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Sample records for lein linum usitatissimum

  1. Studies on the widening of the variation of the fatty acid pattern in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. ) by means of interspecific hybridisation and in-vitro techniques. Untersuchungen zur Erweiterung der genetischen Variation des Fettsaeuremusters beim Lein (Linum usitatissimum L. ) mit Hilfe von Artkreuzungen und in vitro Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, M.

    1993-01-01

    Oil flux genotypes with strongly divergent fatty acid compositions of the seed oil are vegetable raw materials of great interest to industrial users, notably to manufacturers of edible oils and dietetic products. Compared with the moderately variable fatty acid pattern of Linum usitatissimum that of wild forms shows a far greater scatter. The studies on the widening of the genetic variation of the fatty acid pattern in cultivated flax by means of interspecific hybridization and embryo cultures have revealed the possibilities offered by, and limits to, these methods. Optimisation of the embryo culture techniques have for the first time made it possible to regenerate plants from globular embryos obtained by interspecific hybridization between Linum usitatissimum and L. monogynum. (orig./EF)

  2. Effectiveness and efficiency of certain mutagens in Linum usitatissimum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateef, M.A.; Nizam, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays, hydrazine, hydroxylamine, ethylmethane sulphonate and mitomycin-C. mutagens were studied on the basis of chlorophyll mutations in Linum usitatissimum L. (author)

  3. Molecular genetic studies in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis five molecular genetic studies on flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) are described, of which two chapters aim to characterize the genetic structure and the amount of genetic diversity in the primary and secondary gene pool of the crop species. Three chapters describe the development of

  4. Influence of gamma rays on the yield of Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouse, A.K.M.; Abidi, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of various acute doses of gamma-rays has been studied in an oil yielding Indian variety, Neelum of Linum usitatissimum. It has been found that gamma irradiation brings about an increase in the yield of the crop at lower doses upto 75 krads, while the higher ones like 125 and 150 krads reduce the yield to half. (auth.)

  5. Ontogeny of floral organs in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Lauren C; Sawhney, Vipen K; Davis, Arthur R

    2011-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an important crop worldwide; however, a detailed study on flower development of this species is lacking. Here we describe the pattern of initiation and a program of key developmental events in flax flower ontogeny. This study provides important fundamental information for future research in various aspects of flax biology and biotechnology. Floral buds and organs were measured throughout development and examined using scanning electron microscopy. Floral organs were initiated in the following sequence: sepals, stamens and petals, gynoecium, and nectaries. The five sepals originated in a helical pattern, followed evidently by simultaneous initiation of five stamens and five petals, the former opposite of the sepals and the latter alternate to them. The gynoecium, with five carpels, was produced from the remaining, central region of the floral apex. Stamens at early stages were dominated by anther growth but filaments elongated rapidly shortly before anthesis. Early gynoecium development occurred predominantly in the ovary, and ovule initiation began prior to enclosure of carpels. A characteristic feature was the twisted growth of styles, accompanied by the differentiation of papillate stigmas. Petal growth lagged behind that of other floral organs, but petals eventually grew rapidly to enclose the inner whorls after style elongation. Flask-shaped nectaries bearing stomata developed on the external surface of the filament bases. This is the first detailed study on flax floral organ development and has established a key of 12 developmental stages, which should be useful to flax researchers.

  6. La linaza (Linum usitatissimum l. y su papel nutraceútico | Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum l. and its nutraceutical role

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    Luis Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum is a herb of the family Linaceae, and from flaxseed flour and oils are extracted. Since the seed components have shown bioactive potential (the α-linolenic acid, lignans and fiber in recent decades there have been studies around the world with this oleaginous plant, using experimental animal models, in vitro tests and with humans. In this review, studies associated with flaxseed are described, specifically related to its effect on different pathologies, including cancer, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Although none of the studies showed that consumption of flaxseed or its components, was able to eradicate any type of cancer, in almost all the reports an improvement was observed in the groups that had consumed it in their diets with respect to those that did not receive it. Even though the inhibitory capacity of the components of flaxseed have been shown in in vitro tests, its scope is still unknown, and perhaps they could inhibit other cellular functions, gene expression, enzymes or proteins that play an important role in the proliferation of malignant cells.

  7. Age-related changes of DNA methylation in cotyledonous leaves of Linum usitatissimum under UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berestyana, A.M.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.; Kryipka, G.V.

    2011-01-01

    The age-related changes of DNA methylation in cotyledonous leaves of Linum usitatissimum subjected to UV-B radiation in the interval 4.23-12.69 kJ/m 2 have been studied. The level of methylation is determined by the restriction analysis. Although the study showed no dose-dependence, some methylation spectrum changes in the process of aging of the Linum usitatissimum cotyledonous leaves occurred.

  8. ( Linum usitatissimum L. cv. Modran cell suspension culture

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    Aleksandra Seta-Koselska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L. is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of oil, fiber, and bioactive compounds. Flax fiber is traditionally used in textile industry, linseed oil is processed for industrial oils, paints, varnishes and bio-petroleum. Flaxseeds are also rich in α-linolenic acid and phytochemicals such as lignans. In addition to the commercial aspects, this species has been used widely and readily in biotechnological, developmental, and plant-pathogen interaction studies. Differences in the levels of endogenous hormones in various cultivars of flax significantly affected the intensity of callogenesis and determined the type and concentration of growth regulators necessary for callus production. The aim of our investigation was to optimize the culture conditions for callus formation and cell proliferation in liquid medium of the Polish cultivar of fiber flax – Modran. In the first step, 4 combinations of phytohormones in the medium were tested to obtain established callus tissue suitable for initiation of suspension culture. Next, we investigated the effect of chosen plant growth regulators on cell divisions, fresh and dry weight, and dispersal of callus cells in liquid medium. Fast growing and friable callus was obtained in a modified MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l NAA. We determined that for the initiation of cell suspension supplementation with 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA is optimal. The results obtained indicated that high concentration of cytokinin (BAP in liquid medium limited cell proliferation and decreased biomass formation.

  9. A review on Pharmacological and clinical aspects of Linum usitatissimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ramin; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Dadbakhsh, Amir Hossein

    2018-05-20

    Linum usitatissimum L., known as common Flax or linseed, from the family Linnaceae, has long been cultivated in different nations due to its applications in medicine and industry. The present study aims to collect nearly all available information about chemical constituents of Flax, as well as pharmacological properties and confirmed clinical usages of it. We searched through databases such as Scopus and PubMed for relevant literatures using the keywords: (Linum usitatissimum), (pharmacology) and (phytochemical) from the beginning to 13 Aug 2017. Nearly 60 relevant papers, relating to pharmacological and phytochemical constituent of L. usitatissimum were selected. According to our researches, various properties were attributed to L. usitatisimum including: antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, Antiprotozoal, insecticidal, Analgesic, anti-hyperlipidemia, Anti-hyperglycemic, Anti-tumor, wound healing and Feticidal activities. There were also many reports to the disease preventive and healing properties of the flax. Diseases like: GI disorders, cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory diseases and some neurological syndromes were mentioned to be treated by Flax. The application of Flax in drug formulations was also investigated. Despite so much animal studies that have been accomplished, there haven't been enough clinical trials done on pharmacological properties of L. usitatissimum. Therefore this study could be considered as a concise and up to date overview for further facile studies and clinical trials over the valuable plant, L. usitatissimum. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, P; Bačová-Kerteszová, N; Kalendar, R; Corander, J; Schulman, A H; Pavelek, M

    2011-05-01

    Retrotransposon segments were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus. Over 75 distinct long terminal repeat retrotransposon segments were cloned, the first set for Linum, and specific primers designed for them. IRAP was then used to evaluate genetic diversity among 708 accessions of cultivated flax comprising 143 landraces, 387 varieties, and 178 breeding lines. These included both traditional and modern, oil (86), fiber (351), and combined-use (271) accessions, originating from 36 countries, and 10 wild Linum species. The set of 10 most polymorphic primers yielded 141 reproducible informative data points per accession, with 52% polymorphism and a 0.34 Shannon diversity index. The maximal genetic diversity was detected among wild Linum species (100% IRAP polymorphism and 0.57 Jaccard similarity), while diversity within cultivated germplasm decreased from landraces (58%, 0.63) to breeding lines (48%, 0.85) and cultivars (50%, 0.81). Application of Bayesian methods for clustering resulted in the robust identification of 20 clusters of accessions, which were unstratified according to origin or user type. This indicates an overlap in genetic diversity despite disruptive selection for fiber versus oil types. Nevertheless, eight clusters contained high proportions (70-100%) of commercial cultivars, whereas two clusters were rich (60%) in landraces. These findings provide a basis for better flax germplasm management, core collection establishment, and exploration of diversity in breeding, as well as for exploration of the role of retrotransposons in flax genome dynamics.

  11. Characterization of mucoadhesive nasal gels containing midazolam hydrochloride prepared from Linum usitatissimum L. mucilage

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    Shyamoshree Basu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery systems prepared from natural materials are gaining importance in the field of pharmaceutical technology. Mucilage isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. (LUM seeds was reported to be an effective natural mucoadhesive agent. The present study deals with a comparison of various characteristics of nasal gels containing midazolam hydrochloride (HCl prepared from mucoadhesive agent extracted from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds and synthetic polymers like HPMC and Carbopol 934P in terms of texture profile analysis, mucoadhesive strength, and in vivo drug absorption profiles. It was observed that gels formulated with the natural mucilage showed better results than the synthetic gels in all aspects like hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesive strength. The absolute bioavailability of midazolam hydrochloride from the natural gel was 97.55% whereas that of synthetic gels was 57.33% and 76.81% respectively.Sistemas de liberação nasal preparados com produtos naturais estão ganhando importância no campo da tecnologia farmacêutica. A mucilagem isolada de sementes de Linum usitatissimum L. (LUM mostrou-se agente mucoadesivo eficaz. O presente estudo trata da comparação de várias características de géis nasais contendo cloridrato de midazolam preparados com agente mucoadesivo extraído das sementes de Linum usitatissimum L. e com polímeros sintéticos, como HPMC e Carbopol 943P, com relação ao perfil de textura, força mucoadesiva e perfis de absorção do fármaco in vivo. Observou-se que os géis formulados com mucilagem natural apresentam melhores resultados do que os sintéticos em todos os aspectos, como dureza, adesão, coesão e força mucoadesiva. A biodisponibilidade absoluta do cloridrato de midazolam a partir do gel natural foi de 97,55%, enquanto que nos géis sintéticos foi de 57,33% e 76,81%, respectivamente.

  12. Development of Novel SSR Markers for Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using Reduced-Representation Genome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianzhong; Zhao, Qian; Wu, Guangwen; Zhang, Shuquan; Jiang, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) is a major fiber and oil yielding crop grown in northeastern China. Identification of flax molecular markers is a key step toward improving flax yield and quality via marker-assisted breeding. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which are based on genomic structural variation, are considered the most valuable type of genetic marker for this purpose. In this study, we screened 1574 microsatellites from Linum usitatissimum L. obtained using reduced representation genome sequencing (RRGS) to systematically identify SSR markers. The resulting set of microsatellites consisted mainly of trinucleotide (56.10%) and dinucleotide (35.23%) repeats, with each motif consisting of 5-8 repeats. We then evaluated marker sensitivity and specificity based on samples of 48 flax isolates obtained from northeastern China. Using the new SSR panel, the results demonstrated that fiber flax and oilseed flax varieties clustered into two well separated groups. The novel SSR markers developed in this study show potential value for selection of varieties for use in flax breeding programs.

  13. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp...... these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species....

  14. A note on the effect of gamma-irradiation on the seed germination of Linum usitatissimum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouse, A.K.M.; Abidi, S.H.; Kazmi, Reshma

    1979-01-01

    A study on the effect of different acute doses of gamma-irradiation on the seeds of Linum usitatissimum L. varieties Heera, Mukta and T 397 revealed that the process of germination has been retarded, particularly, at its initial stage, under the influence of this ionizing agency, although the overall germination percentage does not vary to any considerable extent under the different intensities of irradiation tested. (auth.)

  15. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

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    González Leonardo Galindo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Results Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage, followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE retrotransposons (2.10% and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%. Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. Conclusions The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include

  16. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Leonardo Galindo; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-11-21

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs) are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum) affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC) were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage), followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE) retrotransposons (2.10%) and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%). Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each) did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include TEs likely found in unassembled repetitive regions of

  17. Linum usitatissimum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The principal linseed growing regions in Ethiopia are located at altitudes ... boiling one part of linseed with 20 parts of water until grains become soft (the tea ... fattening resulted in a significant increase in the mineral content of the flax seed flours. ... spices plants commonly cultivated in Turkey were within the low range [16].

  18. Linum usitatissimum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... . Dalri AB, Cruz RL (2002). Efeito da freqüência de irrigação subsuperf- icial por gotejamento no desenvolvimento da cana-de-açúcar. (Saccharum spp.). Irriga, Botucatu 7(1):29-34. De Paula MB, Carvalho VD, Nogueira FD (1992). Efeitos da vinhaça na.

  19. Linum usitatissimum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... (3.5 to 5) (España-Gamboa et al., 2011; Waliszewski et al., 1997). Its generation ... and it is an alternative to the use of natural resources, avoiding the .... culture, and the stillage replaces KCl as K source (De. Paula et al.

  20. New strategies for the use of Linum usitatissimum cell factories for the production of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Lorena; García-Pérez, Pascual; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Sánchez-Pujante, Pedro Joaquín; Pedreño, M A

    2016-02-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Linum usitatissimum L. were used to evaluate the effect of two types of cyclodextrins, β-glucan and (Z)-3-hexenol separately or in combination on phytosterol and tocopherol production. Suspension-cultured cells of L. usitatissimum were able to produce high levels of phytosterols in the presence of 50 mM methylated-β-cyclodextrins (1325.96 ± 107.06 μg g dry weight(-1)) separately or in combination with β-glucan (1278.57 ± 190.10 μg g dry weight(-1)) or (Z)-3-hexenol (1507.88 ± 173.02 μg g dry weight(-1)), being cyclodextrins able to increase both the secretion and accumulation of phytosterols in the spent medium, whereas β-glucan and (Z)-3-hexenol themselves only increased its intracellular accumulation. Moreover, the phytosterol values found in the presence of hydroxypropylated-β-cyclodextrins were lower than those found in the presence of methylated-β-cyclodextrins in all cases studied. However, the results showed that the presence of methylated-β-cyclodextrins did not increase the tocopherols production and only an increase in tocopherol levels was observed when cells were elicited with 50 mM hydroxypropylated-β-cyclodextrins in combination with β-glucan (174 μg g dry weight(-1)) or (Z)-3-hexenol (257 μg g dry weight(-1)). Since the levels of tocopherol produced in the combined treatment were higher than the sum of the individual treatments, a synergistic effect between both elicitors was assumed. To sum up, flax cell cultures elicited with cyclodextrins alone or in combination with β-glucan or (Z)-3-hexenol were able produce phytosterols and tocopherols, and therefore, these elicited suspension-cultured cells of L. usitatissimum can provide an alternative system, which is at the same time more sustainable, economical and ecological for their production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of cell wall proteins in the flax (Linum usitatissimum) stem.

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    Day, Arnaud; Fénart, Stéphane; Neutelings, Godfrey; Hawkins, Simon; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Sequential salt (CaCl2 , LiCl) extractions were used to obtain fractions enriched in cell wall proteins (CWPs) from the stem of 60-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum) plants. High-resolution FT-ICR MS analysis and the use of recently published genomic data allowed the identification of 11 912 peptides corresponding to a total of 1418 different proteins. Subcellular localization using TargetP, Predotar, and WoLF PSORT led to the identification of 152 putative flax CWPs that were classified into nine different functional classes previously established for Arabidopsis thaliana. Examination of different functional classes revealed the presence of a number of proteins known to be involved in, or potentially involved in cell-wall metabolism in plants. The flax stem cell wall proteome was also compared with transcriptomic data previously obtained on comparable samples. This study represents a major contribution to the identification of CWPs in flax and will lead to a better understanding of cell wall biology in this species. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Proteome profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed: characterization of functional metabolic pathways operating during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2012-12-07

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are an important source of food and feed due to the presence of various health promoting compounds, making it a nutritionally and economically important plant. An in-depth analysis of the proteome of developing flax seed is expected to provide significant information with respect to the regulation and accumulation of such storage compounds. Therefore, a proteomic analysis of seven seed developmental stages (4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 30, and 48 days after anthesis) in a flax variety, NL-97 was carried out using a combination of 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MSE methods. A total 1716 proteins were identified and their functional annotation revealed that a majority of them were involved in primary metabolism, protein destination, storage and energy. Three carbon assimilatory pathways appeared to operate in flax seeds. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR of selected 19 genes was carried out to understand their roles during seed development. Besides storage proteins, methionine synthase, RuBisCO and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were highly expressed transcripts, highlighting their importance in flax seed development. Further, the identified proteins were mapped onto developmental seed specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of flax to obtain transcriptional evidence and 81% of them had detectable expression at the mRNA level. This study provides new insights into the complex seed developmental processes operating in flax.

  3. Use of qNMR for speciation of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) and quantification of cyanogenic glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulard, Romain; Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Jamali, Arash; Cailleu, Dominique; Tavernier, Reynald; Guillot, Xavier; Rhazi, Larbi; Petit, Emmanuel; Molinie, Roland; Mesnard, François

    2017-12-01

    This report describes a routine method taking less than 20 min to quantify cyanogenic glycosides such as linustatin and neolinustatin from flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance. After manual dehulling, a higher linustatin content was shown in the almond fraction, while neolinustatin and total cyanogenic glycoside contents were significantly higher in hulls. Linustatin and neolinustatin were quantified in seven cultivars grown in two locations in three different years. Linustatin, neolinustatin, and total cyanogenic glycosides ranged between 91 and 267 mg/100 g, 78-272 mg/100 g, and 198-513 mg/100 g dry weight flaxseeds, respectively. NMR revealed differences of up to 70% between samples with standard deviation variations lower than 6%. This study shows that NMR is a very suitable tool to perform flaxseed varietal selection for the cyanogenic glycoside content. Graphical abstract qNMR can be used to perform flaxseed varietal selection for the cyanogenic glycoside content.

  4. Functional analyses of cellulose synthase genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) by virus-induced gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantreau, Maxime; Chabbert, Brigitte; Billiard, Sylvain; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2015-12-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) bast fibres are located in the stem cortex where they play an important role in mechanical support. They contain high amounts of cellulose and so are used for linen textiles and in the composite industry. In this study, we screened the annotated flax genome and identified 14 distinct cellulose synthase (CESA) genes using orthologous sequences previously identified. Transcriptomics of 'primary cell wall' and 'secondary cell wall' flax CESA genes showed that some were preferentially expressed in different organs and stem tissues providing clues as to their biological role(s) in planta. The development for the first time in flax of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to functionally evaluate the biological role of different CESA genes in stem tissues. Quantification of transcript accumulation showed that in many cases, silencing not only affected targeted CESA clades, but also had an impact on other CESA genes. Whatever the targeted clade, inactivation by VIGS affected plant growth. In contrast, only clade 1- and clade 6-targeted plants showed modifications in outer-stem tissue organization and secondary cell wall formation. In these plants, bast fibre number and structure were severely impacted, suggesting that the targeted genes may play an important role in the establishment of the fibre cell wall. Our results provide new fundamental information about cellulose biosynthesis in flax that should facilitate future plant improvement/engineering. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Flash pyrolysis of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, C. [Department of Chemical Technology, Bilecik Higher Vocational School, GueluembeCampus, Anadolu University, 11030 Bilecik (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, iki Eyluel Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the yields of products were investigated with the sweep gas flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}. The temperature of pyrolysis and particle size were varied in the ranges 400-700 C and 0.6 mm < D{sub p} < 1.25 mm, 1.25 mm < D{sub p} < 1.8 mm, D{sub p} > 1.8 mm, respectively. The maximum oil yield of 68.8% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 C, and the particle size of D{sub p} > 1.8 mm. The char and liquid product were analyzed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. In particular, the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques ({sup 1}H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from linseed can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  6. Integrated consensus genetic and physical maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Ragupathy, Raja; Miranda, Evelyn; Radovanovic, Natasa; Reimer, Elsa; Walichnowski, Andrzej; Ward, Kerry; Rowland, Gordon; Duguid, Scott; Banik, Mitali

    2012-12-01

    Three linkage maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were constructed from populations CDC Bethune/Macbeth, E1747/Viking and SP2047/UGG5-5 containing between 385 and 469 mapped markers each. The first consensus map of flax was constructed incorporating 770 markers based on 371 shared markers including 114 that were shared by all three populations and 257 shared between any two populations. The 15 linkage group map corresponds to the haploid number of chromosomes of this species. The marker order of the consensus map was largely collinear in all three individual maps but a few local inversions and marker rearrangements spanning short intervals were observed. Segregation distortion was present in all linkage groups which contained 1-52 markers displaying non-Mendelian segregation. The total length of the consensus genetic map is 1,551 cM with a mean marker density of 2.0 cM. A total of 670 markers were anchored to 204 of the 416 fingerprinted contigs of the physical map corresponding to ~274 Mb or 74 % of the estimated flax genome size of 370 Mb. This high resolution consensus map will be a resource for comparative genomics, genome organization, evolution studies and anchoring of the whole genome shotgun sequence.

  7. Structural characterization of guaiacyl-rich lignins in flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, José C; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Nieto, Lidia; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Martínez, Ángel T

    2011-10-26

    The structural characteristics of the lignins from flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives were studied. Significant differences in the content and composition of the lignin from both parts were observed. The lignin contents were 3.8% in the fibers and 29.0% in the shives. Analysis by Py-GC/MS indicated a H:G:S molar ratio of 13:72:15 in the milled wood lignin (MWL) isolated from flax fibers and a molar ratio of 5:87:8 in the MWL isolated from flax shives. In addition, 2D-NMR showed a predominance of β-O-4' aryl ether linkages, followed by β-5' phenylcoumaran and β-β' resinol-type linkages in both MWLs, with a higher content of condensed linkages in flax shives. Thioacidolysis (followed by Raney nickel desulfurization) gave further information on the lignin units involved in the different linkages and confirmed the enrichment of G units. The thioacidolysis dimers released were similar from both lignins, with a predominance of the β-5' followed by β-1' and 5-5' structures.

  8. Osmotic stress alters the balance between organic and inorganic solutes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéro, Anthony; Molinié, Roland; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Petit, Emmanuel; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Guillot, Xavier; Mesnard, François; Courtois, Josiane

    2014-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is grown for its oil and its fiber. This crop, cultivated in temperate regions, has seen a renewed interest due to the presence of abundant molecules of interest for many applications. Little information is available about the behavior of flax during osmotic stress; yet this is considered a major stress that causes significant yield losses in most crops. To control the presence of this stress better, flax behavior was investigated following the application of osmotic stress and the response was examined by applying increasing concentrations of PEG 8000. This resulted in the reorganization of 32 metabolites and 6 mineral ions in the leaves. The analysis of these two types of solute highlighted the contrasting behavior between a higher metabolite content (particularly fructose, glucose and proline) and a decrease in mineral ions (especially nitrate and potassium) following PEG treatment. However, this reorganization did not lead to a greater accumulation of solutes, with the total amount remaining unchanged in leaves during osmotic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting with Bacillus cereus HDYM-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Liu, Pengfei; Pan, Chao; Du, Renpeng; Ping, Wenxiang; Ge, Jingping

    2016-09-02

    High-throughput sequencing and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were jointly used to reveal the bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting. The inoculation of Bacillus cereus HDYM-02 decreased bacterial richness and diversity. This inoculum led to the replacement of Enterobacteriaceae by Bacillaceae. The level of aerobic Pseudomonadaceae (mainly Azotobacter) and anaerobic Clostridiaceae_1 gradually increased and decreased, respectively. Following the addition of B. cereus HDYM-02, the dominant groups were all degumming enzyme producers or have been proven to be involved in microbial retting throughout the entire retting period. These results could be verified by the metabolite changes, either degumming enzymes or their catalytic products galacturonic acid and reducing sugars. The GC-MS data showed a clear separation between flax retting with and without B. cereus HDYM-02, particularly within the first 72 h. These findings reveal the important bacterial groups that are involved in fiber retting and will facilitate improvements in the retting process.

  10. Biological determinants of plant and crop productivity of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Poland the cultivation of the fibrous form of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is dying out, but the acreage of its oilseed form, linseed, which provides seed (Semen lini used in therapy and being a source of -linolenic acid, is expanding. Nowadays, linseed is grown in 64 countries of the world, but yield levels in these countries vary greatly. Under European conditions, seed yield of linseed shows high variation, which is evidence of little knowledge of the biology of this plant and the lack of precise cultivation solutions in agricultural technologies used. A major reason is the difficulty in obtaining optimal crop density. A sparse crop results in low above-ground biomass yield, which is translated into insufficient crop yields. The selection of highly productive domestic and foreign varieties can partially increase linseed yield; apart from some domestic varieties, the Canadian cultivar 'Flanders' and the Hungarian cultivar 'Barbara' are positive examples in this respect. There is a possibility of effective selection at early stages of linseed breeding, which bodes well for the prospect of obtaining highly productive varieties with normal or very low -linolenic acid content.

  11. Influence of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on the fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew E; Simmons, Ellen R; Hawkins, Jack C; Ruane, Lauren G; Carney, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    The soil environment can affect not only the quantity of crops produced but also their nutritional quality. We examined the combined effects of below-ground cadmium (0, 5, and 15 ppm) and mycorrhizal fungi (presence and absence) on the concentration of five major fatty acids within flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum). Plants grown with mycorrhizal fungi produced seeds that contained higher concentrations of unsaturated (18:1, 18:2 and 18:3), but not saturated (16:0 and 18:0) fatty acids. The effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in seeds were most pronounced when plant roots were exposed to 15 ppm Cd (i.e. the concentrations of 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 increased by 169%, 370% and 150%, respectively). The pronounced effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids at 15 ppm Cd may have been due to the presence of elevated levels of Cd within seeds. Our results suggest that, once the concentration of cadmium within seeds reaches a certain threshold, this heavy metal may improve the efficiency of enzymes that convert saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Utilization of flax (Linum usitatissimum) cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcing material for chitosan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Muhammad; Salaberria, Asier M; Andres, María A; Kaya, Murat; Gunyakti, Ayse; Labidi, Jalel

    2017-11-01

    Use of plastic based packaging tools is causing both health and economic problems. To overcome this situation, researchers are focusing on the use of different biomaterials such as chitosan and cellulose. The current study was conducted to check the effect of flax (Linum usitatissimum) cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan-based films. CNC was incorporated in different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 30%). CNC was isolated from flax fiber using acid hydrolysis method. Tensile strength (TS) and young modulus (YM) values increased with the increase of CNC concentration. Chitosan film with 20% CNC revealed the highest YM value as 52.35MPa. No significant improvement was recorded in water vapor permeability due to overall lower film crystallinity. All the films were observed to be transparent up to an acceptable level. SEM and AFM analysis confirmed the homogeneity of films. A gradual enhancement was recorded in the antimicrobial activity of chitosan/CNC composite films. No significant improvement revealed in the thermal stability of composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of plant growth regulators on oil yield and biodiesel production of linseed (linum usitatissimum l)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizanullah, A.; Bano, A.; Nosheen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to compare the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. kinetin (K), chlorocholine chloride (CCC) and salicylic acid (SA) on seed yield, oil content and oil quality of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L) cv. Chandni with a new perspective to biodiesel production. The growth regulators (10-6M) were applied as seed soaking for 10 h prior to cultivation. Kinetin significantly increased the number of capsules/plant, seed number/capsule, 1000 seed weight and total seed yield (kg/h). The growth regulators increased the seed oil content maximum being in kinetin and CCC treatments. Kinetin and CCC significantly decreased the oil acid value, free fatty acid content (% oleic acid) and increased the pH of oil. Nevertheless, SA significantly decreased the oil specific gravity and did not alter the pH. Only kinetin significantly increased the oil iodine value. The oil extracted from seeds of kinetin and CCC treated plants showed maximum conversion (% w/w) to methyl esters/biodiesel after transesterification. It can be inferred that PGRs can be utilized successfully for improving the biodiesel yield of linseed. (author)

  14. Yield and quality of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. under different planting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Středa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was on the basis of the field experiment in two different agroclimatic localities, two planting options (low and high input and during three years find out the seed yield, seed oil content and composition of fatty acid in linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum L., variety Lola (LinolaTM. By the help of standard laboratory analyses for paint parameter evaluation judge suitability of using the oil for painting industry. Linseed yield varied from 0.29 t.ha–1 to 2.35 t.ha–1. Statistical significant differences (P = 0.01 were found out for localities, years and planting options. Average seed oil content varied from 36.6% to 44.0%. Influence of locality was not significant, influence of year and planting option to seed oil content was highly significant (P = 0.01. Content of linoleic acid in oil was influenced mainly by locality and planting option and varied from 75.86% to 76.78%. Laboratory painting-technological evaluation of oils and alkyd resin experimental sample made for suitability of using low linolenic oil of linseed, variety Lola for production of non-yellowing alkyds and enamels.

  15. Effect of heavy metals on inhibition of root elongation in 23 cultivars of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Katrusáková, Adéla; Sedlácek, Lukás; Petrová, Sárka; Kocí, Vladimír; Marsík, Petr; Griga, Miroslav; Vanek, Tomás

    2010-08-01

    The effect of toxic metals on seed germination was studied in 23 cultivars of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Toxicity of cadmium, cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel, lead, chromium, and arsenic at five different concentrations (0.01-1 mM) was tested by standard ecotoxicity test. Root length was measured after 72 h of incubation. Elongation inhibition, EC50 value, slope, and NOEC values were calculated. Results were evaluated by principal component analysis, a multidimensional statistical method. The results showed that heavy-metal toxicity decreased in the following order: As3+>or=As5+>Cu2+>Cd2+>Co2+>Cr6+>Ni2+>Pb2+>Cr3+>Zn2+.

  16. Organization of the root apical meristem in Linum usitatissimum L. grown at 25°C and 7°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kadej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first days of intensive growth of the Linum usitatissimum root, the central part of the apical meristem exhibits usually a 4-tier organization. When growth ceases reorganization of the cell arrangement occurs. It starts by periclinal division of the subprotodermal initials, whose derivatives are forming the secondary columella in the central part of the root cap.

  17. Excess fertilizer responsive miRNAs revealed in Linum usitatissimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Nataliya V; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Rachinskaia, Olga A; Lakunina, Valentina A; Krasnov, George S; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Uroshlev, Leonid A; Koroban, Nadezda V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Amosova, Alexandra V; Zelenin, Alexander V; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Kudryavtseva, Anna V

    2015-02-01

    Effective fertilizer application is necessary to increase crop yields and reduce risk of plant overdosing. It is known that expression level of microRNAs (miRNAs) alters in plants under different nutrient concentrations in soil. The aim of our study was to identify and characterize miRNAs with expression alterations under excessive fertilizer in agriculturally important crop - flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). We have sequenced small RNAs in flax grown under normal and excessive fertilizer using Illumina GAIIx. Over 14 million raw reads was obtained for two small RNA libraries. 84 conserved miRNAs from 20 families were identified. Differential expression was revealed for several flax miRNAs under excessive fertilizer according to high-throughput sequencing data. For 6 miRNA families (miR395, miR169, miR408, miR399, miR398 and miR168) expression level alterations were evaluated on the extended sampling using qPCR. Statistically significant up-regulation was revealed for miR395 under excessive fertilizer. It is known that target genes of miR395 are involved in sulfate uptake and assimilation. However, according to our data alterations of the expression level of miR395 could be associated not only with excess sulfur application, but also with redundancy of other macro- and micronutrients. Furthermore expression level was evaluated for miRNAs and their predicted targets. The negative correlation between miR399 expression and expression of its predicted target ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 gene was shown in flax for the first time. So we suggested miR399 involvement in phosphate regulation in L. usitatissimum. Revealed in our study expression alterations contribute to miRNA role in flax response to excessive fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under edaphic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Krasnov, George S; Koroban, Nadezhda V; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Melnikova, Nataliya V

    2016-11-16

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1) is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N), phosphate deficient (P), and nutrient excess (NPK) conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil. Besides, we have not identified any mRNA, which could be

  19. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. under edaphic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dmitriev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1 is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. Results High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N, phosphate deficient (P, and nutrient excess (NPK conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Conclusions Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil

  20. Ion Torrent sequencing as a tool for mutation discovery in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Pinzón-Latorre, David; Bergen, Erik A; Jensen, Dustin C; Deyholos, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Detection of induced mutations is valuable for inferring gene function and for developing novel germplasm for crop improvement. Many reverse genetics approaches have been developed to identify mutations in genes of interest within a mutagenized population, including some approaches that rely on next-generation sequencing (e.g. exome capture, whole genome resequencing). As an alternative to these genome or exome-scale methods, we sought to develop a scalable and efficient method for detection of induced mutations that could be applied to a small number of target genes, using Ion Torrent technology. We developed this method in flax (Linum usitatissimum), to demonstrate its utility in a crop species. We used an amplicon-based approach in which DNA samples from an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized population were pooled and used as template in PCR reactions to amplify a region of each gene of interest. Barcodes were incorporated during PCR, and the pooled amplicons were sequenced using an Ion Torrent PGM. A pilot experiment with known SNPs showed that they could be detected at a frequency > 0.3% within the pools. We then selected eight genes for which we wanted to discover novel mutations, and applied our approach to screen 768 individuals from the EMS population, using either the Ion 314 or Ion 316 chips. Out of 29 potential mutations identified after processing the NGS reads, 16 mutations were confirmed using Sanger sequencing. The methodology presented here demonstrates the utility of Ion Torrent technology in detecting mutation variants in specific genome regions for large populations of a species such as flax. The methodology could be scaled-up to test >100 genes using the higher capacity chips now available from Ion Torrent.

  1. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo; Zhu, Shilin; Shi, Daihu; McDill, Joshua; Yang, Linfeng; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey; Datla, Raju; Lambert, Georgina; Galbraith, David W; Grassa, Christopher J; Geraldes, Armando; Cronk, Quentin C; Cullis, Christopher; Dash, Prasanta K; Kumar, Polumetla A; Cloutier, Sylvie; Sharpe, Andrew G; Wong, Gane K-S; Wang, Jun; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-11-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp to 10 kb were sequenced using an Illumina genome analyzer. A de novo assembly, comprised exclusively of deep-coverage (approximately 94× raw, approximately 69× filtered) short-sequence reads (44-100 bp), produced a set of scaffolds with N(50) =694 kb, including contigs with N(50)=20.1 kb. The contig assembly contained 302 Mb of non-redundant sequence representing an estimated 81% genome coverage. Up to 96% of published flax ESTs aligned to the whole-genome shotgun scaffolds. However, comparisons with independently sequenced BACs and fosmids showed some mis-assembly of regions at the genome scale. A total of 43384 protein-coding genes were predicted in the whole-genome shotgun assembly, and up to 93% of published flax ESTs, and 86% of A. thaliana genes aligned to these predicted genes, indicating excellent coverage and accuracy at the gene level. Analysis of the synonymous substitution rates (K(s) ) observed within duplicate gene pairs was consistent with a recent (5-9 MYA) whole-genome duplication in flax. Within the predicted proteome, we observed enrichment of many conserved domains (Pfam-A) that may contribute to the unique properties of this crop, including agglutinin proteins. Together these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Genomic and expression analysis of the flax (Linum usitatissimum) family of glycosyl hydrolase 35 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Neil; Deyholos, Michael K

    2013-05-23

    Several β-galactosidases of the Glycosyl Hydrolase 35 (GH35) family have been characterized, and many of these modify cell wall components, including pectins, xyloglucans, and arabinogalactan proteins. The phloem fibres of flax (Linum usitatissimum) have gelatinous-type cell walls that are rich in crystalline cellulose and depend on β-galactosidase activity for their normal development. In this study, we investigate the transcript expression patterns and inferred evolutionary relationships of the complete set of flax GH35 genes, to better understand the functions of these genes in flax and other species. Using the recently published flax genome assembly, we identified 43 β-galactosidase-like (BGAL) genes, based on the presence of a GH35 domain. Phylogenetic analyses of their protein sequences clustered them into eight sub-families. Sub-family B, whose members in other species were known to be expressed in developing flowers and pollen, was greatly under represented in flax (p-value < 0.01). Sub-family A5, whose sole member from arabidopsis has been described as its primary xyloglucan BGAL, was greatly expanded in flax (p-value < 0.01). A number of flax BGALs were also observed to contain non-consensus GH35 active sites. Expression patterns of the flax BGALs were investigated using qRT-PCR and publicly available microarray data. All predicted flax BGALs showed evidence of expression in at least one tissue. Flax has a large number of BGAL genes, which display a distinct distribution among the BGAL sub-families, in comparison to other closely related species with available whole genome assemblies. Almost every flax BGAL was expressed in fibres, the majority of which expressed predominately in fibres as compared to other tissues, suggesting an important role for the expansion of this gene family in the development of this species as a fibre crop. Variations displayed in the canonical GH35 active site suggest a variety of roles unique to flax, which will require

  3. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutelings Godfrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs. Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L. Results Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups. qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59. LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both ge

  4. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) gene expression oligo microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenart, Stéphane; Ndong, Yves-Placide Assoumou; Duarte, Jorge; Rivière, Nathalie; Wilmer, Jeroen; van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Lucau, Anca; Cariou, Emmanuelle; Neutelings, Godfrey; Gutierrez, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Guillot, Xavier; Tavernier, Reynald; Hawkins, Simon; Thomasset, Brigitte

    2010-10-21

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars) and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars) used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K) fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples). A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well as between two contrasted flax varieties

  5. [Genetic polymorphism of flax Linum usitatissimum based on use of molecular cytogenetic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinskaia, O A; Lemesh, V A; Muravenko, O V; Iurkevich, O Iu; Guzenko, E V; Bol'sheva, N L; Bogdanova, M V; Samatadze, T E; Popov, K V; Malyshev, S V; Shostak, N G; Heller, K; Khotyleva, L V; Zelenin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Using a set of approaches based on the use of molecular cytogenetic markers (DAPI/C-banding, estimation of the total area of DAPI-positive regions in prophase nuclei, FISH with 26S and 5S rDNA probes) and the microsatellite (SSR-PCR) assay, we studied genomic polymorphism in 15 flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties from different geographic regions belonging to three directions of selection (oil, fiber, and intermediate flaxes) and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. All individual chromosomes have been identified in the karyotypes of these varieties on the basis of the patterns of differential DAPI/C-banding and the distribution of 26S and 5S rDNA, and idiograms of the chromosomes have been generated. Unlike the oil flax varieties, the chromosomes in the karyotypes of the fiber flax varieties have, as a rule, pericentromeric and telomeric DAPI-positive bands of smaller size, but contain larger intercalary regions. Two chromosomal rearrangements (chromosome 3 inversions) were discovered in the variety Luna and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. In both these forms, no colocalization of 26S rDNA and 5S rDNA on the satellite chromosome was detected. The SSR assay with the use of 20 polymorphic pairs of primers revealed 22 polymorphic loci. Based on the SSR data, we analyzed genetic similarity of the flax forms studied and constructed a genetic similarity dendrogram. The genotypes studied here form three clusters. The oil varieties comprise an independent cluster. The genetically related fiber flax varieties Vita and Luna, as well as the landrace Lipinska XIII belonging to the intermediate type, proved to be closer to the oil varieties than the remaining fiber flax varieties. The results of the molecular chromosomal analysis in the fiber and oil flaxes confirm their very close genetic similarity. In spite of this, the combined use of the chromosomal and molecular markers has opened up unique possibilities for describing the genotypes of flax varieties and creating their genetic

  6. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis, Rudy; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2010-04-19

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L). Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs) and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH) as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups.qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59). LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both geNorm-designated- and Norm

  7. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L. gene expression oligo microarray

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    Gutierrez Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Results Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples. A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. shell and Analysis of Its Polyphenol Contents by LC-MS/MS

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    Hatica Han

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is important source of oil and protein for industrial, pharmaceutical, and nutritional applications. In order to estimate the effects of lyophilized aqueous extract of flaxseed shell (AEF and evaporated ethanolic extract of flaxseed shell (EEF, we studied their DPPH, ABTS, DMPD and O 2 •- scavenging effects. Total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, Fe 3+, Cu 2+ and [Fe 3+-(TPTZ 2] 3+ reducing ability, and Fe 2+ chelating activity. Also, α-tocopherol, BHA, trolox, and BHT were used as positive controls. The results clearly AEF and EEF demonstrated effective antioxidant activity. The quantity of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid were investigated by LC-MS/MS. The present study will introduce a novelty for further studies on the antioxidant effects of AEF and EEF.

  9. [Genetic transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with chimeric GFP-TUA6 gene for visualisation of microtubules].

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    Shisha, E N; Korkhovoĭ, V I; Baer, G Ia; Guzenko, E V; Lemesh, V A; Kartel', N A; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2013-01-01

    The data of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of some Linum usitatissimum cultivars zoned on the territories of Belarus and Ukraine with the plasmid carrying chimeric GFP-TUA6 gene and nptII gene as selectable marker conferring resistance to kanamycin are presented in this study. Transformation was affected by a number of factors including optical density (OD600), time of inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium and co-culture conditions. Transgenic nature of obtained lines was confirmed by PCR analysis. Expression of GFP-TUA6 gene was detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The obtained transgenic lines can be used for further functional studies the role of microtubules in the processes of building the flax fibres and resistance to wind.

  10. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

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    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  11. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract

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    Chauhan, Rishika; Chester, Karishma; Khan, Yasmeen; Tamboli, Ennus Tajuddin; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2) were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. Result: The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method. PMID:26681884

  12. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract

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    Rishika Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2 were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. Result: The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.

  13. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

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    Olga Y. Yurkevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase (CesA multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1, 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum. Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  14. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA) Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

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    Yurkevich, Olga Y; Kirov, Ilya V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Rachinskaya, Olga A; Grushetskaya, Zoya E; Zoschuk, Svyatoslav A; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Bogdanova, Marina V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Amosova, Alexandra V; Muravenko, Olga V

    2017-01-01

    Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase ( CesA ) multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1), 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum . Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG) 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  15. Floral-dip transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum) to generate transgenic progenies with a high transformation rate.

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    Bastaki, Nasmah K; Cullis, Christopher A

    2014-12-19

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral-dip is a widely used technique in the field of plant transformation and has been reported to be successful for many plant species. However, flax (Linum usitatissimum) transformation by floral-dip has not been reported. The goal of this protocol is to establish that Agrobacterium and the floral-dip method can be used to generate transgenic flax. We show that this technique is simple, inexpensive, efficient, and more importantly, gives a higher transformation rate than the current available methods of flax transformation. In summary, inflorescences of flax were dipped in a solution of Agrobacterium carrying a binary vector plasmid (T-DNA fragment plus the Linum Insertion Sequence, LIS-1) for 1 - 2 min. The plants were laid flat on their side for 24 hr. Then, plants were maintained under normal growth conditions until the next treatment. The process of dipping was repeated 2 - 3 times, with approximately 10 - 14 day intervals between dipping. The T1 seeds were collected and germinated on soil. After approximately two weeks, treated progenies were tested by direct PCR; 2 - 3 leaves were used per plant plus the appropriate T-DNA primers. Positive transformants were selected and grown to maturity. The transformation rate was unexpectedly high, with 50 - 60% of the seeds from treated plants being positive transformants. This is a higher transformation rate than those reported for Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using floral-dip transformation. It is also the highest, which has been reported so far, for flax transformation using other methods for transformation.

  16. [Oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum) in the treatment for dry-eye Sjögren's syndrome patients].

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    Pinheiro, Manuel Neuzimar; dos Santos, Procópio Miguel; dos Santos, Regina Cândido Ribeiro; Barros, Jeison de Nadai; Passos, Luiz Fernando; Cardoso Neto, José

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate if oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum), which reduces the inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, may help keratoconjunctivitis sicca's treatment in Sjögren's syndrome patients. In a randomized clinical trial, 38 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erithematosus associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca and Sjögren's syndrome were consecutively selected from patients of the Department of Rheumatology of the Amazonas University Hospital. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca diagnosis was based on a dry-eye symptom survey score (Ocular Surface Disease Index - OSDI), Schirmer-I test, fluorescein break-up time, 1% Rose Bengal staining of ocular surface measured by the van Bijsterveld scale. All patients had ocular surface inflammation evaluated and quantified by conjunctival impression cytology, before and after the study. The subjects were divided into three groups with 13 (Group I), 12 (Group II) and 13 (Group III) patients. Group I received flaxseed oil capsules with a final 1 g/day dosis, Group II flaxseed oil capsules with a final 2 g/day dosis and Group III - controls - placebo, for 180 days. Comparing the results at the beginning and at the end of the treatment, statistically significant changes (poral flaxseed oil capsules 1 or 2 g/day reduces ocular surface inflammation and ameliorates the symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome patients. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the role of this therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome.

  17. Relatedness of Indian flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.): an inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primer assay.

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    Rajwade, Ashwini V; Arora, Ritu S; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Ghorpade, Prakash B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic relationships, using PCR-based ISSR markers, among 70 Indian flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes actively utilized in flax breeding programs. Twelve ISSR primers were used for the analysis yielding 136 loci, of which 87 were polymorphic. The average number of amplified loci and the average number of polymorphic loci per primer were 11.3 and 7.25, respectively, while the percent loci polymorphism ranged from 11.1 to 81.8 with an average of 63.9 across all the genotypes. The range of polymorphism information content scores was 0.03-0.49, with an average of 0.18. A dendrogram was generated based on the similarity matrix by the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA), wherein the flax genotypes were grouped in five clusters. The Jaccard's similarity coefficient among the genotypes ranged from 0.60 to 0.97. When the omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA) contents of the individual genotypes were correlated with the clusters in the dendrogram, the high ALA containing genotypes were grouped in two clusters. This study identified SLS 50, Ayogi, and Sheetal to be the most diverse genotypes and suggested their use in breeding programs and for developing mapping populations.

  18. Comparison of physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. to drought and salt stress and salicylic acid foliar application

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    Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in drought and salinity stress conditions and salicylic acid foliar application, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completly randomized design with three replications in Yasouj university in 2015. Treatments including different levels of salinity and drought with similar osmotic potentials (-2, -4, -7 and -9 bar in 8 levels and a control treatment were applied in Hoagland solution. Second factor was salicylic acid foliar application in 2 levels (0 and 0.5 mM. Salinity and drought applied using sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol 6000, respectively. The results showed that leaf protein content, catalase activity, total chlorophyll and carotenoid significantly decreased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought levels, however salicylic acid could prevent this trend.  Proline soluble sugars and malodealdehide content significantly increased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought. However salicylic acid could not prevent this trend. Shoot and root dry weights significantly decreased in salinity and drought stress treatments, compared to control and salicylic acid could prevent this decrease. Generally regarded to the most of the measured traits, impact of drought was more than salinity and salicylic acid could compensate the stress impacts on linseed.

  19. Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats.

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    Lenzi Almeida, K C; Teles Boaventura, G; Guzmán Silva, M A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n=6), FG: fed with diet based on Flaxseed added with casein, CG: Casein, and MCG: Modified Casein supplemented with fibers and soybean oil. Newborn pups were weighted and submitted to euthanasia; brains were collected for evaluation of weight and lipid profile through gaseous chromatography. Significant increase in brain weight (39%) and relative brain weight (37%) was verified in pups from mothers fed with flaxseed diet. The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids from the flaxseed were found in abundance in the diet made with this oleaginous and also significant increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (38%), as well as in total of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (62%). Maternal diet of flaxseed during pregnancy influences the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acid in the composition of brain tissue, assuring a good development of this organ in newborn rats.

  20. Effects of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on growth, fitness, and cadmium accumulation in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

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    Hancock, Laura M S; Ernst, Charlotte L; Charneskie, Rebecca; Ruane, Lauren G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural soils have become contaminated with a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium. The degree to which soil contaminants affect plants may depend on symbiotic relationships between plant roots and soil microorganisms. We examined (1) whether mycorrhizal fungi counteract the potentially negative effects of cadmium on the growth and fitness of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and (2) whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the accumulation of cadmium within plant parts. Two flax cultivars (Linott and Omega) were grown in three soil cadmium environments (0, 5, and 15 ppm). Within each cadmium environment, plants were grown in either the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Upon senescence, we measured growth and fitness and quantified the concentration of cadmium within plants. Soil cadmium significantly decreased plant fitness, but did not affect plant growth. Mycorrhizal fungi, which were able to colonize roots of plants growing in all cadmium levels, significantly increased plant growth and fitness. Although mycorrhizal fungi counteracted the negative effects of cadmium on fruit and seed production, they also enhanced the concentration of cadmium within roots, fruits, and seeds. The degree to which soil cadmium affects plant fitness and the accumulation of cadmium within plants depended on the ability of plants to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi in contaminated agricultural soils may offset the negative effects of metals on the quantity of seeds produced, but exacerbate the accumulation of these metals in our food supply.

  1. Do cupins have a function beyond being seed storage proteins? An updated working model for the growth and reproductive success of flax (Linum usitatissimum) in a radio-contaminated environment

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    Plants continue to flourish around the site of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster. The ability of plants to transcend the radio-contaminated environment was not anticipated and is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proteome of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) durin...

