations between child abuse and neural structure, and identified whether abuse-related differences in neural structure prospectively predicted psychiatric symptoms. Abuse was associated with reduced cortical thickness in medial and lateral prefrontal and temporal lobe regions. Thickness of the left and right parahippocampal gyrus predicted antisocial behavior symptoms, and thickness of the middle temporal gyrus predicted symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Thickness of the left parahippocampal gyrus mediated the longitudinal association of abuse with antisocial behavior. Child abuse is associated with widespread disruptions in cortical structure, and these disruptions are selectively associated with increased vulnerability to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Identifying predictive biomarkers of vulnerability following childhood maltreatment may uncover neurodevelopmental mechanisms linking environmental experience with the onset of psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  6. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  7. [Intermixture of politics and science in the GDR. The investigation of deaths at the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry at Leipzig University under Müller-Hegemann in 1963].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H; Weber, M M

    2011-10-01

    This study presents archival sources that shed light on a topic still being discussed by psychiatrists in East Germany: the death of two patients at the Leipzig Department that occurred in 1960 and 1962 under the directorship of Dietfried Müller-Hegemann. These fatalities were supposed to have been induced by obsolete psychotropic drugs and were associated with Ivan Pavlov's hypnotherapy. The incidents were investigated both by highest administrative bodies and the General State Prosecutor of the former GDR. Archival sources suggest that lower party organs and the ministerial administration tried to make use of the proceedings to bring about the downfall of the head of the Leipzig Department, who had become ideologically suspicious. However, the official General State Prosecutor's investigation ascertained that both Müller-Hegemann and Christa Kohler, head of the psychotherapeutic ward, were not to be held responsible. Although the SED Central Committee at first tried to influence the outcome on the basis of ideological reservations made by the university party organisation, it finally accepted and confirmed the judgment of the General State Prosecutor. Hence, in this case, the highest party bodies followed arguments that were the result of an independent investigation and were not influenced by an individual bias or ideological motives. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. Falls in hospital settings: a longitudinal study Caídas en el medio hospitalario: un estudio longitudinal Quedas em meio hospitalar: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cidalina Abreu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the prevalence of falls, understand their consequences, identify causes and analyze intervention strategies to prevent them. This is a descriptive longitudinal study, from 2007 to 2009, in which nurses recorded patients' falls in a medicine ward, using a scale developed for this end. Most falls occurred with partially dependent patients, with a mean age ranging from 64 to 74 years. The bedroom was, in all of these years, the place where most of these falls occurred. Although most falls did not have consequences, they were observed in 36% of the cases. The number of falls increased throughout the years of the study. There was also a difference in the percentage of occurrences in the afternoon and night shifts (39% in 2007, 57% in 2008 and 64% in 2009. The identification of obstacles to referral and how to overcome them are analyzed here.Este estudio intenta evaluar la prevalencia de las caídas, conocer sus consecuencias, identificar causas y estudiar estrategias de intervención para prevenirlas. Es un estudio descriptivo longitudinal, realizado entre 2007 y 2009, donde los enfermeros registraron las caídas de enfermos en un servicio de medicina, de acuerdo con una escala elaborada para este propósito. La mayoría de las caídas ocurrió en enfermos parcialmente dependientes, cuyas edades variaban entre 64 y 74 años. La habitación fue, en todos los años, donde mayoritariamente estas ocurrieron. Aunque la mayoría de las caídas no hayan tenido consecuencias, se registraron en 36% de los casos. Este número aumentó a lo largo de los años del estudio. Se rebeló, igualmente, una diferencia en la proporcionalidad del número de registros para los turnos de la tarde/noche (39%, 2007, 57%, 2008 y 64%, 2009. Se analiza la identificación de las barreras a la referencia y como rebasar estas barreras.Este estudo visou avaliar a prevalência das quedas, conhecer as suas consequências, identificar as causas e estudar

  10. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  11. Academic achievement despite child maltreatment: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J; Whitney, Stephen D

    2011-09-01

    Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential risk, promotive, and protective factors within children and their environments along with characteristics of the maltreatment to account for variability in test scores. A national longitudinal probability sample of 702 maltreated school-aged children, ages 6-10, and their caregivers was used to predict reading and math scores among maltreated children over three years. We found that chronic maltreatment, poorer daily living skills, and lower intelligence explained a substantial proportion of the variance in maltreated children's math scores (39%), whereas type of maltreatment, poorer daily living skills and lower intelligence explained a substantial proportion of the variance in reading scores (54%) over time. Contrary to our prediction, having a behavior problem seemed to protect chronically maltreated children from poorer performance in math over time. To increase academic achievement among maltreated children, it is imperative that we prevent chronic maltreatment and help children increase their competency on daily living skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  13. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Haase

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  14. Developing a CBA Methodology for the Scenario-Based Land-Use Impact Assessment of Proposed Rail Investments in the Leipzig Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustaoglu, Eda; Williams, Brndan; Petrov, Laura Oana

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a methodological approach to be utilised for the evaluation of transport-land-use impacts of rapid rail investments in the Leipzig Region with the potential for this approach to be used for other European regions. Various land development scenarios are generated from the MOLAND...... is subject to the use of economic indicators and can be evaluated based on alternative land development scenarios developed for the Leipzig Area. In this context, key elements of a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) approach will be developed for the evaluation of potential costs of urban rail provisions with its...

  15. The Development of Learning Patterns of Student Teachers: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research on learning pattern development during pre-service teacher education is scarce. In a cross-sectional (study 1) and longitudinal study (study 2) the development of learning patterns of student teachers is analysed. Participants in study 1 were 646 first-year and 350 third-year student teachers enrolled in an initial pre-service teacher…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Although motivation has been one of the most commonly studied subjects in second and foreign language learning in recent decades, it still remains an enigma for learners and teachers. This longitudinal study aimed to follow a student (N = 1) studying German in both second and foreign language environment for three years. The study was descriptive,…

  17. Test-retest reliability of longitudinal task-based fMRI: Implications for developmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Chen, Zhanghua; Mezher, Adam; Vetter, Nora C

    2017-07-13

    Great advances have been made in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies, including the use of longitudinal design to more accurately identify changes in brain development across childhood and adolescence. While longitudinal fMRI studies are necessary for our understanding of typical and atypical patterns of brain development, the variability observed in fMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal and its test-retest reliability in developing populations remain a concern. Here we review the current state of test-retest reliability for child and adolescent fMRI studies (ages 5-18 years) as indexed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). In addition to highlighting ways to improve fMRI test-retest reliability in developmental cognitive neuroscience research, we hope to open a platform for dialogue regarding longitudinal fMRI study designs, analyses, and reporting of results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; San Miguel, Claudia; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica M

    2012-02-01

    In 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating violence as potential consequences of violent video game exposure using well-validated clinical outcome measures and controlling for other relevant predictors of youth aggression. A sample of 165, mainly Hispanic youth, were tested at 3 intervals, an initial interview, and 1-year and 3-year intervals. Results indicated that exposure to video game violence was not related to any of the negative outcomes. Depression, antisocial personality traits, exposure to family violence and peer influences were the best predictors of aggression-related outcomes. The current study supports a growing body of evidence pointing away from video game violence use as a predictor of youth aggression. Public policy efforts, including funding, would best be served by redirecting them toward other prevention programs for youth violence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  20. A 5-Year Longitudinal Study of Fatigue in Patients With Late-Onset Sequelae of Poliomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tersteeg, Irene M.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Tersteeg IM, Koopman FS, Stolwijk-Swuste JM, Beelen A, Nollet F, on behalf of the CARPA Study Group. A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011; 92:899-904. Objectives: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in

  1. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sang, B.; Deng, X.; Luan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion

  2. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Middle and Secondary Level Science Textbook Vocabulary Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    Middle and secondary science textbooks have long been a primary support for instruction, often leading to heavy emphasis on domain-specific vocabulary. A longitudinal study was conducted to compare vocabulary loads of science textbooks published since 2010 to results of two previous studies going back to 1983. In each study, textbooks chosen…

  4. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  5. Developmental Outcomes of Children in Classes for Special Educational Needs: Results from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmänen, Minna R.K.; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development and academic achievement between children educated in special education classes (N = 37) and regular classes (N = 37). The study is retrospective. The first measurement point was while children were attending play-oriented kindergarten and no decision…

  6. Is retirement good for your health? A systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Iris; van Rijn, Rogier M; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex; Proper, Karin I

    2013-12-13

    Several studies regarding the effect of retirement on physical as well as mental health have been performed, but the results thereof remain inconclusive. The aim of this review is to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of retirement, describing differences in terms of voluntary, involuntary and regulatory retirement and between blue-collar and white-collar workers. A search for longitudinal studies using keywords that referred to the exposure (retirement), outcome (health-related) and study design (longitudinal) was performed using several electronic databases. Articles were then selected for full text analysis and the reference lists of the selected studies were checked for relevant studies. The quality of the studies was rated based on predefined criteria. Data was analysed qualitatively by using a best evidence synthesis. When possible, pooled mean differences and effect sizes were calculated to estimate the effect of retirement on health. Twenty-two longitudinal studies were included, of which eleven were deemed to be of high quality. Strong evidence was found for retirement having a beneficial effect on mental health, and contradictory evidence was found for retirement having an effect on perceived general health and physical health. Few studies examined the differences between blue- and white-collar workers and between voluntary, involuntary and regulatory retirement with regards to the effect of retirement on health outcomes. More longitudinal research on the health effects of retirement is needed, including research into potentially influencing factors such as work characteristics and the characteristics of retirement.

  7. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  8. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  9. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…

  10. Trust building and entrepreneurial behaviour in a distrusting environment : A longitudinal study from Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Jeroen; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely argued that trust plays a key role in building entrepreneurial networks and entrepreneurial success. Despite this interest, there are still very few longitudinal empirical studies on trust building. This study shows how nascent entrepreneurs develop trust and entrepreneurial

  11. The development of a model of fatigue in neuromuscular disorders: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, J.S.; Schillings, M.L.; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Bleijenberg, G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe fatigue is reported by the majority of patients with three relatively common types of neuromuscular disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify predictors of fatigue in a longitudinal study and to develop a model of fatigue in patients with three neuromuscular disorders.

  12. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  14. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study

  15. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  16. Continuity and Change in Work Values among Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Paul; Knox, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous findings, from a more limited sample, of the stability of work values, their effects on occupational selection, and the socializing effects of occupations are all reconfirmed in a study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. (Author/IS)

  17. Monitoring the Growth Dynamics of Somatic Traits Based on a Semi-longitudinal Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlak, P.; Bláha, P.; Brabec, Marek; Vignerová, J.; Janoušek, S.; Riedlová, J.; Stříbrná, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2011), s. 144-158 ISSN 0018-442X Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semi-longitudinal study * anthropomenty * linear mixed effects model * study design Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2011

  18. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  19. Longitudinal Examination of Aggression and Study Skills from Middle to High School: Implications for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. Methods: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a…

  20. Empathy and Extracurricular Involvement in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Flege, Matthew; Thompson, Martie P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Perspective Taking subscale scores for male college students in a 2008-2011 longitudinal study at a large public university in the Southeast. Findings suggest that empathy is amenable to change among college males in the period of emerging adulthood. Through repeated measures analyses…

  1. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the

  2. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  3. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  4. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  6. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  7. Exploring Student Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…

  8. Social Dominance in Romantic Relationships: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Non-Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…

  9. Which Middle School Model Works Best? Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.

    2015-01-01

    There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…

  10. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  11. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  12. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and…

  13. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  14. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  15. Altruism and participation in longitudinal health research? Insights from the Whitehall II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mein, Gill; Seale, Clive; Rice, Helen; Johal, Suneeta; Ashcroft, Richard E; Ellison, George; Tinker, Anthea

    2012-12-01

    Research that follows people over a period of time (longitudinal or panel studies) is important in understanding the ageing process and changes over time in the lives of older people. Older people may choose to leave studies due to frailty, or illness and this may diminish the value of the study. However, people also drop out of studies for other reasons and understanding the motivation behind participation or drop out may prevent further loss of valuable longitudinal information and assist the continuation of longitudinal studies. This paper examines qualitative data from interviews and focus groups in 2003/2008 with participants of the Whitehall II Study (based at UCL), and investigates reasons participants give for participating in longitudinal health studies, and recommendations they give for encouraging continued participation as they grow older. A total of 28 participants and 14 staff were interviewed, and 17 participants took part in focus groups. Our findings are discussed in the light of the debate between of altruism and reciprocity. Rather than being wholly motivated by altruism, as research staff had assumed, participants were motivated by the benefits they perceived, particularly the information and care received during the medical examinations and the sense of loyalty and membership associated with being part of the study. Our findings support the view that far from being primarily motivated by altruism, research participation in studies such as this may also involve a degree of implicit and explicit reciprocity. However, participants disliked the obligation to complete the study questionnaires--which may have influenced the expectation of payment or reciprocation, as participation was not wholly pleasing. To try and maintain participation in longitudinal health studies this project recommended gathering information from exit interviews as a way of preventing further withdrawals and closer involvement of participants through a user panel. Copyright

  16. SALGOT - Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg, prospective cohort study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren-Nilsson Åsa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovery patterns of upper extremity motor function have been described in several longitudinal studies, but most of these studies have had selected samples, short follow up times or insufficient outcomes on motor function. The general understanding is that improvements in upper extremity occur mainly during the first month after the stroke incident and little if any, significant recovery can be gained after 3-6 months. The purpose of this study is to describe the recovery of upper extremity function longitudinally in a non-selected sample initially admitted to a stroke unit with first ever stroke, living in Gothenburg urban area. Methods/Design A sample of 120 participants with a first-ever stroke and impaired upper extremity function will be consecutively included from an acute stroke unit and followed longitudinally for one year. Assessments are performed at eight occasions: at day 3 and 10, week 3, 4 and 6, month 3, 6 and 12 after onset of stroke. The primary clinical outcome measures are Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity. As additional measures, two new computer based objective methods with kinematic analysis of arm movements are used. The ABILHAND questionnaire of manual ability, Stroke Impact Scale, grip strength, spasticity, pain, passive range of motion and cognitive function will be assessed as well. At one year follow up, two patient reported outcomes, Impact on Participation and Autonomy and EuroQol Quality of Life Scale, will be added to cover the status of participation and aspects of health related quality of life. Discussion This study comprises a non-selected population with first ever stroke and impaired arm function. Measurements are performed both using traditional clinical assessments as well as computer based measurement systems providing objective kinematic data. The ICF classification of functioning, disability and health is used as framework for the selection of

  17. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  18. Ultrafast X-ray absorption study of longitudinal-transverse phonon coupling in electrolyte aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...... that propagate with high-frequency sound speed. The experimental results, combined with QM/MM MD simulations, show that the hydrogen bond network around the charged solutes has a glass-like stiffness that persists for at least tens of picoseconds....

  19. 5th German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. Challenges and limit of the non-invasive cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings on the German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 together with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging include abstracts concerning the following topics: Imaging in the rhythmology; adults with congenital cardiac defects; cardiac myopathies - myocarditis; cardiac valves (before and after transcutaneous valve replacement); coronary heart diseases; technical developments.

  20. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918

  1. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman's work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. A comparative study of longitudinal dispersion models in rigid vegetated compound meandering channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkhoo, Maryam; Keshavarzi, Alireza; Hamidifar, Hossein; Javan, Mahmood

    2018-03-26

    Releasing and mixing of pollutants in rivers can cause serious threats for downstream users. Longitudinal dispersion is an important factor in describing pollutant transport process in rivers. The focus of this study is on the effect of floodplain rigid vegetation characteristics including its arrangement, density and relative depth (the ratio of the flow depth in the main channel to that over floodplain) on flow and longitudinal dispersion coefficient in a meandering channel with compound cross section. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the tracer concentration. Sequential images were continuously captured at seven sections downstream of release point. PVC cylinders were installed over the floodplain to simulate rigid vegetation in tandem and random arrangements. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (Micro-ADV) was used to measure 3-D velocity components. The results showed that roughening the flood plain with stems increases the longitudinal flow velocity and Reynolds shear stress in the main channel, while these parameters decrease in the flood plain compared to non-vegetated cases. As a result, in the presence of rigid vegetation, the travel time decreases in the main channel up to 20% compared to non-vegetated conditions. As the relative flow depth increases, the dimensionless longitudinal dispersion coefficient, K/U ∗ H, decreases up to 74%. Also, the dimensionless longitudinal dispersion coefficient increases up to 38% with stem density in a specific relative flow depth of D r  = 0.11. Finally, a comparison has been made between laboratory data and some well-known previously reported models. Later, the most accurate equations are presented for predicting the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in rigid vegetated compound meandering channels. The results of the present study reveal that rigid vegetation over flood plain can be used as an alternative method in river rehabilitation projects for environmental management purposes. Copyright

  3. Crime victims' wellbeing and fear in a prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denkers, A.J.M.; Winkel, F.W.

    1998-01-01

    A study is presented on the influence of criminal victimization on well-being and fear within a nationwide sample of the Dutch population. The study focused on differences between victims and non-victims, and on the causality between crime and psychological upheaval. The design of the study was

  4. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.

  5. Scrutinizing Practicum for a More Powerful Teacher Education: A Longitudinal Study with Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar Tülüce, Hande; Çeçen, Sevdeger

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the role of school-based practicum in promoting pre-service English language teachers' professional development through the use of a longitudinal design in combination with qualitative methods. To achieve this aim, pre-service teachers were asked to successively reflect on video-recordings of their micro-lessons in their…

  6. Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hanna; Jeon, Seun; Kim, Changsoo; Ye, Byoung Seok; Kim, Geon Ha; Noh, Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Cindy W; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Sue J; Suh, Mee Kyung; Chin, Juhee; Na, Duk L; Kang, Dae Ryong; Seo, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD). We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (≤9 years). As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD. Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.

  7. The Effects of CLIL on Oral Comprehension and Production: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa; Lancaster, Nina Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a longitudinal case study to gauge the impact of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) on two of the least researched language skills: oral comprehension and production. It worked with 24 students in the fourth grade of Compulsory Secondary Education in a public school in Andalusia (southern Spain)…

  8. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  9. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  10. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  11. Ten Years On: A Longitudinal Study of Families of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results of a longitudinal, ethnographic study of the psychosocial adaptation of parents of children with autism. Most parents reported improvements in their psychological well being, the social experiences of their immediate family, and their relations with their extended family. They also reported changes in stressful…

  12. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  13. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  14. Shyness and Emotion-Processing Skills in Preschoolers: A 6-Month Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…

  15. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  16. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Laterality Expression and Teacher Evaluation of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Sarah S.

    1978-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study conducted to assess the incidence of mixed laterality in elementary school children showed that thirty-seven percent of the eighty-two subjects had mixed laterality. No relationship was found between perceptual motor and academic achievement as measured by teacher ratings and mixed laterality. (MF)

  18. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  19. Emotional coping differences among breast cancer patients from an online support group: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, A.E.; Das, H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come

  20. On the interplay between academic achievement and educational identity : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Opre, Adrian; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present three-wave longitudinal study provides empirical evidence for the mechanisms of the bright and dark sides of identity development in the academic context. First, we investigated the patterns of stability and change in educational identity and academic achievement among adolescents.

  1. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  2. "A Writer More than . . . A Child": A Longitudinal Study Examining Adolescent Writer Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jayne C.; Marsh, Valerie L.

