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Sample records for lein linum usitatissimum

  1. Effects of the oil and mucilage from flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-ulcer activity of the oil and mucilage obtained from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) was evaluated in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Our results show that pretreatment of rats with flaxseed oil and flaxseed mucilage significantly reduced the number and length of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol.

  2. ( Linum usitatissimum L. cv. Modran cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Seta-Koselska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L. is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of oil, fiber, and bioactive compounds. Flax fiber is traditionally used in textile industry, linseed oil is processed for industrial oils, paints, varnishes and bio-petroleum. Flaxseeds are also rich in α-linolenic acid and phytochemicals such as lignans. In addition to the commercial aspects, this species has been used widely and readily in biotechnological, developmental, and plant-pathogen interaction studies. Differences in the levels of endogenous hormones in various cultivars of flax significantly affected the intensity of callogenesis and determined the type and concentration of growth regulators necessary for callus production. The aim of our investigation was to optimize the culture conditions for callus formation and cell proliferation in liquid medium of the Polish cultivar of fiber flax – Modran. In the first step, 4 combinations of phytohormones in the medium were tested to obtain established callus tissue suitable for initiation of suspension culture. Next, we investigated the effect of chosen plant growth regulators on cell divisions, fresh and dry weight, and dispersal of callus cells in liquid medium. Fast growing and friable callus was obtained in a modified MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l NAA. We determined that for the initiation of cell suspension supplementation with 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA is optimal. The results obtained indicated that high concentration of cytokinin (BAP in liquid medium limited cell proliferation and decreased biomass formation.

  3. Bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting with Bacillus cereus HDYM-02

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Zhao; Pengfei Liu; Chao Pan; Renpeng Du; Wenxiang Ping; Jingping Ge

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were jointly used to reveal the bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting. The inoculation of Bacillus cereus HDYM-02 decreased bacterial richness and diversity. This inoculum led to the replacement of Enterobacteriaceae by Bacillaceae. The level of aerobic Pseudomonadaceae (mainly Azotobacter) and anaerobic Clostridiaceae_1 gradually increased and decreased, respectively...

  4. Characterization of mucoadhesive nasal gels containing midazolam hydrochloride prepared from Linum usitatissimum L. mucilage

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    Shyamoshree Basu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery systems prepared from natural materials are gaining importance in the field of pharmaceutical technology. Mucilage isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. (LUM seeds was reported to be an effective natural mucoadhesive agent. The present study deals with a comparison of various characteristics of nasal gels containing midazolam hydrochloride (HCl prepared from mucoadhesive agent extracted from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds and synthetic polymers like HPMC and Carbopol 934P in terms of texture profile analysis, mucoadhesive strength, and in vivo drug absorption profiles. It was observed that gels formulated with the natural mucilage showed better results than the synthetic gels in all aspects like hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesive strength. The absolute bioavailability of midazolam hydrochloride from the natural gel was 97.55% whereas that of synthetic gels was 57.33% and 76.81% respectively.Sistemas de liberação nasal preparados com produtos naturais estão ganhando importância no campo da tecnologia farmacêutica. A mucilagem isolada de sementes de Linum usitatissimum L. (LUM mostrou-se agente mucoadesivo eficaz. O presente estudo trata da comparação de várias características de géis nasais contendo cloridrato de midazolam preparados com agente mucoadesivo extraído das sementes de Linum usitatissimum L. e com polímeros sintéticos, como HPMC e Carbopol 943P, com relação ao perfil de textura, força mucoadesiva e perfis de absorção do fármaco in vivo. Observou-se que os géis formulados com mucilagem natural apresentam melhores resultados do que os sintéticos em todos os aspectos, como dureza, adesão, coesão e força mucoadesiva. A biodisponibilidade absoluta do cloridrato de midazolam a partir do gel natural foi de 97,55%, enquanto que nos géis sintéticos foi de 57,33% e 76,81%, respectivamente.

  5. [Effects of cultural factors on yield of Linum usitatissimum (Tianya 9)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Zhang, Jin; Du, Yan-bin; Cui, Tong-xia; Wang, Li-jun

    2016-02-01

    Cultural factors influencing high yield and good quality Linum usitatissimum (Tianya 9) were investigated. The correlations between these factors and its yield were analyzed. Path coefficient and principal component analysis were conducted, adopting uniform design of the 8 cultivating factors, i.e. planting density (X1), base nitrogen quantity (X2), base phosphorus quantity (X3), base potassium quantity (X4), foliar fertilizer (potassium dihydrogen phosphate, X5), foliar fertilizer (boron fertilizer, X6), growth regulator (multi-effect azole, X7) and growth duration irrigation amount (X8), aiming at exploring better cultivating plan of L. usitatissimum for Gansu Province. The results indicated that the factors influencing the yield of L. usitatissimum were X1, X7, X2, X3, X5 and X4 in a descending order. Simulation and optimization of the highest yield was further implemented. Frequency analysis showed that the cultivating factors resulting in yield higher than 173.58 kg . hm-2 were 4. 68 - 4. 92 kg . hm-2 (X1) , 11. 59 - 14. 75 kg . hm-2 (X2), 17.26- 21.95 kg . hm-2 (X3), 7.00-12.50 kg . hm-2 (X4) , 1.41-1.81 kg . hm-2 (X5) and 751.74- 954.04 g . hm-2 (X7).

  6. Antimicrobial activities and mineral profile of selected wild plant Linum usitatissimum in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Saeeda Yousaf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the possible potential of Linum usitatissimum in the removal of various human ailments and its mineral profile, as widely distributed in different areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The preliminary analytical investigation is to confirm the antimicrobial significance of L. usitatissimum, due to the presence of certain bioactive compounds. It was observed that L. usitatissimum exhibit broad spectrum activity against pathogenic bacterial strains were Agrobacterium tumefaciens sp., Bacillus subtilis sp., Clavibacterm ichiganensis sp., Escherichia coli sp., Staphylococcus aureus sp. and Xanthomonas campestris sp. While fungal strains including, viz: Aspergillus flavus sp., Aspergillus niger sp., Trichoderma harzianum sp.,Fusarium oxysporum sp., and Paecilomyces sp. Among all the bacterial strains highest inhibitory zone was recorded against B. subtillis (60.71% followed by S. aureus (48.14% and E. coli (44.0% whereas no activity was observed against A. tumefaciens, C. michiganensis and X. compestris. Among all the fungal isolates highest inhibitory zone was observed against T. harzianum (76.0% as compared to F. oxysporum (65.21% and A. niger (57.89% while A. flavus and Paecilomyces sp., showed complete resistance. The results showed that elemental composition of L. usitatissimum contain significant amount of carbon (63.39% followed by oxygen (33.90%, silicon (0.45%, potassium (0.44%, calcium (0.36%, sodium (0.30%, magnesium (0.25%, sulfur (0.24%, phosphorus (0.21%, chlorine (1.9%, iron (0.18% and aluminum (0.15%. It was concluded from the results the said plant exhibits promising antimicrobial activity and possess sufficient amount of minerals therefore it should be exploited in traditional health care medicine for the treatment of various ailments.

  7. Effects of the Oil and Mucilage from Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum) on Gastric Lesions Induced by Ethanol in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dugani, A; Auzzi, A; Naas, F; Megwez, S

    2008-01-01

    The anti-ulcer activity of the oil and mucilage obtained from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) was evaluated in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Our results show that pretreatment of rats with flaxseed oil and flaxseed mucilage significantly reduced the number and length of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol. Flaxseed oil was more effective than flaxseed mucilage in reducing the number of ulcers. The reduction in ulcer severity (cumulative length in mm) provided by an oral dose of f...

  8. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp ...... these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species....

  9. Linum usitatissimum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Kiralan, M.; Gokpinar, F.; Ipek, A.; Bayrak, N.; Arslan, M.; Kok, S. Spanish J. Agric. Res. 2010, 8, 1068. 13. Hussain, S.; Faqir, M.A.; Masood, S.B.; Munir, A.S. Sarhad J. Agric. 2008, 24, 649. 14. Donatella, D.; Maria, A.M.; Carla, R. Microchem. J. 2010, 95, 174. 15. Iftikhar, A.; Muhammad, A.H.; Raziya, N.; Muhammad, S.J.; ...

  10. Linum usitatissimum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... . Dalri AB, Cruz RL (2002). Efeito da freqüência de irrigação subsuperf- icial por gotejamento no desenvolvimento da cana-de-açúcar. (Saccharum spp.). Irriga, Botucatu 7(1):29-34. De Paula MB, Carvalho VD, Nogueira FD (1992). Efeitos da vinhaça na.

  11. Use of qNMR for speciation of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) and quantification of cyanogenic glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulard, Romain; Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Jamali, Arash; Cailleu, Dominique; Tavernier, Reynald; Guillot, Xavier; Rhazi, Larbi; Petit, Emmanuel; Molinie, Roland; Mesnard, François

    2017-12-01

    This report describes a routine method taking less than 20 min to quantify cyanogenic glycosides such as linustatin and neolinustatin from flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance. After manual dehulling, a higher linustatin content was shown in the almond fraction, while neolinustatin and total cyanogenic glycoside contents were significantly higher in hulls. Linustatin and neolinustatin were quantified in seven cultivars grown in two locations in three different years. Linustatin, neolinustatin, and total cyanogenic glycosides ranged between 91 and 267 mg/100 g, 78-272 mg/100 g, and 198-513 mg/100 g dry weight flaxseeds, respectively. NMR revealed differences of up to 70% between samples with standard deviation variations lower than 6%. This study shows that NMR is a very suitable tool to perform flaxseed varietal selection for the cyanogenic glycoside content. Graphical abstract qNMR can be used to perform flaxseed varietal selection for the cyanogenic glycoside content.

  12. Bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting with Bacillus cereus HDYM-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Liu, Pengfei; Pan, Chao; Du, Renpeng; Ping, Wenxiang; Ge, Jingping

    2016-09-02

    High-throughput sequencing and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were jointly used to reveal the bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting. The inoculation of Bacillus cereus HDYM-02 decreased bacterial richness and diversity. This inoculum led to the replacement of Enterobacteriaceae by Bacillaceae. The level of aerobic Pseudomonadaceae (mainly Azotobacter) and anaerobic Clostridiaceae_1 gradually increased and decreased, respectively. Following the addition of B. cereus HDYM-02, the dominant groups were all degumming enzyme producers or have been proven to be involved in microbial retting throughout the entire retting period. These results could be verified by the metabolite changes, either degumming enzymes or their catalytic products galacturonic acid and reducing sugars. The GC-MS data showed a clear separation between flax retting with and without B. cereus HDYM-02, particularly within the first 72 h. These findings reveal the important bacterial groups that are involved in fiber retting and will facilitate improvements in the retting process.

  13. Yield and quality of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. under different planting conditions

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    Tomáš Středa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was on the basis of the field experiment in two different agroclimatic localities, two planting options (low and high input and during three years find out the seed yield, seed oil content and composition of fatty acid in linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum L., variety Lola (LinolaTM. By the help of standard laboratory analyses for paint parameter evaluation judge suitability of using the oil for painting industry. Linseed yield varied from 0.29 t.ha–1 to 2.35 t.ha–1. Statistical significant differences (P = 0.01 were found out for localities, years and planting options. Average seed oil content varied from 36.6% to 44.0%. Influence of locality was not significant, influence of year and planting option to seed oil content was highly significant (P = 0.01. Content of linoleic acid in oil was influenced mainly by locality and planting option and varied from 75.86% to 76.78%. Laboratory painting-technological evaluation of oils and alkyd resin experimental sample made for suitability of using low linolenic oil of linseed, variety Lola for production of non-yellowing alkyds and enamels.

  14. High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, S C; Ganguli, S; Menard, C; Liede, A C; Hamadeh, M J; Chen, Z Y; Wolever, T M; Jenkins, D J

    1993-03-01

    Although high alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is one of the richest dietary sources of alpha-linolenic acid and is also a good source of soluble fibre mucilage, it is relatively unstudied in human nutrition. Healthy female volunteers consumed 50 g ground, raw flaxseed/d for 4 weeks which provided 12-13% of energy intake (24-25 g/100 g total fat). Flaxseed raised alpha-linolenic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in both plasma and erythrocyte lipids, as well as raising urinary thiocyanate excretion 2.2-fold. Flaxseed also lowered serum total cholesterol by 9% and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol by 18%. Changes in plasma alpha-linolenic acid were equivalent when 12 g alpha-linolenic acid/d was provided as raw flaxseed flour (50 g/d) or flaxseed oil (20 g/d) suggesting high bioavailability of alpha-linolenic acid from ground flaxseed. Test meals containing 50 g carbohydrate from flaxseed or 25 g flaxseed mucilage each significantly decreased postprandial blood glucose responses by 27%. Malondialdehyde levels in muffins containing 15 g flaxseed oil or flour/kg were similar to those in wheat-flour muffins. Cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin, linustatin, neolinustatin) were highest in extracted flaxseed mucilage but were not detected in baked muffins containing 150 g flaxseed/kg. We conclude that up to 50 g high-alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed/d is palatable, safe and may be nutritionally beneficial in humans by raising n-3 fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes and by decreasing postprandial glucose responses.

  15. Effect of water stress on growth of three linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Lilian Wambui; Masinde, Peter; Githiri, Stephen; Onyango, Arnold N

    2016-01-01

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an annual oil crop that accounts for approximately 1 % of the world's oilseed supplies. It produces seeds that are rich in the health-promoting ω-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic. In Kenya, linseed is grown in the Rift Valley and Western regions, places which often experience drought. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of water stress on growth of three linseed cultivars and to establish the extent of drought tolerance in the three cultivars. A greenhouse pot experiment in a completely randomized design was conducted at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya. The pots were well watered until the fourth week when watering was completely withheld to a half of the pots (stressed) while the other half (well watered control) was maintained at 90 % field capacity. Destructive harvesting was done when the stressed pots were at 90, 70, 60, 50, 40 % field capacities and at permanent wilting point. The experiment was replicated thrice and was repeated twice (February-May and August-November 2014). There were no significant differences in production of leaves, plant height, number of tillers and biomass between the three varieties in both seasons. Subjecting the linseed varieties to permanent wilting resulted in reduced production of leaves, growth in height, production of tillers and dry weight by 20-40 %. Decline in all growth parameters begun when 30-80 % of available soil water had been used up. There existed linear relationships between the various evaluated growth parameters. These relationships were not influenced either by the water status of soil or the varieties. Relative water content for the three linseed varieties declined after 25-67 % of available soil water had been used up.

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. shell and Analysis of Its Polyphenol Contents by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatica Han

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is important source of oil and protein for industrial, pharmaceutical, and nutritional applications. In order to estimate the effects of lyophilized aqueous extract of flaxseed shell (AEF and evaporated ethanolic extract of flaxseed shell (EEF, we studied their DPPH, ABTS, DMPD and O 2 •- scavenging effects. Total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, Fe 3+, Cu 2+ and [Fe 3+-(TPTZ 2] 3+ reducing ability, and Fe 2+ chelating activity. Also, α-tocopherol, BHA, trolox, and BHT were used as positive controls. The results clearly AEF and EEF demonstrated effective antioxidant activity. The quantity of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid were investigated by LC-MS/MS. The present study will introduce a novelty for further studies on the antioxidant effects of AEF and EEF.

  17. [The fatty acid composition of ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivated in Georgia and its byological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakilashvili, B Iu; Zurabashvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Parulava, G K

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was individual quantitatively and qualitatively determination of fatty acids in ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.), cultivated in Georgia. The neutral lipids extracts were fractionated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (PTC-1, Waters) with refractory detector R-401. Analitical column (150,0x3,0 mm) was filled with reversphase Bondopak C18). Software OASIS-740 is used. The correction retention times of each fatty acids is compared with comformity standard. The investigation showed that in flax seed oil linoleic (31,3±2,1 mg%) and linolenic (40,2±2,9 mg%) acids were predominant and together constitute principal basic of research composition. The flax seed oil contained also palmitic and stearic acids in less quantitaty.

  18. Effects of the oil and mucilage from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugani A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-ulcer activity of the oil and mucilage obtained from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum wasevaluated in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Our results show that pretreatment of ratswith flaxseed oil and flaxseed mucilage significantly reduced the number and length of gastric ulcersinduced by ethanol. Flaxseed oil was more effective than flaxseed mucilage in reducing the number ofulcers. The reduction in ulcer severity (cumulative length in mm provided by an oral dose of flaxseedoil (5 ml/kg was more prominent than that obtained by ranitidine (50 mg/kg. This study indicates thatboth flaxseed oil and flaxseed mucilage can provide a cytoprotective effect against ethanol-inducedgastric ulcers in rats.

  19. Effects of the oil and mucilage from flaxseed (linum usitatissimum) on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugani, A; Auzzi, A; Naas, F; Megwez, S

    2008-12-01

    The anti-ulcer activity of the oil and mucilage obtained from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) was evaluated in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Our results show that pretreatment of rats with flaxseed oil and flaxseed mucilage significantly reduced the number and length of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol. Flaxseed oil was more effective than flaxseed mucilage in reducing the number of ulcers. The reduction in ulcer severity (cumulative length in mm) provided by an oral dose of flaxseed oil (5 ml/kg) was more prominent than that obtained by ranitidine (50 mg/kg). This study indicates that both flaxseed oil and flaxseed mucilage can provide a cytoprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats.

  20. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

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    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  1. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rishika; Chester, Karishma; Khan, Yasmeen; Tamboli, Ennus Tajuddin; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2) were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. Result: The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method. PMID:26681884

  2. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rishika; Chester, Karishma; Khan, Yasmeen; Tamboli, Ennus Tajuddin; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2) were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.

  3. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishika Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2 were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. Result: The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.

  4. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

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    Olga Y. Yurkevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase (CesA multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1, 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum. Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  5. Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats Influencia de los ácidos grasos omega-3 de la linaza (Linum usitatissimum) en el desarrollo del cerebro de ratas recién nacidas

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. Lenzi Almeida; G. Teles Boaventura; Mª A. Guzmán Silva

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Material and methods: Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n = 6), FG: ...

  6. Comparison of physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. to drought and salt stress and salicylic acid foliar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in drought and salinity stress conditions and salicylic acid foliar application, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completly randomized design with three replications in Yasouj university in 2015. Treatments including different levels of salinity and drought with similar osmotic potentials (-2, -4, -7 and -9 bar in 8 levels and a control treatment were applied in Hoagland solution. Second factor was salicylic acid foliar application in 2 levels (0 and 0.5 mM. Salinity and drought applied using sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol 6000, respectively. The results showed that leaf protein content, catalase activity, total chlorophyll and carotenoid significantly decreased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought levels, however salicylic acid could prevent this trend.  Proline soluble sugars and malodealdehide content significantly increased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought. However salicylic acid could not prevent this trend. Shoot and root dry weights significantly decreased in salinity and drought stress treatments, compared to control and salicylic acid could prevent this decrease. Generally regarded to the most of the measured traits, impact of drought was more than salinity and salicylic acid could compensate the stress impacts on linseed.

  7. Analysis of LuPME3, a pectin methylesterase from Linum usitatissimum, revealed a variability in PME proteolytic maturation.

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    Mareck, Alain; Lamour, Romain; Schaumann, Annick; Chan, Philippe; Driouich, Azeddine; Pelloux, Jérôme; Lerouge, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) catalyses the de-methylesterification of pectin in plant cell walls during cell elongation. (1) Pectins are mainly composed of α(1, 4)-D-galacturonosyl acid units that are synthesised in a methylesterified form in the Golgi apparatus to prevent any interaction with Ca2+ ions during their intracellular transport. (2) The highly methylesterified pectins are then secreted into the apoplasm (3) and subsequently de-methylesterified in muro by PMEs. This can either induce the formation of pectin gels through the Ca2+ crosslinking of neighbouring non-methylesterified chains or create substrates for pectin-degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and pectate lyases for the initiation of cell wall loosening. (4) PMEs belong to a large multigene family. Sixty-six PME-related genes are predicted in the Arabidopsis genome. (1) Among them, we have recently shown that AtPME3 (At3g14310), a major basic PME isoform in A. thaliana, is ubiquitously expressed in vascular tissues and play a role in adventitious rooting. (5) In flax (Linum usitatissimum), three genes encoding PMEs have been sequenced so far, including LuPME3, the orthologue of AtPME3. Analysis of the LuPME3 isoform brings new insights into the processing of these proteins.

  8. Adaptation and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes in South Central Chile Adaptación e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Lino (Linum usitatissimum L. en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

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    Marisol Berti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is imported into Chile mostly for bread making and feed. Identification of genotypes best adapted for seed production in South Central Chile would facilitate producer’s decision. The objective of this study was to determine the adaptation and genotype x environment interaction of 16 flaxseed genotypes (including 10 from North American and six from Argentine sources grown at 11 environments (defined as location-year in Chile from 2003 to 2007. Genotype seed yield was above 5700 kg ha-1 for some environments indicating a high yield potential. According to the AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction and SREG (Sites regression models the 11 environments were classified into four groups by the AMMI and three groups by the SREG models. Genotypes were classified into five groups by the SREG model with four of the groups as single genotypes. Overall mean seed yield was similar for all genotypes; however the genotype Nekoma was the most stable and higher yielding genotype across environments. The environment with the highest yield potential was Chillán 2003-2004, but this location had low yield stability across years. The environments with greatest seed yield potential, Chillán 2003-2004 and Los Ángeles 2004-2005, had irrigation during flowering and seed filling. Seed oil content fluctuated between 420 and 530 g kg-1. The climatic differences among environments did not influence oil composition as expected from previous research. Flaxseed appears adapted to South Central Chile with differences observed among genotypes for biomass and seed yield, harvest index, test weight, oil content, and composition.La semilla de lino (Linum usitatissimum L. se importa a Chile principalmente para panaderías y alimento animal. La identificación de genotipos altamente productivos en la zona Centro Sur de Chile facilitaría la decisión de los productores. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la adaptaci

  9. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

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    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  10. Efeito da linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L. sob diferentes formas de preparo na resposta biológica em ratos Effect of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. prepared by different methods on the biological response of rats

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    Anne y Castro Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as possíveis atividades biológicas causadas pelo consumo diário de linhaça em diferentes condições de preparo, em ratos Wistar machos recém-desmamados. MÉTODOS: Os ratos recém-desmamados (n=32 foram divididos em 4 grupos de 8 animais: ração padrão; ração com 16% de grão de linhaça cru; ração com 16% de grão de linhaça assado; e ração com 7% de óleo de linhaça. Os animais foram pesados a cada três dias e, após 23 dias de período experimental, foram sacrificados por punção cardíaca, sendo os órgãos imediatamente pesados e o sangue coletado e armazenado a -18ºC para realização das análises (glicose, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade - colesterol, triglicerídios e proteínas totais. As fezes foram coletadas para a determinação de umidade, lipídeo excretado e lipídeo absorvido. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao ganho de peso total, consumo diário, coeficiente de eficácia alimentar e peso dos órgãos. A excreção diária, o teor de umidade das fezes e a quantidade de lipídeo fecal foram maiores nos grupos linhaça cru e linhaça assada em comparação aos grupos padrão e óleo de linhaça. Com exceção do lipoproteína de alta densidade-colesterol, todos os demais parâmetros bioquímicos avaliados apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos. CONCLUSÃO: O consumo de linhaça, seja como grão cru, assado ou óleo, possui atividade biológica em ratos, destacando-se por reduzir os níveis de glicose, triglicerídios e colesterol. Além disso, o consumo do grão de linhaça aumentou significativamente o volume do bolo fecal e a excreção de lipídeos nas fezes.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. prepared by different methods on the biological response of rats. METHODS: Weaned rats (n=32 were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: standard feed, standard

  11. Thidiazuron-enhanced biosynthesis and antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles via improving phytochemical reducing potential in callus culture of Linum usitatissimum L.

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    Anjum S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sumaira Anjum, Bilal Haider AbbasiDepartment of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, PakistanAbstract: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by using plants is an emerging class of nanobiotechnology. It revolutionizes all domains of medical sciences by synthesizing chemical-free AgNPs for various biomedical applications. In this report, AgNPs were successfully synthesized by using whole plant extract (WPE and thidiazuron-induced callus extract (CE of Linum usitatissimum. The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in CE than that in WPE. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of synthesized AgNPs showed a characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 410–426 nm. Bioreduction of CE-mediated AgNPs was completed in a shorter time than that of WPE-mediated AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy showed that both types of synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape, but CE-mediated AgNPs were smaller in size (19–24 nm and more scattered in distribution than that of WPE-mediated AgNPs (49–54 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed crystalline nature (face-centered cubic of both types of AgNPs. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the polyphenols and flavonoids were mainly responsible for reduction and capping of synthesized AgNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further confirmed the successful synthesis of AgNPs. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs were found to be stable over months with no change in the surface plasmon bands. More importantly, CE-mediated AgNPs displayed significantly higher bactericidal activity against multiple drug-resistant human pathogens than WPE-mediated AgNPs. The present work highlighted the potent role of thidiazuron in in vitro-derived cultures for enhanced biosynthesis of chemical-free AgNPs, which can be used as nanomedicines in many biomedical applications.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Linum usitatissimum L., in vitro

  12. On-farm evaluation of seed yield and oil quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in inland areas of Tuscany, Central Italy

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    Luciana G. Angelini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional oilseed crops, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., may represent valuable alternative crops in cropping systems dominated by cereals, due to their adaptability to poor soils and to their high economic value related to the interesting quality of the oil, which is being increasingly appreciated by consumers and industry. The aim of this study was to test the adaptability of linseed to the inland marginal areas of Tuscany, and to explore the levels of crop yield and oil quality which can be achieved in hilly and lowland environments. For three years (2011-2014, experimental open fields (1- 5 ha each were established and monitored in six commercial farms located in the inland countryside of Pisa province, Tuscany, Central Italy. The effect of environment (hilly and plain areas was assessed in terms of yield and yield components as well as oil content and composition. Interestingly, seed yield and biomass production were very stable over years in the two areas of cultivation, irrespectively of yearly differences in weather conditions. As expected, higher yields were obtained in plain than in hilly areas. Regarding oil composition, oil extracted from linseed grown in plain environments was richer in linolenic acid, while, oppositely, both oleic and linoleic acids were more abundant in oil from hilly areas. Definitively, our results demonstrated that linseed might be a valuable alternative to cereal crops for marginal lands of Tuscany and, more in general, of Central Italy.

  13. Does the oxidation of methionine residue precede the inactivation of the trypsin inhibitor (LUTI in germinating seeds of common flax (Linum usitatissimum?

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    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antitrypsin activity in germinating common seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum was investigated. At the early stage of germination an increase in antitrypsin activity was observed, followed by its decrease during the development of the seedlings. From 6-day-old seedlings a trypsin inhibitor (gerLUTI was purified. The purification procedure involved fractionation of proteins from seedling homogenate with alcohol and successive chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 on immobilised methylchymotrypsin in the presence of 5 M NaCl, and finally on a C18 column in RP-HPLC. The gerLUTI migrated in SDS PAGE as a single band, but in mass spectroscopy analysis it exhibited the presence of at least three forms with molecular masses of 7654 ± 3 Da, 7668/7670 ± 3 Da, and 7687 ± 3 Da. The preparation of LUTI isolated from resting seeds contained only one form, with a molecular mass of 7655 ± 3 Da. LUTI and gerLUTI differed also in methionine contents. LUTI contained two methionine residues, whereas in gerLUTI only a trace of methionine was detected. The obtained results might suggest that during flax seeds germination the inhibitor molecules undergo selective modification, e.g. oxidation at methionine residues, before being degraded by proteolytic enzymes.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Candidate Genes Influencing Important Agronomic Traits of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using SLAF-seq

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    Xie, Dongwei; Dai, Zhigang; Yang, Zemao; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Debao; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Liguo; Tang, Qing; Su, Jianguang

    2018-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important cash crop, and its agronomic traits directly affect yield and quality. Molecular studies on flax remain inadequate because relatively few flax genes have been associated with agronomic traits or have been identified as having potential applications. To identify markers and candidate genes that can potentially be used for genetic improvement of crucial agronomic traits, we examined 224 specimens of core flax germplasm; specifically, phenotypic data for key traits, including plant height, technical length, number of branches, number of fruits, and 1000-grain weight were investigated under three environmental conditions before specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was employed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these five agronomic traits. Subsequently, the results were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and candidate genes that exhibited a significant correlation with the important agronomic traits. Our analyses identified a total of 42 SNP loci that showed significant correlations with the five important agronomic flax traits. Next, candidate genes were screened in the 10 kb zone of each of the 42 SNP loci. These SNP loci were then analyzed by a more stringent screening via co-identification using both a general linear model (GLM) and a mixed linear model (MLM) as well as co-occurrences in at least two of the three environments, whereby 15 final candidate genes were obtained. Based on these results, we determined that UGT and PL are candidate genes for plant height, GRAS and XTH are candidate genes for the number of branches, Contig1437 and LU0019C12 are candidate genes for the number of fruits, and PHO1 is a candidate gene for the 1000-seed weight. We propose that the identified SNP loci and corresponding candidate genes might serve as a biological basis for improving crucial agronomic flax traits. PMID:29375606

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) saliva substitute in the relief of xerostomia in elders.