  2. Adaptation and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes in South Central Chile Adaptación e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Lino (Linum usitatissimum L. en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

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    Marisol Berti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is imported into Chile mostly for bread making and feed. Identification of genotypes best adapted for seed production in South Central Chile would facilitate producer’s decision. The objective of this study was to determine the adaptation and genotype x environment interaction of 16 flaxseed genotypes (including 10 from North American and six from Argentine sources grown at 11 environments (defined as location-year in Chile from 2003 to 2007. Genotype seed yield was above 5700 kg ha-1 for some environments indicating a high yield potential. According to the AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction and SREG (Sites regression models the 11 environments were classified into four groups by the AMMI and three groups by the SREG models. Genotypes were classified into five groups by the SREG model with four of the groups as single genotypes. Overall mean seed yield was similar for all genotypes; however the genotype Nekoma was the most stable and higher yielding genotype across environments. The environment with the highest yield potential was Chillán 2003-2004, but this location had low yield stability across years. The environments with greatest seed yield potential, Chillán 2003-2004 and Los Ángeles 2004-2005, had irrigation during flowering and seed filling. Seed oil content fluctuated between 420 and 530 g kg-1. The climatic differences among environments did not influence oil composition as expected from previous research. Flaxseed appears adapted to South Central Chile with differences observed among genotypes for biomass and seed yield, harvest index, test weight, oil content, and composition.La semilla de lino (Linum usitatissimum L. se importa a Chile principalmente para panaderías y alimento animal. La identificación de genotipos altamente productivos en la zona Centro Sur de Chile facilitaría la decisión de los productores. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la adaptaci

  3. Differential gene expression in response to Fusarium oxysporum infection in resistant and susceptible genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

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    Dmitriev, Alexey A; Krasnov, George S; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Novakovskiy, Roman O; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Fedorova, Maria S; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Melnikova, Nataliya V

    2017-12-28

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a crop plant used for fiber and oil production. Although potentially high-yielding flax varieties have been developed, environmental stresses markedly decrease flax production. Among biotic stresses, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is recognized as one of the most devastating flax pathogens. It causes wilt disease that is one of the major limiting factors for flax production worldwide. Breeding and cultivation of flax varieties resistant to F. oxysporum is the most effective method for controlling wilt disease. Although the mechanisms of flax response to Fusarium have been actively studied, data on the plant response to infection and resistance gene candidates are currently very limited. The transcriptomes of two resistant and two susceptible flax cultivars with respect to Fusarium wilt, as well as two resistant BC 2 F 5 populations, which were grown under control conditions or inoculated with F. oxysporum, were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Genes showing changes in expression under F. oxysporum infection were identified in both resistant and susceptible flax genotypes. We observed the predominant overexpression of numerous genes that are involved in defense response. This was more pronounced in resistant cultivars. In susceptible cultivars, significant downregulation of genes involved in cell wall organization or biogenesis was observed in response to F. oxysporum. In the resistant genotypes, upregulation of genes related to NAD(P)H oxidase activity was detected. Upregulation of a number of genes, including that encoding beta-1,3-glucanase, was significantly greater in the cultivars and BC 2 F 5 populations resistant to Fusarium wilt than in susceptible cultivars in response to F. oxysporum infection. Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified genes involved in the early defense response of L. usitatissimum against the fungus F. oxysporum. In response to F. oxysporum infection, we detected changes in the

  4. Abscisic acid regulates pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

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    Renouard, Sullivan; Corbin, Cyrielle; Lopez, Tatiana; Montguillon, Josiane; Gutierrez, Laurent; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main phytoestrogenic lignan of Linum usitatissimum, is accumulated in the seed coat of flax during its development and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in flax for its synthesis. The promoter of LuPLR1, a flax gene encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase, contains putative regulatory boxes related to transcription activation by abscisic acid (ABA). Gel mobility shift experiments evidenced an interaction of nuclear proteins extracted from immature flax seed coat with a putative cis-acting element involved in ABA response. As ABA regulates a number of physiological events during seed development and maturation we have investigated its involvement in the regulation of this lignan synthesis by different means. ABA and SDG accumulation time courses in the seed as well as LuPLR1 expression were first determined in natural conditions. These results showed that ABA timing and localization of accumulation in the flax seed coat could be correlated with the LuPLR1 gene expression and SDG biosynthesis. Experimental modulations of ABA levels were performed by exogenous application of ABA or fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. When submitted to exogenous ABA, immature seeds synthesized 3-times more SDG, whereas synthesis of SDG was reduced in immature seeds treated with fluridone. Similarly, the expression of LuPLR1 gene in the seed coat was up-regulated by exogenous ABA and down-regulated when fluridone was applied. These results demonstrate that SDG biosynthesis in the flax seed coat is positively controlled by ABA through the transcriptional regulation of LuPLR1 gene.

  5. Effect of mechanical damage and wound healing on the viscoelastic properties of stems of flax cultivars (Linum usitatissimum L. cv. Eden and cv. Drakkar).

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    Paul-Victor, Cloé; Dalle Vacche, Sara; Sordo, Federica; Fink, Siegfried; Speck, Thomas; Michaud, Véronique; Speck, Olga

    2017-01-01

    As plant fibres are increasingly used in technical textiles and their composites, underlying principles of wound healing in living plant fibres are relevant to product quality, and provide inspiration for biomimetic healing in synthetic materials. In this work, two Linum usitatissimum cultivars differing in their stem mechanical properties, cv. Eden (stems resistant to lodging) and cv. Drakkar (with more flexible stems), were grown without wound or with stems previously wounded with a cut parallel or transversal to the stem. To investigate wound healing efficiency, growth traits, stem biomechanics with Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and anatomy were analysed after 25-day recovery. Longitudinal incisions formed open wounds while transversal incisions generated stem growth restoring the whole cross-section but not the original stem organisation. In the case of transversal wound healing, all the bast fibre bundles in the perturbed area became lignified and pulled apart by parenchyma cells growth. Both Linum cultivars showed a healing efficiency from 79% to 95% with higher scores for transversal healing. Morphological and anatomical modifications of Linum were related to mechanical properties and healing ability. Alongside with an increased understanding of wound healing in plants, our results highlight their possible impact on textile quality and fibre yield.

  6. Phyto-Extraction of Nickel by Linum usitatissimum in Association with Glomus intraradices.

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    Amna; Masood, Sajid; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-01-01

    Plants show enhanced phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils particularly in response to fungal inoculation. Present study was conducted to find out the influence of Nickel (Ni) toxicity on plant biomass, growth, chlorophyll content, proline production and metal accumulation by L. usitatissimum (flax) in the presence of Glomus intraradices. Flax seedlings of both inoculated with G. intraradices and non-inoculated were exposed to different concentrations i.e., 250, 350 and 500 ppm of Ni at different time intervals. Analysis of physiological parameters revealed that Ni depressed the growth and photosynthetic activity of plants. However, the inoculation of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizae (G. intraradices) partially helped in the alleviation of Ni toxicity as indicated by improved plant growth under Ni stress. Ni uptake of non- mycorrhizal flax plants was increased by 98% as compared to control conditions whereas inoculated plants showed 19% more uptake when compared with the non-inoculated plants. Mycorrhizal plants exhibited increasing capacity to remediate contaminated soils along with improved growth. Thus, AM assisted phytoremediation helps in the accumulation of Ni in plants to reclaim Ni toxic soils. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that the role of flax plants and mycorrhizal fungi is extremely important in phytoremediation.

  7. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profile of aquaporin gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraj, S M; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Rai, Rhitu; Bélanger, Richard; Agrawal, Pawan K; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-04-27

    Membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form transmembrane channels and facilitate transport of myriad substrates across the cell membrane in many organisms. Majority of plant MIPs have water transporting ability and are commonly referred as aquaporins (AQPs). In the present study, we identified aquaporin coding genes in flax by genome-wide analysis, their structure, function and expression pattern by pan-genome exploration. Cross-genera phylogenetic analysis with known aquaporins from rice, arabidopsis, and poplar showed five subgroups of flax aquaporins representing 16 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 17 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 13 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 2 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and 3 uncharacterized intrinsic proteins (XIPs). Amongst aquaporins, PIPs contained hydrophilic aromatic arginine (ar/R) selective filter but TIP, NIP, SIP and XIP subfamilies mostly contained hydrophobic ar/R selective filter. Analysis of RNA-seq and microarray data revealed high expression of PIPs in multiple tissues, low expression of NIPs, and seed specific expression of TIP3 in flax. Exploration of aquaporin homologs in three closely related Linum species bienne, grandiflorum and leonii revealed presence of 49, 39 and 19 AQPs, respectively. The genome-wide identification of aquaporins, first in flax, provides insight to elucidate their physiological and developmental roles in flax.

  8. Structural organization and classification of cytochrome P450 genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Peram Ravindra; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha

    2013-01-15

    Flax CYPome analysis resulted in the identification of 334 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes in the cultivated flax genome. Classification of flax CYP450 genes based on the sequence similarity with Arabidopsis orthologs and CYP450 nomenclature, revealed 10 clans representing 44 families and 98 subfamilies. CYP80, CYP83, CYP92, CYP702, CYP705, CYP708, CYP728, CYP729, CYP733 and CYP736 families are absent in the flax genome. The subfamily members exhibited conserved sequences, length of exons and phasing of introns. Similarity search of the genomic resources of wild flax species Linum bienne with CYP450 coding sequences of the cultivated flax, revealed the presence of 127 CYP450 gene orthologs, indicating amplification of novel CYP450 genes in the cultivated flax. Seven families CYP73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 84 and 709, coding for enzymes associated with phenylpropanoid/fatty acid metabolism, showed extensive gene amplification in the flax. About 59% of the flax CYP450 genes were present in the EST libraries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

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    Cloutier Sylvie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material. Flax seeds also contain lignans which are associated with reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. Its bast fibres have broad industrial applications. However, genomic tools needed for molecular breeding were non existent. Hence a project, Total Utilization Flax GENomics (TUFGEN was initiated. We report here the first genome-wide physical map of flax and the generation and analysis of BAC-end sequences (BES from 43,776 clones, providing initial insights into the genome. Results The physical map consists of 416 contigs spanning ~368 Mb, assembled from 32,025 fingerprints, representing roughly 54.5% to 99.4% of the estimated haploid genome (370-675 Mb. The N50 size of the contigs was estimated to be ~1,494 kb. The longest contig was ~5,562 kb comprising 437 clones. There were 96 contigs containing more than 100 clones. Approximately 54.6 Mb representing 8-14.8% of the genome was obtained from 80,337 BES. Annotation revealed that a large part of the genome consists of ribosomal DNA (~13.8%, followed by known transposable elements at 6.1%. Furthermore, ~7.4% of sequence was identified to harbour novel repeat elements. Homology searches against flax-ESTs and NCBI-ESTs suggested that ~5.6% of the transcriptome is unique to flax. A total of 4064 putative genomic SSRs were identified and are being developed as novel markers for their use in molecular breeding. Conclusion The first genome-wide physical map of flax constructed with BAC clones provides a framework for accessing target loci with economic importance for marker development and positional cloning. Analysis of the BES has provided insights into the uniqueness of the flax genome. Compared to other plant genomes, the proportion of rDNA was found to be very high whereas the proportion of known transposable

  10. Phylogenomic analysis of UDP glycosyltransferase 1 multigene family in Linum usitatissimum identified genes with varied expression patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The glycosylation process, catalyzed by ubiquitous glycosyltransferase (GT) family enzymes, is a prevalent modification of plant secondary metabolites that regulates various functions such as hormone homeostasis, detoxification of xenobiotics and biosynthesis and storage of secondary metabolites. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a commercially grown oilseed crop, important because of its essential fatty acids and health promoting lignans. Identification and characterization of UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes from flax could provide valuable basic information about this important gene family and help to explain the seed specific glycosylated metabolite accumulation and other processes in plants. Plant genome sequencing projects are useful to discover complexity within this gene family and also pave way for the development of functional genomics approaches. Results Taking advantage of the newly assembled draft genome sequence of flax, we identified 137 UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes from flax using a conserved signature motif. Phylogenetic analysis of these protein sequences clustered them into 14 major groups (A-N). Expression patterns of these genes were investigated using publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST), microarray data and reverse transcription quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Seventy-three per cent of these genes (100 out of 137) showed expression evidence in 15 tissues examined and indicated varied expression profiles. The RT-qPCR results of 10 selected genes were also coherent with the digital expression analysis. Interestingly, five duplicated UGT genes were identified, which showed differential expression in various tissues. Of the seven intron loss/gain positions detected, two intron positions were conserved among most of the UGTs, although a clear relationship about the evolution of these genes could not be established. Comparison of the flax UGTs with orthologs from four other sequenced dicot genomes indicated that

  11. Phylogenomic analysis of UDP glycosyltransferase 1 multigene family in Linum usitatissimum identified genes with varied expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barvkar Vitthal T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosylation process, catalyzed by ubiquitous glycosyltransferase (GT family enzymes, is a prevalent modification of plant secondary metabolites that regulates various functions such as hormone homeostasis, detoxification of xenobiotics and biosynthesis and storage of secondary metabolites. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is a commercially grown oilseed crop, important because of its essential fatty acids and health promoting lignans. Identification and characterization of UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT genes from flax could provide valuable basic information about this important gene family and help to explain the seed specific glycosylated metabolite accumulation and other processes in plants. Plant genome sequencing projects are useful to discover complexity within this gene family and also pave way for the development of functional genomics approaches. Results Taking advantage of the newly assembled draft genome sequence of flax, we identified 137 UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT genes from flax using a conserved signature motif. Phylogenetic analysis of these protein sequences clustered them into 14 major groups (A-N. Expression patterns of these genes were investigated using publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST, microarray data and reverse transcription quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. Seventy-three per cent of these genes (100 out of 137 showed expression evidence in 15 tissues examined and indicated varied expression profiles. The RT-qPCR results of 10 selected genes were also coherent with the digital expression analysis. Interestingly, five duplicated UGT genes were identified, which showed differential expression in various tissues. Of the seven intron loss/gain positions detected, two intron positions were conserved among most of the UGTs, although a clear relationship about the evolution of these genes could not be established. Comparison of the flax UGTs with orthologs from four other sequenced dicot

  12. Pollen-mediated gene flow in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): can genetically engineered and organic flax coexist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhala, A J; Bhatt, H; Topinka, K; Hall, L M

    2011-04-01

    Coexistence allows growers and consumers the choice of producing or purchasing conventional or organic crops with known standards for adventitious presence of genetically engineered (GE) seed. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is multipurpose oilseed crop in which product diversity and utility could be enhanced for industrial, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets through genetic engineering. If GE flax were released commercially, pollen-mediated gene flow will determine in part whether GE flax could coexist without compromising other markets. As a part of pre-commercialization risk assessment, we quantified pollen-mediated gene flow between two cultivars of flax. Field experiments were conducted at four locations during 2006 and 2007 in western Canada using a concentric donor (20 × 20 m) receptor (120 × 120 m) design. Gene flow was detected through the xenia effect of dominant alleles of high α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3(cisΔ9,12,15)) to the low ALA trait. Seeds were harvested from the pollen recipient plots up to a distance of 50 m in eight directions from the pollen donor. High ALA seeds were identified using a thiobarbituric acid test and served as a marker for gene flow. Binomial distribution and power analysis were used to predict the minimum number of seeds statistically required to detect the frequency of gene flow at specific α (confidence interval) and power (1-β) values. As a result of the low frequency of gene flow, approximately 4 million seeds were screened to derive accurate quantification. Frequency of gene flow was highest near the source: averaging 0.0185 at 0.1 m but declined rapidly with distance, 0.0013 and 0.00003 at 3 and 35 m, respectively. Gene flow was reduced to 50% (O₅₀) and 90% (O₉₀) between 0.85 to 2.64 m, and 5.68 to 17.56 m, respectively. No gene flow was detected at any site or year > 35 m distance from the pollen source, suggesting that frequency of gene flow was ≤ 0.00003 (P = 0.95). Although it is not possible to

  13. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathy, Raja; Rathinavelu, Rajkumar; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2011-05-09

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material. Flax seeds also contain lignans which are associated with reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. Its bast fibres have broad industrial applications. However, genomic tools needed for molecular breeding were non existent. Hence a project, Total Utilization Flax GENomics (TUFGEN) was initiated. We report here the first genome-wide physical map of flax and the generation and analysis of BAC-end sequences (BES) from 43,776 clones, providing initial insights into the genome. The physical map consists of 416 contigs spanning ~368 Mb, assembled from 32,025 fingerprints, representing roughly 54.5% to 99.4% of the estimated haploid genome (370-675 Mb). The N50 size of the contigs was estimated to be ~1,494 kb. The longest contig was ~5,562 kb comprising 437 clones. There were 96 contigs containing more than 100 clones. Approximately 54.6 Mb representing 8-14.8% of the genome was obtained from 80,337 BES. Annotation revealed that a large part of the genome consists of ribosomal DNA (~13.8%), followed by known transposable elements at 6.1%. Furthermore, ~7.4% of sequence was identified to harbour novel repeat elements. Homology searches against flax-ESTs and NCBI-ESTs suggested that ~5.6% of the transcriptome is unique to flax. A total of 4064 putative genomic SSRs were identified and are being developed as novel markers for their use in molecular breeding. The first genome-wide physical map of flax constructed with BAC clones provides a framework for accessing target loci with economic importance for marker development and positional cloning. Analysis of the BES has provided insights into the uniqueness of the flax genome. Compared to other plant genomes, the proportion of rDNA was found to be very high whereas the proportion of known transposable elements was low. The SSRs identified from BES will be

  14. Studies on meiosis and sterility in the first and second generations derived from x-ray treated seeds of linum usitatissimum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, T.K.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Sen, S.

    1985-01-01

    Turn over of meiotic irregularities, pollen, capsule and seed sterility in M 1 and M 2 generations, derived from x-ray treated dry seeds of Linum usitatissimum L.(CV. B-67, Mukta and Neelum) were compared. Total percentage of meiotic abnormalities was highest in B-67 amongst the control population. But in comparison with respective controls, the turn over of meiotic irregularities was high in the M 1 populations of Mukta and Neelum. The extent of irregularities in meiosis of M 2 was less than that of M 1 generation. The pollen sterility percentage in the two generations remained almost unchanged, while capsule and seed sterility were reduced in M 2 generation. (author)

  15. Efeito da linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L. sob diferentes formas de preparo na resposta biológica em ratos Effect of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. prepared by different methods on the biological response of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne y Castro Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as possíveis atividades biológicas causadas pelo consumo diário de linhaça em diferentes condições de preparo, em ratos Wistar machos recém-desmamados. MÉTODOS: Os ratos recém-desmamados (n=32 foram divididos em 4 grupos de 8 animais: ração padrão; ração com 16% de grão de linhaça cru; ração com 16% de grão de linhaça assado; e ração com 7% de óleo de linhaça. Os animais foram pesados a cada três dias e, após 23 dias de período experimental, foram sacrificados por punção cardíaca, sendo os órgãos imediatamente pesados e o sangue coletado e armazenado a -18ºC para realização das análises (glicose, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade - colesterol, triglicerídios e proteínas totais. As fezes foram coletadas para a determinação de umidade, lipídeo excretado e lipídeo absorvido. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao ganho de peso total, consumo diário, coeficiente de eficácia alimentar e peso dos órgãos. A excreção diária, o teor de umidade das fezes e a quantidade de lipídeo fecal foram maiores nos grupos linhaça cru e linhaça assada em comparação aos grupos padrão e óleo de linhaça. Com exceção do lipoproteína de alta densidade-colesterol, todos os demais parâmetros bioquímicos avaliados apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos. CONCLUSÃO: O consumo de linhaça, seja como grão cru, assado ou óleo, possui atividade biológica em ratos, destacando-se por reduzir os níveis de glicose, triglicerídios e colesterol. Além disso, o consumo do grão de linhaça aumentou significativamente o volume do bolo fecal e a excreção de lipídeos nas fezes.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. prepared by different methods on the biological response of rats. METHODS: Weaned rats (n=32 were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: standard feed, standard

  16. Origin and evolution of group XI secretory phospholipase A2 from flax (Linum usitatissimum) based on phylogenetic analysis of conserved domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Payal; Saini, Raman; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-07-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) belongs to class of lipolytic enzymes (EC 3.1.1.4). Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and free fatty acids (FFAs) are the products of PLA 2 catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides at sn-2 position. LPA and FFA that act as second mediators involved in the development and maturation of plants and animals. Mining of flax genome identified two phospholipase A 2 encoding genes, viz., LusPLA 2 I and LusPLA 2 II (Linum usitatissimum secretory phospholipase A 2 ). Molecular simulation of LusPLA 2 s with already characterized plant sPLA 2 s revealed the presence of conserved motifs and signature domains necessary to classify them as secretory phospholipase A 2 . Phylogenetic analysis of flax sPLA 2 with representative sPLA 2 s from other organisms revealed that they evolved rapidly via gene duplication/deletion events and shares a common ancestor. Our study is the first report of detailed phylogenetic analysis for secretory phospholipase A 2 in flax. Comparative genomic analysis of two LusPLA 2 s with earlier reported plant sPLA 2 s, based on their gene architectures, sequence similarities, and domain structures are presented elucidating the uniqueness of flax sPLA 2 .

  17. LuFLA1PRO and LuBGAL1PRO promote gene expression in the phloem fibres of flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Neil; Deyholos, Michael K

    2013-04-01

    Cell type-specific promoters were identified that drive gene expression in an industrially important product. To identify flax (Linum usitatissimum) gene promoters, we analyzed the genomic regions upstream of a fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein (LuFLA1) and a beta-galactosidase (LuBGAL1). Both of these genes encode transcripts that have been found to be highly enriched in tissues bearing phloem fibres. Using a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct, we found that a 908-bp genomic sequence upstream of LuFLA1 (LuFLA1PRO) directed GUS expression with high specificity to phloem fibres undergoing secondary cell wall development. The DNA sequence upstream of LuBGAL1 (LuBGAL1PRO) likewise produced GUS staining in phloem fibres with developing secondary walls, as well as in tissues of developing flowers and seed bolls. These data provide further evidence of a specific role for LuFLA1 in phloem fibre development, and demonstrate the utility of LuFLA1PRO and LuBGAL1PRO as tools for biotechnology and further investigations of phloem fibre development.

  18. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.: Insight from expression profiling of cads induced by elicitors in cultured flax cells

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    Eom Hee Seung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin and lignans as it catalyzes the final step of monolignol biosynthesis, using NADPH as a cofactor. In higher plants, CAD is encoded by a multigene family consisting of three major classes. Based on the recently released flax (Linum usitatissimum L. whole-genome sequences, in this study we identified six CAD family genes that contain an ADH_N domain and an ADH_zinc_N domain, which suggests that the putative flax CADs (LuCADs are zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and members of the plant CAD family. In addition, expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR revealed spatial variations in the expression of LuCADs in different organs. Comparative analysis between LuCAD enzymatic activity and LuCAD transcripts indicates that the variation of LuCAD enzymatic activities by elicitors is reflected by transcription of LuCADs in flax suspension-cultured cells. Taken together, our genome-wide analysis of CAD genes and the expression profiling of these genes provide valuable information for understanding the function of CADs, and will assist future studies on the physiological role of monolignols associated with plant defense.

  19. Does the oxidation of methionine residue precede the inactivation of the trypsin inhibitor (LUTI in germinating seeds of common flax (Linum usitatissimum?

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    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antitrypsin activity in germinating common seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum was investigated. At the early stage of germination an increase in antitrypsin activity was observed, followed by its decrease during the development of the seedlings. From 6-day-old seedlings a trypsin inhibitor (gerLUTI was purified. The purification procedure involved fractionation of proteins from seedling homogenate with alcohol and successive chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 on immobilised methylchymotrypsin in the presence of 5 M NaCl, and finally on a C18 column in RP-HPLC. The gerLUTI migrated in SDS PAGE as a single band, but in mass spectroscopy analysis it exhibited the presence of at least three forms with molecular masses of 7654 ± 3 Da, 7668/7670 ± 3 Da, and 7687 ± 3 Da. The preparation of LUTI isolated from resting seeds contained only one form, with a molecular mass of 7655 ± 3 Da. LUTI and gerLUTI differed also in methionine contents. LUTI contained two methionine residues, whereas in gerLUTI only a trace of methionine was detected. The obtained results might suggest that during flax seeds germination the inhibitor molecules undergo selective modification, e.g. oxidation at methionine residues, before being degraded by proteolytic enzymes.

  20. The Effect of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Brain, Weight and Plasma Sexual Hormone Levels in Aged and Young Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Kamali, Mahsa

    2016-05-01

    Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. In this study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups. Controls remained untreated and experimental groups were fed with flax seed hydroalcoholic extract by oral gavages during 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, the brain was removed and blood samples were collected to measure sex hormone levels by ELISA. Data analysis was done by statistical ANOVA test using SPSS version 18 (P<0.05). The results of this study shows that the brain weight of mice did not change significantly, but the sex hormone levels in the experimental groups in comparison with the control groups increased significantly (P<0.05). The hydroalcoholic extract of flax seed had no effect on the brain weight, but this extract improved the sexual hormone levels.

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction of herbacetin diglucoside from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed cakes and its quantification using an RP-HPLC-UV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Ramsay, Aina; Renouard, Sullivan; Beejmohun, Vickram; Doussot, Joël; Falguières, Annie; Ferroud, Clotilde; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Roscher, Albrecht; Grand, Eric; Mesnard, François; Hano, Christophe

    2014-03-10

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are widely used for oil extraction and the cold-pressed flaxseed (or linseed) cakes obtained during this process constitute a valuable by-product. The flavonol herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) has been previously reported as a constituent of the flaxseed lignan macromolecule linked through ester bonds to the linker molecule hydroxymethylglutaric acid. In this context, the development and validation of a new approach using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of HDG from flaxseed cakes followed by quantification with a reverse-phase HPLC system with UV detection was purposed. The experimental parameters affecting the HDG extraction yield, such as microwave power, extraction time and sodium hydroxide concentration, from the lignan macromolecule were optimized. A maximum HDG concentration of 5.76 mg/g DW in flaxseed cakes was measured following an irradiation time of 6 min, for a microwave power of 150 W using a direct extraction in 0.1 M NaOH in 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol. The optimized method was proven to be rapid and reliable in terms of precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy for the extraction of HDG. Comparison with a conventional extraction method demonstrated that MAE is more effective and less time-consuming.

  2. Effect of ethanolic flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Hęś, Marzanna

    2014-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of phenolic compounds, mainly lignans. Antioxidant capacities of flaxseed extracts that contain the compounds have been reported earlier. However, there is a lack of accessible information about their activity against lipid oxidation in meat products. Therefore, the effect of ethanolic flaxseed extracts (EFEs) on lipid stability and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products (pork meatballs and burgers) was determined. EFEs from three Polish flax varieties (Szafir, Oliwin, Jantarol) were applied in the study. During 150-day storage of meat products, the lipid oxidation (peroxide and TBARS value) and thiamine retention were periodically monitored, alongside with methionine and lysine availability and protein digestibility. The addition of EFEs significantly limited lipid oxidation in stored meatballs and burgers. EFE from brown seeds of Szafir var. was superior to the others from golden seeds of Jantarol and Oliwin. Moreover, the extracts reduced changes in thiamine and available lysine content, as well as protein digestibility, during storage time. The effect of EFE addition on available methionine retention was limited. The ethanolic flaxseed extracts exhibit antioxidant activity during frozen storage of meat products. They can be utilized to prolong shelf-life of the products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. However, antioxidant efficiency of the extracts seems to depend on chemical composition of raw material (flax variety). Further investigations should be carried on to explain the issue.

  3. Differential effects of cadmium and chromium on growth, photosynthetic activity, and metal uptake of Linum usitatissimum in association with Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna; Ali, Naeem; Masood, Sajid; Mukhtar, Tehmeena; Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Rafique, Mazhar; Munis, M Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-06-01

    The current study was aimed at analyzing the differential effects of heavy metals (cadmium and chromium) and mycorrhizal fungus; Glomus intraradices on growth, chlorophyll content, proline production, and metal accumulation in flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.). Heavy metal accumulation rate in flax varied from 90 to 95 % for Cd and 61-84 % for Cr at a concentration range of 250 to 500 ppm for both metals in 24 days of experiment. Growth and photosynthetic activity of flax reduced to an average of 21 and 45 %, respectively. However, inoculation of G. intraradices significantly increased the plant biomass even under metal stressed conditions. Additionally, mycorrhizal association also assists the Cd and Cr increased uptake by 23 and 33 %, respectively. Due to metal stress, chlorophyll contents were decreased by 27 and 45 %, while 84 and 71 % increased proline content was observed under Cd and Cr stress, respectively. The present results clearly signify the differential response and potential of flax plant towards heavy metal tolerance and accumulation that can further increase with mycorrhizal fungus.

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of microRNA genes and their targets in flax (Linum usitatissimum): Characterization of flax miRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Qiu, Shuqing; Rollins, Meaghen; Datla, Raju; Gupta, Vidya S; Kadoo, Narendra Y

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-24 nucleotide long) endogenous regulatory RNAs that play important roles in plant growth and development. They regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by translational repression or target degradation and gene silencing. In this study, we identified 116 conserved miRNAs belonging to 23 families from the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome using a computational approach. The precursor miRNAs varied in length; while most of the mature miRNAs were 21 nucleotide long, intergenic and showed conserved signatures of RNA polymerase II transcripts in their upstream regions. Promoter region analysis of the flax miRNA genes indicated prevalence of MYB transcription factor binding sites. Four miRNA gene clusters containing members of three phylogenetic groups were identified. Further, 142 target genes were predicted for these miRNAs and most of these represent transcriptional regulators. The miRNA encoding genes were expressed in diverse tissues as determined by digital expression analysis as well as real-time PCR. The expression of fourteen miRNAs and nine target genes was independently validated using the quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). This study suggests that a large number of conserved plant miRNAs are also found in flax and these may play important roles in growth and development of flax.

  5. On-farm evaluation of seed yield and oil quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in inland areas of Tuscany, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Angelini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional oilseed crops, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., may represent valuable alternative crops in cropping systems dominated by cereals, due to their adaptability to poor soils and to their high economic value related to the interesting quality of the oil, which is being increasingly appreciated by consumers and industry. The aim of this study was to test the adaptability of linseed to the inland marginal areas of Tuscany, and to explore the levels of crop yield and oil quality which can be achieved in hilly and lowland environments. For three years (2011-2014, experimental open fields (1- 5 ha each were established and monitored in six commercial farms located in the inland countryside of Pisa province, Tuscany, Central Italy. The effect of environment (hilly and plain areas was assessed in terms of yield and yield components as well as oil content and composition. Interestingly, seed yield and biomass production were very stable over years in the two areas of cultivation, irrespectively of yearly differences in weather conditions. As expected, higher yields were obtained in plain than in hilly areas. Regarding oil composition, oil extracted from linseed grown in plain environments was richer in linolenic acid, while, oppositely, both oleic and linoleic acids were more abundant in oil from hilly areas. Definitively, our results demonstrated that linseed might be a valuable alternative to cereal crops for marginal lands of Tuscany and, more in general, of Central Italy.

  6. RNAi-mediated pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase gene silencing in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coat: consequences on lignans and neolignans accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Tribalatc, Marie-Aude; Lamblin, Frederic; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Pilard, Serge; Demailly, Hervé; Gutierrez, Laurent; Hano, Christophe; Mesnard, François; Lainé, Eric

    2014-09-15

    RNAi technology was applied to down regulate LuPLR1 gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds. This gene encodes a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase responsible for the synthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the major lignan accumulated in the seed coat. If flax lignans biological properties and health benefits are well documented their roles in planta remain unclear. This loss of function strategy was developed to better understand the implication of the PLR1 enzyme in the lignan biosynthetic pathway and to provide new insights on the functions of these compounds. RNAi plants generated exhibited LuPLR1 gene silencing as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR experiments and the failed to accumulate SDG. The accumulation of pinoresinol the substrate of the PLR1 enzyme under its diglucosylated form (PDG) was increased in transgenic seeds but did not compensate the overall loss of SDG. The monolignol flux was also deviated through the synthesis of 8-5' linked neolignans dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG) and dihydro-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DDCG) which were observed for the first time in flax seeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Karg, S. New projects within the FLAX Network. In: Karg S. (ed.) Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the second

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Karg, S. New projects within the FLAX Network. In: Karg S. (ed.) Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the second workshop 28...

  8. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the first workshop 24-26 November 2009 in the Carlsberg Academy Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the first workshop 24-26 November 2009 in the Carlsberg Academy Copenhagen, Denmark...

  9. Karg S. (ed.) Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the second workshop 28-30 June 2010 at Sonnerupgaard and in the Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Karg S. (ed.) Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the second workshop 28-30 June 2010 at Sonnerupgaard and in the Land...

  10. Quantificação de ácido alfa-linolênico em caules e folhas de linho (Linum usitatissimum L. colhidos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento Quantification of alpha-linolenic acid in stems and leaves of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. harvested in different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar o ácido alfa-linolênico [LNA, 18:3 (n-3], avaliar a composição centesimal das folhas e caules de linho (Linum usitatissimum L. submetidos à secagem e colhidos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (40, 80 e 120 dias, e determinar o potencial antioxidante das folhas colhidas aos 80 dias através do teste com o radical DPPH. As folhas obtiveram maiores teores de cinzas, proteína e lipídios totais em relação aos caules. Tanto as folhas quanto os caules apresentaram razões de AGPI/AGS e n-6/n-3 dentro dos valores considerados adequados para a alimentação. Os caules colhidos nos diferentes tempos não apresentaram diferenças significativas (PThe objective of this study was to quantify the alpha-linolenic acid [LNA, 18:3 (n-3] and to evaluate the proximate composition of leaves and stems of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. dried and harvested at different stages of development (40, 80 and 120 days, and to determine the antioxidant potential of the leaf harvested at 80 days using the test of DPPH radical. The leaves had higher levels of ash, protein and total lipids when compared to the stems. Both the leaves as the stems had ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 within the values considered suitable for food. Stems in the different stages showed no significant difference (P<0.05 of LNA content. Leaves harvested at 80 days showed the highest concentration of LNA, corresponding to 1,262.36 mg/100g dried leaf. The different extracts (methanol, butanol, acetate and water were efficient in the inhibition of DPPH radical, with emphasis on the butanolic and acetate fractions and the values of IC50 were approximately 42 ppm. These results highlight the nutritional potential and antioxidant activity of leaves and stems of flaxseed for future use in the animal and human feeding.

  11. Genome-wide identification, phylogenetic classification, and exon-intron structure characterisation of the tubulin and actin genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pydiura, Nikolay; Pirko, Yaroslav; Galinousky, Dmitry; Postovoitova, Anastasiia; Yemets, Alla; Kilchevsky, Aleksandr; Blume, Yaroslav

    2018-06-08

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a valuable food and fiber crop cultivated for its quality fiber and seed oil. α-, β-, γ-tubulins and actins are the main structural proteins of the cytoskeleton. α- and γ-tubulin and actin genes have not been characterized yet in the flax genome. In this study, we have identified 6 α-tubulin genes, 13 β-tubulin genes, 2 γ-tubulin genes, and 15 actin genes in the flax genome and analysed the phylogenetic relationships between flax and A. thaliana tubulin and actin genes. Six α-tubulin genes are represented by 3 paralogous pairs, among 13 β-tubulin genes 7 different isotypes can be distinguished, 6 of which are encoded by two paralogous genes each. γ-tubulin is represented by a paralogous pair of genes one of which may be not functional. Fifteen actin genes represent 7 paralogous pairs - 7 actin isotypes and a sequentially duplicated copy of one of the genes of one of the isotypes. Exon-intron structure analysis has shown intron length polymorphism within the β-tubulin genes and intron number variation among the α-tubulin gene: 3 or 4 introns are found in two or four genes, respectively. Intron positioning occurs at conservative sites, as observed in numerous other plant species. Flax actin genes show both intron length polymorphisms and variation in the number of intron that may be 2 or 3. These data will be useful to support further studies on the specificity, functioning, regulation and evolution of the flax cytoskeleton proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Candidate Genes Influencing Important Agronomic Traits of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using SLAF-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongwei; Dai, Zhigang; Yang, Zemao; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Debao; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Liguo; Tang, Qing; Su, Jianguang

    2017-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important cash crop, and its agronomic traits directly affect yield and quality. Molecular studies on flax remain inadequate because relatively few flax genes have been associated with agronomic traits or have been identified as having potential applications. To identify markers and candidate genes that can potentially be used for genetic improvement of crucial agronomic traits, we examined 224 specimens of core flax germplasm; specifically, phenotypic data for key traits, including plant height, technical length, number of branches, number of fruits, and 1000-grain weight were investigated under three environmental conditions before specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was employed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these five agronomic traits. Subsequently, the results were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and candidate genes that exhibited a significant correlation with the important agronomic traits. Our analyses identified a total of 42 SNP loci that showed significant correlations with the five important agronomic flax traits. Next, candidate genes were screened in the 10 kb zone of each of the 42 SNP loci. These SNP loci were then analyzed by a more stringent screening via co-identification using both a general linear model (GLM) and a mixed linear model (MLM) as well as co-occurrences in at least two of the three environments, whereby 15 final candidate genes were obtained. Based on these results, we determined that UGT and PL are candidate genes for plant height, GRAS and XTH are candidate genes for the number of branches, Contig1437 and LU0019C12 are candidate genes for the number of fruits, and PHO1 is a candidate gene for the 1000-seed weight. We propose that the identified SNP loci and corresponding candidate genes might serve as a biological basis for improving crucial agronomic flax traits.

  13. miR319, miR390, and miR393 Are Involved in Aluminum Response in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Zyablitsin, Alexander V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Krasnov, George S; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Fedorova, Maria S; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Muravenko, Olga V; Belenikin, Maxim S; Melnikova, Nataliya V

    2017-01-01

    Acid soils limit agricultural production worldwide. Major reason of crop losses in acid soils is the toxicity of aluminum (Al). In the present work, we investigated expression alterations of microRNAs in flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants under Al stress. Flax seedlings of resistant (TMP1919 and G1071/4_k) and sensitive (Lira and G1071/4_o) to Al cultivars and lines were exposed to AlCl 3 solution for 4 and 24 hours. Twelve small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced using Illumina platform. In total, 97 microRNAs from 18 conserved families were identified. miR319, miR390, and miR393 revealed expression alterations associated with Al treatment of flax plants. Moreover, for miR390 and miR393, the alterations were distinct in sensitive and resistant to Al genotypes. Expression level changes of miR319 and miR390 were confirmed using qPCR analysis. In flax, potential targets of miR319 are TCPs, miR390-TAS3 and GRF5, and miR393-AFB2-coding transcripts. TCPs, TAS3, GRF5, and AFB2 participate in regulation of plant growth and development. The involvement of miR319, miR390, and miR393 in response to Al stress in flax was shown here for the first time. We speculate that these microRNAs play an important role in Al response via regulation of growth processes in flax plants.

  14. Thidiazuron-enhanced biosynthesis and antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles via improving phytochemical reducing potential in callus culture of Linum usitatissimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Sumaira; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using plants is an emerging class of nanobiotechnology. It revolutionizes all domains of medical sciences by synthesizing chemical-free AgNPs for various biomedical applications. In this report, AgNPs were successfully synthesized by using whole plant extract (WPE) and thidiazuron-induced callus extract (CE) of Linum usitatissimum. The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in CE than that in WPE. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of synthesized AgNPs showed a characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 410-426 nm. Bioreduction of CE-mediated AgNPs was completed in a shorter time than that of WPE-mediated AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy showed that both types of synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape, but CE-mediated AgNPs were smaller in size (19-24 nm) and more scattered in distribution than that of WPE-mediated AgNPs (49-54 nm). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed crystalline nature (face-centered cubic) of both types of AgNPs. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the polyphenols and flavonoids were mainly responsible for reduction and capping of synthesized AgNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further confirmed the successful synthesis of AgNPs. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs were found to be stable over months with no change in the surface plasmon bands. More importantly, CE-mediated AgNPs displayed significantly higher bactericidal activity against multiple drug-resistant human pathogens than WPE-mediated AgNPs. The present work highlighted the potent role of thidiazuron in in vitro-derived cultures for enhanced biosynthesis of chemical-free AgNPs, which can be used as nanomedicines in many biomedical applications.

  15. Identification of a pair of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases from developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed catalyzing the selective production of trilinolenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Wickramarathna, Aruna D; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Weselake, Randall J

    2013-08-16

    The oil from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3(cis)(Δ9,12,15)) and is one of the richest sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs). To produce ∼57% ALA in triacylglycerol (TAG), it is likely that flax contains enzymes that can efficiently transfer ALA to TAG. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic characterization of TAG-synthesizing enzymes from flax. We identified several genes encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) from the flax genome database. Due to recent genome duplication, duplicated gene pairs have been identified for all genes except DGAT2-2. Analysis of gene expression indicated that two DGAT1, two DGAT2, and four PDAT genes were preferentially expressed in flax embryos. Yeast functional analysis showed that DGAT1, DGAT2, and two PDAT enzymes restored TAG synthesis when produced recombinantly in yeast H1246 strain. The activity of particular PDAT enzymes (LuPDAT1 and LuPDAT2) was stimulated by the presence of ALA. Further seed-specific expression of flax genes in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that DGAT1, PDAT1, and PDAT2 had significant effects on seed oil phenotype. Overall, this study indicated the existence of unique PDAT enzymes from flax that are able to preferentially catalyze the synthesis of TAG containing ALA acyl moieties. The identified LuPDATs may have practical applications for increasing the accumulation of ALA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in oilseeds for food and industrial applications.

  16. Identification of a Pair of Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferases from Developing Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Seed Catalyzing the Selective Production of Trilinolenin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Siloto, Rodrigo M. P.; Wickramarathna, Aruna D.; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Weselake, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    The oil from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3cisΔ9,12,15) and is one of the richest sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs). To produce ∼57% ALA in triacylglycerol (TAG), it is likely that flax contains enzymes that can efficiently transfer ALA to TAG. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic characterization of TAG-synthesizing enzymes from flax. We identified several genes encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) from the flax genome database. Due to recent genome duplication, duplicated gene pairs have been identified for all genes except DGAT2-2. Analysis of gene expression indicated that two DGAT1, two DGAT2, and four PDAT genes were preferentially expressed in flax embryos. Yeast functional analysis showed that DGAT1, DGAT2, and two PDAT enzymes restored TAG synthesis when produced recombinantly in yeast H1246 strain. The activity of particular PDAT enzymes (LuPDAT1 and LuPDAT2) was stimulated by the presence of ALA. Further seed-specific expression of flax genes in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that DGAT1, PDAT1, and PDAT2 had significant effects on seed oil phenotype. Overall, this study indicated the existence of unique PDAT enzymes from flax that are able to preferentially catalyze the synthesis of TAG containing ALA acyl moieties. The identified LuPDATs may have practical applications for increasing the accumulation of ALA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in oilseeds for food and industrial applications. PMID:23824186

  17. Effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Linum usitatissimum (Linn. in hyperglycaemia associated ROS production in PBMNCs and pancreatic tissue of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvindkumar E Ghule

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Linum usitatissimum (EELU in hyperglycemia associated reactive oxygen species (ROS production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs and pancreatic antioxidant enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Methods: Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p. . After acute and subacute treatment serum glucose was determined. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in EELU pretreated animals. ROS production in PBMNCs and pancreatic antioxidant enzymes were measured in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Results: Our results showed that, treatment of EELU (200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced serum glucose level in acute and subacute study. The antihyperglycaemic effects of EELU showed onset at 4th h (P<0.001 and peak effect at 6th h (P<0.001. The effect was sustained until 24th h with 400 mg/kg. In subacute study, significant antihyperglycaemic effect was observed from 14th day (P<0.001 onwards. In EELU treated rat the body weight was significantly (P<0.001 increased as compared to diabetic group on 21st day onwards. In OGTT, increased glucose utilization was observed. Treatment of EELU 400 mg/kg showed significant reversal in pancreatic GSH (P<0.01 and SOD (P<0.05 indicating antioxidant nature of EELU. Flow cytometric estimation of total ROS production in PBMNCs in diabetic rats was significantly increased (P<0.001, whereas EELU treatment showed significant (P<0.001 decrease in PBMNCs ROS. Conclusions: It is concluded from the investigation that EELU showed antihyperglycaemic effect mediated through inhibition of ROS level in PBMNCs and preservation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in pancreatic tissue in alloxan induced diabetic rat.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Candidate Genes Influencing Important Agronomic Traits of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Using SLAF-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important cash crop, and its agronomic traits directly affect yield and quality. Molecular studies on flax remain inadequate because relatively few flax genes have been associated with agronomic traits or have been identified as having potential applications. To identify markers and candidate genes that can potentially be used for genetic improvement of crucial agronomic traits, we examined 224 specimens of core flax germplasm; specifically, phenotypic data for key traits, including plant height, technical length, number of branches, number of fruits, and 1000-grain weight were investigated under three environmental conditions before specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq was employed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS for these five agronomic traits. Subsequently, the results were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci and candidate genes that exhibited a significant correlation with the important agronomic traits. Our analyses identified a total of 42 SNP loci that showed significant correlations with the five important agronomic flax traits. Next, candidate genes were screened in the 10 kb zone of each of the 42 SNP loci. These SNP loci were then analyzed by a more stringent screening via co-identification using both a general linear model (GLM and a mixed linear model (MLM as well as co-occurrences in at least two of the three environments, whereby 15 final candidate genes were obtained. Based on these results, we determined that UGT and PL are candidate genes for plant height, GRAS and XTH are candidate genes for the number of branches, Contig1437 and LU0019C12 are candidate genes for the number of fruits, and PHO1 is a candidate gene for the 1000-seed weight. We propose that the identified SNP loci and corresponding candidate genes might serve as a biological basis for improving crucial agronomic flax traits.

  19. Identification and characterization of miRNAs and targets in flax (Linum usitatissimum) under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Cheng, Lili; Zhao, Dongsheng; Huang, Wengong; Zhang, Shuquan; Zhang, Liguo; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Jian; Guan, Fengzhi

    2016-05-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress and have been characterized in a large number of plant species. Although flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the most important fiber and oil crops worldwide, no reports have been published describing flax miRNAs (Lus-miRNAs) induced in response to saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. In this work, combined small RNA and degradome deep sequencing was used to analyze flax libraries constructed after alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS), alkaline stress (AS), and the non-stressed control (CK). From the CK, AS, AS2, and NSS libraries, a total of 118, 119, 122, and 120 known Lus-miRNAs and 233, 213, 211, and 212 novel Lus-miRNAs were isolated, respectively. After assessment of differential expression profiles, 17 known Lus-miRNAs and 36 novel Lus-miRNAs were selected and used to predict putative target genes. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed target genes that were involved in responses to stimuli, including signaling and catalytic activity. Eight Lus-miRNAs were selected for analysis using qRT-PCR to confirm the accuracy and reliability of the miRNA-seq results. The qRT-PCR results showed that changes in stress-induced expression profiles of these miRNAs mirrored expression trends observed using miRNA-seq. Degradome sequencing and transcriptome profiling showed that expression of 29 miRNA-target pairs displayed inverse expression patterns under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. From the target prediction analysis, the miR398a-targeted gene codes for a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and the miR530 has been shown to explicitly target WRKY family transcription factors, which suggesting that these two micRNAs and their targets may significant involve in the saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stress response in flax. Identification and characterization of flax miRNAs, their target genes, functional annotations, and gene

  20. Effects of photoperiod regimes and ultraviolet-C radiations on biosynthesis of industrially important lignans and neolignans in cell cultures of Linum usitatissimum L. (Flax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Sumaira; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Doussot, Joël; Favre-Réguillon, Alain; Hano, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Lignans and neolignans are principal bioactive components of Linum usitatissimum L. (Flax), having multiple pharmacological activities. In present study, we are reporting an authoritative abiotic elicitation strategy of photoperiod regimes along with UV-C radiations. Cell cultures were grown in different photoperiod regimes (24h-dark, 24h-light and 16L/8D h photoperiod) either alone or in combination with various doses (1.8-10.8kJ/m 2 ) of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiations. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), lariciresinol diglucoside (LDG), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG), and guaiacylglycerol-β-coniferyl alcohol ether glucoside (GGCG) were quantified by using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results showed that the cultures exposed to UV-C radiations, accumulated higher levels of lignans, neolignans and other biochemical markers than cultures grown under different photoperiod regimes. 3.6kJ/m 2 dose of UV-C radiations resulted in 1.86-fold (7.1mg/g DW) increase in accumulation of SDG, 2.25-fold (21.6mg/g DW) in LDG, and 1.33-fold (9.2mg/g DW) in GGCG in cell cultures grown under UV+photoperiod than their respective controls. Furthermore, cell cultures grown under UV+dark showed 1.36-fold (60.0mg/g DW) increase in accumulation of DCG in response to 1.8kJ/m 2 dose of UV-C radiations. Smilar trends were observed in productivity of SDG, LDG and GGCG. Additionally, 3.6kJ/m 2 dose of UV-C radiations also resulted in 2.82-fold (195.65mg/l) increase in total phenolic production, 2.94-fold (98.9mg/l) in total flavonoid production and 1.04-fold (95%) in antioxidant activity of cell cultures grown under UV+photoperiod. These findings open new dimensions for feasible production of biologically active lignans and neolignans by Flax cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Uso oral do óleo de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum no tratamento do olhoseco de pacientesportadores da síndrome de Sjögren Oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum in the treatment for dry-eye Sjögren's syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Neuzimar Pinheiro Jr.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a utilização por via oral do óleo de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum, que diminui a inflamação na artrite reumatóide, pode auxiliar no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite seca de portadores da síndrome de Sjögren. MÉTODOS: Em estudo clínico randomizado, 38 pacientes do sexo feminino, com diagnóstico de artrite reumatóide ou lúpus eritematoso sistêmico associadas à ceratoconjuntivite seca e síndrome de Sjögren, provenientes do ambulatório de Reumatologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, foram consecutivamente selecionadas. O diagnóstico de ceratoconjuntivite seca foi baseado em questionário para olho seco (Ocular Surface Disease Index - OSDI®, Teste I de Schirmer, tempo de quebra do filme lacrimal com fluoresceína e instilação do corante rosa bengala a 1%, com intensidade da impregnação da superfíce ocular quantificada pela escala de van Bijsterveld. Todas as pacientes tiveram a inflamação da superfície conjuntival avaliada e quantificada por interpretação de exame de citologia de impressão conjuntival antes do início e ao final do estudo. As pacientes foram divididas em três grupos: Grupo I (n=13, Grupo II (n=12 e Grupo III (n=13. O Grupo I recebeu cápsulas com dose final de 1 g/dia de óleo de linhaça, o Grupo II recebeu cápsulas com dose final de 2 g/dia de óleo de linhaça e o Grupo III - controle - recebeu cápsulas com placebo, por 180 dias. RESULTADOS: Comparando os resultados no início e no final do tratamento, foram verificadas mudanças estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: To evaluate if oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum, which reduces the inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, may help keratoconjunctivitis sicca's treatment in Sjögren's syndrome patients. METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial, 38 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erithematosus associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca and Sjögren's syndrome

  2. Agronomical evaluation and chemical characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. as oilseed crop for bio-based products in two environments of Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tavarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, new perspectives for linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. are open as renewable raw material for bio-based products (Bb, due to its oil composition, and the interesting amounts of coproducts (lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the possibility to introduce linseed crop in two environments of central and northern Italy, traditionally devoted to cereal cultivation, has been evaluated. Twoyears field trials were carried out in the coastal plain of Pisa (Tuscany region and in the Po valley (Bologna, Emilia Romagna region, comparing two linseed varieties (Sideral and Buenos Aires. Agronomical evaluation (yield and yield components, seed and oil characterization (oil, protein content, and fatty acid composition, together with carbon (C and nitrogen (N content of the residual lignocellulosic biomass were investigated. The two varieties, grown as autumn crop, showed a different percentage of plant survival at the end of winter, with Sideral most resistant to cold. The achieved results showed significant influence of cultivar, location and growing season on yield and yield components, as well as on chemical biomass composition. In particular, Sideral appeared to be the most suitable variety for tested environments, since higher seed yield (3.05 t ha–1 as mean value over years and locations and above-ground biomass (6.98 t ha–1 as mean value over years and locations were recorded in comparison with those detected for Buenos Aires (1.93 and 4.48 t ha–1 of seed production and lignocellulosic biomass, respectively. Interestingly, in the northern area, during the 1st year, Buenos Aires was the most productive, despite its low plant survival at the end of winter, which determined a strong reduction in plant density and size. In such conditions, the plants produced a larger number of capsules and, consequently, high seed yield (3.18 t ha–1. Relevant differences were also observed between the two years, due to the variability of climatic

  3. A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum como fonte de ácido α-linolênico na formação da bainha de mielina Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum as a source of α-linolenic acid in the development of the myelin sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Calvi Lenzi de Almeida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum é uma semente oleaginosa que tem sido estudada por seus efeitos benéficos à saúde. É considerada um alimento funcional, pelo fato de ser uma fonte natural de fitoquímicos, e por conter o ácido graxo α-linolênico (C18:3 n-3, que pode ser metabolicamente convertido nos ácidos docosaexahenóico (C22:6 n-3 e eicosapentaenóico (C20:5 n-3, sendo o primeiro essencial para o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central. Durante o crescimento do cérebro, há uma grande incorporação do ácido docosaexahenóico, que tem papel importante na formação de suas membranas celulares. Diante disto, esta comunicação visa a abordar os prováveis mecanismos pelos quais o ácido docosaexahenóico, proveniente do ácido α-linolênico presente abundantemente na semente de linhaça, interfere na formação da bainha de mielina, assim como relatar a técnica mais adequada para visualização desta bainha.Flaxseed is an oily seed that has been studied for its beneficial health effects. It is considered a functional food because it is a natural source of phytochemicals and contain the fatty acid α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 that can be metabolically converted into docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3. The former is essential for the development of the central nervous system. During brain growth, there is a great incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid which plays in important role in the formation of cell membranes. This communication intended to address the likely mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid originating from α-linolenic acid, present in abundance in flaxseed, interferes in the formation of the myelin sheath and report the best method to see this structure.