    2018-01-01

    This article reconsiders theoretical claims of identity fluidity, stability, and agency through a longitudinal case study investigating one adolescent's writing over time and across spaces. Qualitative data spanning her four years of high school were collected and analyzed using a grounded theory approach with literacy-and-identity theory…

  3. Changes in Domain Specific Self-Perception amongst Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…

  4. Longitudinal studies of inhibin B levels in boys and young adults with Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the longitudinal changes of inhibin B in a group of patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS; karyotype 47,XXY) progressing through puberty and to compare them to a group of age- and puberty-matched controls. Seven boys with nonmosaic KS (karyotype 47,XXY...

  5. Interpersonal stress, performance level, and parental support : A Longitudinal study among highly skilled young soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  7. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  9. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  10. Learning for mathematical insight: a longitudinal comparative study on modelling. (IF. 0,756)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, R.; Terwel, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal study of teaching and learning the subject of fractions in two matched groups of ten 9-10-year-old students. In the experimental group fractions are introduced using the bar and the number line as (mental) models, in the control group the subject is introduced by

  11. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Black Adoptions: Single Parent Transracial, and Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal study of Black children reared in single-parent, transracial, and traditional adoptive homes reveals that most children grow well in these homes. Interest at this reporting is chiefly focused on the transracially adopted children because their pattern of racial identity development differs from that of children in Black homes.…

  13. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  14. The Utilization of Retention Strategies at Church-Related Colleges: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Implementing effective student retention strategies is important for all institutions of higher education. This is especially true for smaller, private colleges as resources for higher education are stretched and the dependence on tuition revenue to maintain fiscal viability increases. This longitudinal study focuses on the utilization of…

  15. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  16. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Conversations with Parents about Sex and Dating during College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…

  18. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  19. Reckoning HIV/AIDS care: A longitudinal study of community home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better understand the potential significance of global and national health policy/programming reliance on community health workers (task shifting), we analysed longitudinal data on both care supporter and client cohorts from 2008 to 2013. Most CHBC studies report data from only one cohort. Foremost, our analysis ...

  20. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend at…

  1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  2. Variations in Student Perceptions of Service Quality of Higher Education Institutions in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Domingos Fernandes; dos Santos, Guido Salvi; Castro, Felipe Nalon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, through a longitudinal study, undergraduate student perceptions of service expectations, priorities and quality of the higher education institution that they attend, using an importance-performance rating matrix. Design/methodology/approach: This research was carried out with students exposed to a…

  3. The Relation between Mastery Goals and Intrinsic Motivation among University Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Sonja; Reindl, Marion; Dresel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The present work broadens previous research on students' mastery goals and intrinsic motivation by exploring their reciprocal effects using a longitudinal approach. To this end, a study using four measurement points was conducted during 10 weeks of one semester. The sample comprised 1156 students enrolled in psychology courses at a medium-sized…

  4. Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seunghyun; Feltz, Deborah L.; Kietzmann, Laura A.; Diemer, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations among sport involvement and social and personal influences on high school students' educational expectations and attainment, using National Education Longitudinal Survey-88. Athletic engagement, educational expectations of significant others, peer support for academics, parental involvement in academics, and…

  5. A longitudinal study on intercultural awareness and foreign language acquisition in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Hooft, A.P.J.V. van; Planken, B.C.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal study we assessed the effect of a four-year International Business Communication program at a university in the Netherlands on students’ intercultural awareness and foreign language acquisition. In pre-test and post-test a measurement instrument featuring everyday (monocultural and

  6. Anxiety Trajectories and Identity Development in Adolescence: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this five-wave longitudinal study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety and adolescent identity development. Participants were 1,313 adolescents who annually completed measures of anxiety and identity. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) analyses demonstrated that the adolescent population was best typified by two latent growth…

  7. The Artistic Evolution of Mommy: A Longitudinal Case Study of Symbolic and Social Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a longitudinal case study of one girl's artistic development from age 2 to 6 years to illustrate the interplay between the child's symbolic development and the social context in which she draws. Considers the observer-researcher as a "co-constructor" of artistic development, highlighting the need for models of development that integrate…

  8. Predicting Children's Academic Achievement after the Transition to First Grade: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  10. Interleukin-6 and neopterin in renal transplant recipients: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, M. H.; Bloemena, E.; Wilmink, J. M.; Surachno, S.; Schellekens, P. T.; ten Berge, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Serum and urine interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and serum neopterin/creatinine ratios were longitudinally studied in 86 renal transplant recipients until 4 months after transplantation. During acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis (ATN), serum and urine IL-6 levels were elevated compared to during

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  12. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  13. What Happens to a Nursing Home Chain When Private Equity Takes Over? A Longitudinal Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Harrington, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5

  14. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  15. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  16. Developmental Associations between Working Memory and Language in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Hendriks, Marc; Cuperus, Juliane; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined differences in the development of working memory (WM) between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Further, it explored to what extent language at ages 7-8 years could be predicted by measures of language and/or WM at ages 4-5 years. Method: Thirty…

  17. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  18. Longitudinal dental caries study in children 9–15 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer Dirks, O.

    1961-01-01

    A longitudinal caries study was carried out in a group composed of fifty girls and fifty boys. The children, who were born in the same year (1945) and permanent residents of the same town were examined at the age of 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 years. The yearly examination was done by the same

  19. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control

  20. Predictors of Reading Skills for Kindergartners and First Grade Students in Spanish: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…

  1. Relational Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Trauma in Female Survivors: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; Williams, Linda M.; Siegel, Jane A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the intimate and marital relationships of adult survivors from a sample composed primarily of African American women. In addition, the authors explore the protective role of maternal support. Interview data are collected on 136 women with documented histories of CSA…

  2. Spouse Health Status, Depressed Affect, and Resilience in Mid and Late Life: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…

  3. Course of intelligence deficits in early onset, first episode schizophrenia: a controlled, 5-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2010-01-01

    Only few prospective longitudinal studies have assessed the course of intelligence deficits in early onset schizophrenia (EOS), and these have used different age appropriate versions of Wechsler Intelligence Scales and age appropriate norms. The post-psychotic development of intelligence in EOS has...

  4. Immigrant Status, Gender, and School Burnout in Finnish Lower Secondary School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Minkkinen, Jaana; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Rimpelä, Arja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study among 9223 students from grade 7 and grade 9 (age 13-14 and 15-16) was to assess whether immigrant status and gender are associated with the level and change (slope) in school burnout among lower secondary school students in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Ninety-seven percent of the variation in school burnout…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  6. Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…

  7. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  8. The parent-child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrea F. de Winter; drs. Leenke Visser; Sijmen A. Reijneveld

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the

  9. Dynamics of the connectome in Huntington's disease: A longitudinal diffusion MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F.F. Odish

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates divergent longitudinal changes to the connectome in (pre HD compared to healthy controls. This provides novel insights into structural correlates associated with clinical and cognitive functions in HD and possible compensatory mechanisms at play in preHD.

  10. Longitudinal Study of Gross-Motor Development in Blind Infants and Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troster, Heinrich; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a longitudinal study of gross-motor development in 10 congenitally blind children during their first 3 years. Compared to developmental norms for sighted children, five full-term blind children showed slight delays in postural development but greater delays in locomotor development. Five preterm blind children showed major delays in all…

  11. Patient work in end-stage heart failure: a prospective longitudinal multiple case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, D. L.; Hak, A.; Visser, F. C.; Cornel, J.; van der Wal, G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The most recent WHO definition of palliative care regards living as actively as possible as an important aim. We explored, over a 1-year period, the work this involves for patients with end-stage heart failure. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal multiple case study using qualitative

  12. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  13. AGE, PERIOD, AND COHORT EFFECTS ON PULMONARY-FUNCTION IN A 24-YEAR LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, XP; LAIRD, N; DOCKERY, DW; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B; WEISS, ST

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function

  14. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  15. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  16. Effects of attitude dissimilarity and time on social integration : A longitudinal panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    A longitudinal panel study in 25 work groups of elementary school teachers examined the effect of attitudinal dissimilarity and time on social integration across a 9-month period. In line with the prediction based on both the similarity-attraction approach and social identity theory, cross-lagged

  17. The contingency of intermedia agenda setting: a longitudinal study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2008-01-01

    This large-scale study investigates how intermedia agenda-setting effects are moderated by five factors: (1) lag length; (2) medium type; (3) language/institutional barriers; (4) issue type; and (5) election or non-election context. Longitudinal analyses of daily attention to twenty-five issues in

  18. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the

  19. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  20. A neurolinguistic longitudinal study of a pure motor aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouzet, O; Pollak, A; Bianco, E; Mendilaharsu, C

    1976-01-01

    We have made a detailed neurolinguistic study of a patient with motor aphasia. The method used for his reeducation and the variants found in his language from a linguistic point of view through the course of several months are described. During this study we have found similarities with cases studied by Marcie reached by him in the errors common in patients with motor aphasia. But, contrary to Marcies, findings, we have found phonemes and allophones outside of the phonological and/or dilectal system of the language in this area. These phonemes and allophones are described together with the environment in which they appear.

  1. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  2. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work : a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45–64, of the longitudinal Study on

  3. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, J.F.; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  4. Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Depression : A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. E.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is

  5. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  6. Late urologic morbidity in 177 consecutive patients after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: a longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajer, Henrik; Thranov, Ingrid R.; Skovgaard, Lene T.; Engelholm, Svend Aa

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To provide longitudinal data on urologic morbidity after radiotherapy and brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Five-year longitudinal urologic morbidity data were recorded from 177 consecutive patients of median age 59 years (range: 22-86 years) with cervical carcinoma receiving radiotherapy with curative intent at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. FIGO stages (%) were as follows: Stage I (15), Stage II (30), Stage III (54), and Stage IV (1). Late morbidity was calculated as cumulative incidence based on actuarial estimates. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence based on actuarial estimates of urologic morbidity Grades 1 + 2 + 3, Grades 2 + 3, and Grade 3 were 62%, 32%, and 5%, respectively. Frequencies of urologic morbidity in the 54 recurrence-free survivors at the end of follow-up indicated some reversibility in the case of Grades 1 and 2 morbidity. Conclusion: With the longitudinal design used in the present study, a rate of mild and moderate morbidity higher than that found in most of the previously reported literature was observed, giving cause for concern and underlining the importance of further longitudinal studies on this subject, specifically studies that relate to the background urologic morbidity in the female population, as well as to the fact that urologic morbidity might regress

  7. Longitudinal Study of Body Mass Index in Young Males and the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Gutina, Anna; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Despite a growing understanding that the social determinants of health have an impact on body mass index (BMI), the role of fatherhood on young men's BMI is understudied. This longitudinal study examines BMI in young men over time as they transition from adolescence into fatherhood in a nationally representative sample. Data from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health supported a 20-year longitudinal analysis of 10,253 men beginning in 1994. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created and changes in BMI were examined based on fatherhood status (nonfather, nonresident father, resident father), fatherhood years, and covariates. Though age is positively associated with BMI over all years for all men, comparing nonresident and resident fathers with nonfathers reveals different trajectories based on fatherhood status. Entrance into fatherhood is associated with an increase in BMI trajectory for both nonresident and resident fathers, while nonfathers exhibit a decrease over the same period. In this longitudinal, population-based study, fatherhood and residence status play a role in men's BMI. Designing obesity prevention interventions for young men that begin in adolescence and carry through young adulthood should target the distinctive needs of these populations, potentially improving their health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Optimising qualitative longitudinal analysis: Insights from a study of traumatic brain injury recovery and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Channon, Alexis; Theadom, Alice; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about aspects that influence recovery and adaptation in the postacute phase of disabling health events is key to understanding how best to provide appropriate rehabilitation and health services. Qualitative longitudinal research makes it possible to look for patterns, key time points and critical moments that could be vital for interventions and supports. However, strategies that support robust data management and analysis for longitudinal qualitative research in health-care are not well documented in the literature. This article reviews three challenges encountered in a large longitudinal qualitative descriptive study about experiences of recovery and adaptation after traumatic brain injury in New Zealand, and the strategies and technologies used to address them. These were (i) tracking coding and analysis decisions during an extended analysis period; (ii) navigating interpretations over time and in response to new data; and (iii) exploiting data volume and complexity. Concept mapping during coding review, a considered combination of information technologies, employing both cross-sectional and narrative analysis, and an expectation that subanalyses would be required for key topics helped us manage the study in a way that facilitated useful and novel insights. These strategies could be applied in other qualitative longitudinal studies in healthcare inquiry to optimise data analysis and stimulate important insights. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent distress and violence: a 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christopher C; Shahar, Golan

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Israeli adolescents' exposure to rocket attacks over time were examined, focusing on anxiety, depression, aggression, and violence commission. A sample of 362 adolescents from southern Israel was followed from 2008 through 2011 with four annual assessments. Measures included exposure to rocket attacks (gauging whether children were affected by rocket attacks, both directly and indirectly, through friends and family), anxiety (items from the State Anxiety Inventory), depression (the Center for Epidemiological Studies Child Depression Scale), aggression (the Orpinas Aggression Scale), and violence commission (from the Social and Health Assessment). Concurrent and longitudinal findings differed. Wave 1 exposure to rockets attacks was associated with Wave 1 anxiety, depression, and aggression. Longitudinal results evinced only modest effects of exposure on anxiety and depression, no effects on aggression, but robust effects on violence commission. Exposure to terror attacks before the study predicted increased odds of violence commission at the fourth and final wave, controlling for violence commission at the first, second, and third wave. Exposure to rocket attacks in the second wave predicted increased odds of violence commission at the third wave. This is the first longitudinal study attesting to the prospective longitudinal effect of exposure to terrorism on adolescent violence. Findings should serve as a red flag for health care practitioners working in civil areas afflicted by terrorism and political violence. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood maltreatment and adulthood poor sleep quality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel A; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake M

    2017-08-01

    Available evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that childhood maltreatment may be associated with a range of sleep disorders. However, these studies have not controlled for potential individual-, familial- and environmental-level confounders. To determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lower sleep quality after adjusting for potential confounders. Data for the present study were obtained from a pre-birth cohort study of 3778 young adults (52.6% female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy follow up at a mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first obstetric clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital in 1981-1983. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at the 21-year follow up. We linked this dataset to agency-recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. A series of separate logistic regression models was used to test whether childhood maltreatment predicted lower sleep quality after adjustment for selected confounders. Substantiated physical abuse significantly predicted lower sleep quality in males. Single and multiple forms of childhood maltreatment, including age of maltreatment and number of substantiations, did not predict lower sleep quality in either gender in both crude and adjusted models. Not being married, living in a residential problem area, cigarette smoking and internalising were significantly associated with lower sleep quality in a fully adjusted model for the male-female combined sample. Childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict young adult poor sleep quality, with the exception of physical abuse for males. While childhood maltreatment has been found to predict a range of mental health problems, childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict sleep problems occurring in young adults. Poor sleep quality was

  11. CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTISTS, AN OVERLAPPING LONGITUDINAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COOLEY, WILLIAM W.

    THE MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHOICE OF SCIENCE AS A CAREER WERE EXAMINED FROM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL THROUGH 4 YEARS BEYOND COLLEGE. DIMENSIONS OF INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY AND OF ENVIRONMENT WERE INCLUDED AS STUDY ELEMENTS. THE EMPHASIS ON THE OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE PROCESS NECESSITATED A CONCENTRATION ON PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT, INCLUDING THE SUBFACTOR…

  12. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A. C.; Menting, B.; De Moor, M. H.M.; Verhage, M. L.; Kunseler, F. C.; Schuengel, C.; Oosterman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child’s early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were

  13. Investigating Young Children's Use of Reading Strategies: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragler, Sherry; Martin, Linda; Schreier, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    In this three-year study, the authors examined the reading strategy use of 16 primary-grade students as they read fiction and expository text. The students (9 boys and 7 girls) represented low, average, and above-average readers. Structured interviews and observational data were collected each year as they progressed from first to third grade.…

  14. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  15. Changes in children's dental fear: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.A.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the development of dental fear in a low fear group and a fearful group of children aged between 8 and 13 years of age and to assess the diff e rences between these groups over time taking into account general variables, such as gender, and treatment variables, such

  16. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally S. Zahra

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... Abstract Purpose: Nocturnal enuresis is defined as the involuntary voiding of urine in bed beyond the age at which bladder control is normally obtained. Previous studies have suggested a high rate of obesity in children with nocturnal enuresis. We evaluated this hypothesis and investi- gated the correlation ...

  17. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  18. Coping, pain and disability in osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Steultjens, M.P.; Bijlsma, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing the role of coping styles as prospective determinants of pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. Data were used on 87 patients with OS of the hip and 129 patients with OA of the knee. Coping styles were assessed with a

  19. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To measure reduction in exposure to smoke in two population-based studies of self-reported smoking reduction not using nicotine replacement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of biomarkers and smoking. SETTING: Data from two time-points in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), 1981....../83 and 1991/94, and the Copenhagen Male Study (CMS) in 1976 and 1985/86, respectively. PARTICIPANTS: There were 3026 adults who were smokers at both time-points in the CCHS and 1319 men smoking at both time-points in the CMS. MEASUREMENTS: Smoking status and tobacco consumption were assessed by self......-completion questionnaire. Measurements of biomarkers of smoke intake were taken at the second time-point in the two studies: expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) in the CCHS and serum cotinine in the CMS. Biomarker levels in medium (15-29 g tobacco/day) and heavy (> 30 g/day) smokers at the first time-point who later reported...

  20. A longitudinal genetic study of vocabulary knowledge in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, S.M.; Posthuma, D.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary test scores were obtained from a total of 997 adults, all twins or a sibling of twins in this study. Some (N = 217) individuals were tested twice, around 6 years apart. Heritability varied from 50% at the first test occasion to 63% at the second test occasion. The correlation of scores

  1. Establishing a multicenter longitudinal clinical cohort Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A participatory and multi-stage process which started from a consensus building workshop and steered by a mother protocol as well as guiding documents which dictated the degree of engagement and expectations was followed. The primary and secondary aims of the study were agreed upon. A multi-site ...

  2. Mastering Inflectional Suffixes: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning Writers' Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Kathryn; Deacon, S. Helene; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining

    2011-01-01

    This study tracked the order in which ten beginning spellers (M age = 5 ; 05; SD = 0.21 years) mastered the correct spellings of common inflectional suffixes in English. Spellings from children's journals from kindergarten and grade 1 were coded. An inflectional suffix was judged to be mastered when children spelled it accurately in 90 percent of…

  3. Friendlessness and Theory of Mind: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, E.; Begeer, S.M.; Peterson, C.; Slaughter, V.; De Rosnay, M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic friendlessness in childhood predicts adverse mental health outcomes throughout life, yet its earliest roots are poorly understood. In theory, developing a theory of mind (ToM) should help children gain mutual friends and one preschool study (Peterson and Siegal, 2002. Br J Dev Psychol, 20,

  4. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, R.L.; Janssen, N.; Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory,

  5. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  6. A Longitudinal Study on Social Competence Development and Sleeping Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Tomisaki, Etsuko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Hirano, Maki; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that sleep problems impact children’s health, learning, and school performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between sleeping habits and social competence development. Methods Three hundred and nine caregiver-child dyads participated in this study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. The caregivers answered some questionnaires about sleeping habits when the child was 9 months and 18 months old. C...