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    Morales-Bozo, Irene; Ortega-Pinto, Ana; Rojas Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Aitken Saavedra, Juan P; Salinas Flores, Olga; Lefimil Puente, Claudia; Lozano Moraga, Carla; Manríquez Urbina, José M; Urzúa Orellana, Blanca

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) saliva substitute in the relief of xerostomia in older participants. In elders, xerostomia is a permanent and progressive condition that significantly affects their quality of life. The treatment for progressive xerostomia is currently restricted to palliative measures, and saliva substitutes are indicated. A lack of evidence on the effectiveness of the saliva substitutes in the relief of symptoms of xerostomia has been reported. Seventy-four elderly participants presenting xerostomia of diverse origin were selected. Herbal saliva substitute and carboxymethyl cellulose conventional saliva substitute were tested using a double-blind, randomised, cross-sectional clinical trial. Every participant of the study exhibited dry mouth sensation. A sensation of thick saliva was described in 59.5% of the participants. The need for liquid intake to swallow food, the sensation of difficulty in swallowing and the burning sensation in the tongue were observed in 54.1, 56.8 and 27.0% of the participants, respectively. The most prevalent diseases were hypertension, depressive symptoms and arthritis. Results of the clinical tests showed that the herbal saliva substitute produced a greater relief of dry mouth symptoms, thick saliva sensation and the sensation of difficulty in swallowing than the conventional substitute (Wilcoxon test p chamomile- and linseed-based saliva substitute was effective in relieving xerostomia symptoms in older participants of this study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Uso oral do óleo de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum no tratamento do olhoseco de pacientesportadores da síndrome de Sjögren Oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum in the treatment for dry-eye Sjögren's syndrome patients

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    Manuel Neuzimar Pinheiro Jr.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a utilização por via oral do óleo de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum, que diminui a inflamação na artrite reumatóide, pode auxiliar no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite seca de portadores da síndrome de Sjögren. MÉTODOS: Em estudo clínico randomizado, 38 pacientes do sexo feminino, com diagnóstico de artrite reumatóide ou lúpus eritematoso sistêmico associadas à ceratoconjuntivite seca e síndrome de Sjögren, provenientes do ambulatório de Reumatologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, foram consecutivamente selecionadas. O diagnóstico de ceratoconjuntivite seca foi baseado em questionário para olho seco (Ocular Surface Disease Index - OSDI®, Teste I de Schirmer, tempo de quebra do filme lacrimal com fluoresceína e instilação do corante rosa bengala a 1%, com intensidade da impregnação da superfíce ocular quantificada pela escala de van Bijsterveld. Todas as pacientes tiveram a inflamação da superfície conjuntival avaliada e quantificada por interpretação de exame de citologia de impressão conjuntival antes do início e ao final do estudo. As pacientes foram divididas em três grupos: Grupo I (n=13, Grupo II (n=12 e Grupo III (n=13. O Grupo I recebeu cápsulas com dose final de 1 g/dia de óleo de linhaça, o Grupo II recebeu cápsulas com dose final de 2 g/dia de óleo de linhaça e o Grupo III - controle - recebeu cápsulas com placebo, por 180 dias. RESULTADOS: Comparando os resultados no início e no final do tratamento, foram verificadas mudanças estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: To evaluate if oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum, which reduces the inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, may help keratoconjunctivitis sicca's treatment in Sjögren's syndrome patients. METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial, 38 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erithematosus associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca and Sjögren's syndrome

  17. A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum como fonte de ácido α-linolênico na formação da bainha de mielina Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum as a source of α-linolenic acid in the development of the myelin sheath

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    Kátia Calvi Lenzi de Almeida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum é uma semente oleaginosa que tem sido estudada por seus efeitos benéficos à saúde. É considerada um alimento funcional, pelo fato de ser uma fonte natural de fitoquímicos, e por conter o ácido graxo α-linolênico (C18:3 n-3, que pode ser metabolicamente convertido nos ácidos docosaexahenóico (C22:6 n-3 e eicosapentaenóico (C20:5 n-3, sendo o primeiro essencial para o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central. Durante o crescimento do cérebro, há uma grande incorporação do ácido docosaexahenóico, que tem papel importante na formação de suas membranas celulares. Diante disto, esta comunicação visa a abordar os prováveis mecanismos pelos quais o ácido docosaexahenóico, proveniente do ácido α-linolênico presente abundantemente na semente de linhaça, interfere na formação da bainha de mielina, assim como relatar a técnica mais adequada para visualização desta bainha.Flaxseed is an oily seed that has been studied for its beneficial health effects. It is considered a functional food because it is a natural source of phytochemicals and contain the fatty acid α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 that can be metabolically converted into docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3. The former is essential for the development of the central nervous system. During brain growth, there is a great incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid which plays in important role in the formation of cell membranes. This communication intended to address the likely mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid originating from α-linolenic acid, present in abundance in flaxseed, interferes in the formation of the myelin sheath and report the best method to see this structure.

  18. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens at Different Superphosphate Levels on Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Growth Response Influencia de Hongos Micorriza Arbusculares y Pseudomonas fluorescens con Diferentes Niveles de Superfosfato sobre la Respuesta al Crecimiento de Lino (Linum usitatissimum L.

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    Neetu Neetu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF Glomus mosseae (T.H. Nicolson & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe and Acaulospora laevis (Gerd. & Trappe on linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. growth response with phosphate solubilizing bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens; different doses of superphosphate were used: 20 kg ha4 (half recommended dose, 40 kg ha4 (recommended dose, and 80 kg ha4 (double recommended dose in earthen pots filled with sterilized soil under greenhouse conditions. Among all the growth parameters, the following were the highest in the G. mosseae + P. fluorescens combination at the medium concentration (recommended superphosphate dose: plant height (78.74 ± 1.8 cm, fresh shoot weight (3.45 ± 0.294 g, dry shoot weight (0.57 ± 0.007 g, fresh root weight (0.223 ± 0.023 g, dry root weight (0.036 ± 0.004 g, root length (17.67 ± 0.48 cm, AM spore number (94.4 ± 9.86, shoot (1.14 ± 0.115% and root (1.29 ± 0.110% P content, and acidic (0.447 ± 0.012 IU g-1 FW and alkaline phosphatase activity (0.119 ± 0.008 IU g-1 FW. The percentage mycorrhizal root colonization with the A. laevis + P. fluorescens (86.86 ± 2.17% combination and chlorophyll content with the G. mosseae + A. laevis + P. fluorescens (0.474 ± 0.009 mg g-1 FW combination recorded the highest values at the low concentration (half recommended superphosphate dose as compared with non-mycorrhizal plants (control. The high superphosphate dose clearly reduced or decreased all the growth parameters. Therefore, vigorous growth and maximum flax yield can be achieved by inoculating plants with AM fungi and P. fluorescens with the recommended dose or less than the recommended dose of superphosphate.La presente investigation tuvo como objetivo estudiar la influencia de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (AMF, i.e., Glomus mosseae (T.H. Nicolson & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappey Acaulospora laevis (Gerd. & Trappe, en la respuesta de crecimiento de lino

  19. [Oral toxicity at 60-days of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), and determination of lethal dose 50 in rodents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorriti, Arilmi; Arroyo, Jorge; Quispe, Fredy; Cisneros, Braulio; Condorhuamán, Martín; Almora, Yuan; Chumpitaz, Víctor

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the oral toxicity at 60 days and to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD 50) of raw sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and linseed (Linum ussitatisimum) oils in Holtzman rats and mice of the strain Balb C57 respectively. For the evaluation of the oral toxicity of repeated doses for 60 days, 24 male Holtzman rats were used, divided in three groups of 8 each, the groups were: physiologic saline solution 4 mL/kg (FSS), sacha inchi oil 0.5 mL/kg (SI05) and linseed oil 0.5 mL/kg (L05), during the experiment the body weight was controlled weekly, and signs of toxicity in the research groups, as well as total cholesterol, HDL, glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase at days 30 and 60 after initiating the experiment. For the evaluation of the LD50 male mice of the Balb C57 strain were used in groups of 10 animals, and they were administered increasing oral doses of raw oils until reaching 1 mL/kg (37 g/kg). The serum parameters in the rats indicated there is no toxicity at 60 days and that the administration of the oils lowered the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and increased the HDL in comparison with the control group. The LD50 shows that the raw sacha inchi and linseed oils have doses above 37 g/kg of body weight. Sacha inchi and linseed oils are harmless at 60 days and present a LD50 above the 37 g/kg of animal.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric identification of dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans: insights into electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation of lign-7-eno-9,9'-lactones and application to the lignans of Linum usitatissimum L. (Common Flax).

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    Schmidt, Thomas J; Alfermann, A Wilhelm; Fuss, Elisabeth

    2008-11-01

    In continuation of our studies into the mass spectrometric detection of natural lignans and their identification in complex mixtures such as crude plant extracts, the electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (ESI-MS/MS) fragmentation of Delta(7,8)-unsaturated dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans (lign-7-eno-9,9'-lactones) was studied in detail. It is demonstrated that the characteristic fragmentation allows unambiguous identification including distinction between constitutional isomers. These lignans containing an alpha,beta-unsaturated lactone structure exist as equilibrium mixtures of E- and Z-isomers indistinguishable by mass spectrometry, but it is shown that chromatographic retention time can be used to distinguish between the isomeric forms. Based on these observations, re-analysis of the dichloromethane extract obtained from flowering aerial parts of Linum usitatissimum L. by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/ESI-MS/MS led to the identification of eighteen lignans of these types (five lignano- and one lignenolactone previously reported along with five further lignano- as well as seven lignenolactones hitherto unreported for this plant). The simultaneous identification of eighteen different lignans in the complex matrix of a crude plant extract by a single analysis demonstrates the potential of this method, which will certainly lead to new insights into the lignan composition and metabolism of different Linum species and many other plants.

  1. Toxicidad oral a 60 días del aceite de sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. y linaza (Linum usitatissimum L. y determinación de la dosis letal 50 en roedores Oral toxicity at 60-days of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L. and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., and determination of lethal dose 50 in rodents

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    Arilmi Gorriti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la toxicidad oral a 60 días y determinar la dosis letal 50 (DL 50 de los aceites crudos de sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. y linaza (Linum ussitatisimum en ratas Holtzman y en ratones cepa Balb C57, respectivamente. Materiales y métodos. Para la evaluación de la toxicidad oral a dosis repetida por 60 días se utilizó 24 ratas macho Holtzman divididos en tres grupos de ocho cada uno, los grupos fueron: solución salina fisiológica 4 mL/kg (SSF, aceite de sacha inchi 0,5 mL/kg (SI05 y aceite de linaza 0,5 mL/kg (L05, durante el experimento se controló semanalmente el peso corporal y signos de toxicidad en los grupos investigados, así como colesterol total, HDL, triglicéridos, glucosa, urea, TGP y fosfatasa alcalina a los 30 y 60 días de iniciado el experimento. Para la evaluación de la DL50 se usó ratones macho cepa Balb C57 en grupos de diez animales, se administró por vía oral dosis crecientes de aceites crudos hasta alcanzar 1 mL/kg (37 g/kg; Resultados. Los parámetros séricos en las ratas indican que no existe toxicidad alguna a los 60 días y que la administración de los aceites disminuyeron los niveles de colesterol, triglicéridos e incrementaron el HDL con respecto al grupo control. La DL50 muestra que los aceites crudos de sacha inchi y linaza presentan dosis por encima de los 37 g/kg de masa corporal. Conclusiones. Los aceites de sacha inchi y linaza son inocuos a 60 días y presentan una DL50 por encima de los 37 g/kg de animal.Objectives. To evaluate the oral toxicity at 60 days and to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD 50 of raw sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. and linseed (Linum ussitatisimum oils in Holtzman rats and mice of the strain Balb C57 respectively. Materials and methods. For the evaluation of the oral toxicity of repeated doses for 60 days, 24 male Holtzman rats were used, divided in three groups of 8 each, the groups were: physiologic saline solution 4 mL/kg (FSS, sacha inchi oil

  2. AMMI analysis of yields and oil content in some linseed (Linum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is important to the Ethiopian farmers in terms of its various home uses generating potential in both domestic and foreign markets. One of the major linseed production constraints in the country is the lack of high yielding and high oil content varieties. This experiment was conducted at ...

  3. Evaluation of crude flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum L.) oil in burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Burns are among the most prevalent injuries in humans with high cost in health care and heavy prolonged or permanent physical, psychological and social consequences. Commercial antimicrobial creams and dressing agents are unsuccessful in healing deep burn wounds. Materials and Methods: A study ...

  4. Safety assessment of Linum usitatissimum (Linn.) Ingestion in New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The therapeutic safety of herbal medicine is a major concern for consumers and users. After studying the effects of linseed on hair growth in rabbits, the turn is to evaluate its safety by the observation of some clinical, biological and anatomo-pathological aspects. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted ...

  5. Delimitacion del periodo critico de competencia de malezas en el cultivo de lino (Linum usitatissimum Determination of the critical period of weed competition in linseed (Linum usitatissimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Barreyro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La planta de lino oleaginoso es especialmente sensible a la competencia con malezas, que limita el rendimiento potencial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue delimitar el período crítico de competencia del lino con una comunidad natural de malezas. Se realizó una experiencia de campo durante 1993, 1994 y 1995 en La Plata, Argentina. Los tratamientos consistieron en mantener el lino con y sin presencia de malezas en distintas etapas de su desarrollo. La comunidad de malezas fue evaluada en su composición y producción de materia seca y el cultivo en su rendimiento en semillas y componentes. El período crítico se delimitó entre los 30 y 80 días después de la siembra. En este período, la disminución de rendimiento de lino respecto del testigo sin malezas fue superior al 10%. La disminución de rendimiento del cultivo totalmente enmalezado fue del 79% respecto del desmalezado todo el ciclo. Fue afectado el número de semillas por planta ya que su definición está incluida en el período delimitado. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que las alternativas de control deben considerar el período crítico y también propiciar su utilización en modelos de predicción.Linseed plant is especially sensitive to weed competition, which limits its potential yield. The aim of this work was to determine the critical period of linseed competition with a natural weed community. A field experiment was carried out in 1993, 1994 and 1995 in La Plata, Argentina. Treatments consisted of keeping linseed with and without weeds at different stages of development. Weed composition and dry biomass, and linseed yield and its components were evaluated. The critical period of competition was determined, starting at 30 days and ending 80 days after crop seeding. Linseed yield decrease was greater than 10% during the critical period of competition,when compared to the check plot kept without competition. The maximum yield decrease of the check plot kept totally weeded crop from seeding to harvest was 79%. The number of seeds per linseed plant was affected, since its definition was included in the delimited critical period. The results obtained suggest that alternative weed management must consider long critical periods and should be used in predictive models.

  6. Genomic regions underlying agronomic traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) as revealed by association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Duguid, Scott; Booker, Helen; Rowland, Gordon; Diederichsen, Axel; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The extreme climate of the Canadian Prairies poses a major challenge to improve yield. Although it is possible to breed for yield per se, focusing on yield-related traits could be advantageous because of their simpler genetic architecture. The Canadian flax core collection of 390 accessions was genotyped with 464 simple sequence repeat markers, and phenotypic data for nine agronomic traits including yield, bolls per area, 1,000 seed weight, seeds per boll, start of flowering, end of flowering, plant height, plant branching, and lodging collected from up to eight environments was used for association mapping. Based on a mixed model (principal component analysis (PCA) + kinship matrix (K)), 12 significant marker-trait associations for six agronomic traits were identified. Most of the associations were stable across environments as revealed by multivariate analyses. Statistical simulation for five markers associated with 1000 seed weight indicated that the favorable alleles have additive effects. None of the modern cultivars carried the five favorable alleles and the maximum number of four observed in any accessions was mostly in breeding lines. Our results confirmed the complex genetic architecture of yield-related traits and the inherent difficulties associated with their identification while illustrating the potential for improvement through marker-assisted selection. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Effect of Biofertilizers Application on the Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Motalebizadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of bio-fertilizers on the yield and yield components of flax lines, a study was conducted during 2010 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Saatlo in Urmia. A split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with four replications was performed in this study. Main factor (a consisted of fertilizer application form (a1 = control without nitrogen fertilizer, a2 = nitrogen fertilizer, a3 = nitroxin + N, a4 = phosphate barvar 2 + N, and a5 = nitroxin + phosphate barvar 2 + N and sub factor (b consisted of five lines of oily flax (b1 = 97-26, b2 = 97-14, b3 = 97-3, b4 = 97-21, b5 = 97-19. Quantitative and qualitative traits such as number of sub stems, leaf weight, capsule weight per main stem and sub stems, seed yield, oil and protein content were calculated or estimated. Results showed that the main factor (fertilizer form had significant effect (at α=0.01 probability level on all the parameters which have been studied in this experiment. Sub factor (linseed lines and interaction between the two factors had statistically significant effects on all traits. The highest seed yield (4781 kg h-1 and the highest seed oil content (36.5% were obtained from applying nitroxin + phosphateye barvare 2 + N on 97-14 and 97-3 lines. Results showed that using of Nitroxin and Phosphateye barvare 2 biofertilizers could be effective in increasing grain yield of linseed. Therefore, application of Nitroxin and Phosphateye barvare 2 biofertilizers could be used to improve soil physio-chemical properties and to increase quantitative and qualitative yield parameters of linseed.

  8. Biplot Approach for Identification of Heterotic Crosses in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rastogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, among nonedible oilseed crops, linseed is a commercial crop having tremendous economic and industrial importance. The seed production is low due to limited resources, so the development of high-yielding lines with desirable characters is urgently needed. In the present study seven parents' half diallel data was subjected to biplot analysis to identify the heterotic crosses, genetically similar parents, and to study their interrelationship. Parent Sln-Ys with A-79 and A-03 with A-79 for capsules per plant and seed yield, parent Mukta with Sln-Ys and Mukta with BAU-45 for seeds per capsule, and parents Mukta, A-103, A-79 and A-94 for test weight had lowest correlation. Parent B [Mukta] and F [A-79] were good general combiner for all the traits. The crosses F [A-79]  ×  A [Sln-Ys] and D [A-03]  ×  F [A-79] for capsules per plant, test weight and seed yield per plant, cross D [A-03]  ×  A [Sln-Ys] for capsules per plant and test weight and cross D [A-03]  ×  F [A-79] for test weight and seed yield per plant were heterotic. None of the crosses were heterotic for seeds per capsule.

  9. Chimerism in M1 plants of Vicia faba, Capsicum annuum and Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, T.; Brunner, H.; Daskalov, S.; Nakai, H.

    1983-01-01

    One important task of our group at IAEA is to develop procedures aiming to improve sampling of M 2 seeds to facilitate the recovery of a maximum number of induced mutations in crop plants. Results from studies on three species are reported in this paper. Seeds have been mutagen treated and the chimeric M 1 plants were progeny tested in M 2 . The position of the M 2 seeds on the M 1 plants has been recorded

  10. Rheology, fatty acid profile and storage characteristics of cookies as influenced by flax seed (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv, Jyotsna; Indrani, Dasappa; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Rao, G Venkateswara

    2012-10-01

    Flaxseed is a versatile functional ingredient owing to its unique nutrient profile. Studies on the effect of substitution of roasted and ground flaxseed (RGF) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% level on the wheat flour dough properties showed that amylograph peak viscosity, farinograph dough stability, extensograph resistance to extension and extensibility values decreased with the increase in the substitution of RGF from 0-20%. The cookie baking test showed a marginal decrease in spread ratio but beyond substitution of 15% RGF the texture and flavour of the cookies was adversely affected. The data on storage characteristics of control and cookies with 15% RGF showed no significant change with respect to acidity of extracted fat and peroxide values due to storage of cookies upto 90 days in metallised polyester pouches at ambient conditions. The gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid profile indicated that the control cookies contained negligible linolenic acid and the flaxseed cookies contained 4.75 to 5.31% of linolenic acid which showed a marginal decrease over storage. Hence flaxseed could be used as a source of omega-3-fatty acid.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of drought induced gene expression changes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prasanta K; Cao, Yongguo; Jailani, Abdul K; Gupta, Payal; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Rai, Rhitu; Sharma, Rinku; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Abdin, Malik Z; Yadava, Devendra K; Singh, Nagendra K; Singh, Jas; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Deyholos, Mike; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Datla, Raju

    2014-01-01

    A robust phenotypic plasticity to ward off adverse environmental conditions determines performance and productivity in crop plants. Flax (linseed), is an important cash crop produced for natural textile fiber (linen) or oilseed with many health promoting products. This crop is prone to drought stress and yield losses in many parts of the world. Despite recent advances in drought research in a number of important crops, related progress in flax is very limited. Since, response of this plant to drought stress has not been addressed at the molecular level; we conducted microarray analysis to capture transcriptome associated with induced drought in flax. This study identified 183 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with diverse cellular, biophysical and metabolic programs in flax. The analysis also revealed especially the altered regulation of cellular and metabolic pathways governing photosynthesis. Additionally, comparative transcriptome analysis identified a plethora of genes that displayed differential regulation both spatially and temporally. These results revealed co-regulated expression of 26 genes in both shoot and root tissues with implications for drought stress response. Furthermore, the data also showed that more genes are upregulated in roots compared to shoots, suggesting that roots may play important and additional roles in response to drought in flax. With prolonged drought treatment, the number of DEGs increased in both tissue types. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR, thus supporting the suggested functional association of these intrinsic genes in maintaining growth and homeostasis in response to imminent drought stress in flax. Together the present study has developed foundational and new transcriptome data sets for drought stress in flax.

  12. Effect of seed maturation stages on physical properties and antioxidant activity in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid HERCHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe changes in flaxseed constituents at different stages of maturity are reported. The physical properties and antioxidant activity of flaxseed oil during flaxseed development have been evaluated. Continuous decrease in total polyphenol content during flaxseed development. All the results showed no significant differences between HPLC-MS and TLC for quantitative determination of phospholipids classes. The fatty acid compositions of individual phospholipids were also reported. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. The test demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of the flaxseed oil was found to be harvesting time-dependant.

  13. Heating effects on physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil (Linum usitatissimum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid HERCHI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of heating on some quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and Cox value decreased during heating. Heating process led to considerable increase in saponification value (SV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AnV, oxidative value (OV and specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm. There was a significant decrease in oil stability during heating process (1.4-1.0 h. Fuel properties of flaxseed hull oil were also changed after heating treatment. Heating process caused loss of total phenolic acids, total flavanoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments. Phospholipids (PL content were less changed compared to other bioactive compounds. Antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil decreased during heating process.

  14. Pectinmethylesterases (PME) and pectinmethylesterase inhibitors (PMEI) enriched during phloem fiber development in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA) residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME) are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax. For this purpose, we measured transcript abundance of candidate genes at nine different stages of stem and fiber development and found sets of genes enriched during fiber elongation and maturation as well as during xylem development. We expressed one of the flax PMEIs in E. coli and demonstrated that it was able to inhibit most of the native PME activity in the upper portion of the flax stem. These results identify key genetic components of the intrusive growth process and define targets for fiber engineering and crop improvement.

  15. Influence of prolonged flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum consumption over epididymis and testicle histoarchitecture of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna B.N.S. Corrêa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Flaxseed is considered a functional food with several health benefits. However, because of its high phytoestrogen content, flaxseed influences hormone metabolism and affects the gonadal biomorphology. In this study, computerized histomorphometry was used to evaluate seminiferous and epididymal tubules, considering the different regions of the epididymis (head, body and tail of rats subjected to a prolonged diet of flaxseed. Young adult male Wistar rats (n=20 were divided into 2 groups during their lactation period: Control Group (CG, fed casein-based meals and Flaxseed Group (FG, fed a 25% flaxseed meal. After 250 days of continuous ingestion, the animals were euthanized and a blood sample was collected. The testicles and epididymis were removed and fixed in buffered formalin solution. The samples were subjected to routine histological paraffin techniques and stained with hematoxilin and eosin. Immunostaining was performed using an antivimentin antibody for Sertoli cell identification. For morphometry, images of the slides were scanned and analyzed using Image J to determine the epithelial height, tubular and luminal diameter and tubular and luminal area. In the hormonal evaluation, FG had a higher serum concentration of estrogen (P=0.001, but no change was observed in the concentration of testosterone. The morphometric assay of seminiferous tubules and epididymal regions revealed no significant differences between the analyzed groups. Similarly, Sertoli cell quantification showed no significant differences in the FG (P=0.98. These results revealed that the continuous and prolonged intake of 25% flaxseed meals from gestation to 250 days of age, even with a significant increase in serum levels of estradiol, does not exert adverse effects on the testicular and epididymal structure or on the cells participating in the spermatogenesis of rats.

  16. Atividade antioxidante de produtos proteicos de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Guimarães Drummond e Silva

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Existem evidências numerosas sobre o papel dos radicais livres em uma série de condições patológicas, incluindo envelhecimento, câncer, esclerose múltipla, doenças cardiovasculares. Hidrolisados protéicos de diferentes fontes têm sido estudados por seu potencial antioxidante. A atuação antioxidante da proteína, na maioria das vezes, encontra-se limitada devido à conformação espacial, que concentra resíduos capazes de neutralizar radicais livres no interior da molécula, dificultando o ...

  17. The small mammals of an upper piedmontese Po plain site (Leinì, Turin prov. / La micromammalofauna di una stazione planiziaria piemontese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Osella

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la

  18. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini = Aspecten van de resistentie in vezel- en olievlas (Linum usitatissimum) tegen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity

  19. Application of Edible Films Containing Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil on Queso Blanco Cheese Prepared with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdian, Cristhiam; Chouljenko, Alexander; Solval, Kevin Mis; Boeneke, Charles; King, Joan M; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB. Thus, incorporation of OEO into an edible film prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) may improve the shelf life of QB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that FO was successfully retained by the cheese after homogenization. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) and yeast and mold counts (YMC) of the wrapped cheeses were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. The oxidation rate increased significantly for nonwrapped QB containing FO (QBFO) during storage, however wrapping with WPI edible films containing OEO (WOF) significantly limited lipid oxidation and prevented growth of yeasts and molds. This study demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of WOF for preservation of QBFO during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Miguel Galindo-González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars (CDC Bethune and Lutea, showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time-course at 2, 4, 8 and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI. While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signalling, activation of pathogenesis-related (PR genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these several key genes, that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase (RIPK; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3; the flavonoid-related enzymes chalcone synthase, dihydroflavonol reductase and multiple anthocyanidin synthases; and a peroxidase implicated in lignin formation (PRX52. Additionally, regulation of some genes indicated potential pathogen manipulation to facilitate infection; these included four disease resistance proteins that were repressed, indole acetic acid amido/amino hydrolases which were upregulated, activated expansins and glucanases, amino acid transporters and aquaporins, and finally, repression of major latex proteins.

  1. Evaluation of production and gamma radiation effects in pasta enriched with brown flaxseed bagasse (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcia Lage de; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio; Polesi, Luiz Fernando; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida Santos; Jesus, Jose Paulo de

    2013-01-01

    Flat pasta was produced using eggs, wheat flour added with brown flaxseed bagasse in 0,20% and 40% proportions. The pasta obtained in 20% and 40% proportions were irradiated with 20kGy and submitted to evaluation through determinations of moisture, acidity, ph., chemical composition and baking test. Utilizing the same proportions it was also produced pasta with the flaxseed bagasse flour irradiated with 10kGy and submitted to the same evaluations. Found values for different kinds of pasta, for moisture, acidity and ph. can be considered normal within the range of acceptation. (author)

  2. Influence of genotype, growth regulators, sucrose level and preconditioning of donor plants on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbulis, Natalija; Blinstrubiene, Ausra; Sliesaravicius, A; Venskutoniene, Egidija

    2005-01-01

    The effect of genotype, growth regulators and preconditioning of donor plants on callus induction in anther culture of flax was investigated. Anthers were cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with five different combinations of plant growth regulators. The results suggested that specific combinations of growth regulators must be designed for each genotype. Major differences between the present results and previous reports are discussed. The influence of sucrose concentration was also investigated. For flax cultivar, 'Mikael', callus induction was higher in medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) BAP and 2 mg l(-1) 2,4D containing 6% sucrose, while this combination of growth regulators significantly increased callogenesis in cultivars 'Lirina', 'Barbara' and 'Szaphir' when supplemented with 9% or 12% sucrose. The preconditioning of donor plants influenced callogenesis in subsequently isolated anthers. Anthers from donor plants grown at a lower temperature (18/14 degrees C) significantly increased callus induction over those from plants grown at a higher temperature (22/18 degrees C), although each genotype still required optimization of growth regulator combinations in the induction medium. Only 'Mikael' regenerated shoots when the callus was from induction medium supplemented with 2 mg I(-1) BAP and 1 mg l(-1) NAA.

  3. Effect of Heavy Metals on Inhibition of Root Elongation in 23 Cultivars of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Katrušáková, Adéla; Sedláček, Lukáš; Petrová, Šárka; Kočí, V.; Maršík, Petr; Griga, M.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 194-203 ISSN 0090-4341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08058; GA MŠk OC09082; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : SINAPIS-ALBA * SEED-GERMINATION * PLANT-GROWTH Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.930, year: 2010

  4. L'effet thérapeutique de l'huile de lin « linum usitatissimum » sur l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    B. Sacrifices et prélèvements de sang et d'organes. Le régime est administré aux rats pendant deux ... Le dosage du glucose se fait le jour même du prélèvement sur du sérum frais. Le foie est soigneusement prélevés, rincés avec du ..... FRANCO , X.LIN ,Metaanalysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids.

  5. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzyme-aided cold pressing of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.: Enhancement in yield, quality and phenolics of the oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different enzyme preparations (Viscozyme L, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme on the yield and physicochemical and antioxidant properties of cold pressed flaxseed oil were assessed. The oil yield (35.2-38.0% from enzyme-treated cold pressed flaxseeds (ETCPF, although lower than Soxhlet extracted oil (SEO yield, was considerably higher when compared with the control (32.5% while the contents of protein, fiber, and ash were unaffected by the enzymatic treatment. Most of the physicochemical parameters such as refractive index, density, iodine number, free fatty acid contents, saponification value, color and fatty acid profile did not vary significantly among the ETCPF oil, SEO and the control. Interestingly, the oxidation status in terms of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and triens and induction period (Rancimat method as well as the sensory score of the ETCPF oil were superior compared with the control. An appreciably higher amount of tocopherols (350-400 mg kg–1 was determined in the ETCPF oil, compared to the control (270 mg kg–1, showing an increase of 22.8-32.5% in the recovery of total tocopherols. Moreover, ETCPF oil exhibited greater antioxidant activity as well as total phenolics and individual phenolic acid content. This study advocates the exploration of enzyme-assisted cold pressing as a viable alternative to conventional cold-pressing for improving not only the extraction yield but also the functional food quality of flaxseed-like high-value oils.Se evalúa el efecto de diferentes preparaciones enzimáticas (Viscozyme L, Kemzyme y Feedzyme sobre el rendimiento y propiedades fisicoquímicas y antioxidantes de aceites de lino prensados en frío. El rendimiento en aceite (35,2-38,0% de las semillas de lino prensadas en frío (ETCPF, y tratadas con enzimas, aunque menor que el rendimiento mediante Soxhlet (SEO, fue considerablemente mayor en comparación con el control (32,5%, mientras que el contenido de proteína, fibra, y cenizas no se vieron afectados por el tratamiento enzimático. La mayoría de los parámetros físico-químicos tales como el índice de refracción, densidad, índice de yodo, el contenido de ácidos grasos libres, índice de saponificación, el color y el perfil de ácidos grasos no variaron significativamente entre el aceite ETCPF, SEO y el control. Curiosamente, el estado de oxidación en términos de peróxidos, p-anisidina, dienos y trienos conjugados, período de inducción (método Rancimat, así como puntuación sensorial del aceite ETCPF fueron superiores en comparación con el control. Una cantidad sensiblemente superior de tocoferoles (350-400 mg kg–1 se determinó en el aceite ETCPF, en relación con el control (270 mg kg–1, mostrando un aumento de 22,8 a 32,5% en la recuperación de los tocoferoles totales. Por otra parte, el aceite de ETCPF mostró mayor actividad antioxidante y fenoles totales y contenido de ácidos fenólicos individuales. Este estudio aboga por la extracción mediante presión en frío con enzima asistida como una alternativa viable al prensado en frío convencional para mejorar no sólo el rendimiento de extracción sino también la calidad de los componentes funcionales de alto valor como los de los aceites de linaza.