  4. Classification of some Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes for Salinity Tolerance using Germination, Seedling Growth, and Ion Content Clasificación de algunos Genotipos de Linaza (Linum usitatissimum L. para Tolerancia a Salinidad usando Germinación, Crecimiento de Plántulas y Contenido de Iones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir Kaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity reduces germination, delays emergence, and inhibits seedling growth of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. while some varieties are less affected by salinity than others. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of NaCl levels (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 on germination and seedling growth of 10 linseed genotypes (lines 87, 89, 104, 114, 193, 194, 209, 215, C-90 and cv. San-85 and to classify the genotypes for salinity tolerance using germination and seedling characteristics. Germination percentage, mean germination time, root and shoot length, seedling fresh and dry weight, Na+ content and Na:K ratio of seedlings were investigated. Classification of linseed genotypes for salinity tolerance was done according to (i combination of Principal Component and Cluster Analysis, (ii Na+ content, and (iii Na:K ratio of seedling. The results showed that the highest values were obtained from lines 193, 194 and 215 except for mean germination time, while germination percentage was not adversely influenced by NaCl up to 20 dS m-1. Seedling growth was inhibited at 20 dS m-1 although genotypes exhibited varying responses. Na+ content was enhanced by NaCl, but seedling from lines 194, 193 and 215 had the lowest Na+ content at all NaCl levels. Cluster analysis performed by multiple parameters revealed three groups for salinity tolerance. It was concluded that lines 193, 194, and 215 were tolerant, lines 87, 209, C-90, and cv. Sari-85 were moderately tolerant and lines 89, 104, and 114 were salt-sensitive genotypes. Classification of genotypes for Na+ content and Na:K ratio showed similar result for tolerant genotypes while different genotypes for sensitive group were detected.La salinidad reduce germinación, retrasa emergencia, e inhibe el crecimiento de plántulas de lino (Linum usitatissimum L. mientras algunas variedades son menos afectadas por la salinidad que otras. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los efectos de niveles de NaCl (0, 5

  5. Identification and characterization of cis-acting elements involved in the regulation of ABA- and/or GA-mediated LuPLR1 gene expression and lignan biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Renouard, Sullivan; Lopez, Tatiana; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2013-03-15

    Pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase 1, encoded by the LuPLR1 gene in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), is responsible for the biosynthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol, a cancer chemopreventive phytoestrogenic lignan accumulated in high amount in the hull of flaxseed. Our recent studies have demonstrated a key role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of LuPLR1 gene expression and thus of the (+)-secoisolariciresinol synthesis during the flax seedcoat development. It is well accepted that gibberellins (GA) and ABA play antagonistic roles in the regulation of numerous developmental processes; therefore it is of interest to clarify their respective effects on lignan biosynthesis. Herein, using flax cell suspension cultures, we demonstrate that LuPLR1 gene expression and (+)-secoisolariciresinol synthesis are up-regulated by ABA and down-regulated by GA. The LuPLR1 gene promoter analysis and mutation experiments allow us to identify and characterize two important cis-acting sequences (ABRE and MYB2) required for these regulations. These results imply that a cross-talk between ABA and GA signaling orchestrated by transcription factors is involved in the regulation of lignan biosynthesis. This is particularly evidenced in the case of the ABRE cis-regulatory sequence of LuPLR1 gene promoter that appears to be a common target sequence of GA and ABA signals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Do cupins have a function beyond being seed storage proteins? An updated working model for the growth and reproductive success of flax (Linum usitatissimum in a radio-contaminated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daša eGábrišová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants continue to flourish around the site of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster. The ability of plants to transcend the radio-contaminated environment was not anticipated and is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proteome of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. during seed filling by plants grown for a third generation near Chernobyl. For this purpose, seeds were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after flowering and at maturity, from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radio-contaminated experimental fields. Total proteins were extracted and the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE patterns analyzed. This approach established paired abundance profiles for 130 2-DE spots, e.g., profiles for the same spot across seed filling in non-radioactive and radio-contaminated experimental fields. Based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA followed by sequential Bonferroni correction, eight of the paired abundance profiles were discordant. Results from tandem mass spectrometry show that four 2-DE spots are discordant because they contain fragments of the cupin superfamily-proteins. Most of the fragments were derived from the N-terminal half of native cupins. Revisiting previously published data, it was found that cupin-fragments were also involved with discordance in paired abundance profiles of second generation flax seeds. Based on these observations we present an updated working model for the growth and reproductive success of flax in a radio-contaminated Chernobyl environment. This model suggests that the increased abundance of cupin fragments or isoforms and monomers contributes to the successful growth and reproduction of flax in a radio-contaminated environment.

  7. PT-Flax (phenotyping and TILLinG of flax): development of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) mutant population and TILLinG platform for forward and reverse genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantreau, Maxime; Grec, Sébastien; Gutierrez, Laurent; Dalmais, Marion; Pineau, Christophe; Demailly, Hervé; Paysant-Leroux, Christine; Tavernier, Reynald; Trouvé, Jean-Paul; Chatterjee, Manash; Guillot, Xavier; Brunaud, Véronique; Chabbert, Brigitte; van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Thomasset, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2013-10-15

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an economically important fiber and oil crop that has been grown for thousands of years. The genome has been recently sequenced and transcriptomics are providing information on candidate genes potentially related to agronomically-important traits. In order to accelerate functional characterization of these genes we have generated a flax EMS mutant population that can be used as a TILLinG (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) platform for forward and reverse genetics. A population of 4,894 M2 mutant seed families was generated using 3 different EMS concentrations (0.3%, 0.6% and 0.75%) and used to produce M2 plants for subsequent phenotyping and DNA extraction. 10,839 viable M2 plants (4,033 families) were obtained and 1,552 families (38.5%) showed a visual developmental phenotype (stem size and diameter, plant architecture, flower-related). The majority of these families showed more than one phenotype. Mutant phenotype data are organised in a database and can be accessed and searched at UTILLdb (http://urgv.evry.inra.fr/UTILLdb). Preliminary screens were also performed for atypical fiber and seed phenotypes. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3,515 M2 families and eight-fold pooled for subsequent mutant detection by ENDO1 nuclease mis-match cleavage. In order to validate the collection for reverse genetics, DNA pools were screened for two genes coding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway: Coumarate-3-Hydroxylase (C3H) and Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD). We identified 79 and 76 mutations in the C3H and CAD genes, respectively. The average mutation rate was calculated as 1/41 Kb giving rise to approximately 9,000 mutations per genome. Thirty-five out of the 52 flax cad mutant families containing missense or codon stop mutations showed the typical orange-brown xylem phenotype observed in CAD down-regulated/mutant plants in other species. We have developed a flax mutant population that can be used as an efficient

  8. Role of protein farnesylation events in the ABA-mediated regulation of the Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase 1 (LuPLR1) gene expression and lignan biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Decourtil, Cédric; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Bailly, Marlène; Lopez, Tatiana; Renouard, Sullivan; Doussot, Joël; Dutilleul, Christelle; Auguin, Daniel; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lainé, Eric; Lamblin, Frédéric; Hano, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    A Linum usitatissimum LuERA1 gene encoding a putative ortholog of the ERA1 (Enhanced Response to ABA 1) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana (encoding the beta subunit of a farnesyltransferase) was analyzed in silico and for its expression in flax. The gene and the protein sequences are highly similar to other sequences already characterized in plants and all the features of a farnesyltransferase were detected. Molecular modeling of LuERA1 protein confirmed its farnesyltransferase nature. LuERA1 is expressed in the vegetative organs and also in the outer seedcoat of the flaxseed, where it could modulate the previously observed regulation operated by ABA on lignan synthesis. This effect could be mediated by the regulation of the transcription of a key gene for lignan synthesis in flax, the LuPLR1 gene, encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase. The positive effect of manumycin A, a specific inhibitor of farnesyltransferase, on lignan biosynthesis in flax cell suspension systems supports the hypothesis of the involvement of such an enzyme in the negative regulation of ABA action. In Arabidopsis, ERA1 is able to negatively regulate the ABA effects and the mutant era1 has an enhanced sensitivity to ABA. When expressed in an Arabidopsis cell suspension (heterologous system) LuERA1 is able to reverse the effect of the era1 mutation. RNAi experiments in flax targeting the farnesyltransferase β-subunit encoded by the LuERA1 gene led to an increase LuPLR1 expression level associated with an increased content of lignan in transgenic calli. Altogether these results strongly suggest a role of the product of this LuERA1 gene in the ABA-mediated upregulation of lignan biosynthesis in flax cells through the activation of LuPLR1 promoter. This ABA signaling pathway involving ERA1 probably acts through the ABRE box found in the promoter sequence of LuPLR1, a key gene for lignan synthesis in flax, as demonstrated by LuPLR1 gene promoter-reporter experiments in flax cells using wild

  9. Toxicidad oral a 60 días del aceite de sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. y linaza (Linum usitatissimum L. y determinación de la dosis letal 50 en roedores Oral toxicity at 60-days of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L. and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., and determination of lethal dose 50 in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilmi Gorriti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la toxicidad oral a 60 días y determinar la dosis letal 50 (DL 50 de los aceites crudos de sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. y linaza (Linum ussitatisimum en ratas Holtzman y en ratones cepa Balb C57, respectivamente. Materiales y métodos. Para la evaluación de la toxicidad oral a dosis repetida por 60 días se utilizó 24 ratas macho Holtzman divididos en tres grupos de ocho cada uno, los grupos fueron: solución salina fisiológica 4 mL/kg (SSF, aceite de sacha inchi 0,5 mL/kg (SI05 y aceite de linaza 0,5 mL/kg (L05, durante el experimento se controló semanalmente el peso corporal y signos de toxicidad en los grupos investigados, así como colesterol total, HDL, triglicéridos, glucosa, urea, TGP y fosfatasa alcalina a los 30 y 60 días de iniciado el experimento. Para la evaluación de la DL50 se usó ratones macho cepa Balb C57 en grupos de diez animales, se administró por vía oral dosis crecientes de aceites crudos hasta alcanzar 1 mL/kg (37 g/kg; Resultados. Los parámetros séricos en las ratas indican que no existe toxicidad alguna a los 60 días y que la administración de los aceites disminuyeron los niveles de colesterol, triglicéridos e incrementaron el HDL con respecto al grupo control. La DL50 muestra que los aceites crudos de sacha inchi y linaza presentan dosis por encima de los 37 g/kg de masa corporal. Conclusiones. Los aceites de sacha inchi y linaza son inocuos a 60 días y presentan una DL50 por encima de los 37 g/kg de animal.Objectives. To evaluate the oral toxicity at 60 days and to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD 50 of raw sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. and linseed (Linum ussitatisimum oils in Holtzman rats and mice of the strain Balb C57 respectively. Materials and methods. For the evaluation of the oral toxicity of repeated doses for 60 days, 24 male Holtzman rats were used, divided in three groups of 8 each, the groups were: physiologic saline solution 4 mL/kg (FSS, sacha inchi oil

  10. The competition of Linum with Camelia for minerals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, E.; Jacob, F.

    1977-01-01

    Both in monoculture and mixed culture, the uptake of 35 S sulphate into 20-day-old plants of Linum usitatissimum L. and Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz as well as 35 S transport from the root into the shoot of these plants were examined. In equal periods the Camelina plants took up essentially more sulphate of the nutrient solution than the Linum plants did. From among the two species, when standing in mixed culture, the Linum plants took up less sulphate ions than those in monoculture, whilst Camelina plants in mixed culture absorbed more sulphate ions than they did in monoculture. The differences of absorbed sulphate between monocultures and mixed cultures can be interpreted as the result of an inter-species competition for these ions. These findings support the opinion that the diminution of the dry weight of Linum under the influence of Camelina is caused decisively by competition and not by allelopathic factors. A participation of such factors, however, cannot be excluded. A diminished absorption of sulphate also took place in Linum plants having grown in a nutrient solution, in which Camelina plants already had been cultivated, but which mineral substances a new had been given to. The transportation of 35 S off the roots into shoot occured in either species under mixed culture conditions to a higher extent than in the respective monocultures. (author)

  11. Тератологические изменения элементов цветка льна (Linum usitatissimum L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Галкин, Ф.

    2008-01-01

    История селекционно-генетических исследований льна ( Linum usitatissimum L.) насчитывает более 100 лет, но их актуальность не снижается. Более 200 сортов этой культуры предлагается на международном рынке для возделывания на масло и волокно с объемом площадей соответственно около 1 млн га и 0,3 млн га ежегодно. Разнообразие агроклиматических условий в льносеющих странах и прогресс в технологиях переработки и применения льнопродукции определяют необходимость ускорения селекционного процесса, дл...

  12. Retrotransposon-Based Molecular Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity within the Genus Linum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Yurkevich, Olga Yu.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Uroshlev, Leonid A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Koroban, Nadezda V.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Guzenko, Elena V.; Lemesh, Valentina A.; Savilova, Anastasya M.; Rachinskaia, Olga A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Muravenko, Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

  13. The competition of Linum with Camelina for minerals. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, E.; Jacob, F.

    1978-01-01

    The competitive condition in the sulphate uptake of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz was influenced by the herbicides MCPA, fenuron, alachlor and chloropham. Those herbicides (10 -4 M in each case) inhibited the uptake of sulphate of the plants. 12 h after exposing the plants in a solution deficient in sulphate flax plants in mixed culture took up less sulphate under the influence of MCPA, fenuron and chlorpropham. Camelina plants, however, also in mixed culture, with the exception of the MCPA variant, took up more of those ions than in monoculture. Under these conditions no essential change of the competitive conditions was found. In mixed culture, however, the sulphate uptake of Camelina plants - in percent of the untreated variant - was lower than in monoculture. In contrast to the untreated variants the sulphate uptake of Camelina plants decreased under the influence of alachlor in mixture, whereas there was no decrease found with Linum plants, both compared with the monoculture controls. Under influence of chlorpropham (10 -4 M) with an increased level of sulphate no essential decrease of sulphate uptake of Linum plants in mixture was found. With Camelina plants, however, a decrease of uptake in mixed culture was examined, both compared again with uptake in monoculture. (author)

  14. Phylogenetic pinpointing of a paleopolyploidy event within the flax genus (Linum) using transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Saemundur; McDill, Joshua; Wong, Gane K S; Li, Juanjuan; Li, Xia; Deyholos, Michael K; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2014-04-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum) is known to have undergone a whole-genome duplication around 5-9 million years ago. The aim of this study was to investigate whether other whole-genome duplication events have occurred in the evolutionary history of cultivated flax. Knowledge of such whole-genome duplications will be important in understanding the biology and genomics of cultivated flax. Transcriptomes of 11 Linum species were sequenced using the Illumina platform. The short reads were assembled de novo and the DupPipe pipeline was used to look for signatures of polyploidy events from the age distribution of paralogues. In addition, phylogenies of all paralogues were assembled within an estimated age window of interest. These phylogenies were assessed for evidence of a paleopolyploidy event within the genus Linum. A previously unknown paleopolyploidy event that occurred 20-40 million years ago was discovered and shown to be specific to a clade within Linum containing cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum) and other mainly blue-flowered species. The finding was supported by two lines of evidence. First, a significant change of slope (peak) was shown in the age distribution of paralogues that was phylogenetically restricted to, and ubiquitous in, this clade. Second, a large number of paralogue phylogenies were retrieved that are consistent with a polyploidy event occurring within that clade. The results show the utility of multi-species transcriptomics for detecting whole-genome duplication events and demonstrate that that multiple rounds of polyploidy have been important in shaping the evolutionary history of flax. Understanding and characterizing these whole-genome duplication events will be important for future Linum research.

  15. Cd translocation into generative organs of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, M.; Woerner, A.; Schubert, S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    Linseed is able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in generative organs, the dietary critical value of 0.3 {mu}g Cd/g seed often being exceeded. Differences between genotypes of linseed in this respect, however, have been observed but the underlying mechanisms responsible for these differences are unknown. The aim of the present work was to identify these mechanisms by studying the Cd accumulation of the linseed genotypes Antares and McGregor which differ in their ability to accumulate Cd in the seeds. Cultivar Antares is a high and cv. McGregor is low Cd accumulator which was confirmed in a pot experiment. It was found that the differences between these genotypes were Cd-specific and were caused neither by single seed weight nor by Cd translocation into the shoot. The distribution pattern of Cd within mature capsules between the pericarp and the seeds differed from that of Ca which was used as a phloem-immobile reference ion. From these results we conclude that Cd was translocated from the pericarp into the seeds via the phloem. This conclusion was supported by direct Cd determination in collected phloem sap from linseed stems. As sources of seed-Cd we identified the pericarps of capsules and the leaves. The genotype differences concerning the Cd concentrations in the seeds may be explained in terms of differences in phloem translocation of Cd. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oellein vermag Cd in betraechtlichen Konzentrationen in den Samen zu akkumulieren. Aus diesem Grund wird der Grenzwert fuer Diaetlein von 0,3 {mu}g/g Samen im Anbau haeufig ueberschritten. Es gibt jedoch genotypische Unterschiede, deren zugrundeliegende Mechanismen nicht bekannt sind. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit bestand darin, diese Mechanismen an den Oelleinsorten Antares und McGregor zu untersuchen. Antares akkumuliert grosse, McGregor hingegen geringe Mengen Cd in den Samen. Diese Beobachtungen konnten in einem Gefaessversuch bestaetigt werden. Es wurde gezeigt, dass die genotypischen Unterschiede Cd-spezifisch waren und weder durch das Einzelsamengewicht noch durch die Cd-Konzentrationen im Spross beeinflusst wurden. Das Cd-Verteilungsmuster zwischen dem Fruchtgehaeuse und den Samen reifer Kapseln wich deutlich von dem des Ca ab, das als phloemimmobiles Referenzion gemessen wurde. Aufgrund dieser Beobachtungen kamen wir zu dem Schluss, dass Cd aus dem Fruchtgehaeuse in die Samen ueber das Phloem verlagert wurde. Dies wurde durch den direkten Cd-Nachweis in gesammeltem Phloemsaft aus Oelleinstengeln unterstuetzt. Als Quellen fuer das Samen-Cd identifizierten wir Fruchtgehaeuse und Blaetter. Die genotypischen Unterschiede bezueglich der Cd-Konzentrationen in den Samen liessen sich durch Unterschiede in der Cd-Verlagerung ueber das Phloem erklaeren. (orig.)

  16. Natural phenolics greatly increase flax (Linum usitatissimum) oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiewicz-Derkacz, Karolina; Kulma, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Prescha, Anna; Żuk, Magdalena; Grajzer, Magdalena; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Szopa, Jan

    2015-06-30

    Flaxseed oil is characterized by high content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promoted as a human dietary supplement protecting against atherosclerosis. The disadvantage of the high PUFA content in flax oil is high susceptibility to oxidation, which can result in carcinogenic compound formation. Linola flax cultivar is characterized by high linoleic acid content in comparison to traditional flax cultivars rich in linolenic acid. The changes in fatty acid proportions increase oxidative stability of Linola oil and broaden its use as an edible oil for cooking. However one of investigated transgenic lines has high ALA content making it suitable as omega-3 source. Protection of PUFA oxidation is a critical factor in oil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of phenylpropanoid contents on the oil properties important during the whole technological process from seed storage to grinding and oil pressing, which may influence health benefits as well as shelf-life, and to establish guidelines for the selection of new cultivars. The composition of oils was determined by chromatographic (GS-FID and LC-PDA-MS) methods. Antioxidant properties of secondary metabolites were analyzed by DPPH method. The stability of oils was investigated: a) during regular storage by measuring acid value peroxide value p-anisidine value malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and trienes; b) by using accelerated rancidity tests by TBARS reaction; c) by thermoanalytical - differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In one approach, in order to increase oil stability, exogenous substances added are mainly lipid soluble antioxidants from the isoprenoid pathway, such as tocopherol and carotene. The other approach is based on transgenic plant generation that accumulates water soluble compounds. Increased accumulation of phenolic compounds in flax seeds was achieved by three different strategies that modify genes coding for enzymes from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The three types of transgenic flax had different phenylpropanoid profiles detected in oil, highly increasing its stability. We found that hydrophilic phenylpropanoids more than lipophilic isoprenoid compounds determine oil stability however they can work synergistically. Among phenolics the caffeic acid was most effective in increasing oil stability.

  17. Doubled haploid production in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Bohus; Zácková, Zuzana; Samaj, Jozef; Pretová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There is a requirement of haploid and double haploid material and homozygous lines for cell culture studies and breeding in flax. Anther culture is currently the most successful method producing doubled haploid lines in flax. Recently, ovary culture was also described as a good source of doubled haploids. In this review we focus on tissue and plants regeneration using anther culture, and cultivation of ovaries containing unfertilized ovules. The effect of genotype, physiological status of donor plants, donor material pre-treatment and cultivation conditions for flax anthers and ovaries is discussed here. The process of plant regeneration from anther and ovary derived calli is also in the focus of this review. Attention is paid to the ploidy level of regenerated tissue and to the use of molecular markers for determining of gametic origin of flax plants derived from anther and ovary cultures. Finally, some future prospects on the use of doubled haploids in flax biotechnology are outlined here.

  18. Groei - analytisch onderzoek aan olievlas (Linum usitatissimum L., cv. Antaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van H.D.J.; Smid, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    In het kader van het project Gewaskarakterisering is in 1988 een proef met olievlas gedaan met als doel een aantal gewaskarakteristieken te kwantificeren die gebruikt kunnen worden in een simulatiemodel. Dit, omdat voor een aantal belangrijke akkerbouwgewassen dergelijke gewaskarakteristieken nog

  19. Safety assessment of Linum usitatissimum (Linn.) Ingestion in New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The therapeutic safety of herbal medicine is a major concern for consumers and users. After studying the effects of linseed on hair growth in rabbits, the turn is to evaluate its safety by the observation of some clinical, biological and anatomo-pathological aspects. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted ...

  20. Results of breeding for modified C18-fatty acid composition in Linum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Friedt, W.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The oil of cultivated linseed (Linum usitatissimum) is characterised by a high level (55-65%) of linolenic acid (C18:3) with comparatively little genetic variability. However, among wild Linum species there are large differences in fatty acid composition. Therefore, interspecific hybridisation between cultivated linseed and wild species may provide material segregating for oil quality. Alternatively, induced mutagenesis may be used for broadening genetic variation. Seeds of 32 Linum species were obtained from botanical gardens and institutes. Plant habitus, flower colour, oil content, fatty acid pattern, 1000-seed weight and seed colour were determined. Crosses between Linum usitatissimum cultivars and wild species were attempted. Where capsule development was not obtained, pollen tube growth was studied by fluorescence microscopy. It was tried to circumvent incompatibility barriers by applying the embryo rescue technique. For that purpose, 'heart-shaped' immature embryos of Linum usitatissimum plants were cultured on MONNIER-medium. In a mutation breeding programme, M 5 lines with reduced C18:3-content (35-40%) derived from the cultivars 'Bionda' and 'Raulinus' by EMS-mutagenesis were intercrossed and the progeny analysed. Variation in fatty acid composition amongst wild species was 3.5-68.2% for linolenic and 9.2-83.4% for linoleic acid. Variation of oil content was 22.5-46.0% and of 1000-seed weight 0.1-4.4g. Interspecific crosses of cultivated linseed with wild species of low linolenic and high linoleic acid content (especially L. flavum, L. catharticum, and L. campanulatum), were not successful because of pre-fertilisation barriers. Crosses between M 5 -lines selected for reduced linolenic acid content (35-40%) were analysed for segregation in the F 2 . Here, new recombinant types with only 11-13% linolenic, but nearly 50% oleic and 25-30% linoleic acid content could be identified. Previously, GREEN selected a mutant with very low C18:3-content (2

  1. Evolution of blue-flowered species of genus Linum based on high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kirov, Ilya V; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Krasnov, George S; Lakunina, Valentina A; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Zoshchuk, Svyatoslav A; Amosova, Аlexandra V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Muravenko, Olga V

    2017-12-28

    The species relationships within the genus Linum have already been studied several times by means of different molecular and phylogenetic approaches. Nevertheless, a number of ambiguities in phylogeny of Linum still remain unresolved. In particular, the species relationships within the sections Stellerolinum and Dasylinum need further clarification. Also, the question of independence of the species of the section Adenolinum still remains unanswered. Moreover, the relationships of L. narbonense and other species of the section Linum require further clarification. Additionally, the origin of tetraploid species of the section Linum (2n = 30) including the cultivated species L. usitatissimum has not been explored. The present study examines the phylogeny of blue-flowered species of Linum by comparisons of 5S rRNA gene sequences as well as ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of 35S rRNA genes. High-throughput sequencing has been used for analysis of multicopy rRNA gene families. In addition to the molecular phylogenetic analysis, the number and chromosomal localization of 5S and 35S rDNA sites has been determined by FISH. Our findings confirm that L. stelleroides forms a basal branch from the clade of blue-flowered flaxes which is independent of the branch formed by species of the sect. Dasylinum. The current molecular phylogenetic approaches, the cytogenetic analysis as well as different genomic DNA fingerprinting methods applied previously did not discriminate certain species within the sect. Adenolinum. The allotetraploid cultivated species L. usitatissimum and its wild ancestor L. angustifolium (2n = 30) could originate either as the result of hybridization of two diploid species (2n = 16) related to the modern L. gandiflorum and L. decumbens, or hybridization of a diploid species (2n = 16) and a diploid ancestor of modern L. narbonense (2n = 14). High-throughput sequencing of multicopy rRNA gene families allowed us to make several adjustments to the

  2. Delimitacion del periodo critico de competencia de malezas en el cultivo de lino (Linum usitatissimum Determination of the critical period of weed competition in linseed (Linum usitatissimum

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    R.A. Barreyro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La planta de lino oleaginoso es especialmente sensible a la competencia con malezas, que limita el rendimiento potencial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue delimitar el período crítico de competencia del lino con una comunidad natural de malezas. Se realizó una experiencia de campo durante 1993, 1994 y 1995 en La Plata, Argentina. Los tratamientos consistieron en mantener el lino con y sin presencia de malezas en distintas etapas de su desarrollo. La comunidad de malezas fue evaluada en su composición y producción de materia seca y el cultivo en su rendimiento en semillas y componentes. El período crítico se delimitó entre los 30 y 80 días después de la siembra. En este período, la disminución de rendimiento de lino respecto del testigo sin malezas fue superior al 10%. La disminución de rendimiento del cultivo totalmente enmalezado fue del 79% respecto del desmalezado todo el ciclo. Fue afectado el número de semillas por planta ya que su definición está incluida en el período delimitado. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que las alternativas de control deben considerar el período crítico y también propiciar su utilización en modelos de predicción.Linseed plant is especially sensitive to weed competition, which limits its potential yield. The aim of this work was to determine the critical period of linseed competition with a natural weed community. A field experiment was carried out in 1993, 1994 and 1995 in La Plata, Argentina. Treatments consisted of keeping linseed with and without weeds at different stages of development. Weed composition and dry biomass, and linseed yield and its components were evaluated. The critical period of competition was determined, starting at 30 days and ending 80 days after crop seeding. Linseed yield decrease was greater than 10% during the critical period of competition,when compared to the check plot kept without competition. The maximum yield decrease of the check plot kept totally weeded crop from seeding to harvest was 79%. The number of seeds per linseed plant was affected, since its definition was included in the delimited critical period. The results obtained suggest that alternative weed management must consider long critical periods and should be used in predictive models.

  3. The small mammals of an upper piedmontese Po plain site (Leinì, Turin prov. / La micromammalofauna di una stazione planiziaria piemontese

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    Giuseppe Osella

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la

  4. Rheology, fatty acid profile and storage characteristics of cookies as influenced by flax seed (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv, Jyotsna; Indrani, Dasappa; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Rao, G Venkateswara

    2012-10-01

    Flaxseed is a versatile functional ingredient owing to its unique nutrient profile. Studies on the effect of substitution of roasted and ground flaxseed (RGF) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% level on the wheat flour dough properties showed that amylograph peak viscosity, farinograph dough stability, extensograph resistance to extension and extensibility values decreased with the increase in the substitution of RGF from 0-20%. The cookie baking test showed a marginal decrease in spread ratio but beyond substitution of 15% RGF the texture and flavour of the cookies was adversely affected. The data on storage characteristics of control and cookies with 15% RGF showed no significant change with respect to acidity of extracted fat and peroxide values due to storage of cookies upto 90 days in metallised polyester pouches at ambient conditions. The gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid profile indicated that the control cookies contained negligible linolenic acid and the flaxseed cookies contained 4.75 to 5.31% of linolenic acid which showed a marginal decrease over storage. Hence flaxseed could be used as a source of omega-3-fatty acid.

  5. Effects of germination on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L oil

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    Herchi, W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the changes in proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics of flaxseed during germination. Flaxseed was germinated for 4 days and observations were taken every day throughout the study. Changes in the seed reserve and antioxidant activity were determined during germination. The oil content of the cultivar decreased from 35.10 to 27.22%. During the germination period, the total protein content increased to 23.84%. Germinated flaxseed showed significantly higher unsaturated as compared to saturated fatty acid ratios and higher calculated oxidizability (Cox values. The Saponification value ranged from 182 to 192 mg KOH·g–1 oil during germination. The highest peroxide value (2.4 mequiv O2·kg−1 oil was observed at the end of germination. The unsaponifiable contents ranged from 1.62 to 1.18%. The oxidation value of the oil samples were statistically in the same range (4.1–6.4%. After 4 days of germination, oil stability was reduced to 1.0 h. The increase in ascorbic acid content was steady. Total phenolic acid contents differed significantly. The greatest concentration was detected in non germinated flaxseed oil. Germinated Flaxssed oil showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals.El presente estudio se llevó a cabo para determinar los cambios en la composición y características físico-químicas de aceites de linaza durante la germinación. La linaza se germinó durante 4 días y el estudio se realizó todos los días durante este proceso. Se determinaron los cambios en la reserva de las semilla y la actividad antioxidante. El contenido de aceite de los cultivos disminuyó de 35,10 a 27,22%. Durante este periodo, el contenido de proteína total aumentó a 23,84%. La linaza germinada mostró valores significativamente más altos de la relación de ácidos grasos insaturados frente a saturados y mayor facilidad de oxidación (Cox. El índice de saponificación varió desde 182 hasta 192 mg KOH·g−1 de aceite durante la germinación. El índice de peróxido más alto (2,4 mequiv O2·kg−1 de aceite se observó al final de la germinación. El contenido de materia insaponificable varió desde 1,62 hasta 1,18%. La oxidación de las muestras de aceite fueron estadísticamente del mismo rango (4.1 a 6.4%. Después de 4 días de germinación, la estabilidad del aceite se redujo a 1,0 h. El aumento en contenido de ácido ascórbico fue estable. Los contenidos totales de ácidos fenólicos diferían significativamente. La mayor concentración se detectó en el aceite de linaza no germinado. El aceite de linaza germinado mostró una importante actividad de eliminación de radicales libres hacia 1-1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH.

  6. Pectinmethylesterases (PME) and pectinmethylesterase inhibitors (PMEI) enriched during phloem fiber development in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA) residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME) are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax. For this purpose, we measured transcript abundance of candidate genes at nine different stages of stem and fiber development and found sets of genes enriched during fiber elongation and maturation as well as during xylem development. We expressed one of the flax PMEIs in E. coli and demonstrated that it was able to inhibit most of the native PME activity in the upper portion of the flax stem. These results identify key genetic components of the intrusive growth process and define targets for fiber engineering and crop improvement.

  7. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research.

  8. Genetic Variability of 27 Traits in a Core Collection of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Frank M; Jia, Gaofeng; Xiao, Jin; Duguid, Scott D; Rashid, Khalid Y; Booker, Helen M; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of genetic variability of plant core germplasm is needed for efficient germplasm utilization in breeding improvement. A total of 391 accessions of a flax core collection, which preserves the variation present in the world collection of 3,378 accessions maintained by Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) and represents a broad range of geographical origins, different improvement statuses and two morphotypes, was evaluated in field trials in up to 8 year-location environments for 10 agronomic, eight seed quality, six fiber and three disease resistance traits. The large phenotypic variation in this subset was explained by morphotypes (22%), geographical origins (11%), and other variance components (67%). Both divergence and similarity between two basic morphotypes, namely oil or linseed and fiber types, were observed, whereby linseed accessions had greater thousand seed weight, seeds m -2 , oil content, branching capability and resistance to powdery mildew while fiber accessions had greater straw weight, plant height, protein content and resistance to pasmo and fusarium wilt diseases, but they had similar performance in many traits and some of them shared common characteristics of fiber and linseed types. Weak geographical patterns within either fiber or linseed accessions were confirmed, but specific trait performance was identified in East Asia for fiber type, and South Asia and North America for linseed type. Relatively high broad-sense heritability was obtained for seed quality traits, followed by agronomic traits and resistance to powdery mildew and fusarium wilt. Diverse phenotypic and genetic variability in the flax core collection constitutes a useful resource for breeding.

  9. Expression analysis of cellulose synthase and main cytoskeletal protein genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinousky, Dmitry; Padvitski, Tsimafei; Bayer, Galina; Pirko, Yaroslav; Pydiura, Nikolay; Anisimova, Natallia; Nikitinskaya, Tatyana; Khotyleva, Liubov; Yemets, Alla; Kilchevsky, Aleksandr; Blume, Yaroslav

    2017-08-09

    Fiber flax is an important source of natural fiber and a comprehensive model for the plant fiber biogenesis studies. Cellulose-synthase (CesA) and cytoskeletal genes are known to be important for the cell wall biogenesis in general and for the biogenesis of flax fibers in particular. Currently, knowledge about activity of these genes during the plant growth is limited. In this study, we have investigated flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of CesA and cytoskeletal genes at two stages of the flax development (seedlings and stems at the rapid growth stage) in several flax subspecies (elongatum, mediterraneum, crepitans). RT-qPCR has been used to quantify the expression of LusСesA1, LusСesA4, LusСesA7, LusСesA6, Actin, and α-Tubulin genes in plant samples. We report that CesA genes responsible for the secondary cell wall synthesis (LusCesA4, LusCesA7) have different expression pattern compared with CesA genes responsible for the primary cell wall synthesis (LusCesA1, LusCesA6): an average expression of LusCesA4 and LusCesA7 genes is relatively high in seedlings and further increases in stems at the rapid growth stage, whereas an average expression of LusCesA1 and LusCesA6 genes decreases. Interestingly, LusCesA1 is the only studied gene with different expression dynamics between the flax subspecies: its expression decreases by 5.2-10.7 folds in elongatum and mediterraneum but does not change in crepitans subspecies when the rapid growth stage and seedlings are compared. The expression of cytoskeleton genes (coding actin and α-tubulin) is relatively stable and significantly higher than the expression of cellulose-synthase genes in all the studied samples. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. Penetration of nanoparticles in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) calli and regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokina, Inese; Gerbreders, Vjačeslavs; Sledevskis, Eriks; Bulanovs, Andrejs

    2013-05-20

    We demonstrate a method for direct delivery of metal nanoparticles to flax calli and regenerant cells by vacuum deposition of metal nanolayers on powdered hormone followed by dispersal of the combined hormone-metal in medium. The penetration and location of the gold (AuNPs) and silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles in calli and in plant regenerants were confirmed by optical absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We detected a significant effect of the AuNPs and AgNPs on the regeneration type of flax calli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Outlier Loci and Selection Signatures of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Genomic microsatellites (gSSRs) and expressed sequence tag-derived SSRs (EST-SSRs) have gained wide application for elucidating genetic diversity and population structure in plants. Both marker systems are assumed to be selectively neutral when making demographic inferences, but this assumption is rarely tested. In this study, three neutrality tests were assessed for identifying outlier loci among 150 SSRs (85 gSSRs and 65 EST-SSRs) that likely influence estimates of population structure in three differentiated flax sub-populations ( F ST  = 0.19). Moreover, the utility of gSSRs, EST-SSRs, and the combined sets of SSRs was also evaluated in assessing genetic diversity and population structure in flax. Six outlier loci were identified by at least two neutrality tests showing footprints of balancing selection. After removing the outlier loci, the STRUCTURE analysis and the dendrogram topology of EST-SSRs improved. Conversely, gSSRs and combined SSRs results did not change significantly, possibly as a consequence of the higher number of neutral loci assessed. Taken together, the genetic structure analyses established the superiority of gSSRs to determine the genetic relationships among flax accessions, although the combined SSRs produced the best results. Genetic diversity parameters did not differ statistically ( P  > 0.05) between gSSRs and EST-SSRs, an observation partially explained by the similar number of repeat motifs. Our study provides new insights into the ability of gSSRs and EST-SSRs to measure genetic diversity and structure in flax and confirms the importance of testing for the occurrence of outlier loci to properly assess natural and breeding populations, particularly in studies considering only few loci.

  12. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SSR and morphological trait based population structure analysis of 130 diverse flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shashi Bhushan; Sharma, Hariom Kumar; Kumar, Arroju Anil; Maruthi, Rangappa Thimmaiah; Mitra, Jiban; Chowdhury, Isholeena; Singh, Binay Kumar; Karmakar, Pran Gobinda

    2017-02-01

    A total of 130 flax accessions of diverse morphotypes and worldwide origin were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using 11 morphological traits and microsatellite markers (15 gSSRs and 7 EST-SSRs). Analysis performed after classifying these accessions on the basis of plant height, branching pattern, seed size, Indian/foreign origin into six categories called sub-populations viz. fibre type exotic, fibre type indigenous, intermediate type exotic, intermediate type indigenous, linseed type exotic and linseed type indigenous. The study assessed different diversity indices, AMOVA, population structure and included a principal coordinate analysis based on different marker systems. The highest diversity was exhibited by gSSR markers (SI=0.46; He=0.31; P=85.11). AMOVA based on all markers explained significant difference among fibre type, intermediate type and linseed type populations of flax. In terms of variation explained by different markers, EST-SSR markers (12%) better differentiated flax populations compared to morphological (9%) and gSSR (6%) markers at P=0.01. The maximum Nei's unbiased genetic distance (D=0.11) was observed between fibre type and linseed type exotic sub-populations based on EST-SSR markers. The combined structure analysis by using all markers grouped Indian fibre type accessions (63.4%) in a separate cluster along with the Indian intermediate type (48.7%), whereas Indian accessions (82.16%) of linseed type constituted an independent cluster. These findings were supported by the results of the principal coordinate analysis. Morphological markers employed in the study found complementary with microsatellite based markers in deciphering genetic diversity and population structure of the flax germplasm. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Genotypic and Environmental Differences on Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M; Moustafa, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Genotype X environment (GE) interactions for some flax characters nd their effects on yield of three divergent mutant lines two local cultivars were studied over five environmental conditions (three years and different soils) at Inshas, Egypt. the obtained results reveled that the variance due to environmental conditions were greater than the variance due to genotypes, or GE interaction for all studied traits. the variances due to GE interactions were greater than the variances for genotypes in seed yield and its related traits and vice versa in straw yield and its related traits. the environmental conditions exhibited greater effect on the local cultivars than on mutant lines. the mutant line 25 gave the highest seeds and straw yield / plant over all environments. adaptability and performance stability of a line over years and sites are interested for flax producer for growing a cultivar with high yield and performance stability at his location

  15. [Cellulose synthase genes that control the fiber formation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinovskiĭ, D V; Anisimova, N V; Raĭskiĭ, A P; Leont'ev, V N; Titok, V V; Hotyleva, L V

    2014-01-01

    Four cellulose synthase genes were identified by analysis of their class-specific regions (CSRII) in plants of fiber flax during the "rapid growth" stage. These genes were designated as LusCesA1, LusCesA4, LusCesA7 and LusCesA9. LusCesA4, LusCesA7, and LusCesA9 genes were expressed in the stem; LusCesA1 and LusCesA4 genes were expressed in the apex part of plants, and the LusCesA4 gene was expressed in the leaves of fiber flax. The expression of the LusCesA7 and LusCesA9 genes was specific to the stems of fiber flax. These genes may influence the quality of the flax fiber.

  16. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax.

  17. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRACTION OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Maliar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax seed is an important source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human physiology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of major parameters of the lipid extraction from flax seed, in relation to the recovery of oil as well as the oil quality properties. The independent variables of extraction were proposed as: organic solvents, temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio. The following quantitative and qualitative parameters were chosen as dependent variables: yield of the lipid fraction, acid value of oil and the absorbance at 490 nm. After calculating the optimal values of the extraction, the validation analysis was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variables were in agreement with the optimal extraction parameters.doi:10.5219/168

  18. FLAX OIL FROM TRANSGENIC LINUM USITATISSIMUM SELECTIVELY INHIBITS IN VITRO PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebarowski, Tomasz; Gebczak, Katarzyna; Wiatrak, Benita; Kulma, Anna; Pelc, Katarzyna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan; Gasiorowski, Kazimierz

    2017-03-01

    Emulsions made of oils from transgenic flaxseeds significantly decreased in vitro proliferation of six tested human cancer cell lines in 48-h cultures, as assessed with the standard sulforhodamine assay. However, the emulsions also increased proliferation rate of normal human dermal fibroblasts and, to a lower extend, of keratinocytes. Both inhibition of in vitro proliferation of human cancer cell lines and stimulation of proliferation of normal dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were especially strong with the emulsion type B and with emulsion type M. Oils from seeds of transgenic flax type B and M should be considered as valuable adjunct to standard cytostatic therapy of human cancers and also could be applied to improve the treatment of skin lesions in wound healing.

  19. Association mapping of seed quality traits using the Canadian flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Duguid, Scott; Booker, Helen; Rowland, Gordon; Diederichsen, Axel; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-04-01

    The identification of stable QTL for seed quality traits by association mapping of a diverse panel of linseed accessions establishes the foundation for assisted breeding and future fine mapping in linseed. Linseed oil is valued for its food and non-food applications. Modifying its oil content and fatty acid (FA) profiles to meet market needs in a timely manner requires clear understanding of their quantitative trait loci (QTL) architectures, which have received little attention to date. Association mapping is an efficient approach to identify QTL in germplasm collections. In this study, we explored the quantitative nature of seed quality traits including oil content (OIL), palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid (LIO) linolenic acid (LIN) and iodine value in a flax core collection of 390 accessions assayed with 460 microsatellite markers. The core collection was grown in a modified augmented design at two locations over 3 years and phenotypic data for all seven traits were obtained from all six environments. Significant phenotypic diversity and moderate to high heritability for each trait (0.73-0.99) were observed. Most of the candidate QTL were stable as revealed by multivariate analyses. Nine candidate QTL were identified, varying from one for OIL to three for LIO and LIN. Candidate QTL for LIO and LIN co-localized with QTL previously identified in bi-parental populations and some mapped nearby genes known to be involved in the FA biosynthesis pathway. Fifty-eight percent of the QTL alleles were absent (private) in the Canadian cultivars suggesting that the core collection possesses QTL alleles potentially useful to improve seed quality traits. The candidate QTL identified herein will establish the foundation for future marker-assisted breeding in linseed.

  20. Effects of genetic modifications to flax (Linum usitatissimum) on arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Turnau, Katarzyna; Góralska, Katarzyna; Anielska, Teresa; Szopa, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their positive effect on flax growth, the impact of genetic manipulation in this crop on arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant performance was assessed for the first time. Five types of transgenic flax that were generated to improve fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, through increased levels of either phenylpropanoids (W92.40), glycosyltransferase (GT4, GT5), or PR2 beta-1,3-glucanase (B14) or produce polyhydroxybutyrate (M50), were used. Introduced genetic modifications did not change the degree of mycorrhizal colonization as compared to parent cultivars Linola and Nike. Arbuscules were well developed in each tested transgenic type (except M50). In two lines (W92.40 and B14), a higher abundance of arbuscules was observed when compared to control, untransformed flax plants. However, in some cases (W92.40, GT4, GT5, and B14 Md), the mycorrhizal dependency for biomass production of transgenic plants was slightly lower when compared to the original cultivars. No significant influence of mycorrhiza on the photosynthetic activity of transformed lines was found, but in most cases P concentration in mycorrhizal plants remained higher than in nonmycorrhizal ones. The transformed flax lines meet the demands for better quality of fiber and higher resistance to pathogens, without significantly influencing the interaction with AMF.

  1. Biplot Approach for Identification of Heterotic Crosses in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.

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    Anu Rastogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, among nonedible oilseed crops, linseed is a commercial crop having tremendous economic and industrial importance. The seed production is low due to limited resources, so the development of high-yielding lines with desirable characters is urgently needed. In the present study seven parents' half diallel data was subjected to biplot analysis to identify the heterotic crosses, genetically similar parents, and to study their interrelationship. Parent Sln-Ys with A-79 and A-03 with A-79 for capsules per plant and seed yield, parent Mukta with Sln-Ys and Mukta with BAU-45 for seeds per capsule, and parents Mukta, A-103, A-79 and A-94 for test weight had lowest correlation. Parent B [Mukta] and F [A-79] were good general combiner for all the traits. The crosses F [A-79]  ×  A [Sln-Ys] and D [A-03]  ×  F [A-79] for capsules per plant, test weight and seed yield per plant, cross D [A-03]  ×  A [Sln-Ys] for capsules per plant and test weight and cross D [A-03]  ×  F [A-79] for test weight and seed yield per plant were heterotic. None of the crosses were heterotic for seeds per capsule.

  2. Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed coats for gene expression regulation studies

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    Renouard Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds. Findings In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments. Conclusions Routinely, around 250 μg of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of drought induced gene expression changes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prasanta K; Cao, Yongguo; Jailani, Abdul K; Gupta, Payal; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Rai, Rhitu; Sharma, Rinku; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Abdin, Malik Z; Yadava, Devendra K; Singh, Nagendra K; Singh, Jas; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Deyholos, Mike; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Datla, Raju

    2014-01-01

    A robust phenotypic plasticity to ward off adverse environmental conditions determines performance and productivity in crop plants. Flax (linseed), is an important cash crop produced for natural textile fiber (linen) or oilseed with many health promoting products. This crop is prone to drought stress and yield losses in many parts of the world. Despite recent advances in drought research in a number of important crops, related progress in flax is very limited. Since, response of this plant to drought stress has not been addressed at the molecular level; we conducted microarray analysis to capture transcriptome associated with induced drought in flax. This study identified 183 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with diverse cellular, biophysical and metabolic programs in flax. The analysis also revealed especially the altered regulation of cellular and metabolic pathways governing photosynthesis. Additionally, comparative transcriptome analysis identified a plethora of genes that displayed differential regulation both spatially and temporally. These results revealed co-regulated expression of 26 genes in both shoot and root tissues with implications for drought stress response. Furthermore, the data also showed that more genes are upregulated in roots compared to shoots, suggesting that roots may play important and additional roles in response to drought in flax. With prolonged drought treatment, the number of DEGs increased in both tissue types. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR, thus supporting the suggested functional association of these intrinsic genes in maintaining growth and homeostasis in response to imminent drought stress in flax. Together the present study has developed foundational and new transcriptome data sets for drought stress in flax.

  4. Accuracy of genomic selection in biparental populations of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

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    Frank M. You

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax is an important economic crop for seed oil and stem fiber. Phenotyping of traits such as seed yield, seed quality, stem fiber yield, and quality characteristics is expensive and time consuming. Genomic selection (GS refers to a breeding approach aimed at selecting preferred individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values predicted by a statistical model based on the relationship between phenotypes and genome-wide genetic markers. We evaluated the prediction accuracy of GS (rMP and the efficiency of GS relative to phenotypic selection (RE for three GS models: ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP, Bayesian LASSO (BL, and Bayesian ridge regression (BRR, for seed yield, oil content, iodine value, linoleic, and linolenic acid content with a full and a common set of genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers in each of three biparental populations. The three GS models generated similar rMP and RE, while BRR displayed a higher coefficient of determination (R2 of the fitted models than did RR-BLUP or BL. The mean rMP and RE varied for traits with different heritabilities and was affected by the genetic variation of the traits in the populations. GS for seed yield generated a mean RE of 1.52 across populations and marker sets, a value significantly superior to that for direct phenotypic selection. Our empirical results provide the first validation of GS in flax and demonstrate that GS could increase genetic gain per unit time for linseed breeding. Further studies for selection of training populations and markers are warranted.

  5. Pectinmethylesterases (PME and pectinmethylesterase inhibitors (PMEI enriched during phloem fiber development in flax (Linum usitatissimum.

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    David Pinzon-Latorre

    Full Text Available Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax. For this purpose, we measured transcript abundance of candidate genes at nine different stages of stem and fiber development and found sets of genes enriched during fiber elongation and maturation as well as during xylem development. We expressed one of the flax PMEIs in E. coli and demonstrated that it was able to inhibit most of the native PME activity in the upper portion of the flax stem. These results identify key genetic components of the intrusive growth process and define targets for fiber engineering and crop improvement.

  6. Effect of Biofertilizers Application on the Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Lines

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    B. Motalebizadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of bio-fertilizers on the yield and yield components of flax lines, a study was conducted during 2010 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Saatlo in Urmia. A split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with four replications was performed in this study. Main factor (a consisted of fertilizer application form (a1 = control without nitrogen fertilizer, a2 = nitrogen fertilizer, a3 = nitroxin + N, a4 = phosphate barvar 2 + N, and a5 = nitroxin + phosphate barvar 2 + N and sub factor (b consisted of five lines of oily flax (b1 = 97-26, b2 = 97-14, b3 = 97-3, b4 = 97-21, b5 = 97-19. Quantitative and qualitative traits such as number of sub stems, leaf weight, capsule weight per main stem and sub stems, seed yield, oil and protein content were calculated or estimated. Results showed that the main factor (fertilizer form had significant effect (at α=0.01 probability level on all the parameters which have been studied in this experiment. Sub factor (linseed lines and interaction between the two factors had statistically significant effects on all traits. The highest seed yield (4781 kg h-1 and the highest seed oil content (36.5% were obtained from applying nitroxin + phosphateye barvare 2 + N on 97-14 and 97-3 lines. Results showed that using of Nitroxin and Phosphateye barvare 2 biofertilizers could be effective in increasing grain yield of linseed. Therefore, application of Nitroxin and Phosphateye barvare 2 biofertilizers could be used to improve soil physio-chemical properties and to increase quantitative and qualitative yield parameters of linseed.