  7. Coping, pain and disability in osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, J.; Steultjens, M.P.; Bijlsma, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing the role of coping styles as prospective determinants of pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. Data were used on 87 patients with OS of the hip and 129 patients with OA of the knee. Coping styles were assessed with a questionnaire, pain was assessed with a VAS, and disability was assessed using an observational method. Regression analysis was used to analyze relationships between the use of active and passive coping style...

  8. Liposuction in the Treatment of Lipedema: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran Dadras; Peter Joachim Mallinger; Cord Christian Corterier; Sotiria Theodosiadi; Mojtaba Ghods

    2017-01-01

    Background Lipedema is a condition consisting of painful bilateral increases in subcutaneous fat and interstitial fluid in the limbs with secondary lymphedema and fibrosis during later stages. Combined decongestive therapy (CDT) is the standard of care in most countries. Since the introduction of tumescent technique, liposuction has been used as a surgical treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of liposuction used as treatment for lipedema. Methods Twenty-five pa...

  9. Depression and mortality in a longitudinal study: 1952-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E; Sucha, Ewa; Kingsbury, Mila; Horton, Nicholas J; Murphy, Jane M; Colman, Ian

    2017-10-23

    Many studies have shown that depression increases mortality risk. We aimed to investigate the duration of time over which depression is associated with increased risk of mortality, secular trends in the association between depression and mortality, and sex differences in the association between depression and mortality. We conducted a cohort study of 3410 adults enrolled in 3 representative samples of a county in Atlantic Canada in 1952 ( n = 1003), 1970 ( n = 1203) or 1992 ( n = 1402) (the Stirling County Study). Depression was measured using a diagnostic algorithm based on the presence of depressed mood and associated symptoms, duration of more than 1 month, and substantial impairment. Vital status of participants through 2011 was determined using probabilistic linkages to the Canadian Mortality Database. Depression was associated with a heightened risk of mortality among men during the 3 time periods of the study, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-4.98) between 1952 and 1967, 1.97 (CI 1.34-2.89) between 1968 and 1990, and 1.52 (CI 1.09-2.13) between 1991 and 2011. Elevated risk of mortality was noted among women only between 1990 and 2011 (HR = 1.51; CI = 1.11-2.05). The association between depression and mortality persists over long periods of time and has emerged among women in recent decades, despite contemporaneous improvements in the treatment of depression and reduction of stigma associated with depression. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  10. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant goats: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Witkowski, Lucjan; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    We documented changes in serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentration in goats during pregnancy, as measured by competitive ELISAs. Fifteen does (pregnant group) and 20 castrated males (control group) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected on the same day from all 35 goats, 7 times throughout the study period: at mating, then once every month, during the week preceding kidding, and 1 mo after kidding. Baseline SAA and Hp concentrations at mating were identical in the 2 groups. In the pregnant group, SAA concentration rose significantly in the second month and remained elevated until the end of pregnancy, with the peak concentration at kidding. In the control group, SAA concentration remained unchanged compared to the baseline concentration throughout the study. SAA concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than control group only at the end of the fourth month of pregnancy and at kidding. Hp concentration did not change during pregnancy or between groups. SAA concentration at kidding was affected only by parity of does - it was highest in does in the third and fourth pregnancy and gradually lower in older does.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Drivers with Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian R.; Heindel, William C.; Papandonatos, George D.; Festa, Elena K.; Davis, Jennifer D.; Daiello, Lori A.; Morris, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to define the natural progression of driving impairment in persons who initially have very mild to mild dementia. Methods We studied 128 older drivers, including 84 with early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 44 age-matched control subjects without cognitive impairment. Subjects underwent repeated assessments of their cognitive, neurological, visual and physical function over three years. Self-reports of driving accidents and traffic violations were supplemented by reports from family informants and state records. Within two weeks of the office evaluation, subjects were examined by a professional driving instructor on a standardized road test. Results At baseline, AD subjects had experienced more accidents and performed more poorly on the road test, compared to controls. Over time, both groups declined in driving performance on the road test, with AD subjects declining more than controls. Survival analysis indicated that while the majority of subjects with AD passed the examination at baseline, greater severity of dementia, increased age, and lower education were associated with higher rates of failure and marginal performance. Conclusions This study confirms previous reports of potentially hazardous driving in persons with early AD, but also indicates that some individuals with very mild dementia can continue to drive safely for extended periods of time. Regular followup assessments, however, are warranted in those individuals. PMID:18216302

  12. Renal function and long-term decline in cognitive function: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Stephen L; Wendell, Carrington R; Waldstein, Shari R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Renal disease has been associated with greater risk of dementia and greater cognitive impairment. However, the relationship of lower renal function with long-term decline in specific domains of cognitive function remains unclear among community-dwelling, non-demented individuals. Stroke- and dementia-free participants (n = 2,116) were enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based, prospective, longitudinal study. Renal function was estimated by the inverse of serum creatinine adjusted for age, sex and race and (in sensitivity analyses) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Outcome measures were changes in scores on 6 cognitive tests encompassing a range of cognitive functions, measured at 2-year intervals. Mixed-effects regression models examined the longitudinal relations of renal function with cognitive functions after adjusting for demographics, comorbidity and other potential confounders. Mean age at initial testing was 53.9 years (SD 17.1), and 94 participants (4.4%) had an eGFR age, longitudinal increases in creatinine concentrations were associated with more rapid decline in performance on several cognitive measures, including the learning slope of the California Verbal Learning Test, a test of verbal learning (p renal function independently associated with greater long-term declines in visual memory and verbal memory and learning. © 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. I and Us: A Longitudinal Study on the Interplay of Personal and Social Identity in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Flavia; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rubini, Monica

    2018-04-01

    The development of personal and social identity is crucial in adolescence. On the one hand, adolescents face the task of forming and consolidating their personal identity in multiple domains, with educational and interpersonal domains particularly salient. On the other hand, they enlarge their social horizon and increasingly define themselves as members of multiple peer groups, such as groups of classmates and friends met outside school. There is however a lack of integrative research on the interplay among and between personal and social identity processes. Hence the purpose of this study was threefold. First, we examined how personal identity processes in the educational and interpersonal domains are associated longitudinally. Second, we investigated to what extent social identifications with classmates and with the group of friends are associated over time. Third, with an original approach we examined the longitudinal interplay between personal and social identity processes, to connect theoretical contributions that have so far proceeded largely in parallel. Participants were 304 adolescents (61.84% female, M age  = 17.49) involved in a three-wave longitudinal study. We found that (a) the ways in which adolescents develop their identity in the educational and interpersonal domains become more closely intertwined over time; (b) identifications with classmates and with the group of friends are interconnected; and (c) personal and social identity processes are associated both concurrently and longitudinally, with most cross-lagged effects showing that social identifications influence personal identity formation and consolidation in the interpersonal identity domain. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  14. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-12-01

    Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.

  15. Survival prediction among nursing home residents: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Claudia Kam Yuk; Ho, Lily Yuen Wah; Chin, Kenny Chi Wing; Kwong, Enid Wai Yung

    2018-03-01

    To determine the survival time and predictors of survival of residents in a nursing home. Nursing home residents admitted from June 2008 (when the nursing home started operating) to December 2012 (n = 230) to a new nursing home in Hong Kong were prospectively followed. The predictors of survival in the residents were assessed annually, with the exception of those who did not want to continue with the study, or were hospitalized, discharged from the nursing home or died, to compare changes occurring from 2008 to 2012. Cox's regression analysis was used to examine the predictors of survival. A total of 66 of the nursing home residents (28.7%) died during the study period. The median length of survival was 20.46 months. Sex, the number of diseases, depressive symptoms, cognitive status and nutritional status were found to be significant predictors of survival. It is crucial for healthcare providers to offer quality care to residents in long-term care to enhance their well-being in the final sojourn of their lives. Although there are no consistent reports of predictors in the international literature, it is important to address the modifiable predictors, as this might lead to improvements in the quality of life of the residents. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 428-433. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  17. Longitudinal study among children of parents exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the fact that there is a general lack of experience in consultancy to patients treated by radiation therapy, the Radiotherapy Dept. of the 'Carl Gustav Carus' Medical Academy in Dresden started to carry out investigations among the off-spring of radiotherapy patients of procreative age. The first phase of the study carried out with the help of the residents' registration system of the former GDR found 21 children of patients treated by radiotherapy. Encouraged by the first experience, the author of the paper since then has continued the investigations on a regular and comprehensive basis, collecting the data of all offspring of patients treated by the Dept., and performing follow-up examinations every five years (1975, 1980, 1985), assisted by an experienced pediatrician. A major result of the study is the fact that it confirms the permissible dose to the testes or ovaries which has been observed so far for radiation treatment, but has been the subject of controversial debates among experts. Doses exceeding 1.5 Gy to a man, or 3.0 Gy to a woman, applied at the usual clinical conditions, have to be regarded as sterilising doses. The author developes conclusions and advice for medical consultancy to patients. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Glucose metabolism in injured tissue: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, J.M.; Shearer, J.D.; Mastrofrancesco, B.; Caldwell, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Injured tissue is characterized by increased glucose uptake and increased lactate production as compared to normal tissue. These metabolic changes have been attributed to the presence of inflammatory cells in injured tissues. To correlate these metabolic changes with changes in the inflammatory cell population at various times after injury, we studied the lambda-carrageenan hindlimb wound model in anesthetized rats. Perfusion studies demonstrated that at 3 and 5 days after injury glucose uptake was increased in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. At 3, 5, and 10 days after injury, lactate production from glucose was increased in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. These metabolic changes were not related to differences in body weight or food intake. There was no difference in glucose oxidation or in oxygen consumption in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. The increased glucose uptake and increased lactate production from glucose was coincident with the presence of inflammatory cells--predominantly macrophages--at the site of injury. It is suggested that the glucose metabolism in injured tissue reflects the metabolism of the inflammatory cells at the site of injury

  19. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  20. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  1. Work-to-family conflict and its relationship with satisfaction and well-being: A one-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Mauno, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study produced new knowledge about gender differences with respect to work-to-family conflict and its longitudinal relations with indicators of satisfaction and well-being. The study examined the longitudinal relations between work-to-family conflict and self-reported satisfaction and

  2. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A.J. van der Beek (Allard); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal

  3. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): Base-Year Data File Documentation. NCES 2011-328

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Burns, Laura J.; Dever, Jill A.; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Jin, Ying; Leinwand, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) secondary longitudinal studies. The core research questions for HSLS:09 explore secondary to postsecondary transition plans and the evolution of those plans; the paths into and out of science, technology, engineering,…

  4. Smoking Cessation and 16-year Trajectories of Functional Limitations Among Dutch Older Adults: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Erik J.; Huisman, Martijn; Kok, Almar A. L.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether smoking cessation in middle age and old age is associated with following a successful trajectory of functional limitations over time in Dutch older adults. We used 16-year longitudinal data from 645 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Three types of

  5. Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbacka, M; Romelsjö, A; Jokinen, J

    2014-02-03

    This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. A nationwide prospective cohort study. A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18-20 years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in clinical settings in order to prevent suicide.

  6. Adolescent IQ and Survival in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Robert M.; Palloni, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study attempts to explain the ubiquitous positive correlation between cognitive ability (IQ) and survival. Methods. A sample of 10,317 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957 was followed until 2009, from ages 18 to 68 years. Mortality was analyzed using a Weibull survival model that includes gender, social background, Henmon–Nelson IQ, and rank in high school class. Results. Rank in high school class, a cumulative measure of responsible performance during high school, entirely mediates the relationship between adolescent IQ and survival. Its effect on survival is 3 times greater than that of IQ, and it accounts for about 10% of the female advantage in survival. Discussion. Cognitive functioning may improve survival by promoting responsible and timely patterns of behavior that are firmly in place by late adolescence. Prior research suggests that conscientiousness, one of the “Big Five” personality characteristics, plays a key role in this relationship. PMID:21743056

  7. A longitudinal study of CMRGlu in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji

    1994-01-01

    We studied the serial changes of CMRGlu in 6 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. All patients demonstrated moderately severe dementia at the initial PET scan. Serial PET scans were performed at an interval of 12 to 24 months. Five of the 6 patients showed a deterioration of clinical symptoms at the second scan. The global CMRGlu serially decreased in all patients. An asymmetry of CMRGlu in both the frontal and parietal regions was observed at the initial PET scan, while the direction of asymmetry was preserved at the second PET scan. The ratios (frontal/parietal and parietal/striatum) of CMRGlu showed no interval change. Therefore, CMRGlu was considered to decrease progressively throughout the entire brain in patients with moderately severe dementia of Alzheimer type. (author)

  8. Levothyroxine requirement in congenital hypothyroidism: a 12-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Maurizio; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Vigone, Maria Cristina; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Popolo, Pietro Pio; Lapolla, Rosa; Mussa, Alessandro; Tronconi, Giulia Maria; D'Acunzo, Ida; Di Mase, Raffaella; Falcone, Rosa Maria; Corrias, Andrea; De Luca, Filippo; Weber, Giovanna; Cavallo, Luciano; Faienza, Maria Felicia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the replacement therapy with levothyroxine in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is to correct hypothyroidism and ensure normal growth and neuropsychological development. Few data are available about the appropriate dose during childhood and early adolescence; therefore, we performed a multicenter observational study in a large population of patients with CH to assess the required levothyroxine dose to obtain euthyroidism. We recruited 216 patients with permanent CH classified into three groups (agenesia, ectopia, and in situ gland) on the basis of the thyroid imaging. The levothyroxine dose was recorded at 6 and 12 months and then yearly until 12 years of age. The daily levothyroxine requirement progressively decreased during the follow-up, irrespective of etiology. It was significantly lower in patients with in situ gland than in patients with athyreosis during the entire study period and with ectopic gland from the age of 1 year. The levothyroxine requirement at 6 months of age was correlated with the requirement at each later time-point. The daily dose was modified less frequently in patients with in situ thyroid (36 %) than in patients with ectopic gland (41.4 %) or with athyreosis (43.6 %). Patients with in situ gland required a lower dose than the other two subgroups. The dose at 6 months seems predictive of the requirement until 12 years of age. Euthyroidism may be achieved in pre-school and in-school patients by 3-4 and 2-3 µg/kg/day (70-90 and 60-80 µg/m(2)/day) of levothyroxine, respectively.

  9. Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokenberger, Kathleen; Ström, Peter; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998-2002 was available from a subsample (N=320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men. Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of "any-type" or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand. Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  10. Longitudinal tDCS: Consistency across Working Memory Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Berryhill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in enhancing and maintaining cognitive function. In recent years, advances in noninvasive brain stimulation devices, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, have targeted working memory in particular. Despite controversy surrounding outcomes of single-session studies, a growing field of working memory training studies incorporate multiple sessions of tDCS. It is useful to take stock of these findings because there is a diversity of paradigms employed and the outcomes observed between research groups. This will be important in assessing cognitive training programs paired with stimulation techniques and identifying the more useful and less effective approaches. Here, we treat the tDCS+ working memory training field as a case example, but also survey training benefits in other neuromodulatory techniques (e.g., tRNS, tACS. There are challenges associated with the broad parameter space including: individual differences, stimulation intensity, duration, montage, session number, session spacing, training task selection, timing of follow up testing, near and far transfer tasks. In summary, although the field of assisted cognitive training is young, some design choices are more favorable than others. By way of heuristic, the current evidence supports including more training/tDCS sessions (5+, applying anodal tDCS targeting prefrontal regions, including follow up testing on trained and transfer tasks after a period of no contact. What remains unclear, but important for future translational value is continuing work to pinpoint optimal values for the tDCS parameters on a per cognitive task basis. Importantly the emerging literature shows notable consistency in the application of tDCS for WM across various participant populations compared to single session experimental designs.

  11. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavener, Meredith; Mooney, Rosemary; Thomson, Clare; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-02-22

    Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the "hard to reach" character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld.

  12. A longitudinal study of gene expression in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessier Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene expression in venous blood either as a pharmacodynamic marker in clinical trials of drugs or as a diagnostic test requires knowledge of the variability in expression over time in healthy volunteers. Here we defined a normal range of gene expression over 6 months in the blood of four cohorts of healthy men and women who were stratified by age (22–55 years and > 55 years and gender. Methods Eleven immunomodulatory genes likely to play important roles in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and infection in addition to four genes typically used as reference genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, as well as the full genome as represented by Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Results Gene expression levels as assessed by qRT-PCR and microarray were relatively stable over time with ~2% of genes as measured by microarray showing intra-subject differences over time periods longer than one month. Fifteen genes varied by gender. The eleven genes examined by qRT-PCR remained within a limited dynamic range for all individuals. Specifically, for the seven most stably expressed genes (CXCL1, HMOX1, IL1RN, IL1B, IL6R, PTGS2, and TNF, 95% of all samples profiled fell within 1.5–2.5 Ct, the equivalent of a 4- to 6-fold dynamic range. Two subjects who experienced severe adverse events of cancer and anemia, had microarray gene expression profiles that were distinct from normal while subjects who experienced an infection had only slightly elevated levels of inflammatory markers. Conclusion This study defines the range and variability of gene expression in healthy men and women over a six-month period. These parameters can be used to estimate the number of subjects needed to observe significant differences from normal gene expression in clinical studies. A set of genes that varied by gender was also identified as were a set of genes with elevated

  13. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in elderly people. Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Sabrina; Verdier-Taillefer, Marie-Hélène; Dufouil, Carole; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2002-11-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive decline in elderly people, but the nature of their temporal relationship remains equivocal. To test whether depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline in elderly people with normal cognition. The Center for Epidemiologic Study depression scale (CES-D) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to evaluate depressive symptomatology and cognitive functioning, respectively. A sample of 1003 persons aged 59-71 years and with a MMSE score of 26 or over was selected. Cognitive decline was defined as a drop of at least 3 points on the MMSE at 4-year follow-up. Baseline high levels of depressive symptoms predicted a higher risk of cognitive decline at 4-year follow-up. The MMSE score of participants with depression was more likely to fall below 26 at 2-year follow-up and to remain below at 4-year follow-up than the MMSE score of those without depressive symptoms. Persistent but not episodic depressive episodes were associated with cognitive decline. High levels of depressive symptoms, when persistent, are associated with cognitive decline in a sample of elderly people.