  7. Role of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol in alleviating salinity stress on flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Sh. Sadak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the environmental challenges in the world affecting on several physiological processes and the most limiting factor of plant productivity and quality. Two pot experiments were conducted at the wire house of National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt during two successive seasons of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to assess the efficiency of two antioxidant vitamins (ascorbic acid at 1.13 and 2.27 mM or α tocopherol at 0.46 and 0.93 mM and/or salinity stress at (0.0, 3.08, 6.16, 9.23 ds/m on photosynthetic pigments, protein, carbohydrate, minerals, oil contents and yield as well as fatty acids composition of the yielded oils of three flax cultivars (Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane. The data revealed that salinity stress caused significant and gradual decreases in total photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total proteins and the uptake of Mg, K, Ca and P in the leaves of three flax cultivars with increasing salinity levels (3.08, 6.16, 9.23 ds/m. Otherwise, significant and gradual increase appeared in both Na and Cl. Ascorbic acid and α tocopherol at different concentrations caused significant increases in photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and protein contents in the leaves of flax plants irrigated either with tap water or saline solution as compared with their corresponding controls. Exogenous application of ascorbic and α tocopherol at different concentrations exhibited decreases in Na and Cl whereas increases appeared in Mg, K, Ca and P relative to their corresponding control. Ascorbic acid (1.13 and 2.27 mM and α tocopherol (0.46 and 0.93 mM caused marked increases in yield and yield attributes of three flax cultivars either in plants irrigated with tap water or saline solution as compared to corresponding control. Ascorbic acid effects were more pronounced than α tocopherol effects. In addition, the higher level of two vitamins was more pronounced than the lower level. Regarding plants irrigated with tap water, it was noted that ascorbic acid at 2.27 mM caused significant increase in oil content by 19.75 % in Giza 8 whereas α tocopherpl at 0.93 mM caused significant increase by 14.83% in Sakha 3 and 13.70% in Ariane. Regarding plants irrigated with saline solution (9.23 ds/m, it was found that α tocopherol at 0.93 mM caused significant increase in oil % by 30.84 %, 9.66 % and 35.62 % in Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane cv. respectively. Responses of three flax cultivars to salt stress were more or less similar; since salinity stress caused marked increases in total saturated fatty acids accompanied by decreases in total unsaturated fatty acids as salinity levels increased. Myristic acid (C14:0 and oleic acid (C18:1 were the most affected saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to different salinity levels. The effect of ascorbic acid at 2.27 mM and tocopherol at 0.93 mM were found to be contrary to that of salinity as marked increases appeared in unsaturated fatty acids as compared with control plants. It could be concluded that foliar application of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol could play an enhancement role and alleviate the harmful effect of salinity stress on many metabolic and physiological processes of three flax cultivars that reflected in increasing seed yield quality and quantity.

  8. Characterization and transcript profiling of the pectin methylesterase (PME) and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) gene families in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2013-10-30

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyze the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans in the cell wall; their activity is regulated in part by pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). PME activity may result in either rigidification or loosening of the cell wall, depending on the mode of demethylesterification. The activity of PMEs in the middle lamella is expected to affect intrusive elongation of phloem fibers, and their adhesion to adjacent cells. Length and extractability of phloem fibers are qualities important for their industrial uses in textiles and composites. As only three flax PMEs had been previously described, we were motivated to characterize the PME and PMEI gene families of flax. We identified 105 putative flax PMEs (LuPMEs) and 95 putative PMEIs (LuPMEIs) within the whole-genome assembly. We found experimental evidence for the transcription of 77/105 LuPMEs and 83/95 LuPMEIs, and surveyed the transcript abundance of these in 12 different tissues and stages of development. Six major monophyletic groups of LuPMEs could be defined based on the inferred relationships of flax genes and their presumed orthologs from other species. We searched the LuPMEs and LuPMEIs for conserved residues previously reported to be important for their tertiary structure and function. In the LuPMEs, the most highly conserved residues were catalytic residues while in the LuPMEIs, cysteines forming disulfude bridges between helices α2 and α3 were most highly conserved. In general, the conservation of critical residues was higher in the genes with evidence of transcript expression than in those for which no expression was detected. The LuPMEs and LuPMEIs comprise large families with complex patterns of transcript expression and a wide range of physical characteristics. We observed that multiple PMEs and PMEIs are expressed in partially overlapping domains, indicative of several genes acting redundantly during most processes. The potential for functional redundancy was highlighted also by the phylogenetic analyses. We were able to identify a subset of PME and PMEIs that appeared particularly relevant to fiber development, which may provide a basis for the improvement of key traits in industrial feedstocks and a better understanding of the physiological roles of PMEs and PMEIs in general.

  9. Evaluation of production and gamma radiation effects in pasta enriched with brown flaxseed bagasse (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia Lage de; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio, E-mail: mlageoli@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Polesi, Luiz Fernando; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida Santos [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Jose Paulo de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Oliveira, Andrea Lage de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Araras, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Flat pasta was produced using eggs, wheat flour added with brown flaxseed bagasse in 0,20% and 40% proportions. The pasta obtained in 20% and 40% proportions were irradiated with 20kGy and submitted to evaluation through determinations of moisture, acidity, ph., chemical composition and baking test. Utilizing the same proportions it was also produced pasta with the flaxseed bagasse flour irradiated with 10kGy and submitted to the same evaluations. Found values for different kinds of pasta, for moisture, acidity and ph. can be considered normal within the range of acceptation. (author)

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas in reduce drought stress damage in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Saeedeh; Pirzad, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively). A factorial (three factors) experiment was conducted for 2 years (2014-2015) based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Urmia University, Urmia, located at North-West of Iran (37° 39' 24.82″ N44° 58' 12.42″ E). Water deficit decreased biomass, showing that flax was sensitive to drought, and AM root colonization improved the performance of the plant within irrigation levels. In all inoculated and non-inoculated control plants, leaf chlorophyll decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Water deficit-induced oxidative damage (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage) were significantly reduced in dual colonized plants. All enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids) antioxidants were reduced by water-limiting irrigation. Dual inoculated plants with AM plus Pseudomonas accumulated more enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants than plants with bacterial or fungal inoculation singly. Dual colonized plants significantly decreased the water deficit-induced glycine betaine and proline in flax leaves. These bacterial-fungal interactions in enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense of flax plants demonstrated equal synergism with both AM fungi species. In conclusion, increased activity of enzymatic antioxidants and higher production of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds in symbiotic association with bacteria and mycorrhiza can alleviate reactive oxygen species damage resulting in improve water stress tolerance.

  11. Cadmium-induced production of phytochelatins and speciation of intracellular cadmium in organs of Linum usitatissimum seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Najmanová, J.; Neumannová, E.; Leonhardt, T.; Zítka, O.; Kižek, R.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.; Kotrba, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 536-542 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : flax * cadmium * heavy metal tolerance * phytochelatins * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  12. Palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum Bertol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linum mucronatum is a heterostylous species from sect. Syllinum with four subspecies in Iran. The present study examines palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum, pollen characters of brevistylous individuals (pins as well as longistylous individuals (thrums of these plants by scanning electron microscope and light microscope using the prolonged acetolysis procedure. Sixteen qualitative and quantitative characters were investigated. Pollen equatorial shapes varied between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies with the exception of L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. Pollen sculptures varied between pin and thrum samples of each subspecies and were seen in the gemmate, clavate and baculate shapes. In addition, quantitative palynological characters differed between plants and ANOVA test showed significant variations for traits such as equatorial length, colpi width and apocolpium diameter. Hetrostylous individuals of each subspecies were separated from others in the UPGMA tree and also in the PCO and PCA plots. This study confirmed variations in pollen features between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies.Linum mucronatum es una especie con heterostilia, que pertenece a la sección Syllinum del género Linum, y tiene cuatro subespecies en Irán. En el presente estudio se examinan las características palinológicas de las subespecies heterostilas de Linum mucronatum Bertol., así como los caracteres polínicos de individuos de los morfos brevistilo (pin y longistilo (thrum de estas plantas, mediante microscopía electrónica de scanning y microscopía óptica usando el método de acetolisis prolongada. Se estudiaron un total de 16 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. La forma ecuatorial del polen varía entre los morfos pin y thrum en todas las subspecies, excepto en L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. La ornamentación también varía entre las muestras de morfos pin y thrum de cada subespecie

  13. Terrace styles and timing of terrace formation in the Weser and Leine valleys, northern Germany: Response of a fluvial system to climate change and glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemann, Jutta; Lang, Jörg; Roskosch, Julia; Polom, Ulrich; Böhner, Utz; Brandes, Christian; Glotzbach, Christoph; Frechen, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    In glaciated continental basins accommodation space is not only controlled by tectonics and sea-level but also by the position of ice-sheets, which may act as a regional base-level for fluvial systems. Although the Pleistocene terrace record of major river systems in northwestern Europe has been investigated by many authors, relatively little attention has been paid to base-level changes related to glacier advance-retreat cycles and how these regional changes in base-level interacted with river catchment processes. This study provides a synthesis of the stratigraphic architecture of Middle Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terraces in the upper Weser and middle Leine valley in northern Germany and links it to glaciation, climate and base-level change. The depositional architecture of the fluvial terrace deposits has been reconstructed from outcrops and high-resolution shear wave seismic profiles. The chronology is based on luminescence ages, 230Th/U ages, 14C ages and Middle Palaeolithic archaeological assemblages. The drainage system of the study area developed during the Early Miocene. During the Pleistocene up to 170 m of fluvial incision took place. A major change in terrace style from strath terraces to cut-and-fill terraces occurred during the early Middle Pleistocene before Marine Isotope Stage MIS 12, which may correlate with climate deterioration and the onset of glaciation in northern central Europe. During this time a stable buffer zone was established within which channels avulsed and cut and filled freely without leaving these vertical confines. Climate was the dominant driver for river incision and aggradation, whereas the terrace style was controlled by base-level changes during ice-sheet growth and decay. A major effect of glacio-isostatic processes was the post-Elsterian re-direction of the River Weser and River Leine. The Middle Pleistocene fluvial terraces are vertically stacked, indicating a high aggradation to degradation ratio, corresponding

  14. Triacylglycerols of the seed oil of Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M.D.; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; Ali, Sanaa A.

    2018-01-01

    The seed oil of Linum grandiflorum was used for centuries as food additive and medicine due to its high content of omega-3. The presented study aimed to characterize the triacylglycerols (TAGs) composition of the seed oil and to study its cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective activity. Based on exten......The seed oil of Linum grandiflorum was used for centuries as food additive and medicine due to its high content of omega-3. The presented study aimed to characterize the triacylglycerols (TAGs) composition of the seed oil and to study its cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective activity. Based...... on extensive analysis of the seed oil using ESI-TOF/MS along with 1H- and 13C-NMR, the TAGs composed mainly of TAGs 54:9 (LnLnLn), 54:8 (LnLLn), and 54:7 (LnOLn), with α-linolenic acid (Ln18:3) as a major constituent, along with trace amounts of linoleic acid (L18:2) and oleic acid (O18:1). A standard high......-flux anticancer-drug screening method was employed, and recorded IC50 values of 30±2.4, 30±2.5, >100, and >100 μg/mL against EL4, MCF7, PC3, and McCoy, respectively. In addition, the antihepatotoxic activity supplemented by a histopathological examination was done, and proved that, the oil enhanced all parameters...

  15. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  16. Slipping vs sticking: water-dependent adhesive and frictional properties of Linum usitatissimum L. seed mucilaginous envelope and its biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-04-01

    Flax seeds produce mucilage after wetting. The mucilage due to its ability to absorb and maintain water is responsible for specific surface properties which are essential for seed dispersal in different ways. In the present paper, we asked how the hydration level affects the adhesive and frictional properties of the mucilage and which role does the mucilage play in seed dispersal? We have experimentally quantified: (1) desiccation dynamics of seeds with a mucilage envelope, (2) desiccation-time dependence of their friction coefficient, and (3) desiccation-time dependence of their pull-off forces on a smooth glass substrate. Freshly-hydrated seeds had an extremely low friction coefficient, which rapidly increased with an increasing desiccation time. Pull-off force just after hydration was rather low, then increased with an increasing water loss. Adhesion and friction experiments show that there is a clear maximum in the force values at certain hydration states of the mucilage. Different hydration levels of the mucilage can be employed in various dispersal mechanisms. Fully hydrated mucilage with its low viscosity gives optimal sliding conditions for endozoochory, whereas water loss provides conditions for the epizoochory. We suggest that the hydration level of the mucilage envelope can determine the potential mode of flax seed dispersal. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The LuWD40-1 gene encoding WD repeat protein regulates growth and pollen viability in flax (Linum Usitatissimum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    Full Text Available As a crop, flax holds significant commercial value for its omega-3 rich oilseeds and stem fibres. Canada is the largest producer of linseed but there exists scope for significant yield improvements. Implementation of mechanisms such as male sterility can permit the development of hybrids to assist in achieving this goal. Temperature sensitive male sterility has been reported in flax but the leakiness of this system in field conditions limits the production of quality hybrid seeds. Here, we characterized a 2,588 bp transcript differentially expressed in male sterile lines of flax. The twelve intron gene predicted to encode a 368 amino acid protein has five WD40 repeats which, in silico, form a propeller structure with putative nucleic acid and histone binding capabilities. The LuWD40-1 protein localized to the nucleus and its expression increased during the transition and continued through the vegetative stages (seed, etiolated seedling, stem while the transcript levels declined during reproductive development (ovary, anthers and embryonic morphogenesis of male fertile plants. Knockout lines for LuWD40-1 in flax failed to develop shoots while overexpression lines showed delayed growth phenotype and were male sterile. The non-viable flowers failed to open and the pollen grains from these flowers were empty. Three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the LuWD40-1 gene had ∼80% non-viable pollen, reduced branching, delayed flowering and maturity compared to male fertile genotypes. The present study provides new insights into a male sterility mechanism present in flax.

  18. ENRIQUECIMIENTO DE HUEVOS CON ÁCIDOS GRASOS OMEGA-3 MEDIANTE LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN CON SEMILLA DE LINO (Linum usitatissimum) EN LA DIETA

    OpenAIRE

    Betancour t, Liliana; Díaz, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Enriquecer los huevos de gallina con ácidos grasos omega-3 (n-3) mediante la inclusión de semillas de lino en la dieta. Materiales y métodos. La dieta de las aves fue formulada con niveles de 0 (L0), 10 (L10), 15 (L15) y 20% (L20) de linaza. Se determinó la composición de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases y se evaluó la producción y calidad del huevo. Resultados. El porcentaje de producción de huevo fue superior en los grupos L0 y L15 (p

  19. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside from Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. with Further Purification by an Aqueous Two-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jian Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a two-step extraction methodology of ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (IL-UAE and ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system (IL-ATPS was developed for the extraction and purification of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG from flaxseed. In the IL-UAE step, several kinds of ILs were investigated as the extractants, to identify the IL that affords the optimum extraction yield. The extraction conditions such as IL concentration, ultrasonic irradiation time, and liquid–solid ratio were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. In the IL-ATPS step, ATPS formed by adding kosmotropic salts to the IL extract was used for further separation and purification of SDG. The most influential parameters (type and concentration of salt, temperature, and pH were investigated to obtain the optimum extraction efficiency. The maximum extraction efficiency was 93.35% under the optimal conditions of 45.86% (w/w IL and 8.27% (w/w Na2SO4 at 22 °C and pH 11.0. Thus, the combination of IL-UAE and IL-ATPS makes up a simple and effective methodology for the extraction and purification of SDG. This process is also expected to be highly useful for the extraction and purification of bioactive compounds from other important medicinal plants.

  20. Effect of Pre-nutrion of Flax Seed Oil (Linum Usitatissimum on the amount of Cerebral ischemic lesion and motor nerve disorders in animal model rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Stroke is the third death agent (factor in industrial countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. With regard to high content of antioxidant materials in flax seed oil like &alpha-linolenic acid, lignan as well as phenolic combinations like secoisolarisirsinol (SDG, this study performed for studding relationship between of cerebral ischemic lesion and motor-nerve disorders in model of stroke in rat. Methods: in the study, 35 male mice from strain Wistar divided to 5 groups. The groups included control, sham and 3 experimental groups. They received doses 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg from flax seed oil orally. By gavage for 30 days two control and sham groups received aqua distillate (distil water. Two hours after the last gavaged dose, overly group with 7 pieces operated for measurement of the amount of cerebral lesion and motor-nerve disorders. (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model. Middle cerebral Artery Occlusion by the model resulted in local ischemic stroke in animal. Data analyzed by software SPSS, test ANOVA and disorders by test mann-Whitney. Findings: Average of records of motor-nerve disorders decreased significantly in group with dose 0.5 and 0.75 using flax seed oil (P<0.05. The amount of cerebral ischemic lesion in doses 0.5 and 0.75 than to control group is indicated meaning full different, but percent of the total cerebral lesion in control group in compared group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaningful different. Percent of the amount of ischemic lesion in region penumbra in group 0.75 and 0.5 than to control group is indicated meaningful different, but percent of the amount of lesion in region penumbra in control group in compared region penumbra in group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaning full different. Results: Findings of the study indicated that flax seed oil, particular in doses 0.5 and 0.75 resulted to decrease of the amount of cerebral ischemic lesion and decrease of motor-nerve disorders in animal model of stroke.

  1. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of 60 Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3, depending on the percentage of linseed added to the bread. The linseed addition was effective to raise the level of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. But, the irradiation decrease the level of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 of the three kinds of bread. The irradiation did not influence the quality of the obtained bread. The sample tasters, not trained, accepted the bread independently of the doses of applied radiation. The ADQ test evidenced that the sensorial characteristics of the samples depend on the ingredient variation used on the formulas and on the radiation. The irradiated samples presented mold counting considerably lower than the non-irradiated samples, which increased the shelf-life of those products. The survey reveals that the majority of the people interviewed has little or any knowledge about radiation and believe that the irradiation can generate some kind of harm for human beings. Therefore, the bread production enriched with mashed linseed and submitted to gamma radiation is promising, given that the chemical and sensorial properties were considered satisfactory, besides the increasing of the shelf-time. (author)

  2. Duplex real-time PCR method for the detection of sesame (Sesamum indicum) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) DNA in processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The development of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method allowing the simultaneous detection of sesame and flaxseed DNA in commercial food products is described. This duplex real-time PCR technique is based in the design of sesame- and flaxseed-specific primers based on the ITS1 region and two TaqMan fluorescent probes. The method was positive for sesame and flaxseed, and showed no cross-reactivity for all other heterologous plant and animal species tested. Sesame and flaxseed could be detected in a series of model samples with defined raw and heat-treated sesame in flaxseed, and flaxseed in sesame, respectively, with detection limits of 1.3 mg kg(-1) for sesame and 1.4 mg kg(-1) for flaxseed. The applicability of the assay for determining sesame and flaxseed in different food matrices was investigated by analysing a total of 238 commercial foodstuffs. This PCR method is useful for highly selective and sensitive detection of traces of sesame and flaxseed in commercial food products.

  3. ENRIQUECIMIENTO DE HUEVOS CON ÁCIDOS GRASOS OMEGA-3 MEDIANTE LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN CON SEMILLA DE LINO (Linum usitatissimum EN LA DIETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Díaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Enriquecer los huevos de gallina con ácidos grasos omega-3 (n-3 mediante la inclusión de semillas de lino en la dieta. Materiales y métodos. La dieta de las aves fue formulada con niveles de 0 (L0, 10 (L10, 15 (L15 y 20% (L20 de linaza. Se determinó la composición de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases y se evaluó la producción y calidad del huevo. Resultados. El porcentaje de producción de huevo fue superior en los grupos L0 y L15 (p<0.05 con 93,0 y 91,5% de producción comparada con 86,0 % en los grupos L10 y L20. La mejor conversión de alimento se presentó también en los grupos L0 y L15. Con la inclusión de semilla de lino, se incrementó el contenido de ácidos grasos n-3 desde 3,0 % en el grupo L0 hasta 12,6 % en el grupo L20, siendo los ácidos grasos n-3 á-linolénico (C18:3, n-3 y docosahexahenóico (DHA, C22:6, n-3 los hallados en mayor concentración. Con la inclusión de linaza en la dieta de las gallinas ponedoras se redujo el contenido de acido linoleico (C18:2n-6, lo cual resultó en una disminución en la relación n-6: n-3. Conclusiones. Con base en la evaluación económica se concluye que es posible enriquecer la yema de huevo de gallina hasta con un 10,1 % de ácidos grasos n-3 mediante la inclusión de un 15 % de linaza en la dieta de las gallinas, sin embargo, esto representó un sobrecosto de producción del 12%.

  4. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety in healthy individuals: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan, V; Choleva, L; Jovanovski, E; Jenkins, A L; Au-Yeung, F; Dias, A G; Ho, H V T; Zurbau, A; Duvnjak, L

    2017-02-01

    Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores. Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23.9±3 years; BMI: 22.2±0.8 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to receive a 50 g glucose challenge, alone or supplemented with either 25 g ground Salba-chia or 31.5 g flax, on three separate occasions. Blood glucose samples and satiety ratings were collected at fasting and over 2-h postprandially. In addition, in vitro viscosity of the beverages was assessed utilizing standard rheological methodology. Both Salba-chia and flax reduced blood glucose area under the curve over 120 min by 82.5±19.7 mmol/l (Pchia reduced peak glucose (-0.64±0.24 mmol/l; P=0.030) and increased time to peak (11.3±3.8 min; P=0.015) compared with flax. Salba-chia significantly reduced the mean ratings of desire to eat (-7±2 mm; P=0.005), prospective consumption (-7±2 mm; P=0.010) and overall appetite score (-6±2 mm; P=0.012), when compared with flax. The viscosity of Salba-chia, flax and control was 49.9, 2.5, and 0.002 Pa·s, respectively. Despite the similarities in nutritional composition, Salba-chia appears to have the ability to convert glucose into a slow-release carbohydrate and affect satiety to a greater extent than flax, possibly due to the higher fiber viscosity. Incorporation of either flax or Salba-chia into the diet may be beneficial, although use of Salba-chia may confer additional benefit.

  6. Efeito da linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L.) sob diferentes formas de preparo na resposta biológica em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Marques,Anne y Castro; Hautrive,Tiffany Prokopp; Moura,Guilherme Barcellos de; Callegaro,Maria da Graça Kolinski; Hecktheuer,Luisa Helena Rychecki

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar as possíveis atividades biológicas causadas pelo consumo diário de linhaça em diferentes condições de preparo, em ratos Wistar machos recém-desmamados. MÉTODOS: Os ratos recém-desmamados (n=32) foram divididos em 4 grupos de 8 animais: ração padrão; ração com 16% de grão de linhaça cru; ração com 16% de grão de linhaça assado; e ração com 7% de óleo de linhaça. Os animais foram pesados a cada três dias e, após 23 dias de período experimental, foram sacrificados por punção ...

  7. Construction of an SNP-based high-density linkage map for flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liuxi; Gao, Fengyun; Siqin, Bateer; Zhou, Yu; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Flax is an important crop for oil and fiber, however, no high-density genetic maps have been reported for this species. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a high-resolution strategy for large scale de novo discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, SLAF-seq was employed to develop SNP markers in an F2 population to construct a high-density genetic map for flax. In total, 196.29 million paired-end reads were obtained. The average sequencing depth was 25.08 in male parent, 32.17 in the female parent, and 9.64 in each F2 progeny. In total, 389,288 polymorphic SLAFs were detected, from which 260,380 polymorphic SNPs were developed. After filtering, 4,638 SNPs were found suitable for genetic map construction. The final genetic map included 4,145 SNP markers on 15 linkage groups and was 2,632.94 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.64 cM between adjacent markers. To our knowledge, this map is the densest SNP-based genetic map for flax. The SNP markers and genetic map reported in here will serve as a foundation for the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), map-based gene cloning and marker assisted selection (MAS) for flax.

  8. Chitinase-like (CTL and cellulose synthase (CESA gene expression in gelatinous-type cellulosic walls of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. bast fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokshina

    Full Text Available Plant chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14 and chitinase-like (CTL proteins have diverse functions including cell wall biosynthesis and disease resistance. We analyzed the expression of 34 chitinase and chitinase-like genes of flax (collectively referred to as LusCTLs, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 19 (GH19. Analysis of the transcript expression patterns of LusCTLs in the stem and other tissues identified three transcripts (LusCTL19, LusCTL20, LusCTL21 that were highly enriched in developing bast fibers, which form cellulose-rich gelatinous-type cell walls. The same three genes had low relative expression in tissues with primary cell walls and in xylem, which forms a xylan type of secondary cell wall. Phylogenetic analysis of the LusCTLs identified a flax-specific sub-group that was not represented in any of other genomes queried. To provide further context for the gene expression analysis, we also conducted phylogenetic and expression analysis of the cellulose synthase (CESA family genes of flax, and found that expression of secondary wall-type LusCESAs (LusCESA4, LusCESA7 and LusCESA8 was correlated with the expression of two LusCTLs (LusCTL1, LusCTL2 that were the most highly enriched in xylem. The expression of LusCTL19, LusCTL20, and LusCTL21 was not correlated with that of any CESA subgroup. These results defined a distinct type of CTLs that may have novel functions specific to the development of the gelatinous (G-type cellulosic walls.

  9. Anti-HIV-1 activities of the extracts from the medicinal plant Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources e.g. Ixora undulata, Paulownia tomentosa, Fortunella margarita, Aegle marmelos and Erythrina abyssinica, the different organic and aqueous extracts of Linum grandiflorum leaves and seeds were evaluated in vitro by the microculture ...

  10. GLUCOSYLATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN-COMPLEXED PODOPHYLLOTOXIN BY CELL-CULTURES OF LINUM-FLAVUM L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANUDEN, W; OEIJ, H; WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N

    The glucosylation of the cytotoxic lignan podophyllotoxin by cell cultures derived from Linum flavum was investigated. Four cyclodextrins: beta-cyclodextrin, gamma-cyclodextrin, dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were used to improve the solubility of podophyllotoxin by

  11. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum); Efeitos da radiacao ionizante de cobalto-60 nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas sensoriais e microbiolgicas de paes com adicao de linhaca (Linum usitatissimum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of {sup 60}Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3, depending on the percentage of linseed added to the bread. The linseed addition was effective to raise the level of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. But, the irradiation decrease the level of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 of the three kinds of bread. The irradiation did not influence the quality of the obtained bread. The sample tasters, not trained, accepted the bread independently of the doses of applied radiation. The ADQ test evidenced that the sensorial characteristics of the samples depend on the ingredient variation used on the formulas and on the radiation. The irradiated samples presented mold counting considerably lower than the non-irradiated samples, which increased the shelf-life of those products. The survey reveals that the majority of the people interviewed has little or any knowledge about radiation and believe that the irradiation can generate some kind of harm for human beings. Therefore, the bread production enriched with mashed linseed and submitted to gamma radiation is promising, given that the chemical and sensorial properties were considered satisfactory, besides the increasing of the shelf-time. (author)

  12. Digestibilidade aparente, crescimento folicular e concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos de éguas recebendo concentrado com semente de linhaça integral (Linum usitatissimum L. = Apparent digestibility, follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites of mares receiving concentrate with whole linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Schimmack Pedro Soncin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para se avaliar a inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de éguas por meio da avaliação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e seuefeito no crescimento folicular e na concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos. Foram utilizadas 16 éguas, alimentadas com dois concentrados, sendo um sem semente de linhaça integral e outro com10% de semente de linhaça integral, utilizando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa para a MS, MM, PB, FB, FDN, FDA eEE. Para determinação dos parâmetros reprodutivos (duração do estro, intervalo entre aplicação da prostaglandina F2 alfa e o estro e tamanho do folículo ovulatório e sanguíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos, progesterona, colesterol total, HDL, LDL e VLDL, os animais receberam prostaglandina F2 alfa na dose de 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 e no décimo dia, após ovulação, foi realizada a coleta de sangue. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral aumentou (p 0,05 entre os dois tratamentos para os CDa da PB e EE. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de equinosmelhorou a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, em especial da fração fibrosa da dieta e não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos e sanguíneos.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of mares through the evaluation of the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and their effect inthe follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites. Sixteen mares were used, fed with two concentrates – one without whole linseed and the other with 10% whole linseed, using a randomized experimental design. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC were measured for DM, MM, CP, CF, NDF, ADF and EE. In order to determine the reproductive parameters (duration of the estrus, interval between application of the prostaglandin F2 alpha and the estrus, and size of the ovulatory follicle and blood parameters (glucose, triglycerides, progesterone, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL, the animals received prostaglandin F2 alpha in the dose of 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 and in the 10th day after ovulation the collection of blood was conducted. The inclusion of whole linseed increased (p 0.05 between both treatments for the ADC of CP and EE. The inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of equines improved the apparent digestibiliy of the nutrients, especially of the fibrous fraction of the diet, and it did result inalterations in reproductive and blood parameters.