  7. Increasing meat product functionality by the addition of milled flaxseed Linum usitatissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kulawik, Piotr; Tkaczewska, Joanna; Migdał, Władysław; Pustkowiak, Henryk

    2017-07-01

    Functional meat products are still rare on the market because it is difficult to incorporate new ingredients and obtain both a healthy and acceptable product. Flaxseed is known for its beneficial properties and, in the present study, it was used as an ingredient in the production of homogenised and liver sausages (0%, 5% and 10% flaxseed addition). Homogenised and liver sausages with the addition of 5% flaxseed were given the highest scores by the consumers, although the colour changed with the addition of flaxseed. The spreadability and hardness of the liver sausages increased with the addition of flaxseed, whereas the texture of homogenised sausages did not change. Addition of flaxseed improved the fatty acids profile from a health point of view for both products, as a result of increasing n-3 fatty acids and overall polyunsaturated fatty acids content. Values for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were higher in products with flaxseed and were observed to increase during storage. The results of the present study indicate that it is possible to obtain products that are acceptable by consumers and, at the same time, are more healthy. A high level of α-linolenic acid in the sausages at a level of addition of 5% allows the product to be labelled with information regarding their high omega-3 fatty acid content. However, those products are more susceptible to oxidation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Chimerism in M1 plants of Vicia faba, Capsicum annuum and Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, T.; Brunner, H.; Daskalov, S.; Nakai, H.

    1983-01-01

    One important task of our group at IAEA is to develop procedures aiming to improve sampling of M 2 seeds to facilitate the recovery of a maximum number of induced mutations in crop plants. Results from studies on three species are reported in this paper. Seeds have been mutagen treated and the chimeric M 1 plants were progeny tested in M 2 . The position of the M 2 seeds on the M 1 plants has been recorded

  9. Composition and distribution of cell wall phenolic compounds in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Salnikov, V.V.; Pogodina, N.M.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Yablokova, E.V.; Ulanov, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Lozovaya, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Cell wall phenolic compounds were analysed in xylem and bast fibre-rich peels of flax stems by biochemical, histochemical and ultrastructural approaches. Localization of cell wall phenolics by the enzyme-gold method using laccase revealed several gold particle distribution patterns. One of the major

  10. Production properties of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated in Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia

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    P. Vuckov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this research was to determine the production properties of 5 flax genotypes cultivated in agro-ecological conditions in the Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia.The research was conducted in a period of two years (2014 and 2015, on the research fields in Strumica at Uni Service - Agro, Faculty of Agriculture, University Goce Delchev, Stip.The research was conducted on 5 genotypes of flax, 4 of which are domestic intermediate genotypes (transitive flax (Velusina, Duferin, Belan, Belinka and one French introduced fiber flax variety (Viking. The experiment consisted of five variants in three iterations, divided by the method of random block system for each genotype.The number of fruit per plant in both years of testing is statistically different among different genotypes. In the first year of the examination (2014, the largest number of fruit per plant had genotype Velusina (156 and the lowest (70 3 genotype Belan. In the second year of the examination (2015, the largest number of fruit per plant had the genotype Velusina (102.3 and the lowest (54 7, genotype Belinka.There is no statistically significant difference in number of seeds in the fruit among the tested genotypes. In the first year of the examination (2014, the largest number of seeds in fruit had genotype Velusina (4 63 and the lowest (2 26 - genotype Viking. In the second year of the examination (2015, the largest number of seeds in fruit had genotype Belan (9.96 and the lowest (7.06 - genotype Duferin. In the first year of the examination (2014, the largest number of seed yield per plant in kg/ha had the genotype Viking (500 kg/ha and the lowest - genotype Belinka (210 kg/ha. In the second year of the examination (2015, the largest number of seed yield per plant in kg/ha had genotype Velusina (1100 kg/ha and the lowest - genotype Belinka (780 kg/ha. In both years of research (2014 and 2015 there were statistically significant differences on the level of probability of 0.05 and 0.01 among the examined genotypes. Based on the survey results the most promising genotypes in terms of stability, yielding and quality are proposed to producers and industry, both at home and abroad.

  11. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini = Aspecten van de resistentie in vezel- en olievlas (Linum usitatissimum) tegen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity

  12. Evaluation of production and gamma radiation effects in pasta enriched with brown flaxseed bagasse (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcia Lage de; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio; Polesi, Luiz Fernando; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida Santos; Jesus, Jose Paulo de

    2013-01-01

    Flat pasta was produced using eggs, wheat flour added with brown flaxseed bagasse in 0,20% and 40% proportions. The pasta obtained in 20% and 40% proportions were irradiated with 20kGy and submitted to evaluation through determinations of moisture, acidity, ph., chemical composition and baking test. Utilizing the same proportions it was also produced pasta with the flaxseed bagasse flour irradiated with 10kGy and submitted to the same evaluations. Found values for different kinds of pasta, for moisture, acidity and ph. can be considered normal within the range of acceptation. (author)

  13. Evaluation of production and gamma radiation effects in pasta enriched with brown flaxseed bagasse (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia Lage de; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio, E-mail: mlageoli@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Polesi, Luiz Fernando; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida Santos [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Jose Paulo de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Oliveira, Andrea Lage de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Araras, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Flat pasta was produced using eggs, wheat flour added with brown flaxseed bagasse in 0,20% and 40% proportions. The pasta obtained in 20% and 40% proportions were irradiated with 20kGy and submitted to evaluation through determinations of moisture, acidity, ph., chemical composition and baking test. Utilizing the same proportions it was also produced pasta with the flaxseed bagasse flour irradiated with 10kGy and submitted to the same evaluations. Found values for different kinds of pasta, for moisture, acidity and ph. can be considered normal within the range of acceptation. (author)

  14. Effects of germination on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L) oil

    OpenAIRE

    Herchi, W.; Bahashwan, S.; Sebei, K.; Ben Saleh, H.; Kallel, H.; Boukhchina, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the changes in proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics of flaxseed during germination. Flaxseed was germinated for 4 days and observations were taken every day throughout the study. Changes in the seed reserve and antioxidant activity were determined during germination. The oil content of the cultivar decreased from 35.10 to 27.22%. During the germination period, the total protein content increased to 23.84%. Germinated flaxseed...

  15. Digital gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem peel identifies genes enriched in fiber-bearing phloem tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Qiu, Caisheng; Long, Songhua; Chen, Ping; Hao, Dongmei; Preisner, Marta; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yufu

    2017-08-30

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms and gene expression characteristics associated with development of bast fiber cell within flax stem phloem, the gene expression profiling of flax stem peels and leaves were screened, using Illumina's Digital Gene Expression (DGE) analysis. Four DGE libraries (2 for stem peel and 2 for leaf), ranging from 6.7 to 9.2 million clean reads were obtained, which produced 7.0 million and 6.8 million mapped reads for flax stem peel and leave, respectively. By differential gene expression analysis, a total of 975 genes, of which 708 (73%) genes have protein-coding annotation, were identified as phloem enriched genes putatively involved in the processes of polysaccharide and cell wall metabolism. Differential expression genes (DEGs) was validated using quantitative RT-PCR, the expression pattern of all nine genes determined by qRT-PCR fitted in well with that obtained by sequencing analysis. Cluster and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that a large number of genes related to metabolic process, catalytic activity and binding category were expressed predominantly in the stem peels. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of the phloem enriched genes suggested approximately 111 biological pathways. The large number of genes and pathways produced from DGE sequencing will expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in flax bast fiber development and provide a foundation for future studies on fiber development in other bast fiber crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adulticidal Activity of Olea vera, Linum usitatissimum and Piper nigera against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti under Laboratory Conditions

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    R Nawaz

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Black pepper showed best results in term of LC50, LC90, LT50 and percentage mortality against Ae. ae­gypti and An. stephensi. Our study suggested that the plant extracts have potential to kill adult mosquitoes, are envi­ronment friendly and can be used for the control of mosquitoes.

  17. Role of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol in alleviating salinity stress on flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.

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    Mervat Sh. Sadak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the environmental challenges in the world affecting on several physiological processes and the most limiting factor of plant productivity and quality. Two pot experiments were conducted at the wire house of National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt during two successive seasons of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to assess the efficiency of two antioxidant vitamins (ascorbic acid at 1.13 and 2.27 mM or α tocopherol at 0.46 and 0.93 mM and/or salinity stress at (0.0, 3.08, 6.16, 9.23 ds/m on photosynthetic pigments, protein, carbohydrate, minerals, oil contents and yield as well as fatty acids composition of the yielded oils of three flax cultivars (Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane. The data revealed that salinity stress caused significant and gradual decreases in total photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total proteins and the uptake of Mg, K, Ca and P in the leaves of three flax cultivars with increasing salinity levels (3.08, 6.16, 9.23 ds/m. Otherwise, significant and gradual increase appeared in both Na and Cl. Ascorbic acid and α tocopherol at different concentrations caused significant increases in photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and protein contents in the leaves of flax plants irrigated either with tap water or saline solution as compared with their corresponding controls. Exogenous application of ascorbic and α tocopherol at different concentrations exhibited decreases in Na and Cl whereas increases appeared in Mg, K, Ca and P relative to their corresponding control. Ascorbic acid (1.13 and 2.27 mM and α tocopherol (0.46 and 0.93 mM caused marked increases in yield and yield attributes of three flax cultivars either in plants irrigated with tap water or saline solution as compared to corresponding control. Ascorbic acid effects were more pronounced than α tocopherol effects. In addition, the higher level of two vitamins was more pronounced than the lower level. Regarding plants irrigated with tap water, it was noted that ascorbic acid at 2.27 mM caused significant increase in oil content by 19.75 % in Giza 8 whereas α tocopherpl at 0.93 mM caused significant increase by 14.83% in Sakha 3 and 13.70% in Ariane. Regarding plants irrigated with saline solution (9.23 ds/m, it was found that α tocopherol at 0.93 mM caused significant increase in oil % by 30.84 %, 9.66 % and 35.62 % in Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane cv. respectively. Responses of three flax cultivars to salt stress were more or less similar; since salinity stress caused marked increases in total saturated fatty acids accompanied by decreases in total unsaturated fatty acids as salinity levels increased. Myristic acid (C14:0 and oleic acid (C18:1 were the most affected saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to different salinity levels. The effect of ascorbic acid at 2.27 mM and tocopherol at 0.93 mM were found to be contrary to that of salinity as marked increases appeared in unsaturated fatty acids as compared with control plants. It could be concluded that foliar application of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol could play an enhancement role and alleviate the harmful effect of salinity stress on many metabolic and physiological processes of three flax cultivars that reflected in increasing seed yield quality and quantity.

  18. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Deyholos, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars [Crop Development Center (CDC) Bethune and Lutea], showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune) was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time course at 2, 4, 8, and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI). While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signaling, activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these, several key genes that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced R PMI-induced protein kinase; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 , and MYB108 ; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14 ; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis ( CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 ); the flavonoid-related enzymes chalcone synthase, dihydroflavonol reductase and multiple anthocyanidin synthases; and a peroxidase implicated in lignin formation ( PRX52 ). Additionally, regulation of some genes indicated potential pathogen manipulation to facilitate infection; these included four disease resistance proteins that were repressed, indole acetic acid amido/amino hydrolases which were upregulated, activated expansins and glucanases, amino acid transporters and aquaporins, and finally, repression of major latex proteins.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. QTL mapping and molecular characterization of the classical D locus controlling seed and flower color in Linum usitatissimum (flax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, Gurudatt Pavagada; Kulkarni, Manoj; Akhov, Leonid; Ashe, Paula; Shaterian, Hamid; Cloutier, Sylvie; Rowland, Gordon; Wei, Yangdou; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2017-11-16

    The flowers of flax (linseed) are blue-hued, ephemeral and self-pollinating, and the seeds are typically brown. A century-old interest in natural yellow seed variants and a historical model point to recessive alleles in B1, D and G loci being responsible, but the functional aspects had remained unknown. Here, we characterized the "D" locus by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and identified a FLAVONOID 3'5' HYDROXYLASE (F3'5'H) gene therein. It does not belong to the F3'5'H clade, but resembles biochemically characterized F3'Hs (flavonoid 3' hydroxylase) but without F3'H activity. The genome lacks other F3'H or F3'H-like genes. The apparent neo-functionalization from F3'H is associated with a Thr 498  → Ser 498 substitution in a substrate recognition site (SRS). The yellow seed and white flower phenotypes of the classical d mutation was found to be due to one nucleotide deletion that would truncate the deduced product and remove three of the six potential SRS, negatively impacting delphinidin synthesis. Delphinidin is sporadic in angiosperms, and flax has no known pollination syndrome(s) with functional pollinator group(s) that are attracted to blue flowers, raising questions on the acquisition of F3'5'H. The appearance of d allele is suggestive of the beginning of the loss of F3'5'H in this species.

  1. The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

  2. Selected element contents formation in linseed plants (Linum usitatissimum L. depending on the phase of development and plant part

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    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A single factor (variety strict field experiment was carried out in 1999-2000 at the experimental station of the Department of Plant Production, Agricultural University of Krakow located at Prusy near Cracow to study the changes in selected macro-and microelement concentrations in the top parts of linseed and the uptake of these elements during vegetation at the characteristic phases of development, including also the plant parts, i.e. leaves, stems, seeds and straw. On the basis of obtained results it was demonstrated that microelement contents in the linseed top parts changed considerably with the plant growth. The levels of Cr, Zn,Cd, Fe and Mn were highest at budding, while Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn levels were lowest at full maturity phase. Linseed grown in the area unpolluted with trace elements did not reveal the ability to accumulate excessive amounts of Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe and Mn, undesired from the usefulness for consumption point of view. Cadmium, irrespective of the examined stage of plant development, revealed high capacity for an excessive accumulation in the top parts. The contents and reciprocal ratios of macroelements in plants changed variously with their growth. The highest Na and K contents were noticed at budding phase, Ca at vegetative stage (arborescent and Mg at the initial budding. The widest Ca:P ratio and K:(Ca+Mg ratio occurred at budding, whereas K:Na ratio at full maturity phase. Linseed accumulated macro- and microele ments in the yield at various rates. Among the analysed elements Cd, Zn and Ni were taken up proportionally to increasing yields of linseed top part biomass.

  3. [Development of specific and degenerated primers to CesA genes encoding flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cellulose synthase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grushetskaia, Z E; Lemesh, V A; Khotyleva, L V

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose synthase catalytic subunit genes, CesA, have been discovered in several higher plant species, and it has been shown that the CesA gene family has multiple members. HVR2 fragment of these genes determine the class specificity of the CESA protein and its participation in the primary or secondary cell wall synthesis. The aim of this study was development of specific and degenerated primers to flax CesA gene fragments leading to obtaining the class specific HVR2 region of the gene. Two pairs of specific primers to the certain fragments of CesA-1 and CesA-6 genes and one pair of degenerated primers to HVR2 region of all flax CesA genes were developed basing on comparison of six CesA EST sequences of flax and full cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis, poplar, maize and cotton plants, obtained from GenBank. After amplification of flax cDNA, the bands of expected size were detected (201 and 300 b.p. for the CesA-1 and CesA-6, and 600 b.p. for the HVR2 region of CesA respectively). The developed markers can be used for cloning and sequencing of flax CesA genes, identifying their number in flax genome, tissue and stage specificity.

  4. Development and validation of an efficient ultrasound assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Fidel, Thibaud; Leclerc, Emilie A; Barakzoy, Esmatullah; Sagot, Nadine; Falguiéres, Annie; Renouard, Sullivan; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Ferroud, Clotilde; Doussot, Joël; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Flaxseed accumulates in its seedcoat a macromolecular complex composed of lignan (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, SDG), flavonol (herbacetin diglucoside, HDG) and hydroxycinnamic acids (p-couramic, caffeic and ferulic acid glucosides). Their antioxidant and/or cancer chemopreventive properties support their interest in human health and therefore, the demand for their extraction. In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flaxseed phenolic compounds was investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging and histochemical analysis revealed the deep alteration of the seedcoat ultrastructure and the release of the mucilage following ultrasound treatment. Therefore, this method was found to be very efficient for the reduction of mucilage entrapment of flaxseed phenolics. The optimal conditions for UAE phenolic compounds extraction from flaxseeds were found to be: water as solvent supplemented with 0.2N of sodium hydroxide for alkaline hydrolysis of the SDG-HMG complex, an extraction time of 60 min at a temperature of 25°C and an ultrasound frequency of 30 kHz. Under these optimized and validated conditions, highest yields of SDG, HDG and hydroxycinnamic acid glucosides were detected in comparison to other published methods. Therefore, the procedure presented herein is a valuable method for efficient extraction and quantification of the main flaxseed phenolics. Moreover, this UAE is of particular interest within the context of green chemistry in terms of reducing energy consumption and valuation of flaxseed cakes as by-products resulting from the production of flax oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and transcript profiling of the pectin methylesterase (PME) and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) gene families in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2013-10-30

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyze the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans in the cell wall; their activity is regulated in part by pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). PME activity may result in either rigidification or loosening of the cell wall, depending on the mode of demethylesterification. The activity of PMEs in the middle lamella is expected to affect intrusive elongation of phloem fibers, and their adhesion to adjacent cells. Length and extractability of phloem fibers are qualities important for their industrial uses in textiles and composites. As only three flax PMEs had been previously described, we were motivated to characterize the PME and PMEI gene families of flax. We identified 105 putative flax PMEs (LuPMEs) and 95 putative PMEIs (LuPMEIs) within the whole-genome assembly. We found experimental evidence for the transcription of 77/105 LuPMEs and 83/95 LuPMEIs, and surveyed the transcript abundance of these in 12 different tissues and stages of development. Six major monophyletic groups of LuPMEs could be defined based on the inferred relationships of flax genes and their presumed orthologs from other species. We searched the LuPMEs and LuPMEIs for conserved residues previously reported to be important for their tertiary structure and function. In the LuPMEs, the most highly conserved residues were catalytic residues while in the LuPMEIs, cysteines forming disulfude bridges between helices α2 and α3 were most highly conserved. In general, the conservation of critical residues was higher in the genes with evidence of transcript expression than in those for which no expression was detected. The LuPMEs and LuPMEIs comprise large families with complex patterns of transcript expression and a wide range of physical characteristics. We observed that multiple PMEs and PMEIs are expressed in partially overlapping domains, indicative of several genes acting redundantly during most processes. The potential for functional redundancy was highlighted also by the phylogenetic analyses. We were able to identify a subset of PME and PMEIs that appeared particularly relevant to fiber development, which may provide a basis for the improvement of key traits in industrial feedstocks and a better understanding of the physiological roles of PMEs and PMEIs in general.

  6. Effect of a Semisolid Formulation of Linum usitatissimum L. (Linseed Oil on the Repair of Skin Wounds

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    Eryvelton de Souza Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a semisolid formulation of linseed oil, SSFLO (1%, 5%, or 10% or in natura linseed oil on skin wounds of rats. We used wound models, incisional and excisional, to evaluate, respectively, the contraction/reepithelialization of the wound and resistance to mechanical traction. The groups (n=6 treated with SSFLO (1% or 5% began the process of reepithelialization, to a significant extent (P<.05, on the sixth day, when compared to the petroleum jelly control group. On 14th day for the groups treated with SSFLO (1% or 5%, 100% reepithelialization was found, while in the petroleum jelly control group, this was only 33.33%. Our study showed that topical administration of SSFLO (1% or 5% in excisional wounds allowed reepithelialization in 100% of treated animals. Therefore, a therapeutic potential of linseed oil, when used at low concentrations in the solid pharmaceutical formulations, is suggested for the process of dermal repair.

  7. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seedlings

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    Krystyna M. Janas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  8. Effect of Cultivars and Planting Date on Yield, Oil Content, and Fatty Acid Profile of Flax Varieties (Linum usitatissimum L.

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    Maricel Andrea Gallardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of cultivars and planting date on flax fatty acid profile, seed yield, and oil content, an assay with seven cultivars (Baikal, Prointa Lucero, Prointa Ceibal, Panambí INTA, Curundú INTA, Carapé INTA, and Tape INTA was carried out at Parana Agricultural Experimental Station, Argentina. Significant differences among cultivars were found for content of palmitic (5–7 g/100 g, stearic (5–8 g/100 g, linoleic (13–19 g/100 g, saturated (11–15 g/100 g, and unsaturated acids (92–96 g/100 g within the seven cultivars. The best seed yields were observed in Prointa Lucero and Carapé INTA varieties (2091.50 kg·ha−1 and 2183.34 kg·ha−1, respectively in the first planting date and in Carapé INTA and Prointa Lucero (1667 kg·ha−1 and 1886 kg·ha−1, respectively in the second planting date. A delayed planting date had a negative effect on seed yield (1950 kg·ha−1 and 1516 kg·ha−1 and oil content (845 kg·ha−1 and 644 kg·ha−1 but did not affect oil composition.

  9. Vertical distribution of the root system of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. and legumes in pure and mixed sowing

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    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Root competition for below-ground resources between edible plants may provide for long-term sustainability of agriculture systems. Intercropping can be more productive than a pure crop due to taking advantage of the morphological differences between species. In pure cropping, all biophysical interactions between plants occur through soil conditions. In intercropping, competition for water and nutrients is of major importance, but if the roots of one species occupy the zone just underneath the roots of the other crop, they can better use the resources of the root zone of the crop. The root system demonstrates a high degree of plasticity in its development in response to local heterogeneity of the soil profile and plant density. This study aimed at determining: (i the morphological characteristics of the root systems of linseed, pea and vetch depending on the method of sowing; (ii the root distribution in various soil types and at different soil profile depths (0–15 cm, 15–30 cm. Two three-year field experiments were conducted on two soil types in south Poland: soil A – Luvic Phaeozem (s1 and soil B – Eutric Cambisol (s2. These results show that linseed was more aggressive toward both legumes in mixture, but it produced lower yield compared to pure cropping. The environmental stress of plants in mixtures increased the relative weight of roots, which resulted in decreasing the root-shoot ratio (RSR.

  10. Evolutionary characterization and transcript profiling of β-tubulin genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Floriana; Pigna, Gaia; Braglia, Luca; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego; Morello, Laura

    2017-12-08

    Microtubules, polymerized from alpha and beta-tubulin monomers, play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis, determining the cell division plane, the direction of cell expansion and the deposition of cell wall material. During polarized pollen tube elongation, microtubules serve as tracks for vesicular transport and deposition of proteins/lipids at the tip membrane. Such functions are controlled by cortical microtubule arrays. Aim of this study was to first characterize the flax β-tubulin family by sequence and phylogenetic analysis and to investigate differential expression of β-tubulin genes possibly related to fibre elongation and to flower development. We report the cloning and characterization of the complete flax β-tubulin gene family: exon-intron organization, duplicated gene comparison, phylogenetic analysis and expression pattern during stem and hypocotyl elongation and during flower development. Sequence analysis of the fourteen expressed β-tubulin genes revealed that the recent whole genome duplication of the flax genome was followed by massive retention of duplicated tubulin genes. Expression analysis showed that β-tubulin mRNA profiles gradually changed along with phloem fibre development in both the stem and hypocotyl. In flowers, changes in relative tubulin transcript levels took place at anthesis in anthers, but not in carpels. Phylogenetic analysis supports the origin of extant plant β-tubulin genes from four ancestral genes pre-dating angiosperm separation. Expression analysis suggests that particular tubulin subpopulations are more suitable to sustain different microtubule functions such as cell elongation, cell wall thickening or pollen tube growth. Tubulin genes possibly related to different microtubule functions were identified as candidate for more detailed studies.

  11. Seed Yield of Long Fiber Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Plants Depending on Rates of Sawing of Seed and Mineral Fertilization

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    М. Ф. Рибак

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact of rates of sawing of seed and fertilization on seed productivity of Kameniar and Irma Long Fiber Flax in the conditions of Ukrainian Woodlands are highlighted. A trustworthy proportion is established of factors influence, in particular, of the sawing and fertilization rates, on Long Fiber Flax yield formation.

  12. Protective Effects of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Fetus Brain in Aged and Young Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Mahsa; Bahmanpour, Soghra

    2016-05-01

    One of the major problems of the aged women or older than 35 is getting pregnant in the late fertility life. Fertility rates begin to decline gradually at the age of 30, more so at 35, and markedly at 40. Even with fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization, women have more difficulty in getting pregnant or may deliver abnormal fetus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flax seed hydroalcoholic extract on the fetal brain of aged mice and its comparison with young mice. In this experimental study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups. Controls received no special treatment. The experimental mice groups, 3 weeks before mating, were fed with flax seed hydroalcoholic extract by oral gavages. After giving birth, the brains of the fetus were removed. Data analysis was performed by statistical test ANOVA using SPSS version 18 (P<0.05). The mean fetus brain weight of aged mother groups compared to the control group was increased significantly (P<0.05). This study showed that flax seed hydroalcoholic extract could improve fetal brain weights in the aged groups.

  13. Ty1-copia elements reveal diverse insertion sites linked to polymorphisms among flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Mhiri, Corinne; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle; Deyholos, Michael K

    2016-12-07

    Initial characterization of the flax genome showed that Ty1-copia retrotransposons are abundant, with several members being recently inserted, and in close association with genes. Recent insertions indicate a potential for ongoing transpositional activity that can create genomic diversity among accessions, cultivars or varieties. The polymorphisms generated constitute a good source of molecular markers that may be associated with phenotype if the insertions alter gene activity. Flax, where accessions are bred mainly for seed nutritional properties or for fibers, constitutes a good model for studying the relationship of transpositional activity with diversification and breeding. In this study, we estimated copy number and used a type of transposon display known as Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphisms (SSAPs), to characterize six families of Ty1-copia elements across 14 flax accessions. Polymorphic insertion sites were sequenced to find insertions that could potentially alter gene expression, and a preliminary test was performed with selected genes bearing transposable element (TE) insertions. Quantification of six families of Ty1-copia elements indicated different abundances among TE families and between flax accessions, which suggested diverse transpositional histories. SSAPs showed a high level of polymorphism in most of the evaluated retrotransposon families, with a trend towards higher levels of polymorphism in low-copy number families. Ty1-copia insertion polymorphisms among cultivars allowed a general distinction between oil and fiber types, and between spring and winter types, demonstrating their utility in diversity studies. Characterization of polymorphic insertions revealed an overwhelming association with genes, with insertions disrupting exons, introns or within 1 kb of coding regions. A preliminary test on the potential transcriptional disruption by TEs of four selected genes evaluated in three different tissues, showed one case of significant impact of the insertion on gene expression. We demonstrated that specific Ty1-copia families have been active since breeding commenced in flax. The retrotransposon-derived polymorphism can be used to separate flax types, and the close association of many insertions with genes defines a good source of potential mutations that could be associated with phenotypic changes, resulting in diversification processes.

  14. Comparative description of morphological features of flax oily (Linum usitatissimum L. different sorts in the conditions of Precarpathian

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    Inessa F. Drozd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of investigation of meteorological conditions influence on morphological features of different flax oily sorts in the conditions of Precarpathian. The results confirm, that weather terms and the terms of the sowing have influence on the height of plants, number of capsules and seeds per plant.

  15. Enzyme-aided cold pressing of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.: Enhancement in yield, quality and phenolics of the oil

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    Anwar, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different enzyme preparations (Viscozyme L, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme on the yield and physicochemical and antioxidant properties of cold pressed flaxseed oil were assessed. The oil yield (35.2-38.0% from enzyme-treated cold pressed flaxseeds (ETCPF, although lower than Soxhlet extracted oil (SEO yield, was considerably higher when compared with the control (32.5% while the contents of protein, fiber, and ash were unaffected by the enzymatic treatment. Most of the physicochemical parameters such as refractive index, density, iodine number, free fatty acid contents, saponification value, color and fatty acid profile did not vary significantly among the ETCPF oil, SEO and the control. Interestingly, the oxidation status in terms of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and triens and induction period (Rancimat method as well as the sensory score of the ETCPF oil were superior compared with the control. An appreciably higher amount of tocopherols (350-400 mg kg–1 was determined in the ETCPF oil, compared to the control (270 mg kg–1, showing an increase of 22.8-32.5% in the recovery of total tocopherols. Moreover, ETCPF oil exhibited greater antioxidant activity as well as total phenolics and individual phenolic acid content. This study advocates the exploration of enzyme-assisted cold pressing as a viable alternative to conventional cold-pressing for improving not only the extraction yield but also the functional food quality of flaxseed-like high-value oils.Se evalúa el efecto de diferentes preparaciones enzimáticas (Viscozyme L, Kemzyme y Feedzyme sobre el rendimiento y propiedades fisicoquímicas y antioxidantes de aceites de lino prensados en frío. El rendimiento en aceite (35,2-38,0% de las semillas de lino prensadas en frío (ETCPF, y tratadas con enzimas, aunque menor que el rendimiento mediante Soxhlet (SEO, fue considerablemente mayor en comparación con el control (32,5%, mientras que el contenido de proteína, fibra, y cenizas no se vieron afectados por el tratamiento enzimático. La mayoría de los parámetros físico-químicos tales como el índice de refracción, densidad, índice de yodo, el contenido de ácidos grasos libres, índice de saponificación, el color y el perfil de ácidos grasos no variaron significativamente entre el aceite ETCPF, SEO y el control. Curiosamente, el estado de oxidación en términos de peróxidos, p-anisidina, dienos y trienos conjugados, período de inducción (método Rancimat, así como puntuación sensorial del aceite ETCPF fueron superiores en comparación con el control. Una cantidad sensiblemente superior de tocoferoles (350-400 mg kg–1 se determinó en el aceite ETCPF, en relación con el control (270 mg kg–1, mostrando un aumento de 22,8 a 32,5% en la recuperación de los tocoferoles totales. Por otra parte, el aceite de ETCPF mostró mayor actividad antioxidante y fenoles totales y contenido de ácidos fenólicos individuales. Este estudio aboga por la extracción mediante presión en frío con enzima asistida como una alternativa viable al prensado en frío convencional para mejorar no sólo el rendimiento de extracción sino también la calidad de los componentes funcionales de alto valor como los de los aceites de linaza.

  16. Simple sequence repeat marker development from bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences and expressed sequence tags of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Miranda, Evelyn; Ward, Kerry; Radovanovic, Natasa; Reimer, Elsa; Walichnowski, Andrzej; Datla, Raju; Rowland, Gordon; Duguid, Scott; Ragupathy, Raja

    2012-08-01

    Flax is an important oilseed crop in North America and is mostly grown as a fibre crop in Europe. As a self-pollinated diploid with a small estimated genome size of ~370 Mb, flax is well suited for fast progress in genomics. In the last few years, important genetic resources have been developed for this crop. Here, we describe the assessment and comparative analyses of 1,506 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of which, 1,164 were derived from BAC-end sequences (BESs) and 342 from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The SSRs were assessed on a panel of 16 flax accessions with 673 (58 %) and 145 (42 %) primer pairs being polymorphic in the BESs and ESTs, respectively. With 818 novel polymorphic SSR primer pairs reported in this study, the repertoire of available SSRs in flax has more than doubled from the combined total of 508 of all previous reports. Among nucleotide motifs, trinucleotides were the most abundant irrespective of the class, but dinucleotides were the most polymorphic. SSR length was also positively correlated with polymorphism. Two dinucleotide (AT/TA and AG/GA) and two trinucleotide (AAT/ATA/TAA and GAA/AGA/AAG) motifs and their iterations, different from those reported in many other crops, accounted for more than half of all the SSRs and were also more polymorphic (63.4 %) than the rest of the markers (42.7 %). This improved resource promises to be useful in genetic, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and association mapping as well as for anchoring the physical/genetic map with the whole genome shotgun reference sequence of flax.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas in reduce drought stress damage in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Saeedeh; Pirzad, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively). A factorial (three factors) experiment was conducted for 2 years (2014-2015) based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Urmia University, Urmia, located at North-West of Iran (37° 39' 24.82″ N44° 58' 12.42″ E). Water deficit decreased biomass, showing that flax was sensitive to drought, and AM root colonization improved the performance of the plant within irrigation levels. In all inoculated and non-inoculated control plants, leaf chlorophyll decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Water deficit-induced oxidative damage (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage) were significantly reduced in dual colonized plants. All enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids) antioxidants were reduced by water-limiting irrigation. Dual inoculated plants with AM plus Pseudomonas accumulated more enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants than plants with bacterial or fungal inoculation singly. Dual colonized plants significantly decreased the water deficit-induced glycine betaine and proline in flax leaves. These bacterial-fungal interactions in enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense of flax plants demonstrated equal synergism with both AM fungi species. In conclusion, increased activity of enzymatic antioxidants and higher production of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds in symbiotic association with bacteria and mycorrhiza can alleviate reactive oxygen species damage resulting in improve water stress tolerance.

  18. Molecular details of secretory phospholipase A2 from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) provide insight into its structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Payal; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-09-11

    Secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ) are low molecular weight proteins (12-18 kDa) involved in a suite of plant cellular processes imparting growth and development. With myriad roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants, detailed analysis of sPLA 2 in flax/linseed is meagre. The present work, first in flax, embodies cloning, expression, purification and molecular characterisation of two distinct sPLA 2 s (I and II) from flax. PLA 2 activity of the cloned sPLA 2 s were biochemically assayed authenticating them as bona fide phospholipase A 2 . Physiochemical properties of both the sPLA 2 s revealed they are thermostable proteins requiring di-valent cations for optimum activity.While, structural analysis of both the proteins revealed deviations in the amino acid sequence at C- & N-terminal regions; hydropathic study revealed LusPLA 2 I as a hydrophobic protein and LusPLA 2 II as a hydrophilic protein. Structural analysis of flax sPLA 2 s revealed that secondary structure of both the proteins are dominated by α-helix followed by random coils. Modular superimposition of LusPLA 2 isoforms with rice sPLA 2 confirmed monomeric structural preservation among plant phospholipase A 2 and provided insight into structure of folded flax sPLA 2 s.

  19. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

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    Leonardo Miguel Galindo-González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars (CDC Bethune and Lutea, showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time-course at 2, 4, 8 and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI. While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signalling, activation of pathogenesis-related (PR genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these several key genes, that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase (RIPK; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3; the flavonoid-related enzymes chalcone synthase, dihydroflavonol reductase and multiple anthocyanidin synthases; and a peroxidase implicated in lignin formation (PRX52. Additionally, regulation of some genes indicated potential pathogen manipulation to facilitate infection; these included four disease resistance proteins that were repressed, indole acetic acid amido/amino hydrolases which were upregulated, activated expansins and glucanases, amino acid transporters and aquaporins, and finally, repression of major latex proteins.

  20. Application of Edible Films Containing Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil on Queso Blanco Cheese Prepared with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdian, Cristhiam; Chouljenko, Alexander; Solval, Kevin Mis; Boeneke, Charles; King, Joan M; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB. Thus, incorporation of OEO into an edible film prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) may improve the shelf life of QB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that FO was successfully retained by the cheese after homogenization. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) and yeast and mold counts (YMC) of the wrapped cheeses were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. The oxidation rate increased significantly for nonwrapped QB containing FO (QBFO) during storage, however wrapping with WPI edible films containing OEO (WOF) significantly limited lipid oxidation and prevented growth of yeasts and molds. This study demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of WOF for preservation of QBFO during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. L'effet thérapeutique de l'huile de lin « linum usitatissimum » sur l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    client

    l'hypertriglycéridémie et l'hypercholestérolémie chez des rats obèses âgés .... complétées par le test de Tukey afin de classer et comparer les moyennes deux a ..... HARRIS, Fish oils and plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in humans: A ...

  2. Cadmium-induced production of phytochelatins and speciation of intracellular cadmium in organs of Linum usitatissimum seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Najmanová, J.; Neumannová, E.; Leonhardt, T.; Zítka, O.; Kižek, R.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.; Kotrba, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 536-542 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA522/07/0692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : flax * cadmium * heavy metal tolerance * phytochelatins * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  3. Effect of Heavy Metals on Inhibition of Root Elongation in 23 Cultivars of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Katrušáková, Adéla; Sedláček, Lukáš; Petrová, Šárka; Kočí, V.; Maršík, Petr; Griga, M.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 194-203 ISSN 0090-4341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08058; GA MŠk OC09082; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : SINAPIS-ALBA * SEED-GERMINATION * PLANT -GROWTH Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.930, year: 2010

  4. The bioconversion process of deoxypodophyllotoxin with Linum flavum cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Beekman, A.C; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro cell suspension culture of Linum flavum is able to convert high amounts of the 2,7'-cyclolignan deoxypodophyllotoxin into 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin 7-O-glucoside. We studied this conversion in detail by monitoring the intermediates and side-products after feeding different concentrations

  5. Aryltetralin lignans from Linum mucronatum Bertol. ssp mucronatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Konuklugil, B; Evren, H

    2005-01-01

    The dried and aerial part of Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum was analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two aryltetralin lignans, podophylloyoxin, 6-methoxypodophylloyoxin, and P-peltatin, were identified. This is the first report of the analysis of L. mucronatum ssp. mucronatum.

  6. Palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum Bertol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linum mucronatum is a heterostylous species from sect. Syllinum with four subspecies in Iran. The present study examines palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum, pollen characters of brevistylous individuals (pins as well as longistylous individuals (thrums of these plants by scanning electron microscope and light microscope using the prolonged acetolysis procedure. Sixteen qualitative and quantitative characters were investigated. Pollen equatorial shapes varied between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies with the exception of L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. Pollen sculptures varied between pin and thrum samples of each subspecies and were seen in the gemmate, clavate and baculate shapes. In addition, quantitative palynological characters differed between plants and ANOVA test showed significant variations for traits such as equatorial length, colpi width and apocolpium diameter. Hetrostylous individuals of each subspecies were separated from others in the UPGMA tree and also in the PCO and PCA plots. This study confirmed variations in pollen features between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies.Linum mucronatum es una especie con heterostilia, que pertenece a la sección Syllinum del género Linum, y tiene cuatro subespecies en Irán. En el presente estudio se examinan las características palinológicas de las subespecies heterostilas de Linum mucronatum Bertol., así como los caracteres polínicos de individuos de los morfos brevistilo (pin y longistilo (thrum de estas plantas, mediante microscopía electrónica de scanning y microscopía óptica usando el método de acetolisis prolongada. Se estudiaron un total de 16 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. La forma ecuatorial del polen varía entre los morfos pin y thrum en todas las subspecies, excepto en L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. La ornamentación también varía entre las muestras de morfos pin y thrum de cada subespecie

  7. New acylated flavone and cyanogenic glycosides from Linum grandiflorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.

    2009-01-01

    The first investigation of Linum grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of one new acylated flavone O-diglycoside known as luteolin 7-O-a-D-(6000-E-feruloyl)glucopyranosyl (1!2)--D-glucopyranoside, and one new cyanogenic glycoside known as 2-[(30-isopropoxy-O--D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2......-methylbutanenitrile, together with four known flavonoid glycosides, three known cyanogenic glycosides and one alkyl glycoside. The new compounds were structurally elucidated via the extensive 1D, 2D NMR and DIFNOE together with ESI-TOFCID-MS/MS and HR-MALDI/MS....

  8. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  9. Slipping vs sticking: water-dependent adhesive and frictional properties of Linum usitatissimum L. seed mucilaginous envelope and its biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-04-01

    Flax seeds produce mucilage after wetting. The mucilage due to its ability to absorb and maintain water is responsible for specific surface properties which are essential for seed dispersal in different ways. In the present paper, we asked how the hydration level affects the adhesive and frictional properties of the mucilage and which role does the mucilage play in seed dispersal? We have experimentally quantified: (1) desiccation dynamics of seeds with a mucilage envelope, (2) desiccation-time dependence of their friction coefficient, and (3) desiccation-time dependence of their pull-off forces on a smooth glass substrate. Freshly-hydrated seeds had an extremely low friction coefficient, which rapidly increased with an increasing desiccation time. Pull-off force just after hydration was rather low, then increased with an increasing water loss. Adhesion and friction experiments show that there is a clear maximum in the force values at certain hydration states of the mucilage. Different hydration levels of the mucilage can be employed in various dispersal mechanisms. Fully hydrated mucilage with its low viscosity gives optimal sliding conditions for endozoochory, whereas water loss provides conditions for the epizoochory. We suggest that the hydration level of the mucilage envelope can determine the potential mode of flax seed dispersal. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The LuWD40-1 gene encoding WD repeat protein regulates growth and pollen viability in flax (Linum Usitatissimum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    Full Text Available As a crop, flax holds significant commercial value for its omega-3 rich oilseeds and stem fibres. Canada is the largest producer of linseed but there exists scope for significant yield improvements. Implementation of mechanisms such as male sterility can permit the development of hybrids to assist in achieving this goal. Temperature sensitive male sterility has been reported in flax but the leakiness of this system in field conditions limits the production of quality hybrid seeds. Here, we characterized a 2,588 bp transcript differentially expressed in male sterile lines of flax. The twelve intron gene predicted to encode a 368 amino acid protein has five WD40 repeats which, in silico, form a propeller structure with putative nucleic acid and histone binding capabilities. The LuWD40-1 protein localized to the nucleus and its expression increased during the transition and continued through the vegetative stages (seed, etiolated seedling, stem while the transcript levels declined during reproductive development (ovary, anthers and embryonic morphogenesis of male fertile plants. Knockout lines for LuWD40-1 in flax failed to develop shoots while overexpression lines showed delayed growth phenotype and were male sterile. The non-viable flowers failed to open and the pollen grains from these flowers were empty. Three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the LuWD40-1 gene had ∼80% non-viable pollen, reduced branching, delayed flowering and maturity compared to male fertile genotypes. The present study provides new insights into a male sterility mechanism present in flax.

  11. A new genotype of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with decreased susceptibility to fat oxidation: consequences to hematological and biochemical profiles of blood indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Króliczewska, Bożena; Miśta, Dorota; Króliczewski, Jarosław; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Kubaszewski, Rafał; Wincewicz, Edyta; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Flaxseed is an alternative to marine products that provide the traditional dietary sources of ω-fatty acids. A new genotype of flax, W92, is rich in natural antioxidants as well as having a reduced content of α-linolenic acid and therefore shows decreased susceptibility to fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a diet supplemented with W92 flaxseed on hematological and biochemical blood indices. A positive impact of diet with the addition of flaxseed was observed on erythrocyte indices, including red blood cell (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values. There were no significant differences for white blood cell (WBC), total protein and glucose values. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase estimations in serum were also carried out and no obvious toxicity to the liver was shown. Moreover, a lipid profile was performed in serum samples and a decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), accompanied by an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was observed in rabbits fed flaxseed diets. Based on the results obtained, it appeared that the inclusion of a new genetically modified type of flaxseed in the diet altered cholesterol metabolism and could reduce the possibility of cardiovascular diseases. Diet enrichment with W92 flaxseed may be a solution to the health issues that are a result of improper diet in humans and animals. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Diederichsen, Axel; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-05-06

    Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been assessed in flax because genomic resources have only recently been developed. We characterized 407 globally distributed flax accessions using 448 microsatellite markers. The data was analyzed to assess the suitability of this core collection for AM. Genomic scans to identify candidate genes selected during the divergent breeding process of fiber flax and linseed were conducted using the whole genome shotgun sequence of flax. Combined genetic structure analysis assigned all accessions to two major groups with six sub-groups. Population differentiation was weak between the major groups (F(ST) = 0.094) and for most of the pairwise comparisons among sub-groups. The molecular coancestry analysis indicated weak relatedness (mean = 0.287) for most individual pairs. Abundant genetic diversity was observed in the total panel (5.32 alleles per locus), and some sub-groups showed a high proportion of private alleles. The average genome-wide LD (r²) was 0.036, with a relatively fast decay of 1.5 cM. Genomic scans between fiber flax and linseed identified candidate genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis/modification, xylem identity and fatty acid biosynthesis congruent with genes previously identified in flax and other plant species. Based on the abundant genetic diversity, weak population structure and relatedness and relatively fast LD decay, we concluded that this core collection is suitable for AM studies targeting multiple agronomic and quality traits aiming at the improvement of flax as a true dual purpose crop. Our genomic scans provide the first insights into candidate regions affected by divergent selection in flax. In combination with AM, genomic scans have the ability to increase the power to detect loci influencing complex traits.

  13. A genome-wide analysis of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) dirigent protein family: from gene identification and evolution to differential regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Drouet, Samantha; Markulin, Lucija; Auguin, Daniel; Lainé, Éric; Davin, Laurence B; Cort, John R; Lewis, Norman G; Hano, Christophe

    2018-05-01

    Identification of DIR encoding genes in flax genome. Analysis of phylogeny, gene/protein structures and evolution. Identification of new conserved motifs linked to biochemical functions. Investigation of spatio-temporal gene expression and response to stress. Dirigent proteins (DIRs) were discovered during 8-8' lignan biosynthesis studies, through identification of stereoselective coupling to afford either (+)- or (-)-pinoresinols from E-coniferyl alcohol. DIRs are also involved or potentially involved in terpenoid, allyl/propenyl phenol lignan, pterocarpan and lignin biosynthesis. DIRs have very large multigene families in different vascular plants including flax, with most still of unknown function. DIR studies typically focus on a small subset of genes and identification of biochemical/physiological functions. Herein, a genome-wide analysis and characterization of the predicted flax DIR 44-membered multigene family was performed, this species being a rich natural grain source of 8-8' linked secoisolariciresinol-derived lignan oligomers. All predicted DIR sequences, including their promoters, were analyzed together with their public gene expression datasets. Expression patterns of selected DIRs were examined using qPCR, as well as through clustering analysis of DIR gene expression. These analyses further implicated roles for specific DIRs in (-)-pinoresinol formation in seed-coats, as well as (+)-pinoresinol in vegetative organs and/or specific responses to stress. Phylogeny and gene expression analysis segregated flax DIRs into six distinct clusters with new cluster-specific motifs identified. We propose that these findings can serve as a foundation to further systematically determine functions of DIRs, i.e. other than those already known in lignan biosynthesis in flax and other species. Given the differential expression profiles and inducibility of the flax DIR family, we provisionally propose that some DIR genes of unknown function could be involved in different aspects of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and plant defense.

  14. An open-label study on the effect of flax seed powder (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani; Biswas, Mamta; Kumar, Smriti Nanda

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with aberrations in the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid that result in development of secondary complications. Extensive studies have indicated that nutritional therapy plays a pivotal role in the controlling or postponing of development of these secondary complications. Several functional foods have been shown to possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Flax seed (FS) is a functional food that is rich in omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants and is low in carbohydrates. In exploratory studies, FS was incorporated in recipes, which resulted in a reduction in the glycemic index of the food items. These observations prompted us to investigate the efficacy of FS supplementation in type 2 diabetics (n = 29). Subjects were assigned to the experimental (n = 18) or the control group (n = 11) on the basis of their desire to participate in the study. The experimental group's diet was supplemented daily with 10 g of FS powder for a period of 1 month. The control group received no supplementation or placebo. During the study, diet and drug intake of the subjects remained unaltered. The efficacy of supplementation with FS was evaluated through a battery of clinico-biochemical parameters. Supplementation with FS reduced fasting blood glucose by 19.7% and glycated hemoglobin by 15.6%. A favorable reduction in total cholesterol (14.3%), triglycerides (17.5%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (21.8%), and apolipoprotein B and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.9%) were also noticed. These observations suggest the therapeutic potential of FS in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Chitinase-like (CTL) and cellulose synthase (CESA) gene expression in gelatinous-type cellulosic walls of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) bast fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshina, Natalia; Gorshkova, Tatyana; Deyholos, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Plant chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and chitinase-like (CTL) proteins have diverse functions including cell wall biosynthesis and disease resistance. We analyzed the expression of 34 chitinase and chitinase-like genes of flax (collectively referred to as LusCTLs), belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 19 (GH19). Analysis of the transcript expression patterns of LusCTLs in the stem and other tissues identified three transcripts (LusCTL19, LusCTL20, LusCTL21) that were highly enriched in developing bast fibers, which form cellulose-rich gelatinous-type cell walls. The same three genes had low relative expression in tissues with primary cell walls and in xylem, which forms a xylan type of secondary cell wall. Phylogenetic analysis of the LusCTLs identified a flax-specific sub-group that was not represented in any of other genomes queried. To provide further context for the gene expression analysis, we also conducted phylogenetic and expression analysis of the cellulose synthase (CESA) family genes of flax, and found that expression of secondary wall-type LusCESAs (LusCESA4, LusCESA7 and LusCESA8) was correlated with the expression of two LusCTLs (LusCTL1, LusCTL2) that were the most highly enriched in xylem. The expression of LusCTL19, LusCTL20, and LusCTL21 was not correlated with that of any CESA subgroup. These results defined a distinct type of CTLs that may have novel functions specific to the development of the gelatinous (G-type) cellulosic walls.

  16. Construction of an SNP-based high-density linkage map for flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liuxi; Gao, Fengyun; Siqin, Bateer; Zhou, Yu; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Flax is an important crop for oil and fiber, however, no high-density genetic maps have been reported for this species. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a high-resolution strategy for large scale de novo discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, SLAF-seq was employed to develop SNP markers in an F2 population to construct a high-density genetic map for flax. In total, 196.29 million paired-end reads were obtained. The average sequencing depth was 25.08 in male parent, 32.17 in the female parent, and 9.64 in each F2 progeny. In total, 389,288 polymorphic SLAFs were detected, from which 260,380 polymorphic SNPs were developed. After filtering, 4,638 SNPs were found suitable for genetic map construction. The final genetic map included 4,145 SNP markers on 15 linkage groups and was 2,632.94 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.64 cM between adjacent markers. To our knowledge, this map is the densest SNP-based genetic map for flax. The SNP markers and genetic map reported in here will serve as a foundation for the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), map-based gene cloning and marker assisted selection (MAS) for flax.

  17. Comparison of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety in healthy individuals: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan, V; Choleva, L; Jovanovski, E; Jenkins, A L; Au-Yeung, F; Dias, A G; Ho, H V T; Zurbau, A; Duvnjak, L

    2017-02-01

    Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores. Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23.9±3 years; BMI: 22.2±0.8 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to receive a 50 g glucose challenge, alone or supplemented with either 25 g ground Salba-chia or 31.5 g flax, on three separate occasions. Blood glucose samples and satiety ratings were collected at fasting and over 2-h postprandially. In addition, in vitro viscosity of the beverages was assessed utilizing standard rheological methodology. Both Salba-chia and flax reduced blood glucose area under the curve over 120 min by 82.5±19.7 mmol/l (P<0.001) and 60.0±19.7 mmol/l (P=0.014), respectively, relative to a glucose control. Salba-chia reduced peak glucose (-0.64±0.24 mmol/l; P=0.030) and increased time to peak (11.3±3.8 min; P=0.015) compared with flax. Salba-chia significantly reduced the mean ratings of desire to eat (-7±2 mm; P=0.005), prospective consumption (-7±2 mm; P=0.010) and overall appetite score (-6±2 mm; P=0.012), when compared with flax. The viscosity of Salba-chia, flax and control was 49.9, 2.5, and 0.002 Pa·s, respectively. Despite the similarities in nutritional composition, Salba-chia appears to have the ability to convert glucose into a slow-release carbohydrate and affect satiety to a greater extent than flax, possibly due to the higher fiber viscosity. Incorporation of either flax or Salba-chia into the diet may be beneficial, although use of Salba-chia may confer additional benefit.