  14. Toothbrushing behaviour and periodontal pocketing: An 11-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shriraksha; Suominen, Anna L; Knuuttila, Matti; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    To explore the association between toothbrushing behaviour and change in periodontal pocketing among adults. We pooled data from 1,025 adults, aged 30-89 years, who participated in two national surveys in Finland (Health 2000 and Health 2011, BRIF8901) and reported their toothbrushing frequency. A cumulative measure of regular toothbrushing was created by counting the number of times participants reported brushing twice or more daily across the two surveys (ranging from 0 to 2). The association between toothbrushing behaviour and the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD) ≥4 mm over 11 years was assessed in linear regression models adjusting for confounders. There was a clear dose-response relationship between toothbrushing frequency (either at baseline or follow-up) and change in number of teeth with PPD ≥ 4 mm. There was also evidence of a cumulative effect of regular toothbrushing on change in number of teeth with PPD ≥ 4 mm. Participants who reported brushing twice or more a day in both surveys developed 1.99 (95% CI: 1.02-2.95) fewer teeth with PPD ≥ 4 mm than those who did not report this behaviour in any survey. This 11-year prospective study showed that toothbrushing behaviour was associated with smaller increments in the number of teeth with periodontal pocketing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Longitudinal Studies of Angiogenesis in Hormone-Dependent Shionogi Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Wade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel size imaging was used to assess changes in the average vessel size of Shionogi tumors throughout the tumor growth cycle. Changes in R2 and R2* relaxivities caused by the injection of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (ferumoxtran-10 were measured using a 2.35-T animal magnetic resonance imaging system, and average vessel size index (VSI was calculated for each stage of tumor progression: growth, regression, and relapse. Statistical analysis using Spearman rank correlation test showed no dependence between vessel size and tumor volume at any stage of the tumor growth cycle. Paired Student's t test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in average vessel size for the three stages of the tumor growth cycle. The average VSI for regressing tumors (15.1 ± 6.6 wm was significantly lower than that for growing tumors (35.2 ± 25.5 μm; P < .01. Relapsing tumors also had an average VSI (45.4 ± 41.8 μm higher than that of regressing tumors, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .067. This study shows that VSI imaging is a viable method for the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis during the progression of a Shionogi tumor from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  16. A longitudinal study of lung function in jute processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Zhou, C; Lou, J

    1992-01-01

    A 5-y follow-up study of pulmonary function was conducted in 1982 and in 1987 for 50 current and retired jute-processing workers who had been employed for more than 10 y in a jute mill in China. Control subjects, who had no history of dust or gas exposure, were selected from a paper-packing plant in the same city. Forced expiratory maneuvers were conducted in the same manner in both 1982 and 1987. The jute workers' pulmonary functions, i.e., forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), were more compromised than were pulmonary functions in the controls for the same 5-y period; however, only the increased incidence of abnormal FEV1.0s in jute workers was statistically significant. Male jute workers had significantly higher annual decrements of FVC, FEV1.0, and FEF25-75% than did control workers. Regression analysis indicated that in 1987, predicted values of FEV1.0 and FEF25-75% for the jute workers were related to years of employment. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to jute dust could produce chronic loss of lung function.

  17. A longitudinal study on social competence development and sleeping habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomisaki, Etsuko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Hirano, Maki; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    It is known that sleep problems impact children's health, learning, and school performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between sleeping habits and social competence development. Three hundred and nine caregiver-child dyads participated in this study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. The caregivers answered some questionnaires about sleeping habits when the child was 9 months and 18 months old. Caregiver-child interaction was observed when the child was 30 months old, and the features of the interaction were examined using the Interaction Rating Scale (IRS) as a measure of social competence. The caregivers' attitude toward sleeping in the 9-month period was found to be significantly correlated with the children's social competence at 30 months. Moreover the caregivers' attitude toward sleeping in the 9-month period significantly correlated with the children's sleeping habits at 9 and 18 months. These findings show that the caregivers' attitude toward sleeping is an important factor influencing the development of children's social competence.

  18. Cannabis consumption initiation among adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anna; Ariza, Carles; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Nebot, Manel

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors related to initiation of cannabis consumption among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 2043 14-15-year-olds from Barcelona who were followed-up and re-interviewed after 15 months. A bivariate analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with consumption, and multivariate logistic regression was carried out to model cannabis initiation. Among matched students, 23.7% of non-users at baseline had started to consume 15 months later (23.0% boys and 24.2% girls). Among those who had reported occasional cannabis use, 30.3% reported consumption during the previous month at the follow-up survey. Factors associated with cannabis initiation among boys and girls were smoking, risky alcohol use and intention to consume cannabis. Among boys, other associated factors were frequenting bars or discotheques and not having organized activities in leisure time. Among girls, another risk factor for initiation was having cannabis-using friends. Cannabis initiation was facilitated by legal drug use, favorable attitudes and context-related variables. These results highlight the role of behavioral and contextual variables and support the importance of reinforcing social skills in preventive programs.

  19. Teachers developing exemplary inquiry practices: Three longitudinal case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Sara Berry

    If students are to be successful in the ever-changing scientific world they need to be taught how to think critically, to manipulate materials, and to gather evidence to build knowledge. Most teachers fall short in providing students the inquiry instruction described in the Next Generation Science Frameworks (National Research Council, 2011). This study examined three elementary science teachers' processes as they developed inquiry practices over time. The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) was used to gather quantitative and qualitative evidence of the teachers' inquiry practices in terms of four factors, Curriculum, Instruction, Discourse, and Assessment. A chronological analysis was used to examine the teachers' professional development and curriculum experiences in relation to their teaching practices. The results showed that all three teachers did change their practice, although the changes varied among cases. For each case, multiple factors influenced the teacher's development. There was a strong positive correlation between the quality of the teachers' inquiry practices and the time spent in curriculum-contextualized professional development. This research indicates that when teachers are supported with curriculum and professional development over extended periods, they develop exemplary inquiry practices. Three recommendations are provided for those interested in implementing science education reform.

  20. Temporomandibular disorders among smokers and nonsmokers: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wänman, Anders

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether smoking influences the presence and/or development of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among adults. A random sample of subjects 35, 50, and 65 years of age was drawn from the general population and examined with the aid of a questionnaire and a clinical examination. Within the sample, smokers were identified based on reported current smoking and nonsmokers were matched to the smokers based on age, gender, educational level, area of residence, and number of teeth. In total, 268 subjects were matched (134 pairs). Six years after the baseline examination, 122 matched pairs were re-examined. Mild symptoms of TMD were reported by approximately 30% of the sample both at baseline and at the follow-up examination 6 years later. Pain in the jaws and/or more severe symptoms of TMD were reported by approximately 15% on both occasions. No significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers were found regarding symptoms of TMD. In both examinations, mild signs (dysfunction index I) were found in approximately 40% of the sample and moderate to severe signs (dysfunction index II to III) in approximately 20%; no statistically significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers regarding the course of symptoms or signs of TMD during the study period. Smoking is not a factor related to the presence or development of signs and symptoms of TMD.

  1. Psychosis Is Mutable over Time: A Longitudinal Psychopathology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Moritz E; Lang, Fabian U; Müller-Stierlin, Annabel S; Reichhardt, Lea; Trif, Silvana; Schulze, Thomas G; Strik, Werner; Becker, Thomas; Jäger, Markus

    2018-03-14

    A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months. The BPS groups symptoms into the 3 domains language, affectivity and motor behaviour; each domain is rated as being normal, inhibited or disinhibited. In addition, we collected qualitative psychopathological data in the form of case reports. Forty-eight patients completed at least 2 assessments over the course of at least 1 year. Of these, 16 patients (33.3%) showed a bipolar course pattern (i.e., a switch from inhibited to disinhibited or vice versa) in 1 domain and 6 patients (12.5%) in more than 1 domain. Shifts from 1 dominant domain to another were seen frequently (n = 20, 41.7%), but shifts between 1 dominant domain and a combination of dominant domains were more common (n = 33, 68.8%). The course of schizophrenia is heterogeneous and shows frequent changes in psychopathology. This should be taken into account in the communication with patients and in the research on underlying illness mechanisms and treatment. A major limitation of this study is the small sample size. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Longitudinal Study-Based Dementia Prediction for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeChel; Chun, Hong-Woo; Kim, Seonho; Coh, Byoung-Youl; Kwon, Oh-Jin; Moon, Yeong-Ho

    2017-08-30

    The issue of public health in Korea has attracted significant attention given the aging of the country's population, which has created many types of social problems. The approach proposed in this article aims to address dementia, one of the most significant symptoms of aging and a public health care issue in Korea. The Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior Cohort Database contains personal medical data of every citizen in Korea. There are many different medical history patterns between individuals with dementia and normal controls. The approach used in this study involved examination of personal medical history features from personal disease history, sociodemographic data, and personal health examinations to develop a prediction model. The prediction model used a support-vector machine learning technique to perform a 10-fold cross-validation analysis. The experimental results demonstrated promising performance (80.9% F-measure). The proposed approach supported the significant influence of personal medical history features during an optimal observation period. It is anticipated that a biomedical "big data"-based disease prediction model may assist the diagnosis of any disease more correctly.

  3. Longitudinal Study-Based Dementia Prediction for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeeChel Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public health in Korea has attracted significant attention given the aging of the country’s population, which has created many types of social problems. The approach proposed in this article aims to address dementia, one of the most significant symptoms of aging and a public health care issue in Korea. The Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior Cohort Database contains personal medical data of every citizen in Korea. There are many different medical history patterns between individuals with dementia and normal controls. The approach used in this study involved examination of personal medical history features from personal disease history, sociodemographic data, and personal health examinations to develop a prediction model. The prediction model used a support-vector machine learning technique to perform a 10-fold cross-validation analysis. The experimental results demonstrated promising performance (80.9% F-measure. The proposed approach supported the significant influence of personal medical history features during an optimal observation period. It is anticipated that a biomedical “big data”-based disease prediction model may assist the diagnosis of any disease more correctly.

  4. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  5. Predictors of institutionalization in dementia: a three year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Connors, Michael H; Xu, Jing; Woodward, Michael; Ames, David

    2014-01-01

    Patients with dementia often require institutionalization when they can no longer care for themselves. The study examined demographic and clinical variables that predict the time until institutionalization in patients with dementia attending memory clinics. Of 970 patients recruited from nine memory clinics around Australia, 779 patients had dementia at baseline. Measures of dementia severity, cognition, functional ability, neuropsychiatric symptoms, caregiver burden, and medication use were completed for all patients. Patients were followed for three years. Overall, 197 (25.3%) of the patients with dementia were institutionalized within three years. Lower cognitive ability, lower functional ability, and more neuropsychiatric symptoms at baseline predicted a shorter time until institutionalization, as did use of antipsychotic medication. In addition, greater deterioration in cognitive ability, functional ability, and neuropsychiatric symptoms over the initial three months predicted a shorter time to institutionalization. The findings confirm that clinical features of dementia at baseline predict the time to institutionalization, as do greater changes in symptoms over three months independent of baseline levels.

  6. Childcare in Infancy and Later Obesity: a Narrative Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvia; Adams, Jean; Gonzalez-Nahm, Sarah; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize the current literature on the longitudinal relationship between non-parental childcare during infancy and later obesity. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 74 associations relevant to the review. Studies were highly heterogeneous in terms of defining childcare, categorizing different types of childcare, assessing obesity, and age at measurement of outcome and exposure. Most of the associations were either non-significant (42 associations, 57%) or showed a significant association between increased exposure to childcare and greater obesity (30 associations, 41%). There were very few examples of associations indicating that childcare was associated with lower obesity. There is limited research on the longitudinal relationship between childcare in infancy and later obesity. Existing studies showed mixed results, similar to recent reviews reporting on cross-sectional studies and older ages. The different definitions of childcare and wide variety of measures of exposure make comparisons between studies challenging.

  7. Possible Biomarkers of Chronic Stress Induced Exhaustion - A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallensten, Johanna; Åsberg, Marie; Nygren, Åke; Szulkin, Robert; Wallén, Håkan; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Nager, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) have previously been suggested to be potential biomarkers for chronic stress induced exhaustion. The knowledge about VEGF has increased during the last decades and supports the contention that VEGF plays an important role in stress and depression. There is scarce knowledge on the possible relationship of EGF and MCP-1 in chronic stress and depression. This study further examines the role of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and healthy women during a follow-up period of two years. Blood samples were collected from 105 women with chronic stress induced exhaustion on at least 50% sick leave for at least three months, at inclusion (T0), after 12 months (T12) and after 24 months (T24). Blood samples were collected at inclusion (T0) in 116 physically and psychiatrically healthy women. The plasma levels of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 were analyzed using Biochip Array Technology. Women with chronic stress induced exhaustion had significantly higher plasma levels of VEGF and EGF compared to healthy women at baseline, T12 and at T24. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MCP-1. Plasma levels of VEGF and EGF decreased significantly in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion during the two years follow-up. The replicated findings of elevated levels of VEGF and EGF in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and decreasing plasma levels of VEGF and EGF during the two years follow-up add important knowledge to the pathophysiology of chronic stress induced exhaustion.

  8. Longitudinal study of spherical refractive error in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Natasha; McClelland, Julie F; Saunders, Kathryn J; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    To explore the onset and progression of spherical refractive error in a population with infantile nystagmus syndrome. Retrospective refractive error data were obtained from 147 medical records of children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (albinism n = 98; idiopathic infantile nystagmus n = 49), attending a low vision clinic in Northern Ireland, over a 24 year period (1986-2010). Data were categorised by age to allow for comparisons with published studies. A prospective group of participants with Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) [n = 22 (albinism n = 18, idiopathic infantile nystagmus n = 4)] (aged 0-4) were also recruited. Cycloplegic streak retinoscopy was performed biannually, over a 3 year period. Spherical equivalent refractive error and most ametropic meridian were analysed. The mean spherical equivalent refractive errors for albinism and idiopathic infantile nystagmus groups (across all age categories) were hypermetropic, with highest levels demonstrated by the participants with albinism aged 1 ≤ 4 years (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.013). Mean most ametropic meridian was highest in the albinism group aged 1 ≤ 12 years (Mann-Whitney U test, p refractive errors over time. Prospective participants were hypermetropic at all visits and those with albinism had, on average, higher refractive errors than those with idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN). No significant correlations were noted between visual acuity and spherical equivalent refractive errors or most ametropic meridian. Hypermetropia is the most prevalent spherical refractive error in the INS population, irrespective of level of visual acuity. Individuals with infantile nystagmus syndrome fail to demonstrate typical patterns of emmetropisation, particularly in the presence of albinism. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  9. Liposuction in the Treatment of Lipedema: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dadras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Lipedema is a condition consisting of painful bilateral increases in subcutaneous fat and interstitial fluid in the limbs with secondary lymphedema and fibrosis during later stages. Combined decongestive therapy (CDT is the standard of care in most countries. Since the introduction of tumescent technique, liposuction has been used as a surgical treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of liposuction used as treatment for lipedema. Methods Twenty-five patients who received 72 liposuction procedures for the treatment of lipedema completed a standardized questionnaire. Lipedema-associated complaints and the need for CDT were assessed for the preoperative period and during 2 separate postoperative follow-ups using a visual analog scale and a composite CDT score. The mean follow-up times for the first postoperative follow-up and the second postoperative follow-up were 16 months and 37 months, respectively. Results Patients showed significant reductions in spontaneous pain, sensitivity to pressure, feeling of tension, bruising, cosmetic impairment, and general impairment to quality of life from the preoperative period to the first postoperative follow-up, and these results remained consistent until the second postoperative follow-up. A comparison of the preoperative period to the last postoperative follow-up, after 4 patients without full preoperative CDT were excluded from the analysis, indicated that the need for CDT was reduced significantly. An analysis of the different stages of the disease also indicated that better and more sustainable results could be achieved if patients were treated in earlier stages. Conclusions Liposuction is effective in the treatment of lipedema and leads to an improvement in quality of life and a decrease in the need for conservative therapy.

  10. Liposuction in the Treatment of Lipedema: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadras, Mehran; Mallinger, Peter Joachim; Corterier, Cord Christian; Theodosiadi, Sotiria; Ghods, Mojtaba

    2017-07-01

    Lipedema is a condition consisting of painful bilateral increases in subcutaneous fat and interstitial fluid in the limbs with secondary lymphedema and fibrosis during later stages. Combined decongestive therapy (CDT) is the standard of care in most countries. Since the introduction of tumescent technique, liposuction has been used as a surgical treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of liposuction used as treatment for lipedema. Twenty-five patients who received 72 liposuction procedures for the treatment of lipedema completed a standardized questionnaire. Lipedema-associated complaints and the need for CDT were assessed for the preoperative period and during 2 separate postoperative follow-ups using a visual analog scale and a composite CDT score. The mean follow-up times for the first postoperative follow-up and the second postoperative follow-up were 16 months and 37 months, respectively. Patients showed significant reductions in spontaneous pain, sensitivity to pressure, feeling of tension, bruising, cosmetic impairment, and general impairment to quality of life from the preoperative period to the first postoperative follow-up, and these results remained consistent until the second postoperative follow-up. A comparison of the preoperative period to the last postoperative follow-up, after 4 patients without full preoperative CDT were excluded from the analysis, indicated that the need for CDT was reduced significantly. An analysis of the different stages of the disease also indicated that better and more sustainable results could be achieved if patients were treated in earlier stages. Liposuction is effective in the treatment of lipedema and leads to an improvement in quality of life and a decrease in the need for conservative therapy.

  11. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods: Data came from FACHS, 1997–2017, which followed 889 children aged 10–12 years old at Wave 1 (n = 478; 53.8% females and n = 411; 46.2% males for up to 18 years. Data were collected in seven waves. The main predictors of interest were gender, SES (parent education and annual family income, age, and place of residence. Main outcomes of interest were baseline and slope of PRD. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM was used for data analysis. Results: Gender, SES, place, and age were correlated with baseline and change in PRD over time. Male, high family income, and younger Black youth reported lower PRD at baseline but a larger increase in PRD over time. Youth who lived in Iowa (in a predominantly White area reported higher PRD at baseline and also an increase in PRD over time. High parental education was not associated with baseline or change in PRD. Conclusion: In the United States, Black youth who are male, high income, and live in predominantly White areas experience an increase in PRD over time. Future research is needed on the interactions between gender, SES, and place on exposure and vulnerability of Black youth to PRD. Such research may explain the increased risk of depression in high SES Black males.

  12. Estudo psicológico longitudinal na distrofia miotônica Longitudinal psychologie study in myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Duarte Wigg

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo longitudinal das alterações cognitivas de 12 casos de distrofia miotônica comparando os resultados de dois exames com intervalo de tempo entre eles, pois em uma primeira avaliação detectaram-se alterações vísuo-espaciais e construtivas que poderiam evoluir ou não com o passar do tempo. Foram aplicados os seguintes instrumentos de medidas psicológicas: matrizes progressivas de Raven (escala especial forma caderno para as crianças, adolescentes e adultos com dificuldades cognitivas graves e escala geral para adolescentes e adultos sem dificuldades cognitivas graves, Wechsler (escala para crianças, subtestes semelhanças e números, cubos de Kohs e Piaget-Head. A seleção dos testes e respectivas escalas e formas teve como referencial as entrevistas psicológicas realizadas caso a caso. Estes instrumentos com respectivos resultados foram comparados em cada caso através de duas avaliações, com um intervalo de aproximadamente três anos e meio entre a primeira e a segunda avaliações de cada teste. Quanto ao desempenho nos testes, verificamos: (a melhor desempenho estatisticamente significante na segunda avaliação pelo teste dos Cubos de Kohs, porém tanto o primeiro quanto o segundo exame denotaram desempenhos bastante insuficientes; (b leve queda do desempenho no teste de Head 1-3; (c leve melhora nos demais testes.The authors studied in two occasions a group of 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy in a mean interval of three years and a half between the examinations. The neuro - psychological battery included the following tests: Raven's progressive matrices (coloured and general scales , Wechsler children intelligence scale (WISC, Kohs' blocks and Piaget-Head. 50% of the patients had better scores on the second examination on RCPM, 81.89% on WISC-digit span, 63.67% on WISC-numbers, 44.44% on Piaget-Head 2 and 60% on Kohs' blocks. However, on Piaget-Head 1-3, the majority had worse results (87.56% with

  13. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-05-01

    Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors. A systematic literature search was performed in 2015. Studies were included if (1) they had a longitudinal design; (2) shift work was studied as the exposure; and (3) the outcome involved a metabolic risk factor, including anthropometric, blood glucose, blood lipid, or blood pressure measures. Eligible studies were assessed for their methodologic quality in 2015. A best-evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions per outcome. Thirty-nine articles describing 22 studies were included. Strong evidence was found for a relation between shift work and increased body weight/BMI, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. For the remaining outcomes, there was insufficient evidence. Shift work seems to be associated with body weight gain, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. Overall, lack of high-methodologic quality studies and inconsistency in findings led to insufficient evidence in assessing the relation between shift work and other metabolic risk factors. To strengthen the evidence, more high-quality longitudinal studies that provide more information on the shift work schedule (e.g., frequency of night shifts, duration in years) are needed. Further, research to the (mediating) role of lifestyle behaviors in the health effects of shift work is recommended, as this may offer potential for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study

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    Moreno-Manzanaro Miriam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd (NCT01062607 aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales, adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio, quality of life (EQ-5D scale, healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale

  15. Configurations of gambling change and harm : qualitative findings from the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs)

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Eva; Sundqvist, Kristina; Binde, Per

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gambling participation and problems change over time and are influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, gambling research has only to a small extent studied gamblers’ own perceptions of transitions in and out of problem gambling. Method: Qualitative telephone interviews were made with 40 gamblers who had repeatedly participated in the Swelogs Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study. The framework approach was used for analyses, resulting in a multiple-linka...