  13. Investigation of Linum flavum (L. Hairy Root Cultures for the Production of Anticancer Aryltetralin Lignans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Renouard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Linum flavum hairy root lines were established from hypocotyl pieces using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and ATCC 15834. Both strains were effective for transformation but induction of hairy root phenotype was more stable with strain ATCC 15834. Whereas similar accumulation patterns were observed in podophyllotoxin-related compounds (6-methoxy-podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin, significant quantitative variations were noted between root lines. The influence of culture medium and various treatments (hormone, elicitation and precursor feeding were evaluated. The highest accumulation was obtained in Gamborg B5 medium. Treatment with methyl jasmonate, and feeding using ferulic acid increased the accumulation of aryltetralin lignans. These results point to the use of hairy root culture lines of Linum flavum as potential sources for these valuable metabolites as an alternative, or as a complement to Podophyllum collected from wild stands.

  14. A biorefinery concept using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the coproduction of bioethanol and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Yahmed, Nesrine; Jmel, Mohamed Amine; Ben Alaya, Monia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Marzouki, M. Nejib; Smaali, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chaetomorpha linum was used as sustainable feedstock for co-production of bioethanol and biomethane. • An eco-friendly process was developed, only generating 0.3 ± 0.01 g/g of waste. • Ethanol yield obtained was 0.41 g/g reducing sugar. • Methane yield obtained was 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. - Abstract: An innovative integrated biorefinery approach using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was investigated in the present study for the co-production of bioethanol and biogas. Among three pretreatments of C. linum biomass, consisting of acidic, neutral and alkali ones, 3% NaOH pretreatment gave the best result in terms of thallus disintegration, biomass recovery and enzymatic digestibility as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and saccharification tests. The hydrolysis of C. linum feedstock with a crude specific enzyme preparation, locally produced from fermentation of Aspergillus awamori, at 45 °C, pH 5 for 30 h gave the maximum yield of fermentable sugar of 0.22 ± 0.02 g/g dry substrate. An ethanol yield of 0.41 g/g reducing sugar corresponding to about 0.093 g/g pretreated algae was obtained after alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the integrated proposed process, mycelium issued from the fungal fermentation, liquid issued from alkali pretreatment, residual from the non-hydrolysable biomass and all effluents and co-products represent a heterogeneous substrate that feed an anaerobic digester for biogas production. GC-analysis of this later showed that the biomethane yield reached 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. This study presents therefore an eco-friendly biorefining process, which efficiently coproduce bioethanol and biomethane and generate only a single waste (0.3 ± 0.01 g/g) allowing an almost complete conversion of the algal biomass.

  15. Multielemental analysis in organic products and seed of linum by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of this study is to determining the trace and major elements levels in organic seeds samples, like soy, rice, bean and in Brazilian and Canadian linum seed by X-ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The measurements were carried out in the XRF beamline at the Light Synchrotron National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The organic soy presented major concentrations of P, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr than organic bean and rice. Brazilian linum samples presented higher concentrations of S, P, Ca, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zr and Mo than Canadian one, even than organic samples. However potassium, iron and zinc were more pronounced in the Canadian seed of linum (author)

  16. Comparison of genomes of eight species of sections Linum and Adenolinum from the genus Linum based on chromosome banding, molecular markers and RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravenko, Olga V; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Nosova, Inna V; Zelenina, Daria A; Volkov, Alexander A; Popov, Konstantin V; Zelenin, Alexander V

    2009-03-01

    Karyotypes of species sects. Linum and Adenolinum have been studied using C/DAPI-banding, Ag-NOR staining, FISH with 5S and 26S rDNA and RAPD analysis. C/DAPI-banding patterns enabled identification of all homologous chromosome pairs in the studied karyotypes. The revealed high similarity between species L. grandiflorum (2n = 16) and L. decumbens by chromosome and molecular markers proved their close genome relationship and identified the chromosome number in L. decumbens as 2n = 16. The similarity found for C/DAPI-banding patterns between species with the same chromosome numbers corresponds with the results obtained by RAPD-analysis, showing clusterization of 16-, 18- and 30-chromosome species into three separate groups. 5S rDNA and 26S rDNA were co-localized in NOR-chromosome 1 in the genomes of all species investigated. In 30-chromosome species, there were three separate 5S rDNA sites in chromosomes 3, 8 and 13. In 16-chromosome species, a separate 5S rDNA site was also located in chromosome 3, whereas in 18-chromosome species it was found in the long arm of NOR-chromosome 1. Thus, the difference in localization of rDNA sites in species with 2n = 16, 2n = 30 and 2n = 18 confirms taxonomists opinion, who attributed these species to different sects. Linum and Adenolinum, respectively. The obtained results suggest that species with 2n = 16, 2n = 18 and 2n = 30 originated from a 16-chromosome ancestor.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agabou, Amir. Vol 13, No 2 (2016) - Articles Safety assessment of Linum usitatissimum (Linn.) Ingestion in New Zealand rabbits. Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 3 (2017) - Articles Evaluation of crude flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil in burn wound healing in New Zealand rabbits. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African ...

  18. Yield, SDG lignan, cadmium, lead, oil and protein contents of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated in trials and at different farm conditions in the south-western part of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketta Saastamoinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed varieties were studied in variety trials and under farm conditions in south-western Finland in the years 2007−2010. The variation in yield, oil, protein, SDG lignan, cadmium and lead contents were studied in 8 oil and 2 fibre linseed varieties. Genotypic, environmental and genotype x environment interaction variance estimates were calculated. Fibre varieties ‘Belinka’ and ‘Martta’ had higher protein and lower oil contents than oil linseed varieties.The SDG lignan contents of linseed varieties varied between 3635−9560 mg kg-1. Rather high genotypic variance was found in yield, oil, protein and SDG lignan contents. Variety ‘Laser’ had lower SDG lignan content. ‘Abacus’, ‘Helmi’ and ‘Martta’ had the highest SDG lignan contents. Variation in cadmium and lead contents were caused by environmental effects. The highest cadmium contents, 0.82−1.69 mg kg-1, were found in soils fertilized by wastewater sludge about 20 years ago and at fields with low bottom soil pH (4.1−4.5.

  19. SUPPRESSION OF MAMMARY CARCINOMAS BY ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: PART I. EFFECT OF EXTRACTION METHODS ON QUALITY AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF OIL FROM FLAXSEED (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Vanita S. Bhat; Basavaraj Madhusudhan.

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutic role of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in human health and disease is gaining remarkable attention in food products, formulations and supplements. Flaxseed oil is also one among the best sources of ALA. In this paper, effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of oil from finely ground flaxseed flour is compared to the other two conventional extraction methods. The yields of oils in cold pressed method (30.14%), ultrasonic extraction (48.05%) and Soxhlet extracted (43.01%) were measured. ...

  20. Optimization of enzymatic saccharification of Chaetomorpha linum biomass for the production of macroalgae-based third generation bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Slaheddine Masmoudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of marine macro-algae Chaetomorpha linum as a potential biofuel resource, the effects of the enzymatic treatment conditions on sugar yield were evaluated using a three factor three level Box-Behnken design. The hydrothermally pretreated C. linum biomass was treated with Aspergillus niger cellulase at various liquid to solid ratios (50–100 mL/g, enzyme concentrations (10–60 U/g and incubations times (4–44 h. Data obtained from the response surface methodology were subjected to the analysis of variance and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. The fitted model was found to be robust and was used to optimize the sugar yield (% during enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum saccharification conditions were: L/S ratio 100 mL/g; enzyme concentration 52 U/g; and time 44 h. Their application led to a maximum sugar yield of 30.2 g/100g dry matter. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of the algal hydrolysate provided 8.6 g ethanol/100g dry matter. These results showed a promising future of applying C. linum biomass as potential feedstock for third generation bioethanol production.

  1. Digestibilidade aparente, crescimento folicular e concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos de éguas recebendo concentrado com semente de linhaça integral (Linum usitatissimum L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.598 Apparent digestibility, follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites of mares receiving concentrate with whole linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.598

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aparecida Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para se avaliar a inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de éguas por meio da avaliação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e seu efeito no crescimento folicular e na concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos. Foram utilizadas 16 éguas, alimentadas com dois concentrados, sendo um sem semente de linhaça integral e outro com 10% de semente de linhaça integral, utilizando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa para a MS, MM, PB, FB, FDN, FDA e EE. Para determinação dos parâmetros reprodutivos (duração do estro, intervalo entre aplicação da prostaglandina F2 alfa e o estro e tamanho do folículo ovulatório e sanguíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos, progesterona, colesterol total, HDL, LDL e VLDL, os animais receberam prostaglandina F2 alfa na dose de 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 e no décimo dia, após ovulação, foi realizada a coleta de sangue. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral aumentou (p 0,05 entre os dois tratamentos para os CDa da PB e EE. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de equinos melhorou a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, em especial da fração fibrosa da dieta e não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos e sanguíneosThe experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of mares through the evaluation of the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and their effect in the follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites. Sixteen mares were used, fed with two concentrates – one without whole linseed and the other with 10% whole linseed, using a randomized experimental design. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC were measured for DM, MM, CP, CF, NDF, ADF and EE. In order to determine the reproductive parameters (duration of the estrus, interval between application of the prostaglandin F2 alpha and the estrus, and size of the ovulatory follicle and blood parameters (glucose, triglycerides, progesterone, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL, the animals received prostaglandin F2 alpha in the dose of 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 and in the 10th day after ovulation the collection of blood was conducted. The inclusion of whole linseed increased (p 0.05 between both treatments for the ADC of CP and EE. The inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of equines improved the apparent digestibiliy of the nutrients, especially of the fibrous fraction of the diet, and it did result in alterations in reproductive and blood parameters

  2. In vitro polyploidy induction: changes in morphology, podophyllotoxin biosynthesis, and expression of the related genes in Linum album (Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Neda; Karimzadeh, Ghasem; Sharifi, Mohsen; Moieni, Ahmad; Behmanesh, Mehrdad

    2017-06-01

    Induction of tetraploidy was performed and podophyllotoxin production increased by upregulating the expression level and enzyme activity of genes related to its biosynthesis in tetraploid compared to diploid Linum album. Linum album is a valuable medicinal plant that produces antiviral and anticancer compounds including podophyllotoxin (PTOX). To achieve homogeneous materials, in vitro diploid clones were established, and their nodal segments were exposed to different concentrations and durations of colchicine. This resulted in successful tetraploidy induction, confirmed by flow cytometry, and is being reported for the first time. The highest efficiency of tetraploid induction (22%) was achieved after 72 h exposure to 2.5-mM colchicine treatment. The stable tetraploids were produced after being subcultured three times, and their ploidy stability was confirmed after each subculture. The effects of autopolyploidy were measured on the morphological and phytochemical characteristics, as well as enzyme activity and the expression levels of some key genes involved in the PTOX biosynthetic pathway, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamoyl-Coa reductase (CCR), cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR). The tetraploid plants had larger leaves and stomata (length and width) and lower density stomata. Increasing the ploidy level from diploid to tetraploid resulted in 1.39- and 1.23-fold enhancement of PTOX production, respectively, in the leaves and stem. The increase in PTOX content was associated with upregulated activities of some enzymes studied related to its biosynthetic pathway and the expression of the corresponding genes. The expression of the PAL gene and PLR enzymatic activity had the most positive correlation with the ploidy level in both leaf and stem tissues. Our results verified that autotetraploid induction is a useful breeding method, remarkably increasing the PTOX content in the leaves and stem of L

  3. Partial resistance in the Linum-Melampsora host-pathogen system: does partial resistance make the red queen run slower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovics, Janis; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2011-02-01

    Five levels of disease expression were scored in a cross-inoculation study of 120 host and 60 pathogen lines of wild flax Linum marginale and its rust fungus Melampsora lini sampled from six natural populations. Patterns of partial resistance showed clear evidence of gene-for-gene interactions, with particular levels of partial resistance occurring in specific host-pathogen combinations. Sympatric and putatively more highly coevolved host-pathogen combinations had a lower frequency of partial resistance types relative to allopatric combinations. Sympatric host-pathogen combinations also showed a lower diversity of resistance responses, but there was a trend toward a greater fraction of this variance being determined by pathogen-genotype × host-genotype interactions. In this system, there was no evidence that partial resistances slow host-pathogen coevolution. The analyses show that if variation is generated by among population host or pathogen dispersal, then coevolution occurs largely by pathogens overcoming the partial resistances that are generated. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Efeitos da radiação ionizante de Cobalto-60 nas características físico-químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas de pães com adição de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum)

    OpenAIRE

    Neila Camargo de Moura

    2012-01-01

    A incorporação de ingredientes funcionais a produtos de panificação tem crescido muito ultimamente, em função da preocupação com a saúde dos consumidores. A linhaça tem despertado o interesse pelo seu alto teor de fibras, lignanas, ômega-3 e compostos antioxidantes. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da radiação ionizante de 60Co nas características físico-químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas de pães com adição de diferentes concentrações de linhaça marrom. Foram elabora...

  5. ELABORAÇÃO DE RÓTULO NUTRICIONAL PARA PÃES DE FORMA COM ADIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE LINHAÇA (LINUM USITATISSIMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEILA CAMARGO DE MOURA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os efeitos benéficos que o consumo da linhaça proporcionam à saúde são decorrentes da presença de substâncias bioativas, em especial os ácidos graxos polinsaturados (Omega 3 e Omega 6, compostos fenólicos e fi bras. O presente trabalho teve por objetivos: verificar a influência da linhaça nas características químicas de pães de forma; comparar os rótulos nutricionais dos pães com as diferentes quantidades de linhaça adicionadas aos mesmos e analisar as conseqüências de se expressar a composição química dos produtos conforme estabelecido pela RDC 359 e RDC 360 para a elaboração dos rótulos nutricionais dos alimentos. As concentrações de semente de linhaça marrom testadas foram: 0%, 3%, 6% e 9%. Os pães de forma foram preparados na planta de panifi cação experimental da escola Senai “Mário Dedini” de Piracicaba e as análises químicas foram realizadas no Laboratório de Bromatologia da ESALQ/USP. O pão com 9% de linhaça apresentou a maior quantidade de gorduras mono e poliinsaturadas. A relação Omega 3:6 também foi maior para a amostra com 9% de linhaça sendo que a proporção desses nutrientes foi de 1:1 por porção de 25 g. A gordura trans não foi identifi cada em nenhum dos produtos estudados.

  6. Qualidade protéica de pão de sal contendo farinha de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L.
    Protein quality of “french” bread containing flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. S. BORGES

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As proteínas são moléculas essenciais aos organismos animais, devendo, portanto, estar presentes na alimentação em quantidades adequadas. Além do aspecto quantitativo deve-se considerar o aspecto qualitativo, isto é, seu valor nutricional, que dependerá da composição, digestibilidade, biodisponibilidade de aminoácidos essenciais, ausência de toxicidade e de fatores antinutricionais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a digestibilidade in vivo e a qualidade nutricional de proteínas de pães de sal obtidos com farinhas mistas de trigo e linhaça integral nas proporções de 90:10 e 85:15. Os melhores resultados para ganho de peso, coefi ciente de efi cácia alimentar, coefi ciente de efi cácia protéica e razão protéica líquida foram obtidos quando maior teor de farinha de trigo foi substituído pela farinha integral de linhaça na formulação dos pães. A lisina foi o primeiro aminoácido limitante em todos os produtos elaborados. A substituição parcial da farinha de trigo pela farinha de linhaça não melhorou a qualidade protéica dos pães estudados.

  7. Avaliação dos efeitos da suplementação com farinha de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L.) marrom e dourada sobre o perfil lipídico e a evolução ponderal em ratos Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Molena-Fernandes,C.A; Schimidt,G; Neto-Oliveira,E.R; Bersani-Amado,C.A; Cuman,R.K.N

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram comparados os efeitos da farinha de linhaça dourada e farinha de linhaça marrom sobre o perfil lipídico e evolução ponderal em ratos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos, Grupo Controle (GC); Grupo suplementado com Farinha de Linhaça Marrom (LM) e Grupo Suplementado com Farinha de Linhaça Dourada (LD). Os animais foram submetidos à avaliação ponderal em dias alternados até o dia do sacrifício, no 36º dia, quando amostras de sangue foram coletad...

  8. Development of embryo-like structures in the suspension cultures of flax coincides with secretion of chitinase-like proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovská, Beáta; Salaj, T.; Moravčíková, J.; Libantová, J.; Salaj, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2010), s. 651-656 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Conditioned media * Embryo-like structures * Linum usitatissimum L Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  9. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the third largest natural fiber crop and one of the five major oil crops in the world. ... These novel polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful in genetic linkage map construction, germplasm classification and identification, gene identification and QTL mapping, and marker-assisted selection ...

  10. Bacteria responsible for the retting of Brazilian flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, J A

    1965-11-01

    Twenty-two species of bacteria were isolated from Linum usitatissimum stored for retting. Achromobacter parvulus, Clostridium beijerinckii, C. saprogenes, C. saccharoacetoperbutylicum, C. perenne, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its achromogenic variety are retting agents. The last species mentioned performs the retting in only 72 hr. This is the first time A. parvulus has been shown to be a retting agent.

  11. Analysis of retted and non retted flax fibres by chemical and enzymatic means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooney, C.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Schols, H.A.; Jong, de E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Flax fibres (Linum usitatissimum L.) were subjected to chemical and enzymatic analysis in order to determine the compositional changes brought about by the retting process and also to determine the accessibility of the fibre polymers to enzymatic treatment. Chemical analysis involved subjecting both

  12. Influence of salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium tolerance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dose-dependent changes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance, non-protein thiol (NP-SH) production and their relationship were investigated in sixteen-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings derived from seeds pre-soaked with various salicylic acid (SA) doses and grown hydroponically under increased Cd concentrations ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Megwez, S. Vol 3, No 4 (2008) - Articles Effects of the oil and mucilage from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-6357. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  14. Flaxseed lignan and visceral obesity: a closer look at its chemical properties, absorption, metabolism, bioavailability and effects on visceral fat, lipid profile, systemic inflammation and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linum usitatissimum (Flax) is an important flowering crop plant cultivated world-wide. Particularly, flaxseeds have been cherished as a valuable agricultural commodity for many years, because they contain fiber, protein, oil, lignan and others. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a major lign...

  15. Interaction of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia: Effects on flax yield in spoil-bank clay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Sudová, Radka; Gryndler, M.; Mikanová, O.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 1 (2011), s. 128-134 ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Linum usitatissimum * Glomus * Sinorhizobium Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.596, year: 2011

  16. Antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... This research work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples of Linum usitatissimum against seven bacterial and one fungal pathogen. Three concentrations (0.66, 1.00 and 1.33 mg dics-1) each of ethyl acetate, n-hexane, butanol and distilled.

  17. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    102640

    stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Jamahiriya Medical Journal 2003; 2:43-46. 13. Trease G and Evans W. Drugs of biological origin. In: Trease and Evans, 11th ed. Bailliere. Tindall. London 1980; pp 319-320, 741. 14. Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, et al. High α-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum):.

  18. Analysis of genetic diversity in linseed using AFLP markers | Wakjira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the second most important oilseed crop in the highlands of Ethiopia where it has been cultivated for its valuable seed-oil since antiquity. Sixty accessions of linseed predominantly from Ethiopia were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess their ...

  19. Occurrence of cell-specific galactan is coinciding with bast fiber developmental transition in flax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Sal'nikov, V.V.; Pavlencheva, N.V.; Gur'janov, O.P.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Bast fiber peels of developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem contain tissue-specific soluble (1 --> 4)-beta-galactan. The occurrence and localization of this polymer have been investigated at various stages of bast fiber development. Tissue-specific galactan (molecular mass >2000 kDa)

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nadaleti, Willian Cezar. Vol 13, No 12 (2014) - Articles Fertigation of stillage in the culture of brown and golden linseed (Linum usitatissimum) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  1. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on growth, chlorophyll content and tissue composition of the macroalga Chaetomorpha linum (O.F. Müll, Kütz, in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Menéndez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dissolved nutrients on growth, nutrient content and uptake rates of Chaetomorpha linum in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Tancada, Ebro delta, NE Spain was studied in laboratory experiments. Water was enriched with distinct forms of nitrogen, such as nitrate or ammonium and phosphorus. Enrichment with N, P or with both nutrients resulted in a significant increase in the tissue content of these nutrients. N-enrichment was followed by an increase in chlorophyll content after 4 days of treatment, although the difference was only significant when nitrate was added without P. P-enrichment had no significant effect on chlorophyll content. In all the treatments an increase in biomass was obseved after 10 days. This increase was higher in the N+P treatments. In all the treatments the uptake rate was significantly higher when nutrients were added than in control jars. The uptake rate of N, as ammonium, and P were significantly higher when they were added alone while that of N as nitrate was higher in the N+P treatment. In the P-enriched cultures, the final P-content of macroalgal tissues was ten-fold that of the initial tissue concentrations, thereby indicating luxury P-uptake. Moreover, at the end of the incubation the N:P ratio increased to 80, showing that P rather than N was the limiting factor for C. linum in the Tancada lagoon. The relatively high availability of N is related to the N inputs from rice fields that surround the lagoon and to P binding in sediments.

  2. Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, Danny E.

    2012-01-01

    The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emph...

  3. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Bazela, Karolina; Szopa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation an...

  4. Viability of seeds in food products proposed for field trips in Galapagos

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Patricia; Bassantes, Joselyn; Tye, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of 14 plant species extracted from food products proposed for field trips in Galapagos were tested for viability. Strawberry Fragaria ananasa and Blackberry Rubus glaucus jams (Snob and Gustadina brands) contained no viable seeds. Schullo brand granola contained inviable Sesame Sesamum indicum seed, but Sesame in granolas prepared in Galapagos was viable. Sesame seed in bread was viable but Flax Linum usitatissimum seed in bread was not. Brown Rice Oryza sativa and Sunflower...

  5. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates th...

  6. New Phenolics from Linum mucronatum subsp. orientale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Zare

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The DCM and methanol extracts of L. mucronatum were found to contain aryltetralin-type lignans and flavonoids. The occurrence of 6-MeO-α- peltatin and flavonoids in L. mucronatum has been reported for the first time.

  7. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  8. TREHALOSE-BASED ADDITIVE IMPROVED INTER-PRIMER BINDING SITE REACTIONS FOR DNA ISOLATED FROM RECALCITRANT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Lancíková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-based (TBT-PAR additive was tested in order to optimize PCR amplification for DNA isolated from recalcitrant plants. Retrotransposon-based inter-primer binding site reactions were significantly improved with TBT-PAR solution using genomic DNA isolated from flax (Linum usitatissimum L., genotypes Kyivskyi, Bethune grown in radio-contaminated and non-radioactive remediated Chernobyl experimental fields. Additionally, similar improvements were observed using 19 recalcitrant genotypes of maize (Zea mays L. and three genotypes of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Poepp. et Endl., genotypes PER05, ECU45, BOL22 grown in standard field conditions.

  9. Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contextsin southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    . Although archaeobotanical records of oil plants are in most cases found in small numbers, they are often abundant at excavations in southern Scandinavia. This paper presents a diachronic review of plant records of fl ax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), both known for the dual use...... as to whether corn spurrey had been a cultivar or if the seeds had been collected from wild populations. KEYWORDS: Archaeobotany, oil-rich seeds, fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, corn spurrey, southern Scandinavia...

  10. [STUDY OF SOME PLANT SEED LIPIDS GROWING IN GEORGIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B; Gorgaslidze, N; Sulakvelidze, Ts; Malania, M; Urushadze, N; Turabelidze, D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the research was to study seed lipids of cultivated plants: Medicago sativa, Ruta graveolens L., Linum usitatissimum L., which are growing on experimental field of I. Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry. From the above-mentioned plant seeds was obtained the sum of neutral and polar lipids, the classes were determined qualitatively. Using standard methods were determined some physico-chemical constant of oils. Fatty acids was established qualitatively and was determined quantitatively using Gas chromatography and High performance liquid chromatography methods. As a result of research in the seed oil of Medicago Sativa was revealed high percentage content of Oktadekadien - 9,12 fatty acid. Oktadekadien -9 dominates in the oil obtained from the seeds of Ruta graveolens L. and Oktadekantrien - 9,12,15 dominates in the oil obtained from the seeds of Linum usitatissimum L. Phospholipids were established qualitatively and using spectrophotometric method were determined In the sum of polar lipids: (λ 820 nm). The oils which are obtained from above-mentioned plant seeds contains biologically active compounds, which gives the opportunity to use these oils as in medical practice, also in cosmetology.

  11. Методика определения площади листовой поверхности льна масличного (Linum usitatissimum L. на основе методов обработки и анализа изображений

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вера МАЛКИНА

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of high yields of agricultural crops is the result of photosynthesis, the process in which simple substances turn into energetically rich and complex organic compounds varying in their chemical composition. It is well known that the intensity of organic substances accumulation depends on the size of leaf surface, which is defined by the biometric parameters of plants and largely depends on their nutrition regime and also on the duration of leaf activity period. This paper presents the results of scientific investigations on the photosynthetic activity of linseed plants in the Steppe of Ukraine. The authors proposed a method to determine the leaf surface area of linseed, which consists of photographing leaf lamina and processing the obtained graphic files using a special software. The results of comparative assessment of the existing methods for determining leaf surface area on the example of linseed are presented. The advantage of using the methods of computer vision compared to other known methods was highlighted. Реферат. Формирование высокого урожая сельскохозяйственных растений является результатом фотосинтеза, в процессе которого из простых веществ образуются богатые энергией сложные и разнообразные по химическому составу органические соединения. Как известно, интенсивность накопления органических веществ зависит от величины листовой поверхности, которая определяется биометрическими параметрами растений и существенно зависит от режима их питания, а также продолжительности активной деятельности листьев. В статье изложены результаты научных исследований по изучению фотосинтетической деятельности растений льна масличного в Степи Украины. Авторами предложена методика по определению площади листовой поверхности льна масличного, которая заключается в фотографировании листовой пластины и обработке полученных графических файлов с помощью специального программного обеспечения. Изложены результаты сравнительной оценки существующих методов определения площади листовой поверхности на примере льна масличного. Выявлено преимущество использования методов компьютерного зрения перед другими известными методиками.

  12. Biotechnological approaches for producing aryltetralin lignans from Linum species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malik, S.; Bíba, Ondřej; Grúz, Jiří; Arroo, R.R.J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2014), s. 893-913 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-19590S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 6-Methoxypodophyllotoxin * Anticancer drugs * In vitro cultures Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2014

  13. Two rhamnogalacturonide tetrasaccharides isolated from semi-retted flax fibers are signaling molecules in Rubus fruticosus L. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, E; Excoffier, G; Liénart, Y; Vignon, M R

    1997-01-01

    Water extraction of semi-retted flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber bundles yielded a mixture of pectic oligosaccharides and two acidic rhamnogalacturonide tetrasaccharides that were separated by size-exclusion chromatography. One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry experiments indicated that the two tetrasaccharides have a common primary structure, i.e. alpha-D-delta GalpA(1-->2)-alpha-L- Rhap(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA-(1-->2)-L-alpha,beta-Rhap, with a rhamnopyranose as terminal reducing end, and a 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranosiduronic acid at the nonreducing end. However, the two tetrasaccharides differ by an acetyl group located at the O-3 position of the internal galacturonic acid residue. These two tetrasaccharides induce the activation of D-glycohydrolases of Rubus fructicosus L. cells or protoplasts within minutes. PMID:9342877

  14. The biophysics of plant cell wall degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Digaitis, Ramūnas

    different lignocellulosic biomass materials, namely flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibres and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) veneers. Mechanical and enzymatic treatments were applied either individually, simultaneously or in a sequential manner, where enzymatic hydrolysis was preceded or proceeded...... by mechanical treatment. During the enzymatic hydrolysis of flax fibres, mechanical treatment was also applied interruptedly. In addition, factors which potentially enhance physical fibre breakdown (i.e. agitation intensity, type of agitation) as well as impact enzymatic catalysis rate (i.e. enzyme...... concentration, solid loading) were investigated. To learn more about the enzymatic breakdown of lignocellulose (e.g. enzyme specificity), hydrochloric acid, instead of enzymes was used to mitigate flax fibre attrition during mechanical treatment. This study showed for the first time that there is a synergistic...

  15. vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  16. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Gluten-free Bread Fortified with Flaxseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youn Young; Olivia, Clara M; Liu, Jun; Boonen, Rineke; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T

    2016-12-21

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal contains cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) and the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (1). Gluten-free (GF) doughs and baked goods were produced with added flaxseed meal (20%, w/w) then 1, and CGs were determined in fortified flour, dough, and bread with storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (-18, 4, and 22-23 °C). 1 was present in flour, dough, and GF bread after baking. 1 was stable with extensive storage (up to 4 weeks) and was not affected by storage temperature. CGs in flaxseed meal and fortified GF samples were analyzed by 1 H NMR of the cyanohydrins. Linamarin and/or linustatin were the primary CGs in both flaxseed meal and fortified flour. CGs decreased with storage in dough fortified with flaxseed meal or GF bread after baking. GF bakery food products fortified with flaxseed meal had reduced CGs but remained a good source of dietary 1.

  17. Functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas: Exploitation of soil patches with different phosphate enrichment differs among fungal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavagnaro, T.R.; Smith, F.A.; Smith, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    . This was studied by growing symbioses of Linum usitatissimum and three AMF (Glomus intraradices, G. mosseae and Gigaspora margarita) in pots with two side-arms, which were accessible to hyphae, but not to roots. Soil in one side-arm was either unamended (P0) or enriched with P; simultaneous labelling of this soil......Most terrestrial plant species form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that transfer soil P to the plant via their external hyphae. The distribution of nutrients in soils is typically patchy (heterogeneous) but little is known about the ability of AMF to exploit P patches in soil...... with P-32 revealed that G. intraradices responded to P enrichment both in terms of hyphal proliferation and P uptake, whereas the other AMF did not. Labelling with P-33 of P0 soil in the other side arm revealed that the increased P uptake by G. intraradices from the P-enriched patch was paralleled...

  18. Levels of essential and non-essential metals in linseed ( Linum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K and Fe were with the highest concentration from major and trace metals, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95% confidence level indicated that there is significant difference in the levels of all metals between the five samples means except K and Ni. The results indicated that Ethiopian linseed is a good source ...

  19. AMMI Analysis of Yields and Oil Content in Some Linseed (Linum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment interaction (GEI) among the varieties for ... environments. The AMMI selections for oil content and yield per environment included Kassa-2 in all ...... of varieties and environments in field pea (Pisum sativum L.). J. Genet. Breed. 54: 183-191.