  18. The LuWD40-1 gene encoding WD repeat protein regulates growth and pollen viability in flax (Linum Usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Jordan, Mark C; Datla, Raju; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As a crop, flax holds significant commercial value for its omega-3 rich oilseeds and stem fibres. Canada is the largest producer of linseed but there exists scope for significant yield improvements. Implementation of mechanisms such as male sterility can permit the development of hybrids to assist in achieving this goal. Temperature sensitive male sterility has been reported in flax but the leakiness of this system in field conditions limits the production of quality hybrid seeds. Here, we characterized a 2,588 bp transcript differentially expressed in male sterile lines of flax. The twelve intron gene predicted to encode a 368 amino acid protein has five WD40 repeats which, in silico, form a propeller structure with putative nucleic acid and histone binding capabilities. The LuWD40-1 protein localized to the nucleus and its expression increased during the transition and continued through the vegetative stages (seed, etiolated seedling, stem) while the transcript levels declined during reproductive development (ovary, anthers) and embryonic morphogenesis of male fertile plants. Knockout lines for LuWD40-1 in flax failed to develop shoots while overexpression lines showed delayed growth phenotype and were male sterile. The non-viable flowers failed to open and the pollen grains from these flowers were empty. Three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the LuWD40-1 gene had ∼80% non-viable pollen, reduced branching, delayed flowering and maturity compared to male fertile genotypes. The present study provides new insights into a male sterility mechanism present in flax.

  19. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Tianbao; Song, Xiaxia; Zhang, Jianping; Dang, Zhanhai; Pei, Xinwu; Long, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  20. ENRIQUECIMIENTO DE HUEVOS CON ÁCIDOS GRASOS OMEGA-3 MEDIANTE LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN CON SEMILLA DE LINO (Linum usitatissimum EN LA DIETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Díaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Enriquecer los huevos de gallina con ácidos grasos omega-3 (n-3 mediante la inclusión de semillas de lino en la dieta. Materiales y métodos. La dieta de las aves fue formulada con niveles de 0 (L0, 10 (L10, 15 (L15 y 20% (L20 de linaza. Se determinó la composición de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases y se evaluó la producción y calidad del huevo. Resultados. El porcentaje de producción de huevo fue superior en los grupos L0 y L15 (p<0.05 con 93,0 y 91,5% de producción comparada con 86,0 % en los grupos L10 y L20. La mejor conversión de alimento se presentó también en los grupos L0 y L15. Con la inclusión de semilla de lino, se incrementó el contenido de ácidos grasos n-3 desde 3,0 % en el grupo L0 hasta 12,6 % en el grupo L20, siendo los ácidos grasos n-3 á-linolénico (C18:3, n-3 y docosahexahenóico (DHA, C22:6, n-3 los hallados en mayor concentración. Con la inclusión de linaza en la dieta de las gallinas ponedoras se redujo el contenido de acido linoleico (C18:2n-6, lo cual resultó en una disminución en la relación n-6: n-3. Conclusiones. Con base en la evaluación económica se concluye que es posible enriquecer la yema de huevo de gallina hasta con un 10,1 % de ácidos grasos n-3 mediante la inclusión de un 15 % de linaza en la dieta de las gallinas, sin embargo, esto representó un sobrecosto de producción del 12%.

  1. A genome-wide analysis of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) dirigent protein family: from gene identification and evolution to differential regulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Drouet, Samantha; Markulin, Lucija; Auguin, Daniel; Laine, Eric; Davin, Laurence B.; Cort, John R.; Lewis, Norman G.; Hano, Christophe

    2018-04-30

    Identification of DIR encoding genes in flax genome. Analysis of phylogeny, gene/protein structures and evolution. Identification of new conserved motifs linked to biochemical functions. Investigation of spatio-temporal gene expression and response to stress. Dirigent proteins (DIRs) were discovered during 8-8' lignan biosynthesis studies, through identification of stereoselective coupling to afford either (+)- or (-)-pinoresinols from E-coniferyl alcohol. DIRs are also involved or potentially involved in terpenoid, allyl/propenyl phenol lignan, pterocarpan and lignin biosynthesis. DIRs have very large multigene families in different vascular plants including flax, with most still of unknown function. DIR studies typically focus on a small subset of genes and identification of biochemical/physiological functions. Herein, a genome-wide analysis and characterization of the predicted flax DIR 44-membered multigene family was performed, this species being a rich natural grain source of 8-8' linked secoisolariciresinol-derived lignan oligomers. All predicted DIR sequences, including their promoters, were analyzed together with their public gene expression datasets. Expression patterns of selected DIRs were examined using qPCR, as well as through clustering analysis of DIR gene expression. These analyses further implicated roles for specific DIRs in (-)-pinoresinol formation in seed-coats, as well as (+)-pinoresinol in vegetative organs and/or specific responses to stress. Phylogeny and gene expression analysis segregated flax DIRs into six distinct clusters with new cluster-specific motifs identified. We propose that these findings can serve as a foundation to further systematically determine functions of DIRs, i.e. other than those already known in lignan biosynthesis in flax and other species. Given the differential expression profiles and inducibility of the flax DIR family, we provisionally propose that some DIR genes of unknown function could be involved in different aspects of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and plant defense.

  2. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of 60 Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3, depending on the percentage of linseed added to the bread. The linseed addition was effective to raise the level of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. But, the irradiation decrease the level of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 of the three kinds of bread. The irradiation did not influence the quality of the obtained bread. The sample tasters, not trained, accepted the bread independently of the doses of applied radiation. The ADQ test evidenced that the sensorial characteristics of the samples depend on the ingredient variation used on the formulas and on the radiation. The irradiated samples presented mold counting considerably lower than the non-irradiated samples, which increased the shelf-life of those products. The survey reveals that the majority of the people interviewed has little or any knowledge about radiation and believe that the irradiation can generate some kind of harm for human beings. Therefore, the bread production enriched with mashed linseed and submitted to gamma radiation is promising, given that the chemical and sensorial properties were considered satisfactory, besides the increasing of the shelf-time. (author)

  3. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside from Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. with Further Purification by an Aqueous Two-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jian Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a two-step extraction methodology of ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (IL-UAE and ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system (IL-ATPS was developed for the extraction and purification of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG from flaxseed. In the IL-UAE step, several kinds of ILs were investigated as the extractants, to identify the IL that affords the optimum extraction yield. The extraction conditions such as IL concentration, ultrasonic irradiation time, and liquid–solid ratio were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. In the IL-ATPS step, ATPS formed by adding kosmotropic salts to the IL extract was used for further separation and purification of SDG. The most influential parameters (type and concentration of salt, temperature, and pH were investigated to obtain the optimum extraction efficiency. The maximum extraction efficiency was 93.35% under the optimal conditions of 45.86% (w/w IL and 8.27% (w/w Na2SO4 at 22 °C and pH 11.0. Thus, the combination of IL-UAE and IL-ATPS makes up a simple and effective methodology for the extraction and purification of SDG. This process is also expected to be highly useful for the extraction and purification of bioactive compounds from other important medicinal plants.

  4. Effect of Pre-nutrion of Flax Seed Oil (Linum Usitatissimum on the amount of Cerebral ischemic lesion and motor nerve disorders in animal model rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Stroke is the third death agent (factor in industrial countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. With regard to high content of antioxidant materials in flax seed oil like &alpha-linolenic acid, lignan as well as phenolic combinations like secoisolarisirsinol (SDG, this study performed for studding relationship between of cerebral ischemic lesion and motor-nerve disorders in model of stroke in rat. Methods: in the study, 35 male mice from strain Wistar divided to 5 groups. The groups included control, sham and 3 experimental groups. They received doses 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg from flax seed oil orally. By gavage for 30 days two control and sham groups received aqua distillate (distil water. Two hours after the last gavaged dose, overly group with 7 pieces operated for measurement of the amount of cerebral lesion and motor-nerve disorders. (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model. Middle cerebral Artery Occlusion by the model resulted in local ischemic stroke in animal. Data analyzed by software SPSS, test ANOVA and disorders by test mann-Whitney. Findings: Average of records of motor-nerve disorders decreased significantly in group with dose 0.5 and 0.75 using flax seed oil (P<0.05. The amount of cerebral ischemic lesion in doses 0.5 and 0.75 than to control group is indicated meaning full different, but percent of the total cerebral lesion in control group in compared group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaningful different. Percent of the amount of ischemic lesion in region penumbra in group 0.75 and 0.5 than to control group is indicated meaningful different, but percent of the amount of lesion in region penumbra in control group in compared region penumbra in group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaning full different. Results: Findings of the study indicated that flax seed oil, particular in doses 0.5 and 0.75 resulted to decrease of the amount of cerebral ischemic lesion and decrease of motor-nerve disorders in animal model of stroke.

  5. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3 in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Wang

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3, which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  7. Some studies on the composition and surface properties of oil bodies from the seed cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and linseed (Linum ustatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, C R; Bertaud, W S; Shaw, B D; Holland, R; Browse, J; Wright, H

    1980-01-01

    1. The average oil-body diameter in intact cells of developing linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) cotyledons was similar (about 1.4 micrometer), and there was little change in size after oil bodies were isolated and repeatedly washed. 2. The glycerolipid composition of washed oil bodies from both developing and mature cotyledons of the two species was similar; oil bodies from ten different batches of cotyledons contained 4.3 +/- 0.16 mumol of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine and 25.2 +/- 1.7 mumol of diacylglycerol per 1000 mumol of triacylglycerol. During four successive washings of a once-washed oil-body preparation, the proportion of diacylglycerol to triacylglycerol remained constant and that of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine to triacylglycerol decreased by only 20%. 3. The protein content of thrice-washed oil bodies from the two species was similar, about 2.4% of the weight of glycerolipids, and appeared to be independent of the stage of cotyledon maturity. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated that the protein of purified oil bodies from the two species consisted mainly of only four polypeptides and that two of the polypeptides from each species had apparent mol.wts. of 17500 and 15500. Similar patterns of polypeptides were obtained after the hydrolysis of the 15500-mol.wt. polypeptides from linseed and safflower oil bodies by Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, whereas the proteolysis of the 17500-mol.wt. polypeptides from the two species produced different patterns of polypeptides. 4. The 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine in oil-body preparations was hydrolysed about 85% by bee-venom phospholipase A2 without any apparent coalescence of the oil bodies. Incubation with lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus caused rapid coalescence of the oil bodies, and this lipase appeared to initially hydrolyse diacylglycerols in preference to triacylglycerol. 5. Oil bodies from both species were almost completely dispersed in suspensions of

  8. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum); Efeitos da radiacao ionizante de cobalto-60 nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas sensoriais e microbiolgicas de paes com adicao de linhaca (Linum usitatissimum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of {sup 60}Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3, depending on the percentage of linseed added to the bread. The linseed addition was effective to raise the level of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. But, the irradiation decrease the level of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 of the three kinds of bread. The irradiation did not influence the quality of the obtained bread. The sample tasters, not trained, accepted the bread independently of the doses of applied radiation. The ADQ test evidenced that the sensorial characteristics of the samples depend on the ingredient variation used on the formulas and on the radiation. The irradiated samples presented mold counting considerably lower than the non-irradiated samples, which increased the shelf-life of those products. The survey reveals that the majority of the people interviewed has little or any knowledge about radiation and believe that the irradiation can generate some kind of harm for human beings. Therefore, the bread production enriched with mashed linseed and submitted to gamma radiation is promising, given that the chemical and sensorial properties were considered satisfactory, besides the increasing of the shelf-time. (author)

  9. Digestibilidade aparente, crescimento folicular e concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos de éguas recebendo concentrado com semente de linhaça integral (Linum usitatissimum L. = Apparent digestibility, follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites of mares receiving concentrate with whole linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Schimmack Pedro Soncin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para se avaliar a inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de éguas por meio da avaliação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e seuefeito no crescimento folicular e na concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos. Foram utilizadas 16 éguas, alimentadas com dois concentrados, sendo um sem semente de linhaça integral e outro com10% de semente de linhaça integral, utilizando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa para a MS, MM, PB, FB, FDN, FDA eEE. Para determinação dos parâmetros reprodutivos (duração do estro, intervalo entre aplicação da prostaglandina F2 alfa e o estro e tamanho do folículo ovulatório e sanguíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos, progesterona, colesterol total, HDL, LDL e VLDL, os animais receberam prostaglandina F2 alfa na dose de 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 e no décimo dia, após ovulação, foi realizada a coleta de sangue. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral aumentou (p 0,05 entre os dois tratamentos para os CDa da PB e EE. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de equinosmelhorou a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, em especial da fração fibrosa da dieta e não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos e sanguíneos.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of mares through the evaluation of the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and their effect inthe follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites. Sixteen mares were used, fed with two concentrates – one without whole linseed and the other with 10% whole linseed, using a randomized experimental design. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC were measured for DM, MM, CP, CF, NDF, ADF and EE. In order to determine the reproductive parameters (duration of the estrus, interval between application of the prostaglandin F2 alpha and the estrus, and size of the ovulatory follicle and blood parameters (glucose, triglycerides, progesterone, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL, the animals received prostaglandin F2 alpha in the dose of 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 and in the 10th day after ovulation the collection of blood was conducted. The inclusion of whole linseed increased (p 0.05 between both treatments for the ADC of CP and EE. The inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of equines improved the apparent digestibiliy of the nutrients, especially of the fibrous fraction of the diet, and it did result inalterations in reproductive and blood parameters.

  10. Investigation of Linum flavum (L. Hairy Root Cultures for the Production of Anticancer Aryltetralin Lignans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Renouard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Linum flavum hairy root lines were established from hypocotyl pieces using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and ATCC 15834. Both strains were effective for transformation but induction of hairy root phenotype was more stable with strain ATCC 15834. Whereas similar accumulation patterns were observed in podophyllotoxin-related compounds (6-methoxy-podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin, significant quantitative variations were noted between root lines. The influence of culture medium and various treatments (hormone, elicitation and precursor feeding were evaluated. The highest accumulation was obtained in Gamborg B5 medium. Treatment with methyl jasmonate, and feeding using ferulic acid increased the accumulation of aryltetralin lignans. These results point to the use of hairy root culture lines of Linum flavum as potential sources for these valuable metabolites as an alternative, or as a complement to Podophyllum collected from wild stands.

  11. A biorefinery concept using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the coproduction of bioethanol and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Yahmed, Nesrine; Jmel, Mohamed Amine; Ben Alaya, Monia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Marzouki, M. Nejib; Smaali, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chaetomorpha linum was used as sustainable feedstock for co-production of bioethanol and biomethane. • An eco-friendly process was developed, only generating 0.3 ± 0.01 g/g of waste. • Ethanol yield obtained was 0.41 g/g reducing sugar. • Methane yield obtained was 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. - Abstract: An innovative integrated biorefinery approach using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was investigated in the present study for the co-production of bioethanol and biogas. Among three pretreatments of C. linum biomass, consisting of acidic, neutral and alkali ones, 3% NaOH pretreatment gave the best result in terms of thallus disintegration, biomass recovery and enzymatic digestibility as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and saccharification tests. The hydrolysis of C. linum feedstock with a crude specific enzyme preparation, locally produced from fermentation of Aspergillus awamori, at 45 °C, pH 5 for 30 h gave the maximum yield of fermentable sugar of 0.22 ± 0.02 g/g dry substrate. An ethanol yield of 0.41 g/g reducing sugar corresponding to about 0.093 g/g pretreated algae was obtained after alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the integrated proposed process, mycelium issued from the fungal fermentation, liquid issued from alkali pretreatment, residual from the non-hydrolysable biomass and all effluents and co-products represent a heterogeneous substrate that feed an anaerobic digester for biogas production. GC-analysis of this later showed that the biomethane yield reached 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. This study presents therefore an eco-friendly biorefining process, which efficiently coproduce bioethanol and biomethane and generate only a single waste (0.3 ± 0.01 g/g) allowing an almost complete conversion of the algal biomass.

  12. New biotechnological systems for the research on aryltetralin lignans in Linum album

    OpenAIRE

    Lalaleo Córdova, Liliana Paulina

    2017-01-01

    [spa] Linum album es una planta herbácea con interés farmacológico debido a su alto contenido de podofilotoxina (PTOX), el cual es un lignano de característica ariltetralin con actividad citotóxica. El estudio de las alternativas biotecnológicas ha generado gran interés. Los cultivos in vitro de órganos y células ofrecen la posibilidad de suministrar aryltetralin lignanos en acuerdo con una utilización sostenible y racional de la biodiversidad, sin embargo necesitan ser mejorados. Por tanto, ...

  13. Optimization of enzymatic saccharification of Chaetomorpha linum biomass for the production of macroalgae-based third generation bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Slaheddine Masmoudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of marine macro-algae Chaetomorpha linum as a potential biofuel resource, the effects of the enzymatic treatment conditions on sugar yield were evaluated using a three factor three level Box-Behnken design. The hydrothermally pretreated C. linum biomass was treated with Aspergillus niger cellulase at various liquid to solid ratios (50–100 mL/g, enzyme concentrations (10–60 U/g and incubations times (4–44 h. Data obtained from the response surface methodology were subjected to the analysis of variance and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. The fitted model was found to be robust and was used to optimize the sugar yield (% during enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum saccharification conditions were: L/S ratio 100 mL/g; enzyme concentration 52 U/g; and time 44 h. Their application led to a maximum sugar yield of 30.2 g/100g dry matter. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of the algal hydrolysate provided 8.6 g ethanol/100g dry matter. These results showed a promising future of applying C. linum biomass as potential feedstock for third generation bioethanol production.

  14. Transcript profiling and gene characterization of three fatty acid desaturase genes in high, moderate, and low linolenic acid genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their role in linolenic acid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Mitali; Duguid, Scott; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    Three genes encoding fatty acid desaturase 3 (fad3a, fad3b, and a novel fad3c) were cloned from four flax genotypes varying in linolenic acid content. Real-time PCR was used to quantify expression levels of the three fad3 genes during seed development. High amounts of both fad3a and fad3b transcripts were observed and reached their peak levels at 20 days after anthesis, except for fad3a from SP2047 where only low level expression was observed throughout seed development. Transcript accumulation of the novel fad3c gene was at similar background levels. The fatty acid composition was analysed for all genotypes and stages of development and compared with the fad3 gene expression patterns. α-Linolenic acid gradually accumulated during seed development, while linoleic acid was transient and decreased in M5791, UGG5-5, and AC McDuff. In contrast, the linolenic acid present in the early stages of development nearly completely disappeared in SP2047, while linoleic acid steadily accumulated. fad3a of the low linolenic acid line SP2047 encoded a truncated protein caused by a premature stop codon resulting from a single point mutation, and the low level of transcript accumulation in this genotype is likely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay caused by the premature termination of translation as a result of this early stop codon. Although substantial amounts of transcript accumulation occurred with fad3b of SP2047 genotype, cloning of the gene revealed a mutation in the first histidine box causing an amino acid change. Heterologous expression in yeast of the SP2047 and UGG5-5 fad3b genes showed that the mutation in the histidine box in SP2047 caused the enzyme inactivity. Taken together, these results showed that fad3a and fad3b are responsible for linolenic acid accumulation in flax seeds but did not support a major role for the novel fad3c. These observations were further supported by phenotypic and genotypic assessment of a doubled haploid population. Expression patterns of fad3a and fad3b were highly correlated with linolenic acid accumulation during seed development, with the exception of fad3b in SP2047 whose lack of activity was caused by the histidine box mutation despite its transcript accumulation being similar to that of the fad3b of the other genotypes.

  15. AN In vitro ASSESSMENT OF SUPPLEMENTARY EFFECT OF CONCENTRATES CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF GROUND LINSEED (Linum usitatissimum TO HOUSEHOLD WASTES ON ORGANIC MATTER DEGRADABILITY, SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS, MICROBIAL PROTEIN, METABOLIZABLE ENERGY AND RELATIVE FEED VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegene Negesse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to assess effect of level of linseed inclusion in feeds on nutritive value, an in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD, total short chain fatty acids (SCFA:mMol l-1, microbial crude protein (MCP:g kg-1 DM, metabolizable energy (MEruminants:MJ kg-1 DM and relative feed values (RFV of household wastes=HW (Areke-Atela=AA, carrot peels=CaP, cabbage leaf=Cle, cabbage leftover=Clef, onion leaf=OL, onion peels=OP, potato peels=PP, Tela-Atela=TA supplemented with linseed (LS containing concentrates=LSC1…LSC5 (39.32, 37.32, 35.32, 33.32, 31.32% noug cake + 58.99% wheat bran + 1.69% salt + 0, 2, 4, 6, 8% LS, as fed basis were estimated via an in vitro gas trial. HWs were mixed with LSC (LSC-HW at 3:1 ratio. Samples were incubated in-vitro with rumen fluid in duplicate and readings recorded at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. LSC-HW mixtures had higher CP, IVDMD, IVOMD, ME and SCFA, MCP and RFV than those of HWs alone. IVDMD and IVOMD of the LSC-HW improved with increasing LS levels, mostly at 2 and 4%LSC; but at higher concentrations they declined.  AA, TA had high IVOMD. However, IVDMD of AA (with the lowest IVDMD was much more influenced than TA (with highest IVDMD by LS levels. Clef had lowest and AA and TA highest ME. SCFA increased over incubation periods and with increasing levels of LS, in Clef improvement (from 0.25 to 0.61 mMol l-1 was significant but in AA (from 0.69 to 0.72 mMol l-1 moderate. Mixing HWs with LSC gave best results at 2%LSC.

  16. SUPPRESSION OF MAMMARY CARCINOMAS BY ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: PART I. EFFECT OF EXTRACTION METHODS ON QUALITY AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF OIL FROM FLAXSEED (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Vanita S. Bhat; Basavaraj Madhusudhan.

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutic role of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in human health and disease is gaining remarkable attention in food products, formulations and supplements. Flaxseed oil is also one among the best sources of ALA. In this paper, effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of oil from finely ground flaxseed flour is compared to the other two conventional extraction methods. The yields of oils in cold pressed method (30.14%), ultrasonic extraction (48.05%) and Soxhlet extracted (43.01%) were measured. ...

  17. Yield, SDG lignan, cadmium, lead, oil and protein contents of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated in trials and at different farm conditions in the south-western part of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketta Saastamoinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed varieties were studied in variety trials and under farm conditions in south-western Finland in the years 2007−2010. The variation in yield, oil, protein, SDG lignan, cadmium and lead contents were studied in 8 oil and 2 fibre linseed varieties. Genotypic, environmental and genotype x environment interaction variance estimates were calculated. Fibre varieties ‘Belinka’ and ‘Martta’ had higher protein and lower oil contents than oil linseed varieties.The SDG lignan contents of linseed varieties varied between 3635−9560 mg kg-1. Rather high genotypic variance was found in yield, oil, protein and SDG lignan contents. Variety ‘Laser’ had lower SDG lignan content. ‘Abacus’, ‘Helmi’ and ‘Martta’ had the highest SDG lignan contents. Variation in cadmium and lead contents were caused by environmental effects. The highest cadmium contents, 0.82−1.69 mg kg-1, were found in soils fertilized by wastewater sludge about 20 years ago and at fields with low bottom soil pH (4.1−4.5.

  18. Digestibilidade aparente, crescimento folicular e concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos de éguas recebendo concentrado com semente de linhaça integral (Linum usitatissimum L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.598 Apparent digestibility, follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites of mares receiving concentrate with whole linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.598

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aparecida Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para se avaliar a inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de éguas por meio da avaliação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e seu efeito no crescimento folicular e na concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos. Foram utilizadas 16 éguas, alimentadas com dois concentrados, sendo um sem semente de linhaça integral e outro com 10% de semente de linhaça integral, utilizando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa para a MS, MM, PB, FB, FDN, FDA e EE. Para determinação dos parâmetros reprodutivos (duração do estro, intervalo entre aplicação da prostaglandina F2 alfa e o estro e tamanho do folículo ovulatório e sanguíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos, progesterona, colesterol total, HDL, LDL e VLDL, os animais receberam prostaglandina F2 alfa na dose de 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 e no décimo dia, após ovulação, foi realizada a coleta de sangue. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral aumentou (p 0,05 entre os dois tratamentos para os CDa da PB e EE. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de equinos melhorou a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, em especial da fração fibrosa da dieta e não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos e sanguíneosThe experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of mares through the evaluation of the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and their effect in the follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites. Sixteen mares were used, fed with two concentrates – one without whole linseed and the other with 10% whole linseed, using a randomized experimental design. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC were measured for DM, MM, CP, CF, NDF, ADF and EE. In order to determine the reproductive parameters (duration of the estrus, interval between application of the prostaglandin F2 alpha and the estrus, and size of the ovulatory follicle and blood parameters (glucose, triglycerides, progesterone, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL, the animals received prostaglandin F2 alpha in the dose of 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 and in the 10th day after ovulation the collection of blood was conducted. The inclusion of whole linseed increased (p 0.05 between both treatments for the ADC of CP and EE. The inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of equines improved the apparent digestibiliy of the nutrients, especially of the fibrous fraction of the diet, and it did result in alterations in reproductive and blood parameters

  19. Küsimused ja ohvrite omaste lein Beslanis / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Kui Venemaa ametliku info kohaselt ei kavandanud Vene eriüksused Põhja-Osseetias Beslanis pantvangikriisiga seoses pealetungi, siis Tšetšeenia infoallikad on teisel seisukohal. Lisa: Kronoloogia. Vt. samas: Pantvangistajateks kaukaasia rahvaste ja araablaste ühiskomando

  20. Anti-HIV-1 activities of the extracts from the medicinal plant Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources e.g. Ixora undulata, Paulownia tomentosa, Fortunella margarita, Aegle marmelos and Erythrina abyssinica, the different organic and aqueous extracts of Linum grandiflorum leaves and seeds were evaluated in vitro by the microculture...... tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The activity of the tested extracts against multiplication of HIV-1 wild type IIIB, N119, A17, and EFVR in acutely infected cells was based on inhibition of virus-induced cytopathicity in MT-4 cells. Results revealed that both the MeOH and the CHCl3 extracts of L. grandiflorum have...... significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced infection with MT-4 cells. The MeOH extract of the leaves is more potent than other extracts against MT-4 cell cultures infected with the wild type HIV-1, strain IIIB with an ED50 of 46 ± 6 µM, while the CHCl3 extract of the seeds is more potent than other...

  1. Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wang, Feng; Liu, Bingjian; Liu, Xujia; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We conducted an annual survey of bloom-forming macroalgae in a lagoon. • C. linum biomass reached 1712 ± 780 g DW m −2 at the northern part of the lagoon. • Macroalgae δ 15 N values indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the blooms. • High nutrient concentrations near the river mouth supported the blooms. • C. linum blooms induced the loss of seagrasses and benthic filter feeders. - Abstract: Seagrasses that are distributed over a large area of the Swan Lake, Weihai, China, support a productive ecosystem. In recent years, however, frequent macroalgal blooms have changed the ecosystem structure and threatened the seagrasses. To understand the bloom-forming macroalgae we conducted a yearly field survey of Swan Lake. Results indicated that the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa both exhibited a much higher productivity and attained a greater maximum biomass (of 1712 ± 780 g DW m −2 and 1511 ± 555 g DW m −2 , respectively) than was the case for the seagrasses. The mean annual atomic ratios of C/N, C/P and N/P in C. linum were 14.31 ± 4.45, 402.82 ± 130.25, and 28.12 ± 2.08, respectively. The δ 15 N values (11.09 ± 0.91‰ for C. linum; 9.27 ± 2.83‰ for U. pertusa) indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the macroalgal blooms. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lagoon, particularly near the river mouth, supported the blooms

  2. Isolation and characterization of Linum usitatisimum polysaccharide to prepare mucoadhesive beads of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib Hasnain, M; Rishishwar, Poonam; Rishishwar, Sanjay; Ali, Sadath; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The present research deals with the usefulness of isolated linseed polysaccharide (LP) as polymeric-blends with an anionic polymer, sodium alginate to prepare ionotropically cross-linking gelled mucoadhesive beads for controlled drug release. From the mature and ripe linseeds (Linum usitatisimum; family Liliaceae), LP was isolated and its colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity were studied. Isolated LP was also characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR analyses. LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium were formulated via ionotropically crosslinking gelation method using calcium chloride as ionotropic crosslinker. These ionotropically crosslinked beads showed diclofenac sodium encapsulation efficiencies in these newly prepared beads were 60.78 ± 2.47 to 93.16 ± 4.08% and average bead-sizes of 1.17 ± 0.10 to 1.33 ± 0.12 mm. All LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium demonstrated a sustained drug releasing profile over 8 h with a zero-order model of drug releasing (controlled drug releasing pattern). The LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium displayed a pH responsive swelling and excellent biomucoadhesivity prospective with the intestinal mucosal tissue in both the acidic and alkaline pH (pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively). These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. USDA Flax fiber utilization research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...

  4. The biophysics of plant cell wall degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Digaitis, Ramūnas

    different lignocellulosic biomass materials, namely flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibres and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) veneers. Mechanical and enzymatic treatments were applied either individually, simultaneously or in a sequential manner, where enzymatic hydrolysis was preceded or proceeded...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 11, No 11 (2012), Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid, Abstract ... solvents extracted samples of Linum usitatissimum by disc diffusion method ... Antimicrobial activities of the bacteriocin-like substances produced by lactic ...

  6. Chernobyl Doses. Volume 3. Habitat and Vegetation Near the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare, Avena sativa, Fagopyrum esculentum, Beta vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Linum usitatissimum , Cannabis satii, Humulus lupulus, Daucus carota... USITATISSIMUM flax It is grown for fiber. Fine-quality fiber can be obtained from plants grown on podzolic and gley soils with considerable fertilizing. In the

  7. Qualidade protéica de pão de sal contendo farinha de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L.
    Protein quality of “french” bread containing flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. S. BORGES

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As proteínas são moléculas essenciais aos organismos animais, devendo, portanto, estar presentes na alimentação em quantidades adequadas. Além do aspecto quantitativo deve-se considerar o aspecto qualitativo, isto é, seu valor nutricional, que dependerá da composição, digestibilidade, biodisponibilidade de aminoácidos essenciais, ausência de toxicidade e de fatores antinutricionais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a digestibilidade in vivo e a qualidade nutricional de proteínas de pães de sal obtidos com farinhas mistas de trigo e linhaça integral nas proporções de 90:10 e 85:15. Os melhores resultados para ganho de peso, coefi ciente de efi cácia alimentar, coefi ciente de efi cácia protéica e razão protéica líquida foram obtidos quando maior teor de farinha de trigo foi substituído pela farinha integral de linhaça na formulação dos pães. A lisina foi o primeiro aminoácido limitante em todos os produtos elaborados. A substituição parcial da farinha de trigo pela farinha de linhaça não melhorou a qualidade protéica dos pães estudados.

  8. ELABORAÇÃO DE RÓTULO NUTRICIONAL PARA PÃES DE FORMA COM ADIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE LINHAÇA (LINUM USITATISSIMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEILA CAMARGO DE MOURA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os efeitos benéficos que o consumo da linhaça proporcionam à saúde são decorrentes da presença de substâncias bioativas, em especial os ácidos graxos polinsaturados (Omega 3 e Omega 6, compostos fenólicos e fi bras. O presente trabalho teve por objetivos: verificar a influência da linhaça nas características químicas de pães de forma; comparar os rótulos nutricionais dos pães com as diferentes quantidades de linhaça adicionadas aos mesmos e analisar as conseqüências de se expressar a composição química dos produtos conforme estabelecido pela RDC 359 e RDC 360 para a elaboração dos rótulos nutricionais dos alimentos. As concentrações de semente de linhaça marrom testadas foram: 0%, 3%, 6% e 9%. Os pães de forma foram preparados na planta de panifi cação experimental da escola Senai “Mário Dedini” de Piracicaba e as análises químicas foram realizadas no Laboratório de Bromatologia da ESALQ/USP. O pão com 9% de linhaça apresentou a maior quantidade de gorduras mono e poliinsaturadas. A relação Omega 3:6 também foi maior para a amostra com 9% de linhaça sendo que a proporção desses nutrientes foi de 1:1 por porção de 25 g. A gordura trans não foi identifi cada em nenhum dos produtos estudados.

  9. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 12 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertigation of stillage in the culture of brown and golden linseed (Linum usitatissimum) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Paulo Andre Cremonez, Armin Feiden, Reginaldo Ferreira Santos, Joel Gustavo Teleken, Douglas Bassegio, Filipe Eliazar ...

  10. Influence of salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium tolerance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dose-dependent changes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance, non-protein thiol (NP-SH) production and their relationship were investigated in sixteen-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings derived from seeds pre-soaked with various salicylic acid (SA) doses and grown hydroponically under increased Cd concentrations ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 651 - 700 of 1323 ... L Wang, X Wang, J Zhang, Z Yang, Y Liu, D Cui, Z Qin, J Meng, X Kong, ... and wound healing activity of the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa l. ... antioxidant activities and phenolic constituents of field-grown and in ... Vol 14, No 3 (2017), Evaluation of crude flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil in burn ...

  12. Physicochemical characterisation of hexanic seed oil extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nyakudya, Trevor

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Erlwanger4, Mazuru B. Gundidza5, Michael L. Magwa6 and Perkin Muredzi7 ... possess several physiological side effects, hence the .... Physical and chemical properties of S. molle seed oil ..... composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on ... cultivars (Linum usitatissimum L.). Gen.

  13. Production of flax fibers for biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural fibers for many and varied industrial uses are a current area of intense interest. Production of these fibers, furthermore, can add to farmer incomes and promote agricultural sustainability. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), which has been used for thousands of years, is unparalleled in supplyi...

  14. Flaxseed lignan and visceral obesity: a closer look at its chemical properties, absorption, metabolism, bioavailability and effects on visceral fat, lipid profile, systemic inflammation and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linum usitatissimum (Flax) is an important flowering crop plant cultivated world-wide. Particularly, flaxseeds have been cherished as a valuable agricultural commodity for many years, because they contain fiber, protein, oil, lignan and others. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a major lign...

  15. Functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas: Exploitation of soil patches with different phosphate enrichment differs among fungal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavagnaro, T.R.; Smith, F.A.; Smith, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    . This was studied by growing symbioses of Linum usitatissimum and three AMF (Glomus intraradices, G. mosseae and Gigaspora margarita) in pots with two side-arms, which were accessible to hyphae, but not to roots. Soil in one side-arm was either unamended (P0) or enriched with P; simultaneous labelling of this soil...

  16. Improvement for oil content in linseed by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.K.; Srivastava, S.; Prasad, P.R.; Haider, Z.A. (Tirhut Coll. of Agriculture, Dholi, Bihar (India))

    1981-11-01

    A comparison of various doses of X-rays on linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) indicated that isolates with high yield and oil content could be obtained with 40, 50 and 60 kR doses in 'NP 5' and with 30 kR in 'T 397' varieties.

  17. Irrigation and cultivar effect on flax fiber and seed yield in the southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a potential winter crop for the Southeast USA that can be grown for both seed and fiber. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on flax straw, fiber, and seed yield of fiber-type and seed-type cultivars at different flax growth stage...

  18. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in southeastern USA harvested flax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a winter crop in the Southeast USA that has potential in double cropping systems. This research was conducted to provide estimates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) removal in the harvested portions of the cro...

  19. Improvement for oil content in linseed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Srivastava, S.; Prasad, P.R.; Haider, Z.A.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of various doses of X-rays on linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) indicated that isolates with high yield and oil content could be obtained with 40, 50 and 60 kR doses in 'NP 5' and with 30 kR in 'T 397' varieties. (author)

  20. Development of embryo-like structures in the suspension cultures of flax coincides with secretion of chitinase-like proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovská, Beáta; Salaj, T.; Moravčíková, J.; Libantová, J.; Salaj, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2010), s. 651-656 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Conditioned media * Embryo-like structures * Linum usitatissimum L Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  1. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the third largest natural fiber crop and one of the five major oil crops in the world. ... These novel polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful in genetic linkage map construction, germplasm classification and identification, gene identification and QTL mapping, and marker-assisted selection ...

  2. Interaction of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia: Effects on flax yield in spoil-bank clay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Sudová, Radka; Gryndler, M.; Mikanová, O.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 1 (2011), s. 128-134 ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Linum usitatissimum * Glomus * Sinorhizobium Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.596, year: 2011

  3. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on growth, chlorophyll content and tissue composition of the macroalga Chaetomorpha linum (O.F. Müll, Kütz, in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Menéndez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dissolved nutrients on growth, nutrient content and uptake rates of Chaetomorpha linum in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Tancada, Ebro delta, NE Spain was studied in laboratory experiments. Water was enriched with distinct forms of nitrogen, such as nitrate or ammonium and phosphorus. Enrichment with N, P or with both nutrients resulted in a significant increase in the tissue content of these nutrients. N-enrichment was followed by an increase in chlorophyll content after 4 days of treatment, although the difference was only significant when nitrate was added without P. P-enrichment had no significant effect on chlorophyll content. In all the treatments an increase in biomass was obseved after 10 days. This increase was higher in the N+P treatments. In all the treatments the uptake rate was significantly higher when nutrients were added than in control jars. The uptake rate of N, as ammonium, and P were significantly higher when they were added alone while that of N as nitrate was higher in the N+P treatment. In the P-enriched cultures, the final P-content of macroalgal tissues was ten-fold that of the initial tissue concentrations, thereby indicating luxury P-uptake. Moreover, at the end of the incubation the N:P ratio increased to 80, showing that P rather than N was the limiting factor for C. linum in the Tancada lagoon. The relatively high availability of N is related to the N inputs from rice fields that surround the lagoon and to P binding in sediments.

  4. Phytoremediation of Pharmaceuticals - Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kotyza, J. (Jan); Soudek, P. (Petr); Kafka, Z.; Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the media during eight days. To...

  5. The effect of cytokinins on flax seed germination at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Niedźwiedź-Siegień

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L., cv. Szafir at 5oC was enhanced by continuous white light, gibberellin A3 (GA3, kinetin and benzylaminopurine. GA3 and kinetin at physiological concentrations (10-8-10-6 M improved significantly germination in darkness. Stimulatory effect of benzylaminopurine was visible only in the light. Almost no effect of zeatin and isopentenyladenine (2iP on germination was observed. Possible causes of this differences were suggested.

  6. Moderately inhibitory effects of N-dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylpiperidinium and N-dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylmorpholinium chlorides on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław J. Knypl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-Dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylpiperidinium chloride (DMMP and N-dodecyloxyme-thylene-N-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMMM retarded germination of seeds of 9 cultivated plant species when applied at a concentration of 10-3 M, and inhibited germination at a concentration of 10-2 M. The exceptions were represented by Lepidium sativum L. and Linum usitatissimum L. seeds which germinated well even in 10-2 M solutions of either DMMP or DMMM.

  7. Assessment of energy return on energy investment (EROEI) of oil bearing crops for renewable fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    A. Restuccia; S. Failla; D. Longo; L. Caruso; I. Mallia; G. Schillaci

    2013-01-01

    As reported in literature the production of biodiesel should lead to a lower energy consumption than those obtainable with its use. So, to justify its consumption, a sustainable and “low input” production should be carried out. In order to assess the sustainability of Linum usitatissimum, Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata cultivation for biodiesel production in terms of energy used compared to that obtained, the index EROEI (Energy Return On Energy Invested) has been used. At this aim, an...

  8. Methyl Salicylate Level Increase in Flax after Fusarium oxysporum Infection Is Associated with Phenylpropanoid Pathway Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Kostyn, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Dziadas, Mariusz; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in re...

  9. Ensaio de variedades de linho em diferentes épocas. Comportamento fenológico e produção Flax varieties trial at different seasons. Phenological behaviour and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de um ensaio, conduzido em Vila Real (Portugal no âmbito de uma parceria com a Universidade DeMontfort, visando avaliar o comportamento de variedades de linho, Linum usitatissimum L., em duas épocas de sementeira. Analisaram-se diversos parâmetros fenológicos e a produção obtida. Não se constataram diferenças entre as variedades mas a sementeira outonal revelou ser significativamente mais produtiva originando plantas mais altas e com maior diâmetro.We present the results of an experiment conducted in Vila Real (Portugal by a partnership with the University DeMontfort, to evaluate the behavior of varieties of linum (flax, Linum usitatissimum L., at two periods of sowing. We analyzed several phenological parameters and the production yield. No differences were registered between the varieties. However, the autumn sowing proved to be significantly more productive than the spring one, resulting in taller plants with larger diameter.

  10. New Phenolics from Linum mucronatum subsp. orientale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Zare

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The DCM and methanol extracts of L. mucronatum were found to contain aryltetralin-type lignans and flavonoids. The occurrence of 6-MeO-α- peltatin and flavonoids in L. mucronatum has been reported for the first time.

  11. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  12. Fate of 15N-labelled urea as affected by organic amendments and oils applied to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.R.; Singh, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possibility of using 2 organic compounds (p-benzoquinone and catechol), 2 oils (neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) oil) and 3 polyphenolic plant residues, viz. catechu (Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.), babul acacia (Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Del. sub.indica (Benth.) Brenan, syn. A. arabica (Lamk.) Willd.) and yellow myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz.) when applied with 15 N-tagged urea to observe their effectiveness in decreasing N losses. (author). 8 refs

  13. Radiation studies in linseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Haque, M.F.; Srivastava, S.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray treatment of varieties of lineseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in M 1 generation affected all the characters except seedling emergence and days to flowering. Vegetative characters like plant height, and number of primary and secondary branches were not affected as much as the reproductive characters like number of capsules/plant and number of seeds/capsule. The most affected character was pollen fertility, though there appeared to be scope for the use of still higher doses of X-ray (more than 100 kr) for creating wider variability. (author)

  14. TREHALOSE-BASED ADDITIVE IMPROVED INTER-PRIMER BINDING SITE REACTIONS FOR DNA ISOLATED FROM RECALCITRANT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Lancíková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-based (TBT-PAR additive was tested in order to optimize PCR amplification for DNA isolated from recalcitrant plants. Retrotransposon-based inter-primer binding site reactions were significantly improved with TBT-PAR solution using genomic DNA isolated from flax (Linum usitatissimum L., genotypes Kyivskyi, Bethune grown in radio-contaminated and non-radioactive remediated Chernobyl experimental fields. Additionally, similar improvements were observed using 19 recalcitrant genotypes of maize (Zea mays L. and three genotypes of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Poepp. et Endl., genotypes PER05, ECU45, BOL22 grown in standard field conditions.

  15. Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contextsin southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    . Although archaeobotanical records of oil plants are in most cases found in small numbers, they are often abundant at excavations in southern Scandinavia. This paper presents a diachronic review of plant records of fl ax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), both known for the dual use...... as to whether corn spurrey had been a cultivar or if the seeds had been collected from wild populations. KEYWORDS: Archaeobotany, oil-rich seeds, fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, corn spurrey, southern Scandinavia...

  16. Phytoremediation of pharmaceuticals--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyza, Jan; Soudek, Petr; Kafka, Zdenĕk; Vanĕk, Toás

    2010-03-01

    Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the media during eight days. Total removal of ibuprofen and diclofenac was achieved using a Linum usitatissimum suspension culture after one and six days, respectively. In the hydroponic arrangement, the best results were achieved for Lupinus, where acetaminophen was totally removed from media during two or four days in concentrations of 0.1 or 0.2 mM, respectively. The best effectiveness of ibuprofen removal (50% of starting amount) was found in case of Phragmites. Effectiveness of all tested plants for diclofenac removal was low. The best removal was achieved using Phragmites in the case of 0.2 mM concentration-67% of the starting amount and Hordeum for 0.1 mM starting concentration, 56%.

  17. Genotypical and environmental variability of fibre productivity and quality of linseed genotypes with a view to oil and short fibre utilization. Final report; Genotypische und umweltbedingte Variabilitaet der Faserleistung und -qualitaet von Oelleingenotypen im Hinblick auf die Nutzung von Oel und Kurzfaser. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diepenbrock, W.; Rennebaum, H.; Grimm, E.

    1999-10-01

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) was analyzed for combined utilization of oil and fibres. Effects of genotypical variabilities and environmental factors were investigated in field experiments in two sites (Dikopshof, Etzdorf) for three years (1995-1997). A comparison of selected genotypes showed that there is no genotype which combines the characteristics of high oil yield, long stem and good fibre characteristics. Of the eleven genotypes tested, eight were found to be suited, with restrictions, for double use and for further cultivation. [German] Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit steht die Evaluierung von Oellein (Linum usitatissimum L.) im Hinblick auf eine kombinierte Nutzung von Oel und Fasern. Oekonomische Vorteile werden aufgrund eines wachsenden Bedarfs an Pflanzenfasern, insbesondere ausserhalb textiler Verarbeitungslinien erwartet. Zur Pruefung genotypischer Variabilitaeten und dem Einfluss von Umweltfaktoren auf Ertrag, Ertragskomponenten und Faserqualitaet wurden Feldversuche an zwei Standorten (Dikopshof, Etzdorf) ueber drei Jahre (1995-1997) angelegt. Der Vergleich ausgewaehlter Genotypen zeigt, dass ein ausgesprochener Doppelnutzungstyp nicht vorliegt. Es fehlen Genotypen mit der Merkmalskomibnation: hoher Oelertrag, langer technischer Stengel und vorteilhafte Fasereigenschaften. Aus einer Gruppe von elf umfassend geprueften Genotypen sind acht mit Einschraenkungen fuer eine Doppelnutzung geeignet. Diese Genotypen kommen zugleich fuer eine pflanzenzuechterische Bearbeitung in Frage. (orig.)

  18. Методика определения площади листовой поверхности льна масличного (Linum usitatissimum L. на основе методов обработки и анализа изображений

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вера МАЛКИНА

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of high yields of agricultural crops is the result of photosynthesis, the process in which simple substances turn into energetically rich and complex organic compounds varying in their chemical composition. It is well known that the intensity of organic substances accumulation depends on the size of leaf surface, which is defined by the biometric parameters of plants and largely depends on their nutrition regime and also on the duration of leaf activity period. This paper presents the results of scientific investigations on the photosynthetic activity of linseed plants in the Steppe of Ukraine. The authors proposed a method to determine the leaf surface area of linseed, which consists of photographing leaf lamina and processing the obtained graphic files using a special software. The results of comparative assessment of the existing methods for determining leaf surface area on the example of linseed are presented. The advantage of using the methods of computer vision compared to other known methods was highlighted. Реферат. Формирование высокого урожая сельскохозяйственных растений является результатом фотосинтеза, в процессе которого из простых веществ образуются богатые энергией сложные и разнообразные по химическому составу органические соединения. Как известно, интенсивность накопления органических веществ зависит от величины листовой поверхности, которая определяется биометрическими параметрами растений и существенно зависит от режима их питания, а также продолжительности активной деятельности листьев. В статье изложены результаты научных исследований по изучению фотосинтетической деятельности растений льна масличного в Степи Украины. Авторами предложена методика по определению площади листовой поверхности льна масличного, которая заключается в фотографировании листовой пластины и обработке полученных графических файлов с помощью специального программного обеспечения. Изложены результаты сравнительной оценки существующих методов определения площади листовой поверхности на примере льна масличного. Выявлено преимущество использования методов компьютерного зрения перед другими известными методиками.

  19. Biotechnological approaches for producing aryltetralin lignans from Linum species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malik, S.; Bíba, Ondřej; Grúz, Jiří; Arroo, R.R.J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2014), s. 893-913 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-19590S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 6-Methoxypodophyllotoxin * Anticancer drugs * In vitro cultures Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2014

  20. Triacylglycerols of the seed oil of Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M.D.; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; Ali, Sanaa A.

    2018-01-01

    -flux anticancer-drug screening method was employed, and recorded IC50 values of 30±2.4, 30±2.5, >100, and >100 μg/mL against EL4, MCF7, PC3, and McCoy, respectively. In addition, the antihepatotoxic activity supplemented by a histopathological examination was done, and proved that, the oil enhanced all parameters...

  1. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-04-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  2. Vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-02-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  3. Molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of protein in brown and yellow flaxseed with altered nutrient traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Booker, Helen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical profiles; crude protein (CP) subfractions; ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP); and protein molecular structures using molecular spectroscopy of newly developed yellow-seeded flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Seeds from two yellow flaxseed breeding lines and two brown flaxseed varieties were evaluated. The yellow-seeded lines had higher (P RUP (29.2 vs 35.1% CP) than that in the brown-seeded varieties. However, the total supply of digestible RUP was not significantly different between the two seed types. Regression equations based on protein molecular structural features gave relatively good estimation for the contents of CP (R(2) = 0.87), soluble CP (R(2) = 0.92), RUP (R(2) = 0.97), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R(2) = 0.71). In conclusion, molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their nutritive value.

  4. Experimental investigations on the influence of the contrast medium Iopamiro 300 mixed with vegetal mucus on the nasolacrimal system and external eye tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubaj, B.; Koper, S.; Wolski, T.; Toczowski, J.; Wolski, J.; Langwinska-Wosko, E.

    1994-01-01

    Using low osmolality, nonionized contrast medium Iopamiro-300, Bracco mixed with the mucus prepared from the seed flax (''Linum usitatissimum, L.''), a dacryocistorhinography was performed experimentally on 8 healthy mongrel dogs. Assessing the occurrence of local and general complications was the aim of the investigation. On the basis of a radiographic examination it has been shown that the mixture of the contrast medium and seed flax mucus appeared to be a very useful compound for dacryocistorhinography, especially for the evaluation of nasolacrimal duct system course and its patency. Clinical observations and a histological examination proved that this compound of the contrast medium was well tolerated by the mucous membrane of the nasolacrimal system and the external eye tissues. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs

  5. In vivo monitoring of seeds and plant-tissue water absorption using optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Veronika V.; Kutis, Irina S.; Kutis, Sergey D.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.

    2004-07-01

    First experimental results on OCT imaging of internal structure of plant tissues and in situ OCT monitoring of plant tissue regeneration at different water supply are reported. Experiments for evaluating OCT capabilities were performed on Tradescantia. The investigation of seeds swelling was performed on wheat seeds (Triticum L.), barley seeds (Hordeum L.), long-fibred flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus L.). These OCT images correlate with standard microscopy data from the same tissue regions. Seeds were exposed to a low-intensity physical factor-the pulsed gradient magnetic field (GMF) with pulse duration 0.1 s and maximum amplitude 5 mT (4 successive pulses during 0.4 s). OCT and OCM enable effective monitoring of fast reactions in plants and seeds at different water supply.

  6. Study of the Thermal Polymerization of Linseed and Passion Fruit Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. V. V.; Loureiro, N. P. D.; Fonseca, P. S.; Macedo, J. L.; Santos, M. L.; Sales, M. J.