  16. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identif...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....

  17. Childcare in infancy and later obesity: A narrative review of longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre Da Costa, Silvia Susana; Adams, Jean Margaret; Gonzalez-Nahm, S; Benjamin Neelon, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review The purpose of this review was to summarize the current literature on the longitudinal relationship between non-parental childcare during infancy and later obesity. Recent Findings Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 74 associations relevant to the review. Studies were highly heterogeneous in terms of defining childcare, categorizing different types of childcare, assessing obesity, and age at measurement of outcome and exposure. Most of the asso...

  18. Childcare in Infancy and Later Obesity: a Narrative Review of Longitudinal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Silvia; Adams, Jean; Gonzalez-Nahm, Sarah; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review The purpose of this review was to summarize the current literature on the longitudinal relationship between non-parental childcare during infancy and later obesity. Recent Findings Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 74 associations relevant to the review. Studies were highly heterogeneous in terms of defining childcare, categorizing different types of childcare, assessing obesity, and age at measurement of outcome and exposure. Most of the associations wer...

  19. Automated telecommunication to obtain longitudinal follow-up in a multicenter cross-sectional COPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeffrey I; Moyle, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J; Wilson, Carla; Tanner, Ron; Bowler, Russell P; Crapo, James D; Zeldin, Robert K; Make, Barry J; Regan, Elizabeth A; For The Copdgene Investigators

    2012-08-01

    It can be challenging to maintain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in clinical studies. COPDGene is a multicenter, observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD and to characterize COPD-related phenotypes. To obtain follow-up data on patient's vital status and outcomes, the COPDGene Longitudinal Follow-up (LFU) Program was developed to supplement its parent study. We used a telecommunication system that employed automated telephone contact or web-based questions to obtain longitudinal follow-up data in our subjects. A branching questionnaire asked about exacerbations, new therapies, smoking status, development of co-morbid conditions, and general health status. Study coordinators contacted subjects who did not respond to one of the automated methods. We enrolled 10,383 subjects in the COPDGene study. As of August 29, 2011, 7,959 subjects completed 19,955 surveys. On the first survey, 68.8% of subjects who completed their survey did so by electronic means, while 31.3% required coordinator phone follow-up. On each subsequent survey the number of subjects who completed their survey by electronic means increased, while the number of subjects who required coordinator follow-up decreased. Despite many of the patients in the cohort being chronically ill and elderly, there was broad acceptance of the system with over half the cohort using electronic response methods. The COPDGene LFU Study demonstrated that telecommunications was an effective way to obtain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in a large multicenter study. Web-based and automated phone contacts are accepted by research subjects and could serve as a model for LFU in future studies.

  20. Spousal Interrelations in Happiness in the Seattle Longitudinal Study: Considerable Similarities in Levels and Change over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Gerstorf, Denis; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Development does not take place in isolation and is often interrelated with close others such as marital partners. To examine interrelations in spousal happiness across midlife and old age, we used 35-year longitudinal data from both members of 178 married couples in the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Latent growth curve models revealed sizeable…

  1. The importance of sensitive parenting : a longitudinal adoption study on maternal sensitivity, problem behavior, and cortisol secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, Anja van der

    2014-01-01

    The current thesis focuses on the longitudinal development of early-adopted children in the Leiden Longitudinal Adoption Study (LLAS). In the LLAS, adopted children were followed from infancy until young adulthood. In Chapter 1 we discuss the role of sensitive parenting and the precursors and

  2. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  3. A longitudinal study of food intake patterns and obesity in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togo, P; Osler, M; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that specific food intake patterns or changes in food intake patterns were related to future changes in body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study, with clinical and questionnaire examinations at baseline and two...... follow-up surveys, after 5 and 11 years. SUBJECTS: In all, 3785 men and women attended at baseline, of which 2436 aged 30-60 y attended all three examinations. MEASUREMENTS: A 26-item food frequency questionnaire, standardised measurements of height and weight and a lifestyle questionnaire. Food intake...... factor scores, changes in factor scores and subsequent BMI changes or obesity were found. CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal study of a Danish population, food intake factors could not consistently predict changes in BMI or obesity development....

  4. Operationalising resilience in longitudinal studies: a systematic review of methodological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Kaushal, A; Hardy, R; Richards, M; Kuh, D; Stafford, M

    2017-01-01

    Over the life course, we are invariably faced with some form of adversity. The process of positively adapting to adverse events is known as 'resilience'. Despite the acknowledgement of 2 common components of resilience, that is, adversity and positive adaptation, no consensus operational definition has been agreed. Resilience operationalisations have been reviewed in a cross-sectional context; however, a review of longitudinal methods of operationalising resilience has not been conducted. The present study conducts a systematic review across Scopus and Web of Science capturing studies of ageing that posited operational definitions of resilience in longitudinal studies of ageing. Thirty-six studies met inclusion criteria. Non-acute events, for example, cancer, were the most common form of adversity identified and psychological components, for example, the absence of depression, the most common forms of positive adaptation. Of the included studies, 4 used psychometrically driven methods, that is, repeated administration of established resilience metrics, 9 used definition-driven methods, that is, a priori establishment of resilience components and criteria, and 23 used data-driven methods, that is, techniques that identify resilient individuals using latent variable models. Acknowledging the strengths and limitations of each operationalisation is integral to the appropriate application of these methods to life course and longitudinal resilience research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. A longitudinal study of growth, sex steroids and IGF-1 in boys with physiological gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Raket, Lars Lau; Hagen, Casper P.

    2015-01-01

    , pubertal development and the presence of gynaecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Results: 52 of 106 boys (49 developed gynaecomastia of which 10 (19 presented with intermittent gynaecomastia. Boys with physiological gynaecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who......Context: Physiological gynaecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, though this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. Objective: This study aimed to describe the frequency...... of physiological gynaecomastia, and to determine possible etiological factors (e.g. auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal set-up. Design, Settings and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8–16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of “the COPENHAGEN Puberty...

  6. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Steel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1 as well as in a large correlational data set (N = 7400; Study 2. The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People’s pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  7. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; Svartdal, Frode; Thundiyil, Tomas; Brothen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1) as well as in a large correlational data set ( N = 7400; Study 2). The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People's pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  8. Longitudinal studies of inhibin B levels in boys and young adults with Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the longitudinal changes of inhibin B in a group of patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS; karyotype 47,XXY) progressing through puberty and to compare them to a group of age- and puberty-matched controls. Seven boys with nonmosaic KS (karyotype 47,XXY......) and 11 controls were followed with longitudinal serum inhibin B measurements every 3-12 months as they approached and entered puberty. None of the boys had significant bone age delay, and all entered puberty at the normal time and progressed through it at the expected time. In addition, 15 young adults...... with KS, aged 16.7-29.5 yr, were studied. We found normal levels of inhibin B in prepubertal boys with KS and controls. In patients with KS as well as controls, inhibin B increased progressively before clinical pubertal onset. However, during late puberty inhibin B levels decreased gradually to the low...

  9. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  10. Presence and extent of coronary artery disease as predictor for AF recurrences after catheter ablation: The Leipzig Heart Center AF Ablation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornej, Jelena; Hindricks, Gerhard; Arya, Arash; Sommer, Philipp; Husser, Daniela; Rolf, Sascha; Bollmann, Andreas

    2015-02-15

    Occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA) may promote atrial fibrillation (AF) by creating a right atrial substrate. However, the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) is usually not considered to tailor AF ablation strategies. This study was aimed to analyze the possible association between the presence and extent of CAD and rhythm outcomes of left-atrial AF catheter ablation. 1310 patients (60 ± 10 years, 67% males, 63% paroxysmal AF) from The Leipzig Heart Center AF Ablation Registry undergoing de novo AF catheter ablation were included. CAD was defined as stenosis ≥ 50% in the left main coronary artery and ≥ 70% in one or several of the major coronary arteries. AF recurrences were defined as any atrial arrhythmia lasting >30s and occurring within the first week (early recurrences, ERAF) or between 3 and 12 months (late recurrences, LRAF) after ablation and were assessed with serial 7-day Holter ECG. 152 patients (11.6%) had significant CAD; 89 (59%) had one, 35 (23%) two and 28 (18%) three vessel disease; 72 (47%) patients had RCA involvement. Occurrence of AF recurrences was comparable in CAD (p=0.625 and 0.568 for ERAF and LRAF, respectively). Among patients with CAD, neither the location (RCA versus non-RCA) nor the extent of CAD (single versus multiple vessel disease) was associated with rhythm outcomes after AF catheter ablation (all p>0.05). The presence and extent of CAD seem not to impact on rhythm outcome of AF catheter ablation in the entire cohort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The CogBIAS longitudinal study protocol: cognitive and genetic factors influencing psychological functioning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Charlotte; Songco, Annabel; Parsons, Sam; Heathcote, Lauren; Vincent, John; Keers, Robert; Fox, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    Optimal psychological development is dependent upon a complex interplay between individual and situational factors. Investigating the development of these factors in adolescence will help to improve understanding of emotional vulnerability and resilience. The CogBIAS longitudinal study (CogBIAS-L-S) aims to combine cognitive and genetic approaches to investigate risk and protective factors associated with the development of mood and impulsivity-related outcomes in an adolescent sample. CogBIAS-L-S is a three-wave longitudinal study of typically developing adolescents conducted over 4 years, with data collection at age 12, 14 and 16. At each wave participants will undergo multiple assessments including a range of selective cognitive processing tasks (e.g. attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias) and psychological self-report measures (e.g. anxiety, depression, resilience). Saliva samples will also be collected at the baseline assessment for genetic analyses. Multilevel statistical analyses will be performed to investigate the developmental trajectory of cognitive biases on psychological functioning, as well as the influence of genetic moderation on these relationships. CogBIAS-L-S represents the first longitudinal study to assess multiple cognitive biases across adolescent development and the largest study of its kind to collect genetic data. It therefore provides a unique opportunity to understand how genes and the environment influence the development and maintenance of cognitive biases and provide insight into risk and protective factors that may be key targets for intervention.

  12. Exposure enriched outcome dependent designs for longitudinal studies of gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhichao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Estes, Jason P; Vokonas, Pantel S; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-08-15

    Joint effects of genetic and environmental factors have been increasingly recognized in the development of many complex human diseases. Despite the popularity of case-control and case-only designs, longitudinal cohort studies that can capture time-varying outcome and exposure information have long been recommended for gene-environment (G × E) interactions. To date, literature on sampling designs for longitudinal studies of G × E interaction is quite limited. We therefore consider designs that can prioritize a subsample of the existing cohort for retrospective genotyping on the basis of currently available outcome, exposure, and covariate data. In this work, we propose stratified sampling based on summaries of individual exposures and outcome trajectories and develop a full conditional likelihood approach for estimation that adjusts for the biased sample. We compare the performance of our proposed design and analysis with combinations of different sampling designs and estimation approaches via simulation. We observe that the full conditional likelihood provides improved estimates for the G × E interaction and joint exposure effects over uncorrected complete-case analysis, and the exposure enriched outcome trajectory dependent design outperforms other designs in terms of estimation efficiency and power for detection of the G × E interaction. We also illustrate our design and analysis using data from the Normative Aging Study, an ongoing longitudinal cohort study initiated by the Veterans Administration in 1963. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Multiple imputation in a longitudinal cohort study: a case study of sensitivity to imputation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Helena; Patton, George C; Carlin, John B

    2014-11-01

    Multiple imputation has entered mainstream practice for the analysis of incomplete data. We have used it extensively in a large Australian longitudinal cohort study, the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (1992-2008). Although we have endeavored to follow best practices, there is little published advice on this, and we have not previously examined the extent to which variations in our approach might lead to different results. Here, we examined sensitivity of analytical results to imputation decisions, investigating choice of imputation method, inclusion of auxiliary variables, omission of cases with excessive missing data, and approaches for imputing highly skewed continuous distributions that are analyzed as dichotomous variables. Overall, we found that decisions made about imputation approach had a discernible but rarely dramatic impact for some types of estimates. For model-based estimates of association, the choice of imputation method and decisions made to build the imputation model had little effect on results, whereas estimates of overall prevalence and prevalence stratified by subgroup were more sensitive to imputation method and settings. Multiple imputation by chained equations gave more plausible results than multivariate normal imputation for prevalence estimates but appeared to be more susceptible to numerical instability related to a highly skewed variable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. How Health Behaviors Relate to Academic Performance via Affect : An Intensive Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent...

  15. Work-Team Implementation and Trajectories of Manufacturing Quality: A Longitudinal Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Joy M. Field; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the sustainability of manufacturing quality improvements following the implementation of work teams on production lines. We posit that the impact on manufacturing quality, measured as the defect rate trajectory, is monotonically nonincreasing over time and may, more specifically, assume the shape of an inverted S-curve. Employing a longitudinal research design, we investigate four work teams over a 28-month period in a field setting. Each team corresponds to one of the four...

  16. SKELETODENTAL CHANGES DURING THE PUBERTAL GROWTH SPURT IN CLASS II DIV I FEMALES: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shirazi Sh. Etemad Moghadam

    1996-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the quantity and character of growth changes in the skeletodental complex of class II div I malocclusion during the pubertal growth spurt in females. Longitudinal hand-wrist radiographs were obtained from each subject and the onset anil end of the pubertal growth spurt was determined. Accordingly two lateral cephaliograms were taken, superimposed and analyzed. This sample consisted of 36 girls (18 class I ami 18 class II div I malocclusions), with no history of o...

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Drawings of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding and children's drawings of play in 26 school-aged children, (16 females, 10 males, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind was assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M =10 y 4 m), as well as children's drawings of play activities.…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Concept, and Gender-Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding, self-perceptions, and perceptions of gender-role orientation in 28 school-aged children, (16 girls, 12 boys, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind and perceptions of self were assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5 m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M = 10 y 4…

  19. Prenatal stress and risk of febrile seizures in children: a nationwide longitudinal study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost...... or timing of bereavement. Our data do not suggest any causal link between exposure to prenatal stress and febrile seizures in childhood....

  20. Longitudinal MRI Study of Cortical Development through Early Childhood in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, C.M.; Bloss, C.S.; Barnes, C. Carter; Wideman, G.M.; Carper, R.A.; Akshoomoff, N.; Pierce, K.; Hagler, D.; Schork, N.; Lord, C.; Courchesne, E.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional MRI studies have long hypothesized that the brain in children with autism undergoes an abnormal growth trajectory that includes a period of early overgrowth; however this has never been confirmed by a longitudinal study. We carried out the first longitudinal study of brain growth in toddlers at the time symptoms of autism are becoming clinically apparent utilizing structural MRI scans at multiple time points beginning at 1.5 years up to 5 years of age. We collected 193 scans on 41 toddlers who received a confirmed diagnosis of Autistic Disorder at ~48 months of age and 44 typically developing controls. By 2.5 years of age, both cerebral gray and white matter was significantly enlarged in toddlers with Autistic Disorder, with the most severe enlargement occurring in frontal, temporal and cingulate cortices. In the longitudinal analyses, which we accounted for age and gender effect, we found that all regions (cerebral gray, cerebral white, frontal gray, temporal gray, cingulate gray, and parietal gray) except occipital gray developed at an abnormal growth rate in toddlers with Autistic Disorder that was mainly characterized by a quadratic age effect. Females with Autistic Disorder displayed a more pronounced abnormal growth profile in more brain regions than males with the disorder. Given that overgrowth clearly begins before 2 years of age, future longitudinal studies would benefit from inclusion of even younger populations as well as further characterization of genetic and other biomarkers in order to determine the underlying neuropathological processes causing the onset of autistic symptoms. PMID:20335478

  1. Perceived maternal autonomy-support and early adolescent emotion regulation: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between perceived maternal autonomy-supportive parenting and early adolescents' use of three emotion regulation (ER) styles: emotional integration, suppressive regulation, and dysregulation. We tested whether perceived maternal autonomy support predicted changes in ER and whether these ER styles, in turn, related to changes in adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem). Participants (N= 311, mean age at Time 1 = 12.04) reported on per...

  2. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangwan; H S Chawla; A Goyal; K Gauba; U Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier ...

  3. Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2014-01-01

    Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.

  4. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heavies...

  5. Development of sedentary behavior across childhood and adolescence: longitudinal analysis of the Gateshead Millennium Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Xanne; Mann, Kay D.; Basterfield, Laura; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Pearce, Mark S.; Reilly, Jessica K.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Reilly, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world policy and research interventions to modify sedentary behavior of children and adolescents are now being developed. However, the evidence to inform these interventions (e.g. how sedentary behavior changes across childhood and adolescence) is limited. This study aimed to assess longitudinal changes in sedentary behavior, and examine the degree of tracking of sedentary behavior from age 7y to 15y. Methods Participants were part of the Gateshead Millennium S...

  6. The effects of ingroup and outgroup friendships on ethnic attitudes in college: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Shana; van Laar, Colette; Sidanius, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Data for this longitudinal study were collected from over 2000 White, Asian, Latino, and African American college students. Results indicated that students who exhibited more ingroup bias and intergroup anxiety at the end of their first year of college had fewer outgroup friends and more ingroup friends during their second and third years of college, controlling for pre-college friendships and other background variables. In addition, beyond these effects of prior ethnic attitudes and orientat...

  7. The predictive power of personality traits on insomnia symptoms: a longitudinal study among shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Larsgård, Borgar

    2015-01-01

    Shift work can have adverse effects on employees' health, including symptoms of insomnia. This may cause severe problems both for employee and employer. The personality variables morningness, neuroticism and extraversion, along with some demographic variables (e.g. gender, age) have been found to correlate with insomnia symptoms, but predictive data have been scarce. This study sought to discover whether personality variables could predict insomnia. A hierarchical longitudinal (six months)...

  8. Cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD following stillbirth: a short-term longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, A.; Jacobs, I.; McKenzie-McHarg, K.

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 a...