  20. Variation in physico-chemical/analytical characteristics of oil among different flaxseed (Linum usittatissimum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAZIA YAQOOB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates and compares the proximate parameters of flaxseed, as well as the physicochemical characteristics of the extracted flaxseed oils of locally grown eight cultivars. The oil, protein, fiber and ash content of the seeds ranged from32.56-39.98%, 16.02-18.50%, 23.30-26.88 and 3.20-3.60%, respectively showing considerable variation among cultivars. The quality attributes such as unsaponifiable matter, peroxide value, acid value, para-anisidine value, conjugateddienes and trienes as well as tocopherols content of the tested flaxseed oils varied significantly (p<0.05 among cultivars. The major tocopherol was γ-tocopherol (173.7 to 257.9 mg/Lfollowed by relatively low quantities of α-tocopherol (8-12 mg/L, while δ-tocopherol was not detected.α-Linolenic acid was found to be the principal fatty acid in the range of 44.51 to 54.87%, while the second major fatty acid present in the oils was oleic acid (21.05 to 30.96%. The variationin the characteristics of oils among different cultivars observed during present investigation might be attributed to difference in genetic makeup and harvesting regimes of the flax plants.

  1. Effect of temperature on 'N' uptake of Chaetomorpha linum (Muller) and Padina tetrastomatica (Hauck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    . At the end of the experiment the algae were retrieved, oven dried at 70 degrees C and weighed. Technicon II autoanalyser was used for ammonium, nitrate and urea measurement using methods described by Koroleff (1970), Wood et al. (1967) and Aminot and Keroule...

  2. Caracterização do comércio de plantas medicinais por raizeiros em Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais são, em muitos casos, a única alternativa possível para boa parte da população brasileira que as obtém geralmente do próprio quintal ou de raizeiros. O objetivo no presente estudo foi caracterizar o comércio de plantas medicinais por raizeiros em Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Foram usadas as técnicas de observação direta e participante e aplicadas entrevistas semiestruturadas. A comercialização de plantas e produtos medicinais é considerada a principal fonte de renda dos raizeiros entrevistados. Foram citadas 86 plantas de uso medicinais entre os raizeiros, sendo Linum usitatissimum L. (86% a mais citada, seguida de Plectranthus barbatus L (71%, Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (71% e Bauhinia forficata Link. (71%. As plantas são procuradas para 67 tipos de enfermidades, como anemia, artrite e vermes. A gripe e inflamação foram as doenças mais citadas. As plantas são armazenadas no próprio estabelecimento por períodos longos comprometendo sua eficácia e não são cultivadas pelos raizeiros. Characterization of the medicinal plant trade by healers in Mossoró, Rio Grande do NorteAbstract: Medicinal plants are, in many cases, the only possible alternative for much of the Brazilian population that usually gets the own homegarden or healers. The aim of this study was to characterize the trade of medicinal plants by healers in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. They were used the techniques of direct observation and participant and applied semi-structured interviews. The marketing of medicinal plants and products is considered the main source of income of healers. There were 86 medicinal plants among the raizers, with Linum usitatissimum L. (86% being the most cited, followed by Plectranthus barbatus L. (71%, Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (71% and Bauhinia forficata Link. (71%. Plants are sought for 67 types of diseases, from diseases such as anemia, arthritis and worms. Influenza and inflammation were the most

  3. [Dynamics of ultrastructure changes in sheet plate fiber flax with braking transport assimilate by nitrate-anion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrakhimov, F A; Batasheva, S N; Bakirova, G G; Chikov, V I

    2008-01-01

    Changes in leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure under nitrate feeding into the apoplast of common flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) in the form of 50 mM KNO3 solution were studied. In 30 min after the beginning of nitrate feeding through the transpiration water stream, swelling of mitochondrial and microbodies, clarification of their matrices, and curling of dictyosome discs into annular structures were observed. These events characterized symplastic domain formed by mesophyll, bundle sheath and phloem parenchyma cells, and were not found in companion cell-sieve element complex. Simultaneously, formation of large central vacuoles in companion cells was noted. Restoration of organelle structures in assimilating cells and phloem parenchyma in 1-2 h after treatment was accompanied by enhancement of morphological changes in phloem elements and companion cells and signs of plasmolysis in the mesophyll cells. It was supposed that the two-phase character of changes in leaf organelle ultrastructure and photosynthesis might reflect duality of leaf cell response to nitrate ion. The rapid alterations of the structure can be coupled with direct influence of the anion on cell metabolism and(or) with signal-regulatory functions of oxidized nitrogen forms, while the slower ones reflect the result of suppression of photoassimilate export from leaves by the anion.

  4. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  5. The Use of Adsorbent Materials of Improving the Characteristics of Polluted Soils, Part 1 Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Oil Products, Cultivated with Technical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study are presented in pot experimental variants regarding alternatives to improve the characteristics of soils polluted with 74.12 ± 3.50 g·kg-1 D.M. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH in order to apply the phytoremediation process using technical plants from the common flax (Linum usitatissimum. The harmful effects of TPH polluted soils to plants was reduced by using fly ash from thermal plant as temporary adsorbent of non-polar pollutants, petroleum products. The increase of water retention capacity of the soil was achieved by treatments with indigenous volcanic tuff. The lack of nutrients, based on N and P in soils contaminated with TPH rich in C compounds are completed using sewage sludge anaerobically stabilized. The use of appropriate amounts of fly ash and fertilizer agents in the presence of volcanic tuff caused the formation of strong networks of roots and rich harvests of plants, stems and seeds from the treated soil. The TPH reduction efficiency of TPH polluted soils treated with fly ash (TPH soil: fly ash ratio 12:1 wt. / wt. and anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge respectively indigenous volcanic tuff during one vegetative cycle of crops was in the range of 56.2 - 63.25 %.

  6. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  7. Nonhost resistance of rice to rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Devilla, Rosangela; Mago, Rohit; White, Rosemary; Talbot, Mark; Pryor, Anthony; Leung, Hei

    2011-10-01

    Rice is atypical in that it is an agricultural cereal that is immune to fungal rust diseases. This report demonstrates that several cereal rust species (Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici, P. triticina, P. striiformis, and P. hordei) can infect rice and produce all the infection structures necessary for plant colonization, including specialized feeding cells (haustoria). Some rust infection sites are remarkably large and many plant cells are colonized, suggesting that nutrient uptake occurs to support this growth. Rice responds with an active, nonhost resistance (NHR) response that prevents fungal sporulation and that involves callose deposition, production of reactive oxygen species, and, occasionally, cell death. Genetic variation for the efficacy of NHR to wheat stem rust and wheat leaf rust was observed. Unlike cereal rusts, the rust pathogen (Melampsora lini) of the dicotyledenous plant flax (Linum usitatissimum) rarely successfully infects rice due to an apparent inability to recognize host-derived signals. Morphologically abnormal infection structures are produced and appressorial-like structures often don't coincide with stomata. These data suggest that basic compatibility is an important determinate of nonhost infection outcomes of rust diseases on cereals, with cereal rusts being more capable of infecting a cereal nonhost species compared with rust species that are adapted for dicot hosts.

  8. Fluid-dynamic behavior of flaxseed fluidized and spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Brandão Santana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Processing of particles in a moving bed, such as a fluidized bed or a spouting bed, is commonly used in the operations of drying, coating, and granulation of particulate systems. This process has applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and, presently, agronomical industries, especially for seed treatment/coating. This research aimed to analyze the fluid-dynamic behavior of fluidized and spouting beds with different air temperatures and loads of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L., with estimates of the fluid-dynamic parameters correlated to each process. The parameters were compared with the values obtained from classical correlations in the literature, with indications of associated percentages of deviation. Influence of fluid dynamics on the physiological quality of seeds was assessed by germination tests and the germination speed index. An analysis of the results indicated that seed processing was adequate for processing in dynamically active beds; however, temperatures above 50ºC in both beds caused significant reductions in the physiological quality of the seeds. Processing in a fluidized bed presented a smaller reduction of the physiological properties of the flaxseed.

  9. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used “menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Results: Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. Conclusion: The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review. PMID:27462550

  10. Linen most useful: perspectives on structure, chemistry, and enzymes for retting flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E

    2013-01-01

    The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca(2+) chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

  11. The use of phosphomannose isomerase selection system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco and flax aimed for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Jitka; Sura-De Jong, Martina; Fišer, Jiří; Tupá, Kateřina; Vrbová, Miroslava; Griga, Miroslav; Macek, Tomáš; Žiarovská, Jana

    2017-05-04

    A plant selection system based on the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker is often used to avoid selection using antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, pmi gene is endogenous in several plant species and therefore difficult to use in such cases. Here we evaluated and compared Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Linum usitatissimum breeding line AGT-952 (without endogenous pmi gene) and Nicotiana tabacum var. WSC-38 (with endogenous pmi gene). Transformation was evaluated for vectors bearing transgenes that have the potential to be involved in improved phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Tobacco regenerants selection resulted in 6.8% transformation efficiency when using a medium supplemented with 30 g/L mannose with stepwise decrease of the sucrose concentration. Similar transformation efficiency (5.3%) was achieved in transformation of flax. Relatively low selection efficiency was achieved (12.5% and 34.8%, respectively). The final detection of efficient pmi selection was conducted using PCR and the non-endogenous genes; pmi transgene for flax and todC2 transgene for tobacco plants.

  12. Bast fibre content, fibre yield and fibre quality of different linseed genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SANKARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. grown for seed does not compete well with flax in fibre yield, but as a by-product of seed production its stems could be used in non-woven products. With the aim of discovering suitable linseed genotypes to be cultivated for dual-purpose use in Finland, Finnish linseed cv. Helmi was compared with ten other linseed genotypes and one flax cultivar for stem yield, bast fibre content in stem, stem length and diameter and bast fibre yield. In addition, breaking tenacity and elongation at break of the fibres were determined. The experiments were carried out in 1996B1997 at the Agricultural Research Centre (MTT in Jokioinen, Finland (latitude 60o49'N. Bast fibre content in stem averaged 16.9% and breeding line Bor 18 had significantly higher bast fibre content than cv. Helmi. Bast fibre yield averaged 301 kg dry matter ha-1. Compared with cv. Helmi, breeding lines Bor 15 and Bor 18 and cvs. Flanders and Gold Merchant produced significantly higher fibre yield. The median for breaking tenacity varied among the genotypes between 41 and 67 cN/tex and the median for elongation at break between 3.5 and 6.8%. Finnish breeding line Bor 18 is recommended for cultivation as dual-purpose linseed in Finland. ;

  13. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  14. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  15. AAPH-mediated antioxidant reactions of secoisolariciresinol and SDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, Farah S; Muir, Alister D; Westcott, Neil D; Krol, Ed S

    2007-02-21

    Secoisolariciresinol (SECO ) is the major lignan found in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) and is present in a polymer that contains secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG ). SECO, SDG and the polymer are known to have a number of health benefits, including reduction of serum cholesterol levels, delay in the onset of type II diabetes and decreased formation of breast, prostate and colon cancers. The health benefits of SECO and SDG may be partially attributed to their antioxidant properties. To better understand their antioxidant properties, SECO and SDG were oxidized using 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane), an in vitro model of radical scavenging. The major lignan radical-scavenging oxidation products and their formation over time were determined. SDG was converted to four major products, which were the result of a phenoxyl radical intermediate. One of these products, a dimer of SDG, decomposed under the reaction conditions to form two of the other major products, and . SECO was converted to five major products, two of which were also the result of a phenoxyl radical intermediate. The remaining products were the result of an unexpected alkoxyl radical intermediate. The phenol oxidation products were stable under the reaction conditions, whereas two of the alcohol oxidation products decomposed. In general, only one phenol group on the lignans was oxidized, suggesting that the number of phenols per molecule may not predict radical scavenging antioxidant ability of lignans. Finally, SECO is a superior antioxidant to SDG, and it may be that the additional alcohol oxidation pathway contributes to its greater antioxidant ability.

  16. Mycorrhizal colonization and grain Cd concentration of field-grown durum wheat in response to tillage, preceding crop and phosphorus fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaopeng; Akhter, Fardausi; Tenuta, Mario; Flaten, Donald N; Gawalko, Eugene J; Grant, Cynthia A

    2010-04-15

    A 3-year field trial was conducted to investigate the effect of agricultural management practices including tillage, preceding crop and phosphate fertilization on root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and grain cadmium (Cd) concentration of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). The relationship between grain Cd and soil and plant variables was explored to determine the primary factors affecting grain Cd concentration. Mycorrhizal colonization of the roots was reduced by conventional tillage or when the preceding crop was canola (Brassica napus L.), compared to minimum tillage or when the preceding crop was flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). In contrast, grain Cd was not consistently affected by any treatment. Grain Cd was generally below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of 100 microg Cd kg(-1) proposed by WHO. Grain Cd varied substantially from year to year, and could be predicted with 70% of variance accounted for by using the model: grain Cd concentration = - 321.9 + 44.5x ln(grain yield) + 0.26x soil DTPA-Cd + 182.5x soil electrical conductivity (EC)- 0.98x grain Zn concentration. These common agricultural management practices had no effect on grain Cd concentration in durum wheat though they impacted mycorrhizal colonization of roots. Grain yield and to a lesser extent soil conditions of EC and DTPA-Cd and grain Zn influenced grain Cd, whereas mycorrhizal colonization levels did not. (c) 2010 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. NÍVEL DE CONTROLE DE Diloboderus abderus EM AVEIA PRETA, LINHO, MILHO E GIRASSOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mauro Tadeu Braga da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo aqui relatado foi conduzido nas safras agrícolas de 1991 e 1992, em Cruz Alta, no Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de infestação de Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae em aveia preta (Avena strigosa L., em linho (Linum usitatissimum L., em milho (Zea mays L. e em girassol (Helianthus annuus L., no sistema de plantio direto. O aumento do número de larvas/m² propiciou a ocorrência de danos e, em conseqüência, a diminuição da população de plantas, da massa seca da parte aérea e da produtividade. Os níveis de controle obtidos foram variáveis dependendo da cultura. Com base nos danos produzidos pelo inseto, sugerem-se os níveis de controle de 12 larvas/m² em linho, de 10 larvas/m² em aveia preta, de 0,5 larva/m² em milho e de 0,4 larva/m² em girassol, como indicador para tratamento de sementes destas culturas com inseticidas.

  18. Genotyping-By-Sequencing for Plant Genetic Diversity Analysis: A Lab Guide for SNP Genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Peterson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for exploring plant genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. However, many uncertainties and challenges remain in the application of GBS, particularly in non-model species. Here, we present a GBS protocol we developed and use for plant genetic diversity analysis. It uses two restriction enzymes to reduce genome complexity, applies Illumina multiplexing indexes for barcoding and has a custom bioinformatics pipeline for genotyping. This genetic diversity-focused GBS (gd-GBS protocol can serve as an easy-to-follow lab guide to assist a researcher through every step of a GBS application with five main components: sample preparation, library assembly, sequencing, SNP calling and diversity analysis. Specifically, in this presentation, we provide a brief overview of the GBS approach, describe the gd-GBS procedures, illustrate it with an application to analyze genetic diversity in 20 flax (Linum usitatissimum L. accessions and discuss related issues in GBS application. Following these lab bench procedures and using the custom bioinformatics pipeline, one could generate genome-wide SNP genotype data for a conventional genetic diversity analysis of a non-model plant species.

  19. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  20. Relation between D/H ratios and 18O /16O ratios in cellulose from linen and maize - Implications for paleoclimatology and for sindonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNiro, Michael J.; Sternberg, Leonel D.; Marino, Bruno D.; Druzik, James R.

    1988-09-01

    The 18O /16O ratios of cellulose and the D/H ratios of cellulose nitrate were determined for linen, a textile produced from the fibers of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum, and for maize ( Zea mays) from a variety of geographic locations in Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America. The regression lines of δD values on δ 18O values had slopes of 5.4 and 5.8 for the two species. Statistical analysis of results reported in the only other study in which samples of a single species (the silver fir Abies pindrow) that grew under a variety of climatic conditions were analyzed yielded slopes of ~6 when δD values of cellulose nitrate were regressed on δ 18O values of cellulose. The occurrence of this previously unrecognized relationship in three species suggests it may obtain in other plants as well. Determining the basis for this relationship, which is not possible given current understanding of fractionation of the isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen by plants, should lead to increased understanding of how D/H and 18O /16O ratios in cellulose isolated from fossil plants are related to paleoclimates. The separation of most linen samples from Europe from those originating in the Middle East when δD values are plotted against δ 18O values suggests it may be possible to use the isotope ratios of cellulose prepared from the Shroud of Turin to resolve the controversy concerning its geographic origin.

  1. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S.; Torquato, Alex S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto, E-mail: mmakoto@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Nilson E. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  2. Turnover of galactans and other cell wall polysaccharides during development of flax plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Lozovaya, V.V.; Carpita, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the synthesis and turnover of cell wall polysaccharides of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant during development of the phloem fibers. One-month-old flax plants were exposed to a 40-min pulse with 14CO2 followed by 8-h, 24-h, and 1-month periods of chase with ambient CO2, and radioactivity in cell wall sugars was determined in various plant parts. The relative radioactivity of glucose in noncellulosic polysaccharides was the highest compared with all other cell wall sugars immediately after the pulse and decreased substantially during the subsequent chase. The relative radioactivities of the other cell wall sugars changed with differing rates, indicating turnover of specific polysaccharides. Notably, after 1 month of chase there was a marked decrease in the proportional mass and total radioactivity in cell wall galactose, indicating a long-term turnover of the galactans enriched in the fiber-containing tissues. The ratio of radiolabeled xylose to arabinose also increased during the chase, indicating a turnover of arabinose-containing polymers and interconversion to xylose. The pattern of label redistribution differed between organs, indicating that the cell wall turnover processes are tissue- and cell-specific

  3. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  4. No evidence of hypoglycemia or hypotension in older adults during 6 months of flax lignan supplementation in a randomized controlled trial: a safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinsky, Jennifer; Glew, Riley A; Cornish, Stephen M; Whiting, Susan J; Thorpe, Lilian U; Alcorn, Jane; Paus-Jenssen, Lisa; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2013-06-01

    The natural health product, BeneFlax, is a standardized flaxseed [Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae)] lignan enriched product with evidence of product quality and known quantity of the bioactive component, lignan. The acceptance of this natural health product for its various health benefits requires greater evidence of its safety in the general population. We determined whether flaxseed lignan causes clinical hypoglycemia or hypotension in healthy older adults as an important aspect of safety. Participants aged 49-87 years were randomized in a double-blind trial to receive flaxseed lignan (543 mg/day in BeneFlax) or placebo while completing a 6-month walking program. The 94 participants who completed the study were stratified by age (Controlling for sex and body mass index covariates resulted in no observed differences between plasma glucose or blood pressure measurements between treatment or age groups (p > 0.05). No incidents of hypoglycemia or hypotension were observed during BeneFlax treatment, suggesting that 543 mg falls at or below the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL). These data suggest the flaxseed lignan product BeneFlax does not pose a risk of hypoglycemia or hypotension in healthy adults aged 49-87 years.

  5. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L. (syn: Sanctum; Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana; Linum usitatissimum (L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

  6. ELABORATION OF APPROACHES TO THE STANDARTIZ OFATION HELICHRYSUM ARENARIUM (1. MOENCH IN PLANT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Goudzenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marker for qualitative and quantitative standardization of Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench. flowers in the plant mixtures was determine. As a marker of Helichrysum arenarium Moench. flowers can be used flavonoid apigenin. HPLC method of determination flavonoid apigenin in raw materials and plant mixtures of flowers Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench was developed. Contents of apigenin in the raw plant flowers were in the range from 0,1453 ± 0,0068% to 0,1657 ± 0,0085%, in terms of the dried materials. It is shown, that the presence and content of apigenin flowers Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench can be standardized in the mixtures with the following plant:flowers, leaves and fruits of genus Crataegus L., roots of Althaea officinalis L., roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., roots of Cichorium intybus L., roots of Taraxacum officinale Web., cones of Humulus lupulus L., herb of Leonurus cardiaca L., herb of Hypericum perforatum L. and seeds of Linum usitatissimum L.

  7. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world.

  8. Oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from vegetable oils having different degrees of unsaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja, Samantha Siqueira; Conceição, Leyvison Rafael V. da; Costa, Carlos E.F. da; Zamian, José R.; Rocha Filho, Geraldo N. da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We obtained biodiesel from açai, cupuaçu, passion fruit and linseed oil. • Determined the properties of biodiesel, such as kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and oxidative stability. • Evaluated the influence of antioxidants on biodiesel. • The PG antioxidant was more efficient than BHA and TBHQ for the açaí biodiesel. - Abstract: In the present paper, methyl esters were obtained from the transesterification of cupuaçu fat lipids (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) (K. Schum.), açaí (Euterpe oleracea), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oils, using a basic catalyst. The triglycerides were characterized by their fatty acid composition, and the biodiesels were characterized according to standard methods. The critical properties, such as the cold filter plugging point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability, of the biodiesels were studied. The influence of butyl-hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants on the açaí, passion fruit and linseed biodiesels was evaluated at concentrations from 500 to 4000 ppm. PG was found to be the most efficient antioxidant for the studied biodiesels

  9. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P.; Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  10. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g -1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg -1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C 18 :2 :C 18 :3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Use of Adsorbent Materials of Improving the Characteristics of Polluted Soils, Part 2 the Bioaccumulation of Metals in Plants Used in Phytoremediation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study covers the advantages of phytoremediation processes of soils heavily polluted with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH with the use of Linum usitatissimum (flax. To increase the potential development of technical crops on TPH soils polluted with 74.12 ± 3.5 g·kg-1 D.M., the contaminated soils were amended with fly ash; the ratio of polluted soil: fly ash 12:1 wt. / wt. and fertilized with sewage sludge. The degree of accumulation of Fe in the stems was 21 - 33 % higher than in the control sample and 6 - 27 % in the seeds; the accumulation of Mn in the stems was 13.5 - 30 % higher than in the control sample and 8 - 17 % in the seeds; the accumulation of Cu in stems was 17 - 6 % higher than in the control sample and for seeds 20 - 60 %; the accumulation of Zn in stems was 13 - 27 % higher than in the control sample with 49 - 63 % in the seeds. In the harvested plant tissues from the studied variants the content of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni was less than the detection limit. Monitoring bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aerial plant tissue was needed to decide the sector where the biomass harvested from TPH polluted soil covered with vegetation.

  13. Improvement of adventitious root formation in flax using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takáč, Tomáš; Obert, Bohuš; Rolčík, Jakub; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-09-25

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of oil and fiber. In vitro manipulations of flax are used for genetic improvement and breeding while improvements in adventitious root formation are important for biotechnological programs focused on regeneration and vegetative propagation of genetically valuable plant material. Additionally, flax hypocotyl segments possess outstanding morphogenetic capacity, thus providing a useful model for the investigation of flax developmental processes. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and auxin with respect to reprogramming flax hypocotyl cells for root morphogenetic development. Exogenous auxin induced the robust formation of adventitious roots from flax hypocotyl segments while the addition of hydrogen peroxide further enhanced this process. The levels of endogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) were positively correlated with increased root formation in response to exogenous auxin (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA). Histochemical staining of the hypocotyl segments revealed that hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase, but not superoxide, were positively correlated with root formation. Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that endogenous levels of hydrogen peroxide were controlled by peroxidases during root formation from hypocotyl segments. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide positively affected flax adventitious root formation by regulating the endogenous auxin levels. Consequently, this agent can be applied to increase flax regeneration capacity for biotechnological purposes such as improved plant rooting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three levels (0, 8, or 16% of the golden variety of flaxseed (GFS; Linum usitatissimum L., included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, on the carcass characteristics, meat composition and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat. The trial was carried out on 30 weaned crossbred rabbits aged 9 weeks, weighing on average 2074 g. The animals were divided equally into three groups of 10 (five male and five female rabbits each and kept separate in individual cages. At the end of the experiment, which lasted 5 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups in the carcass yield or the proportions of various carcass parts and edible organs. Although the chemical composition of the meat was not significantly affected by the dietary treatment, the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in the longissimus dorsi muscle (-22% and -24%, respectively and perirenal fat (-34% and –29%, respectively decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased (+36% in the muscle and 43% in the fat, respectively with increased GFS inclusion. GFS dietary supplementation has shown to be effective in improving the n-3 PUFA proportion (76% in the muscle and 77% in the fat, respectively, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio and reducing the saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of the meat, with consequent benefits on the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

  15. Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three levels (0, 8, or 16% of the golden variety of flaxseed (GFS; Linum usitatissimum L., included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, on the carcass characteristics, meat composition and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat. The trial was carried out on 30 weaned crossbred rabbits aged 9 weeks, weighing on average 2074 g. The animals were divided equally into three groups of 10 (five male and five female rabbits each and kept separate in individual cages. At the end of the experiment, which lasted 5 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups in the carcass yield or the proportions of various carcass parts and edible organs. Although the chemical composition of the meat was not significantly affected by the dietary treatment, the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in the longissimus dorsi muscle (-22% and -24%, respectively and perirenal fat (-34% and –29%, respectively decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased (+36% in the muscle and 43% in the fat, respectively with increased GFS inclusion. GFS dietary supplementation has shown to be effective in improving the n-3 PUFAproportion (76% in the muscle and 77% in the fat, respectively, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio and reducing the saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of the meat, with consequent benefits on the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

  16. Influence of twin-screw hot extrusion on linolenic acid retention in flaxseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.

    2014-01-01

    flaxseed (linum usitatissimum l.) provides multiple nutritional benefits including high quality protein, dietary fiber and is the most abundant source of alpha-linolenic acid (c18:3). This study focuses on the effect of twin-screw hot extrusion on alpha-linolenic acid retention in full-fat flaxseed meal. the ranges of processing variables selected using box-behnken design were barrel exit temperature (bet) of 120-140 degree c; screw speed (ss) of 200-400 rpm; feed rate (fr) of 1-2 kg/h and feed moisture (fm) of 20-30%. The amount of alpha-linolenic acid retention in extruded samples ranged from 89.2% to 99.3%. Optimal operating conditions were stablished; bet (121degree c), ss (388 rpm), fr (1 kg/h) and fm (22.2%) for maximum (99.9%) retention of degree-linolenic acid. This effect was mainly dependent on bet and fm (p degree 0.01), whereas ss and fr imparted a lesser effect (p=0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that the twin-screw hot extrusion can be successfully explored to produce fatty meals with significant fatty acids retention for commercially food or feed purposes. (author)

  17. ATIVIDADE ALELOPÁTICA DE EXTRATOS DE PLANTAS DE COBERTURA SOBRE SOJA, PEPINO E ALFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSELI VIVIANE DITZEL NUNES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy can be defined as any effect , direct or indirect, beneficial or harmful, a plant on the other, through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. Thus, this study aimed at evaluat- ing, in the laboratory, allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from cover crops as canola (Brassica napus L. var, crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. and forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% concentrations. The plants used in aqueous extracts were collected during their flowering period of each studied species. Germination tests were performed on seeds gerbox, fresh and dry seedlings biomass, root and shoots seedlings length. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD in factorial (5x5 with four replicates per treatment. According to these results, it can be concluded that the tested extracts showed allelopathic effect on seedlings of lettuce, cucumber and soybean on almost all parameters, but for soybean germination and dry mass percentage, this effect was not significant. The sunn hemp extract, despite concentration, contributed the most to increased germination and seedling growth. However, linseed extract showed opposite effect for these parameters in 100% concentrations.