    2008-08-01

    Researches involving ecofriendliness materials are growing up, as well as, a current interest in developing materials from inexpensive and renewable resources. Vegetable oils show a number of excellent properties, which could be utilized to produce valuable polymeric materials. In this work is described the synthesis of polymeric materials from linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) and passion fruit oil (Passiflora edulis) and their characterization by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy. The TG curve shows that those polymeric materials present two stages of decomposition. DSC plots of the vegetable oils showed some endothermic and exothermic transitions which are not present in the DSC curves corresponding to oil-based polymers. The Raman spectra of the polymers indicate declining of absorbance in the region of C = C stretching (˜1600 cm-1). This absorption was used to estimate the degree of polymerization (79% and 67.5% for linseed and passion fruit oils, respectively)

  7. Experimental investigations on the influence of the contrast medium Iopamiro 300 mixed with vegetal mucus on the nasolacrimal system and external eye tissues; Badania doswiadczalne nad wplywem srodka cieniujacego Iopamiro 300 ze sluzem roslinnym na drogi lzowe i przedni odcinek oka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubaj, B.; Koper, S. [Akademia Rolnicza, Lublin (Poland); Wolski, T.; Toczowski, J.; Wolski, J.; Langwinska-Wosko, E. [Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Using low osmolality, nonionized contrast medium Iopamiro-300, Bracco mixed with the mucus prepared from the seed flax (``Linum usitatissimum, L.``), a dacryocistorhinography was performed experimentally on 8 healthy mongrel dogs. Assessing the occurrence of local and general complications was the aim of the investigation. On the basis of a radiographic examination it has been shown that the mixture of the contrast medium and seed flax mucus appeared to be a very useful compound for dacryocistorhinography, especially for the evaluation of nasolacrimal duct system course and its patency. Clinical observations and a histological examination proved that this compound of the contrast medium was well tolerated by the mucous membrane of the nasolacrimal system and the external eye tissues. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs.

  8. Effect of chromium on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuissello, N.; Novo, P.

    1976-01-01

    Chromium as K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and Cr(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, was tested for its toxicity, in Petri dishes, on 10 species of crop plants at 1 - 10 - 100 ppm. The total number of germinated seeds is not affected by Chromium salts up to 100 ppm, but the toxicity, measured as diminution of growth, is evident for all the tested plants, at 100 ppm, both with Cr/sup +3/ and Cr/sup +6/. Cr/sup +6/ at 1 ppm shows a negative effect on growth only for Linum usitatissimum, that could be used in phyto-test for polluted waters. Cr/sup +6/ was revealed more toxic than Cr/sup +3/ for plants, as reported for animals. 14 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  9. studies agronomic and technological characteristics of fiber and oil flax types induced by irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty three entries of flax (Linum usitatissimum L-) were tested in seven field trails representing seven environmental conditions the experiments were carried out at the Agric. Res . center, Fac. of agric., cairo univ., giza, egypt, the 33-entries consisted of thirty promosing mutants plus three local cultivars(i.e., giza 4, giza 5 and giza 6) . The mutants were outcome of gamma rays irradiated local cultivar giza 4 flax. the entries in M 4 and M 5 were arranged in a randomized complete block design in six environments. in the last environment, the entries in M 6 were arranged in an augmented complete block design to study yield responses and stability indices for the selected mutant lines produced via irradiation treatments

  10. vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  11. Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki , Gang; David R. , Sarkanen; Simo , Ford; Joshua D.

    2003-10-21

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  12. Development of basic populations of plant species suitable for the production of fatty acids, especially considering linseed, false flax and poppy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seehuber, R.; Dambroth, M.

    1987-01-01

    Seed yields, oil contents and oil yields from experiments conducted over a four year period and at five locations are presented for linseed (linum usitatissimum), false flax (Camelina sativa) and oilseed poppy (Papaver somniferum). The influence of year and location on the yields was very high, but oil contents have been relatively stable. The highest oil yields in kg/ha as mean for four years were for linseed 898, for false flax 892 and for poppy 901. Yields and oil contents of winter false flax were slightly higher than in summer false flax. The variability in the collections of plant genetic resources of the presented crops is demonstrated at the example of the frequency distributions of plant height. First results of yield trials of crossing progenies in false flax and poppy show the large possibilities of increasing seed yields. (orig.)

  13. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  14. Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fiber crop and its early domestication history may involve multiple events of domestication for oil, fiber, capsular indehiscence, and winter hardiness. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), but winter hardiness is one major characteristic of pale flax. Here, we assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax (dehiscent, fiber, oil, and winter) through population-based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed a winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples. Overall, the cultivated flax showed a 27% reduction of nucleotide diversity when compared with the pale flax. Recombination frequently occurred at these sampled genomic regions, but the signal of selection and bottleneck was relatively weak. These findings provide some insight into the impact and processes of flax domestication and are significant for expanding our knowledge about early flax domestication, particularly for winter hardiness. PMID:22822439

  15. Caracterização do comércio de plantas medicinais por raizeiros em Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais são, em muitos casos, a única alternativa possível para boa parte da população brasileira que as obtém geralmente do próprio quintal ou de raizeiros. O objetivo no presente estudo foi caracterizar o comércio de plantas medicinais por raizeiros em Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Foram usadas as técnicas de observação direta e participante e aplicadas entrevistas semiestruturadas. A comercialização de plantas e produtos medicinais é considerada a principal fonte de renda dos raizeiros entrevistados. Foram citadas 86 plantas de uso medicinais entre os raizeiros, sendo Linum usitatissimum L. (86% a mais citada, seguida de Plectranthus barbatus L (71%, Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (71% e Bauhinia forficata Link. (71%. As plantas são procuradas para 67 tipos de enfermidades, como anemia, artrite e vermes. A gripe e inflamação foram as doenças mais citadas. As plantas são armazenadas no próprio estabelecimento por períodos longos comprometendo sua eficácia e não são cultivadas pelos raizeiros. Characterization of the medicinal plant trade by healers in Mossoró, Rio Grande do NorteAbstract: Medicinal plants are, in many cases, the only possible alternative for much of the Brazilian population that usually gets the own homegarden or healers. The aim of this study was to characterize the trade of medicinal plants by healers in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. They were used the techniques of direct observation and participant and applied semi-structured interviews. The marketing of medicinal plants and products is considered the main source of income of healers. There were 86 medicinal plants among the raizers, with Linum usitatissimum L. (86% being the most cited, followed by Plectranthus barbatus L. (71%, Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (71% and Bauhinia forficata Link. (71%. Plants are sought for 67 types of diseases, from diseases such as anemia, arthritis and worms. Influenza and inflammation were the most

  16. The loci controlling plasticity in flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bickel CL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cory L Bickel, Marshall Lukacs, Christopher A CullisCase Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH, USAAbstract: Flax undergoes heritable genomic changes in response to nutrient stress, including changes in total DNA content, rDNA copy number variation, and the appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1. The nature of the genomic changes suggests a very different mechanism, which is not yet understood, from that of other DNA changes in response to stress, such as the activation of transposable elements. To identify the genes that control genomic changes in response to stress in flax, reciprocal crosses were made between a responsive flax line, Stormont cirrus, and an unresponsive line, Bethune. The ability of the F2 generation (from selfed F1 plants to respond to nutrient stress was assayed using the insertion of LIS-1 as the criteria for responsiveness. Twenty-nine out of 89 F2s responded at 5 weeks, suggesting that 3-4 dominant loci were all necessary for early LIS-1 insertion. Seventy out of 76 responded at 10 weeks, indicating two dominant loci independently capable of initiating LIS-1 insertion under prolonged nutrient stress. F1 plants and their progeny with either P1 or Bethune as the maternal parent were capable of responding with LIS-1 insertion, indicating that LIS-1 insertion is under nuclear genetic control and does not involve maternal factors. Thus, a small number of loci within the genome of Stormont cirrus appear to control the ability to respond to nutrient stress with LIS-1 insertion. A genetic map of the flax genome is currently under construction, and will be used to identify these loci within the genome.Keywords: nutrient stress, genomic plasticity, flax, Linum usitatissimum, LIS-1 

  17. Biotechnology in breeding of industrial oil crops - the present status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, W.

    1988-02-01

    With increasing 'overproduction' of food supplies it is frequently emphasized now that agricultural production of industrial 'non-food' raw materials should be intensified. Many adapted crop plants are already available for producing various kinds of natural materials. Particularly the large group of oil-crops could be used even more widely for providing vegetable oils. The example of rape-seed (Brassica Napus) clearly demonstrates that the composition of vegetable oil can be completely reconstructed according to the wishes of manufacturers or consumers, even by conventional breeding methods. Rapid and efficient breeding is expected by application of modern 'biotechnology'. Where variation for a character like oil-quality is limited within a crop plnt, a wide range of alien wild species is available for broadening genetic variation of plants like rapeseed, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) or linseed (flax, Linum usitatissimum). Exploration of such 'new' genetic variation is nowadays facilitated by in vitro embryo culture or cell (protoplast)-fusion techniques. Such biotechniques can help to overcome crossing barriers between species (genus Brassica). In other important oilcrops like linseed or sunflower, biotechniques can now be applied profitably. Protoplasts can be regenerated in Linum, so that asexual interspecific hybrids can principally be produced in that way. Alien species of sunflower and lineseed show a wide range of variation regarding agronomically important characters, particularly of oil composition and disease resistance. This alien genetic variation can be used for breeding new disease resistant oil-crop cultivars. Other techniques, like the 'haploidy-method' can help to accelerate a breeding programme, ultimately leading to a homozygous line or cultivar.

  18. The instability of the flax element LIS-1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastaki NK

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasmah K Bastaki, Christopher A Cullis Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Background: The LIS-1 is an element that appears as a site-specific insertion event in some flax lines in response to certain growth conditions and can be transmitted to subsequent generations. The origin of LIS-1 in the flax genome is uncertain. One possibility is that since LIS-1 does not exist intact in the progenitor line, it is assembled from small sequences found scattered throughout the genome, and that, under stressful growth conditions, induction occurs and these sequences are rearranged and assembled to form the intact LIS-1 element. It is unknown whether the intact LIS-1 element would remain stably integrated in other plant species or if it would be destabilized from their genome. Results: In this study, Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral dipping was used to transform different accessions of the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana, with either LIS-1 or the target site into which LIS-1 integrates. The stability and the inheritance patterns of both elements were followed in subsequent generations. Our results indicate that, in the different transformed accessions, the target site of LIS-1 remains stable in the T1 and T2 generations. However, LIS-1 is not found intact in any transformed A. thaliana plants. Instead, it goes through multiple fragmentation events, which seem to be genotype dependent. In the process, the region originally flanking LIS-1 in the T-DNA construct can be converted to the same sequence found at the target site in flax, followed by complete excision of all the flax DNA in the construct. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the processes by which LIS-1 is produced in flax are also present in A. thaliana because both plants are capable of destabilizing the intact LIS-1 element.Keywords: flax (Linum usitatissimum, Arabidopsis thaliana, plant transformation, Linum insertion

  19. Assessment of energy return on energy investment (EROEI of oil bearing crops for renewable fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Restuccia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As reported in literature the production of biodiesel should lead to a lower energy consumption than those obtainable with its use. So, to justify its consumption, a sustainable and “low input” production should be carried out. In order to assess the sustainability of Linum usitatissimum, Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata cultivation for biodiesel production in terms of energy used compared to that obtained, the index EROEI (Energy Return On Energy Invested has been used. At this aim, an experimental field was realised in the south-eastern Sicilian land. During the autumn-winter crop cycle, no irrigation was carried out and some suitable agricultural practices have been carried out taking into account the peculiarity of each type of used seeds. The total energy consumed for the cultivation of oil bearing crops from sowing to the production of biodiesel represents the Input of the process. In particular, this concerned the energy embodied in machinery and tools utilized, in seed, chemical fertilizer and herbicide but also the energy embodied in diesel fuels and lubricant oils. In addition, the energy consumption relating to machines and reagents required for the processes of extraction and transesterification of the vegetable oil into biodiesel have been calculated for each crops. The energy obtainable from biodiesel production, taking into account the energy used for seed pressing and for vegetable oil transesterification into biodiesel, represents the Output of the process. The ratio Output/Input gets the EROEI index which in the case of Camelina sativa and Linum usatissimum is greater than one. These results show that the cultivation of these crops for biofuels production is convenient in terms of energy return on energy investment. The EROEI index for Brassica carinata is lower than one. This could means that some factors, concerning mechanisation and climatic

  20. Comparative demography of two co-occurring Linum species with different distribution patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2013), s. 963-970 ISSN 1435-8603 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : closely related species * flax * habitat occupancy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.405, year: 2013

  1. Analysis of linseed (Linum usitatissiumum L. plant branching as related to variability and interdependence of traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching process of two linseed cultivars ('Hungarian Gold' and 'Opal' was analysed each year of vegetation between 1999 and 2002 characterised by different weather course. The estimation included also the extent and variability of selected morphological traits and structural traits. as well as correlation between them. On the basis of biometric measurements the hierarchy of plant shoots has been established within a plant, and four plant groups were distinguished: 1-. 2-, 3- and 4-shoot plants. It was demonstrated that the intensity of linseed branching depended mainly on young plant planting density and, to a certain extent also the weather conditions in April and May. In the years when the weather course favoured vegetation. between 23 and 40% plants per stand were branched. Beside increasing its productivity linseed branching may also inhibit a development of secondary weed infestation of the canopy. Similar plant groups with analogous shoot hierarchy formed in both linseed cultivars. Bio social position of shoot on a plant determined the extent of its traits. A dominance of the maiii shoot over lateral shoots was marked, especially concerning the number of seed vessels. Particularly big prevalence of the main shoot over lateral ones was visible in 3- and 4-9hoot plants. Lateral shoots had greater variability of morphological traits, especially concerning the number of seed vessels per shoot. Linear, exponential and power interdependencies between traits of linseed cultivars were also revealed.

  2. Effect of temperature on 'N' uptake of Chaetomorpha linum (Muller) and Padina tetrastomatica (Hauck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    of temperature were tested at 4 different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C). The irradiance measured during the incubation period was 276 mu E m sup(-2) s sup(-1). The duration of each experiment was 1 h. The experiments were carried out in duplicates...

  3. The use of phosphomannose isomerase selection system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco and flax aimed for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Jitka; Sura-De Jong, Martina; Fišer, Jiří; Tupá, Kateřina; Vrbová, Miroslava; Griga, Miroslav; Macek, Tomáš; Žiarovská, Jana

    2017-05-04

    A plant selection system based on the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker is often used to avoid selection using antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, pmi gene is endogenous in several plant species and therefore difficult to use in such cases. Here we evaluated and compared Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Linum usitatissimum breeding line AGT-952 (without endogenous pmi gene) and Nicotiana tabacum var. WSC-38 (with endogenous pmi gene). Transformation was evaluated for vectors bearing transgenes that have the potential to be involved in improved phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Tobacco regenerants selection resulted in 6.8% transformation efficiency when using a medium supplemented with 30 g/L mannose with stepwise decrease of the sucrose concentration. Similar transformation efficiency (5.3%) was achieved in transformation of flax. Relatively low selection efficiency was achieved (12.5% and 34.8%, respectively). The final detection of efficient pmi selection was conducted using PCR and the non-endogenous genes; pmi transgene for flax and todC2 transgene for tobacco plants.

  4. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P.; Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  5. Influence of twin-screw hot extrusion on linolenic acid retention in flaxseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.

    2014-01-01

    flaxseed (linum usitatissimum l.) provides multiple nutritional benefits including high quality protein, dietary fiber and is the most abundant source of alpha-linolenic acid (c18:3). This study focuses on the effect of twin-screw hot extrusion on alpha-linolenic acid retention in full-fat flaxseed meal. the ranges of processing variables selected using box-behnken design were barrel exit temperature (bet) of 120-140 degree c; screw speed (ss) of 200-400 rpm; feed rate (fr) of 1-2 kg/h and feed moisture (fm) of 20-30%. The amount of alpha-linolenic acid retention in extruded samples ranged from 89.2% to 99.3%. Optimal operating conditions were stablished; bet (121degree c), ss (388 rpm), fr (1 kg/h) and fm (22.2%) for maximum (99.9%) retention of degree-linolenic acid. This effect was mainly dependent on bet and fm (p degree 0.01), whereas ss and fr imparted a lesser effect (p=0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that the twin-screw hot extrusion can be successfully explored to produce fatty meals with significant fatty acids retention for commercially food or feed purposes. (author)

  6. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L. (syn: Sanctum; Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana; Linum usitatissimum (L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

  7. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  8. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world.

  9. Effect of Heating Method on Alteration of Protein Molecular Structure in Flaxseed: Relationship with Changes in Protein Subfraction Profile and Digestion in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khan, Nazir; Booker, Helen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-02-04

    This study evaluated the effect of heating methods on alteration of protein molecular structure in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in relation to changes in protein subfraction profile and digestion in dairy cows. Seeds from two flaxseed varieties, sampled from two replicate plots at two locations, were evaluated. The seeds were either maintained in their raw state or heated in an air-draft oven (dry heating) or autoclave (moist heating) for 60 min at 120 °C or by microwave irradiation (MIR) for 5 min. Compared to raw seeds, moist heating decreased (P RUP) content (36.0 ± 5.19 to 46.9 ± 2.72% CP) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (61.0 ± 2.28 to 63.8 ± 2.67% RUP). Dry heating did not alter (P > 0.05) the protein subfraction profile and rumen degradation kinetics, whereas MIR increased (P RUP content from 36.0 ± 5.19 to 40.4 ± 4.67% CP. The MIR and dry heating did not alter (P > 0.05) the amide I to amide II ratio, but moist heating decreased (P RUP (R 2 = 0.71), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R 2 = 0.72). Overall, heat-induced changes in protein nutritive value and digestion were strongly associated with heat-induced alteration in protein molecular structures.

  10. Relações lineares entre caracteres de linho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar as relações lineares entre caracteres de linho (Linum usitatissimum L. e identificar caracteres para a seleção indireta. Em área experimental de 15 × 15 m (225 m2, aos 134 dias após a semeadura, foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, 300 plantas. Em cada planta, foram mensurados os caracteres altura de planta, número de ramos, número de cápsulas, massa verde de cápsulas, massa verde de parte aérea sem cápsulas, massa verde de parte aérea, massa seca de cápsulas, massa seca de parte aérea sem cápsulas e massa seca de parte aérea. Para cada caractere, foi calculada a média e o coeficiente de variação. Foi investigada a relação linear entre os caracteres por meio de análises de correlação e de trilha. Na cultura de linho, o número de cápsulas tem relação linear positiva com as massas verde e seca de cápsulas e de parte aérea e pode ser utilizado para seleção indireta.

  11. The Use of Adsorbent Materials of Improving the Characteristics of Polluted Soils, Part 2 the Bioaccumulation of Metals in Plants Used in Phytoremediation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study covers the advantages of phytoremediation processes of soils heavily polluted with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH with the use of Linum usitatissimum (flax. To increase the potential development of technical crops on TPH soils polluted with 74.12 ± 3.5 g·kg-1 D.M., the contaminated soils were amended with fly ash; the ratio of polluted soil: fly ash 12:1 wt. / wt. and fertilized with sewage sludge. The degree of accumulation of Fe in the stems was 21 - 33 % higher than in the control sample and 6 - 27 % in the seeds; the accumulation of Mn in the stems was 13.5 - 30 % higher than in the control sample and 8 - 17 % in the seeds; the accumulation of Cu in stems was 17 - 6 % higher than in the control sample and for seeds 20 - 60 %; the accumulation of Zn in stems was 13 - 27 % higher than in the control sample with 49 - 63 % in the seeds. In the harvested plant tissues from the studied variants the content of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni was less than the detection limit. Monitoring bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aerial plant tissue was needed to decide the sector where the biomass harvested from TPH polluted soil covered with vegetation.

  12. ANALYSIS OF STABILITY OF TRINUCLEOTIDE TTC MOTIFS IN COMMON FLAX PLANTED IN THE CHERNOBYL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Lancíková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the oldest domesticated plants — it was cultivated as early as in ancient Egypt and Samaria 10,000 years ago to serve as a source of fiber and oil, whence it later spread around the world. Compared with other plants, the flax genome consists of a high number of repetitive sequences, middle repetitive sequences and small repetitive sequences of nucleotides. The aim of the study was to analyze the stability of the existing trinucleotides motifs of microsatellite DNA of the flax genome (genotype Kyivskyi, growing in the Chernobyl conditions. The Chernobyl area is the most extensive “natural” laboratory suitable for the study of radiation effects. Over the last 20 years, the researches collected important knowledge about the effects of low and high radiation doses on the DNA isolated from the plant material growing on the remediated fields near Chernobyl and the plant material from fields contaminated by radioactive cesium 137Cs and strontium 90Sr. Using eight pairs of microsatellite primers, we successfully amplified the samples from the remediated fields. For each primer in the control samples and remediated samples, we detected 1 to 3 fragments per locus, each in size up to 120 to 250 base pairs. The applied microsatellite primers confirmed the monomorphic condition of microsatellite loci.

  13. Fast pyrolysis of linseed. Product yields and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, C.; Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Iki Eylul Campus, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    Fixed-bed fast pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) to determine particularly the effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the pyrolysis product yields and their compositions. The maximum oil yield of 57.7wt.% was obtained at a final pyrolysis temperature of 550C, particle size range 0.6mm

  14. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  15. Elimination of radionuclides and heavy metals from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarcik, I.; Cipakova, A.; Palagyl, S.

    1994-01-01

    Sorption and desorption of radionuclides and heavy metals, their vertical migration and gradual extraction from soils were studied. Tessier sequential extraction method was used for determination the physicochemical forms of radionuclides and heavy metals absorbed by root system of plants and leached into ground water. Fixed forms of heavy metals and radionuclides are prevailing in soils. As to artificial ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs) isotope ratio of fixed forms bound with soil components, it is higher for 137 Cs (black earth - 95%, sandy soil - 62%) as compared to 90 Sr. Mobilization procedures for elimination of unfavourable influence of these pollutants in soils were used. The bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus l. are applied for this purpose. At the same time the growing of technical plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Brassica napus L. var.) was studied as a method for mobilizing the heavy metals and radionuclides from soils. Retardation influence of bacteria on 85 Sr was noticed after as much as 3 months. The sum of water-soluble and exchangeable fractions reached 60%. Values of Cs distribution proved that microorganisms or plants used had no appreciable influence on Cs-mobility. After 3 months the relative ratio of accessible fraction increased with about 5%. As to heavy metals, both bacteria and plant growing influenced their retardation. In the case of Cd, one month operation of microorganisms resulted in important increase of easily available Cd-ratio (about 25%) in soils. (author)

  16. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 μl O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

  17. Conjoint effect of oil-seed cakes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth of chickpea in relation to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil application of organics has been explored as an alternative means of organic management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Efficiency of different oil-seed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica, castor (Ricinus communis, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and soybean (Glycine max were evaluated in field conditions with association of Pseudomonas fluorescens in relation to growth parameters of chickpea and population of plant-parasitic nematodes. Their efficacious nature was highly effective in reducing the population of these dominant soil nematodes. Significant improvement was observed in plant-growth parameters such as plant weight, percent pollen fertility, pod numbers, root-nodulation and chlorophyll content of chickpea, seemed to be due to reduction in disease incidence and might be due to growth promoting substances secreted by P. fluorescens. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in the presence of P. fluorescens as compared to its absence. Most effective combination of P. fluorescens was observed with neem cake.

  18. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  19. SCREENING OF COMMON FLAX FAD GENES BY PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Štefúnová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop from commercial and economical aspects. In the spotlight is the linseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid. The aim of presented study was to analyse fatty acid desaturase (FAD genes in flax. Several genotypes of flax (Hohenheim, La Plata 1938, Redwing USA and Escalina were used. The primers described by Vrinten et al. (2005 were used for PCR amplification reactions. Two FAD3 genes, LuFAD3A and LuFAD3B, were identified in a genome of flax. Subsequently the nucleotide sequences between origins and genotypes of flax FAD genes were compared. Primarily were used the nucleotide sequences of FAD2 and FAD3C genes available in NCBI database. Differences were found using BLAST program in nucleotide sequences of FAD genes and the specific primers were designed to amplify a specific target sequences in a genome of flax. These primers were used in PCR amplification reactions to identification of FAD2 and FAD3C genes. The PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on agarose gel.

  20. Molecular Genetic Identification Of Some Flax Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMER, I.M.; MOUSTAFA, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Five flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) i.e., commercial cultivar Sakha 2, the mother variety Giza 4 and three mutant types induced by gamma rays, were screened for their salinity tolerance in field experiments (salinity concentration was 8600 and 8300 ppm for soil and irrigation water, respectively). Mutation 6 was the most salt tolerant as compared to the other four genotypes.RAPD technique was used to detect some molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in flax (Mut 6), RAPD-PCR results using 12 random primers exhibited 149 amplified fragments; 91.9% of them were polymorphic and twelve molecular markers (8.1%) for salt tolerant (mutant 6) were identified with molecular size ranged from 191 to 4159 bp and only eight primers successes to amplify these specific markers. Concerning the other mutants, Mut 15 and Mut 25 exhibited 4.3% and 16.2% specific markers, respectively. The induced mutants exhibited genetic similarity to the parent variety were about 51%, 58.3% and 61.1% for Mut 25, Mut 6 and Mut 15, respectively. These specific markers (SM) are used for identification of the induced mutations and it is important for new variety registration.

  1. Proteomic analysis of flax seed grown in radioactive contaminated areas of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klubicova, K.; Danchenko, M.; Pretova, A.; Hajduch, M.; Skultety, L.; Rashydov, N.

    2010-01-01

    An explosion of one of the four reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear power occurring 26.4.1986, causing the worst nuclear disaster in human history. During the explosion is released into the environment are a number of different radioactive elements was also contaminated and much of Europe. Nowadays, after more than 20 years, the area located near the nuclear power plant is still contaminated by radioactive elements with long-lived, such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Despite the increased radiation in the environment of the plant not ceased to increase, that is, they have created a mechanism of adaptation. The aim of our work was to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in the adaptation of plants in the environment. During the first generation, we analyzed the mature seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in the control and in the contaminated zone. Proteins have separated and identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins (28) We were categorized into nine functional categories. We have designed a working model of adaptation of plants to elevated levels of radiation in the environment.

  2. Yield potential of a radiation induced early-dwarf mutant in linseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    An early maturing dwarf mutant, TL-1 was isolated in the high yielding linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) wariety Neelum following seed irradiation with 50 kR gamma rays. The yield components of the mutant have been evaluated for its productivity in the M 7 generation. TL-1 is compact and significantly short in height (41.8 +- 2.71 cm) as compared to Neelum (79.2 +- 3.08 cm). In flowering the mutant is 30 days earlier than the parent under Trombay conditions. TL-1 and Neelum did not differ significantly in their mean number of primary branches. Although the mean seed yield per plant is lower, in 1000 seed weight the mutant is markedly superior to the parent. The oil content in TL-1 is significantly higher by 3.5 percent points than Neelum and its oil is lighter in colour. By growing more plants per unit area with reduced spacing, the yield potential of TL-1 was considerably increased. The productivity of oil per hectare per day of TL-1 was higher than Neelum. (author)

  3. Oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from vegetable oils having different degrees of unsaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja, Samantha Siqueira; Conceição, Leyvison Rafael V. da; Costa, Carlos E.F. da; Zamian, José R.; Rocha Filho, Geraldo N. da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We obtained biodiesel from açai, cupuaçu, passion fruit and linseed oil. • Determined the properties of biodiesel, such as kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and oxidative stability. • Evaluated the influence of antioxidants on biodiesel. • The PG antioxidant was more efficient than BHA and TBHQ for the açaí biodiesel. - Abstract: In the present paper, methyl esters were obtained from the transesterification of cupuaçu fat lipids (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) (K. Schum.), açaí (Euterpe oleracea), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oils, using a basic catalyst. The triglycerides were characterized by their fatty acid composition, and the biodiesels were characterized according to standard methods. The critical properties, such as the cold filter plugging point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability, of the biodiesels were studied. The influence of butyl-hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants on the açaí, passion fruit and linseed biodiesels was evaluated at concentrations from 500 to 4000 ppm. PG was found to be the most efficient antioxidant for the studied biodiesels

  4. Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E.

    2013-01-01

    The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca2+ chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated. PMID:25969769

  5. Noise amplification of plant gravisensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    A common problem in sensory physiology is the detection of weak signals, such as that produced by the repositioning of statoliths (amyloplasts) in gravisensing cells, from a noisy background. As in other studied biological mechanosensory systems, it is conceivable that the gravisensing process may be amplified by stochastic resonance and nonlinear noise-assisted effects. We therefore investigated the possible dependency of gravisensing on vibrational or thermodynamic noise by examining the effect of external oscillation and temperature on the rate of gravitropic curvature in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) roots. Roots were oscillated for 15 min prior to or during gravistimulation, either parallel or perpendicular to the root axis. The effect of oscillation was dependent on its direction as well as frequency and amplitude. Initial curvature was most effectively enhanced by vertical oscillations of 5 Hz and 0.5 mm amplitude prior to reorientation. Vertically oscillated roots reached half-maximal curvature 32 min after reorientation, about 18 min earlier than non-oscillated roots. The enhancing effect of vibration on curvature subsided with a half-time of about 20 min. The temperature dependency of the graviresponse indicated that thermodynamic noise also impacted gravity perception. For vibrations and temperature studies, the presentation times decreased almost 6-fold. Our data indicate that gravisensing may depend on or be enhanced by thermodynamic or mechanical noise.

  6. Relation between D/H ratios and 18O /16O ratios in cellulose from linen and maize - Implications for paleoclimatology and for sindonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNiro, Michael J.; Sternberg, Leonel D.; Marino, Bruno D.; Druzik, James R.

    1988-09-01

    The 18O /16O ratios of cellulose and the D/H ratios of cellulose nitrate were determined for linen, a textile produced from the fibers of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum, and for maize ( Zea mays) from a variety of geographic locations in Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America. The regression lines of δD values on δ 18O values had slopes of 5.4 and 5.8 for the two species. Statistical analysis of results reported in the only other study in which samples of a single species (the silver fir Abies pindrow) that grew under a variety of climatic conditions were analyzed yielded slopes of ~6 when δD values of cellulose nitrate were regressed on δ 18O values of cellulose. The occurrence of this previously unrecognized relationship in three species suggests it may obtain in other plants as well. Determining the basis for this relationship, which is not possible given current understanding of fractionation of the isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen by plants, should lead to increased understanding of how D/H and 18O /16O ratios in cellulose isolated from fossil plants are related to paleoclimates. The separation of most linen samples from Europe from those originating in the Middle East when δD values are plotted against δ 18O values suggests it may be possible to use the isotope ratios of cellulose prepared from the Shroud of Turin to resolve the controversy concerning its geographic origin.

  7. Present state of breeding of oil crops. Stand der Zuechtung von Oelpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, W. (Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung)

    1992-04-01

    Different oil crops are characterized by specific fatty acid patterns. For example, rapeseed (Brassica napus) is naturally rich in erucic acid (C22:1), traditional genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) contain high levels of linoleic acid (C18:2) in their seed oil, and linseed (oilflax, Linum usitatissimum L.) oil is normally rich in linolenic acid (C18:3). Extreme modifications of these ''natural'' fatty acid patterns are possible by breeding. Impressive examples are, (1) the elimination of erucic acid from rapeseed oil, which made it possible to use this vegetable oil for human consumption, (2) the development of sunflower cultivars with high oleic acid, and (3) the selection of linseed mutants with extremely low linolenic acid contents. However, the yield potential of these ''alternative'' genotypes is usually lower than that of those which are predominantly used for oil production: i.e., ''normal'' (high-linolenic) linseed, ''normal'' (high-linoleic) sunflower, and ''0/00'' (low-erucic and low-glucosinolate) rapeseed cultivars. Even in these cases, the yield potential of modern varieties is not completely exhaused. Further improvements of plant production systems can help to improve both, the economical yield and the ecological acceptability of agricultural production of vegetable oils. (orig.)

  8. Ectopic Lignification in the Flax lignified bast fiber1 Mutant Stem Is Associated with Tissue-Specific Modifications in Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply. PMID:25381351

  9. Influence of nonuniform magnetic fields on orientation of plant seedlings in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Chikov, V. M.; Kuznetsov, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on the spatial behavior of the flax ( Linum usitatissimum, L.) seedlings in a nonuniform magnetic field were conducted on the orbital space stations «Salutå and «Mirå. This field can displace sensory organelles (statoliths) inside receptor cells and such displacement should cause a physiological reaction of the plant - tropistic curvature. Experiments were conducted in the custom-built «Magnetogravistatå facility, where seeds were germinated and grown for 3-4 days in a magnetic field with the dynamic factor grad(H 2/2)≈ 10 7 Oe 2/cm, then fixed on orbit and returned to Earth for analysis. It was found, that 93% of the seedlings were oriented in the field consistently with curvature in response to displacement of statoliths along the field gradient by ponderomotive magnetic forces, while control seedlings grew in the direction of the initial orientation of the seed. This suggests, that gravity receptors of plants recognized magnetic forces on statoliths as gravity, and that gravity stimulus can be substituted for plants by a force of a different physical nature.

  10. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  11. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  12. NÍVEL DE CONTROLE DE Diloboderus abderus EM AVEIA PRETA, LINHO, MILHO E GIRASSOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mauro Tadeu Braga da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo aqui relatado foi conduzido nas safras agrícolas de 1991 e 1992, em Cruz Alta, no Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de infestação de Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae em aveia preta (Avena strigosa L., em linho (Linum usitatissimum L., em milho (Zea mays L. e em girassol (Helianthus annuus L., no sistema de plantio direto. O aumento do número de larvas/m² propiciou a ocorrência de danos e, em conseqüência, a diminuição da população de plantas, da massa seca da parte aérea e da produtividade. Os níveis de controle obtidos foram variáveis dependendo da cultura. Com base nos danos produzidos pelo inseto, sugerem-se os níveis de controle de 12 larvas/m² em linho, de 10 larvas/m² em aveia preta, de 0,5 larva/m² em milho e de 0,4 larva/m² em girassol, como indicador para tratamento de sementes destas culturas com inseticidas.

  13. “Sticky invasion” – the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata L. seed mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kreitschitz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucilage envelope of seeds has various functions including the provision of different ways for the dispersal of diaspores. Chemical composition and water content of the mucilage yield particular adhesive and frictional properties in the envelope that also influence the dispersal of seeds. To determine the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage we studied (1 composition, (2 desiccation, (3 adhesion, and (4 friction properties of the mucilage under different hydration conditions. We revealed the presence of cellulose fibrils in the mucilage, which are responsible for a continuous and even distribution of the mucilaginous layer on the seed surface. The measured values of adhesive and frictional properties differed significantly in comparison to the previously studied pectic mucilage of Linum usitatissimum. Also, the water loss from the cellulose mucilage was more rapid. The obtained different values can result from the presence of cellulose fibrils and their interaction with pectins in the mucilage. Because of this feature the mucilage of P. lanceolata may represent a more regularly ordered and stabile system than the pectic mucilage of flax, which lacks cellulose. In spite of the fact that P. lanceolata mucilage revealed different adhesive and frictional properties than the pectic mucilage, it still demonstrates an effective system promoting zoochoric seed dispersal. Cellulose may additionally prevent the mucilage against loss from the seed surface.

  14. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  15. Gamma radiation synthesis of super absorbent hydrogels for different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouk, H.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAP) of carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylamide (CMC/PAM), carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylamide/Silica (CMC/AM/Si) and carboxymethyl cellulose/Polyvinyl alcohol (CMC/PVA) were synthesized by radiation-induced grafting using γ-irradiation technique. The effects of various parameters, such as irradiation dose, the content of CMC, PAM, PVA, and Silica gel on the swelling percent of produced hydrogels have been evaluated. The kinetic equilibrium swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was studied, it was found that the maximum swelling percent was 5000 % for the CMC/PAM hydrogel, 12000 % for the CMC/PAM/Si composite hydrogel, and 6200 % for the CMC/PVA hydrogel. The gel fraction, equilibrium swelling and effect of ph on the swelling percent were also studied. The prepared copolymers were also characterized by FTIR spectral analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. In order to evaluate its controlled release potential, different prepared hydrogels were loaded with KNO 3 as an agrochemical model and its potential for controlled release of KNO 3 was studied and evaluated with respect to different parameters such as time of release, ph of the medium, and temperatures. The results obtained from swelling, loading of KNO 3 , and release behavior studies suggested and recommended the possible use of prepared hydrogels for enhancing the plantation of Linum Usitatissimum.

  16. Genotyping-By-Sequencing for Plant Genetic Diversity Analysis: A Lab Guide for SNP Genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Peterson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for exploring plant genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. However, many uncertainties and challenges remain in the application of GBS, particularly in non-model species. Here, we present a GBS protocol we developed and use for plant genetic diversity analysis. It uses two restriction enzymes to reduce genome complexity, applies Illumina multiplexing indexes for barcoding and has a custom bioinformatics pipeline for genotyping. This genetic diversity-focused GBS (gd-GBS protocol can serve as an easy-to-follow lab guide to assist a researcher through every step of a GBS application with five main components: sample preparation, library assembly, sequencing, SNP calling and diversity analysis. Specifically, in this presentation, we provide a brief overview of the GBS approach, describe the gd-GBS procedures, illustrate it with an application to analyze genetic diversity in 20 flax (Linum usitatissimum L. accessions and discuss related issues in GBS application. Following these lab bench procedures and using the custom bioinformatics pipeline, one could generate genome-wide SNP genotype data for a conventional genetic diversity analysis of a non-model plant species.

  17. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  18. Intracellular magnetophoresis of amyloplasts and induction of root curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O. A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    High-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) were used to induce intracellular magnetophoresis of amyloplasts. The HGMFs were generated by placing a small ferromagnetic wedge into a uniform magnetic field or at the gap edge between two permanent magnets. In the vicinity of the tip of the wedge the dynamic factor of the magnetic field, delta(H2/2), was about 10(9) Oe2.cm-1, which subjected the amyloplasts to a force comparable to that of gravity. When roots of 2-d-old seedlings of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were positioned vertically and exposed to an HGMF, curvature away from the wedge was transient and lasted approximately 1 h. Average curvature obtained after placing magnets, wedge and seedlings on a 1-rpm clinostat for 2 h was 33 +/- 5 degrees. Roots of horizontally placed control seedlings without rotation curved about 47 +/- 4 degrees. The time course of curvature and changes in growth rate were similar for gravicurvature and for root curvature induced by HGMFs. Microscopy showed displacement of amyloplasts in vitro and in vivo. Studies with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. showed that the wild type responded to HGMFs but the starchless mutant TC7 did not. The data indicate that a magnetic force can be used to study the gravisensing and response system of roots.

  19. The persistence of the gravity signal in flax roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Although the presentation time of gravitropism has been studied, no data exist as to how long a reorientation stimulus affects the gravitropic response of a root. We tested the duration of gravitropic curvature in roots of Linum usitatissimum after reversing a one hour, 90 degree gravistimulus by increasing time intervals in vertical orientation before clinorotating the roots and acquiring infrared digital images. Clinorotation was performed either parallel or perpendicular to the gravity vector. Under either condition the gravistimulus affected curvature during clinorotation only between two to three minutes. Maximal curvature after one minute of vertical reorientation was 15 degrees within one hour. After three minutes in vertical orientation the observed curvature was not statistically different from vertically growing roots. In both orientations, maximum curvature occurred after 1hr. Perpendicular (horizontal) clinorotation showed decreasing curvature with increasing reorientation time. Parallel (vertical) clinorotation resulted in greater variability to the reorientation time. These data indicate that the gravity stimulus operates essentially memory free and that clinorotation affects the gravity response. Therefore all aspects of clinorotation need to be studied before an assessment of clinostats for the simulation of microgravity is possible and a time limit for memory effects of mechanostimulation can be determined.

  20. Stimulating effects of two plant growth-promoting bacteria, Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 and Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6, on flax culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarron, Elodie; Clément, Nathalie; Pawlicki-Jullian, Nathalie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2018-04-01

    Two bacteria, Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 and Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6, isolated from root nodules of Medicago lupulina from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, were identified in a previous study and shown not to disturb plant growth. The main goal of this work is to elucidate the relationships between these bacteria and flax, in particular whether they display activities such as plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) properties or modulation hairy root development. In order to better understand their role in plants, some known PGPB properties were determined in comparison with several control bacteria. The influence of these bacteria on Linum usitatissimum growth under hydroponic conditions was also investigated. Our study shows that both bacteria belong to PGPB since they were able to increase considerably the root surface area of flax, especially Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6. Significant IAA production and phosphate solubilization of Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 were highlighted, which enabled these biochemical PGPB properties to be correlated with their effects on flax growth. However, Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6 did not express high biochemical activities, suggesting that other PGPB abilities should be studied in order to establish the link with flax growth improvement.

  1. Proteomic analysis of flax seed grown in radioactive contaminated areas of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klubicova, K.; Danchenko, M.; Pretova, A.; Hajduch, M.; Skultety, L.; Rashydov, N.

    2010-01-01

    An explosion of one of the four reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant occurred on 26 th April 1986, causing the worst nuclear disaster in human history. During the explosion a number of different radioactive elements were released into the environment which contaminated much of Europe. Nowadays, after more than 20 years, the area located near the nuclear power plant is still contaminated by radioactive long-lived elements, such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Despite increased radiation in the environment the plants did not stop increasing. It means that they have created a mechanism of adaptation . The aim of the work was to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in adaptation of plants in the environment. During the first generation, the authors analyzed the mature seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in control zone and in contaminated zone. Proteins were separated and identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins (28) were categorized into nine functional categories. The authors have designed a working model of adaptation of the plants to elevated level of radiation in the environment.

  2. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g -1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg -1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C 18 :2 :C 18 :3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  5. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used “menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Results: Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. Conclusion: The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review. PMID:27462550

  6. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used "menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review.

  7. Turnover of galactans and other cell wall polysaccharides during development of flax plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Lozovaya, V.V.; Carpita, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the synthesis and turnover of cell wall polysaccharides of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant during development of the phloem fibers. One-month-old flax plants were exposed to a 40-min pulse with 14CO2 followed by 8-h, 24-h, and 1-month periods of chase with ambient CO2, and radioactivity in cell wall sugars was determined in various plant parts. The relative radioactivity of glucose in noncellulosic polysaccharides was the highest compared with all other cell wall sugars immediately after the pulse and decreased substantially during the subsequent chase. The relative radioactivities of the other cell wall sugars changed with differing rates, indicating turnover of specific polysaccharides. Notably, after 1 month of chase there was a marked decrease in the proportional mass and total radioactivity in cell wall galactose, indicating a long-term turnover of the galactans enriched in the fiber-containing tissues. The ratio of radiolabeled xylose to arabinose also increased during the chase, indicating a turnover of arabinose-containing polymers and interconversion to xylose. The pattern of label redistribution differed between organs, indicating that the cell wall turnover processes are tissue- and cell-specific

  8. ELABORATION OF APPROACHES TO THE STANDARTIZ OFATION HELICHRYSUM ARENARIUM (1. MOENCH IN PLANT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Goudzenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marker for qualitative and quantitative standardization of Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench. flowers in the plant mixtures was determine. As a marker of Helichrysum arenarium Moench. flowers can be used flavonoid apigenin. HPLC method of determination flavonoid apigenin in raw materials and plant mixtures of flowers Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench was developed. Contents of apigenin in the raw plant flowers were in the range from 0,1453 ± 0,0068% to 0,1657 ± 0,0085%, in terms of the dried materials. It is shown, that the presence and content of apigenin flowers Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench can be standardized in the mixtures with the following plant:flowers, leaves and fruits of genus Crataegus L., roots of Althaea officinalis L., roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., roots of Cichorium intybus L., roots of Taraxacum officinale Web., cones of Humulus lupulus L., herb of Leonurus cardiaca L., herb of Hypericum perforatum L. and seeds of Linum usitatissimum L.

  9. A comprehensive review of plants and their active constituents with wound healing activity in traditional Iranian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein Farzaei, Mohammad; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Reza Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2014-07-01

    Wound healing is a complex cascade of events with various cellular and biochemical processes that result in reconstruction and regeneration of damaged tissue. The objective of the current study was to scientifically evaluate the medicinal plants said to produce wound healing activity in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Electronic databases were searched for the names of medicinal plants claimed in TIM literature for having wound healing activity. Articles were evaluated to obtain any in vitro, animal, or clinical evidence of their efficacy and possible mechanisms involved in would healing. Mechanisms of action for some of these plants, including Tamarix spp., Rosa spp., Piper betle, Plantago major, Oxalis spp., Olea europaea, Malva spp., Linum usitatissimum, and Tamarindus indica, have not been yet clarified. In contrast, some herbs such as Vitis vinifera, Quercus spp., Punica granatum, Pinus spp., Polygonum spp., Lilium spp., Gentiana lutea, Arnebia euchroma, Aloe spp., and Caesalpinia spp. have various biological and pharmacological mechanisms that have been verified for wound healing activity. Overall, TIM resources have introduced various medicinal plants for wounds with confirmed effectiveness according to current pharmacological studies. These herbal remedies could be considered as future drugs for healing of wounds. Further pharmacological and clinical investigations are recommended for exploring safety, exact mechanisms, and efficacy of these herbal remedies. .

  10. Fungistatic activity of heat-treated flaxseed determined by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Hall, C; Wolf-Hall, C

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the fungistatic activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. The radial growth of Penicilliumn chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from moldy noodles, as well as the mold count of fresh noodle enriched with heat treated flaxseed, were used to assess antifungal activity. A central composite design in the response surface methodology was used to predict the effect of heating temperature and time on antifungal activity of flaxseed flour (FF). Statistical analysis determined that the linear terms of both variables (that is, heating temperature and time) and the quadratic terms of the heating temperature had significant (P<0.05) effects on the radial growth of all 3 test fungi and the mold count log-cycle reduction of fresh noodle. The interactions between the temperature and time were significant for all dependent variables (P<0.05). Significant reductions in antifungal activities were found when FF was subjected to high temperatures, regardless of heating time. In contrast, prolonging the heating time did not substantially affect the antifungal activities of FF at low temperature. However, 60% of the antifungal activity was retained after FF was heated at 100 degrees C for 15 min, which suggests a potential use of FF as an antifungal additive in food products subjected to low to mild heat treatments.

  11. AAPH-mediated antioxidant reactions of secoisolariciresinol and SDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, Farah S; Muir, Alister D; Westcott, Neil D; Krol, Ed S

    2007-02-21

    Secoisolariciresinol (SECO ) is the major lignan found in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) and is present in a polymer that contains secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG ). SECO, SDG and the polymer are known to have a number of health benefits, including reduction of serum cholesterol levels, delay in the onset of type II diabetes and decreased formation of breast, prostate and colon cancers. The health benefits of SECO and SDG may be partially attributed to their antioxidant properties. To better understand their antioxidant properties, SECO and SDG were oxidized using 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane), an in vitro model of radical scavenging. The major lignan radical-scavenging oxidation products and their formation over time were determined. SDG was converted to four major products, which were the result of a phenoxyl radical intermediate. One of these products, a dimer of SDG, decomposed under the reaction conditions to form two of the other major products, and . SECO was converted to five major products, two of which were also the result of a phenoxyl radical intermediate. The remaining products were the result of an unexpected alkoxyl radical intermediate. The phenol oxidation products were stable under the reaction conditions, whereas two of the alcohol oxidation products decomposed. In general, only one phenol group on the lignans was oxidized, suggesting that the number of phenols per molecule may not predict radical scavenging antioxidant ability of lignans. Finally, SECO is a superior antioxidant to SDG, and it may be that the additional alcohol oxidation pathway contributes to its greater antioxidant ability.

  12. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S.; Torquato, Alex S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto, E-mail: mmakoto@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Nilson E. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  13. ATIVIDADE ALELOPÁTICA DE EXTRATOS DE PLANTAS DE COBERTURA SOBRE SOJA, PEPINO E ALFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSELI VIVIANE DITZEL NUNES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy can be defined as any effect , direct or indirect, beneficial or harmful, a plant on the other, through the release of chemical compounds into the environment. Thus, this study aimed at evaluat- ing, in the laboratory, allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from cover crops as canola (Brassica napus L. var, crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. and forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% concentrations. The plants used in aqueous extracts were collected during their flowering period of each studied species. Germination tests were performed on seeds gerbox, fresh and dry seedlings biomass, root and shoots seedlings length. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD in factorial (5x5 with four replicates per treatment. According to these results, it can be concluded that the tested extracts showed allelopathic effect on seedlings of lettuce, cucumber and soybean on almost all parameters, but for soybean germination and dry mass percentage, this effect was not significant. The sunn hemp extract, despite concentration, contributed the most to increased germination and seedling growth. However, linseed extract showed opposite effect for these parameters in 100% concentrations.

  14. The Use of Adsorbent Materials of Improving the Characteristics of Polluted Soils, Part 1 Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Oil Products, Cultivated with Technical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study are presented in pot experimental variants regarding alternatives to improve the characteristics of soils polluted with 74.12 ± 3.50 g·kg-1 D.M. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH in order to apply the phytoremediation process using technical plants from the common flax (Linum usitatissimum. The harmful effects of TPH polluted soils to plants was reduced by using fly ash from thermal plant as temporary adsorbent of non-polar pollutants, petroleum products. The increase of water retention capacity of the soil was achieved by treatments with indigenous volcanic tuff. The lack of nutrients, based on N and P in soils contaminated with TPH rich in C compounds are completed using sewage sludge anaerobically stabilized. The use of appropriate amounts of fly ash and fertilizer agents in the presence of volcanic tuff caused the formation of strong networks of roots and rich harvests of plants, stems and seeds from the treated soil. The TPH reduction efficiency of TPH polluted soils treated with fly ash (TPH soil: fly ash ratio 12:1 wt. / wt. and anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge respectively indigenous volcanic tuff during one vegetative cycle of crops was in the range of 56.2 - 63.25 %.

  15. Lime-based restoration paints: characterization and evaluation of formulations using a native species from the Amazon flora and PVA-based glue as additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Martins Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on historic documents, two lime-based paint formulations were produced in laboratory in order to evaluate their basic characteristics as restoration materials for historic buildings with lime-based components. The paints were made basically with hydrated lime, clay, water and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. oil, and one formulation had PVA (polyvinyl acetate-based glue as fixative, and the other one, Couma guianensis' latex. Each paint component was characterized by XRD and FTIR, and color and specular gloss measurements were performed on both paints. A preliminary assessment of the paints was conducted using the Pipe Method, the salt crystallization test, visual analysis for dustiness, and analysis of microbiological growth. The results showed that the laboratory-produced paints are theoretically and technologically compatible with lime-based coatings, however, their superficial performance can be improved to achieve greater durability. This study also brings to light local materials from the Amazon region that have great potential to be used and recognized as raw materials for paints and which could also be investigated for other uses.

  16. Methyl Salicylate Level Increase in Flax after Fusarium oxysporum Infection Is Associated with Phenylpropanoid Pathway Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Kostyn, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Dziadas, Mariusz; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in regulating plants' response to stress conditions. Upon treatment of flax plants with the fungus we found that methyl salicylate content increased (4.8-fold of the control) and the expression profiles of the analyzed genes suggest that it is produced most likely from cinnamic acid, through the β-oxidative route. At the same time activation of some genes involved in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis was observed. We suggest that increased methyl salicylate biosynthesis during flax response to F. oxysporum infection may be associated with phenylpropanoid pathway activation.

  17. Organophosphate Related Alterations in Myelin and Axonal Transport in the Living Mammalian Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    function, neuroinflammation, al- tered neurotrophin responses, etc. (reviewed, Soltaninejad and Abdollahi, 2009; Banks and Lein, 2012; Terry, 2012). Conflict...JN, Middlemore ML, Williamson LN, et al. Chronic, intermittent exposure to chlorpyrifos in rats: protracted effects on axonal transport, neurotrophin

  18. De Novo Transcriptomes of Forsythia koreana Using a Novel Assembly Method: Insight into Tissue- and Species-Specific Expression of Lignan Biosynthesis-Related Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shiraishi

    Full Text Available Forsythia spp. are perennial woody plants which are one of the most extensively used medicinal sources of Chinese medicines and functional diets owing to their lignan contents. Lignans have received widespread attention as leading compounds in the development of antitumor drugs and healthy diets for reducing the risks of lifestyle-related diseases. However, the molecular basis of Forsythia has yet to be established. In this study, we have verified de novo deep transcriptome of Forsythia koreana leaf and callus using the Illumina HiSeq 1500 platform. A total of 89 million reads were assembled into 116,824 contigs using Trinity, and 1,576 of the contigs displayed the sequence similarity to the enzymes responsible for plant specialized metabolism including lignan biosynthesis. Notably, gene ontology (GO analysis indicated the remarkable enrichment of lignan-biosynthetic enzyme genes in the callus transcriptome. Nevertheless, precise annotation and molecular phylogenetic analyses were hindered by partial sequences of open reading frames (ORFs of the Trinity-based contigs. To obtain more numerous contigs harboring a full-length ORF, we developed a novel overlapping layout consensus-based procedure, virtual primer-based sequence reassembly (VP-seq. VP-seq elucidated 709 full-length ORFs, whereas only 146 full-length ORFs were assembled by Trinity. The comparison of expression profiles of leaf and callus using VP-seq-based full-length ORFs revealed 50-fold upregulation of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SIRD in callus. Expression and phylogenetic cluster analyses predicted candidates for matairesinol-glucosylating enzymes. We also performed VP-seq analysis of lignan-biosynthetic enzyme genes in the transcriptome data of other lignan-rich plants, Linum flavum, Linum usitatissimum and Podophyllum hexandrum. The comparative analysis indicated both common gene clusters involved in biosynthesis upstream of matairesinol such as SIRD and plant lineage

  19. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  20. Flaxseed Response To N, P, and K Fertilization in South Central Chile Respuesta a la Fertilización N, P y K en Lino Oleaginoso en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Berti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. is a minor crop in Chile. There is interest to increase the number of crops on the current rotation in South Central Chile and also to increase oilseed feedstocks for salmon feed. There is little information published about seed yield and oil content response to N, P, and K fertilizers on flaxseed in Chile. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N, P, and K fertilization on flaxseed yield, oil content, and composition. The study was conducted at two locations during two growing seasons (environments, in Chillán 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and in Osorno 2004-2005, 2006-2007. Treatments were four levels of N (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg N ha-1, three levels of P (0,100, and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1, and two levels of K (0 and 150 kgK2O ha-1. The design was a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of three factors (N, P, and K and four replicates. According to the results, flaxseed yield improved as N rates increased. Physical optimum rate (rate at which maximum seed yield is obtained was different depending on the location and year. Nitrogen rate increased oil content and yield up to 200 kg N ha-1. Oil composition was not affected by N, P, and K rates, or their interactions. The P and K nutrients did not have an effect on seed yield, oil content, oil yield, and oil composition.El lino oleaginoso (Linum usitatissimum L. es un cultivo menor en Chile. En la zona centro sur existe interés por ampliar las alternativas para la rotación de cultivos, así como la necesidad de satisfacer la demanda por semillas oleaginosas para la alimentación de salmones. En Chile no hay información relacionada con la respuesta del lino frente a la fertilización. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de N, P y K sobre el rendimiento de semillas y contenido de aceite en lino cultivado en dos localidades: Chillán (temporadas 2004-2005 y 2005-2006 y Osorno (temporadas 2004-2005 y 2006-2007 (ambientes. Los

  1. Zinc Fertilization Effects on Seed Cadmium Accumulation in Oilseed and Grain Crops Grown on North Dakota Soils Efecto de la Fertilización con Zinc en la Acumulación de Cadmio en Semillas Oleaginosas y Cereales producidos en Suelos de Dakota del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A Rojas-Cifuentes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cd concentration in the seed of crops depends on various soil factors including parent material, texture, pH, soil redox, and salinity. Cadmium accumulation also varies among crop species and cultivars within a species. Cadmium and Zn may have either an antagonistic or a synergistic effect on plant uptake that can be influenced by the soil Cd and Zn concentrations. The objective was to determine the effect of Zn fertilizer additions on the seed Cd of nine crops commonly grown in North Dakota, USA. Studies were conducted at five North Dakota locations representing different soil series during 1994 and 1995. In Experiment 1, nine crops common in North Dakota were grown with and without the addition of 25 kg ha-1 Zn fertilizer. Among crops evaluated, the greatest seed Cd accumulation occurred in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. followed by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum. In Experiment 2, two durum wheats and one flax cultivar were grown under three Zn treatments of 0, 5, and 25 kg ha-1. In Experiment again flax had the higher seed Cd level compared with the two durum varieties. Based on the results from both studies, addition of Zn fertilizer did not consistently reduce seed Cd content, and even when statistically significant, the level of reduction was small and not likely to impact marketability of Cd accumulating crops such as flax, sunflower, soybean, and durum.La concentración de Cd en semillas depende de varios factores, tanto del suelo como de la planta. Cadmio y Zn pueden tener efectos antagónicos o sinérgicos en la absorción de la planta dependiendo de las concentraciones de Cd y Zn existentes en el suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la fertilización con Zn en la acumulación de Cd en la semilla de diversos cultivos comúnmente producidos en Dakota del Norte, EE.UU. Dos estudios fueron realizados en cinco localidades en

  2. Products Based on Bio-Resourced Materials for Agriculture. Radiation Processed Biodegradable Polymers, Plant Growth Promoters and Superabsorbent Polymers. Chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, K. A.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Varshney, L. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2014-07-15

    Radiation-processed natural polymers and their derivatives, namely starch, alginate, chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were explored for different agricultural applications such as biodegradable mulch films, super adsorbent polymers (SAPs), and plant growth promoters (PGPs). It was observed that gamma radiation-processed starch can lead to a better processability of starch/synthetic polymer alloys, and can offer tuneable biodegradability (as low as one month) with acceptable physico-mechanical properties. Acrylic acid/CMC-based SAP was prepared using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, for soil conditioning. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the acrylic acid/CMC SAP was found to be 460 g/g. The field trial of the SAP was conducted on sorghum. It was found that, with the use of 20 kg/ha of SAP, the crop yield can be increased by almost 18.5% whereas the increase in plant height was 8.5%. A new super adsorbent polymer with a much higher water uptake capacity was also developed by adding a small fraction of carrageenan to neutralized acrylic acid (AA). This SAP had EDS of 800 g/g, with the addition of only 1% carrageenan. Experiments to check the soil conditioning efficacy of AA/carrageenan SAP are in progress. Oligomers of chitosan and alginates were prepared by gamma irradiation and were tried as plant growth promoters in wheat (Triticum aestivum), mung bean (Vigna radiata), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), mentha (Mentha arvensis), and lemon grass. The results suggest that these oligomers have a significant impact on the grain and oil yield. Large scale field trials on Mentha arvensis in collaboration with an industry are in progress, and efforts are going on to formulate a policy framework for the use of oligosaccharides as plant growth promoters. (author)

  3. Between China and South Asia: A Middle Asian corridor of crop dispersal and agricultural innovation in the Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Chris J; Murphy, Charlene; Roberts, Rebecca; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2016-10-01

    The period from the late third millennium BC to the start of the first millennium AD witnesses the first steps towards food globalization in which a significant number of important crops and animals, independently domesticated within China, India, Africa and West Asia, traversed Central Asia greatly increasing Eurasian agricultural diversity. This paper utilizes an archaeobotanical database (AsCAD), to explore evidence for these crop translocations along southern and northern routes of interaction between east and west. To begin, crop translocations from the Near East across India and Central Asia are examined for wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) from the eighth to the second millennia BC when they reach China. The case of pulses and flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) that only complete this journey in Han times (206 BC-AD 220), often never fully adopted, is also addressed. The discussion then turns to the Chinese millets, Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica , peaches ( Amygdalus persica ) and apricots ( Armeniaca vulgaris ), tracing their movement from the fifth millennium to the second millennium BC when the Panicum miliaceum reaches Europe and Setaria italica Northern India, with peaches and apricots present in Kashmir and Swat. Finally, the translocation of japonica rice from China to India that gave rise to indica rice is considered, possibly dating to the second millennium BC. The routes these crops travelled include those to the north via the Inner Asia Mountain Corridor, across Middle Asia, where there is good evidence for wheat, barley and the Chinese millets. The case for japonica rice, apricots and peaches is less clear, and the northern route is contrasted with that through northeast India, Tibet and west China. Not all these journeys were synchronous, and this paper highlights the selective long-distance transport of crops as an alternative to demic-diffusion of farmers with a defined crop package.

  4. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  5. Intramolecular interaction influences binding of the Flax L5 and L6 resistance proteins to their AvrL567 ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ravensdale

    Full Text Available L locus resistance (R proteins are nucleotide binding (NB-ARC leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum that provide race-specific resistance to the causal agent of flax rust disease, Melampsora lini. L5 and L6 are two alleles of the L locus that directly recognize variants of the fungal effector AvrL567. In this study, we have investigated the molecular details of this recognition by site-directed mutagenesis of AvrL567 and construction of chimeric L proteins. Single, double and triple mutations of polymorphic residues in a variety of AvrL567 variants showed additive effects on recognition strength, suggesting that multiple contact points are involved in recognition. Domain-swap experiments between L5 and L6 show that specificity differences are determined by their corresponding LRR regions. Most positively selected amino acid sites occur in the N- and C-terminal LRR units, and polymorphisms in the first seven and last four LRR units contribute to recognition specificity of L5 and L6 respectively. This further confirms that multiple, additive contact points occur between AvrL567 variants and either L5 or L6. However, we also observed that recognition of AvrL567 is affected by co-operative polymorphisms between both adjacent and distant domains of the R protein, including the TIR, ARC and LRR domains, implying that these residues are involved in intramolecular interactions to optimize detection of the pathogen and defense signal activation. We suggest a model where Avr ligand interaction directly competes with intramolecular interactions to cause activation of the R protein.

  6. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P.K., E-mail: pkgoyal2002@gmail.com [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2014-07-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  7. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  8. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-05-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax ( Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 μL) outperforming the 400 μL, and 320 μL volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean = 4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean = 2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions.

  9. Late Neolithic vegetation history at the pile-dwelling site of Palù di Livenza (northeastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Roberta

    2004-12-01

    The Late Neolithic pile-dwelling of Palù di Livenza yielded archaeological remains typical of the Square Mouth Pottery and Lagozza Cultures. A palynological investigation reveals important changes in the vegetation due to anthropogenic pressure. Between ca. 6590 and 5960 cal. yr BP, dense oak wood forests with deciduous Quercus, Fagus and Corylus extended around the mire, with no signs of human impact. The establishment of the pile-dwelling, dated to ca. 5960 cal. yr BP, led to a strong reduction of forests, reclamation of wetlands, and expansion of herbaceous communities, with cultivated species, infestant weeds, nitrophilous and ruderal herbs, pastures and meadows. According to AMS dates and previous archaeological chronologies, the pile-dwelling persisted for about 700 years (from ca. 5960 to 5260 cal. yr BP). The history of the pile-dwelling after ca. 5260 cal. yr BP cannot be reconstructed because of recent contamination of the top part of the section. Rarefaction analysis was applied to estimate changes of palynological richness through time: the highest E(Tn) (between 56 and 69 taxa) are contemporaneous with the local development of the pile-dwelling. The comparison of pollen data with archaeobotanical evidence indicates that Fragaria vesca, Malus sylvestris, Papaver somniferum and Physalis alkekengi were gathered at some distance from the site and that Linum usitatissimum is strongly under-represented in pollen samples. Crop cultivation can be estimated for a radius of several hundred metres around the mire. Palù di Livenza is significant in the context of Neolithic archaeobotany of northern Italy and neighbouring countries. Copyright

  10. Germination and vigor of linseed seeds under different conditions of light, temperature and water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., cultivated from seeds, is one of the oldest plants domesticated by humans and is popularly used as a medicine. It can be used as the raw material to produce oil and bran because it has high lipids content, fiber and proteins. Based on the economic potential of this species and the need for more information about its physiology, the goal of this study was to analyze the effects of light, temperature and water stress on the germination and vigor of linseed seeds. In experiment I the seeds were sown on paper at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC in the presence and absence of light. In experiment II, the seeds were placed on paper germitest soaked in solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 at osmotic potentials corresponding to zero, -0.10, -0.20, -0.30, -0.40, -0.50 and -0.60 MPa. To evaluate the physiological potential, the following tests were made: germination, first germination count, length and dry mass of seedlings, and water stress. It was found that the highest percentages of germination and vigor occurred at a constant temperature of 20 °C, both in the presence and absence of light. The reduction of the osmotic potential of the substrate promoted a significant decrease in the germination and vigor of the linseed seeds. Osmotic potentials equal or less than -0.30 MPa were harmful to germination and there was no normal seedling development starting at -0.50 MPa.

  11. ELABORAÇÃO DE PÃO DE SAL UTILIZANDO FARINHA MISTA DE TRIGO E LINHAÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. OLIVEIRA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L. é uma semente que possui compostos fisiologicamente ativos, sendo fonte de fibras, ômega-3 e lignanas. Seu consumo vem sendo associado à prevenção de algumas doenças e a benefícios nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi testar a viabilidade de utilização de uma farinha mista, composta de trigo e linhaça na produção de pão de sal através da avaliação das características físico-químicas, sensoriais e tecnológicas do pão. Testes preliminares de farinografia, extensografia e panificação experimental foram realizados para determinaçãoda melhor formulação, que foi utilizada para produção do pão em uma panificadora comercial. Esse pão foi avaliado quanto a características físico-químicas, sensoriais e de textura. A adição de farinha de linhaça ao pão de sal na proporção de 10% mostrou ser viável tecnicamente, com uma excelente aceitação pelos consumidores, sabor agradável e características físico-químicas similares ao pão de sal tradicional, representando uma opção mais nutritiva e saborosa para a alimentação diária de vários consumidores.

  12. Protective effect of flax seed oil against radiation induced hematological alterations in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P.K.; Singh, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to ionizing and non ionizing radiation from natural as well as manmade sources. Ionizing radiations are one of the predominant exogenous factors that have deleterious consequences to human life. Exposure to ionizing radiations damages the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal or central nervous systems, depending on radiation dose. Hence, there is an urgent need to prevent such deleterious effects caused due to ionizing radiations. Chemical protection involves the use of synthetic and natural products against planned radiation exposure. Medicinal plants are rich in antioxidants and their chemical constituents may be the potential source for radioprotective agents. Linum usitatissimum plant (family: Linaceae), source of flaxseed oil (FSO), is well known for its anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardioprotector, antiulcer properties owing to the presence of various phytochemicals. The present study has been focused to find out the preventive action of flaxseed oil against radiation induced hematological and biochemical lesions in mammals. For this purpose, FSO (50μL/animal/day) was orally administered to Swiss albino mice for five days, prior to 6 Gy gamma radiation exposure. The animals were sacrificed on 1 st , 3 rd , 7 th , 15 th and 30 th day after irradiation. Radiation treated control group exhibited significant reduction in erythrocytes count, hemoglobin content, hematocrit value and total WBC count in peripheral blood. In contrast, pretreatment with FSO significantly increased all these blood constituents. Further, the antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase showed a significant elevation in FSO pretreated group which were reduced in irradiated control group. Similarly, radiation induced increase lipid peroxidation in blood was significantly inhibited after FSO treatment. The present results indicate that the flaxseed oil has the ability to debilitate the radiation induced adverse alterations in

  13. The oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

    Experiments for earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and often germinated in orbit in order to study gravity effects on developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds and respiration. In orbit the formation of a water layer around the seed may further limit oxygen availability. Therefore, the oxygen content of the available gas volume is one of the limiting factors for seed germination. In preparation for an upcoming shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware. We tested per seed chamber (gas volume = 14 mL, O2 = 2.9 mL) between 4 to 32 seeds glued to germination paper by 1% (w/v) gum guar. A lexan cover and a gasket hermetically sealed each of the eight chambers. For imbibition of the seeds a previously optimized amount of distilled water was dispensed through sealed inlets. The seedlings were allowed to grow for either 32 to 48 h on a clinostat or without microgravity simulation. Then their root length was measured. With 32 seeds per chamber, four times the intended number of seeds for the flight, the germination rate decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%. Experiments on the germination and root length in controlled atmospheres (5, 10, 15 and 21% O2 ) suggest that germination and growth for two days requires about 200 :l of O (1 mL air) per seed. Our2 experiments correlate oxygen dependency from seed mass and germination temperature, and analyze accumulation of gaseous metabolites (supported by NASA grant NAG10-0190).

  14. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait. PMID:22408732

  15. Heat-induced changes to lipid molecular structure in Vimy flaxseed: Spectral intensity and molecular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav

    2011-06-01

    Autoclaving was used to manipulate nutrient utilization and availability. The objectives of this study were to characterize any changes of the functional groups mainly associated with lipid structure in flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum, cv. Vimy), that occurred on a molecular level during the treatment process using infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included lipid CH 3 asymmetric (ca. 2959 cm -1), CH 2 asymmetric (ca. 2928 cm -1), CH 3 symmetric (ca. 2871 cm -1) and CH 2 symmetric (ca. 2954 cm -1) functional groups, lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group (ca. 1745 cm -1), lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (ca. 3010 cm -1) as well as their ratios. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were conducted to identify molecular spectral differences. Flaxseed samples were kept raw for the control or autoclaved in batches at 120 °C for 20, 40 or 60 min for treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Molecular spectral analysis of lipid functional group ratios showed a significant decrease ( P 0.05) on lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group and lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (with average spectral peak area intensities of 138.3 and 68.8 IR intensity units, respectively). Multivariate molecular spectral analyses, CLA and PCA, were unable to make distinctions between the different treatment original spectra at the CH 3 and CH 2 asymmetric and symmetric region (ca. 2988-2790 cm -1). The results indicated that autoclaving had an impact to the mid-infrared molecular spectrum of flaxseed to identify heat-induced changes in lipid conformation. A future study is needed to quantify the relationship between lipid molecular structure changes and functionality/availability.

  16. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  17. Natural Hypolignification Is Associated with Extensive Oligolignol Accumulation in Flax Stems1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis, Rudy; Morreel, Kris; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Lucau-Danila, Anca; Fénart, Stéphane; Grec, Sébastien; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabbert, Brigitte; Mesnard, François; Boerjan, Wout; Hawkins, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems contain cells showing contrasting cell wall structure: lignified in inner stem xylem tissue and hypolignified in outer stem bast fibers. We hypothesized that stem hypolignification should be associated with extensive phenolic accumulation and used metabolomics and transcriptomics to characterize these two tissues. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance clearly distinguished inner and outer stem tissues and identified different primary and secondary metabolites, including coniferin and p-coumaryl alcohol glucoside. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry aromatic profiling (lignomics) identified 81 phenolic compounds, of which 65 were identified, to our knowledge, for the first time in flax and 11 for the first time in higher plants. Both aglycone forms and glycosides of monolignols, lignin oligomers, and (neo)lignans were identified in both inner and outer stem tissues, with a preponderance of glycosides in the hypolignified outer stem, indicating the existence of a complex monolignol metabolism. The presence of coniferin-containing secondary metabolites suggested that coniferyl alcohol, in addition to being used in lignin and (neo)lignan formation, was also utilized in a third, partially uncharacterized metabolic pathway. Hypolignification of bast fibers in outer stem tissues was correlated with the low transcript abundance of monolignol biosynthetic genes, laccase genes, and certain peroxidase genes, suggesting that flax hypolignification is transcriptionally regulated. Transcripts of the key lignan genes Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase and Phenylcoumaran Benzylic Ether Reductase were also highly abundant in flax inner stem tissues. Expression profiling allowed the identification of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) and MYB transcription factors that are likely involved in regulating both monolignol production and polymerization as well as (neo)lignan production. PMID:22331411

  18. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Van Hees, M.

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 and to fibres 1.0 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m -2 ). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination -2 ). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of -2 for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 ) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care

  19. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 microliters) outperforming the 400 microliters and 320 microliters volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean=4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean=2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  1. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L; Bolton, Judy L

    2016-10-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  2. Evaluation of the significance of cell wall polymers in flax infected with a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Czemplik, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2016-03-22

    Fusarium oxysporum infection leads to Fusarium-derived wilt, which is responsible for the greatest losses in flax (Linum usitatissimum) crop yield. Plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum show severe symptoms of dehydration due to the growth of the fungus in vascular tissues. As the disease develops, vascular browning and leaf yellowing can be observed. In the case of more virulent strains, plants die. The pathogen's attack starts with secretion of enzymes degrading the host cell wall. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the cell wall polymers in the flax plant response to the infection in order to better understand the process of resistance and develop new ways to protect plants against infection. For this purpose, the expression of genes involved in cell wall polymer metabolism and corresponding polymer levels were investigated in flax seedlings after incubation with Fusarium oxysporum. This analysis was facilitated by selecting two groups of genes responding differently to the infection. The first group comprised genes strongly affected by the infection and activated later (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and glucosyltransferase). The second group comprised genes which are slightly affected (up to five times) and their expression vary as the infection progresses. Fusarium oxysporum infection did not affect the contents of cell wall polymers, but changed their structure. The results suggest that the role of the cell wall polymers in the plant response to Fusarium oxysporum infection is manifested through changes in expression of their genes and rearrangement of the cell wall polymers. Our studies provided new information about the role of cellulose and hemicelluloses in the infection process, the change of their structure and the expression of genes participating in their metabolism during the pathogen infection. We also confirmed the role of pectin and lignin in this process, indicating the major changes at the mRNA level of lignin metabolism genes

  3. Nitrogen and dry matter dynamics in linseed as affected by the nitrogen level and genotype in a Mediterranean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordas, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Linseed or oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of edible and industrial vegetable oil and is grown widely in temperate regions around the world. Nitrogen, one of the most important nutrients for linseed, is often applied for higher yield and better quality. However, the effects of N level on dry matter and N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation have not yet been identified in linseed. A two-year field study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of N level on dry matter, N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation of three linseed cultivars (Livia, Lirina, Creola) grown in a Mediterranean environment under rain-fed conditions. It was found that N fertilization increased biomass at anthesis by an average of 47% and at maturity by an average of 38%, compared with the control. N fertilization increased the dry matter partitioning in leaves + flowers and stems at anthesis, and also in leaves + capsule vegetative components, stems, and seeds at maturity. Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, growing season, and by the interaction between growing season and N treatment. In addition, N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts of the plant to the seed. Moreover, the N uptake by seeds was more affected by the seed yield and less affected by the seed N concentration. The present study indicates that N fertilization affects dry matter and N translocation in linseed. -- Highlights: ► Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, year, and their interaction. ► HI was affected by N fertilization while NHI was not. ► N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts to the seed.

  4. The evaluation of the healing proprieties of pumpkin and linseed oils on deep second-degree burns in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Ben Khedir, Sameh; Rebai, Tarek; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been recognized as useful remedies for primary health care. Accordingly, Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae) (pumpkin) and Linum usitatissimum (L.) Griesb. (Linaceae) (linseed) which have extracted oil with prominent pharmacological properties are investigated as possible burn healing treatments. The present study assesses the healing potential of pumpkin and linseed extracted oils on rats. Uniform deep second-degree burns were induced on the dorsum of 24 rats, randomly divided into four groups. The burns were measured, photographed, and topically treated with saline solution, "Cytol Centella®", pumpkin, and linseed-extracted oils (0.52 µl/mm(2) of oil) each 2 d (up until day 33). Post-burning of the 33rd day, biopsies were histologically assessed. At the end of the experiment, the rat groups treated with linseed, pumpkin oils, and "Cytol Centella®" had higher percentage of wound contraction (98.68, 96.71, and 92.54%, respectively) than the control group (58.38%). Wound biopsies from rats treated with extracted oils showed the best tissue regeneration proprieties as compared with the other groups. The histomorphometric analysis of biopsies revealed that linseed oil could significantly stimulate angiogenesis (55.6% ± 7.25). The pumpkin oil, and Cytol Centella® could significantly increase the collagen production 64.9% ± 5.94, and 61.2% ± 7.36, respectively. Overall, our study has given for the first time scientific evidence of the healing efficiency of pumpkin and linseed oils on burn-wounds.

  5. Evaluation of equipment for broadcast seed sowing of canary and linseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la efectividad de dos equipos de voleo de semillas de plantas forrajeras. La investigación se realizó en Ochomogo de Cartago, en el año 2010. Se emplearon semillas de alpiste (Phalaris canariensis y linaza (Linum usitatissimum L. El modelo estadístico fue el de tres caminos de clasificación. Las variables medidas fueron: tiempo empleado en recorrer la franja de trabajo, cantidad de semilla esparcida al voleo por segundo (mg/s, número de semillas esparcidas y peso/m2. La distribución de semilla fue de 5,14 mg/seg en ambas especies. Se encontraron diferencias (p<0,05 entre equipos y dentro de ellos, se obtuvieron descargas muy diferenciadas (p<0,01 entre los grados de aceleración y entre los niveles de apertura del voleo. El efecto de la adición de agregados en mezcla con la semilla fue significativo (p<0,01, en el orden de 21, 14 y 9 kg/ha de semilla pura, mezcla con 25% y 50% de agregados, respectivamente. Se realizó un análisis de superficie de respuesta para determinar el grado de aceleración requerido en la bomba de motor o el nivel de apertura de la voleadora manual, junto con el nivel de agregados necesarios en la mezcla, para lograr densidades de 6, 8 y 10 kg/ha en cada equipo empleado.

  6. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  8. Evaluación de la capacidad antioxidante y metabolitos secundarios de extractos de dieciséis plantas medicinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echavarría, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of sixteen medicinal plants: Escoba amarga (Parthenium hysterophons, ajenjo (Artemisia absinthium, guarumo (Cecropia obtusifolia, chaya (Cnidoscolus chayamansa, borraja (Borago officinalis, balsa (Ochroma sp., linaza (Linum usitatissimum, hierba Luisa (Cymbopogon citratus, toronjil (Melissa officinalis, buganvilla (Bougainvillea spectabilis, alcachofa (Cynara scolymus, guaviduca (Piper carpunya, altamisa (Ambrosia cumanensis, diente de León (Taxacum officinales, buscapina (Parietaria officinalisand moringa (Moringa oleifera. For this, the DPPH (radical 1, 1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil method was used; furthermore, recognition assays of secondary metabolites were performed, in order to obtain the first signs of phytochemical compounds of interest. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was expressed as IC value (g/mL (necessary amount to inhibit the formation of 50% of DPPH radical. The low value of IC50 reflects better free radical scavenging action. Although most of the samples tested showed good antioxidant capacity with this method (DPPH, tests of hydroalcoholic extracts show that alcachofa (IC50 9.89 mg/mL, moringa (IC50 11.4 mg/mL and borraja (IC50 14.0 mg/mL were those with higher antioxidant capacity. Through chemical characterization tests, the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes, alkaloids and saponins were detected in most of the analyzed species (approximately 56-69%; only 20% of them showed the presence of polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides, lactones, coumarins, anthraquinones and sterols. According to the results obtained, these plants might be considered as promising sources of secondary metabolites with antioxidant activity.

  9. Att utforma en teknisk manual : Med tillhörande riktlinjer

    OpenAIRE

    Runvall, Linda; Parantainen, Satu

    2007-01-01

    Vi, Linda Runvall och Satu Parantainen, har gjort vårt examensarbete för företaget Leine & Linde i Strängnäs. De tillverkar pulsgivare som används inom industrin. Examensarbetet bestod av att göra om en befintlig manual och skriva guidelines (riktlinjer) till Leine & Lindes personal. Under vårt examensarbete har vi använt oss av våra kunskaper inom informationsdesign. Rune Pettersson, professor i informationsdesign vid Mälardalens högskola, beskriver ämnet informationsdesign såhär: ”I...

  10. Digestibilidade e metabólitos sanguíneos de vacas da raça Holandesa superovuladas que receberam Lac100® ou linhaça em grão como fontes de gordura Digestibility and blood concentration of metabolites in superovulated dairy cows fed Lac100® or linseed as fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L.B. Cavalieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de duas fontes de gordura, Lac100® (Yakult, fonte de ácido graxo ômega-6, e linhaça em grão (Linum usitatissimum (LIN, fonte de ácido graxo ômega-3, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DMS, proteína bruta (DPB, fibra em detergente neutro (DFDN, fibra em detergente ácido (DFDA e extrato etéreo (DEE, e concentrações sanguíneas de HDL, LDL, VLDL, colesterol, triglicerídeos, glicose, cálcio, fósforo, N-ureico e progesterona. Foram utilizadas 10 vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, distribuídas nos dois tratamentos, em um delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os animais alimentados com Lac100® apresentaram maiores valores de DFDN (57,44% vs. 50,80% e DEE (77,70% vs. 72,18% quando comparados aos alimentados com LIN. Os animais alimentados com Lac100® apresentaram maiores concentrações de LDL (111,00 vs. 45,46mg/dL, HDL (82,27 vs. 64,93mg/dL e colesterol total (203,60 vs. 116,13mg/dL e menor concentração de N-ureico (13,22 vs. 15,19mg/dL em relação aos animais alimentados com linhaça em grão. As concentrações sanguíneas de glicose, cálcio, fósforo e progesterona não foram alteradas. Os resultados sugerem que a fonte de gordura na dieta modifica a DFDN e a DEE e, as concentrações sanguíneas de LDL, HDL e colesterol total em vacas em lactação.The effect of two sources of fat, calcium salts of soybean oil, Lac100® (Yakult, a source of omega-6 fatty acids or whole flaxseed (Linum usitatissiumum, a source of omega-3 fatty acids were evaluated to determine the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, crude protein (DCP, neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, acid detergent fiber (DADF, and ether extract (DEE; and blood concentrations of HDL, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, N-urea, and progesterone. Ten lactating Holstein cows were allocated in two treatments and a completely randomized design was used. Cows fed Lac100® had higher

  11. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van Hees, M [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and to fibres 1.0 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m{sup -2}). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination <740 kBq m{sup -2}). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of <250 and 1050 kBq m{sup -2} for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  12. Improving retting of fibre through genetic modification of flax to express pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musialak, Magdalena; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Starzycka, Eligia; Szopa, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a raw material used for important industrial products. Linen has very high quality textile properties, such as its strength, water absorption, comfort and feel. However, it occupies less than 1% of the total textile market. The major reason for this is the long and difficult retting process by which linen fibres are obtained. In retting, bast fibre bundles are separated from the core, the epidermis and the cuticle. This is accomplished by the cleavage of pectins and hemicellulose in the flax cell wall, a process mainly carried out by plant pathogens like filamentous fungi. The remaining bast fibres are mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. The aim of this study was to generate plants that could be retted more efficiently. To accomplish this, we employed the novel approach of transgenic flax plant generation with increased polygalacturonase (PGI ) and rhamnogalacturonase (RHA) activities. The constitutive expression of Aspergillus aculeatus genes resulted in a significant reduction in the pectin content in tissue-cultured and field-grown plants. This pectin content reduction was accompanied by a significantly higher (more than 2-fold) retting efficiency of the transgenic plant fibres as measured by a modified Fried's test. No alteration in the lignin or cellulose content was observed in the transgenic plants relative to the control. This indicates that the over-expression of the two enzymes does not affect flax fibre composition. The growth rate and soluble sugar and starch contents were in the range of the control levels. It is interesting to note that the RHA and PGI plants showed higher resistance to Fusarium culmorum and F. oxysporum attack, which correlates with the increased phenolic acid level. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that over-expression of the A. aculeatus genes results in flax plants more readily usable for fibre production. The biochemical parameters of the cell wall components indicated that

  13. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  14. Appraisal of the nitrogen-15 natural-abundance method for quantifying dinitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, E.; van Kessel, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several investigators have questioned the use of the 15 N natural-abundance method of estimating N 2 fixation because of variability in soil δ 15 N and small differences between the δ 15 N of soil N and atmospheric N. Investigations were conducted to compare the 15 N natural-abundance and 15 N-isotope-dilution methods for estimating N 2 fixation of field-grown pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Spatial variability was assessed at three sites by determining the δ 15 N of non-N 2 -fixing plants. Seasonal variation in δ 15 N for spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rape (Brassica napus L.) and lentil was determined at one site. Comparisons between δ 15 N and 15 N-enriched isotope-dilution methods for estimating N 2 fixation by lentil were conducted at several sites over a 3-yr period. Variability in δ 15 N of the reference plant was site dependent: the δ 15 N ranged from 2.8 to 9.3 at the first site, 3.4 to 8.8 at the second site, and 3.5 to 6.2 at the third site. The average δ 15 N of four of the five non-N 2 -fixing plants increased from 5.4 at 42 d after planting to 6.9 at the final harvest. The fifth non-N 2 -fixing plant, rape, accumulated most of its N during the first 42 d after planting, and its δ 15 N value declined from 8.1 at 42 d after planting to 7.3 at the final harvest. Estimates of N 2 fixation were not significantly different in 18 out of 21 comparisons; in two comparisons in the δ 15 N method and in one comparison the 15 N-enriched method provided higher estimates of N 2 fixation. Overall, both methods appeared to provide equally reliable estimates of N 2 fixation for lentil

  15. Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraful, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Imtenan, S.; Shahir, S.A.; Mobarak, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of current energy situation. • Overview of biology, distribution and chemistry of various non-edible oil resources. • Comparison of fuel properties of various biodiesels produced from various non-edible oils. • Comparison of engine performance and emission characteristics of reviewed biodiesels. - Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results

  16. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation and migration, and looked at the effect on a human skin model. Moreover, we verified its activity against bacteria of clinical relevance. Methods The GT flax used in this study is characterized by overexpression of the glucosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Five GT seedcake preparations were generated. Their composition was assessed using ultra pressure liquid chromatography and confirmed using the UPLC-QTOF method. For the in vitro evaluation, the influence of the GT seedcake preparations on normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the MTT test and the wound scratch assay. A human skin model was used to evaluate the potential for skin irritation. To assess the antimicrobial properties of GT preparations, the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. Results The GT seedcake extract had elevated levels of phenylopropanoid compounds in comparison to the control, non-transformed plants. Significant increases in the content of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and their glucoside derivatives, kaempferol, quercitin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) were observed in the seeds of the modified plants. The GT seedcake preparations were shown to promote the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts and the migration of fibroblasts in the wound scratch assay. The superior effect of GT seedcake extract on fibroblast migration was observed after a 24-hour treatment. The skin irritation test indicated

  17. Identification, Expression Analysis, and Target Prediction of Flax Genotroph MicroRNAs Under Normal and Nutrient Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Koroban, Nadezhda V.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Krasnov, George S.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Muravenko, Olga V.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important plant valuable for industry. Some flax lines can undergo heritable phenotypic and genotypic changes (LIS-1 insertion being the most common) in response to nutrient stress and are called plastic lines. Offspring of plastic lines, which stably inherit the changes, are called genotrophs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a crucial regulatory mechanism of gene expression. They have previously been assumed to take part in nutrient stress response and can, therefore, participate in genotroph formation. In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) extracted from flax plants grown under normal, phosphate deficient and nutrient excess conditions to identify miRNAs and evaluate their expression. Our analysis revealed expression of 96 conserved miRNAs from 21 families in flax. Moreover, 475 novel potential miRNAs were identified for the first time, and their targets were predicted. However, none of the identified miRNAs were transcribed from LIS-1. Expression of seven miRNAs (miR168, miR169, miR395, miR398, miR399, miR408, and lus-miR-N1) with up- or down-regulation under nutrient stress (on the basis of high-throughput sequencing data) was evaluated on extended sampling using qPCR. Reference gene search identified ETIF3H and ETIF3E genes as most suitable for this purpose. Down-regulation of novel potential lus-miR-N1 and up-regulation of conserved miR399 were revealed under the phosphate deficient conditions. In addition, the negative correlation of expression of lus-miR-N1 and its predicted target, ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene, as well as, miR399 and its predicted target, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 gene, was observed. Thus, in our study, miRNAs expressed in flax plastic lines and genotrophs were identified and their expression and expression of their targets was evaluated using high-throughput sequencing and qPCR for the first time. These data provide new insights

  18. Effect of crop rotations and fertilization on energy balance in typical production systems on the Canadian Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, R.P.; Stumborg, M.A.; Campbell, C.A.

    1989-03-01

    Non-renewable energy inputs (both direct and indirect), metabolizable energy output and energy efficiency of 10 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotations were examined over 18 years on a loam soil in the Brown soil zone of the Canadian Prairies. The rotations, which were managed using conventional tillage, included a range of crops, cropping intensities, crop sequences and fertilizer practices. Results showed that the total energy input per unit of land was lowest for the traditional fallow-wheat (F-W) rotation (3482 MJ ha/sup -1/), intermediate (4470 MJ ha/sup -1/) for N- and P-fertilized fallow-wheat-wheat (F-W-W) and highest for N- and P-fertilized continuous wheat (7100 MJ ha/sup -1/). Substituting flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or rye (Secale cereale L.) for wheat in the rotations reduced total energy input by 3 to 8%, while withholding the application of either N or P fertilizer reduced total energy input by 16-37%. Liquid fuel for field operations and local product transport, and fertilizer (primarily N) were the major energy inputs; both increased with cropping intensity. Fuel accounted for 30-50% of the total energy input of the rotations. Fertilizer represented 15-49% of the total energy input and was more important than fuel for the continuous crop rotations. Despite the high energy content in pesticides, they accounted for only 4-11% of the total energy input of the rotations. Metabolizable energy output displayed similar response patterns as total energy input reflecting the higher total annual grain yields as cropping intensity increased. The average energy output to input ratio for F-W was 3.6, or 262 kg of wheat GJ/sup -1/ of energy input, while those for F-W-W and continuous wheat were 3.3 and 2.6, or 240 and 191 kg of wheat GJ/sup -1/ of energy input, respectively. Rotations that included flax or cereal forage crops had the lowest energy efficiencies. 2 figs., 31 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  20. Amber Particles as Living Plant Cell Markers in Flow Cytometry / Dzintara Daļiņas Kā Dzīvu Augu Šūnu Marķieri Plūsmas Citometrijā

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grauda Dace

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Labi zināma ir dzintara labvēlīgā ietekme uz dažādiem organismiem, tomēr ir ļoti maz pētījumu par dzintara ietekmi uz augu šūnām. Tādēļ šī pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot nano un mikro lieluma (5 nm-3 μm dzintara daļiņu un dzintara komponentu (spirtā šķīstošā dzintara frakcija un sukcināta ietekmi uz augu somatiskajām un gametiskajām šūnām, un noskaidrot dzintara daļiņu piemērotību dzīvu augu šūnu iezīmēšanai urbānās vides pētījumiem, izmantojot plūsmas citometriju. Relatīvā fluorescence, izmantojot BD FACSJazz® šūnu šķirotāju ar plūsmas citometra funkciju, tika noteikta èetru dažādu ģinšu sugu (Argyranthemum frutescens, Cyclamen persicum, Hordeum vulgare, Linum usitatissimum augu šūnām pēc 2 un 24 stundu kultivācijas barotnēs ar un bez dzintara daļiņām vai dzintara komponentiem. Konstatēts, ka dzintara daļiņu klātbūtne visām pētīto augu šūnām ievērojami palielināja relatīvo fluorescenci. Dzintara komponentu ietekme uz šūnu relatīvās fluorescences izmaiņām nebija būtiska, salīdzinot ar dzintara daļiņu ietekmi. Dzintara daļiņas nesamazināja dzīvo šūnu daudzumu paraugos. Konstatēts, ka dzintara daļiņas (5 nm-3 μm var izmantot kā marķierus dzīvo šūnu iezīmēšanai plūsmas citometrijas pētījumos.

  1. Genome wide SNP discovery in flax through next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Santosh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is a significant fibre and oilseed crop. Current flax molecular markers, including isozymes, RAPDs, AFLPs and SSRs are of limited use in the construction of high density linkage maps and for association mapping applications due to factors such as low reproducibility, intense labour requirements and/or limited numbers. We report here on the use of a reduced representation library strategy combined with next generation Illumina sequencing for rapid and large scale discovery of SNPs in eight flax genotypes. SNP discovery was performed through in silico analysis of the sequencing data against the whole genome shotgun sequence assembly of flax genotype CDC Bethune. Genotyping-by-sequencing of an F6-derived recombinant inbred line population provided validation of the SNPs. Results Reduced representation libraries of eight flax genotypes were sequenced on the Illumina sequencing platform resulting in sequence coverage ranging from 4.33 to 15.64X (genome equivalents. Depending on the relatedness of the genotypes and the number and length of the reads, between 78% and 93% of the reads mapped onto the CDC Bethune whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. A total of 55,465 SNPs were discovered with the largest number of SNPs belonging to the genotypes with the highest mapping coverage percentage. Approximately 84% of the SNPs discovered were identified in a single genotype, 13% were shared between any two genotypes and the remaining 3% in three or more. Nearly a quarter of the SNPs were found in genic regions. A total of 4,706 out of 4,863 SNPs discovered in Macbeth were validated using genotyping-by-sequencing of 96 F6 individuals from a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between CDC Bethune and Macbeth, corresponding to a validation rate of 96.8%. Conclusions Next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries was successfully implemented for genome-wide SNP discovery from

  2. The Influence of Agroclimatic Factors on the Formation of Oil Content In Flax Seeds in the North of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordeyeva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the promising oil crops in the north of Kazakhstan. Over the last 10 years, the total area under this crop in the region has increased fourteen-fold, since flax is a very plastic crop for steppe and dry steppe conditions, and oil seeds are in high demand in the world market. Flaxseed oil, due to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, occupies one of the first positions among other edible vegetable oils. Depending on environmental conditions, the oil content of the crop may vary from 36.4% to 52.0%, while, as noted by many researchers, the change in oil content depends on genotypic characteristics. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the influence of the genotype and climatic conditions of cultivation on fat biosynthesis in flax seeds in the context of the dry steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan on dark chestnut soils of the Akmola region. Field experiments were conducted in 2015-2017 with the study of nine oil flaxseed cultivars (of mid-season varieties sown on May 20 at the seeding rate of 7 million seeds/ha based on the traditional technology of cultivation recommended for the region. Climatic parameters were taken into account according to the meteorological service data. Fat content was determined by the extraction method using a Soxhlet apparatus in accordance with GOST (All-Union State Standard 10857-64, and moisture content was determined by the thermogravimetric method according to the National Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2.195-2010, for recalculation of oil content for absolutely dry matter. It was found that the formation of oil depends on climatic parameters and on the sum of active temperatures during the ripening period, in particular. The evaluation of plasticity and stability of the cultivars (genotypes showed that VNIIMK 620, Lirina, Karabalyksky 7 can be considered highly valuable cultivars and Severny, Biryuza, Kazar, Ilyich – valuable cultivars in terms of oil content

  3. Chinese physicists and the CERN group invited to visit China in September 1975

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    At the National Peoples Congress Palace in Peking, Wu Lein-Fu (centre) between W. Weisskopf and W. Jentschke. Second from left Mrs Weisskopf. At the back (centre) L. Van Hove, Mrs Van Hove, G. Charpak. See CERN Courier of October 1975.

  4. NCI at Frederick Employees Receive Awards at the Spring Research Festival | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI and Frederick National Laboratory staff members were among those honored at the Spring Research Festival Awards Ceremony on May 28. The ceremony was the culmination of the festival, which was sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR), May 4–7. Maj. Gen. Brian Lein, commanding general, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

  5. Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Costa, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Bal-Price AK, Coecke S, Costa L, Crofton KM, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Grandjean P, Lein PJ, Li A, Lucchini R, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Persico A, Seiler AEM, Kreysa J. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation. Altex 2012: 29: 202-15....

  6. Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfahmi, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the

  7. Genome size, morphological and palynological variations, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study compares the morphological, palynologycal and genome size (C-value content) characteristics in the long-styled and short-styled plants in three Linum species, that is, ... The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test performed among the three Linum species showed a significant difference in 2C-value content.

  8. Comparison of two culture media for breaking seed dormancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the percentage germination and days to germination in each of the four species were higher and faster in water with agar medium in comparison to MS growth medium. These results suggest that the Linum seeds have exogenous and endogenous dormancy. Key words: Dormancy, germination, MS media, Linum species, ...

  9. Genotype by Environment Interaction (G x E) and Grain Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... Innovations (QAAFI), Qld 4343, Australia,. Corresponding Author Tel. ... usitatissimum L.), n=15] are indigenous oil crops of Ethiopia. Over many years, there ... by USA (17%), China (17%) and Ethiopia with. 125,000 tons (4%) ...

  10. Farinha de linhaça dourada como substituto de gordura animal em hambúrguer de carne bovina com redução de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Francielly De Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores costumam associar os produtos cárneos processados a uma imagem negativa em função dos teores de gordura saturada, sódio e aditivos químicos que apresentam. O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a influência da adição de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada (Linum usitatissimum L. como substituto de gordura suína e da utilização de sal com teor reduzido de sódio nas características físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais de hambúrgueres de carne bovina. Visando tornar o hambúrguer mais saudável, seis formulações foram desenvolvidas mudando as concentrações de sal light e de farinha de linhaça. Os resultados demonstraram que a adição de 10,0% de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada em substituição a 100,0% do toucinho contribuiu para o aumento (p < 0,05 do teor de proteínas. A adição de 5,0% de farinha de linhaça dourada em substituição a 50,0% do toucinho refletiu em boas notas para todos os atributos sensoriais avaliados. Houve aumento (p < 0,05 dos percentuais de ômega-3 e cinzas, e redução (p < 0,05 dos lipídios totais e valor calórico, independente dos níveis de adição da farinha. A substituição de toucinho por farinha de semente de linhaça contribuiu para o menor encolhimento e melhor rendimento, bem como para maior retenção de umidade e de gordura dos hambúrgueres. O sal light não interferiu negativamente nas características microbiológicas dos hambúrgueres e quando associado com a adição de 5,0% de farinha de linhaça contribuiu para melhor (p < 0,05 sabor e aroma. Os resultados sugeriram que a adição de 5,0% de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada como substituto de 50,0% da gordura suína, bem como a redução de 60,1% do sódio em hambúrgueres de carne bovina, se caracterizou alternativa viável do ponto de vista nutricional e sensorial, contribuindo ainda para o maior rendimento do produto após o cozimento.

  11. Quantifying erosion over timescales of one million years: A photogrammetric approach on the amount of Rhenish erosion in southwestern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Annette; Strasser, Marcel; Seyfried, Hartmut

    2010-10-01

    The Lein valley in southwestern Germany possesses well-preserved Pliocene to mid Pleistocene land surfaces featuring a gentle relief and sediments accumulated by former tributaries of the Danube. This ancient Danubian land surface was captured and incised by mid Pleistocene to Holocene tributaries of the River Rhine. In a photogrammetric approach we calculated the volume of material extracted by Rhenish erosion providing a first quantification of the effects of stream piracy on timescales of about 1 Ma. Using stereoscopic surface modelling software a DEM was generated with a resolution of 5 m. From borehole data, literature, geological maps, and own field observations we determined the morphometric parameters of the ancient Danubian Ur-Lein valley. The gradient was imported as a 3D-breakline into the model where it controls the reinterpolation of surrounding data points. The result is a high-resolution DEM of the valley of the Ur-Lein. Subtraction of the DEM of the actual landscape from the DEM of the ancient Ur-Lein valley yields a model representing the rock volume eroded by the Rhenish Lein which totals 1.39 km 3 and converts into a rate of erosion between 63 and 74 mm/ka over a period of 700 to 600 ka, respectively, in accordance with figures obtained elsewhere in Central Europe through cosmogenic nuclides. It reflects the dominance of frequent fluctuations in climate and is considered to be mainly a product of strong changes in temperature and related processes during the transitional times between mid to late Pleistocene warm and cold states. A filtering procedure applied to cold and transitional state erosion rates of the Middle and Late Pleistocene yielded peak values between 66 and 77 mm/ka, up to three times higher than the modern rate or the rate of warm-state episodes. An assessment of the contribution of Rhenish stream piracy on long-term mid Pleistocene denudation under changing climate conditions resulted in a maximum 4.9-fold acceleration.

  12. A case of lupus-like glomerulonephritis in an HIV patient with nephrotic range proteinuria, purpura, and elevated IgA level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihyun; Seo, Min Young; Kim, Ki Tae; Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Sun-Chul; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Jo, Sang-Kyung; Cho, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Kyu; Won, Nam Hee; Cha, Ran-Hui; Cho, Eunjung

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is growing medical concern worldwide. There are many types of glomerulonephritis which are associated with HIV infection. We report a case of a 53-year-old Korean man with an HIV infection, who was developed nephritic range proteinuria and purpura with elevated IgA level rasing a possibility of Henoch-Schölein Purpura (H-S purpura). However, renal biopsy showed "lupus-like feature" glomerulonephritis without clinical or serologic evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus. Although baseline renal function was maintained without further need for maintenance dialysis following anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and steroid, patient died from uncontrolled gastrointestinal bleeding.

  13. [Effects of nootropic drugs on hippocampal and cortical BDNF levels in mice with different exploratory behavior efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstova, Iu Iu; Dolotov, O V; Kondrakhin, e A; Dubynina, E V; Grivennikov, I A; Kovalev, G I

    2009-01-01

    The influence of subchronic administration of nootropic drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, meclophenoxate, pantocalcine, semax, nooglutil) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in hippocampal and cortical tissues in mice with different exploratory behavior--high efficacy (HE) against low efficacy (LE)--in cross-maze test has been studied. The initial BDNF concentration in hippocamp (but not in cortex) of control HE mice was higher than that in LE mice (LE, 0.091 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; HE, 0.177 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; p nootrope effects, at least partially, via increase in hippocampal BDNF level, which is achieved only under conditions of cognitive deficiency.

  14. Effects of filamentous macroalgae on growth and survival of eelgrass, Zostera marina, seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit

    of oxygen and sulphide and their diurnal variations in the mats were measured using microelectrodes. Seedling growth rates declined 99 % from controls to the high C. linum cover treatment and 55 % to the high imitation algae treatment. But due to high water flow rates anoxic conditions failed to develop...... on a 2-factorial laboratory experiment. Eelgrass seedlings were grown with three different heights and two different types of algae mats: Chaetomorpha linum and artificial macroalgae. The two types of mats were used to separate the physical and metabolic effects of algal presence. Concentrations...

  15. Initiation and growth of gypsum piercement structures in the Zechstein Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Stroud, S. C.; Paul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of tectonic processes in initiating halite diapirs has become much better understood in recent years. Less well understood is the development of diapiric structures involving rocks composed predominantly of gypsum. Below about 1000 m, gypsum dehydrates to anhydrite, which often obscures primary sedimentary textures. If the strain associated with diapiric rise in the rock induces the transition to anhydrite, obliteration of primary features in the gypsum can be expected. In our study, we infer that the diapiric movement in the Werra Anhydrite member of cycle 1 of the Zechstein Formation of Europe occurred before the initial transition of gypsum to anhydrite based on the presence of pseudomorphs of bedded primary gypsum crystals, the overburden lithologies and depositional environment, and the mechanical properties of gypsum, anhydrite and carbonate rocks. Faulting and differential loading of a shallow overburden were the key components in initiating the gypsum diapirism. The transition to anhydrite occurred after burial and after cessation of diapirism. In comparison, the diapirism of calcium sulfate of the Leine Anhydrite into the Leine Halite members of cycle 3 of the Zechstein Formation probably occurred much later after burial and appears to have been triggered by halite diapirism, which in turn triggered the dehydration reaction, causing the calcium sulfate to become the incompetent phase relative to the halite. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Trade liberalisation as facilitated through trade agreements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-06-21

    Jun 21, 2000 ... realisation of socio~economic rights~ is a process requiring the government ... ern Africa must be based on the need to ensure real improvement in the .... Imports: apparel surpasses unwrought plaLinum as the second largest ...... ties for SOULh African companies in sectors such as textiles and clothing,.

  17. Effects of filamentous macroalgae mats on growth and survival of eelgrass, Zostera marina, seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Olesen, Birgit; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effect of filamentous algae mats on the performance of seedlings of the eelgrass, Zostera marina. The seedlings were covered by three levels (3, 6 and 9 cm) of natural (Chaetomorpha linum) and imitation algae mats and it was hypothesized that th...

  18. Reduced Coniferin and Enhanced 6-Methoxypodophyllotoxin Production in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslan Wirasutisna, Komar; Batterman, Sieben; Koulman, Albert; Kayser, Oliver; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Quax, Wim J

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of cell suspension cultures of Linum flavum L. with Na2EDTA reduced the coniferin and enhanced the 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (6-MPT) production in a concentration-dependent way, in a range of 0.1–5 mM. On day 14 after treatment with Na2EDTA , an inhibition of the coniferin production up to

  19. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syriaca and Crété (1950) Linum variation of Solanad type of embryo develop- ment in Asclepias curassavica. Rao and Rao (1954) published an account of male and female gametophytes, endosperm and embryo development in. Cryptostegia grandiflora and Caralluma attenuata. Biswas (1957) studied the embryology of ...

  20. Recommended Species for Vegetative Stabilization of Training Lands in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    bitterbrush Purshia glandulosa Apache plume Fallugia paradoxa Arizona fesce Festuca arizonica Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei Australian saltbush Atriplex...elm Ulmus crassifolia *Cheatgrass Bromus tectorum -Chinkapin oak Quercus muhlenbergii Cholla Opuntia, spp. * Cicer milkvetch Astragalus cicer Clovers...Linum lewisii Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium *Littleleaf palo verde Cercidium microphyllum *Live oak Quercus virginiana Lovegrasses Eragrostis

  1. Energie du type Ginzburg-Landau avec un terme de chevillage

    OpenAIRE

    AMARI, Nassima

    2010-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est l’étude d’un modèle bidimensionnel de Ginzburg-Landau avec un problème de l’ancrage (pinning) des vortex. La principale difficulté en réitérant l’approche faite par F. Béthuel, H. Brézis et F. Hélein, résulte du fait que la construction de mauvais disques ne soit pas évidente. Pour surmonter cette difficulté,on remplace le minimiseur u epsilon par v epsilon U epsilon. Cette substitution nous conduit à l'étude d'une énergie classique (qui correspond à p=1). ...

  2. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    INTERNATIONAL)S S PORT(461 TEST IC----SCHEOUL0 82081 322.25 11.93 222.68 .20 222.88 551.36 42NONSCHEDULED 48 43 ALL SERVICES 825 322.25 11.93 222.68 .20...0 789 I A68IANA ISLANDS IcONT. CC INIERNATIONAL-SCHtEIULE8 8 .0L .01 .01 M ARSHALL ISLANDS kMEAJALPIN N 0.800 13 1068380LEIN TEST SITE) CO ( INTERNAl...ACURA 0WAM1MS PImMEOD mY rf l OFOPMATWKY IY ANIAM W TM BY COMM WUW. AND mY C mm 12 90MN8S ENDDO TECEMOER 31. 1980 Sdwduiod41, tu L ToI d.p,8rt- pm..or-d

  3. "Kunpa voisi olla monessa paikassa samaan aikaan" Millainen on matkalaukkulapsuus kokemuksena?

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    Maailma on kansainvälistynyt ja ihmisten liikkuvuus maasta toiseen on nykypäivänä normaali ilmiö. Suomesta muuttaa vuosittain pois lähes 15 000 ihmistä työn, koulutuksen ja esimerkiksi parisuhteen vuoksi. Näiden joukossa on valtava määrä lapsia ja nuoria, jotka muuton myötä joutuvat sopeutumaan uuteen ympäristöön ja tilanteeseen. Heitä kutsutaan matkalaukkulapsiksi. Monet heistä joutuvat vaihtamaan asuinmaata muutaman vuoden välein vanhempien työn perässä ja jokaisen muuton jälkeen opettelema...

  4. Concentration of heavy metals in brook trout in comparison to aquatic plants and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Rady, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977 the heavy metal content of river water, fishes (Salmo trutta fario), three aquatic plants (Cladophora glomerata, Potamogeton pectinatus, Zannichellia palustris), one river-bank plant (Phalaris arundinacea), and sediments (clay fraction) taken from the River Leine, up and downstream of Goettingen, were determined. Galvanic-bath sewage containing heavy metals caused an increase (11-60%) in the concentration of nine elements in the water. The average level of heavy metals in the river water corresponded to that of the Ems, Elbe and Weser, but was lower than that of the Neckar, Rhine and Danube. It was also below the European Community Guidelines (1975) on the quality of water used for the artificial recharging of ground water. River water upstream of the city has been used for this recharging for many years. There is a good correlation between the metal content in the investigated samples and in the water. In the muscles, only Cd, Co and Mn, in the liver Cd, Co, Cr. Hg, Mn and Zn, and in the total fish Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Zn had increased significantly. In contrast to all other elements, Cr shows the highest concentration in the muscles. A previous accumulation of Cr in the liver is not a prerequisite for the accumulation in the muscles. Mercury shows the highest accumulation in the muscles, apparently because of the high retention rate of this element. Muscles also are a good monitor for this element. The impact of heavy metals on the Leine water was reflected in aquatic plants, which showed an increase in concentration up to 95-fold (according to metal or plant) - but not in river-bank plants. C. glomerata has the remarkable capability of accumulating all ten elements. Since P. arundinacea cannot reflect the different load of heavy metals it is therefore less suitable as a biological monitor for these metals.

  5. Abstarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abstracts abstracts

    2011-01-01

    L., Cessation of watering, Chemical Desiccation, Spike, Grain yield   Genetic Variation of the Traits in Isolated Lines From Local Populations of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. N. Pooladsaz 1- G. Saeid2* Abstract Genetic variation for the traits in flax breeding programs can be used for selection of desirable genotypes for agronomic traits. This study was conducted at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology in 2006 to investigate genetic variability for different agronomic traits of breeding lines isolated from 6 local populations of flax. In this study, 73 isolated lines by single plant selection along with the local populations and "Flanders" cultivar from Canada (as the control genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications. The results showed that there were significant differences among the genotypes for all of the studied traits such as capsules per plant, seeds per capsule, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and seed yield per plot. The range of variation for days to maturity, plant height, seed yield per plant and seed yield was 113 to 164 days, 32.8 to 68.4 cm, 0.16 to 1.39g and 375 to 2450 kg/ha, respectively. High phenotypic and genetic coefficients of variation were observed for number of seedlings per m2, rate of infected plants by powder mildew, branches per plant, capsules per plant, seeds per capsule, seed yield per plant and seed yield. Also, high broad-sense heritability (74.9 to 96.2% was observed for all the traits, with the exception of days to 50% emergence that had moderate heritability (40.8%. Seed oil content which was determined for 10 higher yielding lines had high variation (36.9% to 40.4% and high broad-sense heritability (99%. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes in to 4 groups in which the genotypes of two groups had the highest seeds per capsule, seed yield per plant and seed yield. Keywords: Flax, Local populations, Genetic variation, Heritability, Agronomic traits   The

  6. Linaceae endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Linaceae are represented in Peru by three genera and eight species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al. 2004, all herbs. One species in the genus Linum is recognized as endemic. This species grows in the Desert Shrubland, Mesoandean, and Humid and Dry Puna regions, between 1740 and 3100 m elevation. It has not been recorded in the Peruvian protected areas system.

  7. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  8. Mechanical processing of bast fibres: The occurrence of damage and its effect on fibre structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, Tuomas; Thygesen, Anders; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Currently, separation processes used for natural fibres for composite reinforcing textiles cause a significant amount of damage to the fibres. Microscopic analysis showed that industrially processed flax (Linum usitassimium L.) fibres contained significantly more defects than green or retted ones...... to heterogeneous reactivity. Analogous findings were observed in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) fibre damaged in the laboratory under controlled conditions, emphasising the need to develop extraction and separation processes that minimise mechanical damage to the fibres....

  9. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Earthworms, clams, insect larvae, and other invertebrates are also found in the diet. Predators include striped bass and other piscivores. Sacramento...ajugoides var. rigida ridge hedge nettle Linaceae - Flax family *Linum bienne narrow-leaved flax Lythraceae - Loosestrife family Lythrum hyssopi...464-360 Ficam W 45639-1 PT-565 Plus Pyrethrum 499-285 Talon G 10182-41 Tempo WP 3125-380 Vaponite 2 201-235 W.C. Insect Finish 499-1822A-16101

  10. Etude saisonnière de la contamination métallique des macroalgues de la lagune nord de Tunis

    OpenAIRE

    Chouba, L.; Ajjabi-Chebil, L.; Herry, S.

    2010-01-01

    Dans le but de démontrer la capacité de bioaccumulation métallique des macroalgues et sa variation temporelle, on s’est intéressé à la détermination de la gamme de concentrations en métaux traces (Plomb, Cadmium, Fer, Manganèse et Zinc) dans trois macroalgues vertes (Ulva rigida, Chaetomorpha linum, Caulerpa prolifera) au niveau de la lagune nord et du canal de navigation de Tunis sujettes à d’importants rejets anthropiques. Des collectes saisonnières ont été faites dans la lagune de Tunis du...

  11. Evaluation of mapping results of the textural features of the Gorleben-Bank within the Gorleben salt dome, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnlenz, Tatjana; Hammer, Joerg; Mingerzahn, Gerhard; Sassnowski, Marco; Kutowski, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The ''Gorleben-Bank'' (z3OSM) is a marker horizon within the ''Orangesalz'' (z3OS) of the ''Leine-Folge'' (z3) in the Gorleben salt dome. In some areas the Gorleben-Bank and/or the surrounding rocks contain brines and gases. The occurrence of brines and gases could be hazardous for a repository. Therefore it is important to analyse the lithological and structural characteristics of the Gorleben-Bank. As part of the project ''Continuation of exploration of the Gorleben salt dome'', all exposures of the Gorleben-Bank in drifts, shafts and exploration boreholes were documented and incorporated within a database. Analogous to Baeuerle (2000), seven zones were identified within the Gorleben-Bank from bottom to top. The total thickness of the Gorleben-Bank and the thickness of the zones relevant for migration and storage of brines and gases were considered in this paper. The fissures and the zone of secondary mineralisation of the Gorleben-Bank (Zone IV), generated during the halotectonic processes, as well as brines in the Gorleben-Bank and its surrounding rocks, were analysed regarding their genesis and spatial distribution in the salt dome. These analyses allow conclusions about deformation behaviour of the Gorleben-Bank and its potential for storage of solutions and migration capability for brines and gases. With the program GEOravis some database contents e.g. the thickness of the Gorleben-Bank or location of brine adits were visualised in 3D space for better spatial understanding.

  12. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  13. Italy at CERN – Industrial exibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2011-01-01

    From 10 to 13 October 2011 Industrial Exhibition Bldg 500 & 61 Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of department or to get in touch with Karine ROBERT. You will find below the list of exhibitors.   LISTE DES EXPOSANTS : Agilent Technologies - via Varian 54 - 10040 Leinì (TO) http://www.agilent.com/chem/vacuum Pioneer in vacuum technology since the 50’s. CAEN S.p.A. - via Vetraia, 11 – 55049 Viareggio (LU) http://www.caen.it/ Data-Acquisi...

  14. Antischistosomal Activity of Two Active Constituents Isolated from the Leaves of Egyptian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa A. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Highlights D -mannitol, a naturally occurring sugar isolated from the leaves Ixora undulata Roxb., and a linear chain pectin homogalacturonan (HG polysaccharide isolated from the leaves of Linum grandiflorum Desf. (scarlet flax were evaluated for their therapeutic effect against schistosomiasis with biochemical and histochemical evaluations, and compared with the reference drug praziquantel, to assess the antioxidant and antischistosomal effects of D -mannitol and pectin. Abstract In this paper, we investigate the role of two active constituents isolated from the leaves of Egyptian medicinal plants. D -mannitol a naturally occurring sugar isolated from the leaves Ixora undulata Roxb., and the pectin a linear chain homogalacturonan (HG polysaccharide isolated from the leaves of Linum grandiflorum Desf. (scarlet flax. Both are evaluated for their therapeutic effect against schistosomiasis with biochemical and histochemical evaluations and compared with praziquantel, a reference drug. Biochemical studies of hepatic glucose, the glycogen content, and total serum protein were carried out, and histochemical evaluations through serum protein fractions separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with different molecular weights (260–10 kDa were made in all groups, in addition to liver and body weight. D -mannitol and pectin show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions through enhancing most protein fractions in the serum of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Also, the glucose and glycogen content in injured liver tissues improved, in addition liver and body weight in the infected groups. Thus they may be of therapeutic potential in the treatment hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  15. Keanekaragaman dan Kerapatan Rumput Laut Alami Perairan Pulau Serangan Denpasar Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Desak Putu Dita Herlinawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Serangan Island was a costal area located in the Serangan village, South Denpasar district, near with Sanur and Nusa Dua tourism area. Serangan beach has a biodiversity such as natural macroalgae. This study was conducted in January 2017 at the seaweed cultivation area with the aims of research were to know the variety and density of macroalgae. The method used was a 1x1 m quadrat transect. Sampling was carried out during low tide. Macroalgae found in the area, consist of 12 species namely Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha linum. Chaetomorpha aera, Padina australis, Sargassum fluitans, Turbinaria ornate, Gelidium sp., Hypnea cornuta, Hypnea spicifera, Gracilaria salicornia, Acanthophora spicifera, Halimeda opuntia. Those species were belonging to 3 divisi namely Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta. The highest density of macroalgae was Padina australis while the lowest density was Chaetomorpha linum. Type of dominated macroalgae was from a group of Phaeophyta (brown algae with highest dominance from the species of Padina australis. Water quality namely acidity (pH was in the range of 7.54 to 7.75, salinity of 31.33-32.00 ppt, the water temperature was 26.50-27.30? C, which all was categorized as the optimal parameters for the growth of macroalgae. Assosiation of biota found were 9 species namely fish of larva, Cypraea lynx (Molusca, Emerita sp., Halodule sp., Synapta maculate, Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea serrulata, Hermit crab, Ophiuroidea sp. The conditions coastal waters substrate was varied from white sand stone type to stony type by coral pieces.

  16. Distribution and ecological notes on Dynoides (Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae in the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Espinosa-Pérez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984 not reported since their description were rediscovered during an intensive sampling program in the intertidal and shallow subtidal of the Mexican Pacific. Both species are abundant in the area and inhabit among the algae Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845, and Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 from Nayarit to OaxacaDurante un programa intensivo de muestreo en la zona intermareal y submareal somera del Pacífico mexicano se redescubrieron dos especies del género Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho y Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho y Haasmann, 1984, no registradas desde su descripción. Ambas especies son abundantes en el área y habitan entre las algas Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845 e Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 desde Nayarit hasta Oaxaca

  17. Seasonal variation in the growth responses of some chlorophytic algal flora of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Ansari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in growth responses and antioxidant activities of four chlorophytic algal species, namely Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha flexuoca, Cladophora prolifera, Chaetomorpha linum was investigated. Seasonal variation in the physico-chemical characteristics of water at the study site of the Red Sea was also determined. A significant variation was observed in water quality parameters in different seasons. All the algal species show higher accumulation of photosynthetic and accessory pigments in July and October and a significant decrease in January. Higher NPK content in all the four algal species was recorded in July, however, the contents were low in other months. Total protein contents were higher in July and October. Total carbohydrates in U. lactuca and E. flexuoca were significantly higher in July but in the other two species, C. prolifera and C. linum, maximum accumulation was observed in October. Antioxidant activities in all the species were most significant in January as compared to the other months. All the chlorphytic algae show prominent growth responses and antioxidant activities and are better adapted to changing climatic conditions. Due to their prompt responses even to minor changes in aquatic environment, they can be used as ecological indicators in coastal marine ecosystems.

  18. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (-) affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (-) utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-).

  19. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H de Paula Silva

    Full Text Available Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2 enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (- as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (- affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9, and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (- utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%, Chaetomorpha linum (24% and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%, compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Heiske, S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species--harvested in Denmark--for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 degrees C) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids(-1) (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 mi gVS(-1) for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS(-1) for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS(-1) for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5-2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during 'green tides' in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor. A 48% increase in methane production rate of the reactor was observed when the concentration of U. lactuca in the feedstock was 40% (VS basis). Increasing the concentration to 50% had no further effect on the methane production, which limits the application of this algae at Danish centralized biogas plant.

  1. Imperiets genfærd – Profeterne i Evighedsfjorden og den dansk-grønlandske historieskrivning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Thisted

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the official Denmark has declined taking part in a reconciliation process with Greenland, its former colony, a large literary audience has embraced the novelist Kim Leine, who puts colonial history and Danish-Greenlandic power relations on the agenda. Originally published in 2012, his novel Profeterne i Evighedsfjorden (English title: The Prophets of Eternal Fjord has received huge attention and several prestigious literary awards, but it has also been the target of criticism for painting a distorted picture of Denmark’s conduct in Greenland. The article examines how the novel relates to the established narratives about Danish colonialism and how it contributes to the ongoing negotiations. The novel’s use of narrative modes is analysed in light of the assumption that certain modes are associated with certain plots, where a particular framing of the past defines a space of possibility for the way we shape the future. It is argued that the novel draws on the anticolonial dream of ‘total revolution’ and supports the struggle of the colonised to break free from the colonial power and establish their own nation state. Its key narrative mode, however, is not the preferred mode in anticolonialist literature, heroic romance; instead it is tragedy. The novel portrays the profound transformation of society and subjectivity that is brought about by modernity with Christianity and colonialism as its vehicle. As a consequence of this transformation, resistance cannot be posited from a point outside modernity but arises from within modernity itself. Thus the protagonists of the novel are not only portrayed as equals but as actors in the same universe, regardless of the highly asymmetrical power relations between Danes and Greenlanders. In this sense, the book participates in efforts to reframe the Danish-Greenlandic relationship based on the new language of equality and partnership found in the Act on Greenland Self-Government.

  2. Bibliotheken im Fluss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the current issue 3/2015 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is the annual conference 2015 of the German Medical Libraries Association in Mannheim. The motto of the conference was “Libraries in progress”. The authors in this issue are Bruno Bauer (Research data – a new field of activity (also for libraries, Markus Fischer (Search filter for local holdings in bibnet.org, Ursula Georgy (Strategic marketing: Benefit positioning strategy of libraries as a content provider in competition, Mareike Grisse (Reading and understanding licensing agreements for electronic resources, Regine Küfner Lein (Access to medical full texts and databases in Norway by national licensing, Annette Kustos (Collection management and service concept at the academic library of the Hochschule für Gesundheit, Oliver Weiner (Medical documents in university repositories, Sabine Buroh (Impressions from the EAHIL Workshop, Edinburgh, 10–12 June 2015, Mareike Grisse (Supra-regional availability of licensed electronic content – ZB MEDs’ new models, Jana Pössel (LIVIVO: The new ZB MED search portal for life sciences, Jasmin Schmitz (Offering advice on open access publishing in libraries, Fabian Gail (Product and innovation management ZB MED and Dagmar Härter (Medical libraries: libraries in progress – annual meeting 2015 of the German MLA, September 7 to 9 at Basel, Switzerland. Furthermore this focus issue features articles from Eike Hentschel (Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2015: Introduction of the winners and Iris Reimann (German MLA News; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2016 – Announcement.

  3. Evaluation of mapping results of the textural features of the Gorleben-Bank within the Gorleben salt dome, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnlenz, Tatjana; Hammer, Joerg; Mingerzahn, Gerhard [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Sassnowski, Marco; Kutowski, Joachim [Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH, Peine (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The ''Gorleben-Bank'' (z3OSM) is a marker horizon within the ''Orangesalz'' (z3OS) of the ''Leine-Folge'' (z3) in the Gorleben salt dome. In some areas the Gorleben-Bank and/or the surrounding rocks contain brines and gases. The occurrence of brines and gases could be hazardous for a repository. Therefore it is important to analyse the lithological and structural characteristics of the Gorleben-Bank. As part of the project ''Continuation of exploration of the Gorleben salt dome'', all exposures of the Gorleben-Bank in drifts, shafts and exploration boreholes were documented and incorporated within a database. Analogous to Baeuerle (2000), seven zones were identified within the Gorleben-Bank from bottom to top. The total thickness of the Gorleben-Bank and the thickness of the zones relevant for migration and storage of brines and gases were considered in this paper. The fissures and the zone of secondary mineralisation of the Gorleben-Bank (Zone IV), generated during the halotectonic processes, as well as brines in the Gorleben-Bank and its surrounding rocks, were analysed regarding their genesis and spatial distribution in the salt dome. These analyses allow conclusions about deformation behaviour of the Gorleben-Bank and its potential for storage of solutions and migration capability for brines and gases. With the program GEOravis some database contents e.g. the thickness of the Gorleben-Bank or location of brine adits were visualised in 3D space for better spatial understanding.

  4. Spread of Alsidium corallinum C. Ag. in a Tyrrhenian eutrophic lagoon dominated by opportunistic macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzi, Mauro; Gennaro, Paola; Renzi, Monia; Persia, Emma; Porrello, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In 2007, Alsidium corallinum bloomed in Orbetello lagoon replacing other macroalgae. ► The main cause hypothesized was a transient low eutrophic level of the ecosystem. ► The results showed unusually low dissolved nitrogen in 2007. ► Dissolved N:P atomic ratio was much lower in 2007 than in the past and 2008. ► The observations suggest that the cycle of sediment OM determines vegetation cycles. - Abstract: In 2007, the Rhodophyceae Alsidium corallinum C. Ag., a marine taxon, bloomed in the eutrophic lagoon of Orbetello (Tuscany, Italy) for the first time, becoming the dominant species in spring and summer. In November, its biomass collapsed. The hypothesis examined in this study is that the bloom expressed a relatively low eutrophic level of the ecosystem after intense disposal of accumulated sedimentary organic matter (OM) by dystrophic processes in the two years preceding the bloom. To verify the hypothesis, we compared water physical–chemical variables, sediment redox (Eh) and OM, and standing crops of macroalgae and seagrass from the database of routine monitoring between 2005 and 2008. We also used dissolved nutrient data obtained in 2007 and 2008, as well as data on chlorophyll and total suspended matter in the water column during the microalgal bloom of 2007, and C, N and P content in thalli of the Chlorophycea Chaetomorpha linum and the Rhodophyceae Gracilariopsis longissima and A. corallinum obtained in 2007. In 2007, unusually low values of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were recorded. Combined with stable values of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRPs), low DIN led to a reduction of about one order of magnitude in the DIN:SRP atomic ratio with respect to the past and to 2008. G. longissima accumulated C, N and P more than the other species and A. corallinum proved to be less demanding. Sediment OM was lower in the autumn of years characterized by dystrophy, confirming that summer dystrophic events coincided with maximum energy

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-AA02 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AA02 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-AA02Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AA02Z 458 - - - - Show FC-AA02 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AA02 (Link to dic...linum small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. 149 2e-47 2 AY179984 |AY179984.1 Uncultured alveo... CP000930_2283( CP000930 |pid:none) Heliobacterium modesticaldum Ic... 33 2.3 AP009386_1894( AP009386 |pid:none) Burkholderia multi... EU955514 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 1535262 hypothetica... 50 2e-05 BA000023_1285

  6. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    and laboratory research of the White sea sediments. Work was being done under the auspices of Russian foundation of basic research (grants 09-05-10081, 09-05-00658 and 08-05-00860), RSA presidiums program of 17 fundamental researches (project 17.1). References: 1.Kuzmina T., Lein A., Lutchsheva L., Murdmaa I., Novigatsky A., Shevchenko V. Chemical composition of White Sea's sediments // Litology and mineral deposits . 2009. - № 2. - P 115-132. 2.Nevessky E., Medvedev V. , Kalinenko V. White sea, sedimentation and holocoen developmental history. - Moscow.: Nauka, 1977. - 236 p. 3.White Sea and it water collection affected by climatic and antropogenic factors. / under the editorship of Terzhevik A., Filatov N. - Petrozavodsk.: Karelsky nauchny centr RAN, 2007. - 335p

  7. Proloog : [luuletused] / Henrik Visnapuu ; [Impressioonid]: Viiu Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Visnapuu, Henrik, 1890-1951

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Proloog ; Igavesti ; Kui kuurdub armulill ; Neitsi saunas ; Metsatalu ; Eokene eo-eo ; Õdango laul ; Langes lund, langes verist lund ; Sireli ; Ole tervitet, tervitet ; Kahe ääretuse vahel ; Jääb inimene ikka, ikka meil veel velleks : J. Kuperjanovi mälestuseks ; Ärge tapke inimest ; Noor-Eestile 1905-1915 1-3 ; Surnuk sõnade surise ; Autobiograafia ; Matsin mulda ; Jõuluöö ; Laske mul olla kurb ; Esimene kiri Inglile ; Teine kiri Ingile ; Kolmas kiri Ingile ; Neljas kiri Ingile ; Viies kiri Ingile ; Kuues kiri Ingile ; Seitsmes kiri Ingile ; Kaheksas kiri Ingile ; Üheksas kiri Ingile ; Kümnes kiri Ingile ; Maga Alaea ; Kuu on end riputand ; Ilo kavva on kahele ; Tartu oktoober 1-2, 5 ; Suur kirjanik on nagu vana vein : Eduard Vilde mälestusele ; Üle kodumäe ; Vana-aasta kuu 1 ; Meie aja muinasjutt ; kevad ; Vaikne palve ; Maarjamaa laulud 8 ; Sula unelm ; Koduhaldjas ; Valgus on lõhnavan lehen ; Heinakuu öö 1-2 ; Viimne teekond ; Ema lill ; Vana kell ; Kuuvalgus ; Umbra apocalyptica ; Öö ja päev ; Laul vabadusest ; Magdaleena : Jõuluöö legend 1-2 ; Hommik ; Tuisk ; Pööripäeva eel ; Nii pidulik valgus ; Sügav suvi ; Paadil ; Öö ja meres 1 ; Öö ja meres 2 ; Tulease ; Aed ja aeg ; Idaruum ; Vanaema surm ; Emale ; Endeline öö ; Õnnis suvine öö ; Leegitsev liiv ; Vanad talud ; Sõnatu kuu ; Nii kargelt hingab ; Vihkan kevadet ; Aastaajad : 1. Hiline öökülm ; 2. Hiline sügis ; 3. Sügav talv ; 4. Ma usun taas ; Rahu ; Mul on sinu pärast nii kitsas ; Üle värskete kalmuküngaste ; pea vastu ; Ikka viirastub ; Jõulutäht ; Nii suured on sinu mured ; Mis armas, kõik on tuna ; Viimne söömaaeg ; Astuge tasa ; Periheel ; Ingi haual ; Eksin tänavate kurrus ; Manamine ; Kuues küünal ; Astendus ; Vahimees, ons ikka veel öö ; Karukellad ; Lein ; Kutse ; Kõik muutub lauluks ; Suvine öö 1-2 ; Sügis 1-2 ; Talv ; Talveöö ; Astugem isamaa palge ette ; Viimne kevad

  8. Marinospirillum gen. nov., with descriptions of Marinospirillum megaterium sp. nov., isolated from kusaya gravy, and transfer of Oceanospirillum minutulum to Marinospirillum minutulum comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, M; Kimura, B; Hayashi, M; Shouzen, Y; Okuzumi, M; Fujii, T

    1998-10-01

    Two strains of helical, halophilic, Gram-negative, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from kusaya gravy which is a traditional Japanese fermented brine. These strains were motile by means of a single polar or bipolar tuft flagellum. They had a large cell size, were helical, formed coccoid bodies, were microaerophilic and had quinone type Q-8. The DNA G + C content of the strains was 44-45 mol %. A detailed investigation of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics of the strains revealed that they represent a new species of halophilic helical bacteria. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of strain H7T, designated the type strain of the new isolates, and all of the Oceanospirillum species except for Oceanospirillum linum were determined. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains were closely related to Oceanospirillum minutulum, with enough distance to separate the O. minutulum/new isolate H7T cluster from Oceanospirillum sensu stricto on the genus level. It is proposed that a new genus, Marinospirillum, be created; this genus should include Marinospirillum minutulum ATCC 19193T (formerly Oceanospirillum minutulum) as the type species, as well as Marinospirillum megaterium JCM 10129T (= H7T).

  9. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  10. Biotransformation of 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural into 2,5-furan-dicarboxylic acid by bacterial isolate using thermal acid algal hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Fang; Huang, Ci-Ruei

    2016-08-01

    Thermal acid hydrolysis is often used to deal with lignocellulosic biomasses, but 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural (5-HMF) formed during hydrolysis deeply influences downstream fermentation. 2,5-Furan-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), which is in the list of future important biomass platform molecules can be obtained using 5-HMF biotransformation. Based on the connection between 5-HMF removal in acid hydrolysate and FDCA production, the optimum thermal acid hydrolysis condition for macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was established. Potential microbes capable of transforming 5-HMF into FDCA were isolated and characterized under various parameters and inoculated into algal hydrolysate to perform 5-HMF biotransformation. The optimum hydrolysis condition was to apply 0.5M HCl to treat 3% algal biomass under 121°C for 15min. Isolated Burkholderia cepacia H-2 could transform 2000mg/L 5-HMF at the initial pH of 7 at 28°C and 1276mg/L FDCA was received. Strain B. cepacia H-2 was suitable for treating the algal hydrolysate without dilution, receiving 989.5mg/L FDCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SEQUENCING OF FLAX LIS-1 INSERTION SITE IN THE ALBIDUM GENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology of identifying the insertion site of LIS-1-1 (Linum Insertion Sequence 1 element in flax Albidum variety when growing under the in vitro combined with environmental stress conditions. Abiotic stress was induced by a reduced nutrient content in a growth medium. The LIS-1 insertion site amplification was reaLIS-1ed using the forward LIS-L: 5'-GGG CAG TTT AAC TGT AAC GAA - 3 'and revers LIS-R: 5'-GCT TGG ATT TAG ACT TGG CAA C - 3' primers by PCR. PCR product was sequenced by direct sequencing method to proove the nucleotide sequence for matching with database LIS-1 sequence. A comparison has been matched with the sequence of the amplified segment in the database for all nucleotides except the 11-position in the 5'-3 ' direction, where instead of the three adenine pair is a couple in the Albidum variety. Changes caused by mobile elements or insertion sequences result in common flax in variability that can be used for the purposes of development of effective marker identification or environment based markers development.

  12. Natural depuration rate and concentration of cesium-137 radionuclide in black SEA macro algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Kut, D.; Esen, N.; Gueven, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in red, brown and green algae have been studied for the calculation of natural depuration rates. The algae species were collected from the same population of the Black Sea stations during the period of 1986-1995. The natural depuration rates are estimated as biological half-lives. The pattern of depuration results represented by a single component for each algae division. The biological half-lives of 137 Cs in red (Phyllophora nervosa), green (Chaetomorpha linum) and brown (cystoceira barbata) algae are estimated to be 18.5, 21.6 and 29.3 months, respectively. 137 Cs and 40 K activity levels and their ratios in algae species in two stations in Black Sea region of Turkey have been determined during the period of 1990-1995. The results showed that the Sinop region was more contaminated than the Sile region on the Black Sea coast of Turkey from the Chernobyl accident. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    species of Samara region (Clematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (Clematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what

  14. Contrasting seasonal overlaps between primary and secondary growth are linked to wood anatomy in Mediterranean sub-shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, J J; Palacio, S; Montserrat-Martí, G

    2013-09-01

    Whole-plant approaches allow quantification of the temporal overlap between primary and secondary growth. If the amount of time available to grow is short, there may be a high temporal overlap between shoot growth and wood formation. We hypothesise that such overlap depends on the duration of the growing season and relates to wood anatomy. We evaluated wood anatomy, shoot longitudinal and radial growth rates, fine root production and the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in the wood of six sub-shrub species growing in sites with contrasting climatic conditions (Lepidium subulatum, Linum suffruticosum, Salvia lavandulifolia, Satureja montana, Ononis fruticosa, Echinospartum horridum). Sub-shrub species living in sites with a short growing season displayed a high overlap between aboveground primary and secondary growth and formed wide vessels, whereas species from the warmest and driest sites presented the reverse characteristics. The highest overlap was linked to a rapid shoot extension and thickening through the enhanced hydraulic conductivity provided by wide vessels. The reductions in NSC concentrations when growth peaked were low or moderate, indicating that sub-shrubs accumulate NSC in excess, as do trees. The temporal overlap among primary and secondary growth in woody plants may be connected to the duration and rates of shoot and wood growth, which in turn depend on the vessel lumen area. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Preference of the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus for different macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cuihong; Zeng, Fangui; Wang, Shuqi; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-06-01

    The decomposition of a large amount of unexploited macroalgal resource along the coast of China often results in heavy environmental pollution. In order to pave a way of using macroalgae as the dietary ingredient of rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, one of a few farmed herbivorous marine teleosts in China, its preference (feeding selectivity) for different macroalgae was determined in this study. Seven seaweed species abundantly inhabiting the coast of east Guangdong Province were exposed simultaneously to rabbitfish juveniles in laboratory (multiple-choice feeding) with their content and absolute intake assayed. It was found that the most preferred algae were Ulva prolifera, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Chaetomorpha linum, less preferred algae were U. pertusa and Porphyra haitanensis, and least preferred ones were Sargassum fusiforme and Corallina sessilis. Such an order did not change when one to four relatively preferred seaweeds were removed. The preferred seaweeds were richer in protein and soluble sugar thus higher in energy than the least preferred. In addition, this fish was found to favor filamentous and flat algae rather than calcified ones. Accordingly, the richness of nutrients and morphological characteristics determined the preference of S. canaliculatus for tested macroalgae.

  16. A Methodological Approach for Testing the Viability of Seeds Stored in Short-Term Seed Banks

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    Jose A. FORTE GIL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of ‘active’ seed banks – specifically aimed at the short-term storage at room temperature of seeds to be used locally in conservation/regeneration programmes of endemic or endangered plant species – requires establishing the optimal storage time to maintain high seed viability, for each stored species. In this work, germination of seeds of the halophytes Thalictrum maritimum, Centaurea dracunculifolia and Linum maritimum has been investigated. The seeds had been stored for different periods of time in the seed bank of ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park (Valencia, SE Spain after collection in salt marshes of the Park, where small populations of the three species are present. Seeds of T. maritimum and C. dracunculifolia have a relatively short period of viability at room temperature, and should not be stored for more than three years. On the other hand, L. maritimum seeds maintain a high germination percentage and can be kept at room temperature for up to 10 years. T. maritimum seeds, in contrast to those of the other two species, did not germinate in in vitro tests nor when sown directly on a standard substrate, unless a pre-treatment of the seeds was applied, mechanical scarification being the most effective. These results will help to improve the management of the seed bank, to generate more efficiently new plants for reintroduction and reinforcement of populations of these species in their natural ecosystems within the Natural Park.

  17. Studies of 12C6+ heavy ions irradiation on seed germination and young seedling growth of four crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Landi; Zhang Yingcong; Wu Dali; Liang Kai; Zhang Yanping; Jia Ruiling; Qin Qianqian; Cheng Xi; Qian Pingping; Li Wenjian; Hou Suiwen

    2008-01-01

    Crops of Brassica napus L., Linum usitatissmum L., Allium f istulosum L. and Lens culinaris Medic. were irradiated by 80 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams with doses of 30, 90 and 180 Gy. The germination rates and heights of seedlings of M 1 and M 2 generation of these four plants were studied. The results indicated that germination rates and average heights of the B. napus and L. usitatissmum were improved by appropriate dose treatment, while great suppression was found in the irradiated groups of the A. fistulosum. As far as the L. Culinaris was concerned, little differences was observed on M 1 germination rate, but the 90 Gy irradiation was favorable to growth of plant. The treatments with 30, 90 and 180 Gy were inferior to contrast one on M 2 germination rate of the four species. Seedlings of M 2 generation of the B. napus, L. sitatissmum and L. culinaris under 30 Gy grew better than the other groups, while the best performance of the A. fistulosum was shown by the control group. (authors)

  18. Imaging near-subsurface subrosion structures and faults using SH-wave reflection seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja; Polom, Ulrich; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Subrosion is a term for underground leaching of soluble rocks and is a global phenomenon. It involves dissolution of evaporites due to the presence of unsaturated water, fractures and faults. Fractures and faults are pathways for water to circulate and to generate subsurface cavities. Depending on the leached material and the parameters of the generation process, especially the dissolution rate, different kinds of subrosion structures evolve in the subsurface. The two end members are collapse and depression structures. Subrosion is a natural process, but it can be enhanced by anthropogenic factors like manipulation of the aquifer system and groundwater flow and by e.g. extraction of saline water. The formation of sinkholes and depressions are a dangerous geohazard, especially if they occur in urban areas, which often leads to building and infrastructural damage and life-threatening situations. For this reason investigations of the processes that induce subrosion and a detailed analysis of the resulting structures are of importance. To develop a comprehensive model of near-subsurface subrosion structures, reflection seismics is one of the methods used by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics. The study area is located in the city of Bad Frankenhausen in northern Thuringia, Germany. Most of the geological underground of Thuringia is characterized by Permian deposits. Bad Frankenhausen is situated directly south of the Kyffhäuser mountain range at the Kyffhäuser Southern Margin Fault. This major fault is one of the main pathways for the circulating ground- and meteoric waters that leach the Permian deposits, especially the Leine-, Staßfurt- and Werra Formations. 2014 and 2015 eight shear wave reflection seismic profiles were carried out in the urban area of Bad Frankenhausen and three profiles in the countrified surroundings. Altogether ca. 3.6 km were surveyed using a landstreamer as receiver and an electro-dynamic vibrator as source. The surveys were

  19. Reconstruction of paleoenvironments by analyzing spatial shell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, Susanne; Lukeneder, Alexander; Weber, Gerhard W.; Exner, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    one side of the shell (transverse axis) was measured (landmark s & c). Spatial orientation was characterized by dip and dip direction of the longitudinal axis, as well as by strike and azimuth of a plane defined by both axes. The exact spatial orientation data was determined for a sample of 699 ammonoids within the bed and statistically analyzed. The results provide a hint on the geodynamic processes (paleocurrents), depositional conditions (allochthonous or autochthonous) and other general information about the ancient environment. The method can be adapted for other mass-occurring fossils and thus represents a good template for studies of topographical paleoenvironmental factors. References: Flügel, E. 2004. Microfacies of carbonate rocks. Analysis, Interpretation and Application. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p.182. Lukeneder S., Lukeneder A., Harzhauser M., Islamoglu Y., Krystyn L., Lein R. 2012. A delayed carbonate factory breakdown during the Tethyan-wide Carnian Pluvial Episode along the Cimmerian terranes (Taurus, Turkey). Facies 58: 279-296.

  20. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized [phenyl-U- 14 C]chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system

  1. The botanical legacy of Thomas Hardwicke’s journey to Srinagar in 1796

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1796, Thomas Hardwicke travelled through northern India between what is now Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar in Uttarakhand. Hardwicke collected and described plants encountered and had many of the plants illustrated from life. He published an account of the journey in 1799 including a list of plant species. I review the names validated in the original paper, and also those published subsequently by Sir James Edward Smith and William Roxburgh based partly or wholly on the material or drawings acquired by Hardwicke on the journey to Srinagar. The large collection of Hardwicke plant drawings now held in the British Library, and a smaller set in the Botany Library of the Natural History Museum, are considered in relation to the application and typification of plant names related to Hardwicke’s botanical exploration in India. The names of seven plant species were validly published in the 1799 paper (Androsace rotundifolia Hardw., Ficus laminosa Hardw., Justicia thyrsiformis Roxb. ex Hardw., Linum trigynum Roxb. ex Hardw., Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw., Salvia integrifolia Roxb. ex Hardw. and Volkameria bicolor Hardw., plus one new combination (Echites antidysentericus (L. Roxb. ex Hardw.. As concluded by Britten more than a century ago, Ficus laminosa is the correct name for the fig variously referred to F. saemocarpa Miq. or F. squamosa Roxb. Smith based Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Bignonia undulata Sm. on Hardwicke plants. At least a dozen Roxburgh names, including Crataegus integrifolia Roxb., Gardenia tetrasperma Roxb. and Morus serrata Roxb., are based, at least partly, on Hardwicke’s collections. In total, 23 names are lectotypified here and one neotype is designated.

  2. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Evaluation of cytotoxic effect of methanolic extracts isolated from endemic plants of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province on PC-3, MCF-7, Hep G2, CHO and B16-F10 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tayarani-Najaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To date, thousands of secondary metabolites have been isolated from plants and microorganisms and there is an unprecedented attention towards potential biomedical applications of natural compounds. In this study, cytotoxic properties of methanol extracts of Stachys obtusicrena, Aristolochia olivieri, Linum album, Dionysia sawyeri, Ajuga chamaecistus, Achillea kellalensis, Nepeta glomerulosa, Phlomis aucheria, Tanacetum dumosum, Dianthus orientalis, Scutellaria multicaulis, Cicer oxyodon and Picris oligocephalum which are widely grown in Iran, were investigated on PC-3 (prostat cancer, MCF-7 (breast cancer, Hep-G2 (liver cancer, CHO (ovarian cancer and B16-F10 (melanoma cell lines. Methods: The cancer cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 and incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantitated by Alamar blue® assay. The apoptotic cells were determined by PI coloring and Flow Cytometry (Sub-G1 peak. Results: The methanol extracts of D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon significantly decreased the viability of CHO cells. The Methanol extract of D. sawyer and L. album had cytotoxic effects on B16-F10 cells, whereas no toxicity was observed in MCF-7, Hep-G2 and PC-3 cell lines after incubation of the cancer cells with the plant extracts. The PI staining results showed that D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon in CHO cancer cells could induce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: Screening plants to find the most cytotoxic extract showed D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, C. oxyodon and L. album had the potential for further analysis toward finding active phytochemicals with cytotoxic activity.

  4. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27840507

  5. Cytoplasmic Acidification and Secondary Metabolite Production in Different Plant Cell Suspensions (A Comparative Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagendoorn, MJM.; Wagner, A. M.; Segers, G.; Van Der Plas, LHW.; Oostdam, A.; Van Walraven, H. S.

    1994-10-01

    In this study, a correlation is described between low cytoplasmic pH, measured with the fluorescent probes 2[prime],7[prime]-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (acetoxymethyl ester) and bis- [3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl]pentamethine oxonol, and the production of secondary metabolites for several plant cell-suspension systems. Anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia suspensions is negligible in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) a significant accumulation is realized. NAA-grown cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than did 2,4-D-grown cells. Addition of 2,4-D or parachlorophenoxy acetic acid to NAA-grown cells resulted in an inhibition of anthraquinone production and an increase of the cytoplasmic pH, whereas addition of parachlorophenyl acetic acid had no effect on either parameter. Lignin production in Petunia hybrida cells could be induced by subculturing them in a medium without iron. These cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than control cells. Addition of Fe3+ led to a decreased lignin content and an increased cytoplasmic pH. Two cell lines of Linum flavum showed a different level of coniferin and lignin concentration in their cells. Cells that accumulated coniferin and lignin had a lower cytoplasmic pH than cells that did not accumulate these secondary metabolites. Apparently, in different species and after different kinds of treatment there is a correlation between acidification of the cytoplasm and the production of different secondary metabolites. The possible role of this acidification in secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  6. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.

  7. Differential nitrogen cycling in semiarid sub-shrubs with contrasting leaf habit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palacio

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is, after water, the most limiting resource in semiarid ecosystems. However, knowledge on the N cycling ability of semiarid woody plants is still very rudimentary. This study analyzed the seasonal change in the N concentrations and pools of the leaves and woody organs of two species of semiarid sub-shrubs with contrasting leaf habit. The ability of both species to uptake, remobilize and recycle N, plus the main storage organ for N during summer drought were evaluated. We combined an observational approach in the field with experimental (15N labelling of adult individuals grown in sand culture. Seasonal patterns of N concentrations were different between species and organs and foliar N concentrations of the summer deciduous Lepidium subulatum were almost double those of the evergreen Linum suffruticosum. L. subulatum up took ca. 60% more external N than the evergreen and it also had a higher N resorption efficiency and proficiency. Contrastingly, L. suffruticosum relied more on internal N remobilization for shoot growth. Differently to temperate species, the evergreen stored N preferentially in the main stem and old trunks, while the summer deciduous stored it in the foliage and young stems. The higher ability of L. subulatum to uptake external N can be related to its ability to perform opportunistic growth and exploit the sporadic pulses of N typical of semiarid ecosystems. Such ability may also explain its high foliar N concentrations and its preferential storage of N in leaves and young stems. Finally, L. suffruticosum had a lower ability to recycle N during leaf senescence. These strategies contrast with those of evergreen and deciduous species from temperate and boreal areas, highlighting the need of further studies on semiarid and arid plants.

  8. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  9. Displacement of organelles in plant gravireceptor cells by vibrational forces and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Nechitailo, G.; Kuznetsov, A.

    Plant gravity perception can be studied by displacing statoliths inside receptor cells by forces other than gravity. Due to mechanical heterogeneity of statocytes various ponderomotive forces can be used for this purpose. In a plant subjected to non- symmetric vibrations statoliths experience inertial force proportional to the difference between their density and that of cytoplasm and to the instantaneous acceleration of the cell. This force causes cyclic motion of statoliths relative to cytoplasm and, depending on the profile of oscillations, can result in a net displacement of them (due to complex rheology of the cell interior), similar to sedimentation. This can be described as "vibrational" ponderomotive force acting on the statoliths. Vertically growing Arabidopsis seedlings, subjected to horizontal, sawtooth shaped oscillations (250 Hz, 1.5 mm amplitude), showed 17+/-2o root curvature toward and shoot curvature of 11+/-3o against the stronger acceleration. When the polarity of the oscillations was reversed, the direction of curvature of shoots and roots was also reversed. Control experiments with starchless mutants (TC7) produced no net curvature, which indicates that dense starch-filled amyloplasts are needed for the effect. These control experiments also eliminate touch-induced reactions or other side-effects as the cause of the curvature. Linum roots curved 25+/-7o . Ceratodon protonemata subjected to the same oscillations have shown displacement of plastids and curvature consistent with the pattern observed during graviresponse: positively gravitropic wwr mutant curved in the direction of the plastid displacement, WT curved in the opposite direction. Acoustic ponderomotive forces, originating from transfer of a sonic beam momentum to the medium due to sound scattering and attenuation in a mechanically heterogeneous system, also can displace statoliths. Vertical flax seedlings curved away from the ultrasonic source (800 kHz, 0.1 W/cm2 ) presumably as a

  10. How do plant communities and flower visitors relate? A case study of semi-natural xerothermic grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationships between the species composition of flower visitors and plants in the semi-natural xerothermic grasslands in southern and central Poland. Thirty 10 × 10 m permanent plots were laid out in total, mainly in nature reserves. The vegetation units studied were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet system; these were phytocoenoses of the Festuco-Brometea classes Inuletum ensifoliae, Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati and the transitional plant community. Entomological research was performed using the Pollard method within the same plots. A particular site was visited only once and different sites were studied between April and August 2008. We applied, among others, co-correspondence-analysis Co-CA, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and redundancy analysis (RDA to investigate the co-occurrence patterns of plants and flower visitors and their biotopic requirements. We found that the species composition of flower visitors cannot be predicted by floristic composition when the duration of the study is restricted to one day (but under similar weather conditions; however, there is a positive relationship between the species richness of insects and plants and a positive relationship between the number of plant species and the abundance of flower visitors. The Ellenberg moisture index and the cover of meadow species significantly explained the species composition of insects. The three various vegetation units and five dominant xerothermic species, i.e. Adonis vernalis, Anemone sylvestris, Inula ensifolia, Linum hirsutum and Carlina onopordifolia that were studied across time differed in the species richness of insects. Our results demonstrate that possible patterns in the species composition and the assembly rules of flower visitors are not apparent when the Pollard method is applied. Based on the data obtained using this method, the flower visiting assemblages seem not to be driven by competition and they primarily

  11. EDITORIAL: Progress in quantum technology: one photon at a time Progress in quantum technology: one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Coulomb blockade ones, have struggled to achieve the sequential injection of the carriers that results from this approach. As the authors explain, the result is a highly efficient process with greater stability at high acoustic powers compared with direct optical pumping at the position of the post: 'Our findings demonstrate that quantum posts with their surrounding wide matrix quantum well are an ideal system for the realization of a precisely triggered SAW-controlled single-photon source'. The work of Völk, Krenner and their co-authors draws on a vast range of developments in fundamental physics and nanotechnology. As is so often the case, how developments in one direction facilitate work in another is only really apparent in hindsight. In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Max Planck remarked: 'The whole strenuous intellectual work of an industrious research worker would appear, after all, in vain and hopeless, if he were not occasionally through some striking facts to find that he had, at the end of all his criss-cross journeys, at last accomplished at least one step which was conclusively nearer the truth' [11]. Whether the cumulative efforts of all the researchers in theoretical physics and technology mentioned here bring us closer to the truth, time will tell. But it seems quite likely that they will bring us closer to turning the quantum capabilities of science-fiction to reality. References [1] Völk S, Knall F, Schülein J R, Truong T A, Kim J, Petroff P M, Wixforth A and Krenner H J 2012 Surface acoustic wave mediated into individual quantum post nano emitters Nanotechnology 23 285201 [2] Patel R B, Bennett A J, Cooper K, Atkinson P, Nicoll A A, Ritchie D A and Shields A J 2010 Quantum interference of electrically generated single photons from a quantum dot Nanotechnology 21 274011 [3] Kim J, Benson O, Kan H and Yamamoto Y 1999 A single-photon turnstile device Nature 397 500-3 [4] Rocke C, Zimmermann S, Wixforth A, Kotthaus J P, Böhm G and Weimann G 1997