  9. Personality and Eating Disorders: A Longitudinal Study on a Non-Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Caro, Elide Francesca; Di Blas, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study is aimed at analyzing how adolescents change their dysfunctional attitudes towards their body and eating behaviors in relation to personality characteristics across a six-month time span. Via multiple regression analyses we investigated whether MMPI-A Obsessiveness, Low Self-Esteem, Depression, Family Problems and Concern for health are temporal antecedents of EDI-2 eating disorders, and vice versa. Our main findings revealed a bidirectio...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF GAMING ON WORKING MEMORY, INATTENTION, READING AND MATH – A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöwall, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown both positive and negative effects of gaming on academic and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of gaming on development of working memory (WM), inattention, reading and math ability using a longitudinal design. A randomly chosen sample of 335 (168 girls) 6–25 year olds performed tests of visuo-spatial and verbal WM, reading and math ability twice, with a two year interval. Gaming and inattention were assed with questionnaires...

  11. A longitudinal study of migration and health: Empirical evidence from Thailand and its implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chamchan, Chalermpol; Chan, Win Kit; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data and analysis from 2005 to 2009, this study aims to examine the complex relationship between rural-urban migration and health in Thailand. Measured by Physical and Mental Component Summary Scales from the Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey, the physical and mental health of respondents was assessed and tracked over this five-year period with regard to migration status and relevant socio-demographic characteristics. A total of 2,397 individuals of prime migration age (betw...

  12. Modeling of multivariate longitudinal phenotypes in family genetic studies with Bayesian multiplicity adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lili; Kurowski, Brad G; He, Hua; Alexander, Eileen S; Mersha, Tesfaye B; Fardo, David W; Zhang, Xue; Pilipenko, Valentina V; Kottyan, Leah; Martin, Lisa J

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies often collect data on multiple traits. Most genetic association analyses, however, consider traits separately and ignore potential correlation among traits, partially because of difficulties in statistical modeling of multivariate outcomes. When multiple traits are measured in a pedigree longitudinally, additional challenges arise because in addition to correlation between traits, a trait is often correlated with its own measures over time and with measurements of other family...

  13. Animal husbandry and landscape management in mining landscapes. Literature survey and analysis for the region south of Leipzig; Tiergebundene Landnutzung und Landschaftspflege in Bergbaufolgelandschaften. Literaturuebersicht und Bewertung am Beispiel des Suedraumes Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, S.

    1999-07-01

    Scientific research on animal husbandry in surface mining regions has started about a decade ago and preliminary results are now available. These regions include large surfaces, the future utilisation of which is still uncertain and which have a particular potential for nature protection. The project presented here analysed options for the utilisation and maintenance of the surface mining regions with a particular emphasis on domestic animals and game farming. The 600 sqkm mining region of Leipzig south (western Saxony) was chosen as a test region. The investigations were based on exhaustive bibliographic research, the analysis of statistical data and expert interviews. Animal husbandry can be part of a comprehensive concept for the ecological revitalisation of surface mining regions. They contain large areas with a high potential for nature protection which should be maintained and developed accordingly. Domestic animals can contribute to the management of nature protection sites on dumping areas by maintaining the vegetation at intermediate stages of succession where selected biotopes or species are to be conserved. Ruminants are important also for the management of reclaimed agricultural land which is used as grassland in order to preserve it for future agricultural use. Landscape management with herbivores is also an option for slopes of pits. The availability of sufficient feed is the limiting factor for animal husbandry on those areas and determines the pasturing systems to be chosen. (orig). [German] Mit wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Tierhaltung auf Bergbaufolgeflaechen wurde begonnen, und es liegen erste Forschungsergebnisse vor. Die Bergbaufolgelandschaft umfasst grosse Flaechen, deren Folgenutzung unsicher ist bzw. deren Naturschutzpotential besonders hervorgehoben wird. Das Ziel des Projektes bestand in der Analyse charakteristischer Nutzungs- und Pflegevarianten fuer Bergbaufolgelandschaften unter Beruecksichtigung von Nutz- und Wildtierhaltung. Als

  14. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hok, Pavel [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Palacky University, Department of Neurology, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rueb, Udo [Goethe University, Dr. Senckenberg Chronomedical Institute, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Steinmetz, Helmuth [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Klein, Johannes C. [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Deichmann, Ralf [Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  15. A longitudinal study of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and body size perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal development of body size perception in relation to different personality traits. A sample of Swiss adults (N=2905, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire on two consecutive years (2012, 2013). Body size perception was assessed with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale and personality traits were assessed with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Longitudinal analysis of change indicated that men and women scoring higher on conscientiousness perceived themselves as thinner one year later. In contrast, women scoring higher on neuroticism perceived their body size as larger one year later. No significant effect was observed for men scoring higher on neuroticism. These results were independent of weight changes, body mass index, age, and education. Our findings suggest that personality traits contribute to body size perception among adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myroniuk, Tyler W.; Anglewicz, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health or vice-versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined and little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15–80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age, and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians. PMID:26646745

  17. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myroniuk, Tyler W; Anglewicz, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health and/or vice versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined. Little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2,328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15 to 80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  18. A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Motivation Mediates the Perfectionism-Burnout Relationship: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study With Junior Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to test a mediational model, a differential pattern of between- and within-person relationships emerged. Whereas autonomous motivation mediated the negative relationship that perfectionistic strivings had with burnout at the between- and within-person level, controlled motivation mediated the positive relationship that perfectionistic concerns had with burnout at the between-persons level only. The present findings suggest that differences in autonomous and controlled motivation explain why perfectionism predicts changes in athlete burnout over time.

  20. Positive affect and sleep in spousal Alzheimer caregivers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Mausbach, Brent T; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor

    2014-09-03

    This article examines the longitudinal relation between positive affect (PA) and sleep in 126 spousal Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Caregivers underwent 4 yearly assessments for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the self-rated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and actigraphy to objectify nighttime total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, and percentage of sleep. Increased levels of PA and a greater positivity (i.e., positive-to-negative affect) ratio were significantly associated with better subjective sleep over the entire study period. Yearly increases in PA-even when controlling for negative affect (NA)-and in the positivity ratio were also associated with better subjective sleep. PA and actigraphy measures showed no significant relations. Increased PA is longitudinally associated with better sleep in dementia caregivers largely independent of NA.

  1. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.

  2. A systematic review of health-related quality of life in longitudinal studies of myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Kongsgaard; Jarden, Mary Ellen; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients report high symptom burden and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to patients with other haematological malignancies. The aim of this review was to analyse published longitudinal studies including MM patients according to a change...... in HRQoL scores, which is perceived as beneficial to the patient according to two published guidelines. METHODS: A literature search was performed May 2016. Publications with longitudinal follow-up using the EORTC QLQ-C30 instrument for HRQoL measurement of physical functioning, global quality of life......, fatigue and/or pain were included. An analysis of mean change from baseline was carried out according to minimal important difference (MID). RESULTS: Large and medium HRQoL improvements were reported during first-line treatments. No clinically beneficial change or deteriorations in scores of global Qo...

  3. Association between consistent purchase of anticonvulsants or lithium and suicide risk: a longitudinal cohort study from Denmark, 1995-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Eric G; Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest anticonvulsants purchasers may be at greater risk of suicide than lithium purchasers. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of all individuals in Denmark purchasing anticonvulsants (valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine) (n=9952...

  4. Brief Report: Parenting Styles and Obesity in Mexican American Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Methods Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Results At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. Conclusions This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered. PMID:19726552

  5. The relationship of C-reactive protein to obesity-related depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Obesity has been shown to produce a state of systematic low-grade inflammation that may have detrimental neuropsychiatric effects. Longitudinal associations between obesity, inflammation, and depressive symptoms amongst a cohort of older English adults over 4 years of follow-up were examined. Participants were 3,891 obese and nonobese people drawn from the English longitudinal study of ageing (ELSA) [aged 64.9 (SD = 8.8) years, 44.6% men]. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 4 years of follow-up using the eight-item center for epidemiological studies-depression scale (CES-D). Approximately 26.3% (N = 1,025) of the sample were categorized as obese at baseline. Obesity at baseline was associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up (P obesity-related longitudinal change in depression scores. These data suggest that chronic inflammation may be a key determinant of depressive symptoms in obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. Longitudinal Study of Serum Uric Acid, Nutritional Status, and Mortality in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberashvili, Ilia; Erlich, Anatoli; Azar, Ada; Sinuani, Inna; Feldman, Leonid; Gorelik, Oleg; Stav, Kobi; Efrati, Shai

    2016-06-06

    We hypothesized that longitudinal changes in uric acid (UA) may have independent associations with changes in nutritional parameters over time and consequently, long-term survival of patients on maintenance hemodialysis. We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study of a clinical database containing the medical records of patients on maintenance hemodialysis receiving dialysis between June of 1999 and December of 2012 in a single center; 200 patients (130 men and 70 women) with a median age of 69.0 (interquartile range, 59.3-77.0) years old were included in the study. Dietary intake, biochemical markers of nutrition, anthropometric measurements, and UA levels were recorded at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months followed by 15 additional months of clinical observations. The patients were followed until January 31, 2015 (median follow-up was 38.0 [interquartile range, 30.0-46.8] months). In a linear mixed effects model adjusted for baseline demographics and clinical parameters, each 1.0-mg/dl longitudinal increase in UA was associated with a 13.4% slower rate of decline in geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) levels over 3 years of observation (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.11 to 0.39; Pnutritional status over time, and these changes are associated with survival of patients on maintenance hemodialysis. An increase in serum UA levels over time is accompanied by improvement of nutritional status and lower mortality rate. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Brief report: parenting styles and obesity in Mexican American children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Power, Thomas G

    2010-04-01

    To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered.

  8. Monitoring the growth dynamics of somatic traits based on a semi-longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, P; Bláha, P; Brabec, M; Vignerová, J; Janoušek, S; Riedlová, J; Stříbrná, L

    2011-04-01

    Possibilities of conducting longitudinal human growth studies are very limited, since it is necessary to monitor the probands for a long time. Another problem can be a loss of data currency, and the small size of the final sample. The solution can be a follow-up semi-longitudinal observation. This research is drawn up as a short longitudinal monitoring of 1925 children (990 boys, 935 girls), aged 6-15 years, at 20 elementary schools in four regions of the Czech Republic, which has been conducted at the same time. Data of repeatedly examined probands of a wide age range were acquired in a short time period. With the help of a linear regression model with mixed effect, the growth velocity curves of 12 somatic traits have been obtained. The timing, intensity and duration of separate growth spurts have been observed, as well as the mutual location of both points of growth velocity, local maxima and minima, and points of the maximal acceleration and deceleration. The results demonstrate that the velocity of characters with variable growth dynamics (skin-fold thicknesses, circumferences of limbs) - contrary to characters with regular growth velocity - have a higher number of partial growth spurts and an opposite course. In the period of separate growth velocity, peaks of somatic characters with regular growth dynamics reach points of partial local minima. In comparison to previous longitudinal studies of body height growth dynamics, the shift of both the beginning and the peak of boys' and girls' pubertal spurt, to a lower age can be found. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Die Geschichte der Veterinärmedizinischen Fakultät der Universität Leipzig von 1923 bis 1933

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Annett

    2013-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit versteht sich als ein Beitrag zur wissenschaftlichen Bearbeitung der Geschichte der Veterinärmedizinischen Fakultät der Universität Leipzig und behandelt das erste Jahrzehnt ihres Bestehens, also den Zeitraum von 1923 bis 1933. Als Grundlage der Dokumentation dienten hauptsächlich Archivalien. Des Weiteren wurden zeitgenössische Fachzeitschriften verwendet. Zur Darstellung des zeitgeschichtlichen Hintergrundes wurden hauptsächlich Sekundärliteratur sowie einige wenig...

  10. Rock analyzes that could be key in biofuel production: student expands research in Germany: Escuela de Quimica sent to posgraduate student at Leipzig University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'neal Coto, Katzt; Puente Urbina, Allen

    2014-01-01

    University student of posgraduate in chemistry at the Universidad de Costa Rica has done an internship at the Universitat Leipzig, Germany. All the facilities were given to analyze samples of a type of sedimentary rock known as diatomite. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Xenon was used to remove the fatty acids present in vegetable oil or animal fat used in the production of biodiesel [es

  11. Middle longitudinal fasciculus delineation within language pathways: A diffusion tensor imaging study in human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolasdechampfleur@orange.fr [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Team “Plasticity of Central Nervous System, Stem Cells and Glial Tumors,” Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 1051, Institut of Neurosciences of Montpellier, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier (France); Lima Maldonado, Igor [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Team “Plasticity of Central Nervous System, Stem Cells and Glial Tumors,” Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 1051, Institut of Neurosciences of Montpellier, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier (France); Divisão de Neurologia e Epidemiologia (CPPHO), Complexo Hospital Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador-Bahia (Brazil); Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Machi, Paolo [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); and others

    2013-01-15

    Introduction: The existence in the human brain of the middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF), initially described in the macaque monkey, is supported by diffusion tensor imaging studies. In the present work, we aim (1) to confirm that this fascicle is found constantly in control subjects with the use of DTI techniques and (2) to delineate the MdLF from the other fiber bundles that constitute the language pathways. Materials and methods: Tractography was realized in four right-handed healthy volunteers for the arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and the middle longitudinal fascicle. The fiber tracts were characterized for their size, mean fractional anisotropy (FA), for their length, number of streamlines, and lateralization indices were calculated. Results: The MdLF is found constantly and it is clearly delineated from the other fascicles that constitute the language pathways, especially the ventral pathway. It runs within the superior temporal gyrus white matter from the temporal pole, then it extends caudally in the upper part of the sagittal stratum and the posterior part of the corona radiata, to reach the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus). We found a leftward asymmetry for all fiber tracts when considering the mean FA. Discussion: Using DTI methods, we confirm that the MdLF connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. On the basis of these findings, the role of the MdLF is discussed. Conclusion: The middle longitudinal fasciculus, connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus and its course can be systematically differenciated from those of other fascicles composing both ventral and dorsal routes (IFOF, IFL, AF and UF)

  12. Middle longitudinal fasciculus delineation within language pathways: A diffusion tensor imaging study in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Lima Maldonado, Igor; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Machi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The existence in the human brain of the middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF), initially described in the macaque monkey, is supported by diffusion tensor imaging studies. In the present work, we aim (1) to confirm that this fascicle is found constantly in control subjects with the use of DTI techniques and (2) to delineate the MdLF from the other fiber bundles that constitute the language pathways. Materials and methods: Tractography was realized in four right-handed healthy volunteers for the arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and the middle longitudinal fascicle. The fiber tracts were characterized for their size, mean fractional anisotropy (FA), for their length, number of streamlines, and lateralization indices were calculated. Results: The MdLF is found constantly and it is clearly delineated from the other fascicles that constitute the language pathways, especially the ventral pathway. It runs within the superior temporal gyrus white matter from the temporal pole, then it extends caudally in the upper part of the sagittal stratum and the posterior part of the corona radiata, to reach the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus). We found a leftward asymmetry for all fiber tracts when considering the mean FA. Discussion: Using DTI methods, we confirm that the MdLF connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. On the basis of these findings, the role of the MdLF is discussed. Conclusion: The middle longitudinal fasciculus, connects the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus and its course can be systematically differenciated from those of other fascicles composing both ventral and dorsal routes (IFOF, IFL, AF and UF)

  13. Diet assessment in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: Development of a food frequency questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Bisi Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to present the development of the Food Frequency Questionaire used in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil and analyze how diet exposes individuals to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes Mellitus. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil dietary assessment instrument is based on a previously validated Food Frequency Questionaire and the final list of items took into consideration a study done in the six Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil investigation centers. RESULTS: New foods/preparations were included in the Food Frequency Questionaire with their respective portions, totaling 114 items. The perspectives of dietary analysis and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are presented in Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil. CONCLUSION: A new instrument was developed to cover the regional particularities of the study population.

  14. A longitudinal and retrospective study of PTSD among older prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, C L; Engdahl, B; Frazier, P

    2001-09-01

    The authors examined the longitudinal changes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom levels and prevalence rates over a 4-year time period among American former prisoners of war (POWs) from World War II and the Korean War. Retrospective symptom reports by World War II POWs dating back to shortly after repatriation were examined for 1) additional evidence of changing PTSD symptom levels and 2) evidence of PTSD cases with a long-delayed onset. PTSD prevalence rates and symptom levels were measured by the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. For the longitudinal portion of the study, participants were 177 community-dwelling World War II and Korean POWs. For the retrospective portion, participants were 244 community-dwelling World War II POWs. PTSD prevalence rates and symptom levels increased significantly over the 4-year measurement interval. Retrospective symptom reports indicated that symptoms were highest shortly after the war, declined for several decades, and increased within the past two decades. Long-delayed onset of PTSD symptoms was rare. Demographic and psychosocial variables were used to characterize participants whose symptoms increased over 4 years and differentiate participants who reported a long-delayed symptom onset. Both longitudinal and retrospective data support a PTSD symptom pattern of immediate onset and gradual decline, followed by increasing PTSD symptom levels among older survivors of remote trauma.

  15. Caregiver Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Patient Relationship Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Emily L; Poulin, Michael J; Grant, Pei C; Depner, Rachel M; Breier, Jennifer; Byrwa, David J; Wright, Scott T

    2018-03-01

    Longitudinal assessment of patient-caregiver relationships will determine whether caregiver self-esteem determines patient relationship satisfaction at end of life. Research on close relationships and caregiving supports the idea that informal caregivers' self-esteem may influence their relationships with their terminally ill loved ones. However, this connection has not yet been investigated longitudinally, nor has it been applied specifically to care recipients' relationship satisfaction. A sample of 24 caregivers and 24 patients in a hospice home care program were recruited. Multiple patient and caregiver interviews were used to conduct a longitudinal study to measure fluctuations in patient health, changes in patient and caregiver relationship satisfaction, and self-esteem over a three-month period. An interaction between caregiver self-esteem and patient relationship satisfaction demonstrated the role that self-esteem plays between caregivers and patients enrolled in hospice care. Specifically, for patients with caregivers with low self-esteem, patient relationship satisfaction significantly decreased as the patient's physical health decreased, whereas for patients whose caregivers had high self-esteem, patient relationship satisfaction marginally increased during poorer physical health. High self-esteem may allow caregivers to overcome feelings of burden and maladaptive anticipatory grief to remain satisfied in their relationship with the patient. Caregiver self-esteem appears to play a role in fostering patient relationship satisfaction at the end of life.

  16. A transformation similarity constraint for groupwise nonlinear registration in longitudinal neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Greg M.; Gutman, Boris A.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Thompson, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease and other brain disorders often show a similar spatial distribution of volume change throughout the brain over time, but this information is not yet used in registration algorithms to refine the quantification of change. Here, we develop a mathematical basis to incorporate that prior information into a longitudinal structural neuroimaging study. We modify the canonical minimization problem for non-linear registration to include a term that couples a collection of registrations together to enforce group similarity. More specifically, throughout the computation we maintain a group-level representation of the transformations and constrain updates to individual transformations to be similar to this representation. The derivations necessary to produce the Euler-Lagrange equations for the coupling term are presented and a gradient descent algorithm based on the formulation was implemented. We demonstrate using 57 longitudinal image pairs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) that longitudinal registration with such a groupwise coupling prior is more robust to noise in estimating change, suggesting such change maps may have several important applications.