  18. De Novo Transcriptomes of Forsythia koreana Using a Novel Assembly Method: Insight into Tissue- and Species-Specific Expression of Lignan Biosynthesis-Related Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shiraishi

    Full Text Available Forsythia spp. are perennial woody plants which are one of the most extensively used medicinal sources of Chinese medicines and functional diets owing to their lignan contents. Lignans have received widespread attention as leading compounds in the development of antitumor drugs and healthy diets for reducing the risks of lifestyle-related diseases. However, the molecular basis of Forsythia has yet to be established. In this study, we have verified de novo deep transcriptome of Forsythia koreana leaf and callus using the Illumina HiSeq 1500 platform. A total of 89 million reads were assembled into 116,824 contigs using Trinity, and 1,576 of the contigs displayed the sequence similarity to the enzymes responsible for plant specialized metabolism including lignan biosynthesis. Notably, gene ontology (GO analysis indicated the remarkable enrichment of lignan-biosynthetic enzyme genes in the callus transcriptome. Nevertheless, precise annotation and molecular phylogenetic analyses were hindered by partial sequences of open reading frames (ORFs of the Trinity-based contigs. To obtain more numerous contigs harboring a full-length ORF, we developed a novel overlapping layout consensus-based procedure, virtual primer-based sequence reassembly (VP-seq. VP-seq elucidated 709 full-length ORFs, whereas only 146 full-length ORFs were assembled by Trinity. The comparison of expression profiles of leaf and callus using VP-seq-based full-length ORFs revealed 50-fold upregulation of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SIRD in callus. Expression and phylogenetic cluster analyses predicted candidates for matairesinol-glucosylating enzymes. We also performed VP-seq analysis of lignan-biosynthetic enzyme genes in the transcriptome data of other lignan-rich plants, Linum flavum, Linum usitatissimum and Podophyllum hexandrum. The comparative analysis indicated both common gene clusters involved in biosynthesis upstream of matairesinol such as SIRD and plant lineage

  19. Zinc Fertilization Effects on Seed Cadmium Accumulation in Oilseed and Grain Crops Grown on North Dakota Soils Efecto de la Fertilización con Zinc en la Acumulación de Cadmio en Semillas Oleaginosas y Cereales producidos en Suelos de Dakota del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A Rojas-Cifuentes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cd concentration in the seed of crops depends on various soil factors including parent material, texture, pH, soil redox, and salinity. Cadmium accumulation also varies among crop species and cultivars within a species. Cadmium and Zn may have either an antagonistic or a synergistic effect on plant uptake that can be influenced by the soil Cd and Zn concentrations. The objective was to determine the effect of Zn fertilizer additions on the seed Cd of nine crops commonly grown in North Dakota, USA. Studies were conducted at five North Dakota locations representing different soil series during 1994 and 1995. In Experiment 1, nine crops common in North Dakota were grown with and without the addition of 25 kg ha-1 Zn fertilizer. Among crops evaluated, the greatest seed Cd accumulation occurred in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. followed by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum. In Experiment 2, two durum wheats and one flax cultivar were grown under three Zn treatments of 0, 5, and 25 kg ha-1. In Experiment again flax had the higher seed Cd level compared with the two durum varieties. Based on the results from both studies, addition of Zn fertilizer did not consistently reduce seed Cd content, and even when statistically significant, the level of reduction was small and not likely to impact marketability of Cd accumulating crops such as flax, sunflower, soybean, and durum.La concentración de Cd en semillas depende de varios factores, tanto del suelo como de la planta. Cadmio y Zn pueden tener efectos antagónicos o sinérgicos en la absorción de la planta dependiendo de las concentraciones de Cd y Zn existentes en el suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la fertilización con Zn en la acumulación de Cd en la semilla de diversos cultivos comúnmente producidos en Dakota del Norte, EE.UU. Dos estudios fueron realizados en cinco localidades en

  20. Flaxseed Response To N, P, and K Fertilization in South Central Chile Respuesta a la Fertilización N, P y K en Lino Oleaginoso en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

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    Marisol Berti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is a minor crop in Chile. There is interest to increase the number of crops on the current rotation in South Central Chile and also to increase oilseed feedstocks for salmon feed. There is little information published about seed yield and oil content response to N, P, and K fertilizers on flaxseed in Chile. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N, P, and K fertilization on flaxseed yield, oil content, and composition. The study was conducted at two locations during two growing seasons (environments, in Chillán 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and in Osorno 2004-2005, 2006-2007. Treatments were four levels of N (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg N ha-1, three levels of P (0,100, and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1, and two levels of K (0 and 150 kgK2O ha-1. The design was a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of three factors (N, P, and K and four replicates. According to the results, flaxseed yield improved as N rates increased. Physical optimum rate (rate at which maximum seed yield is obtained was different depending on the location and year. Nitrogen rate increased oil content and yield up to 200 kg N ha-1. Oil composition was not affected by N, P, and K rates, or their interactions. The P and K nutrients did not have an effect on seed yield, oil content, oil yield, and oil composition.El lino oleaginoso (Linum usitatissimum L. es un cultivo menor en Chile. En la zona centro sur existe interés por ampliar las alternativas para la rotación de cultivos, así como la necesidad de satisfacer la demanda por semillas oleaginosas para la alimentación de salmones. En Chile no hay información relacionada con la respuesta del lino frente a la fertilización. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de N, P y K sobre el rendimiento de semillas y contenido de aceite en lino cultivado en dos localidades: Chillán (temporadas 2004-2005 y 2005-2006 y Osorno (temporadas 2004-2005 y 2006-2007 (ambientes. Los

  1. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

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    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  2. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Van Hees, M.

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 and to fibres 1.0 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m -2 ). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination -2 ). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of -2 for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 ) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care

  3. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  4. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

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    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  5. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5x10(-3) m2 kg(-1) and to fibres 1.0x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12,300kBq m(-2)). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3x10(-3) m2 kg(-1)) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  6. Analysis of retted and non retted flax fibres by chemical and enzymatic means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, C; Stolle-Smits, T; Schols, H; de Jong, E

    2001-08-23

    Flax fibres (Linum usitatissimum L.) were subjected to chemical and enzymatic analysis in order to determine the compositional changes brought about by the retting process and also to determine the accessibility of the fibre polymers to enzymatic treatment. Chemical analysis involved subjecting both retted and non retted fibres to a series of sequential chemical extractions with 1% ammonium oxalate, 0.05 M KOH, 1 M KOH and 4 M KOH. Retting was shown to cause minimal weight loss from the fibres but caused significant changes to the pectic polymers present. Retted fibres were shown to have significantly lower amounts of rhamnogalacturonan as well as arabinan and xylan. In addition the average molecular mass of the pectic extracts was considerably lowered. Enzyme treatment of the 1 M KOH extracts with two different enzymes demonstrated that the non retted extract contained a relatively high molecular weight xylan not found in the retted extract. Treatment of the 1 M KOH extracts and the fibres with Endoglucanase V from Trichoderma viride demonstrated that while this enzyme solubilised cellulose as well as xylan and xyloglucan oligomers from the extract, it had limited access to these polymers on the fibre. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the material solubilised from the extract suggested that the xylan was randomly substituted with 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid moieties. The xyloglucan was shown to be of the XXXG type and was substituted with galactose and fucose units. The enzyme treatments of the fibres demonstrated that the xylan and xyloglucan polymers in the fibres were not accessible to the enzyme but that material which was entrapped by the cellulose could be released by the hydrolysis of this cellulose.

  7. Lignin deficiency in transgenic flax resulted in plants with improved mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Starzycki, Michał; Zebrowski, Jacek; Oszmiański, Jan; Szopa, Jan

    2007-03-10

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a very important source of natural fibres used by the textile industry. Flax fibres are called lignocellulosic, because they contain mainly cellulose (about 70%), with hemicellulose, pectin and lignin. Lignin is a three-dimensional polymer with a high molecular weight, and it gives rigidity and mechanical resistance to the fibre and plant. Its presence means the fibres have worse elastic properties than non-lignocellulosic fibres, e.g. cotton fibres, which contain no lignin. The main aim of this study was to produce low-lignin flax plants with fibres with modified elastic properties. An improvement in the mechanical properties was expected. The used strategy for CAD down-regulation was based on gene silencing RNAi technology. Manipulation of the CAD gene caused changes in enzyme activity, lignin content and in the composition of the cell wall in the transgenic plants. The detected reduction in the lignin level in the CAD-deficient plants resulted in improved mechanical properties. Young's modulus was up to 75% higher in the generated transgenic plants (CAD33) relative to the control plants. A significant increase in the lignin precursor contents and a reduction in the pectin and hemicellulose constituents was also detected. A decrease in pectin and hemicellulose, as well as a lower lignin content, might lead to improved extractability of the fibres. However, the resistance of the transgenic lines to Fusarium oxysporum was over two-fold lower than for the non-transformed plants. Since Fusarium species are used as retting organisms and had been isolated from retted flax, the increased sensitivity of the CAD-deficient plant to F. oxysporum infection might lead to improved flax retting.

  8. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  9. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio Gonzalez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1 and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1 soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn; Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil. The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk.

  10. Intramolecular interaction influences binding of the Flax L5 and L6 resistance proteins to their AvrL567 ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ravensdale

    Full Text Available L locus resistance (R proteins are nucleotide binding (NB-ARC leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum that provide race-specific resistance to the causal agent of flax rust disease, Melampsora lini. L5 and L6 are two alleles of the L locus that directly recognize variants of the fungal effector AvrL567. In this study, we have investigated the molecular details of this recognition by site-directed mutagenesis of AvrL567 and construction of chimeric L proteins. Single, double and triple mutations of polymorphic residues in a variety of AvrL567 variants showed additive effects on recognition strength, suggesting that multiple contact points are involved in recognition. Domain-swap experiments between L5 and L6 show that specificity differences are determined by their corresponding LRR regions. Most positively selected amino acid sites occur in the N- and C-terminal LRR units, and polymorphisms in the first seven and last four LRR units contribute to recognition specificity of L5 and L6 respectively. This further confirms that multiple, additive contact points occur between AvrL567 variants and either L5 or L6. However, we also observed that recognition of AvrL567 is affected by co-operative polymorphisms between both adjacent and distant domains of the R protein, including the TIR, ARC and LRR domains, implying that these residues are involved in intramolecular interactions to optimize detection of the pathogen and defense signal activation. We suggest a model where Avr ligand interaction directly competes with intramolecular interactions to cause activation of the R protein.

  11. ELABORAÇÃO DE PÃO DE SAL UTILIZANDO FARINHA MISTA DE TRIGO E LINHAÇA

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    T. M. OLIVEIRA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L. é uma semente que possui compostos fisiologicamente ativos, sendo fonte de fibras, ômega-3 e lignanas. Seu consumo vem sendo associado à prevenção de algumas doenças e a benefícios nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi testar a viabilidade de utilização de uma farinha mista, composta de trigo e linhaça na produção de pão de sal através da avaliação das características físico-químicas, sensoriais e tecnológicas do pão. Testes preliminares de farinografia, extensografia e panificação experimental foram realizados para determinaçãoda melhor formulação, que foi utilizada para produção do pão em uma panificadora comercial. Esse pão foi avaliado quanto a características físico-químicas, sensoriais e de textura. A adição de farinha de linhaça ao pão de sal na proporção de 10% mostrou ser viável tecnicamente, com uma excelente aceitação pelos consumidores, sabor agradável e características físico-químicas similares ao pão de sal tradicional, representando uma opção mais nutritiva e saborosa para a alimentação diária de vários consumidores.

  12. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of equipment for broadcast seed sowing of canary and linseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la efectividad de dos equipos de voleo de semillas de plantas forrajeras. La investigación se realizó en Ochomogo de Cartago, en el año 2010. Se emplearon semillas de alpiste (Phalaris canariensis y linaza (Linum usitatissimum L. El modelo estadístico fue el de tres caminos de clasificación. Las variables medidas fueron: tiempo empleado en recorrer la franja de trabajo, cantidad de semilla esparcida al voleo por segundo (mg/s, número de semillas esparcidas y peso/m2. La distribución de semilla fue de 5,14 mg/seg en ambas especies. Se encontraron diferencias (p<0,05 entre equipos y dentro de ellos, se obtuvieron descargas muy diferenciadas (p<0,01 entre los grados de aceleración y entre los niveles de apertura del voleo. El efecto de la adición de agregados en mezcla con la semilla fue significativo (p<0,01, en el orden de 21, 14 y 9 kg/ha de semilla pura, mezcla con 25% y 50% de agregados, respectivamente. Se realizó un análisis de superficie de respuesta para determinar el grado de aceleración requerido en la bomba de motor o el nivel de apertura de la voleadora manual, junto con el nivel de agregados necesarios en la mezcla, para lograr densidades de 6, 8 y 10 kg/ha en cada equipo empleado.

  14. The evaluation of the healing proprieties of pumpkin and linseed oils on deep second-degree burns in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Ben Khedir, Sameh; Rebai, Tarek; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been recognized as useful remedies for primary health care. Accordingly, Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae) (pumpkin) and Linum usitatissimum (L.) Griesb. (Linaceae) (linseed) which have extracted oil with prominent pharmacological properties are investigated as possible burn healing treatments. The present study assesses the healing potential of pumpkin and linseed extracted oils on rats. Uniform deep second-degree burns were induced on the dorsum of 24 rats, randomly divided into four groups. The burns were measured, photographed, and topically treated with saline solution, "Cytol Centella®", pumpkin, and linseed-extracted oils (0.52 µl/mm(2) of oil) each 2 d (up until day 33). Post-burning of the 33rd day, biopsies were histologically assessed. At the end of the experiment, the rat groups treated with linseed, pumpkin oils, and "Cytol Centella®" had higher percentage of wound contraction (98.68, 96.71, and 92.54%, respectively) than the control group (58.38%). Wound biopsies from rats treated with extracted oils showed the best tissue regeneration proprieties as compared with the other groups. The histomorphometric analysis of biopsies revealed that linseed oil could significantly stimulate angiogenesis (55.6% ± 7.25). The pumpkin oil, and Cytol Centella® could significantly increase the collagen production 64.9% ± 5.94, and 61.2% ± 7.36, respectively. Overall, our study has given for the first time scientific evidence of the healing efficiency of pumpkin and linseed oils on burn-wounds.

  15. Deciphering the Responses of Root Border-Like Cells of Arabidopsis and Flax to Pathogen-Derived Elicitors1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as “border-like cells.” Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells. PMID:24130195

  16. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait.

  17. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of flaxseed formulation as a potential therapeutic agent in mitigation of dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Saxena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are an increasing health problem all over the world. The search for natural hypolipidemic agents that can be used besides the synthetic drugs is still in its experimental stage. Plant seeds, particularly flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum, which is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, lignans and phenolic compounds, have also received increasing attention for their potential role in preventing lipid disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of flaxseeds in dyslipidemia. Methods: The study included 50 dyslipidemic subjects selected by purposive random sampling and were divided into two groups, a control and an experimental group. Both the groups were prescribed similar dietary guidelines. Subjects in the experimental group received 30 g of roasted flaxseed powder for 3 months. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and blood lipid profile were estimated before the study and after completion of the study. Results: Flaxseed supplementation resulted in a remarkable improvement in anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lipid profile in the experimental group. Body weight and body mass index (BMI of the experimental group were significantly reduced (p < 0.01. A lowering of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05 was also recorded in the dyslipidemic subjects. Concomitantly, a highly significant reduction (p < 0.01 in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels, with simultaneous elevation (p < 0.01 in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C levels was observed. Improvement in lipid levels resulted in reduction of atherogenic indices. Conclusions: The supplementation of roasted flaxseed powder for 3 months improved the BMI, blood pressure, and lipid profile of dyslipidemic subjects, thus exhibiting cardio protective effect.

  19. Protective effect of flax seed oil against radiation induced hematological alterations in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P.K.; Singh, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to ionizing and non ionizing radiation from natural as well as manmade sources. Ionizing radiations are one of the predominant exogenous factors that have deleterious consequences to human life. Exposure to ionizing radiations damages the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal or central nervous systems, depending on radiation dose. Hence, there is an urgent need to prevent such deleterious effects caused due to ionizing radiations. Chemical protection involves the use of synthetic and natural products against planned radiation exposure. Medicinal plants are rich in antioxidants and their chemical constituents may be the potential source for radioprotective agents. Linum usitatissimum plant (family: Linaceae), source of flaxseed oil (FSO), is well known for its anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardioprotector, antiulcer properties owing to the presence of various phytochemicals. The present study has been focused to find out the preventive action of flaxseed oil against radiation induced hematological and biochemical lesions in mammals. For this purpose, FSO (50μL/animal/day) was orally administered to Swiss albino mice for five days, prior to 6 Gy gamma radiation exposure. The animals were sacrificed on 1 st , 3 rd , 7 th , 15 th and 30 th day after irradiation. Radiation treated control group exhibited significant reduction in erythrocytes count, hemoglobin content, hematocrit value and total WBC count in peripheral blood. In contrast, pretreatment with FSO significantly increased all these blood constituents. Further, the antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase showed a significant elevation in FSO pretreated group which were reduced in irradiated control group. Similarly, radiation induced increase lipid peroxidation in blood was significantly inhibited after FSO treatment. The present results indicate that the flaxseed oil has the ability to debilitate the radiation induced adverse alterations in

  20. Target Transportation of Auxin on Mesoporous Au/SiO2 Nanoparticles as a Method for Somaclonal Variation Increasing in Flax (L. usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for direct delivery of different bioactive substances into the cell is a promising and intensively approached area of research. It has become a subject of serious research for multidisciplinary team of scientists working in such areas as physics, biology, and biotechnology. Plant calluses were grown on medium supplemented with different nanoparticles to be used as a model for biotechnological research. Gold nanoparticles with mesoporous silica coating were used as hormone carriers, since they possess many of critical properties required for cellular transportation instrument. Some of those properties are great biocompatibility and controlled release of carried molecules. Significant changes in hormones common impact were detected. The great increase in ploidy numbers, embryogenesis, induction, and methylation level was observed when compared to the “conventional” methods of targeted hormones delivery that embrace usage of Au nanoparticles as a main hormone carrier. The authors suppose the research under consideration can provide a new pathway to the design of a novel targeted plant hormone and bioactive substances carrier.

  1. Target Transportation of Auxin on Mesoporous Au/SiO2 Nanoparticles as a Method for Somaclonal Variation Increasing in Flax (L. usitatissimum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Inese Kokina; Inese Jahundoviča; Ilona Mickeviča; Marija Jermaļonoka; Jānis Strautiņš; Sergejs Popovs; Andrejs Ogurcovs; Eriks Sledevskis; Boriss Polyakov; Vjačeslavs Gerbreders

    2017-01-01

    Development of methods for direct delivery of different bioactive substances into the cell is a promising and intensively approached area of research. It has become a subject of serious research for multidisciplinary team of scientists working in such areas as physics, biology, and biotechnology. Plant calluses were grown on medium supplemented with different nanoparticles to be used as a model for biotechnological research. Gold nanoparticles with mesoporous silica coating were used as hormo...

  2. Digestibilidade e metabólitos sanguíneos de vacas da raça Holandesa superovuladas que receberam Lac100® ou linhaça em grão como fontes de gordura Digestibility and blood concentration of metabolites in superovulated dairy cows fed Lac100® or linseed as fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L.B. Cavalieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de duas fontes de gordura, Lac100® (Yakult, fonte de ácido graxo ômega-6, e linhaça em grão (Linum usitatissimum (LIN, fonte de ácido graxo ômega-3, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DMS, proteína bruta (DPB, fibra em detergente neutro (DFDN, fibra em detergente ácido (DFDA e extrato etéreo (DEE, e concentrações sanguíneas de HDL, LDL, VLDL, colesterol, triglicerídeos, glicose, cálcio, fósforo, N-ureico e progesterona. Foram utilizadas 10 vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, distribuídas nos dois tratamentos, em um delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os animais alimentados com Lac100® apresentaram maiores valores de DFDN (57,44% vs. 50,80% e DEE (77,70% vs. 72,18% quando comparados aos alimentados com LIN. Os animais alimentados com Lac100® apresentaram maiores concentrações de LDL (111,00 vs. 45,46mg/dL, HDL (82,27 vs. 64,93mg/dL e colesterol total (203,60 vs. 116,13mg/dL e menor concentração de N-ureico (13,22 vs. 15,19mg/dL em relação aos animais alimentados com linhaça em grão. As concentrações sanguíneas de glicose, cálcio, fósforo e progesterona não foram alteradas. Os resultados sugerem que a fonte de gordura na dieta modifica a DFDN e a DEE e, as concentrações sanguíneas de LDL, HDL e colesterol total em vacas em lactação.The effect of two sources of fat, calcium salts of soybean oil, Lac100® (Yakult, a source of omega-6 fatty acids or whole flaxseed (Linum usitatissiumum, a source of omega-3 fatty acids were evaluated to determine the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, crude protein (DCP, neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, acid detergent fiber (DADF, and ether extract (DEE; and blood concentrations of HDL, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, N-urea, and progesterone. Ten lactating Holstein cows were allocated in two treatments and a completely randomized design was used. Cows fed Lac100® had higher

  3. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Van Hees, M. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and to fibres 1.0 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m{sup -2}). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination <740 kBq m{sup -2}). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of <250 and 1050 kBq m{sup -2} for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  4. Appraisal of the nitrogen-15 natural-abundance method for quantifying dinitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, E.; van Kessel, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several investigators have questioned the use of the 15 N natural-abundance method of estimating N 2 fixation because of variability in soil δ 15 N and small differences between the δ 15 N of soil N and atmospheric N. Investigations were conducted to compare the 15 N natural-abundance and 15 N-isotope-dilution methods for estimating N 2 fixation of field-grown pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Spatial variability was assessed at three sites by determining the δ 15 N of non-N 2 -fixing plants. Seasonal variation in δ 15 N for spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rape (Brassica napus L.) and lentil was determined at one site. Comparisons between δ 15 N and 15 N-enriched isotope-dilution methods for estimating N 2 fixation by lentil were conducted at several sites over a 3-yr period. Variability in δ 15 N of the reference plant was site dependent: the δ 15 N ranged from 2.8 to 9.3 at the first site, 3.4 to 8.8 at the second site, and 3.5 to 6.2 at the third site. The average δ 15 N of four of the five non-N 2 -fixing plants increased from 5.4 at 42 d after planting to 6.9 at the final harvest. The fifth non-N 2 -fixing plant, rape, accumulated most of its N during the first 42 d after planting, and its δ 15 N value declined from 8.1 at 42 d after planting to 7.3 at the final harvest. Estimates of N 2 fixation were not significantly different in 18 out of 21 comparisons; in two comparisons in the δ 15 N method and in one comparison the 15 N-enriched method provided higher estimates of N 2 fixation. Overall, both methods appeared to provide equally reliable estimates of N 2 fixation for lentil

  5. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Bazela, Karolina; Szopa, Jan

    2012-12-10

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation and migration, and looked at the effect on a human skin model. Moreover, we verified its activity against bacteria of clinical relevance. The GT flax used in this study is characterized by overexpression of the glucosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Five GT seedcake preparations were generated. Their composition was assessed using ultra pressure liquid chromatography and confirmed using the UPLC-QTOF method. For the in vitro evaluation, the influence of the GT seedcake preparations on normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the MTT test and the wound scratch assay. A human skin model was used to evaluate the potential for skin irritation. To assess the antimicrobial properties of GT preparations, the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. The GT seedcake extract had elevated levels of phenylopropanoid compounds in comparison to the control, non-transformed plants. Significant increases in the content of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and their glucoside derivatives, kaempferol, quercitin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) were observed in the seeds of the modified plants. The GT seedcake preparations were shown to promote the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts and the migration of fibroblasts in the wound scratch assay. The superior effect of GT seedcake extract on fibroblast migration was observed after a 24-hour treatment. The skin irritation test indicated that GT seedcake

  6. Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraful, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Imtenan, S.; Shahir, S.A.; Mobarak, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of current energy situation. • Overview of biology, distribution and chemistry of various non-edible oil resources. • Comparison of fuel properties of various biodiesels produced from various non-edible oils. • Comparison of engine performance and emission characteristics of reviewed biodiesels. - Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results

  7. EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DE FARINHA DE LINHAÇA NO PROCESSAMENTO DE BISCOITO TIPO CRACKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Braga MACIEL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Na última década o consumo de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L. vem aumentando e despertando o interesse de muitos pesquisadores, porque ela contém combinações funcionais como o ácido linolênico (ALA, lignanas e fibras que estão relacionados ao seu potencial benéfico à saúde. O objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver biscoitos tipo cracker, adicionados de farinha de linhaça e avaliar suas características físico-químicas e sensoriais. Os biscoitos foram desenvolvidos pela adição 10% (CL10, 15% (CL15 e 20% (CL20 de farinha de linhaça à formulação padrão (CSL. As modificações mais significativas na composição dos biscoitos foram verificadas nos teores de lipídios e proteínas. A adição de farinha de linhaça provocou aumento significativo nos teores de proteínas, sais minerais e fibras, tornando os biscoitos um produto com alto teor de fibra alimentar. A aceitabilidade dos crackers foi avaliada por 96 provadores, quanto à aparência, cor, sabor, textura, aceitação geral, intenção de compra e escala do ideal para dureza. Houve diferença significativa (p < 0,05 para todos os atributos, entre as formulações, com exceção das formulações CSL e CL20. Os resultados de intenção de compra sugerem que os consumidores apresentam maior interesse na aquisição dos crackers com adição de 15% de farinha de linhaça.

  8. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  9. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Qiu, Shuqing; Stone, Sandra L; Tibiche, Chabane; Cram, Dustin; Alting-Mees, Michelle; Nowak, Jacek; Cloutier, Sylvie; Deyholos, Michael; Bekkaoui, Faouzi; Sharpe, Andrew; Wang, Edwin; Rowland, Gordon; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-04-29

    Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise even low-expressed genes such as

  10. The Influence of Agroclimatic Factors on the Formation of Oil Content In Flax Seeds in the North of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordeyeva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the promising oil crops in the north of Kazakhstan. Over the last 10 years, the total area under this crop in the region has increased fourteen-fold, since flax is a very plastic crop for steppe and dry steppe conditions, and oil seeds are in high demand in the world market. Flaxseed oil, due to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, occupies one of the first positions among other edible vegetable oils. Depending on environmental conditions, the oil content of the crop may vary from 36.4% to 52.0%, while, as noted by many researchers, the change in oil content depends on genotypic characteristics. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the influence of the genotype and climatic conditions of cultivation on fat biosynthesis in flax seeds in the context of the dry steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan on dark chestnut soils of the Akmola region. Field experiments were conducted in 2015-2017 with the study of nine oil flaxseed cultivars (of mid-season varieties sown on May 20 at the seeding rate of 7 million seeds/ha based on the traditional technology of cultivation recommended for the region. Climatic parameters were taken into account according to the meteorological service data. Fat content was determined by the extraction method using a Soxhlet apparatus in accordance with GOST (All-Union State Standard 10857-64, and moisture content was determined by the thermogravimetric method according to the National Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2.195-2010, for recalculation of oil content for absolutely dry matter. It was found that the formation of oil depends on climatic parameters and on the sum of active temperatures during the ripening period, in particular. The evaluation of plasticity and stability of the cultivars (genotypes showed that VNIIMK 620, Lirina, Karabalyksky 7 can be considered highly valuable cultivars and Severny, Biryuza, Kazar, Ilyich – valuable cultivars in terms of oil content

  11. Improving retting of fibre through genetic modification of flax to express pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musialak, Magdalena; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Starzycka, Eligia; Szopa, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a raw material used for important industrial products. Linen has very high quality textile properties, such as its strength, water absorption, comfort and feel. However, it occupies less than 1% of the total textile market. The major reason for this is the long and difficult retting process by which linen fibres are obtained. In retting, bast fibre bundles are separated from the core, the epidermis and the cuticle. This is accomplished by the cleavage of pectins and hemicellulose in the flax cell wall, a process mainly carried out by plant pathogens like filamentous fungi. The remaining bast fibres are mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. The aim of this study was to generate plants that could be retted more efficiently. To accomplish this, we employed the novel approach of transgenic flax plant generation with increased polygalacturonase (PGI ) and rhamnogalacturonase (RHA) activities. The constitutive expression of Aspergillus aculeatus genes resulted in a significant reduction in the pectin content in tissue-cultured and field-grown plants. This pectin content reduction was accompanied by a significantly higher (more than 2-fold) retting efficiency of the transgenic plant fibres as measured by a modified Fried's test. No alteration in the lignin or cellulose content was observed in the transgenic plants relative to the control. This indicates that the over-expression of the two enzymes does not affect flax fibre composition. The growth rate and soluble sugar and starch contents were in the range of the control levels. It is interesting to note that the RHA and PGI plants showed higher resistance to Fusarium culmorum and F. oxysporum attack, which correlates with the increased phenolic acid level. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that over-expression of the A. aculeatus genes results in flax plants more readily usable for fibre production. The biochemical parameters of the cell wall components indicated that

  12. Genome size, morphological and palynological variations, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study compares the morphological, palynologycal and genome size (C-value content) characteristics in the long-styled and short-styled plants in three Linum species, that is, ... The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test performed among the three Linum species showed a significant difference in 2C-value content.

  13. Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfahmi, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the

  14. Decision Environment and Heuristics in Individual and Collective Hypothesis Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    making analysis . Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69, 149-163. Mueller, S. T., & Piper, B. J. (2014). The Psychology...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 2013 Decision Environment...and Heuristics in Individual and Collective Hypothesis Generation Drew A. Leins Jim Leonard Laura A. Zimmerman Applied Research Associates

  15. Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Costa, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Bal-Price AK, Coecke S, Costa L, Crofton KM, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Grandjean P, Lein PJ, Li A, Lucchini R, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Persico A, Seiler AEM, Kreysa J. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation. Altex 2012: 29: 20...

  16. Chinese physicists and the CERN group invited to visit China in September 1975

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    At the National Peoples Congress Palace in Peking, Wu Lein-Fu (centre) between W. Weisskopf and W. Jentschke. Second from left Mrs Weisskopf. At the back (centre) L. Van Hove, Mrs Van Hove, G. Charpak. See CERN Courier of October 1975.

  17. Brain-Immune Interactions as the Basis of Gulf War Illness: Gulf War Illness Consortium (GWIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    related to proinflammatory cytokine signaling in the CNS in fibromyalgia and CFS and is often referred to as central sensitization (Arnett et al...fatigue and sickness behaviour – Lessons for the diagnosis and management of chronic fatigue syndrome. J Affect Disord. 2. Banks, C.N., & Lein, P.J

  18. NCI at Frederick Employees Receive Awards at the Spring Research Festival | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI and Frederick National Laboratory staff members were among those honored at the Spring Research Festival Awards Ceremony on May 28. The ceremony was the culmination of the festival, which was sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR), May 4–7. Maj. Gen. Brian Lein, commanding general, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), presented the awards.

  19. Preimpoundment Water Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Figures 21-24) on Beaverdam Creek was located down- stream of the bridge. An old, defunct textile mill was located adjacent to Beaverdam Creek in the...and Ecology. Environmetal Assessmt, Water and Air Research, In. Mr. M.K. lein Aquatic Botanist, 5 years experience in environmental consulting with

  20. Farinha de linhaça dourada como substituto de gordura animal em hambúrguer de carne bovina com redução de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Francielly De Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores costumam associar os produtos cárneos processados a uma imagem negativa em função dos teores de gordura saturada, sódio e aditivos químicos que apresentam. O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a influência da adição de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada (Linum usitatissimum L. como substituto de gordura suína e da utilização de sal com teor reduzido de sódio nas características físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais de hambúrgueres de carne bovina. Visando tornar o hambúrguer mais saudável, seis formulações foram desenvolvidas mudando as concentrações de sal light e de farinha de linhaça. Os resultados demonstraram que a adição de 10,0% de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada em substituição a 100,0% do toucinho contribuiu para o aumento (p < 0,05 do teor de proteínas. A adição de 5,0% de farinha de linhaça dourada em substituição a 50,0% do toucinho refletiu em boas notas para todos os atributos sensoriais avaliados. Houve aumento (p < 0,05 dos percentuais de ômega-3 e cinzas, e redução (p < 0,05 dos lipídios totais e valor calórico, independente dos níveis de adição da farinha. A substituição de toucinho por farinha de semente de linhaça contribuiu para o menor encolhimento e melhor rendimento, bem como para maior retenção de umidade e de gordura dos hambúrgueres. O sal light não interferiu negativamente nas características microbiológicas dos hambúrgueres e quando associado com a adição de 5,0% de farinha de linhaça contribuiu para melhor (p < 0,05 sabor e aroma. Os resultados sugeriram que a adição de 5,0% de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada como substituto de 50,0% da gordura suína, bem como a redução de 60,1% do sódio em hambúrgueres de carne bovina, se caracterizou alternativa viável do ponto de vista nutricional e sensorial, contribuindo ainda para o maior rendimento do produto após o cozimento.

  1. Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Elfahmi, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the Indonesian traditional herbal medicine, practised for many centuries in the Indonesian community to maintain good health and to treat diseases. The manufacturing of jamu is shifting more and more ...

  2. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 2: Forschungsarbeiten und Veroeffentlichungen (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 2: Research Areas and Publications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Aberration und Doppler- Effekt ), die Bahnbewegungen kiinstlicher Erdsatelliten und die Dynamik der Erde (Polbewe- gung) zu geodaitisch bedeutsamen Parametern...Sch6dlbauer, 1991; Schodlbauer, Heister, Krack, 1992; Sch6dlbauer, Heister, Krack Sche- rer, 1992; Sch6d1bauer, Krack Scherer, Widmann, Beckers , 1992...zunehmend als ein sehr 6ko- nomisches und effektives Vermessungsverfahren. Es wird freilich nur in Ausnahmefdllen al- leine eingesetzt, meist sind die

  3. Foundations for Measuring the Development and Emergence of Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    or brokers. Other attribute lists were based on social dynamics, psychoanalysis and personality. Nafe (1930) proposed social psychological categories...decisiveness 11 1lein & Ritt. 1970 Wilinnip1s to assume responsibility 10 Flzna 1%1 Ethic : conduct, peonal integrity 10 Flmnaga. 1951 Maintaining a cohesive...meta-levels (leaders of society) was generally ignored (McCall, 1977) and left to sociology, history, psychoanalysis , and political science. Lewin and

  4. Quantifying erosion over timescales of one million years: A photogrammetric approach on the amount of Rhenish erosion in southwestern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Annette; Strasser, Marcel; Seyfried, Hartmut

    2010-10-01

    The Lein valley in southwestern Germany possesses well-preserved Pliocene to mid Pleistocene land surfaces featuring a gentle relief and sediments accumulated by former tributaries of the Danube. This ancient Danubian land surface was captured and incised by mid Pleistocene to Holocene tributaries of the River Rhine. In a photogrammetric approach we calculated the volume of material extracted by Rhenish erosion providing a first quantification of the effects of stream piracy on timescales of about 1 Ma. Using stereoscopic surface modelling software a DEM was generated with a resolution of 5 m. From borehole data, literature, geological maps, and own field observations we determined the morphometric parameters of the ancient Danubian Ur-Lein valley. The gradient was imported as a 3D-breakline into the model where it controls the reinterpolation of surrounding data points. The result is a high-resolution DEM of the valley of the Ur-Lein. Subtraction of the DEM of the actual landscape from the DEM of the ancient Ur-Lein valley yields a model representing the rock volume eroded by the Rhenish Lein which totals 1.39 km 3 and converts into a rate of erosion between 63 and 74 mm/ka over a period of 700 to 600 ka, respectively, in accordance with figures obtained elsewhere in Central Europe through cosmogenic nuclides. It reflects the dominance of frequent fluctuations in climate and is considered to be mainly a product of strong changes in temperature and related processes during the transitional times between mid to late Pleistocene warm and cold states. A filtering procedure applied to cold and transitional state erosion rates of the Middle and Late Pleistocene yielded peak values between 66 and 77 mm/ka, up to three times higher than the modern rate or the rate of warm-state episodes. An assessment of the contribution of Rhenish stream piracy on long-term mid Pleistocene denudation under changing climate conditions resulted in a maximum 4.9-fold acceleration.

  5. Effects of filamentous macroalgae mats on growth and survival of eelgrass, Zostera marina, seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Olesen, Birgit; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effect of filamentous algae mats on the performance of seedlings of the eelgrass, Zostera marina. The seedlings were covered by three levels (3, 6 and 9 cm) of natural (Chaetomorpha linum) and imitation algae mats and it was hypothesized...... that the effects of the natural algae on seedling growth may be more severe because of the metabolic demands of the algae. Results show that coverage by both C. linum and imitation algae significantly reduced seedling growth and increased allocation of resources to above ground tissues. No clear effects of algae...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS1 for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5–2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could...... be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during ‘green tides’ in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab...

  7. Telavaunujen paikallisohjauksen suunnittelu ja toteutus Talvivaaran kaivokselle

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Jari

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on suunnitella, toteuttaa ja testata paikallisohjaukseen soveltuva ohjausjärjestelmä, jolla voidaan ohjata Talvivaara Sotkamo Oy:n sekundäärikasalle rakennettavan siltakuljettimen telavaunuja. Sekundäärikasan kasauslaitteisto koostuu ristikkorakenteisesta, kahdeksasta lohkosta kootusta 430 metrin pituisesta sillasta. Siltaa kannattelee yhdeksän tasavälein sijoitettua telavaunua. Opinnäytetyön toteutuksen päävaiheiksi muodostuivat ohjelman määritys, käyttöliittymä...

  8. A case of lupus-like glomerulonephritis in an HIV patient with nephrotic range proteinuria, purpura, and elevated IgA level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihyun; Seo, Min Young; Kim, Ki Tae; Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Sun-Chul; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Jo, Sang-Kyung; Cho, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Kyu; Won, Nam Hee; Cha, Ran-Hui; Cho, Eunjung

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is growing medical concern worldwide. There are many types of glomerulonephritis which are associated with HIV infection. We report a case of a 53-year-old Korean man with an HIV infection, who was developed nephritic range proteinuria and purpura with elevated IgA level rasing a possibility of Henoch-Schölein Purpura (H-S purpura). However, renal biopsy showed "lupus-like feature" glomerulonephritis without clinical or serologic evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus. Although baseline renal function was maintained without further need for maintenance dialysis following anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and steroid, patient died from uncontrolled gastrointestinal bleeding.

  9. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 9, Edition 3, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Confederate Hospitals on the Move: Samuel H. Stout and the Army of Tennessee G.R. Schroeder-Lein 0872499642 Confederate Spy L.A. Sigaud, B. Boyd B0007EDK7E...The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947-1974 T.N. Dupuy 0840378629 Encyclopedia of Guerrilla Warfare I.F.W. Beckett 0874369290 TITLE AUTHOR ISBN Journal of Special...Revolutionary War C. Guevara 0237716321 Repairing the March of Mars: The Civil War Diaries of John Samuel Apperson, Hospital Steward in the Stonewall Brigade

  10. [Effects of nootropic drugs on hippocampal and cortical BDNF levels in mice with different exploratory behavior efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstova, Iu Iu; Dolotov, O V; Kondrakhin, e A; Dubynina, E V; Grivennikov, I A; Kovalev, G I

    2009-01-01

    The influence of subchronic administration of nootropic drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, meclophenoxate, pantocalcine, semax, nooglutil) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in hippocampal and cortical tissues in mice with different exploratory behavior--high efficacy (HE) against low efficacy (LE)--in cross-maze test has been studied. The initial BDNF concentration in hippocamp (but not in cortex) of control HE mice was higher than that in LE mice (LE, 0.091 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; HE, 0.177 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; p nootrope effects, at least partially, via increase in hippocampal BDNF level, which is achieved only under conditions of cognitive deficiency.

  11. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 23, Autumn/Winter 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    tions by simple majority. Eisenhower considered the latter provision “a small hole in the dough- nut ” because he was authorized to transfer major...liters of concentrated botu- linum toxin, 6,500 liters of concentrated anthrax, and 1,580 liters of concentrated aflatoxin .2 The United States and its

  12. Comparison of two culture media for breaking seed dormancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different treatments in breaking dormancy and to increase germination percentage and days to germination in two media of water with agar and Murashige and Skoog (MS) growth medium in four species of Linum L. namely, L. mucronatum, L. nervosum, L. album and L.

  13. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syriaca and Crété (1950) Linum variation of Solanad type of embryo develop- ment in Asclepias curassavica. Rao and Rao (1954) published an account of male and female gametophytes, endosperm and embryo development in. Cryptostegia grandiflora and Caralluma attenuata. Biswas (1957) studied the embryology of ...

  14. Eelgrass re-establishment in shallow estuaries is affected by drifting macroalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal-Verges, Paula; Potthoff, M.; Hansen, F. T.

    2014-01-01

    of opportunistic (Chaetomorpha linum) and non-ephemeral (Fucus vesiculosus) macroalgae and to describe and quantify the intensity and spatial distribution of bottom substrate physically affected by drifting macroalgae. The longest simulated movement by macroalgae was found to be 270 and 170 km for brown and green...

  15. Comparison of two culture media for breaking seed dormancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vahid04

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different treatments in breaking dormancy and to increase germination percentage and days to germination in two media of water with agar and. Murashige and Skoog (MS) growth medium in four species of Linum L. namely, L. mucronatum, L. nervosum, L.

  16. Abstarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abstracts abstracts

    2011-01-01

    L., Cessation of watering, Chemical Desiccation, Spike, Grain yield   Genetic Variation of the Traits in Isolated Lines From Local Populations of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. N. Pooladsaz 1- G. Saeid2* Abstract Genetic variation for the traits in flax breeding programs can be used for selection of desirable genotypes for agronomic traits. This study was conducted at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology in 2006 to investigate genetic variability for different agronomic traits of breeding lines isolated from 6 local populations of flax. In this study, 73 isolated lines by single plant selection along with the local populations and "Flanders" cultivar from Canada (as the control genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications. The results showed that there were significant differences among the genotypes for all of the studied traits such as capsules per plant, seeds per capsule, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and seed yield per plot. The range of variation for days to maturity, plant height, seed yield per plant and seed yield was 113 to 164 days, 32.8 to 68.4 cm, 0.16 to 1.39g and 375 to 2450 kg/ha, respectively. High phenotypic and genetic coefficients of variation were observed for number of seedlings per m2, rate of infected plants by powder mildew, branches per plant, capsules per plant, seeds per capsule, seed yield per plant and seed yield. Also, high broad-sense heritability (74.9 to 96.2% was observed for all the traits, with the exception of days to 50% emergence that had moderate heritability (40.8%. Seed oil content which was determined for 10 higher yielding lines had high variation (36.9% to 40.4% and high broad-sense heritability (99%. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes in to 4 groups in which the genotypes of two groups had the highest seeds per capsule, seed yield per plant and seed yield. Keywords: Flax, Local populations, Genetic variation, Heritability, Agronomic traits   The

  17. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  18. Rehabilitation of Military Training Areas Damaged by Tracked Vehicles at Fort Carson, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    provide desirable concealment and observation and firing points. These maneuvers damage or destroy grasses, forbs, tree seedlings , and tree roots. Because...iranica Kochia Lactuca spp. Prickly lettuce Lappula spp. Lappula Linum lewisii Blue flax 25 Table 5 (Cont’d) Type Scientific Name Common Name(s) Forbs...plowed) tank trails traversing grassy areas of the east slope (area H) were either tiny solitary seedlings or almost mature clumps ranging from a few stems

  19. Antioxidant properties of some filamentous green algae (Chaetomorpha Genus)

    OpenAIRE

    Farasat,Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad,Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi,Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan,Foroogh

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Chaetomorpha species including C. aerea, C. crassa, C. linum and C. brachygona. Eight samples of Chaetomorpha plants were collected from five locations along the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran from December 2010 until October 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay...

  20. Mechanical processing of bast fibres: The occurrence of damage and its effect on fibre structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, Tuomas; Thygesen, Anders; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Currently, separation processes used for natural fibres for composite reinforcing textiles cause a significant amount of damage to the fibres. Microscopic analysis showed that industrially processed flax (Linum usitassimium L.) fibres contained significantly more defects than green or retted ones...... to heterogeneous reactivity. Analogous findings were observed in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) fibre damaged in the laboratory under controlled conditions, emphasising the need to develop extraction and separation processes that minimise mechanical damage to the fibres....

  1. Etude saisonnière de la contamination métallique des macroalgues de la lagune nord de Tunis

    OpenAIRE

    Chouba, L.; Ajjabi-Chebil, L.; Herry, S.

    2010-01-01

    Dans le but de démontrer la capacité de bioaccumulation métallique des macroalgues et sa variation temporelle, on s’est intéressé à la détermination de la gamme de concentrations en métaux traces (Plomb, Cadmium, Fer, Manganèse et Zinc) dans trois macroalgues vertes (Ulva rigida, Chaetomorpha linum, Caulerpa prolifera) au niveau de la lagune nord et du canal de navigation de Tunis sujettes à d’importants rejets anthropiques. Des collectes saisonnières ont été faites dans la lagune de Tunis du...

  2. Bioactivity of Phycocolloids against the Mediterranean Protozoan Leishmania infantum: An Inceptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Armeli Minicante

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities against fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In this study, the in vitro activity of algal polysaccharides against Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae was investigated. The polysaccharides were extracted from different macroalgae of the Mediterranean Sea: Chaetomorpha linum, Agardhiella subulata, Gracilaria viridis, Gracilaria bursa-pastoris, Hypnea cornuta, Sargassum muticum, and Undaria pinnatifida. Preliminary results showed a good anti-leishmanial activity of the investigated species, encouraging the focus on their use as natural resources in order to match integrated management strategies for the employment of local macroalgae.

  3. Effects of Drifting Macroalgae in Eelgrass Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula; Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    –10 mg suspended particulate matter (SPM) L-1 to 30–50 mg SPM L 1 for Ceramium sp., Ulva lactuca and Chaetomorpha linum, respectively, while the more rigid Gracilaria sp. and Fucus vesiculosus lead to much higher turbidity (50–180 mg SPM L−1). Preliminary results from Odense Fjord (Denmark) confirm...... and physical damage on eelgrass can occur when macroalgae are drifting as bedload. The ballistic effect of moving macroalgae on surface sediment was tested in the field as well as in a series of annular flume experiments, where simultaneous measurements of macroalgae transport and turbidity were measured...

  4. Keanekaragaman dan Kerapatan Rumput Laut Alami Perairan Pulau Serangan Denpasar Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Desak Putu Dita Herlinawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Serangan Island was a costal area located in the Serangan village, South Denpasar district, near with Sanur and Nusa Dua tourism area. Serangan beach has a biodiversity such as natural macroalgae. This study was conducted in January 2017 at the seaweed cultivation area with the aims of research were to know the variety and density of macroalgae. The method used was a 1x1 m quadrat transect. Sampling was carried out during low tide. Macroalgae found in the area, consist of 12 species namely Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha linum. Chaetomorpha aera, Padina australis, Sargassum fluitans, Turbinaria ornate, Gelidium sp., Hypnea cornuta, Hypnea spicifera, Gracilaria salicornia, Acanthophora spicifera, Halimeda opuntia. Those species were belonging to 3 divisi namely Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta. The highest density of macroalgae was Padina australis while the lowest density was Chaetomorpha linum. Type of dominated macroalgae was from a group of Phaeophyta (brown algae with highest dominance from the species of Padina australis. Water quality namely acidity (pH was in the range of 7.54 to 7.75, salinity of 31.33-32.00 ppt, the water temperature was 26.50-27.30? C, which all was categorized as the optimal parameters for the growth of macroalgae. Assosiation of biota found were 9 species namely fish of larva, Cypraea lynx (Molusca, Emerita sp., Halodule sp., Synapta maculate, Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea serrulata, Hermit crab, Ophiuroidea sp. The conditions coastal waters substrate was varied from white sand stone type to stony type by coral pieces.

  5. Antioxidant properties of some filamentous green algae (Chaetomorpha Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoumeh Farasat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Chaetomorpha species including C. aerea, C. crassa, C. linum and C. brachygona. Eight samples of Chaetomorpha plants were collected from five locations along the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran from December 2010 until October 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. C. linum showed highest antioxidant potential with a relatively low IC50 (1.484 ± 0.168 mg mL-1, the highest flavonoid content (18.177 ± 2.238 mg RE g-1 and a relatively high content of phenolics (2.895 ± 0.415 mg GAE g-1 in comparison with the other species. C. crassa, which was collected from two different areas, showed lowest antioxidant activity and lowest phenolics and flavonoid contents than other species. Results revealed that IC50, total phenolics and flavonoid content were influenced by the time of collection and location. Also there were positive correlations between the phenolic and flavonoid contents with DPPH radical scavenging activity (p<0.01. The results suggested that some of these filamentous green seaweeds possessed antioxidant potential, which could be considered for future applications in medicine, food or cosmetic industries.

  6. Distribution and ecological notes on Dynoides (Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae in the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Espinosa-Pérez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984 not reported since their description were rediscovered during an intensive sampling program in the intertidal and shallow subtidal of the Mexican Pacific. Both species are abundant in the area and inhabit among the algae Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845, and Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 from Nayarit to OaxacaDurante un programa intensivo de muestreo en la zona intermareal y submareal somera del Pacífico mexicano se redescubrieron dos especies del género Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho y Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho y Haasmann, 1984, no registradas desde su descripción. Ambas especies son abundantes en el área y habitan entre las algas Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845 e Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 desde Nayarit hasta Oaxaca

  7. Italy at CERN – Industrial exibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2011-01-01

    From 10 to 13 October 2011 Industrial Exhibition Bldg 500 & 61 Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of department or to get in touch with Karine ROBERT. You will find below the list of exhibitors.   LISTE DES EXPOSANTS : Agilent Technologies - via Varian 54 - 10040 Leinì (TO) http://www.agilent.com/chem/vacuum Pioneer in vacuum technology since the 50’s. CAEN S.p.A. - via Vetraia, 11 – 55049 Viareggio (LU) http://www.caen.it/ Data-Acquisi...

  8. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  9. In Vitro Screening for Cytotoxic Activity of Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter R. M. Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that a variety of chemopreventive plant components affect tumor initiation, promotion, and progression and the main difference, between botanical medicines and synthetic drugs, resides in the presence of complex metabolite mixtures shown by botanical medicine which in turn exert their action on different levels and via different mechanisms. In the present study, we performed an in vitro screening of ethanol extracts from commercial plants in order to investigate potential antitumor activity against human tumor cell lines. Experimental results obtained through a variety of methods and techniques indicated that extracts of I. verum, G. glabra, R. Frangula, and L. usitatissimum present significant reduction in in vitro tumor cell proliferation, suggesting these extracts as possible chemotherapeutical adjuvants for different cancer treatments.

  10. Spread of Alsidium corallinum C. Ag. in a Tyrrhenian eutrophic lagoon dominated by opportunistic macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzi, Mauro; Gennaro, Paola; Renzi, Monia; Persia, Emma; Porrello, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In 2007, Alsidium corallinum bloomed in Orbetello lagoon replacing other macroalgae. ► The main cause hypothesized was a transient low eutrophic level of the ecosystem. ► The results showed unusually low dissolved nitrogen in 2007. ► Dissolved N:P atomic ratio was much lower in 2007 than in the past and 2008. ► The observations suggest that the cycle of sediment OM determines vegetation cycles. - Abstract: In 2007, the Rhodophyceae Alsidium corallinum C. Ag., a marine taxon, bloomed in the eutrophic lagoon of Orbetello (Tuscany, Italy) for the first time, becoming the dominant species in spring and summer. In November, its biomass collapsed. The hypothesis examined in this study is that the bloom expressed a relatively low eutrophic level of the ecosystem after intense disposal of accumulated sedimentary organic matter (OM) by dystrophic processes in the two years preceding the bloom. To verify the hypothesis, we compared water physical–chemical variables, sediment redox (Eh) and OM, and standing crops of macroalgae and seagrass from the database of routine monitoring between 2005 and 2008. We also used dissolved nutrient data obtained in 2007 and 2008, as well as data on chlorophyll and total suspended matter in the water column during the microalgal bloom of 2007, and C, N and P content in thalli of the Chlorophycea Chaetomorpha linum and the Rhodophyceae Gracilariopsis longissima and A. corallinum obtained in 2007. In 2007, unusually low values of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were recorded. Combined with stable values of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRPs), low DIN led to a reduction of about one order of magnitude in the DIN:SRP atomic ratio with respect to the past and to 2008. G. longissima accumulated C, N and P more than the other species and A. corallinum proved to be less demanding. Sediment OM was lower in the autumn of years characterized by dystrophy, confirming that summer dystrophic events coincided with maximum energy

  11. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Shobha Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L. Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc. for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry. Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5% while 4 extracts showed low inhibition ( 50% was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1, leaves of Morus alba (1440 μgml-1 and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 μgml-1. Acarbose as the

  12. Effects of algae-mat thickness on survival and growth of eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Olesen, Birgit

    for the mortality we here focus on the potential negative impact of macroalgal mats on seedling growth and survival. The high productivity of these fast-growing algae results in large diurnal variations in the oxygen concentrations within the mats and the lower parts may experience prolonged periods of anoxia....... For eelgrass even short periods of water column anoxia may have severe implications for growth and survival. In addition, excessive covering by macroalgal mats decrease the available light at leaf surface and may hamper the diffusive movement of oxygen, inorganic carbon and nutrients to and from the shoot thus......: Chaetomorpha linum and artificial macroalgae. The two types of mats were used to separate physical and metabolic effects of algal presence. During the growth period concentrations of oxygen and sulphide and their diurnal variations in the mats were measured using microelectrodes....

  13. [Screening of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in marines macroalgae from Mediterranean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatter Riahi, R; Tarhouni, S; Kharrat, R

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 13 seaweeds collected from the Mediterranean sea (Tunisian, Moroccan and Greek coasts) from different classes (Chlorophycae, Pheopbycae and Rhodophycae) are testedfor their analgesic and antiinflammatory effects. These activities were estimated in vivo, respectively by writhing test and carrageenan test. Nine species among 13 tested seaweeds showed an important analgesic activity. On the other hand only 5 seaweeds showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (Cystoseira barbata and Sargassum vulgare) had endowed with the double analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The red algae Geliduim sesquipedale have only anti-inflammatory activity and the other one endowed only with an analgesic activity (Enteromorpha compressa, Chaetomorpha linum, Cystoseira ericoidies, Sacchoriza bulbosa et Corralina officinalis). The simultaneous or individual presence of the analgesic and\\or anti-inflammatory activities of the various extracts can find its application in the therapeutic domain.

  14. Organic compounds as indicators for transport in an urban characterized complex karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, R.; Licha, T.; Nödler, K.; Geyer, T.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    In northern Hesse (Germany), sediments of the Upper Permian (Zechstein-Formations) are outcropping in a coastal facies along the western rim of the Rhenish Massif. The geologic section is characterized by a sequence of carbonate rocks (carbonates of the Werra-, Staßfurt- and Leine-Formations) and predominantly fine clastic sediments. The carbonate aquifers of the Werra-Formation and the Leine-Formation are used for drinking water abstraction of a provincial town and surrounding communities. Concurrently, the urban area is characterized by industrial and commercial uses. The groundwater flow system is composed of three potential karst aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes within a complex tectonically faulted area. The study area is divided into three spring catchment areas. However, the locations of the subsurface water divides are unknown. Traditional methods to determine the catchment areas (e.g. artificial tracer tests) are difficult to apply, due to a lack of adequate injection points. The presented work deals with the use of organic compounds as indicators for subsurface flow paths. Medical drugs, pesticides, corrosion inhibitors and such typical waste water compounds as caffeine (NÖDLER ET AL. 2010) are observed in approximately fifty groundwater observation points by regular sampling. The seasonal variability of the distribution pattern of organic compounds is low. The most common compounds are atrazine and its metabolites desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine, as well as the corrosion inhibitor 1H-benzotriazole. Since these substances are applied in different regions different input functions can be assumed. However, the highest concentrations are detected along a North-orientated axis, which also exhibits the greatest compound variety. This distribution pattern indicates preferential flow and transport pathways in the subsurface. The absence of organic compounds in other parts of the investigation area implies the existence of a water divide between

  15. Hamiltonian flows with random-walk behaviour originating from zero-sum games and fictitious play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Strien, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Hamiltonian dynamics, inspired by zero-sum games (best response and fictitious play dynamics). The Hamiltonian functions we consider are continuous and piecewise affine (and of a very simple form). It follows that the corresponding Hamiltonian vector fields are discontinuous and multi-valued. Differential equations with discontinuities along a hyperplane are often called 'Filippov systems', and there is a large literature on such systems, see for example (di Bernardo et al 2008 Theory and applications Piecewise-Smooth Dynamical Systems (Applied Mathematical Sciences vol 163) (London: Springer); Kunze 2000 Non-Smooth Dynamical Systems (Lecture Notes in Mathematics vol 1744) (Berlin: Springer); Leine and Nijmeijer 2004 Dynamics and Bifurcations of Non-smooth Mechanical Systems (Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics vol 18) (Berlin: Springer)). The special feature of the systems we consider here is that they have discontinuities along a large number of intersecting hyperplanes. Nevertheless, somewhat surprisingly, the flow corresponding to such a vector field exists, is unique and continuous. We believe that these vector fields deserve attention, because it turns out that the resulting dynamics are rather different from those found in more classically defined Hamiltonian dynamics. The vector field is extremely simple: outside codimension-one hyperplanes it is piecewise constant and so the flow φ t piecewise a translation (without stationary points). Even so, the dynamics can be rather rich and complicated as a detailed study of specific examples show (see for example theorems 7.1 and 7.2 and also (Ostrovski and van Strien 2011 Regular Chaotic Dynf. 16 129–54)). In the last two sections of the paper we give some applications to game theory, and finish with posing a version of the Palis conjecture in the context of the class of non-smooth systems studied in this paper

  16. Bibliotheken im Fluss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the current issue 3/2015 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is the annual conference 2015 of the German Medical Libraries Association in Mannheim. The motto of the conference was “Libraries in progress”. The authors in this issue are Bruno Bauer (Research data – a new field of activity (also for libraries, Markus Fischer (Search filter for local holdings in bibnet.org, Ursula Georgy (Strategic marketing: Benefit positioning strategy of libraries as a content provider in competition, Mareike Grisse (Reading and understanding licensing agreements for electronic resources, Regine Küfner Lein (Access to medical full texts and databases in Norway by national licensing, Annette Kustos (Collection management and service concept at the academic library of the Hochschule für Gesundheit, Oliver Weiner (Medical documents in university repositories, Sabine Buroh (Impressions from the EAHIL Workshop, Edinburgh, 10–12 June 2015, Mareike Grisse (Supra-regional availability of licensed electronic content – ZB MEDs’ new models, Jana Pössel (LIVIVO: The new ZB MED search portal for life sciences, Jasmin Schmitz (Offering advice on open access publishing in libraries, Fabian Gail (Product and innovation management ZB MED and Dagmar Härter (Medical libraries: libraries in progress – annual meeting 2015 of the German MLA, September 7 to 9 at Basel, Switzerland. Furthermore this focus issue features articles from Eike Hentschel (Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2015: Introduction of the winners and Iris Reimann (German MLA News; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2016 – Announcement.

  17. Evaluation of mapping results of the textural features of the Gorleben-Bank within the Gorleben salt dome, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnlenz, Tatjana; Hammer, Joerg; Mingerzahn, Gerhard [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Sassnowski, Marco; Kutowski, Joachim [Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH, Peine (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The ''Gorleben-Bank'' (z3OSM) is a marker horizon within the ''Orangesalz'' (z3OS) of the ''Leine-Folge'' (z3) in the Gorleben salt dome. In some areas the Gorleben-Bank and/or the surrounding rocks contain brines and gases. The occurrence of brines and gases could be hazardous for a repository. Therefore it is important to analyse the lithological and structural characteristics of the Gorleben-Bank. As part of the project ''Continuation of exploration of the Gorleben salt dome'', all exposures of the Gorleben-Bank in drifts, shafts and exploration boreholes were documented and incorporated within a database. Analogous to Baeuerle (2000), seven zones were identified within the Gorleben-Bank from bottom to top. The total thickness of the Gorleben-Bank and the thickness of the zones relevant for migration and storage of brines and gases were considered in this paper. The fissures and the zone of secondary mineralisation of the Gorleben-Bank (Zone IV), generated during the halotectonic processes, as well as brines in the Gorleben-Bank and its surrounding rocks, were analysed regarding their genesis and spatial distribution in the salt dome. These analyses allow conclusions about deformation behaviour of the Gorleben-Bank and its potential for storage of solutions and migration capability for brines and gases. With the program GEOravis some database contents e.g. the thickness of the Gorleben-Bank or location of brine adits were visualised in 3D space for better spatial understanding.

  18. Evaluation of mapping results of the textural features of the Gorleben-Bank within the Gorleben salt dome, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnlenz, Tatjana; Hammer, Joerg; Mingerzahn, Gerhard; Sassnowski, Marco; Kutowski, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The ''Gorleben-Bank'' (z3OSM) is a marker horizon within the ''Orangesalz'' (z3OS) of the ''Leine-Folge'' (z3) in the Gorleben salt dome. In some areas the Gorleben-Bank and/or the surrounding rocks contain brines and gases. The occurrence of brines and gases could be hazardous for a repository. Therefore it is important to analyse the lithological and structural characteristics of the Gorleben-Bank. As part of the project ''Continuation of exploration of the Gorleben salt dome'', all exposures of the Gorleben-Bank in drifts, shafts and exploration boreholes were documented and incorporated within a database. Analogous to Baeuerle (2000), seven zones were identified within the Gorleben-Bank from bottom to top. The total thickness of the Gorleben-Bank and the thickness of the zones relevant for migration and storage of brines and gases were considered in this paper. The fissures and the zone of secondary mineralisation of the Gorleben-Bank (Zone IV), generated during the halotectonic processes, as well as brines in the Gorleben-Bank and its surrounding rocks, were analysed regarding their genesis and spatial distribution in the salt dome. These analyses allow conclusions about deformation behaviour of the Gorleben-Bank and its potential for storage of solutions and migration capability for brines and gases. With the program GEOravis some database contents e.g. the thickness of the Gorleben-Bank or location of brine adits were visualised in 3D space for better spatial understanding.

  19. 38. Annual meeting of GUS 2009 on detection, simulation and evaluation of environmental impacts; 38. Jahrestagung der GUS 2009 Umwelteinfluesse erfassen, simulieren, bewerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegahn, Karl-Friedrich (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    of laser diffraction (R. Weiser); (q) Investigation of the atomization behaviour with respect to the chemical resistance of technical products (A. Engelhardt et al.); (r) 'Salt fog testing under the magnifying glass - a standardized testing?' (R. Lein); (s) Determination of explosive mixtures during the transport of hazardous substances under normal conditions of transportation (T. Goedecke et al.).

  20. Proloog : [luuletused] / Henrik Visnapuu ; [Impressioonid]: Viiu Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Visnapuu, Henrik, 1890-1951

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Proloog ; Igavesti ; Kui kuurdub armulill ; Neitsi saunas ; Metsatalu ; Eokene eo-eo ; Õdango laul ; Langes lund, langes verist lund ; Sireli ; Ole tervitet, tervitet ; Kahe ääretuse vahel ; Jääb inimene ikka, ikka meil veel velleks : J. Kuperjanovi mälestuseks ; Ärge tapke inimest ; Noor-Eestile 1905-1915 1-3 ; Surnuk sõnade surise ; Autobiograafia ; Matsin mulda ; Jõuluöö ; Laske mul olla kurb ; Esimene kiri Inglile ; Teine kiri Ingile ; Kolmas kiri Ingile ; Neljas kiri Ingile ; Viies kiri Ingile ; Kuues kiri Ingile ; Seitsmes kiri Ingile ; Kaheksas kiri Ingile ; Üheksas kiri Ingile ; Kümnes kiri Ingile ; Maga Alaea ; Kuu on end riputand ; Ilo kavva on kahele ; Tartu oktoober 1-2, 5 ; Suur kirjanik on nagu vana vein : Eduard Vilde mälestusele ; Üle kodumäe ; Vana-aasta kuu 1 ; Meie aja muinasjutt ; kevad ; Vaikne palve ; Maarjamaa laulud 8 ; Sula unelm ; Koduhaldjas ; Valgus on lõhnavan lehen ; Heinakuu öö 1-2 ; Viimne teekond ; Ema lill ; Vana kell ; Kuuvalgus ; Umbra apocalyptica ; Öö ja päev ; Laul vabadusest ; Magdaleena : Jõuluöö legend 1-2 ; Hommik ; Tuisk ; Pööripäeva eel ; Nii pidulik valgus ; Sügav suvi ; Paadil ; Öö ja meres 1 ; Öö ja meres 2 ; Tulease ; Aed ja aeg ; Idaruum ; Vanaema surm ; Emale ; Endeline öö ; Õnnis suvine öö ; Leegitsev liiv ; Vanad talud ; Sõnatu kuu ; Nii kargelt hingab ; Vihkan kevadet ; Aastaajad : 1. Hiline öökülm ; 2. Hiline sügis ; 3. Sügav talv ; 4. Ma usun taas ; Rahu ; Mul on sinu pärast nii kitsas ; Üle värskete kalmuküngaste ; pea vastu ; Ikka viirastub ; Jõulutäht ; Nii suured on sinu mured ; Mis armas, kõik on tuna ; Viimne söömaaeg ; Astuge tasa ; Periheel ; Ingi haual ; Eksin tänavate kurrus ; Manamine ; Kuues küünal ; Astendus ; Vahimees, ons ikka veel öö ; Karukellad ; Lein ; Kutse ; Kõik muutub lauluks ; Suvine öö 1-2 ; Sügis 1-2 ; Talv ; Talveöö ; Astugem isamaa palge ette ; Viimne kevad

  1. Justicidin B: A Promising Bioactive Lignan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Hemmati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects and drug resistance to the current onchopharmacologicals have increased the demand for alternative novel therapeutics. We herein introduce justicidin B, an arylnaphthalen lignan isolated from different plant origins, especially Justicia, Phyllanthus, Haplophyllum and Linum species. This cyclolignan exhibits a wide array of biological properties ranges from piscicidal to antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activities. Activity against Trypanosoma brucei makes justicidin B a potential antiprotozoal agent for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases. Pharmacological properties like antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and bone resorption inhibition have been also attributed to justicidin B. This compound is a potent cytotoxic substance on several cell lines, especially chronic myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukemia. Pharmacological values, natural variation, as well as biotechnological production of justicidin B by plant cell, tissue and organ culture are also described in this review. Chemical characteristics and chromatographic methods to identify justicidin B and its biosynthetic pathway have been discussed. Different approaches to the total synthesis of justicidin B are compared. This review would shed light on the role of justicidin B as an intriguing natural compound and provides a chance to optimize conditions for industrial applications.

  2. Studies of 12C6+ heavy ions irradiation on seed germination and young seedling growth of four crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Landi; Zhang Yingcong; Wu Dali; Liang Kai; Zhang Yanping; Jia Ruiling; Qin Qianqian; Cheng Xi; Qian Pingping; Li Wenjian; Hou Suiwen

    2008-01-01

    Crops of Brassica napus L., Linum usitatissmum L., Allium f istulosum L. and Lens culinaris Medic. were irradiated by 80 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams with doses of 30, 90 and 180 Gy. The germination rates and heights of seedlings of M 1 and M 2 generation of these four plants were studied. The results indicated that germination rates and average heights of the B. napus and L. usitatissmum were improved by appropriate dose treatment, while great suppression was found in the irradiated groups of the A. fistulosum. As far as the L. Culinaris was concerned, little differences was observed on M 1 germination rate, but the 90 Gy irradiation was favorable to growth of plant. The treatments with 30, 90 and 180 Gy were inferior to contrast one on M 2 germination rate of the four species. Seedlings of M 2 generation of the B. napus, L. sitatissmum and L. culinaris under 30 Gy grew better than the other groups, while the best performance of the A. fistulosum was shown by the control group. (authors)

  3. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    species of Samara region (Clematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (Clematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what

  4. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of lignin in isolated flax fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W H; Himmelsbach, D S; Akin, D E; Evans, J D

    2003-04-23

    The chemistry of pure flax fibers, free of contaminating nonfiber components, has not been determined. Fibers from the center sections of the stem of seed and fiber flax (Linum usitatissium L.), which had been retted after soaking in water and removal of the epidermis by hand, underwent chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Wet chemical analysis showed only trace indications of aromatics and no long chain fatty acids or alcohols in fibers. Pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (PyMS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) showed only trace amounts of aromatic constituents that could be attributed to the presence of lignin. Mid-infrared (Mid-IR) and Raman spectroscopy of these fibers showed no aromatic compounds present. This study suggests that earlier work reporting the presence of lignin ranging from 1 to 4% may be the result of residual shive or epidermis/cuticle material remaining after the retting process which may be responsible for the favorable properties desired by the composites industry.

  5. Belowground abiotic and biotic heterogeneity shapes aboveground infection outcomes and spatial divergence in a host–parasite interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Ayco J. M.; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Bissett, Andrew; Thrall, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We investigated the impact of belowground and aboveground environmental heterogeneity on the ecology and evolution of a natural plant–pathogen interaction.We combined field measurements and a reciprocal inoculation experiment to investigate the potential for natural variation in abiotic and biotic factors to mediate infection outcomes in the association between the fungal pathogen Melampsora lini and its wild flax host, Linum marginale, where pathogen strains and plant lines originated from two ecologically distinct habitat types that occur in close proximity (‘bog’ and ‘hill’).The two habitat types differed strikingly in soil moisture and soil microbiota. Infection outcomes for different host–pathogen combinations were strongly affected by the habitat of origin of the plant lines and pathogen strains, the soil environment and their interactions. Our results suggested that trade-offs play a key role in explaining the evolutionary divergence in interaction traits among the two habitat types.Overall, we demonstrate that soil heterogeneity, by mediating infection outcomes and evolutionary divergence, can contribute to the maintenance of variation in resistance and pathogenicity within a natural host-pathogen metapopulation. PMID:25872137

  6. Below-ground abiotic and biotic heterogeneity shapes above-ground infection outcomes and spatial divergence in a host-parasite interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Ayco J M; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Burdon, Jeremy J; Bissett, Andrew; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the impact of below-ground and above-ground environmental heterogeneity on the ecology and evolution of a natural plant-pathogen interaction. We combined field measurements and a reciprocal inoculation experiment to investigate the potential for natural variation in abiotic and biotic factors to mediate infection outcomes in the association between the fungal pathogen Melampsora lini and its wild flax host, Linum marginale, where pathogen strains and plant lines originated from two ecologically distinct habitat types that occur in close proximity ('bog' and 'hill'). The two habitat types differed strikingly in soil moisture and soil microbiota. Infection outcomes for different host-pathogen combinations were strongly affected by the habitat of origin of the plant lines and pathogen strains, the soil environment and their interactions. Our results suggested that tradeoffs play a key role in explaining the evolutionary divergence in interaction traits among the two habitat types. Overall, we demonstrate that soil heterogeneity, by mediating infection outcomes and evolutionary divergence, can contribute to the maintenance of variation in resistance and pathogenicity within a natural host-pathogen metapopulation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Toxicity of combined mixtures of nanoparticles to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jośko, Izabela; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Skwarek, Ewa

    2017-06-05

    An increasing production and using of nanoproducts results in releasing and dispersing nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment. Being released into various environment components, NPs may interact with numerous pollutants, including other NPs. This research aimed at assessing toxicity of combined binary mixtures of NPs. The study focused on assessing mixtures of NPs believed to be toxic (nano-ZnO+nano-CuO) and nano-ZnO/nano-CuO with the ones that are insignificantly toxic or non-toxic NPs (nano-TiO 2 /nano-Cr 2 O 3 /nano-Fe 2 O 3 ). Toxicity of combined mixtures proved comparable to toxicity of individual mixtures of NPs (the sum of effects triggered by individual types of NPs comprising respective mixtures). Toxicity evaluation was based on two parameters: seed germination and inhibition of root growth with respect to four plant species: Lepidium sativum, Linum utisassimmum, Cucumis sativus and Triticum aestivum. The findings showed combined mixtures of NPs to be significantly less toxic in comparison to individual mixtures, irrespective of their components. Within the scope of concentrations used, greatest differences between the toxicity of mixtures were reported at the 100mgL -1 concentration. Toxicity levels of combined and individual mixtures might have been determined by a lower total concentration of Zn and Cu metals and a greater aggregation of particles in combined mixtures than in individual mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SEQUENCING OF FLAX LIS-1 INSERTION SITE IN THE ALBIDUM GENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology of identifying the insertion site of LIS-1-1 (Linum Insertion Sequence 1 element in flax Albidum variety when growing under the in vitro combined with environmental stress conditions. Abiotic stress was induced by a reduced nutrient content in a growth medium. The LIS-1 insertion site amplification was reaLIS-1ed using the forward LIS-L: 5'-GGG CAG TTT AAC TGT AAC GAA - 3 'and revers LIS-R: 5'-GCT TGG ATT TAG ACT TGG CAA C - 3' primers by PCR. PCR product was sequenced by direct sequencing method to proove the nucleotide sequence for matching with database LIS-1 sequence. A comparison has been matched with the sequence of the amplified segment in the database for all nucleotides except the 11-position in the 5'-3 ' direction, where instead of the three adenine pair is a couple in the Albidum variety. Changes caused by mobile elements or insertion sequences result in common flax in variability that can be used for the purposes of development of effective marker identification or environment based markers development.

  9. Contrasting seasonal overlaps between primary and secondary growth are linked to wood anatomy in Mediterranean sub-shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, J J; Palacio, S; Montserrat-Martí, G

    2013-09-01

    Whole-plant approaches allow quantification of the temporal overlap between primary and secondary growth. If the amount of time available to grow is short, there may be a high temporal overlap between shoot growth and wood formation. We hypothesise that such overlap depends on the duration of the growing season and relates to wood anatomy. We evaluated wood anatomy, shoot longitudinal and radial growth rates, fine root production and the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in the wood of six sub-shrub species growing in sites with contrasting climatic conditions (Lepidium subulatum, Linum suffruticosum, Salvia lavandulifolia, Satureja montana, Ononis fruticosa, Echinospartum horridum). Sub-shrub species living in sites with a short growing season displayed a high overlap between aboveground primary and secondary growth and formed wide vessels, whereas species from the warmest and driest sites presented the reverse characteristics. The highest overlap was linked to a rapid shoot extension and thickening through the enhanced hydraulic conductivity provided by wide vessels. The reductions in NSC concentrations when growth peaked were low or moderate, indicating that sub-shrubs accumulate NSC in excess, as do trees. The temporal overlap among primary and secondary growth in woody plants may be connected to the duration and rates of shoot and wood growth, which in turn depend on the vessel lumen area. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. A Methodological Approach for Testing the Viability of Seeds Stored in Short-Term Seed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. FORTE GIL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of ‘active’ seed banks – specifically aimed at the short-term storage at room temperature of seeds to be used locally in conservation/regeneration programmes of endemic or endangered plant species – requires establishing the optimal storage time to maintain high seed viability, for each stored species. In this work, germination of seeds of the halophytes Thalictrum maritimum, Centaurea dracunculifolia and Linum maritimum has been investigated. The seeds had been stored for different periods of time in the seed bank of ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park (Valencia, SE Spain after collection in salt marshes of the Park, where small populations of the three species are present. Seeds of T. maritimum and C. dracunculifolia have a relatively short period of viability at room temperature, and should not be stored for more than three years. On the other hand, L. maritimum seeds maintain a high germination percentage and can be kept at room temperature for up to 10 years. T. maritimum seeds, in contrast to those of the other two species, did not germinate in in vitro tests nor when sown directly on a standard substrate, unless a pre-treatment of the seeds was applied, mechanical scarification being the most effective. These results will help to improve the management of the seed bank, to generate more efficiently new plants for reintroduction and reinforcement of populations of these species in their natural ecosystems within the Natural Park.

  11. Biotransformation of 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural into 2,5-furan-dicarboxylic acid by bacterial isolate using thermal acid algal hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Fang; Huang, Ci-Ruei

    2016-08-01

    Thermal acid hydrolysis is often used to deal with lignocellulosic biomasses, but 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural (5-HMF) formed during hydrolysis deeply influences downstream fermentation. 2,5-Furan-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), which is in the list of future important biomass platform molecules can be obtained using 5-HMF biotransformation. Based on the connection between 5-HMF removal in acid hydrolysate and FDCA production, the optimum thermal acid hydrolysis condition for macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was established. Potential microbes capable of transforming 5-HMF into FDCA were isolated and characterized under various parameters and inoculated into algal hydrolysate to perform 5-HMF biotransformation. The optimum hydrolysis condition was to apply 0.5M HCl to treat 3% algal biomass under 121°C for 15min. Isolated Burkholderia cepacia H-2 could transform 2000mg/L 5-HMF at the initial pH of 7 at 28°C and 1276mg/L FDCA was received. Strain B. cepacia H-2 was suitable for treating the algal hydrolysate without dilution, receiving 989.5mg/L FDCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preference of the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus for different macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cuihong; Zeng, Fangui; Wang, Shuqi; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-06-01

    The decomposition of a large amount of unexploited macroalgal resource along the coast of China often results in heavy environmental pollution. In order to pave a way of using macroalgae as the dietary ingredient of rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, one of a few farmed herbivorous marine teleosts in China, its preference (feeding selectivity) for different macroalgae was determined in this study. Seven seaweed species abundantly inhabiting the coast of east Guangdong Province were exposed simultaneously to rabbitfish juveniles in laboratory (multiple-choice feeding) with their content and absolute intake assayed. It was found that the most preferred algae were Ulva prolifera, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Chaetomorpha linum, less preferred algae were U. pertusa and Porphyra haitanensis, and least preferred ones were Sargassum fusiforme and Corallina sessilis. Such an order did not change when one to four relatively preferred seaweeds were removed. The preferred seaweeds were richer in protein and soluble sugar thus higher in energy than the least preferred. In addition, this fish was found to favor filamentous and flat algae rather than calcified ones. Accordingly, the richness of nutrients and morphological characteristics determined the preference of S. canaliculatus for tested macroalgae.

  13. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  14. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized [phenyl-U- 14 C]chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system

  15. Chemical composition of components comprising bast tissue in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W H; Akin, D E

    2001-05-01

    Components from the bast region of flax (Linum usitatissium) were removed by hand from seed flax and fiber flax and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Stems soaked in water were separated by hand into an outer layer, which consisted of epidermis with cuticle and parenchyma cells, and fiber bundles. Each of the two fractions were evaluated for chemical markers that could be used to predict the degree of retting and possibly fiber quality. The outer layer was subsequently treated with a mixed enzyme preparation to remove the carbohydrate portion, thus providing another fraction consisting primarily of cuticle. Four main constituent groups were investigated: dihydroxy fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids and alcohols, sterols, and aromatics. Long-chain fatty acids and alcohols located in the outer layer accounted for 80-92% of the total found in both fractions. Aromatics and sterols in the outer layer accounted for 29--72 and 27--67%, respectively, of the total and do not appear to be a reliable marker for the degree of retting. The best markers for retting were the dihydroxy fatty acids, of which 98--99% were accounted for in the outer layer. The main dihydroxy fatty acids were a mixture of 8,16- and 9,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acids and represented 87--89% of the total dihydroxy fatty acids measured. As a constituent of cuticle, this compound may serve as an excellent marker for indicating the degree of retting as well as a possible marker for fiber quality because this compound is almost always exclusively associated with the outer layer and not the fiber.

  16. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.

  17. Comparison of the total antioxidant content of 30 widely used medicinal plants of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderJagt, T J; Ghattas, R; VanderJagt, D J; Crossey, M; Glew, R H

    2002-01-18

    Teas made from medicinal plants are commonly used by a majority of the inhabitants of New Mexico and Mexico to treat various ailments including infections, arthritis, heart disorders, headaches, fever, asthma and menstrual pain. However, little is known about the identity or chemical nature of the bioactive substances and compounds responsible for the therapeutic effects of the teas made from the leaves, seeds, flowers stems, and roots of these medicinal plants. Some of the beneficial effects of these teas may be attributable to antioxidants contained in the medicinal plants from which they are brewed. In the present study we collected 30 medicinal plants that are widely used in the Rio Grande Valley and, using a two-stage Trolox based assay, analyzed the total antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from these plants. The antioxidant content of the aqueous extracts was substantial, ranging from 27 to 972 micromol Trolox equivalent per gram dry weight. An extract of the leaves of the plant Ilex paraguensis (Mate leaf) contained the highest amount of antioxidant, followed by the flowers of the Rosa sp. (Rosa de Castillo, 804 micromol/g), the bark of Chinchona sp. (Copalquin, 692 micromol/g), Rumex hymenosepalus stems (Cana Agria, 672 micromol/g) and the leaves of Marrubium vulgare (Mastranzo, 560 micromol/g). The plants that had the lowest antioxidant capacity were the seeds of Linum lewissii (Linasa, 29 micromol/g) and Yucca sp. plant root (Amole, 27 micromol/g). It will be useful to further analyze those plants that contain the most antioxidant activity in order to identify the active principles.

  18. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Differential nitrogen cycling in semiarid sub-shrubs with contrasting leaf habit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palacio

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is, after water, the most limiting resource in semiarid ecosystems. However, knowledge on the N cycling ability of semiarid woody plants is still very rudimentary. This study analyzed the seasonal change in the N concentrations and pools of the leaves and woody organs of two species of semiarid sub-shrubs with contrasting leaf habit. The ability of both species to uptake, remobilize and recycle N, plus the main storage organ for N during summer drought were evaluated. We combined an observational approach in the field with experimental (15N labelling of adult individuals grown in sand culture. Seasonal patterns of N concentrations were different between species and organs and foliar N concentrations of the summer deciduous Lepidium subulatum were almost double those of the evergreen Linum suffruticosum. L. subulatum up took ca. 60% more external N than the evergreen and it also had a higher N resorption efficiency and proficiency. Contrastingly, L. suffruticosum relied more on internal N remobilization for shoot growth. Differently to temperate species, the evergreen stored N preferentially in the main stem and old trunks, while the summer deciduous stored it in the foliage and young stems. The higher ability of L. subulatum to uptake external N can be related to its ability to perform opportunistic growth and exploit the sporadic pulses of N typical of semiarid ecosystems. Such ability may also explain its high foliar N concentrations and its preferential storage of N in leaves and young stems. Finally, L. suffruticosum had a lower ability to recycle N during leaf senescence. These strategies contrast with those of evergreen and deciduous species from temperate and boreal areas, highlighting the need of further studies on semiarid and arid plants.

  20. The botanical legacy of Thomas Hardwicke’s journey to Srinagar in 1796

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1796, Thomas Hardwicke travelled through northern India between what is now Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar in Uttarakhand. Hardwicke collected and described plants encountered and had many of the plants illustrated from life. He published an account of the journey in 1799 including a list of plant species. I review the names validated in the original paper, and also those published subsequently by Sir James Edward Smith and William Roxburgh based partly or wholly on the material or drawings acquired by Hardwicke on the journey to Srinagar. The large collection of Hardwicke plant drawings now held in the British Library, and a smaller set in the Botany Library of the Natural History Museum, are considered in relation to the application and typification of plant names related to Hardwicke’s botanical exploration in India. The names of seven plant species were validly published in the 1799 paper (Androsace rotundifolia Hardw., Ficus laminosa Hardw., Justicia thyrsiformis Roxb. ex Hardw., Linum trigynum Roxb. ex Hardw., Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw., Salvia integrifolia Roxb. ex Hardw. and Volkameria bicolor Hardw., plus one new combination (Echites antidysentericus (L. Roxb. ex Hardw.. As concluded by Britten more than a century ago, Ficus laminosa is the correct name for the fig variously referred to F. saemocarpa Miq. or F. squamosa Roxb. Smith based Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Bignonia undulata Sm. on Hardwicke plants. At least a dozen Roxburgh names, including Crataegus integrifolia Roxb., Gardenia tetrasperma Roxb. and Morus serrata Roxb., are based, at least partly, on Hardwicke’s collections. In total, 23 names are lectotypified here and one neotype is designated.

  1. Evaluation of cytotoxic effect of methanolic extracts isolated from endemic plants of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province on PC-3, MCF-7, Hep G2, CHO and B16-F10 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tayarani-Najaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To date, thousands of secondary metabolites have been isolated from plants and microorganisms and there is an unprecedented attention towards potential biomedical applications of natural compounds. In this study, cytotoxic properties of methanol extracts of Stachys obtusicrena, Aristolochia olivieri, Linum album, Dionysia sawyeri, Ajuga chamaecistus, Achillea kellalensis, Nepeta glomerulosa, Phlomis aucheria, Tanacetum dumosum, Dianthus orientalis, Scutellaria multicaulis, Cicer oxyodon and Picris oligocephalum which are widely grown in Iran, were investigated on PC-3 (prostat cancer, MCF-7 (breast cancer, Hep-G2 (liver cancer, CHO (ovarian cancer and B16-F10 (melanoma cell lines. Methods: The cancer cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 and incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantitated by Alamar blue® assay. The apoptotic cells were determined by PI coloring and Flow Cytometry (Sub-G1 peak. Results: The methanol extracts of D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon significantly decreased the viability of CHO cells. The Methanol extract of D. sawyer and L. album had cytotoxic effects on B16-F10 cells, whereas no toxicity was observed in MCF-7, Hep-G2 and PC-3 cell lines after incubation of the cancer cells with the plant extracts. The PI staining results showed that D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon in CHO cancer cells could induce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: Screening plants to find the most cytotoxic extract showed D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, C. oxyodon and L. album had the potential for further analysis toward finding active phytochemicals with cytotoxic activity.

  2. Specialization for resistance in wild host-pathogen interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eBarrett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties encompassed by host-pathogen interaction networks have potential to give valuable insight into the evolution of specialization and coevolutionary dynamics in host-pathogen interactions. However, network approaches have been rarely utilized in previous studies of host and pathogen phenotypic variation. Here we applied quantitative analyses to eight networks derived from spatially and temporally segregated host (Linum marginale and pathogen (Melampsora lini populations. First, we found that resistance strategies are highly variable within and among networks, corresponding to a spectrum of specialist and generalist resistance types being maintained within all networks. At the individual level, specialization was strongly linked to partial resistance, such that partial resistance was effective against a greater number of pathogens compared to full resistance. Second, we found that all networks were significantly nested. There was little support for the hypothesis that temporal evolutionary dynamics may lead to the development of nestedness in host-pathogen infection networks. Rather, the common patterns observed in terms of nestedness suggests a universal driver (or multiple drivers that may be independent of spatial and temporal structure. Third, we found that resistance networks were significantly modular in two spatial networks, clearly reflecting spatial and ecological structure within one of the networks. We conclude that (1 overall patterns of specialization in the networks we studied mirror evolutionary trade-offs with the strength of resistance; (2 that specific network architecture can emerge under different evolutionary scenarios; and (3 network approaches offer great utility as a tool for probing the evolutionary and ecological genetics of host-pathogen interactions.

  3. Reconstruction of paleoenvironments by analyzing spatial shell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, Susanne; Lukeneder, Alexander; Weber, Gerhard W.; Exner, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    one side of the shell (transverse axis) was measured (landmark s & c). Spatial orientation was characterized by dip and dip direction of the longitudinal axis, as well as by strike and azimuth of a plane defined by both axes. The exact spatial orientation data was determined for a sample of 699 ammonoids within the bed and statistically analyzed. The results provide a hint on the geodynamic processes (paleocurrents), depositional conditions (allochthonous or autochthonous) and other general information about the ancient environment. The method can be adapted for other mass-occurring fossils and thus represents a good template for studies of topographical paleoenvironmental factors. References: Flügel, E. 2004. Microfacies of carbonate rocks. Analysis, Interpretation and Application. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p.182. Lukeneder S., Lukeneder A., Harzhauser M., Islamoglu Y., Krystyn L., Lein R. 2012. A delayed carbonate factory breakdown during the Tethyan-wide Carnian Pluvial Episode along the Cimmerian terranes (Taurus, Turkey). Facies 58: 279-296.

  4. How do plant communities and flower visitors relate? A case study of semi-natural xerothermic grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationships between the species composition of flower visitors and plants in the semi-natural xerothermic grasslands in southern and central Poland. Thirty 10 × 10 m permanent plots were laid out in total, mainly in nature reserves. The vegetation units studied were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet system; these were phytocoenoses of the Festuco-Brometea classes Inuletum ensifoliae, Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati and the transitional plant community. Entomological research was performed using the Pollard method within the same plots. A particular site was visited only once and different sites were studied between April and August 2008. We applied, among others, co-correspondence-analysis Co-CA, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and redundancy analysis (RDA to investigate the co-occurrence patterns of plants and flower visitors and their biotopic requirements. We found that the species composition of flower visitors cannot be predicted by floristic composition when the duration of the study is restricted to one day (but under similar weather conditions; however, there is a positive relationship between the species richness of insects and plants and a positive relationship between the number of plant species and the abundance of flower visitors. The Ellenberg moisture index and the cover of meadow species significantly explained the species composition of insects. The three various vegetation units and five dominant xerothermic species, i.e. Adonis vernalis, Anemone sylvestris, Inula ensifolia, Linum hirsutum and Carlina onopordifolia that were studied across time differed in the species richness of insects. Our results demonstrate that possible patterns in the species composition and the assembly rules of flower visitors are not apparent when the Pollard method is applied. Based on the data obtained using this method, the flower visiting assemblages seem not to be driven by competition and they primarily

  5. Displacement of organelles in plant gravireceptor cells by vibrational forces and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Nechitailo, G.; Kuznetsov, A.

    Plant gravity perception can be studied by displacing statoliths inside receptor cells by forces other than gravity. Due to mechanical heterogeneity of statocytes various ponderomotive forces can be used for this purpose. In a plant subjected to non- symmetric vibrations statoliths experience inertial force proportional to the difference between their density and that of cytoplasm and to the instantaneous acceleration of the cell. This force causes cyclic motion of statoliths relative to cytoplasm and, depending on the profile of oscillations, can result in a net displacement of them (due to complex rheology of the cell interior), similar to sedimentation. This can be described as "vibrational" ponderomotive force acting on the statoliths. Vertically growing Arabidopsis seedlings, subjected to horizontal, sawtooth shaped oscillations (250 Hz, 1.5 mm amplitude), showed 17+/-2o root curvature toward and shoot curvature of 11+/-3o against the stronger acceleration. When the polarity of the oscillations was reversed, the direction of curvature of shoots and roots was also reversed. Control experiments with starchless mutants (TC7) produced no net curvature, which indicates that dense starch-filled amyloplasts are needed for the effect. These control experiments also eliminate touch-induced reactions or other side-effects as the cause of the curvature. Linum roots curved 25+/-7o . Ceratodon protonemata subjected to the same oscillations have shown displacement of plastids and curvature consistent with the pattern observed during graviresponse: positively gravitropic wwr mutant curved in the direction of the plastid displacement, WT curved in the opposite direction. Acoustic ponderomotive forces, originating from transfer of a sonic beam momentum to the medium due to sound scattering and attenuation in a mechanically heterogeneous system, also can displace statoliths. Vertical flax seedlings curved away from the ultrasonic source (800 kHz, 0.1 W/cm2 ) presumably as a

  6. EDITORIAL: Progress in quantum technology: one photon at a time Progress in quantum technology: one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Coulomb blockade ones, have struggled to achieve the sequential injection of the carriers that results from this approach. As the authors explain, the result is a highly efficient process with greater stability at high acoustic powers compared with direct optical pumping at the position of the post: 'Our findings demonstrate that quantum posts with their surrounding wide matrix quantum well are an ideal system for the realization of a precisely triggered SAW-controlled single-photon source'. The work of Völk, Krenner and their co-authors draws on a vast range of developments in fundamental physics and nanotechnology. As is so often the case, how developments in one direction facilitate work in another is only really apparent in hindsight. In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Max Planck remarked: 'The whole strenuous intellectual work of an industrious research worker would appear, after all, in vain and hopeless, if he were not occasionally through some striking facts to find that he had, at the end of all his criss-cross journeys, at last accomplished at least one step which was conclusively nearer the truth' [11]. Whether the cumulative efforts of all the researchers in theoretical physics and technology mentioned here bring us closer to the truth, time will tell. But it seems quite likely that they will bring us closer to turning the quantum capabilities of science-fiction to reality. References [1] Völk S, Knall F, Schülein J R, Truong T A, Kim J, Petroff P M, Wixforth A and Krenner H J 2012 Surface acoustic wave mediated into individual quantum post nano emitters Nanotechnology 23 285201 [2] Patel R B, Bennett A J, Cooper K, Atkinson P, Nicoll A A, Ritchie D A and Shields A J 2010 Quantum interference of electrically generated single photons from a quantum dot Nanotechnology 21 274011 [3] Kim J, Benson O, Kan H and Yamamoto Y 1999 A single-photon turnstile device Nature 397 500-3 [4] Rocke C, Zimmermann S, Wixforth A, Kotthaus J P, Böhm G and Weimann G 1997