  17. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  18. Participant retention practices in longitudinal clinical research studies with high retention rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Abshire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for improving cohort retention in longitudinal studies. Our objective was to identify cohort retention strategies and implementation approaches used in studies with high retention rates. Methods Longitudinal studies with ≥200 participants, ≥80% retention rates over ≥1 year of follow-up were queried from an Institutional Review Board database at a large research-intensive U.S. university; additional studies were identified through networking. Nineteen (86% of 22 eligible studies agreed to participate. Through in-depth semi-structured interviews, participants provided retention strategies based on themes identified from previous literature reviews. Synthesis of data was completed by a multidisciplinary team. Results The most commonly used retention strategies were: study reminders, study visit characteristics, emphasizing study benefits, and contact/scheduling strategies. The research teams were well-functioning, organized, and persistent. Additionally, teams tailored their strategies to their participants, often adapting and innovating their approaches. Conclusions These studies included specialized and persistent teams and utilized tailored strategies specific to their cohort and individual participants. Studies’ written protocols and published manuscripts often did not reflect the varied strategies employed and adapted through the duration of study. Appropriate retention strategy use requires cultural sensitivity and more research is needed to identify how strategy use varies globally.

  19. Multilingualism and fMRI: Longitudinal Study of Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wright

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1 already proficient in at least two languages; or (2 are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1 longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2 statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition.

  20. Multilingualism and fMRI: Longitudinal Study of Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition. PMID:24961428

  1. Multilingualism and fMRI: Longitudinal Study of Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John

    2013-05-28

    BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition.

  2. Cultural events - does attendance improve health? Evidence from a Polish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węziak-Białowolska, Dorota; Białowolski, Piotr

    2016-08-05

    Although there is strong advocacy for uptake of both the arts and creative activities as determinants of individual health conditions, studies evaluating causal influence of attendance at cultural events on population health using individual population data on health are scarce. If available, results are often only of an associative nature. In this light, this study investigated causative impact of attendance at cultural events on self-reported and physical health in the Polish population. Four recent waves (2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015) of the biennial longitudinal Polish household panel study, Social Diagnosis, were analysed. The data, representative for the Polish population aged over 16, with respect to age, gender, classes of place of residence and NUTS 2 regions, were collected from self-report questionnaires. Causative influence of cultural attendance on population health was established using longitudinal population representative data. To account for unobserved heterogeneity of individuals and to mitigate issues caused by omitted variables, a panel data model with a fixed effects estimator was applied. The endogeneity problem (those who enjoy good health are more likely to participate in cultural activities more frequently) was circumvented by application of instrumental variables. Results confirmed positive association between cultural attendance and self-reported health. However, in contrast to the often suggested positive causative relationship, such a link was not confirmed by the study. Additionally, no evidence was found to corroborate a positive impact from cultural attendance on physical health. Both findings were substantiated by augmentation in the longitudinal perspective and causal link. We showed the relation between attendance at cultural events and self-reported health could only be confirmed as associational. Therefore, this study provided little justification to encourage use of passive cultural participation as a measure of health promotion

  3. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  4. Variability of Delirium Motor Subtype Scale-Defined Delirium Motor Subtypes in Elderly Adults with Hip Fracture : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Rikie M.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Adamis, Dimitrios; de Jonghe, Annemarieke; Meagher, David J.; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in motor subtype profile in individuals with delirium. DESIGN: Observational, longitudinal study; substudy of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Departments of surgery and orthopedics, Academic Medical Center and Tergooi Hospital, the Netherlands.

  5. Effects of communication styles on marital satisfaction and distress of parents of pediatric cancer patients : a prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg - Williams, Barbara; Van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Kamps, Willem; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of communication styles on marital satisfaction and distress of parents of children treated for cancer. MethodsMarital dissatisfaction (Maudsley Marital Questionnaire), intimacy, avoidance, destructive and incongruent

  6. Prodromal Markers in Parkinson’s Disease: Limitations in Longitudinal Studies and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Roeben, Benjamin; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Lerche, Stefanie; Alves, Guido; Barone, Paolo; Behnke, Stefanie; Berendse, Henk W.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Burn, David; Dodel, Richard; Grosset, Donald G.; Hu, Michele; Kasten, Meike; Krüger, Rejko; Moccia, Marcello; Mollenhauer, Brit; Oertel, Wolfgang; Suenkel, Ulrike; Walter, Uwe; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports a prodromal neurodegenerative process preceding the clinical onset of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies have identified several different prodromal markers that may have the potential to predict the conversion from healthy to clinical PD but use considerably different approaches. We systematically reviewed 35 longitudinal studies reporting prodromal PD features and evaluated the methodological quality across 10 different predefined domains. We found limitations in the following domains: PD diagnosis (57% of studies), prodromal marker assessments (51%), temporal information on prodromal markers or PD diagnosis (34%), generalizability of results (17%), statistical methods (accounting for at least age as confounder; 17%), study design (14%), and sample size (9%). However, no limitations regarding drop-out (or bias investigation), or report of inclusion/exclusion criteria or prodromal marker associations were revealed. Lessons learned from these limitations and additional aspects of current prodromal marker studies in PD are discussed to provide a basis for the evaluation of findings and the improvement of future research in prodromal PD. The observed heterogeneity of studies, limitations and analyses might be addressed in future longitudinal studies using a, yet to be established, modular minimal set of assessments improving comparability of findings and enabling data sharing and combined analyses across studies. PMID:27445791

  7. Prodromal Markers in Parkinson's Disease: Limitations in Longitudinal Studies and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Roeben, Benjamin; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Lerche, Stefanie; Alves, Guido; Barone, Paolo; Behnke, Stefanie; Berendse, Henk W; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Burn, David; Dodel, Richard; Grosset, Donald G; Hu, Michele; Kasten, Meike; Krüger, Rejko; Moccia, Marcello; Mollenhauer, Brit; Oertel, Wolfgang; Suenkel, Ulrike; Walter, Uwe; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports a prodromal neurodegenerative process preceding the clinical onset of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have identified several different prodromal markers that may have the potential to predict the conversion from healthy to clinical PD but use considerably different approaches. We systematically reviewed 35 longitudinal studies reporting prodromal PD features and evaluated the methodological quality across 10 different predefined domains. We found limitations in the following domains: PD diagnosis (57% of studies), prodromal marker assessments (51%), temporal information on prodromal markers or PD diagnosis (34%), generalizability of results (17%), statistical methods (accounting for at least age as confounder; 17%), study design (14%), and sample size (9%). However, no limitations regarding drop-out (or bias investigation), or report of inclusion/exclusion criteria or prodromal marker associations were revealed. Lessons learned from these limitations and additional aspects of current prodromal marker studies in PD are discussed to provide a basis for the evaluation of findings and the improvement of future research in prodromal PD. The observed heterogeneity of studies, limitations and analyses might be addressed in future longitudinal studies using a, yet to be established, modular minimal set of assessments improving comparability of findings and enabling data sharing and combined analyses across studies.

  8. Childhood Precursors of Adult Borderline Personality Disorder Features: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2016-07-01

    This study identifies childhood personality traits that are precursors of adult Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features. In a longitudinal study, childhood personality traits were assessed at age 11 (N = 100) using the California Child Q-set (CCQ: Block and Block, 1980). A number of these Q-items were found to be significantly correlated (p personality dimensions: Impulsivity and Nonconformity/Aggression. The findings thus provide evidence that childhood personality traits predict adult BPD features. Identifying such childhood precursors provides an opportunity for early intervention.

  9. Sleep was associated with depression and anxiety status during pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunxian; Li, Minchao; Pu, Liuyan; Wang, Shuojia; Wu, Jinhua; Ruan, Lingli; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Zhaopin; Jiang, Wen

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of sleep with depression and anxiety among Chinese pregnant women. Pregnant women were recruited in Zhoushan Pregnant Women Cohort at Zhoushan Maternal and Child Care Hospital from 2011 to 2015. Self-rating depression scales (SDS) and self-rating anxiety scales (SAS) were used for evaluating depression and anxiety status at each trimester; corresponding sleep quality and duration were reported by pregnant women. Ordinary or multilevel linear and logistic regression model were used to estimate the cross-sectional or longitudinal association of sleep with depression and anxiety. The prevalence rates were 35.64, 24.23, and 26.24% for depression and 22.57, 17.41, and 21.04% for anxiety at 1st (T1), 2nd (T2), and 3rd trimester (T3), respectively. Controlling for potential confounders, it revealed significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep with depression and anxiety status. In cross-sectional analysis, women who slept less than 8 h/day had higher risk of depression (T1: OR (95%CI) = 1.75 (1.39, 2.20); T2: 1.52 (1.26, 2.05); T3: 1.60 (1.18, 2.05)) and anxiety (T1: 2.00 (1.57, 2.55); T2: 1.86 (1.37, 2.54); T3: 1.33 (0.99, 1.79)). In the longitudinal analysis, multilevel model revealed that women with subjective "fair" or "bad" sleep quality had elevated risk of depression (OR ranging from 1.54 to 3.71) and anxiety (2.38 to 7.53) during pregnancy. Prenatal depression and anxiety status were prevalent in pregnant women. Sleep quality was associated with depression and anxiety status in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, implying that improving sleep quality should benefit for mental health of pregnant women.

  10. Overweight, Obesity, and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, F.S.; de Wit, L.M.; Bouvy, P.F.; Stijnen, T.; Cuijpers, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Association between obesity and depression has repeatedly been established. For treatment and prevention purposes, it is important to acquire more insight into their longitudinal interaction. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the longitudinal relationship

  11. Overweight, Obesity, and Depression A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, Floriana S.; de Wit, Leonore M.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Stijnen, Theo; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Context: Association between obesity and depression has repeatedly been established. For treatment and prevention purposes, it is important to acquire more insight into their longitudinal interaction. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the longitudinal relationship

  12. The parent–child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Leenke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent–child relationship (PCR and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Methods A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining sixteen studies did not find any association. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Further research to the association of the PCR with several types of alcohol use (e.g., initiation or abuse and to the potential reversed causality of the PCR and alcohol use is required.

  13. Deriving low-risk gambling limits from longitudinal data collected in two independent Canadian studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shawn R; Hodgins, David C; Casey, David M; El-Guebaly, Nady; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2017-11-01

    To derive low-risk gambling limits using the method developed by Currie et al. (2006) applied to longitudinal data. Secondary analysis of data from the Quinte Longitudinal Study (n = 3054) and Leisure, Lifestyle and Lifecycle Project (n = 809), two independently conducted cohort studies of the natural progression of gambling in Canadian adults. Community-dwelling adults in Southeastern Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A total of 3863 adults (50% male; median age = 44) who reported gambling in the past year. Gambling behaviours (typical monthly frequency, total expenditure and percentage of income spent on gambling) and harm (experiencing two or more consequences of gambling in the past 12 months) were assessed with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. The dose-response relationship was comparable in both studies for frequency of gambling (days per month), total expenditure and percentage of household income spent on gambling (area under the curve values ranged from 0.66 to 0.74). Based on the optimal sensitivity and specificity values, the low-risk gambling cut-offs were eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling. Gamblers who exceeded any of these limits at time 1 were approximately four times more likely to report harm at time 2 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9-6.6]. Longitudinal data in Canada suggest low-risk gambling thresholds of eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling, all of which are higher than previously derived limits from cross-sectional data. Gamblers who exceed any of the three low-risk limits are four times more likely to experience future harm than those who do not. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. A longitudinal study of paternal mental health during transition to fatherhood as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2014-05-01

    Rates of paternal depression range from 5% to 10% with a growing body of literature describing the harm to fathers, children, and families. Changes in depression symptoms over the life course, and the role of social factors, are not well known. This study examines associations with changes in depression symptoms during the transition to fatherhood for young fathers and whether this association differed by key social factors. We combined all 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to support a 23-year longitudinal analysis of 10 623 men and then created a "fatherhood-year" data set, regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptoms scores on fatherhood status (nonresidence/residence), fatherhood-years, and covariates to determine associations between Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores and fatherhood life course intervals. Depressive symptom scores reported at the entry into fatherhood are higher for nonresident fathers than nonfathers, which in turn are higher than those of resident fathers. Resident fathers have a significant decrease in scores during late adolescence (β = -0.035, P = .023), but a significant increase in scores during early fatherhood (β = 0.023, P = .041). From entrance into fatherhood to the end of early fatherhood (+5 years), the depressive symptoms score for resident fathers increases on average by 68%. In our longitudinal, population-based study, resident fathers show increasing depressive symptom scores during children's key attachment years of 0-5. Identifying at-risk fathers based on social factors and designing effective interventions may ultimately improve health outcomes for the entire family. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beard John R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a number of common methodological weaknesses that restrict the potential of longitudinal research to characterize the diversity, prognosis, and determinants of affective disorders over time. Most studies using comprehensive diagnostic instruments have either been of relatively brief duration, or have suffered from long periods between waves. Most etiologic research has focused on first onset diagnoses, although these may be relatively uncommon after early adulthood and the burden of mental disorders falls more heavily on individuals with recurring disorders. Analysis has tended to be based on changes in diagnostic status rather than anges in symptom levels, limiting study power. Diagnoses have generally been treated as homogeneous entities and few studies have explored whether diagnostic subtypes such as atypical depression vary in their etiology or prognosis. Little research has considered whether there are distinct trajectories of symptoms over time and most has focused on individual disorders such as depression, rather than considering the relationship over time between symptoms of different affective disorders. There has also been limited longitudinal research on factors in the physical or social environment that may influence the onset, recurrence or chronicity of symptoms. Conclusion Many important, and in some respects quite basic, questions remain about the trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders over the life course and the factors that

  16. Longitudinal study of iodine in toenails following IV administration of an iodine-containing contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spate, V.L.; Morris, J.S.; Nichols, T.A.; Baskett, C.K.; Mason, M.M.; Horsman, T.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer (TC) risk and the higher incidence of TC among Asian immigrants to the US compared to second and third generation subgroups has prompted epidemiologists to hypothesize that increased levels of iodine consumption may be associated with TC risk, particularly among persons with a history of clinical or subclinical thyroid dysfunction. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), we have applied epiboron neutron activation analysis to investigate human nails as a dietary monitor for iodine. Preliminary studies have indicated a positive correlation between dietary iodine intake and the concentration of iodine in toenails. However, these studies are confounded by high iodine levels (up to 30 ppm) in approximately 5% of the nails studied. We hypothesize that, in the subjects we have studied, the high iodine levels may be due to iodine-containing medications, in particular contrast-agents containing iopamidol. This paper will report on longitudinal studies using contrast agent subjects who where followed-up for almost two years compared to a longitudinal control and a population mean. Based on this study, we suggest that iodine-containing contrast agents contaminate nail samples via non-specific binding in the short term followed by incorporation in the nail as a result of absorption. (author)

  17. CardioBengo study protocol: a population based cardiovascular longitudinal study in Bengo Province, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. Pedro

    2016-03-01

    regions and countries, this study will constitute a useful tool for the surveillance of cardiovascular diseases. Like all longitudinal studies, a strong concern exists regarding dropouts, but strategies like regular visits to selected participants and a strong community involvement are in place to minimize these occurrences.

  18. CardioBengo study protocol: a population based cardiovascular longitudinal study in Bengo Province, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, João M; Rosário, Edite; Brito, Miguel; Barros, Henrique

    2016-03-01

    the surveillance of cardiovascular diseases. Like all longitudinal studies, a strong concern exists regarding dropouts, but strategies like regular visits to selected participants and a strong community involvement are in place to minimize these occurrences.

  19. HbA1c, diabetes and cognitive decline: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fanfan; Yan, Li; Yang, Zhenchun; Zhong, Baoliang; Xie, Wuxiang

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate longitudinal associations between HbA 1c levels, diabetes status and subsequent cognitive decline over a 10 year follow-up period. Data from wave 2 (2004-2005) to wave 7 (2014-2015) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were analysed. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline (wave 2) and reassessed every 2 years at waves 3-7. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate longitudinal associations. The study comprised 5189 participants (55.1% women, mean age 65.6 ± 9.4 years) with baseline HbA 1c levels ranging from 15.9 to 126.3 mmol/mol (3.6-13.7%). The mean follow-up duration was 8.1 ± 2.8 years and the mean number of cognitive assessments was 4.9 ± 1.5. A 1 mmol/mol increment in HbA 1c was significantly associated with an increased rate of decline in global cognitive z scores (-0.0009 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0014, -0.0003), memory z scores (-0.0005 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0009, -0.0001) and executive function z scores (-0.0008 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0013, -0.0004) after adjustment for baseline age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, BMI, education, marital status, depressive symptoms, current smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, CHD, stroke, chronic lung disease and cancer. Compared with participants with normoglycaemia, the multivariable-adjusted rate of global cognitive decline associated with prediabetes and diabetes was increased by -0.012 SD/year (95% CI -0.022, -0.002) and -0.031 SD/year (95% CI -0.046, -0.015), respectively (p for trend <0.001). Similarly, memory, executive function and orientation z scores showed an increased rate of cognitive decline with diabetes. Significant longitudinal associations between HbA 1c levels, diabetes status and long-term cognitive decline were observed in this study. Future studies are required to determine the effects of maintaining optimal glucose control on the rate of cognitive decline in people

  20. Rare-variant association tests in longitudinal studies, with an application to the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihuai; Lee, Seunggeun; Zhang, Min; Smith, Jennifer A; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years, an increasing number of studies have identified rare variants that contribute to trait heritability. Due to the extreme rarity of some individual variants, gene-based association tests have been proposed to aggregate the genetic variants within a gene, pathway, or specific genomic region as opposed to a one-at-a-time single variant analysis. In addition, in longitudinal studies, statistical power to detect disease susceptibility rare variants can be improved through jointly testing repeatedly measured outcomes, which better describes the temporal development of the trait of interest. However, usual sandwich/model-based inference for sequencing studies with longitudinal outcomes and rare variants can produce deflated/inflated type I error rate without further corrections. In this paper, we develop a group of tests for rare-variant association based on outcomes with repeated measures. We propose new perturbation methods such that the type I error rate of the new tests is not only robust to misspecification of within-subject correlation, but also significantly improved for variants with extreme rarity in a study with small or moderate sample size. Through extensive simulation studies, we illustrate that substantially higher power can be achieved by utilizing longitudinal outcomes and our proposed finite sample adjustment. We illustrate our methods using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis for exploring association of repeated measures of blood pressure with rare and common variants based on exome sequencing data on 6,361 individuals. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Floriana S; de Wit, Leonore M; Bouvy, Paul F; Stijnen, Theo; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2010-03-01

    Association between obesity and depression has repeatedly been established. For treatment and prevention purposes, it is important to acquire more insight into their longitudinal interaction. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the longitudinal relationship between depression, overweight, and obesity and to identify possible influencing factors. Studies were found using PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases and selected on several criteria. Studies examining the longitudinal bidirectional relation between depression and overweight (body mass index 25-29.99) or obesity (body mass index > or =30) were selected. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were extracted or provided by the authors. Overall, unadjusted ORs were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed for the 15 included studies (N = 58 745) to estimate the effect of possible moderators (sex, age, depression severity). Obesity at baseline increased the risk of onset of depression at follow-up (unadjusted OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.98; P depressive disorder than for depressive symptoms (P = .05). Overweight increased the risk of onset of depression at follow-up (unadjusted OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.51; P or =60 years) but not among younger persons (aged depression (symptoms and disorder) was not predictive of overweight over time. However, depression increased the odds for developing obesity (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.33-1.87; P depression and obesity. Obesity was found to increase the risk of depression, most pronounced among Americans and for clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, depression was found to be predictive of developing obesity.

  2. A longitudinal study of midage women with indicators of disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D

    2015-05-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential mechanisms of action. We used self-report data from six waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health over 14 years. A total of 12,338 women participating in the midage cohort (aging from 45-50 to 59-64) provided self-report indications of DE at Surveys 1 and 2, and QoL (SF-36 component scales-mental [MCS] and physical [PCS]) at Surveys 2-6. DE was reported by 10.98% of the women; this group also reported significantly poorer mental and physical QoL than those without DE, and this effect was sustained over time. Comparison with a parallel analysis of a younger cohort of women showed that the effect on midage women's physical QoL is greater than that of the younger women. The relationships between baseline DE and changes in QoL (both physical and mental) over time were mediated by levels of depressive symptoms and of social support over time. This study underscores the significant effect of DE on QoL in midage, an effect which is partially or fully mediated by depressive symptoms or social support. Well-being of midage women with indicators of DE needs to be supported by tailoring prevention and interventions activities specifically for this group. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A longitudinal study of structural brain network changes with normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eWu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the topological organization of structural brain networks by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years. Structural brain networks were derived from measurements of regional gray matter volume and were constructed in age-specific groups from baseline and follow-up scans. The structural brain networks showed economical small-world properties, providing high global and local efficiency for parallel information processing at low connection costs. In the analysis of the global network properties, the local and global efficiency of the baseline scan were significantly lower compared to the follow-up scan. Moreover, the annual rate of changes in local and global efficiency showed a positive and negative quadratic correlation with the baseline age, respectively; both curvilinear correlations peaked at approximately the age of 50. In the analysis of the regional nodal properties, significant negative correlations between the annual rate of changes in nodal strength and the baseline age were found in the brain regions primarily involved in the visual and motor/ control systems, whereas significant positive quadratic correlations were found in the brain regions predominately associated with the default-mode, attention, and memory systems. The results of the longitudinal study are consistent with the findings of our previous cross-sectional study: the structural brain networks develop into a fast distribution from young to middle age (approximately 50 years old and eventually became a fast localization in the old age. Our findings elucidate the network topology of structural brain networks and its longitudinal changes, thus enhancing the understanding of the underlying physiology of normal aging in the human brain.

  4. Longitudinal Study of Sleep Behavior in Normal Infants during the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Oliviero; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Ancona, Mario; Caso, Gianni; Di Cosimo, Maria Elisabetta; Mannini, Andrea; Ometto, Mariangela; Pasquini, Anna; Ulliana, Antonella; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To longitudinally examine sleep patterns, habits, and parent-reported sleep problems during the first year of life. Methods: Seven hundred four parent/child pairs participated in a longitudinal cohort study. Structured interview recording general demographic data, feeding habits, intercurrent diseases, family history, sleep habits, and parental evaluation of the infant's sleep carried out at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Results: Nocturnal, daytime, and total sleep duration showed a high inter-individual variability in the first year of life associated with changes in the first 6 months and stability from 6 to 12 months. Bedtime was at around 22:00 and remained stable at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Approximately 20% of the infants had more than 2 awakenings and slept more often in the parent bed. Nearly 10% of the infants were considered as having a problematic sleep by parents and this significantly correlated with nocturnal awakenings and difficulties falling asleep. Conclusions: Sleep patterns change during the first year of life but most sleep variables (i.e., sleep latency and duration) show little variation from 6 to 12 months. Our data provide a context for clinicians to discuss sleep issues with parents and suggest that prevention efforts should focus to the first 3-6 months, since sleep patterns show stability from that time point to 12 months. Citation: Bruni O, Baumgartner E, Sette S, Ancona M, Caso G, Di Cosimo ME, Mannini A, Ometto M, Pasquini A, Ulliana A, Ferri R. Longitudinal study of sleep behavior in normal infants during the first year of life. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1119-1127. PMID:25317093

  5. Preschool antecedents of defense mechanism use in young adults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, P; Block, J

    1998-01-01

    Preschool antecedents of the use of defense mechanisms were longitudinally studied using data from 90 nursery school children who were again evaluated at age 23. Defense use was determined by coding Thematic Apperception Test (H.A. Murray, 1943) stories with a method previously shown to be reliable and valid. The findings indicated continuity between preschool personality and subsequent defense use for male participants but little continuity for female participants. Young men's use of the age-inappropriate defense of denial was predicted by indications at ages 3-4 of low ego resiliency and psychological difficulties in the areas of emotion, intellect, impulse control, and social interactions.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Innovativeness on Academic Spin-offs Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giones, Ferran; Billström, Anders; Rasmussen, Einar

    the relationship between innovativeness and firm performance. This study tests the relationship between innovativeness across different industries and future firm performance. This paper uses several market performance indicators to observe the variety of firm sales of academic spin-offs. A longitudinal sample......, between 2000 and 2012, of 125 academic spin-offs of Norway provides valuable insights on how the origin of the technology impact differences in market performance. The results show how specific elements related to the ASOs’ product innovativeness contribute to its market performance. The findings provide...

  7. Theory of mind in emerging reading comprehension: a longitudinal study of early indirect and direct effects

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Lynette; Slade, Lance; Powell, Daisy; Levy, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    The relation between children’s theory of mind (ToM) and emerging reading comprehension was investigated in a longitudinal study over 2.5 years. 80 children were tested for ToM, decoding, language skills and executive function (EF) at Time 1 (mean age = 3:10 years). At Time 2 (mean age = 6:03 years) children's word reading efficiency, language skills and reading comprehension were measured. Mediation analysis showed that ToM at Time 1, when children were around four years old, indirectly pred...

  8. Confrontation Naming and Reading Abilities at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Luoni

    2015-01-01

    naming (i.e., the Boston Naming Test (BNT in a nonclinical sample of Italian primary school children was conducted (n=126, testing them at the end of each school year, to assess nonverbal intelligence, confrontation naming, and reading abilities. Results. Performance on the BNT emerged as a function of IQ and SES. Significant correlations between confrontation naming and reading abilities, especially comprehension, were found; BNT scores correlated better with reading fluency than with reading accuracy. Conclusions. The longitudinal data obtained in this study are discussed with regard to reading abilities, intelligence, age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

  9. A longitudinal study of narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity and narrative structure. However, there was no evidence of growth in syntactic complexity or narrative length. Mental age and comprehension skills at Time 1 predicted scores in all 4 areas at Time 3. Expressive language skills added further to the prediction of syntactic complexity and story length.

  10. What Happens to a Nursing Home Chain When Private Equity Takes Over? A Longitudinal Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Aline; Harrington, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5 different data sources. Results show that private equity owners continued and reinforced several strategies that were already put in place before the takeover, including a focus on keeping staffing levels low; the new owners added restructuring, rebranding, and investment strategies such as establishing new companies, where the nursing home chain served as an essential "launch customer."

  11. A micromechanical study of porous composites under longitudinal shear and transverse normal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of porous unidirectional composites under transverse normal and longitudinal shear loading is studied using the finite element analysis. The 3D model includes discrete and random distribution of fibers and voids. The micromechanical failure mechanisms are taken into account...... by considering the mixed-mode interfacial debonding and pressure-dependent yielding of the matrix using the modified Drucker-Prager plasticity model. The effect of the micromechanical features on the overall response of composite is discussed with a focus on the effect of microvoids and interfacial toughness...

  12. Longitudinal associations between television in the bedroom and body fatness in a UK cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Heilmann, A; Rouxel, P; Fitzsimons, E; Kelly, Y; Watt, R G

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinal associations between screen-based media use (television (TV) and computer hours, having a TV in the bedroom) and body fatness among UK children. METHODS: Participants were 12 556 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study who were followed from age 7 to age 11 years. Associations were assessed between screen-based media use and the following outcomes: body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and overweight. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, having a ...

  13. Evaluating the longitudinal risk of social vigilance on atherosclerosis: study protocol for the North Texas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, John M; Taylor, Daniel J; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Allison, Matthew; Ahn, Chul; Johnson, Jillian J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2017-08-14

    Psychosocial factors are increasingly recognised as important determinants of cardiovascular disease risk. The North Texas Heart Study aims to understand the mechanisms responsible for this association with a focus on social vigilance (ie, scanning the environment for social threats). There is also growing interest in supplementing traditional methods (eg, survey assessment of psychosocial risk paired with cross-sectional and longitudinal health outcomes) with daily or repeated momentary assessment of psychosocial factors. However, there are relatively few longitudinal studies directly comparing these approaches with hard endpoints. The North Texas Heart Study proposes a longitudinal measurement burst design to examine psychosocial determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis. A sample of 300 healthy community participants, stratified by age and gender, will complete survey measures, as well as 2 days of ecological momentary assessment at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up. A range of psychosocial and behavioural factors, objective biomarkers, as well as carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) will be assessed at both time points. Unadjusted and adjusted models will evaluate cross-sectional associations and determinants of change in the cIMT. The Institutional Review Board at the study coordinating institute (University of North Texas) has approved this study. Positive, negative or inconclusive primary and ancillary findings will be disseminated in scientific journals and conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Evolution of ANB and SN-GoGn angles during craniofacial growth: A retrospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Oyonarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of the ANB and SN-GoGn angles throughout development, in a longitudinal sample of Caucasian patients. Materials and Methods: Historical cephalometric records from North American individuals available at the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Legacy Growth Collection website were used to carry out an exploratory longitudinal study. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontically untreated males and females were included. Individuals with three or more longitudinal cephalometric records at pre- and post-pubertal stages, with at least one postpubertal radiograph available in vertebral cervical maturation stage (cervical vertebral maturation 5 or 6, were selected. Seventy-one individuals met the inclusion criteria. ANB, SNA, SNB, and SN-GoGn angles were measured. Individuals were classified according to the latest postpubertal ANB angle available and grouped by CVM. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the cephalometric variables, and differences between genders were analyzed. Results: Forty-five individuals were classified as skeletal Class I at the end of growth, 17 as Class II, and 9 as Class III. ANB values decrease as growth occurs in every group (average ANB decrease between the stages CVM 1 and 6: Class I - 1.5°, Class II - 0.7°, and Class III - 3.1°. For SN-GoGn angle, a constant reduction was observed as skeletal maturation increased (Average SN-GoGn decrease between the stages CVM 1 and 6: Class I - 4°, Class II - 2.5°, and Class III - 4.9°. Conclusions: ANB and SN-GoGn angles decrease during growth. The magnitude varies depending on individual sagittal characteristics, Class III individuals displaying the greatest reduction, and Class II individuals the least.

  15. Children's Media Use and Self-Regulation Behavior: Longitudinal Associations in a Nationwide Japanese Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Sanada, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-10-01

    Objective The effect of media use on child behavior has long been a concern. Although studies have shown robust cross-sectional relations between TV viewing and child behavior, longitudinal studies remain scarce. Methods We analyzed the Longitudinal Survey of Babies, conducted by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare since 2001. Among 53,575 families, 47,010 responded to the baseline survey; they were followed up every year for 8 years. Complete data were available for longitudinal analysis among 32,439 participants. Daily media use (TV viewing and video game-playing hours at ages 3, 4, and 5 years) was used as the main exposure. We employed an index of the children's self-regulatory behavior as the outcome variable. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results Among boys, longer TV-viewing times at ages 4 and 5 were related to problematic self-regulatory behavior. Compared with boys who watched just 1-2 h of TV a day, those who watched it 4-5 h had a 1.79-fold greater risk (CI 1.22-2.64) of problematic self-regulatory behavior, according to parental report. Among girls, similar results were evident at ages 4 and 5 (e.g., adjusted odds ratios for 4-5 h daily viewing versus 1-2 h at age 4: 2.59; 95 % CI 1.59-4.22). Video games may have a protective effect on the risk of problematic self-regulatory behavior at ages 3 and 5. Conclusion Longer daily exposure to TV during early childhood (age 4-5) may be associated with subsequent problematic child self-regulatory behavior.

  16. Comparative study of longitudinal changes in peri-implant bone microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi; Ide, Yoshinobu; Usami, Akinobu

    2010-01-01

    The load applied to an implant is directly transmitted to the jaw and is considered to be one of the causes of remodeling of internal trabecular bones. However, the longitudinal changes during loading and the rearrangement of the trabecular bone structure are mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in internal jaw bone structure longitudinally during natural tooth eruption as well as tooth extraction and post-implantation periods in a dog model by micro computed tomography (micro-CT). Maxillae of 16 male beagle dogs were used in this study. First, 4 dogs with all maxillary molar teeth erupted were euthanized as a control group. Next, 6 teeth consisting of the bilateral maxillary fourth premolars, and first and second molars were extracted from each of the 12 dogs. Then, 4 dogs of the tooth-extracted group were euthanized 3 months after extraction of the teeth. At this time, three implants were inserted in the left side of the maxilla of the remaining 8 dogs, and the superstructures were placed after 3 months. Four of these 8 dogs with implants were euthanized at 3 months and the other 4 at 1 year after placement of the superstructure. Then, the maxillary bone was removed from each dog as a specimen and sequential micro-CT images were taken. After reconstruction of three-dimensional images, morphological and metrical observation of the jaw trabecular bone structure was performed. A decrease of the trabecular bone in the tooth-extracted group was morphologically and morphometrically observed, whereas the implanted group showed thick, rich trabecular bone. Although a longitudinal decrease in the bone tissue volume was recognized both in the tooth-extracted and the implanted groups, the amount was smaller in the implanted group than in the tooth-extracted group. The results suggested that the application of load by implants in the case of tooth loss inhibits resorption of the alveolar bone and prevents thinning of the jaw. (author)

  17. White Matter Microstructural Changes Following Quadrato Motor Training: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Piervincenzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is an important way to characterize white matter (WM microstructural changes. While several cross-sectional DTI studies investigated possible links between mindfulness practices and WM, only few longitudinal investigations focused on the effects of these practices on WM architecture, behavioral change, and the relationship between them. To this aim, in the current study, we chose to conduct an unbiased tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis (n = 35 healthy participants to identify longitudinal changes in WM diffusion parameters following 6 and 12 weeks of daily Quadrato Motor Training (QMT, a whole-body mindful movement practice aimed at improving well-being by enhancing attention, coordination, and creativity. We also investigated the possible relationship between training-induced WM changes and concomitant changes in creativity, self-efficacy, and motivation. Our results indicate that following 6 weeks of daily QMT, there was a bilateral increase of fractional anisotropy (FA in tracts related to sensorimotor and cognitive functions, including the corticospinal tracts, anterior thalamic radiations, and uncinate fasciculi, as well as in the left inferior fronto-occipital, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. Interestingly, significant FA increments were still present after 12 weeks of QMT in most of the above WM tracts, but only in the left hemisphere. FA increase was accompanied by a significant decrease of radial diffusivity (RD, supporting the leading role of myelination processes in training-related FA changes. Finally, significant correlations were found between training-induced diffusion changes and increased self-efficacy as well as creativity. Together, these findings suggest that QMT can improve WM integrity and support the existence of possible relationships between training-related WM microstructural changes and behavioral change.

  18. Modifiable predictors of insufficient sleep durations: A longitudinal analysis of youth in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Karen A; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to simultaneously examine commonly proposed risk and protective factors for sleep deprivation over time among a large cohort of Ontario and Alberta secondary school students. Using 4-year linked longitudinal data from youth in years 1 through 4 (Y 1 [2012/2013], Y 2 [2013/2014], Y 3 [2014/2015], Y 4 [2015/2016]) of the COMPASS study (n=26,205), the likelihood of students meeting contemporary sleep recommendations was tested based on their self-reported substance use, bullying victimization, physical activity, and homework and screen time. Models controlled for the effect of student-reported gender, race/ethnicity, grade, school clustering, and all other predictor variables. Relative to baseline, students became less likely to meet the sleep recommendations if at follow-up they had initiated binge drinking, experienced cyber bullying victimization, or were spending more time doing homework, with other factors held constant. The likelihood of reporting sufficient sleep increased if students had begun engaging in resistance training at least three times a week. No longitudinal effect was observed when students increased their caffeine consumption (energy drinks, coffee/tea), initiated cannabis or tobacco use, experienced other forms of bullying victimization (physical, verbal, or belongings), engaged in more moderate-vigorous physical activity, or increased their screen use of any type. Few of the commonly purported modifiable risk and protective factors for youth sleep deprivation held in multinomial longitudinal analyses. Causal conclusions appear premature, with further research required to confirm the targets likely to be most effective in assisting more youth in meeting the sleep recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hearing Impairment and Incident Dementia: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Hilary R; Cadar, Dorina; Herbert, Annie; Orrell, Martin; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether hearing loss is associated with incident physician-diagnosed dementia in a representative sample. Retrospective cohort study. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Adults aged 50 and older. Cross-sectional associations between self-reported (n = 7,865) and objective hearing measures (n = 6,902) and dementia were examined using multinomial-logistic regression. The longitudinal association between self-reported hearing at Wave 2 (2004/05) and cumulative physician-diagnosed dementia up to Wave 7 (2014/15) was modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. After adjustment for potential confounders, in cross-sectional analysis, participants who had self-reported or objective moderate and poor hearing were more likely to have a dementia diagnosis than those with normal hearing (self-reported: odds ratio OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.4 moderate hearing; OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7-3.9 poor hearing, objective: OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.8 moderate hearing; OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.9-9.9 poor hearing). Longitudinally, the hazard of developing dementia was 1.4 (95% CI = 1.0-1.9) times as high in individuals who reported moderate hearing and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1-2.0) times as high in those who reported poor hearing. Older adults with hearing loss are at greater risk of dementia than those with normal hearing. These findings are consistent with the rationale that correction of hearing loss could help delay the onset of dementia, or that hearing loss itself could serve as a risk indicator for cognitive decline. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. The Deployment Life Study: Longitudinal Analysis of Military Families Across the Deployment Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O; Tanielian, Terri; Karney, Benjamin; Schell, Terry; Griffin, Beth Ann; Jaycox, Lisa H; Friedman, Esther M; Trail, Thomas E; Beckman, Robin; Ramchand, Rajeev; Hengstebeck, Natalie; Troxel, Wendy M; Ayer, Lynsay; Vaughan, Christine Anne

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, RAND launched the Deployment Life Study, a longitudinal study of military families across a deployment cycle in order to assess family readiness. Family readiness refers to the state of being prepared to effectively navigate the challenges of daily living experienced in the unique context of military service. The study surveyed families at frequent intervals throughout a complete deployment cycle---before a service member deploys (sometimes months before), during the actual deployment, and after the service member returns (possibly a year or more after she or he redeployed). It assessed a number of outcomes over time, including: the quality of marital and parental relationshipsthe psychological, behavioral, and physical health of family memberschild and teen well-being (e.g., emotional, behavioral, social, and academic)military integration (e.g., attitudes toward military service, retention intentions).This culminating paper briefly reviews the study design and data collection procedures, presents results from analyses of the longitudinal data collected from some 2,700 military families, and offers recommendations for programs and future research related to military families. The research was jointly sponsored by the Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. Army, and by the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury.