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Sample records for leiden longevity study

  1. Familial longevity is marked by better cognitive performance at middle age: the Leiden Longevity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon Stijntjes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive performance is a highly prevalent health condition in elderly. We studied whether offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity, perform better on cognitive tests compared to their partners as controls. This is relevant since it could provide insights into determinants underlying decline in cognitive performance. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis within the longitudinal cohort of the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of middle-aged offspring of nonagenarian siblings together with their partners (n = 500, mean age (SD 66.3 (6.1 and 65.7 (7.2 years, respectively as controls. Memory function, attention and processing speed were tested using the 15-Picture Learning Test, Stroop test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Data were analyzed with regression adjusted for age, gender, years of education and additionally for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, alcohol use, smoking, inflammatory markers and apolipoprotein E genotype. Robust standard errors were used to account for familial relationships among the offspring. RESULTS: Cognitive performance was worse at higher calendar age (p<0.001, all except Stroop test part 1. The offspring performed better compared to their partners on trial 3 (p = 0.005, the immediate (p = 0.016 and delayed (p = 0.004 recall of the 15-Picture Learning Test as well as on the interference and combined interference score of the Stroop test (p = 0.014 and p = 0.036, respectively in the fully adjusted model. The difference between offspring and partners was estimated to be more than three years according to the observed difference in calendar age. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity have better cognitive performance compared to the group of their partners of comparable age. This effect is independent of age-related diseases and known possible confounders. Possible explanations might be differences in subclinical

  2. Familial Longevity Is Marked by Better Cognitive Performance at Middle Age: The Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijntjes, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; van Heemst, D.; Meskers, C.G.M.; van Buchem, M.A.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Slagboom, P.E.; Maier, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Decline in cognitive performance is a highly prevalent health condition in elderly. We studied whether offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity, perform better on cognitive tests compared to their partners as controls. This is relevant since it could

  3. Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Meyboom, S.; Beekman, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study. Methods - A total of 128 men and women

  4. Handgrip strength at midlife and familial longevity : The Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Carolina H.Y.; De Craen, Anton J.M.; Eline Slagboom, P.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2012-01-01

    Low handgrip strength has been linked with premature mortality in diverse samples of middle-aged and elderly subjects. The value of handgrip strength as marker of "exceptional" human longevity has not been previously explored. We postulated that the genetic influence on extreme survival might also

  5. Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Rozing, Maarten P; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J

    2015-01-01

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been associated with longevity in various model organisms. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in human survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to test whether circulating IGF-1 axis parameters associate...... with old age survival and functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. This study examined 858 Dutch nonagenarian (males≥89 years; females≥91 years) siblings from 409 families, without selection on health or demographic characteristics. Nonagenarians were divided over sex...

  6. Favorable glucose tolerance and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in offspring without diabetes mellitus of nonagenarian siblings: the Leiden longevity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozing, Maarten P; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Frölich, Marijke; de Goeij, Moniek C M; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Beekman, Marian; Wijsman, Carolien A; Mooijaart, Simon P; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P Eline; van Heemst, Diana

    2010-03-01

    To explore measures of metabolic syndrome and glucose metabolism in families with exceptional longevity. Case-control study. A university hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. One hundred twenty-one offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who were enriched for familial factors promoting longevity, and 113 of their partners. No subject had diabetes mellitus. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Glucose tolerance was assessed according to a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. The offspring of nonagenarians siblings had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P=.03), similar body composition, lower mean fasting blood glucose levels (4.99 vs 5.16 mmol/L; P=.01), lower mean fasting insulin levels (5.81 vs 6.75 mU/L; P=.04), a higher mean homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (0.78 vs 0.65; P=.02), and a more-favorable glucose tolerance (mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for glucose (13.2 vs 14.3; P=.007) than their partners. No significant differences were observed between the offspring and their partners in beta-cell function (insulogenic index 13.6 vs 12.5; P=.38). Despite similar body composition, the offspring of nonagenarian siblings showed a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and better glucose tolerance than their partners, centralizing the role of favorable glucose metabolism in familial longevity.

  7. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  8. On longevity and the aging process : a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the radiological phenotype of the human brain in familial longevity with regard to brain structure. This study was performed as part of the Leiden Longevity Study – a study population consisting of offspring of long-lived Dutch people who are genetically

  9. Progression and regression of atherosclerosis in APOE3-Leiden transgenic mice : An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijbels, M.J.J.; Cammen, M. van der; Laan, L.J.W. van der; Emeis, J.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.; Kraal, G.

    1999-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E3-Leiden (APOE3-Leiden) transgenic mice develop hyperlipidemia and are highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. We have studied the progression and regression of atherosclerosis using immunohistochemistry. Female transgenic mice were fed a moderate fat diet to study

  10. Plasma hepcidin levels and anemia in old age. The Leiden 85-Plus Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Craen, A.J. de; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Swinkels, D.W.; Gussekloo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin, an important regulator of iron homeostasis, is suggested to be causally related to anemia of inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the role of plasma hepcidin in anemia among older persons from the general population. The Leiden 85-Plus Study is a population-based study of

  11. A half century of abstracting at the African Studies Centre Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van M.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the history of the abstracts and indexing journal originally known as 'Documentatieblad,' which was renamed to 'African Studies Abstracts (ASA)' and later to 'African Studies Abstracts Online' (ASAO), published by the African Studies Centre (ASC) in Leiden, the Netherlands

  12. Longevity studies in GenomEUtwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, Axel; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2003-01-01

    Previous twin studies have indicated that approximately 25% of the variation in life span can be attributed to genetic factors and recent studies have also suggested a moderate clustering of extreme longevity within families. Here we discuss various definitions of extreme longevity and some...... analytical approaches with special attention to the challenges due to censored data. Lexis diagrams are provided for the Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Italian, Norwegian, and Swedish Twin registries hereby outlining possibilities for longevity studies within GenomEUtwin. We extend previous analyses of lifespan...

  13. A family longevity selection score: ranking sibships by their longevity, size, and availability for study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Hadley, Evan C; Province, Michael; Christensen, Kaare; Rossi, Winifred; Perls, Thomas T; Ash, Arlene S

    2009-12-15

    Family studies of exceptional longevity can potentially identify genetic and other factors contributing to long life and healthy aging. Although such studies seek families that are exceptionally long lived, they also need living members who can provide DNA and phenotype information. On the basis of these considerations, the authors developed a metric to rank families for selection into a family study of longevity. Their measure, the family longevity selection score (FLoSS), is the sum of 2 components: 1) an estimated family longevity score built from birth-, gender-, and nation-specific cohort survival probabilities and 2) a bonus for older living siblings. The authors examined properties of FLoSS-based family rankings by using data from 3 ongoing studies: the New England Centenarian Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and screenees for the Long Life Family Study. FLoSS-based selection yields families with exceptional longevity, satisfactory sibship sizes and numbers of living siblings, and high ages. Parameters in the FLoSS formula can be tailored for studies of specific populations or age ranges or with different conditions. The first component of the FLoSS also provides a conceptually sound survival measure to characterize exceptional longevity in individuals or families in various types of studies and correlates well with later-observed longevity.

  14. A Family Longevity Selection Score: Ranking Sibships by Their Longevity, Size, and Availability for Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Hadley, Evan C; Province, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Family studies of exceptional longevity can potentially identify genetic and other factors contributing to long life and healthy aging. Although such studies seek families that are exceptionally long lived, they also need living members who can provide DNA and phenotype information. On the basis...... of these considerations, the authors developed a metric to rank families for selection into a family study of longevity. Their measure, the family longevity selection score (FLoSS), is the sum of 2 components: 1) an estimated family longevity score built from birth-, gender-, and nation-specific cohort survival...... probabilities and 2) a bonus for older living siblings. The authors examined properties of FLoSS-based family rankings by using data from 3 ongoing studies: the New England Centenarian Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and screenees for the Long Life Family Study. FLoSS-based selection yields families...

  15. Economics and extended longevity: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G B; Richter, B J; Yu, W K

    1984-07-01

    Preventive and therapeutic advances have brought life expectancy in the United States to well over 70 years and have shifted mortality causes from acute to chronic diseases, the determinants of which are genetics, lifestyle, the environment, and aging itself. Plausible approaches to chronic disease prevention are likely to increase longevity further, with some foreseeable effects on demographic and economic projections. Primarily, longevity advances would swell forecasts of population size, and would thus have to be met by production advances in order to maintain or improve living standards. This study, a restricted example, considers the probable demographic and economic consequences of a limited prevention program in the context of the Ford Motor Company, based on actual experience and certain expectations up to the year 2000. According to the results, prevention would reduce outlays for life insurance, disability, and health care, but would also generate the higher costs of extending pension plans. Undoubtedly, prevention will continue to be highly ranked in society's pursuit of happiness, and society must prepare to meet its effects with appropriate social and economic policies.

  16. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...

  17. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C; Kleemann, Robert; van Koppen, Arianne; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Verschuren, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice, an established pre-clinical model of NASH. Methods: Human molecular inflammatory processes were defined using a publicly available NASH gene expression profiling dataset (GSE48452) allowing the comparison of biopsy-confirmed NASH patients with normal controls. Gene profiling data from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice (GSE109345) were used for assessment of the translational value of these mice. Results: In human NASH livers, we observed regulation of 65 canonical pathways of which the majority was involved in inflammation (32%), lipid metabolism (16%), and extracellular matrix/remodeling (12%). A similar distribution of pathways across these categories, inflammation (36%), lipid metabolism (24%) and extracellular matrix/remodeling (8%) was observed in HFD-fed Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice. Detailed evaluation of these pathways revealed that a substantial proportion (11 out of 13) of human NASH inflammatory pathways was recapitulated in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice. Furthermore, the activation state of identified master regulators of inflammation (i.e., specific transcription factors, cytokines, and growth factors) in human NASH was largely reflected in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice, further substantiating its translational value. Conclusion: Human NASH is characterized by upregulation of specific

  18. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C.; Kleemann, Robert; van Koppen, Arianne; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Verschuren, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice, an established pre-clinical model of NASH. Methods: Human molecular inflammatory processes were defined using a publicly available NASH gene expression profiling dataset (GSE48452) allowing the comparison of biopsy-confirmed NASH patients with normal controls. Gene profiling data from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice (GSE109345) were used for assessment of the translational value of these mice. Results: In human NASH livers, we observed regulation of 65 canonical pathways of which the majority was involved in inflammation (32%), lipid metabolism (16%), and extracellular matrix/remodeling (12%). A similar distribution of pathways across these categories, inflammation (36%), lipid metabolism (24%) and extracellular matrix/remodeling (8%) was observed in HFD-fed Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice. Detailed evaluation of these pathways revealed that a substantial proportion (11 out of 13) of human NASH inflammatory pathways was recapitulated in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice. Furthermore, the activation state of identified master regulators of inflammation (i.e., specific transcription factors, cytokines, and growth factors) in human NASH was largely reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice, further substantiating its translational value. Conclusion: Human NASH is characterized by upregulation of specific

  19. Factor V leiden and ischemic stroke risk: the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Although the FVL mutation is associated with increased risk for venous thrombosis, its association with ischemic stroke in young adults remains uncertain. Therefore, we examined the association between FVL and ischemic stroke in participants of the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study. A population-based case control study identified 354 women and 476 men 15 to 49 years of age with first-ever ischemic stroke and 907 controls. Participant-specific data included vascular risk factors, FVL genotype and, for cases, the ischemic stroke subtype by modified Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the entire population and for subgroups stratified by risk factors and ischemic stroke subtype. The frequency of the FVL mutation was similar between ischemic stroke patients (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5%-5.1%) and nonstroke controls (3.8%; 95% CI 2.7%-5.2%). This frequency did not change significantly when cases were restricted to patients with stroke of undetermined etiology (4.1%; 95% CI 2.6%-6.4%). Among young adults, we found no evidence for an association between FVL and either all ischemic stroke or the subgroup with stroke of undetermined etiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water from some longevity and non-longevity areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Hussain, Rahib

    2017-06-01

    There is an obvious regional longevity phenomenon in China and many longevity counties are located in South China. This study was carried out to find the characteristics of elemental contents of drinking water in longevity areas in South China and the differences to non-longevity areas in China. A total of 128 drinking water samples were collected from longevity areas in South China (n = 40), non-longevity areas in South China (n = 74) and non-longevity areas in North China (n = 14) and 46 parameters of water were determined or calculated. The results showed that drinking water in longevity areas of South China had a high ratio of sum concentration of essential micro-elements in sum concentration of micro-elements (SCME) and a low ratio of sum concentration of hazardous micro-elements in SCME. The concentration of total hardness (TH) and strontium in drinking water was 157.82 mg/L and 82.1 μg/L, respectively, and they were 14.61 mg/L, 7.45 μg/L and 291.69 mg/L, 748.65 μg/L in the non-longevity areas of South and North China, respectively. The study concluded that drinking water containing 157.82 mg/L TH and 82.1 μg/L strontium in South China may be optimum to human health.

  1. Genetics of longevity. data from the studies on Sicilian centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balistreri Carmela R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The demographic and social changes of the past decades have determined improvements in public health and longevity. So, the number of centenarians is increasing as a worldwide phenomenon. Scientists have focused their attention on centenarians as optimal model to address the biological mechanisms of "successful and unsuccessful ageing". They are equipped to reach the extreme limits of human life span and, most importantly, to show relatively good health, being able to perform their routine daily life and to escape fatal age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Thus, particular attention has been centered on their genetic background and immune system. In this review, we report our data gathered for over 10 years in Sicilian centenarians. Based on results obtained, we suggest longevity as the result of an optimal performance of immune system and an over-expression of anti-inflammatory sequence variants of immune/inflammatory genes. However, as well known, genetic, epigenetic, stochastic and environmental factors seem to have a crucial role in ageing and longevity. Epigenetics is associated with ageing, as demonstrated in many studies. In particular, ageing is associated with a global loss of methylation state. Thus, the aim of future studies will be to analyze the weight of epigenetic changes in ageing and longevity.

  2. Classification for longevity potential: the use of novel biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Beekman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In older people chronological age may not be the best predictor of residual lifespan and mortality, because with age the heterogeneity in health is increasing. Biomarkers for biological age and residual lifespan are being developed to predict disease and mortality better at an individual level than chronological age. In the current paper we aim to classify a group of older people into those with longevity potential or controls.Methods: In the Leiden Longevity Study participated 1671 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, as the group with longevity potential, and 744 similarly aged controls. Using known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, previously reported markers for human longevity and other physiological measures as predictors, classification models for longevity potential were constructed with multiple logistic regression of the offspring-control status.Results: The Framingham Risk Score is predictive for longevity potential (AUC = 64.7. Physiological parameters involved in immune responses and glucose, lipid and energy metabolism further improve the prediction performance for longevity potential (AUCmale = 71.4, AUCfemale = 68.7.Conclusion: Using the Framingham Risk Score, the classification of older people in groups with longevity potential and controls is moderate, but can be improved to a reasonably good classification in combination with markers of immune response, glucose, lipid and energy metabolism. We show that individual classification of older people for longevity potential may be feasible using biomarkers from a wide variety of different biological processes.

  3. Influence of Factor V Leiden on susceptibility to and outcome from critical illness: a genetic association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Ejrnæs, Karen; Juul, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Disturbance of the pro-coagulatant and anti-coagulant balance is associated with a poor outcome from critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine whether the Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is associated with susceptibility to or death from critical illness....... METHODS: A genetic association study involving four case cohorts comprising two Gram negative sepsis, one invasive pneumococcal disease and one intensive care unit cohort with a total of 1,249 patients. Controls were derived from a population-based cohort study (N = 8,147). DNA from patients and controls...... not appear to increase the risk of admission due to severe invasive infections. Nevertheless, in the subgroup of patients admitted to intensive care an increased risk and a poorer long-term outcome for individuals with critical illness were observed for FVL mutation carriers....

  4. Limitations and risks of meta-analyses of longevity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Bae, Harold; Gurinovich, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Searching for genetic determinants of human longevity has been challenged by the rarity of data sets with large numbers of individuals who have reached extreme old age, inconsistent definitions of the phenotype, and the difficulty of defining appropriate controls. Meta-analysis - a statistical...... method to summarize results from different studies - has become a common tool in genetic epidemiology to accrue large sample sizes for powerful genetic association studies. In conducting a meta-analysis of studies of human longevity however, particular attention must be made to the definition of cases...... and controls (including their health status) and on the effect of possible confounders such as sex and ethnicity upon the genetic effect to be estimated. We will show examples of how a meta-analysis can inflate the false negative rates of genetic association studies or it can bias estimates of the association...

  5. Recent advances in human gene-longevity association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Benedictis, G; Tan, Q; Jeune, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on genes and longevity. The influence of genes on human life span has been confirmed in studies of life span correlation between related individuals based on family and twin data. Results from major twin studies indicate that approximately 25......% of the variation in life span is genetically determined. Taking advantage of recent developments in molecular biology, researchers are now searching for candidate genes that might have an influence on life span. The data on unrelated individuals emerging from an ever-increasing number of centenarian studies makes...... this possible. This paper summarizes the rich literature dealing with the various aspects of the influence of genes on individual survival. Common phenomena affecting the development of disease and longevity are discussed. The major methodological difficulty one is confronted with when studying the epidemiology...

  6. Subjective wellbeing and longevity: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michael E; Miller, Christopher J; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is increasingly defined not only by the absence of illness but by the presence of subjective well-being (SWB). Previous cohort studies have consistently shown that indicators of SWB predict favorable life outcomes, including better mental and somatic health, and longevity....... The favorable effects associated with SWB have prompted new research aimed at raising happiness and wellbeing through individual interventions and public health initiatives. Standard observational studies of individual-level associations, however, are subject to potential confounding of exposure and outcome...

  7. Autonomous orientation predicts longevity: New findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, William S; Hemmy, Laura

    2018-03-10

    Work on longevity has found protective social, cognitive, and emotional factors, but to date we have little understanding of the impact of motivational dynamics. Autonomy orientation, or stable patterns of self-regulation, is theorized to be a protective factor for long-term mental and physical health (Ryan & Deci, 2017), and it is therefore a prime candidate for examining how stable psychosocial factors are linked to longevity, or life expectancy. Essays written in the 1930s by participants in the Nun Study were coded for indicators of an autonomy orientation. These were selected in line with an extensive theoretical literature based in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Essays were coded for the propensity for choice in action, susceptibility to pressure, self-reflection, integration of experiences, and parental support for autonomy. These coded variables were used to predict age of death. Using 176 codable essays provided by now-deceased participants, linear regression analyses revealed that choiceful behavior, self-reflection, and parent autonomy support predicted age of death. Participants who demonstrated these stable and beneficial motivational characteristics lived longer. Personality constructs reflecting a healthy form of self-regulation are associated with long-term health. Implications for health interventions are discussed. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impact of the factor V Leiden mutation on the outcome of pneumococcal pneumonia: a controlled laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Marcel; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Roelofs, Joris Jth; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation results in resistance of activated FV to inactivation by activated protein C and thereby in a prothrombotic phenotype. Human heterozygous FVL carriers have been

  9. A Study of the Longevity of Hebrew Slang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblueth, Ilana; Aynor, Sarah

    1974-01-01

    Investigates the following as possibly related to the longevity of slang items in Hebrew: the language of origin, the category of content, structural characteristics and the background characteristics of the users. (PM)

  10. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nearest mm, body weight, and reproductive status were recorded. Before release ..... analysis to ascertain whether bone resorption might have completely removed one or .... distribution and longevity in the Ramsey Canyon leopard frog, Rana ...

  11. Familial Longevity Is Not Associated with Major Differences in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Jansen, Steffy W.

    2016-01-01

    longevity and controls. Design: We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 10 healthy middle-aged male offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study together with 10 male age-matched controls. Individual 24-h luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentration profiles were....../feedback regulation within the HPG axis were similar between offspring of long-lived families and controls. Conclusion: This relatively small study suggests that in healthy male middle-aged participants, familial longevity is not associated with major differences in the HPG axis. Selection on both fertility...

  12. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...

  13. Mechanisms of the factor V Leiden paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, K. J.; Doggen, C. J. M.; Bezemer, I. D.; Pomp, E. R.; Lisman, T.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective-Carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation (FVL-carriers) have a substantially increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), whereas the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) is only mildly increased compared with noncarriers. So far few studies have investigated possible mechanisms for this

  14. Frequency of factor V Leiden mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasiruddin; Ali, W.; Rehman, Z.; Anwar, M.; Ayyub, M.; Ali, W.; Ahmed, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of factor V Leiden mutation. Design: Observational study. Patients and Methods: Two hundred subjects each of apparently healthy and unrelated Punjabi and Pathan origins were included in the study. Peripheral blood samples were collected in EDTA and DNA extracted by phenol- chloroform extraction method. DNA analysis was done by PCR for restriction fragment length polymorphism. The product was digested overnight with Mn/1 and electrophoresed on acrylamide gel to detect 67 and 153 base pair fragments of factor V Leiden against 37, 67 and 116 base pair fragments of normal factor V. Results: In the 400 subjects studied, only 5 cases of heterozygotes for factor V Leiden were detected. The overall carrier rate was 1.3% (95% CI 0.2-2.2%). The carrier rate in Punjabis and Pathans was 1 % and 1.5% respectively. Conclusion: This study confirms that the prevalence of factor V Leiden is low in Asians and Africans as compared to the European population. (author)

  15. Characterization of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-Axis in Familial Longevity under Resting Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Akintola, Abimbola A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is the most important neuro-endocrine stress response system of our body which is of critical importance for survival. Disturbances in HPA-axis activity have been associated with adverse metabolic and cognitive changes. Humans enriched...... for longevity have less metabolic and cognitive disturbances and therefore diminished activity of the HPA axis may be a potential candidate mechanism underlying healthy familial longevity. Here, we compared 24-h plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentration profiles and different aspects of the regulation...... of the HPA-axis in offspring from long-lived siblings, who are enriched for familial longevity and age-matched controls. DESIGN: Case-control study within the Leiden Longevity study cohort consisting of 20 middle-aged offspring of nonagenarian siblings (offspring) together with 18 partners (controls...

  16. Association of the FOXO3A locus with extreme longevity in a southern Italian centenarian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Chiara Viviani; Malovini, Alberto; Roncarati, Roberta; Novelli, Valeria; Villa, Francesco; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Puca, Annibale Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    A number of potential candidate genes in a variety of biological pathways have been associated with longevity in model organisms. Many of these genes have human homologs and thus have the potential to provide insights into human longevity. Recently, several studies suggested that FOXO3A functions as a key bridge for various signaling pathways that influence aging and longevity. Interestingly, Willcox and colleagues identified several variants that displayed significant genotype-gender interaction in male human longevity. In particular, a nested case-control study was performed in an ethnic Japanese population in Hawaii, and five candidate longevity genes were chosen based on links to the insulin-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway. In the Willcox study, the investigated genetic variations (rs2802292, rs2764264, and rs13217795) within the FOXO3A gene were significantly associated with longevity in male centenarians. We validated the association of FOXO3A polymorphisms with extreme longevity in males from the Southern Italian Centenarian Study. Particularly, rs2802288, a proxy of rs2802292, showed the best allelic association--minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.49; p = 0.003; odds ratio (OR) = 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.98). Furthermore, we undertook a meta-analysis to explore the significance of rs2802292 association with longevity by combining the association results of the current study and the findings coming from the Willcox et al. investigation. Our data point to a key role of FOXO3A in human longevity and confirm the feasibility of the identification of such genes with centenarian-controls studies. Moreover, we hypothesize the susceptibility to the longevity phenotype may well be the result of complex interactions involving genes and environmental factors but also gender.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies a single major locus contributing to survival into old age; the APOE locus revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    By studying the loci which contribute to human longevity, we aim to identify mechanisms that contribute to healthy aging. To identify such loci, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) comparing 403 unrelated nonagenarians from long-living families included in the Leiden Longevity Stu...

  18. A genetic study of Factor V Leiden (G1691A) mutation in young ischemic strokes with large vessel disease in a South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadure, Ravi; Christopher, Rita; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Narayanan, Coimbatore

    2017-10-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been, by far, the most investigated gene mutation, with 26 studies to date, on its role in arterial strokes. Overall, a meta-analysis of all these studies taken together showed that carriers of the Factor V Leiden allele were 1.33times more likely to develop arterial strokes when compared to controls. We subjected a highly select subset of young strokes, with large vessel infarcts, to genetic analysis for FVL mutation and compared them with matched healthy controls to look for a statistically significant association. In this prospective study, 6/120 cases (5%) and 2/120 controls (1.6%) were positive for heterozygous FVL (G1691A) mutation. The higher prevalence of FVL mutation in cases (5%) compared to controls (1.6%) did not show statistical significance with a Pearson's Chi square P value of 0.15. The Odds Ratio (OR) for risk of large vessel disease in FVL positive cases was 3.10 (95% CI of 0.61-15.7). FVL mutation (G1691A) in young Indian subjects with ischemic strokes does not seem to be significantly associated with large vessel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Residence as a Factor in Longevity: A Study of Louisianians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Yui-Huen; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    In order to test the hypothesis that the longevity of aged persons differs according to residence and by sex, race, and marital status, data from every third year between 1962 and 1974 in the Louisiana State Bureau of Vital Statistics were examined. Criteria for population inclusion were: people over 65 years of age; Louisiana residents at time of…

  20. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis: results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H. L.; Meinardi, J. R.; Vleggaar, F. P.; van Uum, S. H.; Haagsma, E. B.; van der Meer, F. J.; van Hattum, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Adang, R. P.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; van Hoek, B.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    In a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). We compared 43 BCS

  1. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis : results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, HLA; Meinardi, [No Value; Vleggaar, FP; van Uum, SHM; Haagsma, EB; van der Meer, FJM; van Hattum, J; Chamuleau, RAFM; Adang, RP; Vandenbroucke, JP; van Hoek, B; Rosendaal, FR

    2000-01-01

    In a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT), We compared 43 BCS

  2. Blood group AB and factor V Leiden as risk factors for pre-eclampsia: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Leena M; Laivuori, Hannele; Rautanen, Anna; Kaaja, Risto; Kere, Juha; Krusius, Tom; Paunio, Mikko; Rasi, Vesa

    2009-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is still unknown. Clinical symptoms correlate with activation of coagulation and inherited thrombophilia has been associated with pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group has been associated with thrombotic disorders and pre-eclampsia. We assessed ABO blood group, seven thrombophilia associated polymorphisms, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies as risk factors for pre-eclampsia. We performed a population-based nested case-control study of 100,000 consecutive pregnancies in Finland. Cases and controls were identified by combining national registers and medical records were reviewed. We studied 248 cases fulfilling strict criteria for pre-eclampsia and 679 controls. Severe pre-eclampsia, early pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) were analyzed separately. Blood group AB increased the risk for pre-eclampsia as a whole (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), and in the three subgroups (OR 2.3, 3.8, 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-3.9, 2.0-7.1, 1.6-7.1). FV Leiden increased the risk as a whole (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.9), and in the three subgroups, although not statistically significantly. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies were not associated with pre-eclampsia. High body mass index, diabetes, first pregnancy, and twin pregnancy increased the risk from 1.5-fold to 8.2-fold. Our results confirm and extend the prior observation of blood group AB being a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group is known from all pregnant women. The value of blood group as risk factor for pre-eclampsia should be further assessed in prospective studies. In this study, FV Leiden was not statistically significant risk factor.

  3. Life style and longevity among initially healthy middle-aged men: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Trond; Erikssen, Jan; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-09-11

    Few studies have examined how various lifestyle factors in midlife predict longevity, and none of these studies have examined the impact of physical fitness. The present study aimed to examine longevity in relation to smoking, overweight and physical fitness. We prospectively studied longevity (defined as reaching at least 85 years of age) in relation to smoking status, body mass index and physical fitness in 821 healthy men between 51 and 59 years of age. Of these, 369 were smokers, 320 were overweight, and 31 were obese. The associations were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Deaths were registered until the 31st of December, 2006. Physical fitness was measured as the total work performed in a maximal exercise tolerance bicycle test. 252 men survived to the age of 85 years (30.7%). Smoking status was significantly and independently related to longevity; 37.2% of the non-smokers survived to the age of 85, and 22.8% of the smokers. Among non-smokers, overweight and physical fitness were significantly and independently related to longevity after adjustment for age, blood pressure and cholesterol level, but not among smokers. Among non-smokers with high physical fitness, 48.8% reached the age of 85 years, compared to 27.9% among non-smokers with low physical fitness. Lifestyle variables appear to be strong and independent predictors of longevity in initially healthy middle-aged men. The probability of longevity may be a useful concept when informing the general public about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.

  4. Growth hormone secretion is diminished and tightly controlled in humans enriched for familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Jansen, Steffy W; Akintola, Abimbola A

    2016-01-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) signaling has been consistently associated with increased health and lifespan in various mouse models. Here, we assessed GH secretion and its control in relation with human familial longevity. We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 19 middle-aged offspring of long......-living families from the Leiden Longevity Study together with 18 of their partners as controls. Circulating GH concentrations were measured every 10 min and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) every 4 h. Using deconvolution analysis, we found that 24-h.......39-0.53)] compared with controls [0.66 (0.56-0.77)], indicating tighter control of GH secretion. No significant differences were observed in circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP3 between offspring and controls. In conclusion, GH secretion in human familial longevity is characterized by diminished secretion rate...

  5. Lifestyle and nutrition related to male longevity in Sardinia: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pes, G M; Tolu, F; Poulain, M; Errigo, A; Masala, S; Pietrobelli, A; Battistini, N C; Maioli, M

    2013-03-01

    A demographic analysis in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia revealed marked differences in extreme longevity across the 377 municipalities and particularly identified a mountain inner area where the proportion of oldest subjects among male population has one of the highest validated value worldwide. The cause(s) of this unequal distribution of male longevity may be attributed to a concurrence of environmental, lifestyle and genetic factors. In this study we focussed on some lifestyle and nutrition variables recorded in the island's population in early decades of 20th century, when agricultural and pastoral economy was still prevalent, and try to verify through ecological spatial models if they may account for the variability in male longevity. By computing the Extreme Longevity Index (the proportion of newborns in a given municipality who reach age 100) the island's territory was divided in two areas with relatively higher and lower level of population longevity. Most nutritional variables do not show any significant difference between these two areas whereas a significant difference was found with respect to pastoralism (P = 0.0001), physical activity estimated by the average slope of the territory in each municipality (P = 0.0001), and average daily distance required by the active population to reach the usual workplace (P = 0.0001). Overall, these findings suggest that factors affecting the average energy expenditure of male population such as occupational activity and geographic characteristics of the area where the population mainly resides, are important in explaining the spatial variation of Sardinian extreme longevity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of valvular heart disease on activities of daily living of nonagenarians: the Leiden 85-plus study a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmel, Thomas; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blauw, Gerard J; Westendorp, Rudi G; Holman, Eduard R

    2010-04-01

    Data on the prevalence of valvular heart disease in very old individuals are scarce and based mostly on in-hospital series. In addition, the potential detrimental effect of valvular heart disease on the activities of daily living is unknown. The present study evaluated the prevalence of significant valvular heart disease and the impact of valvular heart disease on the activities of daily living in community dwelling nonagenarians. Nested within the Leiden 85-plus study, a population based follow-up study of the oldest old, a sample of 81 nonagenarians was recruited. The left ventricular (LV) dimensions, function and the presence and severity of heart valvular disease were evaluated by echocardiography. Significant valvular heart disease included any mitral or aortic stenosis severity, moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, moderate or severe aortic regurgitation and moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS). LV cavity diameters (end-diastolic diameter 47 +/- 8 mm, end-systolic diameter 30 +/- 8 mm) and systolic LV function (LV ejection fraction 66 +/- 13%) were within normal for the majority of the participants. Significant valvular disease was present in 57 (70%) individuals, with mitral regurgitation and aortic regurgitation as the most frequent valve diseases (49% and 28% respectively). The GARS score between individuals with and without significant valvular heart disease was similar (36.2 +/- 9.2 vs. 34.4 +/- 13.2, p = 0.5). Nonagenarian, outpatient individuals have a high prevalence of significant valvular heart disease. However, no relation was observed between the presence of significant valvular heart disease and the ability to perform activities of daily living.

  7. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  8. Lower blood pressure and apathy coincide in older persons with poorer functional ability: the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Bertens, Anne Suzanne; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Smit, Roelof A J; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between blood pressure (BP) measures and symptoms of apathy and depression in older adults with various levels of functional ability. Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden. Primary care setting, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 75 and older (N = 430). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during home visits. Symptoms of apathy and depression were assessed using the Apathy Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), respectively. Stratified linear regression was performed in participants with better and worse functional ability according to the median of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. In participants with lower functional ability, each 10-mmHg lower SBP, DBP, and MAP was associated with higher Apathy Scale scores (0.63, 0.92, and 0.94 points, respectively, all P < .005) but not with GDS-15 scores. In participants with higher functional ability, BP measures were not associated with Apathy Scale or GDS-15 scores. In older participants with poorer functional ability, lower BP was associated with more symptoms of apathy but not depression. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. China Back in the Frame. A comparative study of Canton, Whampoa and Macao harbour views in the Leiden Museum of Ethnology and in the Guangzhou Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.; Groenendijk, E.; Viallé, C.; Blussé, L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of research results deriving from the investigation of a group of 18th and 19th century export oil paintings from China in the collection of the National Museum of Ethnology n Leiden. The oils were compared with a group of reverse glass paintings in the same

  10. Longevity Chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Britton Chance pursued his research and sailing until his death at age 97. His 100th anniversary was memorialized in this paper from longevity viewpoint. His lifelong work was very creative. His life was very colorful. His aging was very successful. He has lived a longevity.

  11. Predictive value of a profile of routine blood measurements on mortality in older persons in the general population: the Leiden 85-plus Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H van Houwelingen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various questionnaires and performance tests predict mortality in older people. However, most are heterogeneous, laborious and a validated consensus index is not available yet. Since most older people are regularly monitored by laboratory tests, we compared the predictive value of a profile of seven routine laboratory measurements on mortality in older persons in the general population with other predictors of mortality; gait speed and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Within the Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospective population-based study, we followed 562 participants aged 85 years for mortality over five years. At baseline (age 85 years high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, alanine transaminase, hemoglobin, creatinin clearance, C-reactive protein and homocysteine were measured. Participants were stratified based on their number of laboratory abnormalities (0, 1, 2-4 and 5-7. The predictive capacity was compared with gait speed (6-meter walking test and disability in IADL (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale by C-statistics. At baseline, 418 (74% 85-year old participants had at least one laboratory abnormality. All cause mortality risk increased with increasing number of laboratory abnormalities to a hazard ratio of 5.64 [95% CI 3.49-9.12] for those with 5-7 laboratory abnormalities (p<0.001 compared to those without abnormalities. The c-statistic was 0.66 [95% CI 0.59-0.69], similar to that of gait speed and disability in IADL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the general population of oldest old, the number of abnormalities in seven routine laboratory measurements predicts five-year mortality as accurately as gait speed and IADL disability.

  12. Data Resources for Biodemographic Studies on Familial Clustering of Human Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The main cause that hampered many previous biodemographic studies of human longevity is the lack of appropriate data. At the same time, many existing data resources (millions of genealogical records are under-utilized, because their very existence is not widely known, let alone the quality and scientific value of these data sets are not yet validated. The purpose of this work is to review the data resources that could be used in familial studies of human longevity. This is an extended and supplemented version of the previous study made by the authors upon the request of the National Institute on Aging (1998 NIH Professional Service Contract. The review describes: (1 data resources developed for biodemographic studies, (2 data collected in the projects on historical demography, (3 data resources for long lived individuals and their families, (4 publicly available computerized genealogical data resources, (5 published genealogical and family history data. The review also contains the description of databases developed by the participants of the Research Workshops "Genes, Genealogies, and Longevity" organized by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.

  13. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mens, T. E.; Joensen, U. N.; Bochdanovits, Z.; Takizawa, A.; Peter, J.; Jørgensen, N.; Szecsi, P. B.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Weiler, H.; Rajpert-de Meyts, E.; Repping, S.; Middeldorp, S.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT IS

  14. Apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice mode for hypolipidaemic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Pearce, N.J.; Bergö, M.; Staels, B.; Yates, J.W.; Gribble, A.D.; Bond, B.C.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Groot, P.H.E.

    1998-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice with impaired chylomicron and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) remnant metabolism display hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. In the present study, these mice were used for testing the hypolipidaemic effect of two marketed agents, lovastatin (CAS 75330-75-5)

  15. Selection bias in studies of human reproduction-longevity trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Samuli

    2017-12-13

    A shorter lifespan as a potential cost of high reproductive effort in humans has intrigued researchers for more than a century. However, the results have been inconclusive so far and despite strong theoretical expectations we do not currently have compelling evidence for the longevity costs of reproduction. Using Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown here that a common practice in human reproduction-longevity studies using historical data (the most relevant data sources for this question), the omission of women who died prior to menopausal age from the analysis, results in severe underestimation of the potential underlying trade-off between reproduction and lifespan. In other words, assuming that such a trade-off is expressed also during reproductive years, the strength of the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan is progressively weakened when women dying during reproductive ages are sequentially and non-randomly excluded from the analysis. In cases of small sample sizes (e.g. few hundreds of observations), this selection bias by reducing statistical power may even partly explain the null results commonly found in this field. Future studies in this field should thus apply statistical approaches that account for or avoid selection bias in order to recover reliable effect size estimates between reproduction and longevity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Biofouling on buoyant marine plastics: An experimental study into the effect of size on surface longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazey, Francesca M.C.; Ryan, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that roughly 100 times more plastic litter enters the sea than is found floating at the sea surface, despite the buoyancy and durability of many plastic polymers. Biofouling by marine biota is one possible mechanism responsible for this discrepancy. Microplastics (<5 mm in diameter) are more scarce than larger size classes, which makes sense because fouling is a function of surface area whereas buoyancy is a function of volume; the smaller an object, the greater its relative surface area. We tested whether plastic items with high surface area to volume ratios sank more rapidly by submerging 15 different sizes of polyethylene samples in False Bay, South Africa, for 12 weeks to determine the time required for samples to sink. All samples became sufficiently fouled to sink within the study period, but small samples lost buoyancy much faster than larger ones. There was a direct relationship between sample volume (buoyancy) and the time to attain a 50% probability of sinking, which ranged from 17 to 66 days of exposure. Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. Further research is required to determine how fouling rates differ on free floating debris in different regions and in different types of marine environments. Such estimates could be used to improve model predictions of the distribution and abundance of floating plastic debris globally. - Highlights: • We tested how fragment size affects the rate of buoyancy loss at sea due to biofouling for two low-density plastic polymers. • We found a strong direct relationship between fragment size and surface longevity. • Our longevity estimates ranged from 17 days for the thinnest microplastics to 66 days for thicker macroplastics. • Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. • The results could be used to improve model predictions of the

  17. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Kleemann, R.; Koppen, A. van; Hanemaaijer, R.; Verschuren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic

  18. Effect of discontinuation of antihypertensive medication on orthostatic hypotension in older persons with mild cognitive impairment: the DANTE Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; van der Mast, Roos C

    2016-03-01

    the relationship between antihypertensive medication and orthostatic hypotension in older persons remains ambiguous, due to conflicting observational evidence and lack of data of clinical trials. to assess the effect of discontinuation of antihypertensive medication on orthostatic hypotension in older persons with mild cognitive impairment. a total of 162 participants with orthostatic hypotension were selected from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study. This randomised clinical trial included community-dwelling participants aged ≥75 years, with mild cognitive impairment, using antihypertensive medication and without serious cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomised to discontinuation or continuation of antihypertensive treatment (ratio 1:1). Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a drop of at least 20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and/or 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure on standing from a seated position. Outcome was the absence of orthostatic hypotension at 4-month follow-up. Relative risks (RR) were calculated by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. at follow-up, according to intention-to-treat analyses, of the 86 persons assigned to discontinuation of antihypertensive medication, 43 (50%) were free from orthostatic hypotension, compared with 29 (38%) of the 76 persons assigned to continuation of medication [RR 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.87); P = 0.13]. Per-protocol analysis showed that recovery from orthostatic hypotension was significantly higher in persons who completely discontinued all antihypertensive medication (61%) compared with the continuation group (38%) [RR 1.60 (95% CI 1.10-2.31); P = 0.01]. in older persons with mild cognitive impairment and orthostatic hypotension receiving antihypertensive medication, discontinuation of antihypertensive medication may increase the probability of recovery from orthostatic hypotension. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  19. Factor V Leiden mutation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Susan Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Normal maternal adaptation to pregnancy significantly increases the risk for thrombus formation. Inherited thrombophilias further increase risk for deep venous thrombosis and adverse outcome in pregnancy. Factor V Leiden mutation is the most common inherited thrombophilia, occurring in approximately 5% of the White and 1% of the Black populations. Nurses should be knowledgeable about screening for and diagnosis of factor V Leiden mutation, risk reduction counseling, recommended care of the affected patient, and implications of anticoagulant therapy during the perinatal period.

  20. Description and cohort characterization of the Longevity Study: learning from our elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Coon, David W; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Dugger, Brittany N; Schofield, Sharon; Nieri, Walter

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Longevity Study: Learning From Our Elders, a research program on healthy aging that began in 2007 at the Center for Healthy Aging at Banner Sun Health Research Institute. As of June 2015, 1139 participants (age range of 50-110 years) completed baseline assessments with the majority living in the Sun Cities retirement communities northwest of Phoenix, Arizona but expanding throughout the state. The registry includes over 830 currently active participants with 450 aged 80 years and older, 188 aged 90 and older, and 27 centenarians. Data from in-person interviews at the Center for Healthy Aging in Sun City or in the participants' residences which includes sociodemographic, medical, cognitive, physical and psychosocial variables have been collected since the study's inception. This paper outlines some of the key demographic and clinical characteristics of the Longevity Study, its progress, and future directions. It also reflects on how exceptional aging individuals function psychosocially, cognitively and physically, particularly among individuals aged 85 and older.

  1. What promotes longevity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kujawska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Scientists try to answer on the need of a long life with a full physical capability Nonagenarians, centenarians and their closest family members are characterized by a survival benefit throughout life. Moreover, twin studies of longevity suggest that around 25% of the variation in lifespan in developed countries may be inherited. It is therefore worth to examine the role of inter-relationship between nature vs nurture in longevity increment. Material and methods Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: longevity, gene, behavior, environment. The available literature was subjectively selected. Then, the newest version of every paper was searched for. Results Restriction of calories as well as intake of desirable nutrients can promote adequate control of metabolic pathways and gene expression. APOE, DRD4, Paraoxonase 1, SIRT 3 and SIRT 5 genes can play an important role in longevity. Conclusions Genetic profile and environmental factors seems to both influence on the longevity. Relationships between genetic profile, behavior pattern, quality of life, years spent free from activity limitations and longevity should be examined, to be able to give a recipe on living a long and happy life.

  2. Differential effects of amlodipine and atorvastatin treatment and their combination on atherosclerosis in ApoE*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, D.J.; Jukema, J.W.; van de Wiel, M.A.; Emeis, J.; van der Laarse, A.; Havekes, L.M.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential antiatherosclerotic effects of the calcium antagonist amlodipine as compared with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin and the combination of both in ApoE*3-Leiden transgenic mice. Four groups of 15 ApoE*3-Leiden mice were put on a

  3. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, C A; van Opstal, A M; Kan, H E; Maier, A B; Westendorp, R G J; Slagboom, P E; Webb, A G; Mooijaart, S P; van Heemst, D

    2012-02-01

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we assessed whether subjects enriched for familial longevity have lower IMCL levels. We determined IMCL levels in 48 subjects from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising 24 offspring of nonagenarian siblings and 24 partners thereof as control subjects. IMCL levels were assessed noninvasively using short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the tibialis anterior muscle with a 7 Tesla human MR scanner. IMCL levels were calculated relative to the total creatine (tCr) CH3 signal. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After correction for age, sex, BMI, and physical activity, offspring of long-lived nonagenarian siblings tended to show lower IMCL levels compared with controls (IMCL/tCr: 3.1 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5, respectively, P = 0.051). In a pairwise comparison, this difference reached statistical significance (P = 0.038). We conclude that offspring of nonagenarian siblings predisposed to longevity show lower IMCL levels compared with environmentally matched control subjects. Future research should focus on assessing what mechanisms may explain the lower IMCL levels in familial longevity.

  4. Impact of changes in television viewing time and physical activity on longevity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Arem, Hannah; Moore, Steven C; Sampson, Joshua N; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-12-18

    Television viewing is a highly prevalent sedentary behavior among older adults, yet the mortality risks associated with hours of daily viewing over many years and whether increasing or decreasing viewing time affects mortality is unclear. This study examined: 1) the long-term association between mortality and daily viewing time; 2) the influence of reducing and increasing in television viewing time on longevity and 3) combined effects of television viewing and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on longevity. Participants included 165,087 adults in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health (aged 50-71 yrs) who completed questionnaires at two-time-points (Time 1: 1994-1996, and Time 2: 2004-2006) and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate Hazard Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with self-reported television viewing and MVPA and all-cause mortality. Over 6.6 years of follow-up, there were 20,104 deaths. Compared to adults who watched active and watched physically active pursuits, preferably MVPA. Given the high prevalence of physical inactivity and prolonged television viewing in older adults, favorable changes in these two modifiable behaviors could have substantial public health impact. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015.

  5. Determination Of Longevity Of Teeth In Buckets Of Loading Equipment In Coal Mines - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarif Jamal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The life of bucket teeth in shovel and dragline deployed in handling of overburden rock is an important contributor to the stores cost and is also responsible for the loss of valuable availability and utilisation time of these critical equipment. To ascertain the effect of rock type on longevity of bucket teeth a study has been conducted in two large opencast mines of Singrauli Coalfields. The results of this study is presented in this paper. There was a significant variation as compared to the actual figures of the mine it establish useful relationship between the type of mineral present in the overburden and the life of bucket teeth of shovel and dragline.

  6. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia

    2010-01-01

    and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage's chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples...... the direct approach. It also has low power in detecting non-additive effect genes. Indirect genetic association using offspring from families with both parents as nonagenarians is nearly as powerful as using offspring from families with one centenarian parent. In conclusion, the indirect design can be a good......Recently, an indirect genetic association approach that compares genotype frequencies in offspring of long-lived subjects and offspring from random families has been introduced to study gene-longevity associations. Although the indirect genetic association has certain advantages over the direct...

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Adolescent Conflict Resolution Styles, Depressive Symptoms, and Romantic Relationship Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…

  8. An in vivo study on brain microstructure in biological and chronological ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; de Craen, Anton J M; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A

    2015-01-01

    phenotype of familial longevity. Moreover, we aimed to describe cerebral ageing effects on MTI parameters in an elderly cohort. All subjects were included from the Leiden Longevity Study and underwent 3 Tesla MTI of the brain. In total, 183 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who are enriched for familial...... factors of longevity, were contrasted with 163 environmentally and age-matched controls. No differences in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter MTI parameters were found between offspring and control subjects using histogram-based and voxel-wise analyses. Cortical gray matter and white...... matter MTI parameters decreased with increasing chronological age (all p

  9. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Taina; Masaki, Kamal; He, Qimei; Ross, G Webster; Willcox, Bradley J; White, Lon

    2012-06-01

    We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents' longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965-1968, when they were 56-68 years old. Deaths were followed until the end of June 2009 for 44 years with complete ascertainment. Longevity was categorized as centenarian (≥100 years, n = 47), nonagenarian (90-99 years, n = 545), octogenarian (80-89 years, n = 847), and ≤79 years (n = 801, reference). The average survival after baseline was 20.8 years (SD = 9.62). Compared with people who died at the age of ≤79 years, centenarians belonged 2.5 times (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-5.10) more often to the highest third of grip strength in midlife, were never smokers (OR = 5.75 95% CI = 3.06-10.80), had participated in physical activity outside work (OR = 1.13 per daily hour, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), and had a long-lived mother (≥80 vs. ≤60 years, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.06-5.01). Associations for nonagenarians and octogenarians were parallel, but weaker. Multivariate modeling showed that mother's longevity and offspring's grip strength operated through the same or overlapping pathway to longevity. High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.

  10. Yeast Colonies: A Model for Studies of Aging, Environmental Adaptation, and Longevity

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    Libuše Váchová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When growing on solid surfaces, yeast, like other microorganisms, develops organized multicellular populations (colonies and biofilms that are composed of differentiated cells with specialized functions. Life within these populations is a prevalent form of microbial existence in natural settings that provides the cells with capabilities to effectively defend against environmental attacks as well as efficiently adapt and survive long periods of starvation and other stresses. Under such circumstances, the fate of an individual yeast cell is subordinated to the profit of the whole population. In the past decade, yeast colonies, with their complicated structure and high complexity that are also developed under laboratory conditions, have become an excellent model for studies of various basic cellular processes such as cell interaction, signaling, and differentiation. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge on the processes related to chronological aging, adaptation, and longevity of a colony cell population and of its differentiated cell constituents. These processes contribute to the colony ability to survive long periods of starvation and mostly differ from the survival strategies of individual yeast cells.

  11. Conflict resolution patterns and longevity of adolescent romantic couples: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Levran, Elisheva; Anbar, Shmuel

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the predictors of longevity among 40 late adolescent romantic couples (mean age males=17.71 years; mean age females=17.18 years). Subjects were given a revealed differences task where they were asked to solve their disagreements. The joint task was recorded, transcribed and analysed by two raters. At 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after this procedure, partners were contacted by telephone and asked whether their relationship was still intact. A cluster analysis was performed on couples' interaction indices and yielded three distinctive conflict resolution patterns. The Downplaying pattern was characterized by a high tendency to minimize the conflict. The relationships of the adolescents displaying this pattern stayed intact for a period of 9 months. Half of them were still together after 24 months. The adolescents displaying the Integrative pattern, which shows a good ability to negotiate differences tended to stay together over a period of 24 months. Those showing the Conflictive pattern, characterized by a confrontative interaction, were separated by the 3 months follow-up. Results are discussed within the context of developmental perspectives of conflict resolution tendencies and adolescent romance.

  12. In the absence of endogenous mouse apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein E*2(Arg-158 → Cys) transgenic mice develop more severe hyperlipoproteinemia than apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Dijk, K.W. van; Hof, H.B. van 't; Gorp, P.J.J. van; Zee, A. van der; Boom, H. van der; Breuer, M.L.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekesf, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E*2(Arg-155 → Cys) (APOE*2) transgenic mice were generated and compared to the previously generated apolipoprotein E*3- Leiden (APOE*3-Leiden) transgenic mice to study the variable expression of hyperlipoproteinemia associated with these two APOE variants. In the presence of the

  13. Transcriptional profiling of human familial longevity indicates a role for ASF1A and IL7R.

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    Willemijn M Passtoors

    Full Text Available The Leiden Longevity Study consists of families that express extended survival across generations, decreased morbidity in middle-age, and beneficial metabolic profiles. To identify which pathways drive this complex phenotype of familial longevity and healthy aging, we performed a genome-wide gene expression study within this cohort to screen for mRNAs whose expression changes with age and associates with longevity. We first compared gene expression profiles from whole blood samples between 50 nonagenarians and 50 middle-aged controls, resulting in identification of 2,953 probes that associated with age. Next, we determined which of these probes associated with longevity by comparing the offspring of the nonagenarians (50 subjects and the middle-aged controls. The expression of 360 probes was found to change differentially with age in members of the long-lived families. In a RT-qPCR replication experiment utilizing 312 controls, 332 offspring and 79 nonagenarians, we confirmed a nonagenarian specific expression profile for 21 genes out of 25 tested. Since only some of the offspring will have inherited the beneficial longevity profile from their long-lived parents, the contrast between offspring and controls is expected to be weak. Despite this dilution of the longevity effects, reduced expression levels of two genes, ASF1A and IL7R, involved in maintenance of chromatin structure and the immune system, associated with familial longevity already in middle-age. The size of this association increased when controls were compared to a subfraction of the offspring that had the highest probability to age healthily and become long-lived according to beneficial metabolic parameters. In conclusion, an "aging-signature" formed of 21 genes was identified, of which reduced expression of ASF1A and IL7R marked familial longevity already in middle-age. This indicates that expression changes of genes involved in metabolism, epigenetic control and immune function

  14. Does comedy kill? A retrospective, longitudinal cohort, nested case-control study of humour and longevity in 53 British comedians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Simon; Thompson, David R

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to test the hypothesis that the funniest comedians are most at risk of a premature death and reduced longevity compared to their relatively less funny counterparts. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study with a nested case-control analysis of longevity of 53 male British comedians born between 1900 and 1954 was conducted. All comedians were given a subjective score from 1 (relatively funny) to 10 (hilariously funny) by the study investigators. The survival profile of all comedians was then examined adjusting for decade of birth, whether they worked in a comedy team and their comedy score. A nested case-control analysis examined the longevity of those comedians working in teams according to their pre-specified status within the team (straight/less funny versus funny team member). On an adjusted basis, there was no correlation between the decade of birth (HR 0.94, 95% 0.65 to 1.38 per incremental decade; p=0.763) and comedy team status (HR 1.13, 95% 0.51 to 2.48 versus independent comedian; p=0.761) with longevity. However, an increasingly funny comedy score was associated with increased mortality (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.44 per unit funny score; p=0.006). Of the 23 comedians adjudged to be very funny (score 8-10), 18 (78%) had died versus 12 (40%) of the rest; mean age at death 63.3±12.2 versus 72.3±14.7 (p=0.079). Within comedy teams, those identified as the funnier member(s) of the partnership were, on an adjusted basis, more than three times more likely to die prematurely when compared to their more serious comedy partners (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.22, 10.1; p=0.020). These data suggest that elite comedians are at increased risk of premature death compared to their less funny counterparts. Mental health issues and personality characteristics that help shape their comedic talent and success may well explain their reduced longevity and raises serious issues for identifying and mitigating their risk of a premature death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  15. FOXO3 variants are beneficial for longevity in Southern Chinese living in the Red River Basin: A case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Zheng, Chenguang; Qian, Yu; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, KeYan; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zheng; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-04-27

    Forkhead box class O (FOXO) transcription factors play a crucial role in longevity across species. Several polymorphisms in FOXO3 were previously reported to be associated with human longevity. However, only one Chinese replication study has been performed so far. To verify the role of FOXO3 in southern Chinese in the Red River Basin, a community-based case-control study was conducted, and seven polymorphisms were genotyped in 1336 participants, followed by a meta-analysis of eight case-control studies that included 5327 longevity cases and 4608 controls. In our case-control study, we found rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G were beneficial to longevity after Bonferroni correction (pallele = 0.005, OR = 1.266; pallele = 0.026, OR = 1.207). In addition, in the longevity group, carriers with rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G presented reduced HbA1c (p = 0.001), and homozygotes of rs2802292*GG presented improved HOMA-IR (p = 0.014). The meta-analysis further revealed the overall contribution of rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G to longevity. However, our stratified analysis revealed that rs2802292*G might act more strongly in Asians than Europeans, for enhancement of longevity. In conclusion, our study provides convincing evidence for a significant association between the rs2802288*A and rs2802292*G gene variants in FOXO3 and human longevity, and adds the Southern Chinese in the Red River Basin to the growing number of human replication populations.

  16. Bιβλιοκρισία του: V. SYROS, Die Rezeption der aristotelischen politischen Philosophie bei Marsilius von Padua. Eine Untersuchung zur ersten Diktion des Defensor pacis [Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions, ed. by A. C. Gow, v. 134], Leiden, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Στυλιανός ΛΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   Βιβλιοκρισία του : V. SYROS, Die Rezeption der aristotelischen politischen Philosophie bei Marsilius von Padua. Eine Untersuchung zur ersten Diktion des Defensor pacis. [Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions, edited by Andrew Colin Gow, volume 134], Brill, Leiden-Boston 2007, σελ. X+364, ISSN 1573-4188

  17. Polychaeten aus den Zoologischen Museen von Leiden und Amsterdam I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augener, H.

    1933-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung eines sehr umfangreichen Polychaeten-Materials niedergelegt, das mir von Herrn Prof. Dr. E. D. van Oort in Leiden und Herrn Prof. Dr. L. F. de Beaufort in Amsterdam zur Bearbeitung übergeben wurde. Von diesem Material ist der dem Museum in Leiden

  18. PXR agonism decreases plasma HDL levels in ApoE*3-Leiden.CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, W. de; Vries-van der Weij, J. de; Mol, I.M.; Hoekstra, M.; Romijn, J.A.; Jukema, J.W.; Havekes, L.M.; Princen, H.M.G.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonism has been shown to affect multiple steps in both the synthesis and catabolism of HDL, but its integrated effect on HDL metabolism in vivo remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the net effect of PXR agonism on HDL metabolism in ApoE*3-Leiden (E3L) and

  19. On some Hymenoptera from the collection of Guerin-Méneville in the Leiden museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, van der J.

    1957-01-01

    About thirty years ago, while studying the Sphecinae of the Leiden Museum, I found two species of Sphex, described by F. E. Guérin-Méneville, represented here by specimens originating from the collection of this author. A note on these species, Sphex lanierii Guérin and Sphex paulinieri Guérin, was

  20. Positive emotions in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, D D; Snowdon, D A; Friesen, W V

    2001-05-01

    Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion in early life increased, there was a stepwise decrease in risk of mortality resulting in a 2.5-fold difference between the lowest and highest quartiles. Positive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later. Underlying mechanisms of balanced emotional states are discussed.

  1. "Predicting" parental longevity from offspring endophenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, Anatoli I; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Kulminski, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    for exceptional survival. These endophenotypes could be studied in families to identify human longevity genes and elucidate possible mechanisms of their influence on longevity. In this paper, we analyze data collected in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) investigating whether indicators of physiological state......While there is evidence that longevity runs in families, the study of long-lived families is complicated by the fact that longevity-related information is available only for the oldest old, many of whom may be deceased and unavailable for testing, and information on other living family members......, primarily descendents, is censored. This situation requires a creative approach for analyzing determinants of longevity in families. There are likely biomarkers that predict an individual's longevity, suggesting the possibility that those biomarkers which are heritable may constitute valuable endophenotypes...

  2. Approaches in methodology for population-based longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (TUA) among Malaysian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Omar, Azahadi; Vanoh, Divya; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mukari, Siti Zamratol Mai-Sarah; Din, Normah Che; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Mohammed, Zainora; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Loo, Won Hui; Meramat, Asheila; Kamaruddin, Mohd Zul Amin; Bagat, Mohamad Fazdillah; Razali, Rosdinom

    2016-12-01

    A number of longitudinal studies on aging have been designed to determine the predictors of healthy longevity, including the neuroprotective factors, however, relatively few studies included a wide range of factors and highlighted the challenges faced during data collection. Thus, the longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (LRGS TUA) has been designed to prospectively investigate the magnitude of cognitive decline and its risk factors through a comprehensive multidimensional assessment comprising of biophysical health, auditory and visual function, nutrition and dietary pattern and psychosocial aspects. At baseline, subjects were interviewed for their status on sociodemographic, health, neuropsychological test, psychosocial and dietary intake. Subjects were also measured for anthropometric and physical function and fitness. Biospecimens including blood, buccal swap, hair and toenail were collected, processed and stored. A subsample was assessed for sensory function, i.e., vision and auditory. During follow-up, at 18 and 36 months, most of the measurements, along with morbidity and mortality outcomes will be collected. The description of mild cognitive impairment, successful aging and usual aging process is presented here. A total 2322 respondents were recruited in the data analysis at baseline. Most of the respondents were categorized as experiencing usual aging (73 %), followed by successful aging (11 %) and mild cognitive impairment (16 %). The LRGS TUA study is the most comprehensive longitudinal study on aging in Malaysia, and will contribute to the understanding of the aging process and factors associated with healthy aging and mental well-being of a multiethnic population in Malaysia.

  3. Evaluation the frequency of factor V Leiden mutation in pregnant women with preeclampsia syndrome in an Iranian population

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    Azadeh Azinfar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of genetic factors in etiology of preeclampsia is not confirmed yet.Objective: Gene defect frequency varies in different geographic areas as well as ethnic groups. In this study, the role of factor V Leiden mutation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia syndrome among the pregnant population of northern shore of Persian Gulf in Iran, were considered.Materials and Methods: Between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009, in a nested case control study, pregnant women with preeclampsia (N=198 as cases and healthy (N=201 as controls were enrolled in the study. DNA were extracted from 10 CC peripheral blood and analyzed for presence of factor V Leiden mutation in these subjects. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy according to the distribution of factor V Leiden were also compared among cases.Results: In total, 17(8.6% of cases and 2(1% of controls showed the factor V Leiden mutation. The incidence of factor V Leiden was typically higher in preeclamptic women than control group (OR: 9.34 %95 CI: 2.12-41.01. There was no difference in incidence rate of preterm delivery< 37 weeks (OR: 1.23 %95 CI: 0.38-4.02, very early preterm delivery<32 weeks (OR: 1.00 %95 CI: 0.12-8.46, intra uterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR (OR: 1.32 %95 CI: 0.15-11.30 ,and the rate of cesarean section (OR: 0.88 %95 CI: 0.29-2.62 among cases based on the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation.Conclusion: The pregnant women with factor V Leiden mutation are prone for preeclampsia syndrome during pregnancy, but this risk factor was not correlated to pregnancy complications in the studied women

  4. The Association of Factor V Leiden Mutation with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, M.; Saeed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of factor V Leiden mutation with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2012, and comprised women of 18 to 45 years of age who had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, and controls with no history of pregnancy loss. All the subjects belonged to Punjabi ethnic group. Three ml blood was taken from cases and controls and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted. In order to identify Factor V Leiden mutation, polymerase chain reaction method was utilised combined with the amplification refractory mutation system. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. Results: Of the 112 subjects, 56(50 percent) were in each of the two groups. The presence of factor V Leiden mutation among the cases was 3(5.4 percent) while it was absent among the controls. The mutation was significantly associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (p=0.017).Recurrent pregnancy loss was higher in cases than controls (p=0.001). Conclusion: Factor V Leiden mutation was significantly associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. It should be considered one of the causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. (author)

  5. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We determined FVL status in two cohorts (Dutch, n = 627; Danish, n = 854....... There were differences in smoking, abstinence time and age between the cohorts. We corrected for these in the primary analysis, which consisted of a mixed linear effects model, also incorporating unobjectified population differences. In public haplotype data from subjects of European descent, we explored...

  6. Leiden Mutation and the Course of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ershov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of Leiden mutation on the course of severe acute pancreatitis. Subjects and methods. One hundred and twelve people were examined. Group 1 comprised 50 patients diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis without coagulation factor V (Leiden mutation. Group 2 included 42 patients with severe acute pancreatitis who were found to have Leiden mutation. Acute pancreatitis was first diagnosed in both groups. Group 3 consisted of 20 apparently healthy individuals (a control group. The severity of the underlying disease was determined in accordance with the clinical and laboratory parameters recommended by the I. I. Dzhanelidze Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Emergence Care. Results. This investigation revealed an association of Leiden mutation with trends in the development of acute pancreatitis. Group 2 exhibited a more severe disease: large focal pancreatic necrosis was twice more common and infectious complications developed more frequently; more aggressive and radical treatments were more often used. The patients with Leiden mutation had higher mortality rates (33% in the Leiden mutation group and 24% in the non-mutation group. Conclusion. The findings should be kept in mind in elaborating new diagnostic methods and principles in the treatment of the underlying disease and in the prevention of its complications in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Key words: acute pancreatitis, Leiden mutation.

  7. Families enriched for exceptional longevity also have increased health span: Findings from the Long Life Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eSebastiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesizing that members of families enriched for longevity delay morbidity compared to population controls and approximate the health-span of centenarians, we compared the health spans of older generation subjects of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS to controls without family history of longevity and to centenarians of the New England Centenarian Study (NECS using Bayesian parametric survival analysis. We estimated hazard ratios, the ages at which specific percentiles of subjects had onsets of diseases, and the gain of years of disease-free survival in the different cohorts compared to referent controls. Compared to controls, LLFS subjects had lower hazards for cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe dementia, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and stroke. The age at which 20% of the LLFS siblings and probands had one or more age-related diseases was approximately 10 years later than NECS controls. While female NECS controls generally delayed the onset of age-related diseases compared with males controls, these gender differences became much less in the older generation of the LLFS and disappeared amongst the centenarians of the NECS. The analyses demonstrate extended health-span in the older subjects of the LLFS and suggest that this aging cohort provides an important resource to discover genetic and environmental factors that promote prolonged health-span in addition to longer life-span.

  8. A rat model system to study complex disease risks, fitness, aging, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-02-01

    The association between low exercise capacity and all-cause morbidity and mortality is statistically strong yet mechanistically unresolved. By connecting clinical observation with a theoretical base, we developed a working hypothesis that variation in capacity for oxygen metabolism is the central mechanistic determinant between disease and health (aerobic hypothesis). As an unbiased test, we show that two-way artificial selective breeding of rats for low and high intrinsic endurance exercise capacity also produces rats that differ for numerous disease risks, including the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular complications, premature aging, and reduced longevity. This contrasting animal model system may prove to be translationally superior relative to more widely used simplistic models for understanding geriatric biology and medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. FOXO3 variants are beneficial for longevity in Southern Chinese living in the Red River Basin: A case-control study and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Zheng, Chenguang; Qian, Yu; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, KeYan; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zheng; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box class O (FOXO) transcription factors play a crucial role in longevity across species. Several polymorphisms in FOXO3 were previously reported to be associated with human longevity. However, only one Chinese replication study has been performed so far. To verify the role of FOXO3 in southern Chinese in the Red River Basin, a community-based case-control study was conducted, and seven polymorphisms were genotyped in 1336 participants, followed by a meta-analysis of eight case-contr...

  10. Genes, Demography, and Life Span: The Contribution of Demographic Data in Genetic Studies on Aging and Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, AI; De Benedictis, G; Vaupel, JW

    1999-01-01

    In population studies on aging, the data on genetic markers are often collected for individuals from different age groups. The purpose of such studies is to identify, by comparison of the frequencies of selected genotypes, “longevity” or “frailty” genes in the oldest and in younger groups...... of individuals. To address questions about more-complicated aspects of genetic influence on longevity, additional information must be used. In this article, we show that the use of demographic information, together with data on genetic markers, allows us to calculate hazard rates, relative risks, and survival...... functions for respective genes or genotypes. New methods of combining genetic and demographic information are discussed. These methods are tested on simulated data and then are applied to the analysis of data on genetic markers for two haplogroups of human mtDNA. The approaches suggested in this article...

  11. Does having children extend life span? A genealogical study of parity and longevity in the Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Patrick F; Pollin, Toni I; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Sorkin, John D; Agarwala, Richa; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Streeten, Elizabeth A; King, Terri M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2006-02-01

    The relationship between parity and life span is uncertain, with evidence of both positive and negative relationships being reported previously. We evaluated this issue by using genealogical data from an Old Order Amish community in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, a population characterized by large nuclear families, homogeneous lifestyle, and extensive genealogical records. The analysis was restricted to the set of 2,015 individuals who had children, were born between 1749 and 1912, and survived until at least age 50 years. Pedigree structures and birth and death dates were extracted from Amish genealogies, and the relationship between parity and longevity was examined using a variance component framework. Life span of fathers increased in linear fashion with increasing number of children (0.23 years per additional child; p =.01), while life span of mothers increased linearly up to 14 children (0.32 years per additional child; p =.004) but decreased with each additional child beyond 14 (p =.0004). Among women, but not men, a later age at last birth was associated with longer life span (p =.001). Adjusting for age at last birth obliterated the correlation between maternal life span and number of children, except among mothers with ultrahigh (>14 children) parity. We conclude that high parity among men and later menopause among women may be markers for increased life span. Understanding the biological and/or social factors mediating these relationships may provide insights into mechanisms underlying successful aging.

  12. The longevity of gerontologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J T

    1975-05-01

    The forces of mortality are the prime determinants of longevity. Longevity is a basic consideration of gerontology and includes the life expectancy of the species, the average expectancy of survival at birth, and the average of lifespan. In the history of the study of old age, for which the modern period began about 1930, there are no reports of the average lifespan for the students of aging. A survey revealed that the average lifespan of 28 special groups (15,000 individuals) was 68 years; this included an average of 68.01 years for 394 gerontologists during the same eras. These figures are comparable because the attainment of a particular status in a profession or vocation is evidence of survival to maturity. Comparison could not be made with data for the general population whose vital statistics begin at birth. The average duration of life for men whose work in part or in whole prior to the 20th century was in gerontology falls midway between the high level of 77 years for classical Greek authors and the low level of 51 years for revolutionary statesmen, and exactly between the levels of life duration for eunuchs and physical and medical scientists.

  13. Exercise and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Gayda, Mathieu; Lepers, Romuald; Sosner, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Aging is a natural and complex physiological process influenced by many factors, some of which are modifiable. As the number of older individuals continues to increase, it is important to develop interventions that can be easily implemented and contribute to "successful aging". In addition to a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being, the benefits of regular exercise on mortality, and the prevention and control of chronic disease affecting both life expectancy and quality of life are well established. We summarize the benefits of regular exercise on longevity, present the current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms, and outline the main recommendations. Exercise can partially reverse the effects of the aging process on physiological functions and preserve functional reserve in the elderly. Numerous studies have shown that maintaining a minimum quantity and quality of exercise decreases the risk of death, prevents the development of certain cancers, lowers the risk of osteoporosis and increases longevity. Training programs should include exercises aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, as well as flexibility and balance. Though the benefits of physical activity appear to be directly linked to the notion of training volume and intensity, further research is required in the elderly, in order to develop more precise recommendations, bearing in mind that the main aim is to foster long-term adherence to physical activity in this growing population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Column study of enhanced Cr(VI) removal and longevity by coupled abiotic and biotic processes using Fe0 and mixed anaerobic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Jiawei; Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Fe(0) and mixed anaerobic culture were integrated in one column to investigate the coupled abiotic and biotic effects on hexa-valent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal and column longevity with an abiotic Fe(0) column in the control experiments. According to the breakthrough study, a slower...

  15. Short-term Outcomes Following Concussion in the NFL: A Study of Player Longevity, Performance, and Financial Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sergio M; Sokunbi, Olumide F; Haeberle, Heather S; Schickendantz, Mark S; Mont, Michael A; Figler, Richard A; Ramkumar, Prem N

    2017-11-01

    A short-term protocol for evaluation of National Football League (NFL) athletes incurring concussion has yet to be fully defined and framed in the context of the short-term potential team and career longevity, financial risk, and performance. To compare the short-term career outcomes for NFL players with concussions by analyzing the effect of concussions on (1) franchise release rate, (2) career length, (3) salary, and (4) performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NFL player transaction records and publicly available injury reports from August 2005 to January 2016 were analyzed. All players sustaining documented concussions were evaluated for a change to inactive or DNP ("did not participate") status. A case-control design compared franchise release rates and remaining NFL career span. Career length was analyzed via survival analysis. Salary and performance differences were analyzed with publicly available contract data and a performance-scoring algorithm based on position/player level. Of the 5894 eligible NFL players over the 11-year period, 307 sustained publicly reported concussions resulting in the DNP injury protocol. Analysis of the probability of remaining in the league demonstrated a statistically significantly shorter career length for the concussion group at 3 and 5 years after concussion. The year-over-year change in contract value for the concussion group resulted in a mean overall salary reduction of $300,000 ± $1,300,000 per year (interquartile range, -$723,000 to $450,000 per year). The performance score reduction for all offensive scoring players sustaining concussions was statistically significant. This retrospective study demonstrated that NFL players who sustain a concussion face a higher overall franchise release rate and shorter career span. Players who sustained concussions may incur significant salary reductions and perform worse after concussion. Short-term reductions in longevity, performance, and salary after concussion exist and

  16. Effects of up to 15 years of recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement on bone metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD): the Leiden Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M; Claessen, Kim M J A; Hamdy, Neveen A T; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adulthood may be associated with a decreased bone mineral density (BMD), a decreased bone mineral content (BMC) and an increased fracture risk. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement induces a progressive increase in BMD for up to 5-7 years of treatment. Data on longer follow-up are, however, scarce. Two hundred and thirty-adult GHD patients (mean age 47·1 years, 52·6% female), of whom 88% patients had adult-onset (AO) GHD, receiving rhGH replacement for ≥5 years were included in the study. Most patients had multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Bone turnover markers, BMC and BMD and T-scores at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were evaluated at baseline, and after 5, 10 and 15 years of rhGH replacement. In addition, clinical fracture incidence was assessed. Mean lumbar spine BMD, lumbar spine BMC and T-scores gradually increased during the first 10 years of rhGH replacement and remained stable thereafter. Largest effects of rhGH supplementation were found in men. In the small subset of patients using bisphosphonates, use of bisphosphonates did not impact additional beneficial effects in the long term. Low baseline BMD positively affected the change in BMD and BMC over time, but there was a negative effect of high GH dose at 1 year on the change in BMD and BMC over time. Clinical fracture incidence during long-term rhGH replacement was 20.1/1000 py. Fifteen years of rhGH replacement in GHD adults resulted in a sustained increase in BMD values at the lumbar spine, particularly in men, and stabilization of BMD values at the femoral neck. Clinical fracture incidence was suggested not to be increased during long-term rhGH replacement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The effect of drinking water quality on the health and longevity of people-A case study in Mayang, Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Yuan, F.

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water is an important source for trace elements intake into human body. Thus, the drinking water quality has a great impact on people’s health and longevity. This study aims to study the relationship between drinking water quality and human health and longevity. A longevity county Mayang in Hunan province, China was chosen as the study area. The drinking water and hair of local centenarians were collected and analyzed the chemical composition. The drinking water is weak alkaline and rich in the essential trace elements. The daily intakes of Ca, Cu, Fe, Se, Sr from drinking water for residents in Mayang were much higher than the national average daily intake from beverage and water. There was a positive correlation between Ni and Pb in drinking water and Ni and Pb in hair. There were significant correlations between Cu, K in drinking water and Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in the hair at the 0.01 level. The concentrations of Mg, Sr, Se in drinking water showed extremely significant positive relation with two centenarian index 100/80% and 100/90% correlation. Essential trace elements in drinking water can be an important factor for local health and longevity.

  18. Three measures of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth......This article examines the trend over time in the measures of "typical" longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  19. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  20. Effects of dietary fish oil on serum lipids and VLDL kinetics in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Mensink, R.P.; Hof, H.B. van 't; Offermans, R.F.G.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Studying the effects of dietary fish oil on VLDL metabolism in humans is subject to both large intra- and interindividual variability. In the present study we therefore used hyperlipidentic apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice, which have impaired chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VDL)

  1. Influence of the factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas L; Dahl, Mortens; Nordestgaard, Borge G

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial.......The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial....

  2. Modulating aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic collec....... The goal of research on ageing is not to increase human longevity regardless of the consequences, but to increase active longevity free from disability and functional dependence......Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic...... collection of data describing age-related changes in organisms, organs, tissues, cells and macromolecules, biogerontologists are now in a position to construct general principles of ageing and explore various possibilities of intervention using rational approaches. While not giving serious consideration...

  3. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7280 - Factor V Leiden DNA mutation detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factor V Leiden DNA mutation detection systems....7280 Factor V Leiden DNA mutation detection systems. (a) Identification. Factor V Leiden deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation detection systems are devices that consist of different reagents and...

  5. Factor V G1691A (Leiden is a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawhida Y. Abdel Ghaffar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Budd-Chiari syndrome is a multifactorial disease in which several prothrombotic disorders may predispose patients to the development of thrombosis at this uncommon location (hepatic veins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of inherited thrombophilia in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients.Materials and Methods: The study included 47 Budd-Chiari syndrome patients (20 children and 27 adults. Genotyping of Factor V G1691A (Leiden, prothrombin G20210A (PT, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were performed using real-time PCR and fluorescence melting curve detection analysis.Results: Factor V Leiden was observed in 29 patients (61.7%. It is the only factor that caused Budd-Chiari syndrome in 18 of the patients and in 5 of the patients with inferior vena cava involvement. Myeloproliferative disease was noted in 12 (25.5% patients, antiphospholipid syndrome in 5 (10.6%, and Behcet’s disease in 3 (6.4%. Interestingly, 3 of the children with Budd-Chiari syndrome had lipid storage disease.Conclusion: Factor V Leiden was a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients, which may have been related to the high frequency of this mutation in the study region. Factor V Leiden was also a strong thrombophilic factor and the leading cause of inferior vena cava thrombosis in these patients. Lipid storage disease should be included as a risk factor for Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  6. Meta-analysis of factor V Leiden and ischemic stroke in young adults: the importance of case ascertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2010-08-01

    The factor V Leiden mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Whether it is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, however, is uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies of ischemic stroke in adults 50 years of age and younger published before June 2009. Across all studies, factor V Leiden was detected in 154 of 2045 cases (7.5%) and 217 of 5307 controls (4.1%), yielding a fixed-effect odds ratio of 2.00 (95% CI, 1.59-2.51). However, further analyses revealed substantial heterogeneity among these studies (P=0.005 for Q-test of heterogeneity). Hypothesizing that this heterogeneity could be related to differences among studies in case selection criteria, we stratified the meta-analysis into studies for which case samples were enriched or not enriched to include cases having an increased likelihood of prothrombotic genetic involvement ("selected" ischemic stroke studies, n=9) and those that recruited cases from consecutive neurology referrals or hospitalizations ("unselected" ischemic stroke studies, n=8). Among the 9 "selected" ischemic stroke studies, factor V Leiden was more strongly associated with stroke (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.98-3.75), whereas among the 8 "unselected" ischemic stroke studies, the association between factor V Leiden and stroke was substantially weaker (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.998-1.95). This difference was found to be statistically significant (P=0.003 for Woolf test for heterogeneity). We conclude that factor V Leiden is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, particularly in patient populations in which there is an increased clinical suspicion of prothrombotic state.

  7. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B B

    1988-12-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  8. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  9. Impact of social inequalities at birth on the longevity of children born 1914-1916: A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Todd

    Full Text Available Testing whether familial socioeconomic status (SES in childhood is a predictor of mortality has rarely been done on historical cohorts.The birth certificates of 4,805 individuals born 1914-1916 in 16 districts of the Paris region were retrieved. The handwritten information provided the occupation of parents, the legitimacy status, life events (e.g. marriage, divorce, and the precise date of death when after 1945 (i.e. age 31 years (y in the cohort. We used the median age at death (MAD as a global measure of mortality, then studied separately survival to and after 31 y. Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE, Generalized Additive Models (GAMs and mixed effect Cox models were used.MAD showed large variations according to paternal occupation. The lowest MAD in both sexes was that of workers' children: it was 56.3 y (95% CI: [48.6-62.7] in men and 67.4 y (95% CI: [60.8-72.7] in women, respectively (95% CI: 13.4 y [5.7-21.3] and 12.3 y (95% CI: [4.0-19.2] below the highest MAD attained. MAD experienced by illegitimate children was 18.9 y (95% CI: [13.3-32.3] shorter than of legitimate children. The multivariate analysis revealed that in both sexes survival to age 31 y was predicted independently by legitimacy and paternal occupation. Paternal occupation was found significantly associated with mortality after age 31 y in females only: accordingly difference in life expectancy at age 31 y was 4.4 y (95% CI: [1.2-7.6] between upper class and workers' daughters.Paternal occupation and legitimacy status were strong predictors of offspring longevity in this one-century historical cohort born during World War One.

  10. Impact of social inequalities at birth on the longevity of children born 1914-1916: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicolas; Le Fur, Sophie; Bougnères, Pierre; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Testing whether familial socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is a predictor of mortality has rarely been done on historical cohorts. The birth certificates of 4,805 individuals born 1914-1916 in 16 districts of the Paris region were retrieved. The handwritten information provided the occupation of parents, the legitimacy status, life events (e.g. marriage, divorce), and the precise date of death when after 1945 (i.e. age 31 years (y) in the cohort). We used the median age at death (MAD) as a global measure of mortality, then studied separately survival to and after 31 y. Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE), Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) and mixed effect Cox models were used. MAD showed large variations according to paternal occupation. The lowest MAD in both sexes was that of workers' children: it was 56.3 y (95% CI: [48.6-62.7]) in men and 67.4 y (95% CI: [60.8-72.7]) in women, respectively (95% CI: 13.4 y [5.7-21.3]) and 12.3 y (95% CI: [4.0-19.2]) below the highest MAD attained. MAD experienced by illegitimate children was 18.9 y (95% CI: [13.3-32.3]) shorter than of legitimate children. The multivariate analysis revealed that in both sexes survival to age 31 y was predicted independently by legitimacy and paternal occupation. Paternal occupation was found significantly associated with mortality after age 31 y in females only: accordingly difference in life expectancy at age 31 y was 4.4 y (95% CI: [1.2-7.6]) between upper class and workers' daughters. Paternal occupation and legitimacy status were strong predictors of offspring longevity in this one-century historical cohort born during World War One.

  11. Aging, longevity and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2011-01-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under......, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress...... on Aging, Longevity and Health....

  12. Is APOE ε3 a favourable factor for the longevity: an association study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... ents lived for more than 90 years of age were excluded from this study. .... frequent in elderly individuals and their offspring than in controls, and that this was .... Norris C. et al. 2007 A comprehensive view of sex-specific issues.

  13. Genetics of healthy aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2013-12-01

    Longevity and healthy aging are among the most complex phenotypes studied to date. The heritability of age at death in adulthood is approximately 25 %. Studies of exceptionally long-lived individuals show that heritability is greatest at the oldest ages. Linkage studies of exceptionally long-lived families now support a longevity locus on chromosome 3; other putative longevity loci differ between studies. Candidate gene studies have identified variants at APOE and FOXO3A associated with longevity; other genes show inconsistent results. Genome-wide association scans (GWAS) of centenarians vs. younger controls reveal only APOE as achieving genome-wide significance (GWS); however, analyses of combinations of SNPs or genes represented among associations that do not reach GWS have identified pathways and signatures that converge upon genes and biological processes related to aging. The impact of these SNPs, which may exert joint effects, may be obscured by gene-environment interactions or inter-ethnic differences. GWAS and whole genome sequencing data both show that the risk alleles defined by GWAS of common complex diseases are, perhaps surprisingly, found in long-lived individuals, who may tolerate them by means of protective genetic factors. Such protective factors may 'buffer' the effects of specific risk alleles. Rare alleles are also likely to contribute to healthy aging and longevity. Epigenetics is quickly emerging as a critical aspect of aging and longevity. Centenarians delay age-related methylation changes, and they can pass this methylation preservation ability on to their offspring. Non-genetic factors, particularly lifestyle, clearly affect the development of age-related diseases and affect health and lifespan in the general population. To fully understand the desirable phenotypes of healthy aging and longevity, it will be necessary to examine whole genome data from large numbers of healthy long-lived individuals to look simultaneously at both common and

  14. Note sur les Buprestides du Museum de Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thery, A.

    1935-01-01

    M. le Dr. H. C. Blöte, entomologiste du Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie à Leiden (Hollande) m'a confié l'étude de matériaux indéterminés appartenant aux collections de cet établissement, parmi ceux-ci j'ai trouvé quelques espèces nouvelles dont je donne ci-dessous la description. Les types de

  15. Jewish Medical Students and Graduates at the Universities of Padua and Leiden: 1617–1740

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Collins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Jewish medical graduates at the University of Padua qualified in the fifteenth century. Indeed, Padua was the only medical school in Europe for most of the medieval period where Jewish students could study freely. Though Jewish students came to Padua from many parts of Europe the main geographical sources of its Jewish students were the Venetian lands. However, the virtual Padua monopoly on Jewish medical education came to an end during the seventeenth century as the reputation of the Dutch medical school in Leiden grew. For aspiring medieval Jewish physicians Padua was, for around three hundred years, the first, simplest, and usually the only choice.

  16. Bioeconomic evaluation of sow longevity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Southey, B R; Knox, R V; Connor, J F; Lowe, J F; Roskamp, B J

    2003-12-01

    Sow production indicators, including litter size, litter weight, and the length of time that sows remained in the herd (sow longevity), were used to characterize sow performance and profitability. Sow longevity and production records from 148,568 sows in 32 commercial herds from Central Illinois from January 1995 to May 2001 were analyzed using survival and repeatability models, respectively. The factors studied included sow genetics (32 genetic lines), with eight major lines present in multiple herds, and the combination of herd and year of entry in the herd. The largest difference in longevity between the major genetic lines was approximately one parity. There were differences (P present value per sow (present value of future cash flows and the present value of the sow) was used to evaluate the effect of sow longevity and production traits on economic returns. Assuming a zero discount rate per parity, genetic lines with longer herd life resulted in greater profit than genetic lines with shorter herd life. This difference was reduced with increasing discount rates and was reversed with high discount rates and low net income per litter. These results suggest that the magnitude of the economic improvement attained through the use of sow genetic lines with longer longevity depends on the economic context under which the evaluation is made.

  17. The genetic component of human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mette Sørensen; De Rango, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    In human longevity studies, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified a large number of genetic variants with small effects, yet not easily replicable in different populations. New insights may come from the combined analysis of different SNPs, especially when grouped by metabolic...... pathway. We applied this approach to study the joint effect on longevity of SNPs belonging to three candidate pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), DNA repair and pro/antioxidant. We analysed data from 1,058 tagging SNPs in 140 genes, collected in 1825 subjects (1......, was further found influencing longitudinal survival in nonagenarian females (p = .026). Results here presented highlight the validity of SNP-SNP interactions analyses for investigating the genetics of human longevity, confirming previously identified markers but also pointing to novel genes as central nodes...

  18. Heritability of and mortality prediction with a longevity phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Jason L; Minster, Ryan L; Barmada, M Michael

    2014-01-01

    Longevity-associated genes may modulate risk for age-related diseases and survival. The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) may be a subphenotype of longevity, which can be constructed in many studies for genetic analysis. We investigated the HAI's association with survival in the Cardiovascular Health Stu...... and heritability in the Long Life Family Study....

  19. Human longevity and variation in GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling, DNA damage signaling and repair and pro/antioxidant pathway genes: cross sectional and longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Mette; Dato, Serena; Tan, Qihua; Thinggaard, Mikael; Kleindorp, Rabea; Beekman, Marian; Jacobsen, Rune; Suchiman, H Eka D; de Craen, Anton J M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Schreiber, Stefan; Stevnsner, Tinna; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Slagboom, P Eline; Nebel, Almut; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt; Christiansen, Lene

    2012-05-01

    Here we explore association with human longevity of common genetic variation in three major candidate pathways: GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling, DNA damage signaling and repair and pro/antioxidants by investigating 1273 tagging SNPs in 148 genes composing these pathways. In a case-control study of 1089 oldest-old (age 92-93) and 736 middle-aged Danes we found 1 pro/antioxidant SNP (rs1002149 (GSR)), 5 GH/IGF-1/INS SNPs (rs1207362 (KL), rs2267723 (GHRHR), rs3842755 (INS), rs572169 (GHSR), rs9456497 (IGF2R)) and 5 DNA repair SNPs (rs11571461 (RAD52), rs13251813 (WRN), rs1805329 (RAD23B), rs2953983 (POLB), rs3211994 (NTLH1)) to be associated with longevity after correction for multiple testing. In a longitudinal study with 11 years of follow-up on survival in the oldest-old Danes we found 2 pro/antioxidant SNPs (rs10047589 (TNXRD1), rs207444 (XDH)), 1 GH/IGF-1/INS SNP (rs26802 (GHRL)) and 3 DNA repair SNPs (rs13320360 (MLH1), rs2509049 (H2AFX) and rs705649 (XRCC5)) to be associated with mortality in late life after correction for multiple testing. When examining the 11 SNPs from the case-control study in the longitudinal data, rs3842755 (INS), rs13251813 (WRN) and rs3211994 (NTHL1) demonstrated the same directions of effect (ppolymorphisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han ...

  1. Cancer and Longevity--Is There a Trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Pedersen, Jacob K; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B

    2012-01-01

    Animal models and a few human studies have suggested a complex interaction between cancer risk and longevity indicating a trade-off where low cancer risk is associated with accelerating aging phenotypes and, vice versa, that longevity potential comes with the cost of increased cancer risk...

  2. Die Leiden des jungen Werthers: Den unge Werthers lidelser

    OpenAIRE

    Wibe, Henriette Nøddebo; Mathiassen, Jonas Bundgaard; Villadsen, Line Møgelvang; Aeppli, Jon Marius Brogaard; Hvidtfeldt, Sidi Sami Idrissi; Jakobsen, Mathias Simonsen

    2013-01-01

    This project investigate the philosophical influence of Jean-Jaques Rousseau’s Discours sur I’origine et les fondemens de I’inégalité parmi les hommes on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Die Leiden des jungen Werthers. The concepts of the natural and conscious man that are set forth in the second Discours are compared to Werthers dualistic selfhood and the influence this has on the understanding of the narrative of Werther. Furthermore the project assesses the extent to which the revised 1787 ver...

  3. Plasma and liver lipidomics response to an intervention of rimonabant in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Hu

    Full Text Available Lipids are known to play crucial roles in the development of life-style related risk factors such as obesity, dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension and diabetes. The first selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant, an anorectic anti-obesity drug, was frequently used in conjunction with diet and exercise for patients with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2 with associated risk factors such as type II diabetes and dyslipidaemia in the past. Less is known about the impact of this drug on the regulation of lipid metabolism in plasma and liver in the early stage of obesity.We designed a four-week parallel controlled intervention on apolipoprotein E3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein (ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice with mild overweight and hypercholesterolemia. A liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometric approach was employed to investigate plasma and liver lipid responses to the rimonabant intervention. Rimonabant was found to induce a significant body weight loss (9.4%, p<0.05 and a significant plasma total cholesterol reduction (24%, p<0.05. Six plasma and three liver lipids in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice were detected to most significantly respond to rimonabant treatment. Distinct lipid patterns between the mice were observed for both plasma and liver samples in rimonabant treatment vs. non-treated controls. This study successfully applied, for the first time, systems biology based lipidomics approaches to evaluate treatment effects of rimonabant in the early stage of obesity.The effects of rimonabant on lipid metabolism and body weight reduction in the early stage obesity were shown to be moderate in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mice on high-fat diet.

  4. Enhancement by factor V Leiden mutation of risk of deep-vein thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives containing a third-generation progestagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemenkamp, K. W.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Helmerhorst, F. M.; Büller, H. R.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Recent concern about the safety of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) with third-generation progestagens prompted an examination of data from a population-based case-control study (Leiden Thrombophilia Study). We compared the risk of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) during use of the newest OCs,

  5. Clashes of discourses: Humanists and Calvinists in seventeenth-century academic Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2016-01-01

    Using Michel Foucault's concept of discursive change and Stephen Greenblatt's ideas about social poetics and self-fashioning, 'Clashes of Discourses: Calvinists and Humanists in Seventeenth-Century Academic Leiden' explains developments in the literary works of leading Leiden humanists against the

  6. Scavenger receptor deficiency leads to more complex atherosclerotic lesions in APOE3Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winther, M.P.J. de; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Dijk, K.W. van; Gorp, P.J.J. van; Suzuki, H.; Kodama, T.; Frants, R.R.; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E3Leiden is a dysfunctional apo E variant associated with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia in humans. Transgenic mice carrying the APOE3Leiden gene develop hyperlipidemia and are highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. An early step in atherosclerosis is foam cell

  7. Weldenkende burgers en Oranjeliefhebbers. Patriotten en Prinsgezinden in Leiden, 1775-1795

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the conflicts between Patriots and Orangists in Leiden, which will be assessed with the help of the theory of collective action by the American sociologist Charles Tilly. The urban economy in Leiden was dominated by a textile industry that concentrated on exports and was very

  8. HDL-cholesterol and physical performance: results from the ageing and longevity study in the sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Russo, Andrea; Cesari, Matteo; Pahor, Marco; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2007-09-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol has been hypothesised to be a reliable marker of frailty and poor prognosis among the oldest elderly. We evaluate the relationship of HDL-cholesterol with measures of physical performance, muscle strength, and functional status in older persons aged 80years or older. Data are from baseline evaluation of the ageing and longevity study in the Sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE study) (n = 364). Physical performance was assessed using the physical performance battery score [short physical performance battery (SPPB)], which is based on three-timed tests: 4-m walking-speed, balance, and chair-stand tests. Muscle strength was measured by hand-grip strength. Analyses of covariance were performed to evaluate the relationship of different HDL-cholesterol levels with physical function. In the unadjusted analyses, physical function (as measured by the 4-m walking-speed, theSPPB score, the basic and instrumental activities of daily living scales scores), but not hand-grip strength, improved significantly as HDL-cholesterol tertiles increased. After adjustment for potential confounders, which included age, gender, living alone, alcohol abuse, physical activity, congestive heart failure, diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, albumin, urea, C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol, the association of HDL-cholesterol tertiles with the 4-m walking-speed and the SPPB score was still consistent. The present study suggests that among very old subjects living in the community the higher levels of HDL-cholesterol are associated with better functional performance.

  9. Liebe ohne Leiden? Love without Sorrows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Müller

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Sammelband werden unterschiedliche Zugänge und Herangehensweisen zum Thema ‚Liebe im Kapitalismus‘ nebeneinandergestellt. Die Idee der Liebe innerhalb der ‚Logik des Kapitalismus‘ soll genauer untersucht werden. Dafür werden Erfahrungen und Reflexionen aus Kunst, Literatur, Philosophie und Psychoanalyse sowie aus Datenerhebungen und Interviews herangezogen und analysiert. Die Beiträge gruppieren sich zumeist allerdings stärker um das Themenfeld der Liebe. Veränderungen der kapitalistischen Logik nachzuzeichnen, wird in den Ausführungen kaum angestrebt.The volume at hand compares varying approaches to the theme of ‘love under capitalism.’ The intention is to more closely examine the idea of love within the ‘logic of capitalism.’ In order to achieve this, experiences and reflections from art, literature, philosophy, and psychoanalysis as well as data collections and interviews are drawn out and analyzed. The contributions, however, are mostly grouped around the thematic of love. Most of the studies barely begin to sketch the changes of capitalist logic.

  10. Prothrombin 20210 G: a mutation and Factor V Leiden mutation in women with a history of severe preeclampsia and (H)ELLP syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pampus, M. G.; Wolf, H.; Koopman, M. M.; van den Ende, A.; Buller, H. R.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    The 20210 G-A prothrombin gene variant and the Factor V Leiden mutation are mutations associated with venous thrombotic risk. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of these specific mutations in women with a history of preeclampsia or hemolysis elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet

  11. The genetic component of human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mette Sørensen; De Rango, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    In human longevity studies, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified a large number of genetic variants with small effects, yet not easily replicable in different populations. New insights may come from the combined analysis of different SNPs, especially when grouped by metabolic ...

  12. Molecular markers as a tool for breeding for flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Segregation of flower longevity in two lily populations was studied and the genetic linkage of morphological markers and RAPD markers with loci involved in flower longevity was investigated. A large variation in flower longevity was found within the two populations tested at individual plant level.

  13. Effects of chronic kombucha ingestion on open-field behaviors, longevity, appetitive behaviors, and organs in c57-bl/6 mice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A M; Burleson, L E; Holmes, A K; Geist, C R

    2000-09-01

    Kombucha is a lightly fermented tea beverage popularly consumed as a self-prescribed folk-remedy for numerous ailments. Kombucha is claimed to enhance cognition, aid weight loss, and prolong life. This pilot study reports longevity, general health, and open-field exploratory behavioral outcomes from a 3-y longitudinal study of 64 C57-BL/6 mice (males and females), half of which chronically drank kombucha, and all of which experienced natural mortality. Compared by MANOVA to controls, mice that drank kombucha showed greater vertical exploration (P = 0.001) and a sex-interactive effect in novel object manipulation (P = 0.049). MANOVA of kombucha-drinking mice compared to controls detected differences in appetitive behaviors (food consumption, P kombucha lived longer than controls (P kombucha.

  14. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life and Midlife Conditions, and Familial Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival

  15. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z; Takizawa, A; Peter, J; Jørgensen, N; Szecsi, P B; Meijers, J C M; Weiler, H; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Repping, S; Middeldorp, S

    2017-11-01

    Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox. We determined FVL status in two cohorts (Dutch, n = 627; Danish, n = 854) of consecutively included men without known causes for spermatogenic failure, and performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of these two cohorts together with one previously published (Dutch, n = 908) cohort. We explored possible biological underpinnings for the relation between sperm count and FVL, by use of a FVL-mouse model and investigations of genetic linkage. Participants were male partners of subfertile couples (two Dutch cohorts) and young men from the general population (Danish cohort): FVL carrier rate was 4.0%, 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. There were differences in smoking, abstinence time and age between the cohorts. We corrected for these in the primary analysis, which consisted of a mixed linear effects model, also incorporating unobjectified population differences. In public haplotype data from subjects of European descent, we explored linkage disequilibrium of FVL with all known single nucleotide polymorphisms in a 1.5 MB region around the F5 gene with an R2 cutoff of 0.8. We sequenced exons of four candidate genes hypothesized to be linked to FVL in a subgroup of FVL carriers with extreme sperm count values. The animal studies consisted of never mated 15-18-week-old C57BL/J6 mice heterozygous and homozygous for FVL and wild-type mice. We compared spermatogenesis parameters (normalized internal genitalia weights, epididymis sperm content and sperm motility) between FVL and wild-type mice. Human FVL carriers have a higher total sperm

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MECHANISM OF REGIONAL LONGEVITY IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated study on environment of typical China’s longevity areas was conducted by using comprehensive methods of health geography. It was found that Chinese longevity areas mainly located in the south China and clustered in Sichuan-Chongqing, Central plain and Southeast region, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta; in which drinking water was of weakly alkaline, Se, Fe, K content was moderate, higher content of Ca, Co, Mn, and low Cr, Cd, Pb; the concentration of trace elements benefit for health in soils and food staples was higher; hair of centenarians had higher Li, Mg, Mn, Ca, Zn content, lower concentration in Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni; healthy centenarians were also benefited from a favorable social environment factors, such as physiological health, psychological state, light meals and higher proportion of vegetables. The study was the first time to reveal quantitatively the relationship between longevity and the natural and human environment, and provided a scientific basis for the promotion of development of China’s longevity area, to achieve the construction of ecological civilization

  17. Lifestyle factors of people with exceptional longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpathak, Swapnil N; Liu, Yingheng; Ben-David, Orit; Reddy, Saritha; Atzmon, Gil; Crandall, Jill; Barzilai, Nir

    2011-08-01

    To assess lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits in men and women with exceptional longevity. Retrospective cohort study. A cohort of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with exceptional longevity defined as survival and living independently at age 95 and older. Four hundred seventy-seven individuals (mean 97.3 ± 2.8, range 95-109; 74.6% women) and a subset of participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I (n = 3,164) representing the same birth cohort as a comparison group. A trained interviewer administrated study questionnaires to collect information on lifestyle factors and collected data on anthropometry. People with exceptional longevity had similar mean body mass index (men, 25.4 ± 2.8 kg/m² vs 25.6 ± 4.0 kg/m² , P=.63; women, 25.0 ± 3.5 kg/m² vs 24.9 ± 5.4 kg/m² ; P = .90) and a similar proportion of daily alcohol consumption (men, 23.9 vs 22.4, P = .77; women, 12.1 vs 11.3, P = .80), of regular physical activity (men: 43.1 vs 57.2; P = .07; women: 47.0 vs 44.1, P = .76), and of a low-calorie diet (men: 20.8 vs 21.1, P=.32; women: 27.3 vs 27.1, P=.14) as the NHANES I population. People with exceptional longevity are not distinct in terms of lifestyle factors from the general population, suggesting that people with exceptional longevity may interact with environmental factors differently than others. This requires further investigation. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Depression and physical function: results from the aging and longevity study in the Sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Cesari, Matteo; Onder, Graziano; Zamboni, Valentina; Barillaro, Christian; Pahor, Marco; Bernabei, Roberto; Landi, Francesco

    2007-09-01

    Depression in older persons represents a major issue because of its relevant prevalence and the associated higher risk of adverse health-related events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of depressive symptoms with measures of physical performance, muscle strength, and functional status. Data are from baseline evaluation of the ilSIRENTE Study (n = 364). Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery and the 4-meter walking test. Muscle strength was measured by hand-grip strength. Functional performance was assessed using Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Depression was defined by analyzing the different depressive manifestations included in the Minimum Data Set for Home Care Form: verbal expression of sad and/or anxious mood and demonstrated signs of mental distress. Analyses of covariance and linear regressions were performed to evaluate the relationship between depression and physical function. Participants with depression showed significantly worse results in all of the physical function tests. Subjects with depression presented significantly lower adjusted mean results for the 4-meter walking test (0.41 m/s; SE, 0.03) and the Short Physical Performance Battery score (5.68; SE, 0.38) compared with those without depression (0.50 m/s; SE, 0.01 and 6.93; SE, 0.21; all P activities of daily living (3.69; SE, 0.25) compared with participants with less than 3 depressive symptoms (2.85; SE, 0.14; P = .005). No significant difference was reported for the hand-grip strength and the Basic Activities of Daily Living scale. In conclusion, physical performance and functional status measures are significantly and negatively influenced by the presence of depression in community-dwelling older persons aged 80 years and older.

  19. Concrete longevity overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.; Morreale, B.

    1991-01-01

    A number of compact host states and unaffiliated states are currently selecting appropriate disposal technology and construction materials for their planned low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Concrete is one of the candidate materials under consideration for the construction of LLW disposal facilities because of its strength, durability, abundant availability, and relatively low cost. The LLW disposal facilities must maintain intruder barrier integrity for up to 500 years, without active maintenance after the first 100 years. The ability of concrete to survive for such a long time as a construction material is a critical issue. This report provides a basic understanding of the composition and workings of concrete as a structural material in LLW disposal facilities and a description of degradation factors and state-of-the-art mitigative measures available to preserve the durability and longevity of concrete. Neither the paper nor the report is intended to be a design guidance document, and neither addresses using cement as a waste solidification agent. 5 refs., 1 tab

  20. When longevity meets vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Rudi G J; Schalkwijk, Frank H

    2014-08-01

    Alarmed by the sustainability of our health and social security systems, longevity has become a great societal challenge. In line with evolutionary logic we see a continuous increase of average life expectancy and maximal lifespan. Striving for a healthy old age, however, is an infelicitous expression as for human subjects the ageing process cannot be ultimately postponed. Not disregarding the huge variation in health trajectories, in old age we will all suffer from frailty and infirmity. As yet efforts of the biomedical arena are almost exclusively focused on stalling the ageing process and preventing dysfunction. Too little effort is spend on how to inspire and coach the great majority of people who still feel relatively well notwithstanding the presence of multiple age-related disorders. There is a strong rationale to separate the quest to live in good health for longer from actively and effectively negotiating the challenge of functional decline in old age. In particular, we emphasise a focus on adjusting the environment in order to correct the gene-environment mismatch that contributes to ill health. An additional strategy is to empower people to set ambitions and to realise appropriate goals, in spite of infirmity. Striving for vitality presents a striking opportunity to achieve subjective feelings of life satisfaction when ageing.

  1. Association of liver enzymes and computed tomography markers of liver steatosis with familial longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Sala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Familial longevity is marked by enhanced peripheral but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. The liver has a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore we hypothesized that the extent of liver steatosis would be similar between offspring of long-lived siblings and control subjects. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the extent of liver steatosis in non-diabetic offspring of long-lived siblings and age-matched controls by measuring liver enzymes in plasma and liver fat by computed tomography (CT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured nonfasting alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and Υ-glutamyl transferase (GGT in 1625 subjects (736 men, mean age 59.1 years from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising offspring of long-lived siblings and partners thereof. In a random subgroup, fasting serum samples (n = 230 were evaluated and CT was performed (n = 268 for assessment of liver-spleen (L/S ratio and the prevalence of moderate-to-severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Linear mixed model analysis was performed adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, use of alcohol and hepatotoxic medication, and correlation of sibling relationship. RESULTS: Offspring of long-lived siblings had higher nonfasting ALT levels as compared to control subjects (24.3 mmol/L versus 23.2 mmol/L, p = 0.03, while AST and GGT levels were similar between the two groups. All fasting liver enzyme levels were similar between the two groups. CT L/S ratio and prevalence of moderate-to-severe NAFLD was similar between groups (1.12 vs 1.14, p = 0.25 and 8% versus 8%, p = 0.91, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Except for nonfasting levels of ALT, which were slightly higher in the offspring of long-lived siblings compared to controls, no differences were found between groups in the extent of liver steatosis, as assessed with liver biochemical tests and CT. Thus, our data indicate that the extent of liver

  2. Association of liver enzymes and computed tomography markers of liver steatosis with familial longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Michiel; Kroft, Lucia J M; Röell, Boudewijn; van der Grond, Jeroen; Slagboom, P Eline; Mooijaart, Simon P; de Roos, Albert; van Heemst, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Familial longevity is marked by enhanced peripheral but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. The liver has a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore we hypothesized that the extent of liver steatosis would be similar between offspring of long-lived siblings and control subjects. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the extent of liver steatosis in non-diabetic offspring of long-lived siblings and age-matched controls by measuring liver enzymes in plasma and liver fat by computed tomography (CT). We measured nonfasting alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Υ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in 1625 subjects (736 men, mean age 59.1 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising offspring of long-lived siblings and partners thereof. In a random subgroup, fasting serum samples (n = 230) were evaluated and CT was performed (n = 268) for assessment of liver-spleen (L/S) ratio and the prevalence of moderate-to-severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Linear mixed model analysis was performed adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, use of alcohol and hepatotoxic medication, and correlation of sibling relationship. Offspring of long-lived siblings had higher nonfasting ALT levels as compared to control subjects (24.3 mmol/L versus 23.2 mmol/L, p = 0.03), while AST and GGT levels were similar between the two groups. All fasting liver enzyme levels were similar between the two groups. CT L/S ratio and prevalence of moderate-to-severe NAFLD was similar between groups (1.12 vs 1.14, p = 0.25 and 8% versus 8%, p = 0.91, respectively). Except for nonfasting levels of ALT, which were slightly higher in the offspring of long-lived siblings compared to controls, no differences were found between groups in the extent of liver steatosis, as assessed with liver biochemical tests and CT. Thus, our data indicate that the extent of liver steatosis is similar between offspring of long-lived siblings and

  3. Indigenous Peoples: Local Impacts of International Rights. Valedictory Lecture Leiden University

    OpenAIRE

    Persoon, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Valedictory lecture given by Prof.dr. Gerard A. Persoon Professor of Environment and Development and in particular Indigenous Peoples in Southeast Asia at Leiden University on Monday, October 23 2017Museum Volkenkunde / Ethnographic Museum

  4. Gewenst beleid tegen ongewenst gedrag : onveiligheid binnen de organisatie kan leiden tot ziekteverzuim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, E.J. van; Nuyens, M.

    2005-01-01

    Indimidatie en agressie en geweld op het werk kunnen leiden tot gevoelens van onveiligheid en ziekteverzuim. Bepalingen in de Arbowet hebben onvoldoende effect op beleidsvorming ter voorkoming van ongewenste omgangsvormen. Goede praktijkvoorbeelden van beleid tegen ongewenst gedrag kunnen

  5. Indigenous Peoples : Local Impacts of International Rights. Valedictory Lecture Leiden University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Valedictory lecture given by Prof.dr. Gerard A. Persoon Professor of Environment and Development and in particular Indigenous Peoples in Southeast Asia at Leiden University on Monday, October 23 2017Museum Volkenkunde / Ethnographic Museum

  6. Assortative Mating by Ethnicity in Longevous Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sebastiani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS, and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS. In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations. These findings in studies of human longevity suggest that spouses marrying into longevous families may not be powerful controls for genetic association studies, and that there may be important ethnicity-specific, genetic influences and/or gene–environment interactions that influence extreme survival in old generations. In addition, the decreasing trend of genetic similarity of more recent generations might have ramifications for the incidence of homozygous rare variants necessary for survival to the most extreme ages.

  7. Assortative Mating by Ethnicity in Longevous Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Gurinovich, Anastasia; Bae, Harold; Andersen, Stacy L; Perls, Thomas T

    2017-01-01

    Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS). In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations. These findings in studies of human longevity suggest that spouses marrying into longevous families may not be powerful controls for genetic association studies, and that there may be important ethnicity-specific, genetic influences and/or gene-environment interactions that influence extreme survival in old generations. In addition, the decreasing trend of genetic similarity of more recent generations might have ramifications for the incidence of homozygous rare variants necessary for survival to the most extreme ages.

  8. Effect of interleukin-6 polymorphisms on human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Bona, Danilo; Vasto, Sonya; Capurso, Cristiano

    2009-01-01

    -6 levels. However, discordant results have been obtained. To explore the relationship between this polymorphism and longevity, we analyzed individual data on long-living subjects and controls from eight case-control studies conducted in Europeans, using meta-analysis. There was no significant...... two times less likely to reach extreme old age compared with subjects carrying CC or CG genotypes. These findings were not replicated in other European groups suggesting a possible interaction between genetics, sex and environment in reaching longevity....

  9. Longevity of dental amalgam in comparison to composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windisch, Friederike

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Caries is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. For (direct restaurations of carious lesions, tooth-coloured composite materials are increasingly used. The compulsory health insurance pays for composite fillings in front teeth; in posterior teeth, patients have to bear the extra cost. Scientific background: Amalgam is an alloy of mercury and other metals and has been used in dentistry for more than one hundred and fifty years. Composites consist of a resin matrix and chemically bonded fillers. They have been used for about fifty years in front teeth. Amalgam has a long longevity; the further development of composites has also shown improvements regarding their longevity. Research questions: This HTA-report aims to evaluate the longevity (failure rate, median survival time (MST, median age of direct amalgam fillings in comparison to direct composite fillings in permanent teeth from a medical and economical perspective and discusses the ethical, legal and social aspects of using these filling materials. Methods: The systematic literature search yielded a total of 1,149 abstracts. After a two-step selection process based on defined criteria 25 publications remained to be assessed. Results: The medical studies report a longer longevity for amalgam fillings than for composite fillings. However, the results of these studies show a large heterogeneity. No publication on the costs or the cost-effectiveness of amalgam and composite fillings exists for Germany. The economic analyses (NL, SWE, GB report higher costs for composite fillings when longevity is assumed equal (for an observation period of five years or longer for amalgam compared to composite fillings. These higher costs are due to the higher complexity of placing composite fillings. Discussion: Due to different study designs and insufficient documentation of study details, a comparison of different studies on longevity of direct amalgam and composite

  10. DAF-16/FOXO Transcription Factor in Aging and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with age-related diseases and an increase susceptibility of cancer. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underlie aging and longevity would contribute to implications for preventing and treating the age-dependent diseases or cancers. Multiple signaling pathways such as the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, TOR signaling, AMPK pathway, JNK pathway and germline signaling have been found to be involved in aging and longevity. And DAF-16/FOXO, as a key transcription factor, could integrate different signals from these pathways to modulate aging, and longevity via shuttling from cytoplasm to nucleus. Hence, understanding how DAF-16/FOXO functions will be pivotal to illustrate the processes of aging and longevity. Here, we summarized how DAF-16/FOXO receives signals from these pathways to affect aging and longevity. We also briefly discussed the transcriptional regulation and posttranslational modifications of DAF-16/FOXO, its co-factors as well as its potential downstream targets participating in lifespan according to the published data in C. elegans and in mammals, and in most cases, we may focus on the studies in C. elegans which has been considered to be a very good animal model for longevity research.

  11. The Statistics of Health and Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    Increases in human longevity have made it critical to distinguish healthy longevity from longevity without regard to health. We present a new method for calculating the statistics of healthy longevity which extends, in several directions, current calculations of health expectancy (HE) and disabil......Increases in human longevity have made it critical to distinguish healthy longevity from longevity without regard to health. We present a new method for calculating the statistics of healthy longevity which extends, in several directions, current calculations of health expectancy (HE......) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), from data on prevalence of health conditions. Current methods focus on binary conditions (e.g., disabled or not disabled) or on categorical classifications (e.g. in good, poor, or very bad health) and report only expectations. Our method, based on Markov chain theory...

  12. Genetic parameters for longevity in Holteins cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Junqueira Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The milk yield has been the most selected trait in dairy cattle breeding programs. However various studies have shown a decline in adaptive and longevity traits in herds that are under selection for improving production, especially in taurine breeds, as the Holstein, who was highly selected for milk production. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for first lactation 305-day milk yield (Y305 and for longevity traits and to verify the association among them, in high production Holstein cows. The data sets used were from Agrindus Farm, with calving occurring between 1989 and 2005. The traits analyzed were Y305, productive life (PL, calculated as the length of lactation days from the first day of lactation until the culling, and age at culling (AC. Variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood, applying multi-trait animal model. Heritability estimates for Y305, PL and AC were, respectively, 0.35, 0.07 and 0.10. Heritability estimates for PL and AC suggest small genetic variability to get genetic gains by direct selection for these traits, because they are influenced by decisions of voluntary and involuntary culling, being largely affected by factors related to the environment. It is difficult to measure these traits because it is necessary to evaluate culling of animals and causes of culling. The magnitude of the heritability estimate for Y305 evidences the existence of reasonable additive genetic variability, which allows efficiency by selecting for this trait. The genetic correlations between Y305 and PL was 0.02 and between Y305 and AC was 0.01, suggesting small genetic association between Y305 and longevity traits. In this case, the selection for Y305 is viable due to high heritability estimate and the favorable and almost null genetic correlation between Y305 and the longevity traits. Some studies have used to analyze longevity traits as threshold and since this trait has great economic importance, it

  13. AB126. Association between FOX03A gene polymorphisms and human longevity: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shanchao; Bao, Jiming; Song, Xianlu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOX03A gene, encoding the forkhead box 03 transcription factor, and human or specifically male longevity. However, the associations of specific FOX03A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOX03A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% c...

  14. Association between FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and human longevity: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Ji-Ming; Song, Xian-Lu; Hong, Ying-Qia; Zhu, Hai-Li; Li, Cui; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Shan-Chao; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOXO3A gene, encoding the forkhead box O3 transcription factor, and human or specifically male longevity. However, the associations of specific FOXO3A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval...

  15. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  16. Apolipoprotein E and familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schupf, Nicole; Barral, Sandra; Perls, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Exceptional longevity is associated with substantial heritability. The ε4 allele in apolipoprotein E and the linked G allele in rs2075650 of TOMM40 have been associated with increased mortality and the ε2 allele with decreased mortality, although inconsistently. Offspring from long-lived families...

  17. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  18. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work status...

  19. World-Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca. Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science. Series: Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science, Text and Studies 36, Leiden (Brill) / London (Furqan Foundation), 1999. (Awarded the world prize for

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, Benno van

    2010-01-01

    This beautifully executed book with numerous colour photographs deals with two fascinating metal instruments that surfaced in 1989 and 1995 (a third copy was identified too late to be included in the study). Both consist of a world-map centered around Mecca with a rule that enables one to read off the qibla (sacred direction for Muslim prayer) of more than one hundred localities engraved on the map as well as their distance from Mecca. The metalwork is clearly Safavid and can be dated to appr...

  20. Column study of enhanced Cr(VI) removal and longevity by coupled abiotic and biotic processes using Fe0 and mixed anaerobic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiawei; Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinhua; Jiang, Gangbiao; Gu, Jingjing; Liang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    In this study, Fe 0 and mixed anaerobic culture were integrated in one column to investigate the coupled abiotic and biotic effects on hexa-valent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal and column longevity with an abiotic Fe 0 column in the control experiments. According to the breakthrough study, a slower Cr(VI) breakthrough rate of 0.19 cm/PV was observed in the biotic Fe 0 column whereas the value in the abiotic Fe 0 column was 0.30 cm/PV, resulting in 64% longer life-span and 62% higher Cr(VI) removal capacity in the biotic Fe 0 column than the abiotic one. The solid phase characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that this enhancement was attributed to the higher consumption of iron and greater production of diverse reactive minerals (e.g., green rust, magnetite and lepidocrocite) induced by the synergistic interaction of Fe 0 and anaerobic culture, providing more reactive sites for Cr(VI) adsorption, reduction and co-precipitation. Furthermore, the decreasing breakthrough rates and growing iron corrosion along the biotic Fe 0 column demonstrated an inhomogeneous distribution of reactive zones in the column and its latter 3/5 section was considered to be the most reactive area for Cr(VI) removal. These results indicate that the inoculation of microorganisms in Fe 0 -based permeable reactive barriers will enable this technology a higher removal capacity and longer life-span for the remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. No associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiographic features in knee osteoarthritis patients prior to Total Knee Arthroplasty: A cross-sectional analysis of the Longitudinal Leiden Orthopaedics Outcomes of Osteo-Arthritis study (LOAS) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtenberg, Claudia S; Meesters, Jorit J L; Kroon, Herman M; Verdegaal, Suzan H M; Tilbury, Claire; Dekker, Joost; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van der Esch, Martin

    2017-08-01

    To describe the prevalence of self-reported knee joint instability in patients with pre-surgery knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to explore the associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiological features. A cross-sectional study including patients scheduled for primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). Self-reported knee instability was examined by questionnaire. Radiological features consisted of osteophyte formation and joint space narrowing (JSN), both scored on a 0 to three scale. Scores >1 are defined as substantial JSN or osteophyte formation. Regression analyses were provided to identify associations of radiological features with self-reported knee joint instability. Two hundred and sixty-five patients (mean age 69years and 170 females) were included. Knee instability was reported by 192 patients (72%). Substantial osteophyte formation was present in 78 patients (41%) reporting and 33 patients (46%) not reporting knee joint instability. Substantial JSN was present in 137 (71%) and 53 patients (73%), respectively. Self-reported knee instability was not associated with JSN (relative to score 0, odds ratios (95% CI) of score 1, 2 and 3 were 0.87 (0.30-2.54), 0.98 (0.38-2.52), 0.68 (0.25-1.86), respectively) or osteophyte formation (relative to score 0, odds ratios (95% CI) of score 1, 2 and 3 were 0.77 (0.36-1.64), 0.69 (0.23-1.45), 0.89 (0.16-4.93), respectively). Stratified analysis for pain, age and BMI showed no associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiological features. Self-reported knee joint instability is not associated with JSN or osteophyte formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early and extraordinary peaks in physical performance come with a longevity cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Vijver, Paul L; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory postulates a trade-off between development and maintenance. This trade-off is observed when comparing life histories of different animal species. In humans, however, it is debated if variation in longevity is explained by differences in developmental traits. Observational...... studies found a trade-off between early and high fecundity and longevity in women. Development encompasses more than fecundity and also concerns growth and physical performance. Here, we show a life history trade-off between early and above average physical performance and longevity in male Olympic...... suffered a 4.7-year longevity cost. (95% CI 2.1-7.5 years, p=0.001). This is the first time a life history trade-off between physical performance and longevity has been found in humans. This finding deepens our understanding of early developmental influences on the variation of longevity in humans....

  3. Factor V Leiden does not have a role in cryptogenic ischemic stroke among Iranian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Meraj; Amini, Gilda; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Different risk factors have been suggested for ischemic stroke in young adults. In a group of these patients despite of extensive diagnostic work-up, the primary cause remains unknown. Coagulation tendency is accounted as a possible cause in these patients. Previous studies on factor V Leiden (FVL) as the main cause of inherited thrombophilia for clarifying the role of FVL in stroke have resulted in controversial findings. The current study investigates the role of this factor in ischemic stroke among Iranians. This case-control study was performed between September 2007 and December 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The case group comprised of 22 patients of which 15 were males and 7 were females with age range of ≤50 years, diagnosed as ischemic stroke without classic risk factors and the control group consisted of 54 healthy young adults. After filling consent form, venous blood samples were obtained and sent to the laboratory for genetic examination. No FVL mutation was found in the case group. There was one carrier of the mutation as heterozygous in the control group (relative frequency = 1.85%). Based on our study, FVL might not be considered as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in Iranian individuals who are not suffering from other risk factors of ischemic stroke.

  4. Intentional Weight Loss and Longevity in Overweight Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Køster-Rasmussen

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2 patients with type 2 diabetes, and tested the hypothesis that therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor prolongs life and reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease in these patients.This is a 19 year cohort study of patients in the intervention arm of the randomized clinical trial Diabetes Care in General Practice. Weight and prospective intentions for weight loss were monitored every third month for six years in 761 consecutive patients (≥40 years newly diagnosed with diabetes in general practices throughout Denmark in 1989-92. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between weight change during the monitoring period (year 0 to 6 and the outcomes during the succeeding 13 years (year 6 to 19 in 444 patients who were overweight at diagnosis and alive at the end of the monitoring period (year 6. The analysis was adjusted for age, sex, education, BMI at diagnosis, change in smoking, change in physical activity, change in medication, and the Charlson comorbidity 6-year score. Outcomes were from national registers.Overall, weight loss regardless of intention was an independent risk factor for increased all-cause mortality (P<0.01. The adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular morbidity attributable to an intentional weight loss of 1 kg/year was 1.20 (95%CI 0.97-1.50, P = 0.10, 1.26 (0.93-1.72, P = 0.14, and 1.06 (0.79-1.42, P = 0.71, respectively. Limiting the analysis to include only those patients who survived the first 2 years after the monitoring period did not substantially change these estimates. A non-linear spline estimate indicated a V-like association between weight change and all-cause mortality, suggesting the best prognosis for those who maintained their weight.In this population-based cohort of overweight patients with

  5. Prevalentie van chronische-vermoeidheidsyndroom in 4 huisartspraktijken in de regio Leiden [Prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome in four general practices in Leyden region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, R.G.J.A.; Waal, M.W.M. de; Opmeer, C.; Petri, H.; Springer, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Doel. De prevalentie vaststellen van chronische-vermoeidheidsyndroom (CVS) in de huisartspraktijk. Opzet. Descriptief. Plaats. Huisartspraktijken in Leiden en omstreken. Methode. Het geanonimiseerde geautomatiseerde databestand van het Registratie Netwerk Universitaire Huisartspraktijken Leiden en

  6. Sustainability Cards: Design for Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie; Ræbild, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Product longevity is considered widely as a relevant strategic approach, amongst many, within the field of sustainability. Yet, how to design for increased product lifetime may not be so obvious for practitioners. The complexity of the surrounding issues can constitute a barrier for designers...... for designers and other stakeholders in the design process. The paper is based on a developmental project carried out in the Autumn 2017, within a larger research and collaboration project between raw fur manufacturer Kopenhagen Fur and Design School Kolding investigating sustainability perspectives. The paper...... describes the development of a deck of sustainability cards aiming for product longevity and presents the final deck. Furthermore, the paper contributes with insights on how designers may apply design cards in the design process and how this practice can further sustainable considerations and strategies...

  7. Indy mutations and Drosophila longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka eRogina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decreased expression of the fly and worm Indy genes extends longevity. The fly Indy gene and its mammalian homolog are transporters of Krebs cycle intermediates, with the highest rate of uptake for citrate. Cytosolic citrate has a role in energy regulation by affecting fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis. Fly, worm and mice Indy gene homologues are predominantly expressed in places important for intermediary metabolism. Consequently, decreased expression of Indy in fly and worm, and the removal of mIndy in mice exhibit changes associated with calorie restriction, such as decreased levels of lipids, changes in carbohydrate metabolism and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we report that several Indy alleles in a diverse array of genetic backgrounds confer increased longevity.

  8. Arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid-supplemented diet in early life reduces body weight gain, plasma lipids, and adiposity in later life in ApoE*3 Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.Y.; Harthoorn, L.F.; Verschuren, L.; Schoemaker, M.H.; Jouni, Z.E.; Tol, E.A.F. van; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.

    2012-01-01

    Scope: This study addresses whether early life arachidonic acid (ARA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/DHA (Omacor) supplementation affects body weight gain, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue quantity and quality in later life in ApoE*3Leiden-transgenic

  9. Personality predictors of longevity: activity, emotional stability, and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T

    2008-07-01

    To examine the association between personality traits and longevity. Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age = 17 to 98 years, mean = 50 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables. In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored 1 standard deviation (SD) above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average 2 to 3 years longer than those scoring 1 SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every 1-SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness. In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active.

  10. Personality predictors of longevity: Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between personality traits and longevity. Methods Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age: 17 to 98 years, M = 50) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables. Results In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored one SD above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average two to three years longer than those scoring one SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every one SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness. Conclusions In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active. PMID:18596250

  11. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Lisa R; de Vries, Margreet R; de Jong, Rob C M; Katiraei, Saeed; Pronk, Amanda; Quax, Paul H A; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko

    2018-02-03

    The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden ( E3L ) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  12. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Hoving

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1% diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  13. Non-leisure time physical activity is an independent predictor of longevity for a Taiwanese elderly population: an eight-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jin-Shang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA and non-leisure time physical activity (NLTPA on mortality among the elderly in Taiwan. Methods This is a prospective observational cohort study. We analyzed the mortality data from a cohort of 876 non-institutionalized community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or over, who were recruited by stratified clustering random sampling from Tainan city and participated in the 1996 Elderly Medication Survey. Information about activities and other variables were collected by structured interviews at baseline in the participants' home. The Cox proportional hazards model and crude death rate were applied to estimate mortality risk. Results Among the 876 participants, 312 died during the follow-up period (1996-2004. In the unadjusted Cox regression model, subjects aged over 75, having difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living (ADLs, a BMI less than 18.5, a history of diabetes mellitus or stroke, without LTPA or being inactive in NLTPA, were found to have a higher risk of eight-year mortality. With the adjustment for age, gender, education level, habitual smoking and drinking, living status, BMI and medical history, the mortality was found to be higher among the sedentary subjects, either defined by lack of LTPA or NLTPA, with the hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97-1.66 and 1.45 (95% CI = 1.07-1.97, respectively. Furthermore, when both LTPA and NLTPA were put into the model simultaneously, NLTPA (HR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.03-1.91 but not LTPA (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.92-1.59 significantly predicted mortality during eight-year follow-up. In addition, subjects who were actively engaged in NLTPA had a lower mortality risk especially in subjects without performing LTPA. Conclusions NLTPA is an independent predictor of longevity among older people in Taiwan. A physically active lifestyle, especially engaged in

  14. Non-leisure time physical activity is an independent predictor of longevity for a Taiwanese elderly population: an eight-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pei; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2011-06-03

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and non-leisure time physical activity (NLTPA) on mortality among the elderly in Taiwan. This is a prospective observational cohort study. We analyzed the mortality data from a cohort of 876 non-institutionalized community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or over, who were recruited by stratified clustering random sampling from Tainan city and participated in the 1996 Elderly Medication Survey. Information about activities and other variables were collected by structured interviews at baseline in the participants' home. The Cox proportional hazards model and crude death rate were applied to estimate mortality risk. Among the 876 participants, 312 died during the follow-up period (1996-2004). In the unadjusted Cox regression model, subjects aged over 75, having difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living (ADLs), a BMI less than 18.5, a history of diabetes mellitus or stroke, without LTPA or being inactive in NLTPA, were found to have a higher risk of eight-year mortality. With the adjustment for age, gender, education level, habitual smoking and drinking, living status, BMI and medical history, the mortality was found to be higher among the sedentary subjects, either defined by lack of LTPA or NLTPA, with the hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97-1.66) and 1.45 (95% CI = 1.07-1.97), respectively. Furthermore, when both LTPA and NLTPA were put into the model simultaneously, NLTPA (HR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.03-1.91) but not LTPA (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.92-1.59) significantly predicted mortality during eight-year follow-up. In addition, subjects who were actively engaged in NLTPA had a lower mortality risk especially in subjects without performing LTPA. NLTPA is an independent predictor of longevity among older people in Taiwan. A physically active lifestyle, especially engaged in NLTPA, is associated with lower mortality risk in the elderly

  15. Positive emotion word use and longevity in famous deceased psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D; Cohen, Sheldon

    2012-05-01

    This study examined whether specific types of positive and negative emotional words used in the autobiographies of well-known deceased psychologists were associated with longevity. For each of the 88 psychologists, the percent of emotional words used in writing was calculated and categorized by valence (positive or negative) and arousal (activated [e.g., lively, anxious] or not activated [e.g., calm, drowsy]) based on existing emotion scales and models of emotion categorization. After controlling for sex, year of publication, health (based on disclosed illness in autobiography), native language, and year of birth, the use of more activated positive emotional words (e.g., lively, vigorous, attentive, humorous) was associated with increased longevity. Negative terms (e.g., angry, afraid, drowsy, sluggish) and unactivated positive terms (e.g., peaceful, calm) were not related to longevity. The association of activated positive emotions with longevity was also independent of words indicative of social integration, optimism, and the other affect/activation categories. Results indicate that in writing, not every type of emotion correlates with longevity and that there may be value to considering different categories beyond emotional valence in health relevant outcomes.

  16. Comparison of biochemical data, blood pressure and physical activity between longevity and non-longevity districts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ichiro; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Morita, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Masami; Uno, Yoshihiro; Kajita, Kazuo; Ikeda, Takahide; Fujioka, Kei; Matsubara, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    There is controversy about longevity-associated factors, including environmental and genetic factors. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that multiple risk factors decrease life-span, but there has not been a definitive report regarding the association of risk factors with longevity. The ultimate aim of the present study was to prevent the overwhelming increase in life-style-related diseases by evaluating this association in 2 districts in Japan. Plasma glucose levels, hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, lipids, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, adiponectin and physical activity were examined in 133 subjects (M/F 47/86, 67+/-1 years) in Kokufu, a longevity district (mean life span: 80.4 years according to 2000 Japanese census) and 69 subjects (M/F 29/40, 62+/-1 years) in Miyama, a non-longevity district (mean life span 77.4 years, 2000 census). There were significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs, p longevity, and those of HDL-C and TG, as well as glucose tolerance, might be associated with adiponectin levels.

  17. Exploring the genetics of longevity in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, John; Post, Wendy; Pollin, Toni I; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R

    2005-02-01

    Lifespan is a complex phenotype determined by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This makes the identification of variants in genes that influence longevity challenging. We believe that the Old Order Amish (OOA) of Lancaster, Pennsylvania is an excellent population for studying the genetics of longevity. They are a closed population derived from a limited number of founders. They have large families and maintain extensive genealogic records dating to the 1700 s. They eschew modern technology; their lifestyle is little changed over the last 250 years. Homogeneity of environment and lifestyle factors across time and across the OOA population minimizes the influence that environmental factors have in determining the differences in lifespan between individuals. We hypothesize that this reduction in environmental variability will make it easier to identify the genetic factors that influence lifespan. In this article, we describe our strategy for identifying variants in genes that influence longevity in the Amish and present the results of our studies to date.

  18. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The unique radioresistance of burros has resulted in a large-animal life-span study that began in 1951. During the course of radiation exposures, some animals at three low exposures to gamma photons survived (10, 10, and 9 exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively). In 1953, 20 burros exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/wk increments were added to this life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons were added. Six burros exposed to 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a ''Godiva-type'' reactor were added in 1959 along with 22 controls. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures (320-545 R), there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia). Afterward, however, all deaths have been attributable to common equine diseases; none from malignancies. Today, 20 of the original 112 burros in these studies survive (13 irradiated and 7 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma and gamma-only irradiated burros show significant differences. Median survival time: controls, 28 yrs; gamma irradiation, 26 yrs; neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 yrs. A Weibull probability analysis predicts maximum life-span to be 42 yrs

  19. Intellectual maturity and longevity : Late-blooming composers and writers live longer than child prodigies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, Maurits P. J.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van Bodegom, David

    Life history theory links human physical and sexual development to longevity. However, there have been no studies on the association of intellectual development with longevity. This observational study investigates the relationship between the onset of intellectual maturity and lifespan through the

  20. [Effect of physical activity on longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Mateusz M; Krupienicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-25

    Multiple population studies have reported a positive correlation between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and longer lifespan. It has been generally accepted that it occurs due to PA having a direct effect on longevity. However, this idea is negated by experiments on animal models and an observational study on a twin cohort published recently by Karvinen et al. This unique study includes a pairwise comparison of monozygotic twins discordant for PA, therefore eliminating any influence of genetic factors on both mortality and tendency to take up exercise. The intriguing lack of differences in lifespan in such pairs implies that PA is not an important life prolonging factor. This discovery casts doubt on the validity of PA recommendations found in numerous medical guidelines. Nevertheless, the mentioned results apply only to the plain PA - longevity relation. They do not consider health benefits of PA, for which solid evidence exists. In particular, PA clearly reduces the risk of obesity-related diseases. This may indirectly yet significantly affect the length and quality of life, even if the direct relationship between PA and lifespan will be proven false in further research. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  1. Understanding the natural and social factors behind regional longevity in Guangxi, China—Is centenarian ratio a good enough indicator for assessing the longevity level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Despite a number of longevity indicators having been used in previous longevity studies, few studies have critically evaluated whether these indicators are suitable. In addition, an increasing number of studies have attempted to determine the influence of socio-economic and natural factors on regional longevity, but only certain factors were considered. The present study bridges this gap by determining the relationship between the seven longevity indicators and selecting 24 natural and socio-economic indicators in the 91 selected counties and districts in Guangxi, China. The seven longevity indicators here refer to Centenarian ratio, Longevity index, Longevity level, Aging tendency, 80+ ratio, 90+ ratio and 95+ ratio. Natural indicators in this study mainly refer to climatic ones. Socio-economic indicators can be categorized into those related to economic, education, local infrastructure, and health care facilities. These data were mainly drawn from the Meteorological Data Sharing Service System and Guangxi's sixth population census. Stepwise regression analysis has been used as the primary research method to determine the relationship between the longevity indicators and the natural, social, and economic indicators. The results show that the climate factors regarding atmospheric pressure, humidity, and rainfall are the most significant contributors to the longevity of the 60- to 90-year-old elderly in Guangxi, while the difference of mean annual temperature could have negative impacts. Also, the natural and socioeconomic factors that impact the extremely old population (those over 95 years old) in Guangxi are still not clear. This study reveals that the longevity index and longevity level are useful supplementary indexes to the centenarian ratio for assessing the regional longevity as they could help reflect the regional longevity regarding the proportion of young-old and old-old population and not just limit to those over 100 years old. The elderly (those from 60

  2. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Increased sperm count may account for high population frequency of factor V Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, D. M.; Repping, S.; Büller, H. R.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Middeldorp, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Factor V Leiden (FVL) increases the risk of venous thrombosis and pregnancy loss in carriers. Nevertheless, this relatively old mutation is prevalent in Caucasion populations, which could be explained by positive selection pressure. Men with FVL have previously been found to have higher

  4. CETP does not affect triglyceride production or clearance in APOE*3-Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Voshol, P.J.; Hoek, A.M. van den; Princen, H.M.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2010-01-01

    The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the bidirectional transfer of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides (TG) between HDL and (V)LDL. By shifting cholesterol in plasma from HDL to (V)LDL in exchange for VLDL-TG, CETP aggravates atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden

  5. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a “special” visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation

  6. History and highlights of the teratological collection in the Museum Anatomicum of Leiden University, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Lucas L.; Boek, Peter L. J.; van Dam, Andries J.; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2018-01-01

    The anatomical collection of the Anatomical Museum of Leiden University Medical Center (historically referred to as Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavae) houses and maintains more than 13,000 unique anatomical, pathological and zoological specimens, and include the oldest teratological

  7. Orthopterological notes I : On the Lesini of the Leiden Museum (Tettigoniidae, Copiphorinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.

    1942-01-01

    When rearranging a part of the collections of Orthoptera in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden I found a number of specimens belonging to this tribus, which by former authors is considered as a separate subfamily with the name Eumegalodontinae (Kirby, 1906, p. 289; Caudell, 1927, p.

  8. Verzeichnis der Echiuridae, Sipunculidae und Priapulidae des Naturhistorichen Reichsmuseums in Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1930-01-01

    Die vorliegende Mitteilung ist das Ergebnis der Bearbeitung zumeist älteren Materiales an Echiuriden, Sipunculiden und Priapuliden des Naturhistorischen Reichs-Museums in Leiden. Obwohl die Sammlung nach Anzahl der Exemplare nicht umfangreich ist, zeigt sie einen überraschenden Reichtum an Formen

  9. Subacute Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with polycythemia vera and factor V Leiden mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simsek, S; Verheesen, RV; Haagsma, EB; Lourens, J

    We describe a 48-year-old caucasian woman with a subacute Budd-Chiari syndrome attributed to the presence of polycythaemia vera, heterozygosity for the factor V Leiden mutation and the use of an oral contraceptive pill. Two diagnostic pitfalls were encountered. First, on CT scanning of the abdomen

  10. Die Scyphomedusen-Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Reichsmuseums in Leiden : II. Stauromedusae, Coronatae, Semaeostomeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1919-01-01

    ALLGEMEINER TEIL. Die Bearbeitung der umfangreichen Scyphomedusen-Sammlung im Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden ist nunmehr so weit vorgeschritten, dass sich eine Übersicht über dieselbe gewinnen lässt. In einer früheren Mitteilung wurde über die Cubomedusen berichtet, eine weitere zur

  11. Mediterranean Way of Drinking and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Faliva, Milena Anna; Gerbi, Vincenzo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking," that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer.

  12. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The Prevalence of Longevity Among Leading Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Hudson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of brands is embedded in scholarship involving brand processes that evolve over time such as brand equity, loyalty, nostalgia, and lifecycle. It is also an important conceptual element in the emerging topic of brand heritage. This paper offers new insight regarding the prevalence of brand longevity in a variety of industries, based on historical research about 148 leading brands ranked in prior studies by the consulting firm Interbrand. The author finds that a significant proportion (64 brands representing 43% of the total number are aged 100 years or more. The oldest brands are grouped in the food industry, while some of the youngest brands are grouped in the hospitality industry. The author applies the principles of scale and scope from the work of business historian Alfred Chandler to explain the timing of this industry emergence. The advanced age of many leading brands suggests the need for stewardship to preserve and protect the equity that resides in historic brands, and supports the argument that further attention should be directed toward the study of brand heritage effects.

  14. A novel sampling design to explore gene-longevity associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rango, Francesco; Dato, Serena; Bellizzi, Dina

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the genetic contribution to familial similarity in longevity, we set up a novel experimental design where cousin-pairs born from siblings who were concordant or discordant for the longevity trait were analyzed. To check this design, two chromosomal regions already known to encompass...... from concordant and discordant siblings. In addition, we analyzed haplotype transmission from centenarians to offspring, and a statistically significant Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD) was observed for both chromosomal regions in the discordant families (P=0.007 for 6p21.3 and P=0.015 for 11p15.......5). In concordant families, a marginally significant TRD was observed at 6p21.3 only (P=0.06). Although no significant difference emerged between the two groups of cousin-pairs, our study gave new insights on the hindrances to recruiting a suitable sample to obtain significant IBD data on longevity...

  15. Membrane phospholipid composition may contribute to exceptional longevity of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): a comparative study using shotgun lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Todd W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hulbert, A J

    2007-11-01

    Phospholipids containing highly polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly prone to peroxidation and membrane composition may therefore influence longevity. Phospholipid molecules, in particular those containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from the skeletal muscle, heart, liver and liver mitochondria were identified and quantified using mass-spectrometry shotgun lipidomics in two similar-sized rodents that show an approximately 9-fold difference in maximum lifespan. The naked mole rat is the longest-living rodent known with a maximum lifespan of >28 years. Total phospholipid distribution is similar in tissues of both species; DHA is only found in phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylserines (PS), and DHA is relatively more concentrated in PE than PC. Naked mole-rats have fewer molecular species of both PC and PE than do mice. DHA-containing phospholipids represent 27-57% of all phospholipids in mice but only 2-6% in naked mole-rats. Furthermore, while mice have small amounts of di-polyunsaturated PC and PE, these are lacking in naked mole-rats. Vinyl ether-linked phospholipids (plasmalogens) are higher in naked mole-rat tissues than in mice. The lower level of DHA-containing phospholipids suggests a lower susceptibility to peroxidative damage in membranes of naked mole-rats compared to mice. Whereas the high level of plasmalogens might enhance membrane antioxidant protection in naked mole-rats compared to mice. Both characteristics possibly contribute to the exceptional longevity of naked mole-rats and may indicate a special role for peroxisomes in this extended longevity.

  16. The emergence of longevous populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colchero, Fernando; Rau, Roland; Jones, Owen R

    2016-01-01

    The human lifespan has traversed a long evolutionary and historical path, from short-lived primate ancestors to contemporary Japan, Sweden, and other longevity frontrunners. Analyzing this trajectory is crucial for understanding biological and sociocultural processes that determine the span of life....... Here we reveal a fundamental regularity. Two straight lines describe the joint rise of life expectancy and lifespan equality: one for primates and the second one over the full range of human experience from average lifespans as low as 2 y during mortality crises to more than 87 y for Japanese women...... for research on inequality, sociality, and aging....

  17. Power Estimation for Gene-Longevity Association Analysis Using Concordant Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Kruse, Torben A

    2014-01-01

    Statistical power is one of the major concerns in genetic association studies. Related individuals such as twins are valuable samples for genetic studies because of their genetic relatedness. Phenotype similarity in twin pairs provides evidence of genetic control over the phenotype variation...... in a population. The genetic association study on human longevity, a complex trait that is under control of both genetic and environmental factors, has been confronted by the small sample sizes of longevity subjects which limit statistical power. Twin pairs concordant for longevity have increased probability...... an approximate of 2- to 3-fold increase in sample sizes needed for longevity cutoff at age 90 as compared with that at age 95. Overall, our results showed high value of twins in genetic association studies on human longevity....

  18. Non-existence of Steady State Equilibrium in the Neoclassical Growth Model with a Longevity Trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mikkel Nørlem

    of steady state equilibrium when considering the empirically observed trend in longevity. We extend a standard continuous time overlapping generations model by a longevity trend and are thereby able to study the properties of mortality-driven population growth. This turns out to be exceedingly complicated...

  19. Clinical Outcomes Measures for Assessment of Longevity in the Dental Implant Literature : ORONet Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The Oral Rehabilitation Outcomes Network (ORONet) Longevity Working Group undertook a search of the literature from 1995 to 2009 on randomized controlled trials related to longevity of osseointegrated implants. Outcomes measures used in these studies were identified and subjected to the OMERACT

  20. Strong social relationships are associated with decreased longevity in a facultatively social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Williams, Dana M; Lim, Alexandra N; Kroeger, Svenja; Martin, Julien G A

    2018-01-31

    Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together or have more affiliative associates emphasizes the potential importance of social relationships on health and longevity. Previous studies have focused on the impact of social metrics on longevity in obligately social species. However, if sociality indeed has a key role in longevity, we might expect that affiliative relationships should also influence longevity in less social species. We focused on socially flexible yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventer ) and asked whether female longevity covaries with the specific nature of social relationships. We quantified social relationships with social network statistics that were based on affiliative interactions, and then estimated the correlation between longevity and sociality using bivariate models. We found a significant negative phenotypic correlation between affiliative social relationship strength and longevity; marmots with greater degree, closeness and those with a greater negative average shortest path length died at younger ages. We conclude that sociality plays an important role in longevity, but how it does so may depend on whether a species is obligately or facultatively social. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. "Real life" longevity of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Maounis, Themistoklis; Koulouris, Spyridon; Vassilikos, Vassilios

    2017-09-01

    Manufacturers of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) promise a 5- to 9-year projected longevity; however, real-life data indicate otherwise. The aim of the present study was to assess ICD longevity among 685 consecutive patients over the last 20 years. Real-life longevity of ICDs may differ from that stated by the manufacturers. The study included 601 men and 84 women (mean age, 63.1 ± 13.3 years). The underlying disease was coronary (n = 396) or valvular (n = 15) disease, cardiomyopathy (n = 220), or electrical disease (n = 54). The mean ejection fraction was 35%. Devices were implanted for secondary (n = 562) or primary (n = 123) prevention. Single- (n = 292) or dual-chamber (n = 269) or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices (n = 124) were implanted in the abdomen (n = 17) or chest (n = 668). Over 20 years, ICD pulse generator replacements were performed in 238 patients (209 men; age 63.7 ± 13.9 years; ejection fraction, 37.7% ± 14.0%) who had an ICD for secondary (n = 210) or primary (n = 28) prevention. The mean ICD longevity was 58.3 ± 18.7 months. In 20 (8.4%) patients, devices exhibited premature battery depletion within 36 months. Most (94%) patients had none, minor, or modest use of ICD therapy. Longevity was longest for single-chamber devices and shortest for CRT devices. Latest-generation devices replaced over the second decade lasted longer compared with devices replaced during the first decade. When analyzed by manufacturer, Medtronic devices appeared to have longer longevity by 13 to 18 months. ICDs continue to have limited longevity of 4.9 ± 1.6 years, and 8% demonstrate premature battery depletion by 3 years. CRT devices have the shortest longevity (mean, 3.8 years) by 13 to 17 months, compared with other ICD devices. These findings have important implications, particularly in view of the high expense involved with this type of electrical

  2. Parental divorce and adult longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal

    2013-02-01

    Life course research has established associations between adverse childhood events and later life health. We examine the relationship of experiencing parental divorce before the age of 16 and survival across 34 years of adulthood. Analysis of panel data from a USA-based survey of 6,928 adults residing in Alameda County, California in 1965. Cox regression was used to examine associations between parental divorce and longevity. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, and childhood socioeconomic position, respondents who recalled a parental divorce during childhood had increased risk of mortality compared to those with no separation. The association was stronger for premature mortality and deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Divorce in childhood was also associated with lowered adult education, fewer social network ties, more depression, and worse health practices. These factors appeared to explain the association with longevity. Parental divorce in childhood is associated with lowered well-being in adulthood and long-term survival. Early prevention and health promotion efforts may be warranted for children who experience parental divorce or discord as a means of supporting enhanced trajectories of health and well-being.

  3. Ponderosa Pine Forest Restoration Treatment Longevity: Implications of Regeneration on Fire Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade T. Tinkham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of pine forests has become a priority for managers who are beginning to embrace ideas of highly heterogeneous forest structures that potentially encourages high levels of regeneration. This study utilizes stem-mapped stands to assess how simulated regeneration timing and magnitude influence longevity of reduced fire behavior by linking growth and yield model outputs to a crown fire prediction model. Treatment longevity was assessed as return time to within 10% of pre-treatment predicted wind speeds for the onset of passive (Torching and active (Crowning crown fire behavior. Treatment longevity in terms of Torching and Crowning was reduced 5 years for every 550 and 150 seedlings ha−1, respectively. Introducing regeneration as a single pulse further reduced Torching treatment longevity 10 years compared to other regeneration distributions. Crowning treatment longevity increased at higher site indices, where a 6 m increase in site index increased longevity 4.5 year. This result was contrary to expectations that canopy openings after treatments would close faster on higher productivity sites. Additionally, Torching longevity was influenced by the rate of crown recession, were reducing the recession rate decreased longevity in areas with higher site indices. These dependencies highlight a need for research exploring stand development in heterogeneous sites.

  4. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span. PMID:26937346

  5. Thromboembolic events in Fabry disease and the impact of factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Malte; Karabul, Nesrin; Duning, Thomas; Schmitz, Boris; Schelleckes, Michael; Mesters, Rolf; Hense, Hans-Werner; Beck, Michael; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2015-03-10

    Although several reports suggest an increased thromboembolic event rate, especially regarding strokes and TIAs at early age in patients with Fabry disease (FD), the risk for patients with FD to experience these events, the clinical relevance of additional risk factors including the concurrence of factor V Leiden (FVL), and the benefit of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) regarding these events remain unclear. Three hundred four consecutively recruited patients with FD were evaluated for their lifetime occurrence of thromboembolic events such as stroke, TIA, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. The thromboembolic risk was determined in patients with FD and concurrent FVL, and the impact of ERT was assessed. The 304 patients with FD had a median age of 41 years and 53 (17.4%) had experienced at least one thromboembolic event during their lifetime. Among 226 patients with FD screened for FVL, 16 gene carriers were identified (7.1%). The occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients with FD and concurrent FVL was significantly increased compared to those without FVL (hazard ratio = 5.45, 95% confidence interval 2.29-12.99; p risk of thromboembolic events compared to those without ERT (hazard ratio = 0.362, 95% confidence interval 0.132-0.992; p = 0.0422). This observational study confirms that patients with FD have a high risk of clinically relevant thromboembolic events, which could be aggravated by a concurrence of FVL. ERT might be of benefit in preventing vascular events in patients with FD. The latter observation needs confirmation, however, by randomized and controlled clinical trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Happiness and longevity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Rogers, Richard G; Wadsworth, Tim

    2015-11-01

    This is the first study to our knowledge to examine the relationship between happiness and longevity among a nationally representative sample of adults. We use the recently-released General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset and Cox proportional hazards models to reveal that overall happiness is related to longer lives among U.S. adults. Indeed, compared to very happy people, the risk of death over the follow-up period is 6% (95% CI 1.01-1.11) higher among individuals who are pretty happy and 14% (95% CI 1.06-1.22) higher among those who are not happy, net of marital status, socioeconomic status, census division, and religious attendance. This study provides support for happiness as a stand-alone indicator of well-being that should be used more widely in social science and health research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative endocrinology of aging and longevity regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eAllard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hormones regulate growth, development, metabolism, and other complex processes in multicellular animals. For many years it has been suggested that hormones may also influence the rate of the aging process. Aging is a multifactorial process that causes biological systems to break down and cease to function in adult organisms as time passes, eventually leading to death. The exact underlying causes of the aging process remain a topic for debate, and clues that may shed light on these causes are eagerly sought after. In the last two decades, gene mutations that result in delayed aging and extended longevity have been discovered, and many of the affected genes have been components of endocrine signaling pathways. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of endocrine signaling in the regulation of aging and longevity in various animals. We begin by discussing the notion that conserved systems, including endocrine signaling pathways, regulate the aging process. Findings from the major model organisms: worms, flies and rodents, are then outlined. Unique lessons from studies of non-traditional models: bees, salmon and naked mole rats, are also discussed. Finally, we summarize the endocrinology of aging in humans, including changes in hormone levels with age, and the involvement of hormones in aging-related diseases. The most well studied and widely conserved endocrine pathway that affects aging is the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system. Mutations in genes of this pathway increase the lifespan of worms, flies, and mice. Population genetic evidence also suggests this pathway’s involvement in human aging. Other hormones including steroids have been linked to aging only in a subset of the models studied. Because of the value of comparative studies, it is suggested that the aging field could benefit from adoption of additional model organisms.

  8. Therapeutic landscapes and longevity: Wellness tourism in Bama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyuan; Xu, Honggang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the rising demand for healthcare products and concern over environmental pollution, wellness tourism has been booming in China in recent years. The therapeutic landscape theory provides a multi-scale interpretation of wellness tourism to explore how wellness tourists achieve health in healing places. By presenting the results of 83 interviews conducted in Bama, China, this study reveals that the "longevity village" Bama, endorsed by centenarians, provides a retreat that combines natural beauty and a harmonious neighbourhood for wellness tourists. This article argues that although three themes-natural environment, social interaction and symbolic landscape-work together in the healing process of tourists, the symbolic landscape, which is significantly shaped by the longevity culture, plays a dominant role. Longevity in Chinese culture symbolizes the alignment of a strong body, graceful mind, and pleasant habitat. Furthermore, tourism reinforces the importance of symbols and imagination (of a place), the perception of longevity demonstrates the symbolic landscape and thus increases tourists' attachment to the place, and the unusual environment leads to a different therapeutic landscape from that of daily life. Finally, since to date there has been very few works on therapeutic landscapes in China, it is expected that this study will fill the knowledge gap and broaden the scope of application as well as conceptualization of the therapeutic landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Report on the International Workshop “The Golden Horde in a Global Perspective: Imperial Strategies”, Leiden University, May 7–8, 2015 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a report on the international conference organized by the University of Leiden in May 2015. According to its organizers, this conference has become the first Western European symposium dedicated to the study of the long history of the Golden Horde. The conference became a fruitful meeting place of the leading Russian and Tatar historians and archaeologists with their Western colleagues from the Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Hungary, Poland, and Finland. International participants of the Leiden conference discussed the most topical issues of historiography associated with eventful history of the Golden Horde. In particular, the conference participants paid special attention to the study of the administration of the ulus of Jochi that naturally combined governmental models of the Mongol Empire of the Chingizids with local administrative elements. A separate section of the conference was devoted to the analysis of the religious policy of the Golden Horde khans, where special attention was paid to the historiographical debate on the Islamization of the ulus of Jochi. The conference participants also paid considerable attention to the consideration of the material culture of the Golden Horde known both from written sources and, above all, from the materials of archaeological findings. Also, a number of reports of the confe­rence was devoted to foreign and domestic policies of the Golden Horde rulers, at the same time reflecting the central geopolitical role of the ulus of Jochi on the Eurasian continent and the high level of civilization of the Golden Horde. The main achievement of the Leiden conference was a statement on the need of deeper study of the Golden Horde history in order to overcome a number of stereotypes regarding misconceptions of the ulus of Jochi represented as backward and parasitic State formation. The conference participants agreed in general opinion about the necessity of similar

  10. [Physiological aspects of music and longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymnikowa, M

    The article provides an overview of the results of studies on the effect of music on the function of various physiological systems of the organism including the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, also on the effect of Mozart's music and the later mature Baroque music. Particular attention is paid to information on the influence of different kinds of music (classical, jazz and rock), of the nature and of the degree of musical activity (listeners, amateurs and professional performers) on cognitive and behavioral function, on health status, life expectancy and longevity. Structural acoustical attributes of music defining its treatment effect, are described with the comparison of aspects of rock music and of classical music. The article also considers the prospects for using of music in the treatment and prevention of age-associated diseases.

  11. Battery longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mian Bilal; Munir, Muhammad Bilal; Rattan, Rohit; Flanigan, Susan; Adelstein, Evan; Jain, Sandeep; Saba, Samir

    2014-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) deliver high burden ventricular pacing to heart failure patients, which has a significant effect on battery longevity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether battery longevity is comparable for CRT-ICDs from different manufacturers in a contemporary cohort of patients. All the CRT-ICDs implanted at our institution from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were included in this analysis. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected on all patients using the electronic medical record. Detailed device information was collected on all patients from scanned device printouts obtained during routine follow-up. The primary endpoint was device replacement for battery reaching the elective replacement indicator (ERI). A total of 646 patients (age 69 ± 13 years), implanted with CRT-ICDs (Boston Scientific 173, Medtronic 416, and St Jude Medical 57) were included in this analysis. During 2.7 ± 1.5 years follow-up, 113 (17%) devices had reached ERI (Boston scientific 4%, Medtronic 25%, and St Jude Medical 7%, P battery was significantly worse for Medtronic devices compared with devices from other manufacturers (94% for Boston scientific, 67% for Medtronic, and 92% for St Jude Medical, P battery longevity by manufacturer was independent of pacing burden, lead parameters, and burden of ICD therapy. There are significant discrepancies in CRT-ICD battery longevity by manufacturer. These data have important implications on clinical practice and patient outcomes.

  12. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Hoving; Margreet R. de Vries; Rob C. M. de Jong; Saeed Katiraei; Amanda Pronk; Paul H. A. Quax; Vanessa van Harmelen; Ko Willems van Dijk

    2018-01-01

    The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce...

  13. Ein Werther der DDR : Plenzdorfs Neue Leiden des jungen W. im gespaltenen Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Die neuen Leiden des jungen W. wurden »bewußt auf Auslegbarkeit geschrieben« und irritierten die Kritiker durch »die ungeheure Breite der Assoziationsmöglichkeiten«. Durch die vier »strukturtragenden Schichten« oder Informationsebenen des Textes kommt es zu interferierenden Perspektiven: 1. die voranstehenden Dokumente (Zeitungsnotiz, drei Todesanzeigen), 2. »die szenisch-dialogisch objektivierte Erinnerungsperspektive der Eltern und Arbeitskollegen«, 3. die Kommentare Edgars »von jenseits de...

  14. On longevity of I-ball/oscillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukaida, Kyohei [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Takimoto, Masahiro [Theory Center, KEK,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Yamada, Masaki [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2017-03-23

    We study I-balls/oscillons, which are long-lived, quasi-periodic, and spatially localized solutions in real scalar field theories. Contrary to the case of Q-balls, there is no evident conserved charge that stabilizes the localized configuration. Nevertheless, in many classical numerical simulations, it has been shown that they are extremely long-lived. In this paper, we clarify the reason for the longevity, and show how the exponential separation of time scales emerges dynamically. Those solutions are time-periodic with a typical frequency of a mass scale of a scalar field. This observation implies that they can be understood by the effective theory after integrating out relativistic modes. We find that the resulting effective theory has an approximate global U(1) symmetry reflecting an approximate number conservation in the non-relativistic regime. As a result, the profile of those solutions is obtained via the bounce method, just like Q-balls, as long as the breaking of the U(1) symmetry is small enough. We then discuss the decay processes of the I-ball/oscillon by the breaking of the U(1) symmetry, namely the production of relativistic modes via number violating processes. We show that the imaginary part is exponentially suppressed, which explains the extraordinary longevity of I-ball/oscillon. In addition, we find that there are some attractor behaviors during the evolution of I-ball/oscillon that further enhance the lifetime. The validity of our effective theory is confirmed by classical numerical simulations. Our formalism may also be useful to study condensates of ultra light bosonic dark matter, such as fuzzy dark matter, and axion stars, for instance.

  15. Aging, resting pulse rate, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Leibowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resting pulse rate (RPR) and longevity in individuals aged 70 to 90. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) is a prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort born in 1920-21. Home-based comprehensive assessment in 1990, 1998, and 2005. Individuals aged 70 (n = 453), 78 (n = 856), and 85 (n = 1,044), with follow-up to age 90. Comprehensive assessment included average RPR, beta-blocker usage, and physical activity level. Mortality data were collected from the Ministry of Interior from 1990 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) were determined for RPR (continuous variable), adjusting for sex, education, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, kidney disease, anemia, physical activity, body mass index, self-rated health, dementia, beta-blocker use, and an interaction term for RPR by beta-blocker use. Mean RPR was 75.1 ± 9.9 at 70, 74.5 ± 10.9 at 78, and 68.5 ± 10.5 at 85 in women and 74.3 ± 10.7 at 70, 73.1 ± 11.2 at 78, and 65.2 ± 10.5 at 85 in men, with a significant decline from 78 to 85 for both sexes. In participants not taking beta-blockers followed up from 70 to 77, 78 to 84, and 85 to 90, mean RPR was lower in survivors than nonsurvivors for women (75.8 ± 9.2 vs 83.5 ± 10.9, P longevity. It may serve as a simple prognostic marker in the oldest old. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Biology of Healthy Aging and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Juan José; Michan, Shaday

    2016-01-01

    As human life expectancy is prolonged, age-related diseases are thriving. Aging is a complex multifactorial process of molecular and cellular decline that affects tissue function over time, rendering organisms frail and susceptible to disease and death. Over the last decades, a growing body of scientific literature across different biological models, ranging from yeast, worms, flies, and mice to primates, humans and other long-lived animals, has contributed greatly towards identifying conserved biological mechanisms that ward off structural and functional deterioration within living systems. Collectively, these data offer powerful insights into healthy aging and longevity. For example, molecular integrity of the genome, telomere length, epigenetic landscape stability, and protein homeostasis are all features linked to "youthful" states. These molecular hallmarks underlie cellular functions associated with aging like mitochondrial fitness, nutrient sensing, efficient intercellular communication, stem cell renewal, and regenerative capacity in tissues. At present, calorie restriction remains the most robust strategy for extending health and lifespan in most biological models tested. Thus, pathways that mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction by integrating metabolic signals to aging processes have received major attention, such as insulin/insulin growth factor-1, sirtuins, mammalian target of rapamycin, and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Consequently, small-molecule targets of these pathways have emerged in the impetuous search for calorie restriction mimetics, of which resveratrol, metformin, and rapamycin are the most extensively studied. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie age-related deterioration and repair, and how these pathways interconnect, remains a major challenge for uncovering interventions to slow human aging while extending molecular and physiological youthfulness

  17. Exceptional longevity in female Rottweiler dogs is not encumbered by investment in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Suckow, C L; Chiang, E C; Waters, D J

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the potential trade-off between female reproductive investment and longevity in an emerging model of human healthspan, we studied pet dogs to determine whether intensity of reproduction (total number of offspring) encumbered the likelihood of exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, including complete reproductive histories, for a cohort of canine "centenarians"--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than the breed's average life expectancy. Reproductive intensity (number of litters, total number of pups) and tempo of reproductive effort (age at first reproduction, mean interbirth interval, age at last reproduction) in 78 exceptionally long-lived female Rottweilers (>13 years old) were compared to a cohort of 97 female Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death 8.0-10.75 years). We found no evidence that a mother's physiological investment in offspring was associated with disadvantaged longevity. Instead, similar to some studies in women, our data showed an inverted U-shaped trend, suggesting that moderate investment in reproduction may promote longevity. Late reproductive success, a much-studied surrogate of maternal fitness in women, was not a strong predictor of longevity in this canine cohort. Instead, independent of reproductive investment, the duration of lifetime ovary exposure was significantly associated with highly successful aging. Our results from exceptionally long-lived pet dogs provide rationale for further investigative efforts to understand the ovary-sensitive biological factors that promote healthy longevity in women and pet dogs.

  18. Influence of internal current and pacing current on pacemaker longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchert, A; Kuck, K H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of lower pulse amplitude on battery current and pacemaker longevity were studied comparing the new, small-sized VVI pacemaker, Minix 8341, with the former model, Pasys 8329. Battery current was telemetrically measured at 0.8, 1.6, 2.5, and 5.0 V pulse amplitude and 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 msec pulse duration. Internal current was assumed to be equal to the battery current at 0.8 V and 0.05 msec. Pacing current was calculated subtracting internal current from battery current. The Minix pacemaker had a significantly lower battery current because of a lower internal current (Minix: 4.1 +/- 0.1 microA; Pasys: 16.1 +/- 0.1 microA); pacing current of both units was similar. At 0.5 msec pulse duration, the programming from 5.0-2.5 V pulse amplitude resulted in a greater relative reduction of battery current in the newer pacemaker (51% vs 25%). Projected longevity of each pacemaker was 7.9 years at 5.0 V and 0.5 msec. The programming from 5.0-2.5 V extended the projected longevity by 2.3 years (Pasys) and by 7.1 years (Minix). The longevity was negligibly longer after programming to 1.6 V. extension of pacemaker longevity can be achieved with the programming to 2.5 V or less if the connected pacemakers need a low internal current for their circuitry.

  19. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diddahally Govindaraju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP map approach and niche-construction theory, and b discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span.

  20. The pursuit of longevity - the bringer of peace to the middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common apprehensions regarding the aging population, this work aims to argue, on both deontological and utilitarian moral grounds, that any increase in general life-expectancy will be beneficial for the Middle East, countering the common fears associated with this increase. A set of ethical arguments concerning increasing longevity is presented, from both the deontological and utilitarian perspective. A wide selection of economic, psychological, demographic and epidemiological literature and databases is analyzed to determine common correlates of extended longevity. On the deontological grounds, the value of extended longevity is derived from the value of life preservation, regardless of its term. On the utilitarian grounds, the value of extended longevity is demonstrated by its correlation with further human values, such as education level and intellectual activity, economic prosperity, equality, solidarity and peacefulness. With the common apprehensions of stagnation and scarcity due to life extension found wanting, the pursuit of longevity by the population can be seen as a cross-cultural and cross-generational good. Though the current study mainly refers to sources and data relevant to the Middle East, a similar pro-longevity argument can be also made for other cultural contexts. In view of its numerous benefits, normatively, the goal of longevity should be set clearly and openly by the society, and actively pursued, or at least discussed, in academia, the political system and broader public.

  1. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  2. The Trade-Off between Female Fertility and Longevity during the Epidemiological Transition in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C

    2015-01-01

    as an evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and survival. We examine the relationship between fertility and longevity during the epidemiological transition in the Netherlands. This period of rapid decline in mortality from infectious diseases offers a good opportunity to study the relationship between...... fertility and longevity, using registry data from 6,359 women born in The Netherlands between 1850 and 1910. We hypothesize that an initially negative relationship between women's fertility and their longevity gradually turns less negative during the epidemiological transition, because of decreasing costs...

  3. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  4. Coagulopathy triggered autoimmunity: experimental antiphospholipid syndrome in factor V Leiden mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated interactions between genetically and autoimmune-mediated coagulopathies by inducing experimental antiphospholipid syndrome (eAPS) in mice carrying the factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation. Methods eAPS was induced in heterozygous and homozygous FVL transgenic mice (C57BL/6 background) by immunization with β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI). Autoantibody levels were measured at 1 and 5 months post-immunization. Mice were tested at 4 months post-immunization for behavior and cognitive function in the staircase, elevated plus-maze, and swim T-maze tests. Brains were removed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for inflammatory markers and neurodegenerative processes. Results A single immunization with β2-GPI induced significantly higher and longer-lasting immune responses, and this was dependent on the number of FVL alleles. At 1 and 5 months post-immunization, levels of antibodies rose from 1.17 ± 0.07 to 1.62 ± 0.17 (optical density units; ODU) in homozygous FVL mice, compared with stable levels of 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.48 ± 0.16 ODU in heterozygous FVL mice and a drop from 1.62 ± 0.21 to 0.61 ± 0.13 ODU in wild-type mice. Behavioral and cognitive clinical features of eAPS were also correlated with FVL allele load, as assessed by the elevated plus-maze (altered anxiety), staircase (hyperactivity and higher exploration), and swim T-maze (impaired learning) tests. Histological studies identified significant neurodegenerative changes in both grey and white matter in the eAPS-FVL brains. In spite of the potential interaction of two prothrombotic disease states, there were no ischemic lesions seen in this group. Conclusions The results indicate that genetically mediated coagulopathies increase the risk of developing coagulation-targeted autoimmune responses, and suggest the importance of antibody-mediated neurodegenerative processes in the brain in APS. PMID:23566870

  5. The impact of biomedical innovation on longevity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R Lichtenberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have expressed the view that a substantial portion of recent gains in longevity and health is due to biomedical research and innovation. This article describes the methodologies and findings of a number of studies based on observational data that have sought to measure the impact of biomedical innovation on the longevity and health of Americans and other populations during recent decades. Most of these studies have examined the impact of innovation in pharmaceuticals, the most research-intensive medical good or service. Two measures of medical innovation that have been used are the mean vintage of the medical goods or procedures used by an individual or population, and the number of distinct products (e.g. drugs available for treating a condition. Longevity (e.g. time till death is the health outcome that has been analyzed the most, but several studies have studied the impact of medical (i.e. pharmaceutical innovation on the ability of people to work or engage in activities of daily living. Some studies have been based on cross-sectional patient-level data. Others have been based on longitudinal, region-level data; they have investigated whether regions (e.g. states undergoing more rapid medical innovation have exhibited larger improvements in health. And some studies have been based on longitudinal, disease-level data; they have investigated whether the medical conditions undergoing more rapid innovation have exhibited larger gains in health outcomes. Innovation related to some specific major diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer has been investigated, but the overall impact of innovation related to other major diseases (e.g. diabetes has not.These studies provide considerable support for the hypothesis that a substantial portion of recent gains in longevity and health is due to biomedical research and innovation. It would be desirable to apply these methods to data from developing countries.

  6. Job longevity as a situational factor in job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1978-06-01

    This study investigates the relationships between overall job satisfaction and the five task dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback-from-job for employees at different stages of their careers, as measured by their length of employment on their current jobs, as well as in their current organizations. Basically, the analysis shows that the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and each of the task dimensions depends on both the job longevity and organizational longevity of the sampled individuals. For employees new to an organization, for example, only task significance is related positively to job satisfaction, while autonomy has a strongly negative correlation. The study presents other significant correlational differences and discusses the implications of its findings for task design, as well as for managing new employees. Approximately 3500 respondents from four different governments--two metropolitan, one county, and one state--participated in the collection of survey data.

  7. Beyond Expected Utility in the Economics of Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Cordoba, Juan Carlos; Ripoll, Marla

    2013-01-01

    We document various limitations of the expected utility model for the study of health and longevity. The model assumes individuals are indifferent between early and late resolution of uncertainty. This assumption gives rise to predictions regarding the economic value of life that are inconsistent with relevant evidence. For example, poor individuals would price life below the present value of foregone income or even negatively. We show that a non-expected utility model disentangling intertemp...

  8. Liability-driven investment in longevity risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Aro; Teemu Pennanen

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies optimal investment from the point of view of an investor with longevity-linked liabilities. The relevant optimization problems rarely are analytically tractable, but we are able to show numerically that liability driven investment can significantly outperform common strategies that do not take the liabilities into account. In problems without liabilities the advantage disappears, which suggests that the superiority of the proposed strategies is indeed based on connections b...

  9. Die Leiden des jungen Werthers à luz da história do conceito de subjetividade

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Felipe Vale da

    2013-01-01

    O artigo analisa os paralelos entre o retrato do 'sujeito moderno em crise' visto no romance Die Leiden des jungen Werthers de Goethe e, por outro lado, o perfil psicossocial do 'homem do sentimento' do século XVIII, fruto da cultura da Empfindsamkeit. Defendo a perspectiva de que, no romance, Goethe não apenas se utiliza do formato literário mais tradicional da Empfindsamkeit (o do romance epistolar), como também se apropria de topói e técnicas discursivas que lhe são próprias em registro ra...

  10. HELLP Syndrome and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Ozcan Dag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The neurological complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for a major proportion of the morbidity and mortality for women and their infants alike. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and the puerperium carry an increased risk of venous thromboembolism including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST. Factor 5 leiden (FVL is a procoagulant mutation associated primarily with venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications. We report a patient with FVL mutation who presented with CVST at 24th week of pregnancy and was diagnosed as HELLP syndrome at 34th week of pregnancy.

  11. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S. W.; Akintola, A. A.; Roelfsema, F.; van der Spoel, E.; Cobbaert, C. M.; Ballieux, B. E.; Egri, P.; Kvarta-Papp, Z.; Gereben, B.; Fekete, C.; Slagboom, P. E.; van der Grond, J.; Demeneix, B. A.; Pijl, H.; Westendorp, R. G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT a...

  12. The genetics of human longevity: an intricacy of genes, environment, culture and microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; Rose, Giuseppina; Crocco, Paolina; Monti, Daniela; Garagnani, Paolo; Franceschi, Claudio; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    Approximately one-quarter of the variation in lifespan in developed countries can be attributed to genetic factors. However, even large population based studies investigating genetic influence on human lifespan have been disappointing, identifying only a few genes accounting for genetic susceptibility to longevity. Some environmental and lifestyle determinants associated with longevity have been identified, which interplay with genetic factors in an intricate way. The study of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions can significantly improve our chance to disentangle this complex scenario. In this review, we first describe the most recent approaches for genetic studies of longevity, from those enriched with health parameters and frailty measures to pathway-based and SNP-SNP interaction analyses. Then, we go deeper into the concept of "environmental influences" in human aging and longevity, focusing on the contribution of life style changes, social and cultural influences, as important determinants of survival differences among individuals in a population. Finally, we discuss the contribution of the microbiome in human longevity, as an example of complex interaction between organism and environment. In conclusion, evidences collected from the latest studies on human longevity provide a support for the collection of life-long genetic and environmental/lifestyle variables with beneficial or detrimental effects on health, to improve our understanding of the determinants of human lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Worker life tables, survivorship, and longevity in colonies of Bombus (Fervidobombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Vieira da Silva-Matos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Survivorship curves and longevity of workers were studied in two queenright and two queenless colonies of Bombus (Fervidobombus atratus. Survivorship curves for workers of all colonies were, in general, convex, indicating an increasing mortality rate with increasing age. The mean longevity for the workers from queenright colonies, 24.3 days and 17.6 days, was not significantly different from that in queenless colonies, 21.2 days and 20.2 days. In all colonies workers started foraging activities when aged 0-5 days, and the potential forager rates rose progressively with increasing age. Mortality rates within each age interval were significantly correlated with the foraging worker rates in all colonies. Only in two of the colonies (one queenright and one queenless longevity was significantly correlated with worker size. The duration of brood development period seems to be one of the most important factors influencing adult worker longevity in this bumble bee species.

  14. Canonische data-analyse : leiden verschillende procedures tot verschillende resultaten ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, A.W. Verhoef, P.J.G. & Oppe, S.

    2000-01-01

    Concerning the analysis of problems in road safety, the classical techniques for multivariate analysis are often not applicable. Non-linear canonical analysis can be used, when one wants to study the relations between non-linear characteristics. A canonical analysis can take place, according to

  15. Heart ischemic disease and longevity: unsolved problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova T.Yu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to estimate clinical signs and course of coronary heart disease in long-livers and centenarians. Material and Methods. The study included overall population of Saratov — Engels agglomeration's long-livers (>=90 years old, n=198. Results. The rates of major clinical forms of coronary heart disease were detected: atrial fibrillation — 10.6%, chronic heart failure (with preserved ejection fraction — 10.1 % and angina — 5.1 %. Myocardial infarction was verified in 9.6% of long-livers. Myocardial scar criteria prevailed over myocardial infarction history. Received data corroborated dissolving phenomena of coronary heart disease and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus in long-livers. Gender differences in electrophysiological parameters were detected in long-livers. Centenarians with the history of myocardial infarction preserved a satisfactory level of physical activity. Conclusion. Received data confirm a presence of an excessive security: prevention of coronary heart disease manifestation and progression in longevity. Long-livers should be considered as a natural model of an antiatherogenic factors and mechanisms.

  16. Visible light reduces C. elegans longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Magalhaes Filho, C Daniel; Henriquez, Brian; Seah, Nicole E; Evans, Ronald M; Lapierre, Louis R; Dillin, Andrew

    2018-03-02

    The transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can sense UV and blue-violet light to alter behavior. Because high-dose UV and blue-violet light are not a common feature outside of the laboratory setting, we asked what role, if any, could low-intensity visible light play in C. elegans physiology and longevity. Here, we show that C. elegans lifespan is inversely correlated to the time worms were exposed to visible light. While circadian control, lite-1 and tax-2 do not contribute to the lifespan reduction, we demonstrate that visible light creates photooxidative stress along with a general unfolded-protein response that decreases the lifespan. Finally, we find that long-lived mutants are more resistant to light stress, as well as wild-type worms supplemented pharmacologically with antioxidants. This study reveals that transparent nematodes are sensitive to visible light radiation and highlights the need to standardize methods for controlling the unrecognized biased effect of light during lifespan studies in laboratory conditions.

  17. Centenarian offspring: a model for understanding longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Candore, Giuseppina; Accardi, Giulia; Buffa, Silvio; Bulati, Matteo; Martorana, Adriana; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Caruso, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    A main objective of current medical research is to improve the life quality of elderly people as priority of the continuous increase of ageing population. This phenomenon implies several medical, economic and social problems because of dramatic increase in number of non autonomous individuals affected by various pathologies. Accordingly, the research interest is focused on understanding the biological mechanisms involved in determining the positive ageing phenotype, i.e. the centenarian phenotype. In achieving this goal the choice of an appropriate study models is fundamental. Centenarians have been used as an optimal model for successful ageing. However, this model shows several limitations, i.e. the selection of appropriate controls and the use itself of the centenarians as a suitable model for healthy ageing. Thus, the interest has been centered on centenarian offspring, healthy elderly people. They may represent a model for understanding exceptional longevity for the following reasons: they exhibit a protective genetic background, cardiovascular and immunological profile, as well as a reduced rate of cognitive decline than age-matched people without centenarian relatives. Several of these aspects are summarized in this review based on the literature and the results of our studies.

  18. Lifelong pathways to longevity: personality, relationships, flourishing, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L; Della Porta, Serenity S; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-12-01

    Building upon decades of research with the lifelong (nine-decade) Terman Life Cycle Study, we present a life pathway model for understanding human thriving that accounts for long-term individual difference in health and longevity, with a particular focus on child personality and adult social relationships. Developing data derived and supplemented from the Terman study (N = 570 males, 451 females), we employed regression and survival analyses to test models of childhood personality predicting adult psychosocial factors (subjective well-being, family relationships, community involvement, subjective achievement, hardships) and subsequent longevity. Child personality differentially related to midlife social relationships, well-being, and hardships. Conscientiousness and good social relationships predicted longer life, whereas subjective well-being was unrelated to mortality risk. Examining multiple life factors across long time periods uncovers important pathways through which personality relates to premature mortality or longevity. Typical stress-and-illness models are untenable and should be replaced with life span trajectory approaches. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Plasma lipoproteins in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia associated with apolipoproteins E2 (Arg158 -->Cys), E3-Leiden, and E2 (Lys146-->Gln), and effects of treatment with simvastatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, S.P.; Smelt, A.H.; Maagdenberg, A.M. van den; Tol, A. van; Vroom T.F.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Frants, R.R.; Havekes, L.M.; Laarse, A. van der; Hooft, F.M. van 't

    1994-01-01

    Using a density-gradient ultracentrifugation technique, we analyzed in detail the plasma lipoprotein profiles of 18 patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) who had apolipoprotein (apo) E2(Arg158-->Cys) homozygosity (the E2-158 variant, n = 6), apoE3-Leiden heterozygosity (the E3-Leiden

  20. Reversal of hypercholesterolemia in apolipoprotein E2 and apolipoprotein E3-Leiden transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the VLDL receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, K.W. van; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Zee, A. van der; Hof, B. van 't; Boom, H. van der; Kobayashi, K.; Chan, L.; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction of apolipoprotein E2(Arg158- Cys) (apoE2) and apolipoprotein E3Leiden (apoE3-Leiden) with the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor in vivo and in vitro to define the possible role of this receptor in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. The in vivo

  1. Bifenthrin longevity at the termiticidal application rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris J

    2012-01-01

    The longevity, mobility and insecticidal activity of bifenthrin at the termiticidal application rate for perimeter treatment were investigated in packed-soil columns in the laboratory and greenhouse. Bifenthrin was not detected in the eluates of packed-soil cones over a period of 6 months. In larger pipe plots incorporating bifenthrin into the top 15 cm of the soil, the compound degraded in a biphasic fashion. Within the treated soil, the effect of vegetation on the amount of bifenthrin remaining in the soil depended on soil depth and time, and soil half-lives were longer in non-vegetated soil. Bifenthrin residues were higher in the top 7.5 cm of soil and declined over time. Movement of bifenthrin into the top untreated soil depth was observed, but much less was observed in lower depths. The soil remained toxic to termites in 3 day and 7 day forced exposure bioassays for the 30 month duration of the study. Concentrations of bifenthrin will remain in the soil at levels sufficient to kill termites for more than 30 months. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Longevity enhances selection of environmental sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J J; Bulmer, M G

    1989-12-01

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) is a mechanism in which an individual develops as male or female largely in response to some environmental effect experienced early in life. Its forms range from sex determination by egg incubation temperature in reptiles to sex determination of photoperiod in amphipods. Previous theoretical work as suggested that ESD is favored by natural selection if the fitness consequences of the early environmental experience differ for males and females, so that an individual benefits by being male under some conditions and female under others. A drawback of ESD is that it enables climatic changes to influence the population sex ratio, and such fluctuations select against ESD. This study employed numerical analyses to investigate the balance between these two opposing forces. The negative impact of climatic fluctuations appears to depend greatly on species longevity: substantial between-year fluctuations are of little consequence in selecting against ESD in long-lived species because annual sex ratio fluctuations tend to cancel and thus alter the total population sex ratio only slightly. Thus, if a species is sufficiently long-lived, extreme ESD can be maintained despite only a weak advantage. This result offers one explanation for the failure to demonstrate an advantage for the extreme forms of ESD observed in reptiles.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms associated with longevity in a Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Karhunen, Pekka J; Jylhä, Marja; Majamaa, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Sequence variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may cause slight differences both in the functioning of the respiratory chain and in free radical production, and an association between certain mtDNA haplogroups and longevity has been suggested. In order to determine further the role of mtDNA in longevity, we studied the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups and haplogroup clusters among elderly subjects and controls in a Finnish population. Samples were obtained from 225 persons aged 90-91 years (Vitality 90+) and from 400 middle-aged controls and 257 infants. MtDNA haplogroups were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The haplogroup frequencies of the Vitality 90+ group differed from both those of the middle-aged controls ( P=0.01) and the infants ( P=0.00005), haplogroup H being less frequent than among the middle-aged subjects ( P=0.001) and infants ( P=0.00001), whereas haplogroups U and J were more frequent. Haplogroup clusters also differed between Vitality 90+ and both the middle-aged subjects ( P=0.002) and infants ( P=0.00001), the frequency of haplogroup cluster HV being lower in the former and that of UK and WIX being higher. These data suggest an association between certain mtDNA haplogroups or haplogroup clusters and longevity. Furthermore, our data appear to favour the presence of advantageous polymorphisms and support a role for mitochondria and mtDNA in the degenerative processes involved in ageing.

  4. DRD4 genotype predicts longevity in mouse and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Deborah L; Thanos, Panayotis K; Corrada, Maria M; Barnett, Jeffrey C; Ciobanu, Valentina; Shustarovich, Diana; Napoli, Anthony; Moyzis, Alexandra G; Grandy, David; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kawas, Claudia H; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Wang, Eric; Volkow, Nora D; Moyzis, Robert K

    2013-01-02

    Longevity is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The brain's dopamine system may be particularly relevant, since it modulates traits (e.g., sensitivity to reward, incentive motivation, sustained effort) that impact behavioral responses to the environment. In particular, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) has been shown to moderate the impact of environments on behavior and health. We tested the hypothesis that the DRD4 gene influences longevity and that its impact is mediated through environmental effects. Surviving participants of a 30-year-old population-based health survey (N = 310; age range, 90-109 years; the 90+ Study) were genotyped/resequenced at the DRD4 gene and compared with a European ancestry-matched younger population (N = 2902; age range, 7-45 years). We found that the oldest-old population had a 66% increase in individuals carrying the DRD4 7R allele relative to the younger sample (p = 3.5 × 10(-9)), and that this genotype was strongly correlated with increased levels of physical activity. Consistent with these results, DRD4 knock-out mice, when compared with wild-type and heterozygous mice, displayed a 7-9.7% decrease in lifespan, reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, and no lifespan increase when reared in an enriched environment. These results support the hypothesis that DRD4 gene variants contribute to longevity in humans and in mice, and suggest that this effect is mediated by shaping behavioral responses to the environment.

  5. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  6. Growth in The Hague versus decline in Leiden. A comparison of spatial development in two Dutch cities between 1700 and 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer van der Zweep

    2017-04-01

    1830–1870 The Hague underwent considerable densification inside the canal ring as well as extensions north and south of the city. The number of new tenements built on inner yards in The Hague can give a distorted impression, as can the number of demolished buildings in Leiden, because the 1870 maps were much more detailed. In Leiden the advent of new factories prompted new construction on the former city walls. The Hague, too, became a major industrial player, while continuing to profit from its function as the centre of government. In 1870, The Hague had almost twoand-a-half times as many inhabitants as Leiden (92,000 versus 39,000, but within the canal girdle Leiden was still more densely built up. Between 1700 and 1870, The Hague developed into one of the Netherlands’ biggest cities, which it still is. Leiden plummeted from second place to the middle bracket, where it continues to sit today.

  7. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity - The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    . We develop an overlapping generations model in continuous time which encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for both trend increases in longevity and productivity, we address the issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...

  9. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Vidigal, De D.; Willems, L.A.J.; Arkel, van J.; Dekkers, S.J.W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Bentsink, L.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increasedcosts in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive forseed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive

  10. Ambient intelligence might support increased longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies entered our homes to change our lives. First electricity brought light and comfort, now communication technologies are transforming our living place into a connected place allowing new services to be invented, comfort, security, wellness and health services. The ICTs in homes can now help prolonge our longevity.

  11. Reactive oxygen species, health and longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are considered responsible of ageing in animal and humans. Mitochondria are both source and target of ROS. Various strategies to reduce ROS production have been considered to extend lifespan. Caloric restriction, exercise, and antioxidants are thought to be able to protect cells from structural and functional damage. However, there is evidence that ROS production has a detrimental effect on health, but at physiological levels are necessary to stimulate longevity. They play an important effect on secondary signal transduction stimulating innate immunology and mitochondriogenesis. During exercise at moderate intensity, skeletal muscles generate ROS that are necessary for the remodelling of the muscular cells. Physical inactivity determines excessive ROS production and muscle atrophy. Caloric restriction (CR can reduce ROS generation and improve longevity while antioxidant supplementation has shown a negative effect on longevity reducing the muscle adaptation to exercise and increasing mortality risk in patients with chronic diseases. The role of ROS in chronic diseases in also influenced by sex steroids that decrease in aging. The physiology of longevity is the result of integrated biological mechanisms that influence mitochondrial function and activity. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the effects of ROS on mitochondriogenesis and lifespan extension.

  12. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  13. Nectarine promotes longevity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative damage and gradual decline of physiology function with age, and is modulated by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Functional fruits are thought to be ideal candidates for promoting longevity and healthspan due to their high contents of polypheno...

  14. Longevity and aging in vertebrate evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, G.A

    1978-08-01

    Mammalian lifespan has a close allometric association with brain weight, body weight, metabolic rate, and body temperature. Longevity, then, if governed by natural selection acting on positive genetic mechanisms for stabilizing life processes, rather than by the random accumulation of ''senescence genes.'' This paper compares the social implications of these hypotheses.

  15. Intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing with changing longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2014-01-01

    Trend increases in longevity are a global phenomenon challenging the fiscal sustainability of current welfare arrangements. Policy proposals abound and often build on implicit assertions concerning intergenerational equity. This paper offers a simple but manageable OLG model with endogenous retir...... to have a high longevity are compensated at the expense of cohorts turning out to have a relatively short longevity....

  16. Has one of Captain Cook’s possums landed in Leiden? The possible holotype of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, C.

    2009-01-01

    The identity of an old female specimen of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785) in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, is discussed and the early descriptions and nomenclatural history of the species are reviewed. The assumption by Temminck (1824) and Jentink (1888) that the animal

  17. Charles Darwin’s lost Cinereous Harrier found in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouw, van H.; Steinheimer, F.D.

    2008-01-01

    During reorganisation of the Leiden bird collection a mounted harrier was found what seemed to be one of the still lost specimens collected by Darwin. After closer research it turned out it was indeed the last missing harrier of the Darwin collection.

  18. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein decreases high-density lipoprotein and severely aggravates atherosclerosis in APOE*3-Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, M.; Hoogt, C.C. van der; Haan, W. de; Offerman, E.H.; Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the development of atherosclerosis is still undergoing debate. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of human CETP expression on atherosclerosis in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice with a humanized lipoprotein profile. METHODS AND RESULTS -

  19. The original Pathologische Anatomie Leiden-Endothelium monoclonal antibody recognizes a vascular endothelial growth factor binding site within neuropilin-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaalouk, Diana E.; Ozawa, Nfichael G.; Sun, Jessica; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2007-01-01

    For two decades, the antigen recognized by the Pathologische Anatomie Leiden-Endothelium (PAL-E) monoclonal antibody, a standard vascular endothelial cell marker, has remained elusive. Here, we used a combinatorial phage display-based approach ("epitope mapping") to select peptides binding to the

  20. Is extreme climate or moderate climate more conducive to longevity in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Rosenberg, Mark; Wang, Yingli

    2018-02-01

    Climate is closely related to human longevity. In China, there are many climate types. According to national population censuses from 1982 to 2000, most provinces with a high ratio of centenarians are located in western and northwestern China far from the sea; these areas are characterized by a dry, cold climate, very high altitude, very high daily temperature range, strong winds, and partial hypoxia. Meanwhile, provinces with a high ratio of nonagenarians from 1982 to 2000 are located in southern China near the sea. Previous studies have attributed the high ratio of centenarians in western and northwestern China to the extreme local climate. However, centenarians in these areas decreased greatly in 2010, whereas residents in southern China frequently reached 90 to 100 years old in 2010. This study aims to explain this strange phenomenon and find whether extreme climate in Tibetan plateau and northwestern China or moderate climate in southern China is more conducive to longevity. The study found that mortality rate in Tibetan plateau is much higher than southern China, then a population evolution experiment was proposed to compare longevity indicators between low mortality rate and high mortality rate and shows that longevity indicators will decrease in the near future and increase above their original levels after several decades when the mortality rate is decreased. Results of this study show individuals in northwestern China do not live as long as those in eastern and southern China. A moderate climate is more conducive to longevity than extreme climate in China. The longevity of a region should be judged by long-term longevity indicators.

  1. Shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Managbanag

    network analysis of aging to be extensively validated in a biological system. The novel longevity genes identified in this study are likely to yield further insight into the molecular mechanisms of aging and age-associated disease.

  2. Contemporary views on human aging and longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is currently stimulating intense interest of both researchers and the general public. In developed countries, the average life expectancy has increased by roughly 30 years within the last century, and human senescence has been delayed by around a decade. Although aging is arguably the most familiar aspect of human biology, its proximate and ultimate causes have not been elucidated fully and understood yet. Nowadays there are two main approaches to the ultimate causes of aging. These are deterministic and stochastic models. The proximate theories constitute a distinct group of explanations. They focus on mechanistic causes of aging. In this view, there is no reason to believe that there is only one biological mechanism responsible for aging. The aging process is highly complex and results from an accumulation of random molecular damage. Currently, the disposable soma theory (DST, proposed by Thomas Kirkwood, is the most influential and coherent line of reasoning in biogerontology. This model does not postulate any particular mechanism underpinning somatic defense. Therefore, it is compatible with various models, including mechanistic and evolutionary explanations. Recently, however, an interesting theory of hyper-function of mTOR as a more direct cause of aging has been formulated by Mikhail Blagosklonny, offering an entirely different approach to numerous problems and paradoxes in current biogerontology. In this view, aging is quasi-programmed, which means that it is an aimless continuation of developmental growth. This mTOR-centric model allows the prediction of completely new relationships. The aim of this article is to present and compare the views of both parties in the dispute, based on the results of some recent experimental studies, and the contemporary knowledge of selected major aspects of human aging and longevity

  3. What We Have Learned from San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment and Leiden Manifesto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Ming-Li Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research performance evaluation of members of the academic community conducted by government or institutions has been applied with multiple indicators and peer review, however, there are many controversies about the design and application of research evaluation indicators. This article aims to introduce the development process of San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA and Leiden Manifesto and summarize their contents of guidelines and attempts to compare the differences between these two documents. It hopes that this article can arise the attention and reflection of research evaluation indicators and relevant issues from Taiwan academic community to reach consensus of utilization of research evaluation indicators. It will be beneficial to develop the version of declaration with local characteristics in the future.

  4. Die Leiden des jungen Werthers à luz da história do conceito de subjetividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vale da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os paralelos entre o retrato do 'sujeito moderno em crise' visto no romance Die Leiden des jungen Werthers de Goethe e, por outro lado, o perfil psicossocial do 'homem do sentimento' do século XVIII, fruto da cultura da Empfindsamkeit. Defendo a perspectiva de que, no romance, Goethe não apenas se utiliza do formato literário mais tradicional da Empfindsamkeit (o do romance epistolar, como também se apropria de topói e técnicas discursivas que lhe são próprias em registro radicalmente heterodoxo. A argumentação nos ligará a uma dedução da visão do conceito de subjetividade moderna com que Goethe trabalha em sua fase final do Sturm und Drang, e que o situa como importante nome do discurso filosófico da modernidade.

  5. Estimation of the effects of multipoint pacing on battery longevity in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerström, Finn; Narváez, Irene; Puchol, Alberto; Pachón, Marta; Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Arias, Miguel A

    2017-09-23

    Multipoint pacing (MPP) permits simultaneous multisite pacing of the left ventricle (LV); initial studies suggest haemodynamic and clinical benefits over conventional (single LV site) cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of MPP activation on battery longevity in routine clinical practice. Patient (n = 46) and device data were collected from two centres at least 3 months after MPP-CRT device implantation. Multipoint pacing programming was based on the maximal possible anatomical LV1/LV2 separation according to three predefined LV pacing capture threshold (PCT) cut-offs (≤1.5 V; ≤4.0 V; and ≤6.5 V). Estimated battery longevity was calculated using the programmed lower rate limit, lead impedances, outputs, and pacing percentages. Relative to the longevity for conventional CRT using the lowest PCT (8.9 ± 1.2 years), MPP activation significantly shortened battery longevity for all three PCT cut-offs (≤1.5 V, -5.6%; ≤4.0 V, -16.9%; ≤6.5 V, -21.3%; P's battery longevity was significantly shortened for the MPP ≤ 4.0 V and ≤6.5 V cut-offs (-10.8 and -15.7%, respectively; P's battery longevity compared with that for conventional CRT configuration. When reasonable MPP LV vector PCTs (≤4.0 V) are achieved, the decrease in battery longevity is relatively small which may prompt the clinician to activate MPP. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sensitized mutagenesis screen in Factor V Leiden mice identifies thrombosis suppressor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Randal J; Tomberg, Kärt; Siebert, Amy E; Zhu, Guojing; Winn, Mary E; Dobies, Sarah L; Manning, Sara L; Brake, Marisa A; Cleuren, Audrey C; Hobbs, Linzi M; Mishack, Lena M; Johnston, Alexander J; Kotnik, Emilee; Siemieniak, David R; Xu, Jishu; Li, Jun Z; Saunders, Thomas L; Ginsburg, David

    2017-09-05

    Factor V Leiden ( F5 L ) is a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in humans. We conducted a sensitized N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant thrombosuppressor genes based on perinatal lethal thrombosis in mice homozygous for F5 L ( F5 L/L ) and haploinsufficient for tissue factor pathway inhibitor ( Tfpi +/- ). F8 deficiency enhanced the survival of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- mice, demonstrating that F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality is genetically suppressible. ENU-mutagenized F5 L/L males and F5 L/+ Tfpi +/- females were crossed to generate 6,729 progeny, with 98 F5 L/L Tfpi +/- offspring surviving until weaning. Sixteen lines, referred to as "modifier of Factor 5 Leiden ( MF5L1-16 )," exhibited transmission of a putative thrombosuppressor to subsequent generations. Linkage analysis in MF5L6 identified a chromosome 3 locus containing the tissue factor gene ( F3 ). Although no ENU-induced F3 mutation was identified, haploinsufficiency for F3 ( F3 +/- ) suppressed F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality. Whole-exome sequencing in MF5L12 identified an Actr2 gene point mutation (p.R258G) as the sole candidate. Inheritance of this variant is associated with suppression of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality ( P = 1.7 × 10 -6 ), suggesting that Actr2 p.R258G is thrombosuppressive. CRISPR/Cas9 experiments to generate an independent Actr2 knockin/knockout demonstrated that Actr2 haploinsufficiency is lethal, supporting a hypomorphic or gain-of-function mechanism of action for Actr2 p.R258G Our findings identify F8 and the Tfpi/F3 axis as key regulators in determining thrombosis balance in the setting of F5 L and also suggest a role for Actr2 in this process.

  7. Some agricultural aspects of seed longevity (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hołubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a vast and numerous literature concerning seed longevity. Most of these works however has focused solely on theoretical and biological aspects of this problem. Some works although deal with practical problems of seed storage. vigour or deterioration. have had relatively little connection with agricultural crops. practical farming or gardening. Therefore, there has been a need to look at this problem from the seednian's and farmer's point of view. The paper comments on how long seeds of agricultural crops species can keep their longevity, how long it is economically reasonable to store them. the effect of the seeds chemical composition on their longevity, how seeds storage conditions can be modified in order to eventually improve their longevity and environment circumstances influence on the final seed longevity. The paper contains a synthetic summary of expected seed longevity of the most important agricultural species and many examples of long longevity of agricultural species.

  8. The Trouble with Opium. Taste, Reason and Experience in Late Galenic Pharmacology with Special Regard to the University of Leiden (1575-1625).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerk, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, the discrepancy between the taste of some drugs and their effects on the body was used to criticize Galenic medicine. In this paper, I argue that such contradictions were brought to light by the sixteenth-century study of drug properties within the Galenic tradition itself. Investigating how the taste of a drug corresponded to the effects it had on the body became a core problem for maintaining a medical practice that was both rational and effective. I discuss four physicians, connected to the University of Leiden, who attempted to understand drug properties, including taste, within a Galenic framework. The sixteenth-century discussions about the relationship between the senses, reason and experience, will help us understand the seventeenth-century criticism of Galenic medicine and the importance of discussions about materia medica for ideas regarding the properties of matter proposed in this period.

  9. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Andre R.; Arthur, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  10. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  11. Factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    razieh saghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The longevity is normally defined as the length of its productive life in the flock, which is the amount of time an animal spends producing (1. Longevity reflects the ability of ewe to avoid being culled for low production, low fertility, illness and influences the number and cost of replacements required to maintain the flock size. The benefit of increasing longevity are increased average age of the flock, having more ewes available for sale at the end of their four parity, having more ewe lambs to sell, and higher productivity from a slightly older flock age profile (2. Sheep population of Khorasan province (10. In sheep production, longevity has an important influence on the economic returns. Reliable estimates of non genetic effects of longevity are needed to aid establishing an efficient strategy for improving ewe productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was the factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep. We want to determine effect of environmental and non-genetic factors on longevity. Material and Methods In order to investigate on factors affecting longevity trait in Northen Khorasan Kordish sheep, records of 7469 sheep (187 sire and 2258 dam between 1990 to 2012 that were collected by breeding station of Hossein Abad in Shirvan (This city is located in the north of Mashhad were used. Flock has been kept under village system. Breeding ewes were identified in the data set as those that lambed at 2 year of age and culled at 6 to 7 year of age duo to oldness. Ram kept until a male offspring was available for replacement. In this study longevity was defined as the age of a ewe (in day when it leaves the flock. Ewes were generally removed from the flock due to poor production, low fertility, death and illness. Ewes were identified as being removed from the flock if a lambing record was present at n year of age but not at n+1 years of age. All females were culled before reaching 7 years of age

  12. Association between FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and human longevity: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ming Bao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOXO3A gene, encoding the forkhead box O3 transcription factor, and human or specifically male longevity. However, the associations of specific FOXO3A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by comparing the minor and major alleles. A total of seven articles reporting associations of FOXO3A polymorphisms with longevity were identified and included in this meta-analysis. These comprised 11 independent studies with 5241 cases and 5724 controls from different ethnic groups. rs2802292, rs2764264, rs13217795, rs1935949 and rs2802288 polymorphisms were associated with human longevity (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.10-1.69, P= 0.005; OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.04-1.37, P= 0.01; OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.10-1.46, P= 0.001; OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01-1.27 and OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07-1.43, P= 0.003, respectively. Analysis stratified by gender indicated significant associations between rs2802292, rs2764264 and rs13217795 and male longevity (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.33-1.79, P < 0.001; OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.15-1.66, P= 0.001; and OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15-1.67, P= 0.001, but rs2802292, rs2764264 and rs1935949 were not linked to female longevity. Moreover, our study showed no association between rs2153960, rs7762395 or rs13220810 polymorphisms and longevity. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates a significant association of five FOXO3A gene polymorphisms with longevity, with the effects of rs2802292 and rs2764264 being male-specific. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings.

  13. AB126. Association between FOX03A gene polymorphisms and human longevity: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanchao; Bao, Jiming; Song, Xianlu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOX03A gene, encoding the forkhead box 03 transcription factor, and human or specifically male longevity. However, the associations of specific FOX03A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOX03A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls) were calculated by comparing the minor and major alleles. Results A total of seven articles reporting associations of FOX03A polymorphisms with longevity were identified and included in this meta-analysis. These comprised 11 independent studies with 5241 cases and 5724 controls from different ethnic groups. rs2802292, rs2764264, rsI3217795, rs1935949 and rs2802288 polymorphisms were associated with human longevity (OR =1.36, 95% CI, 1. 10–1.69, P=0.005; OR =1.20, 95% CI, 1.04–1.37, P=0.01; OR =1.27, 95% CI, 1.10–1.46, P=0.001; OR =1.14, 95% CI, 1.01–1.27 and OR =1.24, 95% CI, 1.07–1.43, P=0.003, respectively). Analysis is stratified by gender indicated significant associations between rs2802292, rs2764264 and rs13217795 and male longevity (OR =1.54, 95% CI, 1.33–1.79, P<0.001; OR =1.38, 95% CI, 1.15–1.66, P=0.001; and OR =1.39, 95% CI, 1.15–1.67, P=0.001), but rs2802292, rs2764264 and rs1935949 were not linked to female longevity. Moreover, our study showed no association between rs2153960, rs7762395 or rs13220810 polymorphisms and longevity. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates a significant association of five FOX03A gene polymorphisms with longevity, with the effects of rs2802292 and rs2764264 being male-specific. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings.

  14. Association between FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and human longevity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ji-Ming; Song, Xian-Lu; Hong, Ying-Qia; Zhu, Hai-Li; Li, Cui; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Shan-Chao; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOXO3A gene, encoding the forkhead box O3 transcription factor, and human or specifically male longevity. However, the associations of specific FOXO3A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by comparing the minor and major alleles. A total of seven articles reporting associations of FOXO3A polymorphisms with longevity were identified and included in this meta-analysis. These comprised 11 independent studies with 5241 cases and 5724 controls from different ethnic groups. rs2802292, rs2764264, rs13217795, rs1935949 and rs2802288 polymorphisms were associated with human longevity (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.10-1.69, P= 0.005; OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.04-1.37, P= 0.01; OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.10-1.46, P= 0.001; OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01-1.27 and OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07-1.43, P= 0.003, respectively). Analysis stratified by gender indicated significant associations between rs2802292, rs2764264 and rs13217795 and male longevity (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.33-1.79, P < 0.001; OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.15-1.66, P= 0.001; and OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15-1.67, P= 0.001), but rs2802292, rs2764264 and rs1935949 were not linked to female longevity. Moreover, our study showed no association between rs2153960, rs7762395 or rs13220810 polymorphisms and longevity. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates a significant association of five FOXO3A gene polymorphisms with longevity, with the effects of rs2802292 and rs2764264 being male-specific. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings.

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutations and the risk of VTE recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Wang, Xiao; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Hedelius, Anna; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Zöller, Bengt; Memon, Ashfaque A

    2015-11-25

    Plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is an important inhibitor of the plasminogen/plasmin system. PAI-1 levels are influenced by the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter. We investigated the relationship between the PAI-1 polymorphism and VTE recurrence, and its possible modification by factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PTM) mutations. Patients (n=1,069) from the Malmö Thrombophilia Study were followed from discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment until diagnosis of VTE recurrence or the end of the study (maximum follow-up 9.8 years). One hundred twenty-seven patients (11.9 %) had VTE recurrence. PAI-1 was genotyped by TaqMan PCR. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and acquired risk factors of VTE showed no evidence of an association between PAI-1 genotype and risk of VTE recurrence in the study population as a whole. However, by including an interaction term in the analysis we showed that FVL but not PTM modified the effect of PAI-1 genotype: patients with the 4G allele plus FVL had a higher risk of VTE recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) =2.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.5-3.3] compared to patients with the 4G allele but no FVL (reference group) or FVL irrespective of PAI-1 genotype (HR=1.8, 95 % CI=1.3-2.5). Compared to reference group, 5G allele irrespective of FVL was associated with lower risk of VTE recurrence only when compared with 4G allele together with FVL. In conclusion, FVL has a modifying effect on PAI-1 polymorphism in relation to risk of VTE recurrence. The role of PAI-1 polymorphism as a risk factor of recurrent VTE may be FVL dependent.

  16. Reactive oxygen species, health and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi; Giancarlo Falcioni

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered responsible of ageing in animal and humans. Mitochondria are both source and target of ROS. Various strategies to reduce ROS production have been considered to extend lifespan. Caloric restriction, exercise, and antioxidants are thought to be able to protect cells from structural and functional damage. However, there is evidence that ROS production has a detrimental effect on health, but at physiological levels are necessary to stimulate longevity....

  17. Hormetic efficacy of rutin to promote longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Chitnis, Atith; Talekar, Aishwarya; Mulay, Prajakta; Makkar, Manyata; James, Joel; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2017-06-01

    Hormetins are compounds that mediate hormesis by being beneficial at low doses but detrimental at high doses. Recent studies have highlighted that many compounds that extended lifespan in model organisms did so by mediating hormesis. Rutin is a glycosylate conjugate of quercetin and rutinose and is abundant in citrus fruits and buckwheat seeds. Rutin possess ROS scavenging, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, skin-regenerative and neuro-protective properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an attractive model organism for longevity studies owing to its homology of organ and cellular-pathways with mammals. In this study, we aimed to understand the effect of rutin on extending longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies were administered with a range of rutin doses (100-800 µM) to analyse whether rutin mediated lifespan-extension by hormesis. Effect of rutin on physiological parameters like food intake, fecundity, climbing activity, development and resistance to various stresses was also studied. Lifespan assays showed that rutin at 200 and 400 µM significantly extended median lifespan in both male and female flies beyond which flies exhibited drastically reduced longevity. Increase in survival at 400 µM was associated with reduced food intake and fecundity. Flies exhibited improved climbing capability with both 200 and 400 µM rutin. Flies fed with 100 and 200 µM rutin exhibited enhanced survival upon exposure to oxidative stress with 400 µM rutin exhibiting no improvement in median lifespan following oxidative stress. Analysis of endogenous peroxide upon treatment with rutin (100-400 µM) with or without 5% H 2 O 2 showed elevated levels of endogenous peroxide with 400 µM rutin whereas no increase in hydrogen peroxide level was observed with rutin at 100 and 200 µM. Finally, gene expression studies in male flies revealed that rutin treatment at 200 and/or 400 µM elevated transcript levels of dFoxO, MnSod, Cat, dTsc1, dTsc2, Thor, dAtg1, d

  18. Sex differences in oxidative stress resistance in relation to longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveditha, S; Deepashree, S; Ramesh, S R; Shivanandappa, T

    2017-10-01

    Gender differences in lifespan and aging are known across species. Sex differences in longevity within a species can be useful to understand sex-specific aging. Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to study the problem of sex differences in longevity since females are longer lived than males. There is evidence that stress resistance influences longevity. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between sex differences in longevity and oxidative stress resistance in D. melanogaster. We observed a progressive age-dependent decrease in the activity of SOD and catalase, major antioxidant enzymes involved in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress in parallel to the increased ROS levels over time. Longer-lived females showed lower ROS levels and higher antioxidant enzymes than males as a function of age. Using ethanol as a stressor, we have shown differential susceptibility of the sexes to ethanol wherein females exhibited higher resistance to ethanol-induced mortality and locomotor behavior compared to males. Our results show strong correlation between sex differences in oxidative stress resistance, antioxidant defenses and longevity. The study suggests that higher antioxidant defenses in females may confer resistance to oxidative stress, which could be a factor that influences sex-specific aging in D. melanogaster.

  19. INVERSION POLYMORPHISM, LONGEVITY, AND BODY SIZE IN A NATURAL POPULATION OF DROSOPHILA BUZZATII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Constantina; Fanara, Juan J; Hasson, Esteban

    1999-04-01

    In this study we present the results of an analysis of differential longevity associated with Drosophila buzzatii second chromosome inversion karyotypes based on the assessment of more than 1000 individuals collected in a natural population. Comparisons of inversion frequencies between emerged and bait-collected flies showed not only that inversion arrangements were associated with differential longevity, but also that selection was sex specific. Because each individual fly was scored for thorax length and karyotype, we were able to show that longevity selection favoring larger flies coupled with the average effect of inversions on thorax length can account for the change of inversion frequencies due to longevity in females. The observed genotypic-by-sex interaction could be an important mechanism involved in the maintenance of the polymorphism. Arrangement 2Jz 3 , which was shown to impaired fecundity in two independent previous studies, exhibited a positive effect on longevity. This pattern of negative pleiotropy may be another plausible mechanism accounting for the maintenance of the polymorphism. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Both lifespan and healthspan are influenced by nutrition, with nutritional interventions proving to be robust across a wide range of species. However, the relationship between nutrition, health and aging is still not fully understood. Caloric restriction is the most studied dietary intervention known to extend life in many organisms, but recently the balance of macronutrients has been shown to play a critical role. In this review, we discuss the current understanding regarding the impact of calories and macronutrient balance in mammalian health and longevity, and highlight the key nutrient-sensing pathways that mediate the effects of nutrition on health and ageing. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. The relationship of the factor V Leiden mutation or the deletion-deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme to postoperative thromboembolic events following total joint arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Carrie

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although all patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty are subjected to similar risk factors that predispose to thromboembolism, only a subset of patients develop this complication. The objective of this study was to determine whether a specific genetic profile is associated with a higher risk of developing a postoperative thromboembolic complication. Specifically, we examined if the Factor V Leiden (FVL mutation or the deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene increased a patient's risk for postoperative thromboembolic events. The FVL mutation has been associated with an increased risk of idiopathic thromboembolism and the deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene has been associated with increased vascular tone, attenuated fibrinolysis and increased platelet aggregation. Methods The presence of these genetic profiles was determined for 38 patients who had a postoperative symptomatic pulmonary embolus or proximal deep venous thrombosis and 241 control patients without thrombosis using molecular biological techniques. Results The Factor V Leiden mutation was present in none of the 38 experimental patients and in 3% or 8 of the 241 controls (p = 0.26. Similarly there was no difference detected in the distribution of polymorphisms for the ACE gene with the deletion-deletion genotype present in 36% or 13 of the 38 experimental patients and in 31% or 74 of the 241 controls (p = 0.32. Conclusions Our results suggest that neither of these potentially hypercoaguable states are associated with an increased risk of symptomatic thromboembolic events following total hip or knee arthroplasty in patients receiving pharmacological thromboprophylaxis.

  2. Personality and Longevity: Knowns, Unknowns, and Implications for Public Health and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Roberts, Brent; Duberstein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We review evidence for links between personality traits and longevity. We provide an overview of personality for health scientists, using the primary organizing framework used in the study of personality and longevity. We then review data on various aspects of personality linked to longevity. In general, there is good evidence that higher level of conscientiousness and lower levels of hostility and Type D or “distressed” personality are associated with greater longevity. Limited evidence suggests that extraversion, openness, perceived control, and low levels of emotional suppression may be associated with longer lifespan. Findings regarding neuroticism are mixed, supporting the notion that many component(s) of neuroticism detract from life expectancy, but some components at some levels may be healthy or protective. Overall, evidence suggests various personality traits are significant predictors of longevity and points to several promising directions for further study. We conclude by discussing the implications of these links for epidemiologic research and personalized medicine and lay out a translational research agenda for integrating the psychology of individual differences into public health and medicine. PMID:21766032

  3. Transgenerational programming of longevity and reproduction by post-eclosion dietary manipulation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Brian; de Belle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early-life diet may program one's health status by causing permanent alternations in specific organs, tissues, or metabolic or homeostatic pathways, and such programming effects may propagate across generations through heritable epigenetic modifications. However, it remains uninvestigated whether postnatal dietary changes may program longevity across generations. To address this question of important biological and public health implications, newly-born flies (F0) were collected and subjected to various post-eclosion dietary manipulations (PDMs) with different protein-carbohydrate (i.e., LP, IP or HP for low-, intermediate- or high-protein) contents or a control diet (CD). Longevity and fecundity analyses were performed with these treated F0 flies and their F1, F2 and F3 offspring, while maintained on CD at all times. The LP and HP PDMs shortened longevity, while the IP PDM extended longevity significantly up to the F3 generation. Furthermore, the LP reduced while the IP PDM increased lifetime fecundity across the F0-F2 generations. Our observations establish the first animal model for studying transgenerational inheritance of nutritional programming of longevity, making it possible to investigate the underlying epigenetic mechanisms and identify gene targets for drug discovery in future studies. PMID:27025190

  4. AKT1 fails to replicate as a longevity-associated gene in Danish and German nonagenarians and centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Marianne; Soerensen, Mette; Flachsbart, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    In addition to APOE and FOXO3, AKT1 has recently been suggested as a third consistent longevity gene, with variants in AKT1 found to be associated with human lifespan in two previous studies. Here, we evaluated AKT1 as a longevity-associated gene across populations by attempting to replicate the ...... not support AKT1 as a universal longevity-associated gene.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 August 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.196....

  5. Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoma Pauli V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. Results Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival. Cytochrome P450-enzymes, physiological factors in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis, generate oxysterols for the elimination of surplus cholesterol. Hepatic CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α is an important regulator of plasma HDL-C level. Gene-activators produce plasma lipoprotein profile, high HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, which is typical of low risk of atherosclerotic disease, and also of exceptional longevity together with reduced prevalence of cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases. High HDL contributes to protection against inflammation, oxidation and thrombosis, and associates with good cognitive function in very old people. Avoiding unhealthy stress and managing it properly promotes health and increases life expectancy. Conclusions Healthy living habits and gene-activating xenobiotics upregulate mechanisms that produce lipoprotein pattern typical of very old people and enhance longevity. Lipoprotein metabolism and large HDL2 associate with the process of living a very long life. Major future goals for health promotion are the improving of commitment to both wise lifestyle choices and drug therapy, and further the developing of new and more effective and well tolerated drugs and treatments.

  6. Genetics of human longevity with emphasis on the relevance of HSP70 as candidate genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvrå, Steen; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2007-01-01

    Human longevity is determined to a certain extent by genetic factors. Several candidate genes have been studied for their association with human longevity, but the data collected so far are inconclusive. One of the reasons is the choice of the candidate genes in addition to the choice...... of an appropriate study design and methodology. Since aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of molecular damage and an attenuation of the cellular defense mechanisms, the focus of studies on human longevity association with genes has now shifted to the pathways of cellular maintenance and repair...... mechanisms. One such pathway includes the battery of stress response genes, especially the heat shock protein HSP70 genes. Three such genes, HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L, are present within the MHC-III region on the short arm of chromosome 6. We and others have found alleles, genotypes and haplotypes which have...

  7. Geochemical factors in borehole-shaft plug longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical investigations that address factors controlling the longevity of repository sealing materials in a geochemical environment are discussed. Studies are being made of cement-based materials as major candidates for seals for borehole plugging, and shaft and tunnel sealing in certain potential repository environments. Factors controlling the extent of attainment of equilibrium of the plug components with time and the rate of approach to a state of stable equilibrium of the plug component chemical subsystem within the total system are discussed. The effect of these factors on changes in physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a seal system, and the consequent effectiveness of the seal in preventing transport of radioactive waste species are the dominant features to be determined. Laboratory experiments on the effects of anticipated temperature, pressure, and environmental factors (including chemical composition and specific rock type) are described. Thermodynamic studies are used to determine the potentially stable reaction products under conditions similar to those anticipated for the repository boreholes, shafts, and tunnels during and after the operating stage. Multitemperature reaction series are studied, and reaction kinetics are investigated for the purpose of predicting the course of likely reactions. Detailed studies of permeability, diffusion, and interfacial properties and chemical and microphase characterization of the products of experiments are carried out. Characterization studies of old and ancient cements, mortars, and concretes and prototype man-made seal materials are performed to further assess the factors associated with longevity

  8. Analysis of implantable defibrillator longevity under clinical circumstances: implications for device selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, Paul; Theuns, Dominic A M J; Res, Jan C J; Jordaens, Luc

    2009-10-01

    Information about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) longevity is mostly calculated from measurements under ideal laboratory conditions. However, little information about longevity under clinical circumstances is available. This survey gives an overview on ICD service times and generator replacements in a cohort of consecutive ICD patients. Indications for replacement were classified as a normal end-of-service (EOS), premature EOS, system malfunction, infection and device advisory, or recall actions. From the premature and normal EOS group, longevity from single-chamber (SC), dual-chamber (DC), and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), rate-responsive (RR) settings, high output (HO) stimulation, and indication for ICD therapy was compared. Differences between brands were compared as well. In a total of 854 patients, 203 ICD replacements (165 patients) were recorded. Premature and normal EOS replacements consisted of 32 SC, 98 DC and 24 CRT-D systems. Longevity was significantly longer in SC systems compared to DC and CRT-D systems (54 +/- 19 vs. 40 +/- 17 and 42 +/- 15 months; P = 0.008). Longevity between non-RR (n = 143) and RR (n = 11) settings was not significantly different (43 +/- 18 vs. 45 +/- 13 months) as it also was not for HO versus non-HO stimulation (43 +/- 19 vs. 46 +/- 17 months). Longevity of ICDs was not significantly different between primary and secondary prevention (42 +/- 19 vs. 44 +/- 18 months). The average longevity on account of a device-based EOS message was 43 +/- 18 months. Average longevity for Biotronik (BIO, n = 72) was 33 +/- 10 months, for ELA Medical (ELA, n = 12) 44 +/- 17 months, for Guidant (GDT, n = 36) 49 +/- 12 months, for Medtronic (MDT, n = 29) 62 +/- 22 months, and for St. Jude Medical (SJM, n = 5) 31 +/- 9 months (P generators had a longer service time compared to DC and CRT-D systems. No influence of indication for ICD therapy and HO stimulation on generator longevity was observed in this

  9. A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anne B; Walter, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Garcia, Melissa E; Slagboom, P Eline; Christensen, Kaare; Arnold, Alice M; Aspelund, Thor; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Christiansen, Lene; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Franceschini, Nora; Glazer, Nicole L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Kaplan, Robert; Karasik, David; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kiel, Douglas P; Launer, Lenore J; Marciante, Kristin D; Massaro, Joseph M; Miljkovic, Iva; Nalls, Michael A; Hernandez, Dena; Psaty, Bruce M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Taylor, Kent D; Tiemeier, Henning; Uh, Hae-Won; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaupel, James W; Walston, Jeremy; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Harris, Tamara B; Lumley, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Murabito, Joanne M

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort. There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p < .0001, but none reached the prespecified significance level of 5 x 10(-8). Of the most significant SNPs, 24 were independent signals, and 16 of these SNPs were successfully genotyped in the second discovery stage, with one association for rs9664222, reaching 6.77 x 10(-7) for the combined meta-analysis of CHARGE and the stage 2 cohorts. The SNP lies in a region near MINPP1 (chromosome 10), a well-conserved gene involved in regulation of cellular proliferation. The minor allele was associated with lower odds of survival past age 90 (odds ratio = 0.82). Associations of interest in a homologue of the longevity assurance gene (LASS3) and PAPPA2 were not strengthened in the second stage. Survival studies of larger size or more extreme or specific phenotypes may support or refine these initial findings.

  10. Exceptional longevity and muscle and fitness related genotypes: a functional in vitro analysis and case-control association replication study with SNPs THRH rs7832552, IL6 rs1800795 and ACSL1 rs6552828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki eFuku

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several gene variants that are candidates to influence functional capacity in long-lived individuals. As such, their potential association with exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., reaching 100+ years deserves analysis. Among them are rs7832552 in the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR gene, rs1800795 in the interleukin-6 (IL6 gene and rs6552828 in the coenzyme A synthetase long-chain 1 (ACSL1 gene. To gain insight into their functionality (which is yet unknown, here we determined for the first time luciferase gene reporter activity at the muscle tissue level in rs7832552 and rs6552828. We then compared allele/genotype frequencies of the 3 abovementioned variants among centenarians [n=138, age range 100-111 years (114 women] and healthy controls [n=334, 20-50 years (141 women] of the same ethnic and geographic origin (Spain. We also studied healthy centenarians [n=79, 100-104 years (40 women] and controls [n=316, 27-81 years (156 women] from Italy, and centenarians [n=742, 100-116 years (623 women] and healthy controls [n=499, 23-59 years (356 women] from Japan. The THRH rs7832552 T-allele and ACSL1 rs6552828 A-allele up-regulated luciferase activity compared to the C and G-allele, respectively (P≤0.001. Yet we found no significant association of EL with rs7832552, rs1800795 or rs6552828 in any of the 3 cohorts. Further research is needed with larger cohorts of centenarians of different origin as well as with younger old people.

  11. The longevity effect of echinacoside in Caenorhabditis elegans mediated through daf-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Zhang, Jiaolong; Lu, Lulu; Zhou, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Echinacoside (ECH), a natural polyphenolic compound, has been reported to possess important pharmacological activities. However, very little is known about whether or how ECH affects longevity in vivo. We have examined the effects of ECH on the life span and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our studies demonstrate that the life span of wild-type worms could be extended in the presence of ECH. Furthermore, ECH was found to increase tolerance of worms to heat shock and oxidative stress, while not exerting any influence on pharyngeal pumping rate and progeny production. Our mechanistic studies indicate that supplementation of ECH increases the transcript level of daf-16. ECH treatment also modulates the nuclear localization and transcriptional activities of daf-16, thus fine tunes the expression of daf-16 target genes to promote longevity and increases stress response in C. elegans. Overall, this work reveals the longevity effect of ECH and elucidates the underpinning mechanisms.

  12. Republic of Letters, Academies and Scientific Societies in the 18th Century: Leiden jar and science in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Tadeu Jardim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the panorama that underpins the construction of the first electric condenser, known as the Leiden Jar, will be presented. Besides, the themes about the construction of science which are relevant to be discussed in Physics classes that concerns the development of this apparatus will be pointed. For this purpose, a historical narrative was constructed from primary and secondary sources, and it was inspired by the historiographical strand called Cultural History of Science. Thus, we seek to emphasize how ways of spreading knowledge in the context of Scientific Academies, Scientific Societies and what has been called Republic of Letters in the eighteenth century, constitute substantial extra-laboratory scientific practices for an understanding of the development of the Leiden Jar. Finally, in accordance with results from researches in the area of Science Teaching, we present some thoughts upon which elements of this narrative could be taken to the classroom.

  13. Thrombophilic Genetic Factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A in Noncirrhotic Portal Vein Thrombosis and Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a Caucasian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D’Amico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilic genetic factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A were studied as risk factors in 235 Caucasian subjects: 85 patients with abdominal thrombosis (54 with portal vein thrombosis (PVT and 31 with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and 150 blood bank donors. Seventy-five patients with PVT/BCS showed associated disease or particular clinical status (46 PVT/29 BCS: 37 myeloproliferative neoplasm (20 PVT/17 BCS, 12 abdominal surgery (10 PVT/2 BCS, 10 contraception or pregnancy (6 PVT/4 BCS, 7 abdominal acute disease (6 PVT/1 BCS, and 9 chronic disease (4 PVT/5 BCS; ten patients did not present any association (8 PVT/2 BCS. PAI-14G-4G, MTHFR677TT, and V Leiden 506Q were significantly frequent (OR 95% CI and χ2 test with P value in abdominal thrombosis; in these patients PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT distributions deviated from that expected from a population in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (PAI-1: χ2=13.8, P<0.001; MTHFR677: χ2=7.1, P<0.01, whereas the equilibrium was respected in healthy controls. V Leiden Q506 and Prothrombin 20210A were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium both in patients with abdominal thrombosis and healthy controls. Our study shows an important role of PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT in abdominal thrombosis without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Longevity risks and capital markets: The 2010-2011 update

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, David; Courbage, Christophe; MacMinn, Richard; Sherris, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This Special Issue of Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice contains 10 contributions to the academic literature all dealing with longevity risk and capital markets. Draft versions of the papers were presented at Longevity Six: The Sixth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference that was held in Sydney on 9-10 September 2010. It was hosted by the Australian Institute for Population Ageing Research, the Australian School of Business and the Unive...

  15. A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan N; Wallace, Marita A; Tomilov, Alexey A; Zhou, Zeyu; Marcotte, George R; Tran, Dianna; Perez, Gabriella; Gutierrez-Casado, Elena; Koike, Shinichiro; Knotts, Trina A; Imai, Denise M; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Hagopian, Kevork; McMackin, Marissa Z; Haj, Fawaz G; Baar, Keith; Cortopassi, Gino A; Ramsey, Jon J; Lopez-Dominguez, Jose Alberto

    2017-09-05

    Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention. The ketogenic diet (KD) significantly increased median lifespan and survival compared to controls. In aged mice, only those consuming a KD displayed preservation of physiological function. The KD increased protein acetylation levels and regulated mTORC1 signaling in a tissue-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that a KD extends longevity and healthspan in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F; van der Spoel, E; Cobbaert, C M; Ballieux, B E; Egri, P; Kvarta-Papp, Z; Gereben, B; Fekete, C; Slagboom, P E; van der Grond, J; Demeneix, B A; Pijl, H; Westendorp, R G J; van Heemst, D

    2015-06-19

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism.

  17. Laboratory selection for increased longevity in Drosophila melanogaster reduces field performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Sarup, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    , environmental temperature and longevity selection on performance in the fieldwas tested. Flies fromlongevity selected and control lines of different ages (2, 5, 10 and 15 days) were released in an environment free of natural food sources. Control flies were tested at low, intermediate and high temperatures......Drosophilamelanogaster is frequently used in ageing studies to elucidate whichmechanisms determine the onset and progress of senescence. Lines selected for increased longevity have often been shown to performaswell as or superior to control lines in life history, stress resistance and behavioural......,while longevity selected flieswere tested at the intermediate temperature only. The ability of flies to locate and reach a food sourcewas tested. Flies of intermediate agewere generally better at locating resources than both younger and older flies, where hot and cold environments accelerate the senescent decline...

  18. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.H.Tang

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4

  19. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...

  20. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADULT MORTALITY RISK AND FAMILY HISTORY OF LONGEVITY: THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS

    OpenAIRE

    TEMBY, OWEN F.; SMITH, KEN R.

    2013-01-01

    Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from...

  1. Implications for public health of the religiosity-longevity relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Saad

    Full Text Available Summary A growing body of scientific studies has demonstrated a consistently positive association between religious-spiritual (R/S involvement and beneficial effects on physical health, culminating with increased longevity. This protective effect on the mortality risk is not only statistically significant but also clinically relevant. The mechanisms involved in this association include psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, greater adherence to healthy behaviors and diverse social factors. Public health strategies could better explore this association. This can be done on an individual (health professionals adopting simple measures or institutional scale (health institutions joining religious organizations. Some evidence suggests that the benefits of R/S to health and longevity would be more present in populations from more religious regions. In this sense, the Americas (Latin and North are privileged places for the exploration of this association, compared to regions where there is certain indifference about R/S practices. Exploring this interface can improve the supply and usage of health care, especially for marginalized populations. To achieve this, health professionals, religious leaders and policy makers need to work together.

  2. Telomeres, Nutrition, and Longevity: Can We Really Navigate Our Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidacek, Nikolina Škrobot; Nanic, Lucia; Ravlic, Sanda; Sopta, Mary; Geric, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Rubelj, Ivica

    2017-12-12

    Telomeres are dynamic chromosome-end structures that serve as guardians of genome stability. They are known to be one of the major determinants of aging and longevity in higher mammals. Studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between telomere length and life expectancy, stress, DNA damage, and onset of aging-related diseases. This review discusses the most important factors that influence our telomeres. Various genetic and environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, obesity, and stress are known to influence health and longevity as well as telomere dynamics. Individuals currently have the opportunity to modulate the dynamics of their aging and health span, monitor these processes, and even make future projections by following their telomere dynamics. As telomeres react to positive as well as negative health factors, we should be able to directly influence our telomere metabolism, slow their deterioration, and diminish our aging and perhaps extend our life and health span. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The rate of metabolism as a factor determining longevity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molon, Mateusz; Szajwaj, Monika; Tchorzewski, Marek; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Despite many controversies, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be used as a model organism for the study of aging. Numerous theories and hypotheses have been created for several decades, yet basic mechanisms of aging have remained unclear. Therefore, the principal aim of this work is to propose a possible mechanism leading to increased longevity in yeast. In this paper, we suggest for the first time that there is a link between decreased metabolic activity, fertility and longevity expressed as time of life in yeast. Determination of reproductive potential and total lifespan with the use of fob1Δ and sfp1Δ mutants allows us to compare the "longevity" presented as the number of produced daughters with the longevity expressed as the time of life. The results of analyses presented in this paper suggest the need for a change in the definition of longevity of yeast by taking into consideration the time parameter. The mutants that have been described as "long-lived" in the literature, such as the fob1Δ mutant, have an increased reproductive potential but live no longer than their standard counterparts. On the other hand, the sfp1Δ mutant and the wild-type strain produce a similar number of daughter cells, but the former lives much longer. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the decreased efficiency of the translational apparatus and the longevity of the sfp1Δ mutant. We suggest that a possible factor regulating the lifespan is the rate of cell metabolism. To measure the basic metabolism of the yeast cells, we used the isothermal microcalorimetry method. In the case of sfp1Δ, the flow of energy, ATP concentration, polysome profile and translational fitness are significantly lower in comparison with the wild-type strain and the fob1Δ mutant.

  4. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M and O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used

  5. The Frequency of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Mutations in Migraine Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhsen Öcal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Migraine is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, but its pathophysiology is still unclear. Genetic factors that predispose patients to thrombosis have been studied in patients with migraine to highlight the pathogenesis, but the results remain controversial. In this study, the frequencies of factor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin (Pt G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T mutations were investigated. METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients aged of 15 to 55 years with no history of systemic disease and who had been diagnosed as migraine according to the International Headache Society (IHS diagnostic criteria at Baskent University Hospital Neurology Outpatient Clinics were investigated for FVL, Pt G20210A and MTHFR C677T mutations from their genomic DNA, and the results were compared with those of healthy controls. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty five (96.9% of 160 migraine patients were homozygote normal, 5 (3.1% were heterozygote and none of them were homozygote mutant for FVL. The control group had 9.8% heterozygote individuals but the difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p> 0.05. There were no homozygote mutant individuals in the Turkish population study in normal subjects like our study. Thirty nine (24.4% of 160 migraine patients were heterozygote and 8 (5% were homozygote mutant for MTHFR C677T. The control group had 37 (34.9% heterozygote and 6 (5.6% homozygote mutant individuals. The difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p= 0.15. Three (1.9% of 160 migraine patients were heterozygote and 5 (2.9% of the control group were heterozygote mutant for Pt G20210A mutation. The control group had 37 (34.9% heterozygote and 6 (5.6% homozygote mutant individuals. The difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p= 0.420. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that FVL, Pt G20210A and MTHFR C677T gene mutations, which are considered

  6. The Frequency of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Mutations in Migraine Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhsen Öcal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Migraine is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, but its pathophysiology is still unclear. Genetic factors that predispose patients to thrombosis have been studied in patients with migraine to highlight the pathogenesis, but the results remain controversial. In this study, the frequencies of factor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin (Pt G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T mutations were investigated. METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients aged of 15 to 55 years with no history of systemic disease and who had been diagnosed as migraine according to the International Headache Society (IHS diagnostic criteria at Baskent University Hospital Neurology Outpatient Clinics were investigated for FVL, Pt G20210A and MTHFR C677T mutations from their genomic DNA, and the results were compared with those of healthy controls. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty five (96.9% of 160 migraine patients were homozygote normal, 5 (3.1% were heterozygote and none of them were homozygote mutant for FVL. The control group had 9.8% heterozygote individuals but the difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p> 0.05. There were no homozygote mutant individuals in the Turkish population study in normal subjects like our study. Thirty nine (24.4% of 160 migraine patients were heterozygote and 8 (5% were homozygote mutant for MTHFR C677T. The control group had 37 (34.9% heterozygote and 6 (5.6% homozygote mutant individuals. The difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p= 0.15. Three (1.9% of 160 migraine patients were heterozygote and 5 (2.9% of the control group were heterozygote mutant for Pt G20210A mutation. The control group had 37 (34.9% heterozygote and 6 (5.6% homozygote mutant individuals. The difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p= 0.420. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that FVL, Pt G20210A and MTHFR C677T gene mutations, which are considered

  7. Reduced prevalence of cognitive impairment in families with exceptional longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    with exceptional longevity are protected against cognitive impairment consistent with Alzheimer disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING Multisite study in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1870 individuals (1510 family members and 360 spouse controls) recruited...... through the Long Life Family Study. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Prevalence of cognitive impairment based on a diagnostic algorithm validated using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data set. RESULTS The cognitive algorithm classified 546 individuals (38.5%) as having cognitive impairment...... consistent with Alzheimer disease. Long Life Family Study probands had a slightly but not statistically significant reduced risk of cognitive impairment compared with spouse controls (121 of 232 for probands vs 45 of 103 for spouse controls; odds ratio = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.4), whereas Long Life Family Study...

  8. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118 nonagenarian Caucasian...

  9. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity: The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    2016-01-01

    develop an overlapping-generations model in continuous time that encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for trend increases in both longevity and productivity, we address the normative issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...

  10. Mitonuclear protein imbalance as a conserved longevity mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Ryu, Dongryeol; Moullan, Norman; Katsyuba, Elena; Knott, Graham; Williams, Robert W.; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Longevity is regulated by a network of closely linked metabolic systems. We used a combination of mouse population genetics and RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify mitochondrial ribosomal protein S5 (Mrps5) and other mitochondrial ribosomal proteins as metabolic and longevity

  11. What are the longevities of teeth and oral implants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Lang, Niklaus P; Müller, Frauke

    2007-01-01

    To analyse tooth loss and to evaluate the longevity of healthy teeth and teeth compromised by diseases and influenced by therapy as well as that of oral implants.......To analyse tooth loss and to evaluate the longevity of healthy teeth and teeth compromised by diseases and influenced by therapy as well as that of oral implants....

  12. The association between adult mortality risk and family history of longevity: the moderating effects of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temby, Owen F; Smith, Ken R

    2014-11-01

    Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual's history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene-environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity.

  13. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  14. Preferences of heart failure patients in daily clinical practice : quality of life or longevity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, Imke H; Vermeulen, Karin M; Luttik, Marie Louise A; Hoekstra, Tialda; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Knowledge of patient preferences is vital for delivering optimal healthcare. This study uses utility measurement to assess the preferences of heart failure (HF) patients regarding quality of life or longevity. The utility approach represents the perspective of a patient; facilitates the

  15. Preferences of heart failure patients in daily clinical practice : quality of life or longevity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, Imke H.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Luttik, Marie Louise A.; Hoekstra, Tialda; Jaarsma, Trijntje; Hillege, Hans L.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of patient preferences is vital for delivering optimal healthcare. This study uses utility measurement to assess the preferences of heart failure (HF) patients regarding quality of life or longevity. The utility approach represents the perspective of a patient; facilitates the combination

  16. Longevity in services: the case of the Dutch warehousing companies 1600-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Driel (Hugo); H.W. Volberda (Henk); S. Eikelboom

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we explore the factors that determine the longevity of firms. Five central factors were distilled from the literature: position in the supply chain, the nature of the technology used, structure, culture, and financial policy. We made an extensive case-study of the Dutch

  17. Induction of autophagy by spermidine promotes longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Knauer, Heide; Schauer, Alexandra; Büttner, Sabrina; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Ring, Julia; Schroeder, Sabrina; Magnes, Christoph; Antonacci, Lucia; Fussi, Heike; Deszcz, Luiza; Hartl, Regina; Schraml, Elisabeth; Criollo, Alfredo; Megalou, Evgenia; Weiskopf, Daniela; Laun, Peter; Heeren, Gino; Breitenbach, Michael; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Herker, Eva; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Sinner, Frank; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Minois, Nadege; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2009-11-01

    Ageing results from complex genetically and epigenetically programmed processes that are elicited in part by noxious or stressful events that cause programmed cell death. Here, we report that administration of spermidine, a natural polyamine whose intracellular concentration declines during human ageing, markedly extended the lifespan of yeast, flies and worms, and human immune cells. In addition, spermidine administration potently inhibited oxidative stress in ageing mice. In ageing yeast, spermidine treatment triggered epigenetic deacetylation of histone H3 through inhibition of histone acetyltransferases (HAT), suppressing oxidative stress and necrosis. Conversely, depletion of endogenous polyamines led to hyperacetylation, generation of reactive oxygen species, early necrotic death and decreased lifespan. The altered acetylation status of the chromatin led to significant upregulation of various autophagy-related transcripts, triggering autophagy in yeast, flies, worms and human cells. Finally, we found that enhanced autophagy is crucial for polyamine-induced suppression of necrosis and enhanced longevity.

  18. [Longevity, disease, and duration of disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S

    1996-12-01

    Disability and the resulting lowered quality of life are serious issues accompanying increased longevity. Active life expectancy #(8) can be to used to distinguish the number of years without disability from the number with disability; increases were found in both in longevity #(9, 19). With the same rate of age-related new disability in the cohorts between 1970 and 1990, the total disability increased three fold #(11). In elderly patients I showed that 1) the duration of disability of those at a specific age at death (predeath) #(1) increased with age, and it decreased in those who remained without disability, 2) the cumulative number of days of disability for patients who died at a specific age (a convolution function of predeath and mortality) #(2), approached a normal distribution, which is consistent with the central limit theorem, 3) competing risk with chronic disease in a patient greatly affects the incidence and duration of disability, 4) using the central limit theorem we can predict that preventing dementia will retard premature rectangularization of the disability-free survival curve, and will thus reduce the total disability, 5) disability is an example of how variation and selection of chronic diseases (disease Darwinism) can alter population structure. Insights into the evolution of senescence #(14-21), pleiotropy, and slower rates of molecular evolution in the core than at the border #(26, 27), reveal that the central nervous system is relatively robust and conservative for pleiotropy and may senesce relatively slowly, which support a new way of thinking #(3, 4) about old age. To minimize disability, public knowledge and education about an ideal lifestyle and the evolution of senescence is essential.

  19. Detecting genes contributing to longevity using twin data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begun Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Searching for genes contributing to longevity is a typical task in association analysis. A number of methods can be used for finding this association -- from the simplest method based on the technique of contingency tables to more complex algorithms involving demographic data, which allow us to estimate the genotype-specific hazard functions. The independence of individuals is the common assumption in all these methods. At the same time, data on related individuals such as twins are often used in genetic studies. This paper proposes an extension of the relative risk model to encompass twin data. We estimate the power and also discuss what happens if we treat the twin data using the univariate model.

  20. Three measures of longevity: time trends and record values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth......This article examines the trend over time in the measures of “typical” longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  1. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R; Slade, Martin D; Kunkel, Suzanne R; Kasl, Stanislav V

    2002-08-01

    This research found that older individuals with more positive self-perceptions of aging, measured up to 23 years earlier, lived 7.5 years longer than those with less positive self-perceptions of aging. This advantage remained after age, gender, socioeconomic status, loneliness, and functional health were included as covariates. It was also found that this effect is partially mediated by will to live. The sample consisted of 660 individuals aged 50 and older who participated in a community-based survey, the Ohio Longitudinal Study of Aging and Retirement (OLSAR). By matching the OLSAR to mortality data recently obtained from the National Death Index, the authors were able to conduct survival analyses. The findings suggest that the self-perceptions of stigmatized groups can influence longevity.

  2. Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented co...... applications. The methods presented are implemented in such a way that large and complex quantitative genetic data can be analyzed......A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant...

  3. Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented co...... applications. The methods presented are implemented in such a way that large and complex quantitative genetic data can be analyzed......A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant...

  4. Variance in centrality within rock hyrax social networks predicts adult longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Barocas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In communal mammals the levels of social interaction among group members vary considerably. In recent years, biologists have realized that within-group interactions may affect survival of the group members. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the social integration of adult females is positively associated with infant survival, and female longevity is affected by the strength and stability of the individual social bonds. Our aim was to determine the social factors that influence adult longevity in social mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a model system, we studied the social rock hyrax (Procavia capensis, a plural breeder with low reproductive skew, whose groups are mainly composed of females. We applied network theory using 11 years of behavioral data to quantify the centrality of individuals within groups, and found adult longevity to be inversely correlated to the variance in centrality. In other words, animals in groups with more equal associations lived longer. Individual centrality was not correlated with longevity, implying that social tension may affect all group members and not only the weakest or less connected ones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our novel findings support previous studies emphasizing the adaptive value of social associations and the consequences of inequality among adults within social groups. However, contrary to previous studies, we suggest that it is not the number or strength of associations that an adult individual has (i.e. centrality that is important, but the overall configuration of social relationships within the group (i.e. centrality SD that is a key factor in influencing longevity.

  5. Phenotypic presentation of thrombophilia in double heterozygote for factor v leiden and prothrombin 20210 G>A mutations: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagorni-Obradović Ljudmila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians usually do not suspect pulmonary thromboembolism in younger patients except in those who have thrombophilia. In those latter patients some special conditions such as trauma or surgery may provoke the disease. In some adult persons, thrombophilia may still remain unrecognized, until appearance of additional conditions influence development of thrombosis. A 55-year-old Caucasian female, non-smoker, experienced sudden chest pain and hemoptysis without chest trauma. History taking revealed type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. She was overweight with body mass index 29.0. The review of the family history revealed that her father and mother died of brain infarction, while her 22-year-old son and 24-year-old daughter were healthy. Due to suspicion for thrombosis, multi-slice computerized tomography thorax scan was done and pulmonary embolism was diagnosed. Although without clear risk factor for thrombosis in our patient, we performed laboratory investigation for congenital thrombophilia. Genetic analysis showed double heterozygous for factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210 G>A mutations. Congenital thrombophilia was risk factor for thrombosis in our patient but haemostatic imbalance was not previously clinically recognized. She had two pregnancies without complications. Appearance of other associative factors such as endocrine disorders - hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome with diabetes type 2, and overweigh were additional potential triggers for clinical manifestation of pulmonary thromboembolism in her adult age. Her children underwent genetic analysis, too. The son was also double heterozygous for factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210 G>A mutations, while daughter was heterozygous for factor V Leiden, and none had clinical signs of thrombosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON175081 i br. ON 175091

  6. Is rate of skin wound healing associated with aging or longevity phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2011-12-01

    Wound healing (WH) is a fundamental biological process. Is it associated with a longevity or aging phenotype? In an attempt to answer this question, we compared the established mouse models with genetically modified life span and also an altered rate of WH in the skin. Our analysis showed that the rate of skin WH in advanced ages (but not in the young animals) may be used as a marker for biological age, i.e., to be indicative of the longevity or aging phenotype. The ability to preserve the rate of skin WH up to an old age appears to be associated with a longevity phenotype, whereas a decline in WH-with an aging phenotype. In the young, this relationship is more complex and might even be inversed. While the aging process is likely to cause wounds to heal slowly, an altered WH rate in younger animals could indicate a different cellular proliferation and/or migration capacity, which is likely to affect other major processes such as the onset and progression of cancer. As a point for future studies on WH and longevity, using only young animals might yield confusing or misleading results, and therefore including older animals in the analysis is encouraged.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup D4a is a marker for extreme longevity in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Bilal

    Full Text Available We report results from the analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from 112 Japanese semi-supercentenarians (aged above 105 years combined with previously published data from 96 patients in each of three non-disease phenotypes: centenarians (99-105 years of age, healthy non-obese males, obese young males and four disease phenotypes, diabetics with and without angiopathy, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease patients. We analyze the correlation between mitochondrial polymorphisms and the longevity phenotype using two different methods. We first use an exhaustive algorithm to identify all maximal patterns of polymorphisms shared by at least five individuals and define a significance score for enrichment of the patterns in each phenotype relative to healthy normals. Our study confirms the correlations observed in a previous study showing enrichment of a hierarchy of haplogroups in the D clade for longevity. For the extreme longevity phenotype we see a single statistically significant signal: a progressive enrichment of certain "beneficial" patterns in centenarians and semi-supercentenarians in the D4a haplogroup. We then use Principal Component Spectral Analysis of the SNP-SNP Covariance Matrix to compare the measured eigenvalues to a Null distribution of eigenvalues on Gaussian datasets to determine whether the correlations in the data (due to longevity arises from some property of the mutations themselves or whether they are due to population structure. The conclusion is that the correlations are entirely due to population structure (phylogenetic tree. We find no signal for a functional mtDNA SNP correlated with longevity. The fact that the correlations are from the population structure suggests that hitch-hiking on autosomal events is a possible explanation for the observed correlations.

  8. Increased longevity of wireless Ad hoc network through fuzzy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Abdali Larki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ad hoc network is one of the multistep-based self-organizing networks, which are dynamically changing and are taken more into account as the ways of connecting the terminals through the development of wireless communication terminals. We are faced with numerous challenges in designing a wireless network such as the dynamic topology, common and limited bandwidth, and the limited energy. The nodes are moving according to the continuous changes in the topology and the source-to-destination paths are completely broken. Therefore, the repeated route discovery enhances the delay and overload of routing. Thus, it is essential to consider the link stability while designing the path in order to choose the routing protocol. Providing the multiple paths may lead to the better performance than a path. The transmission energy control in the wireless Ad hoc networks is the option for the level of transmission energy in order to transmit each node packet in this system. Therefore, transmission energy control affects the wireless medium interface. Because of choosing the appropriate protocol, the routing operation can be improved and the energy consumption can be controlled properly as well as enhancing the durability and longevity of network. The main objective of this study is to enhance the network longevity. The proposed algorithm in this research considers the combination of 2 parameters including the rate of node energy and number of steps in Fuzzy System applied on AOMDV Protocol, which is a Multipath Routing Protocol. The results of simulation also indicate the improved performance of proposed algorithm (AOMDV-F compared to AODV and AOMDV Protocols in NS2 simulator.

  9. Environmentally induced transgenerational changes in seed longevity: maternal and genetic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoni, A; Orsenigo, S; Donà, M; Balestrazzi, A; Probert, R J; Hay, F R; Petraglia, A; Abeli, T

    2014-06-01

    Seed longevity, a fundamental plant trait for ex situ conservation and persistence in the soil of many species, varies across populations and generations that experience different climates. This study investigates the extent to which differences in seed longevity are due to genetic differences and/or modified by adaptive responses to environmental changes. Seeds of two wild populations of Silene vulgaris from alpine (wA) and lowland (wL) locations and seeds originating from their cultivation in a lowland common garden for two generations (cA1, cL1, cA2 and cL2) were exposed to controlled ageing at 45 °C, 60 % relative humidity and regularly sampled for germination and relative mRNA quantification (SvHSP17.4 and SvNRPD12). The parental plant growth environment affected the longevity of seeds with high plasticity. Seeds of wL were significantly longer lived than those of wA. However, when alpine plants were grown in the common garden, longevity doubled for the first generation of seeds produced (cA1). Conversely, longevity was similar in all lowland seed lots and did not increase in the second generation of seeds produced from alpine plants grown in the common garden (cA2). Analysis of parental effects on mRNA seed provisioning indicated that the accumulation of gene transcripts involved in tolerance to heat stress was highest in wL, cL1 and cL2, followed by cA1, cA2 and wA. Seed longevity has a genetic basis, but may show strong adaptive responses, which are associated with differential accumulation of mRNA via parental effects. Adaptive adjustments of seed longevity due to transgenerational plasticity may play a fundamental role in the survival and persistence of the species in the face of future environmental challenges. The results suggest that regeneration location may have important implications for the conservation of alpine plants held in seed banks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All

  10. Health Status and Health Dynamics in an Empirical Model of Expected Longevity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Ni, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Expected longevity is an important factor influencing older individuals’ decisions such as consumption, savings, purchase of life insurance and annuities, claiming of Social Security benefits, and labor supply. It has also been shown to be a good predictor of actual longevity, which in turn is highly correlated with health status. A relatively new literature on health investments under uncertainty, which builds upon the seminal work by Grossman (1972), has directly linked longevity with characteristics, behaviors, and decisions by utility maximizing agents. Our empirical model can be understood within that theoretical framework as estimating a production function of longevity. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we directly incorporate health dynamics in explaining the variation in expected longevities, and compare two alternative measures of health dynamics: the self-reported health change, and the computed health change based on self-reports of health status. In 38% of the reports in our sample, computed health changes are inconsistent with the direct report on health changes over time. And another 15% of the sample can suffer from information losses if computed changes are used to assess changes in actual health. These potentially serious problems raise doubts regarding the use and interpretation of the computed health changes and even the lagged measures of self-reported health as controls for health dynamics in a variety of empirical settings. Our empirical results, controlling for both subjective and objective measures of health status and unobserved heterogeneity in reporting, suggest that self-reported health changes are a preferred measure of health dynamics. PMID:18187217

  11. Longevity of HDPE Geomembranes in Geoenvironmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewais, Amr Mohamed Ragab Abdel Samad

    With sufficient time, a high density polyethylene geomembrane will degrade and lose its engineering properties until ruptures signal the end of its service-life. This thesis examines the longevity of nine different geomembranes; five of them were of different thickness manufactured from the same resin. The degradation of properties and time to failure are investigated for geomembranes: in immersion tests; as a part of a landfill composite liner; and, exposed to the elements. The different thermal and stress histories associated with manufacturing geomembranes of different thickness are shown to affect their morphological structure; consequently, their stress crack resistance. When immersed in synthetic leachate, it was found that: (a) thicker geomembranes have a longer antioxidants depletion time but the effect of thickness decreases with temperature and is less than expected; (b) inferences of geomembrane's longevity based on its initial properties may be misleading because a geomembrane may chemically degrade (as manifested by the change in melt index) despite the presence of a significant amount of stabilizers (as manifested by the measured high pressure oxidative induction time); and, (c) stress crack resistance may change before antioxidant depletion or chemical degradation takes place, likely, due to changes in geomembrane morphological structure with the maximum decrease being observed at 55°C. Reductions also were measured for geomembrane immersed in air and water at 55°C. The geomembrane aged in a simulated landfill liner at 85°C is shown to have service-life as little as three years with 30,000 to >2.0 million ruptures/hectare at failure. For exposed geomembranes in Alumbrera (Argentina), samples were exhumed from two mine facilities after ~16 years of exposure. The antioxidants in exposed samples depleted to residual and the stress crack resistance had dropped to as low as 70 hours. Samples were exhumed from a different exposed geomembrane in a test

  12. A prospective clinical evaluation of the longevity of resorbable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-15

    Sep 15, 2012 ... Key words: Evaluation, longevity, oral, resorbable sutures, surgical procedure. Date of ... presence of saliva, specific microbiota, high vascularization, as well as its ..... documented the mean survival of vicryl in the oral cavity.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity and longevity in plants and animals: cause and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    not necessarily mutually exclusive theories to explain this extreme longevity, especially from the perspective of ... How density-dependent phenomena affecting the establishment .... shortening at each doubling event; telomerase activity.

  14. Human Longevity : nature vs nurture-fact or fiction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, B. A.; Jay Olshansky, S.; Gavrilov, L.; Gavrilova, N.; Grahn, D.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-04-01

    Genetic effects may have a greater influence on human longevity than biomedical intervention. An alternative perspective examines the heritability effects of genetic damage caused by free radicals within somatic cells, or genetic damage that accumulates over a lifetime.

  15. Staff Experiences of Media Representations of Paediatric Palliative Care: Implications for Wellbeing and Career Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    study examined representations of paediatric palliative care (PPC) available in the UK media. Furthermore, the study explored PPC nurses’ experiences of these representations, with consideration of the impact of these on wellbeing and career longevity.\\ud With research from the fields of media and cultural studies and medical sociology informing its theoretical basis, the study demonstrated how popularly held constructions of healthcare services and staff are influenced by media representatio...

  16. Information technology as a facilitator of suppliers’ collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness about the paramount importance of information technology within business in the context of large businesses. However, research about the investigation of the role of information technology resources in fostering collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in the small and medium enterprise sector has remained scant. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of information technology on collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in Zimbabwe’s SME sector. Five research hypotheses were posited and sample data from 162 small and medium enterprise suppliers were collected and used to empirically test the hypotheses. The results of this study showed that information technology resources positively influenced small and medium enterprise suppliers’ collaborative communication, network governance and consequential relationship longevity with their buyers in a significant way. Overall, the current study findings provided tentative support to the proposition that information technology resources, collaborative communication and network governance should be recognised as significant antecedents for improved relationship longevity between suppliers and their buyers in the SME setting. Therefore, managers in the small and medium enterprise sector and small and medium enterprise owners need to pay attention to both collaborative communication and network governance in order to optimise information technology resource impact on their relationship longevity with their business counterparts. Limitations and future research directions were also indicated.

  17. A prepared speech in front of a pre-recorded audience: subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses to the Leiden Public Speaking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, P Michiel; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Miers, Anne C; Sumter, Sindy R; Kallen, Victor L; van Pelt, Johannes; Blöte, Anke W

    2009-10-01

    This study describes a new public speaking protocol for youth. The main question asked whether a speech prepared at home and given in front of a pre-recorded audience creates a condition of social-evaluative threat. Findings showed that, on average, this task elicits a moderate stress response in a community sample of 83 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. During the speech, participants reported feeling more nervous and having higher heart rate and sweatiness of the hands than at baseline or recovery. Likewise, physiological (heart rate and skin conductance) and neuroendocrine (cortisol) activity were higher during the speech than at baseline or recovery. Additionally, an anticipation effect was observed: baseline levels were higher than recovery levels for most variables. Taking the anticipation and speech response together, a substantial cortisol response was observed for 55% of participants. The findings indicate that the Leiden Public Speaking Task might be particularly suited to investigate individual differences in sensitivity to social-evaluative situations.

  18. A comparative cellular and molecular biology of longevity database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jeffrey A; Liang, Ping; Luo, Xuemei; Page, Melissa M; Gallagher, Emily J; Christoff, Casey A; Robb, Ellen L

    2013-10-01

    Discovering key cellular and molecular traits that promote longevity is a major goal of aging and longevity research. One experimental strategy is to determine which traits have been selected during the evolution of longevity in naturally long-lived animal species. This comparative approach has been applied to lifespan research for nearly four decades, yielding hundreds of datasets describing aspects of cell and molecular biology hypothesized to relate to animal longevity. Here, we introduce a Comparative Cellular and Molecular Biology of Longevity Database, available at ( http://genomics.brocku.ca/ccmbl/ ), as a compendium of comparative cell and molecular data presented in the context of longevity. This open access database will facilitate the meta-analysis of amalgamated datasets using standardized maximum lifespan (MLSP) data (from AnAge). The first edition contains over 800 data records describing experimental measurements of cellular stress resistance, reactive oxygen species metabolism, membrane composition, protein homeostasis, and genome homeostasis as they relate to vertebrate species MLSP. The purpose of this review is to introduce the database and briefly demonstrate its use in the meta-analysis of combined datasets.

  19. Confirming candidate genes for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster using two different genetic backgrounds and selection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke; Frydenberg, Jane; Sarup, Pernille Merete

    2013-01-01

    usually focussed on one sex and on flies originating from one genetic background, and results from different studies often do not overlap. Using D. melanogaster selected for increased longevity we aimed to find robust longevity related genes by examining gene expression in both sexes of flies originating......Elucidating genes that affect life span or that can be used as biomarkers for ageing has received attention in diverse studies in recent years. Using model organisms and various approaches several genes have been linked to the longevity phenotype. For Drosophila melanogaster those studies have...... from different genetic backgrounds. Further, we compared expression changes across three ages, when flies were young, middle aged or old, to examine how candidate gene expression changes with the onset of ageing. We selected 10 genes based on their expression differences in prior microarray studies...

  20. High blood pressure at old age : The Leiden 85 plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Thomas van

    2010-01-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing interest in treatment of high blood pressure. Copious amounts of data have been published on the mortality and morbidity risks of high blood pressure. Overall these data have resulted in an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of only modest

  1. Reference values for anxiety questionnaires: the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; de Waal, Margot W M; Carlier, Ingrid V E

    2013-09-25

    The monitoring of patients with an anxiety disorder can benefit from Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). As anxiety disorders differ in phenomenology, several anxiety questionnaires are included in ROM: Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA), PADUA Inventory Revised (PI-R), Panic Appraisal Inventory (PAI), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ), Social Interaction, Anxiety Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). We aimed to generate reference values for both 'healthy' and 'clinically anxious' populations for these anxiety questionnaires. We included 1295 subjects from the general population (ROM reference-group) and 5066 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with a specific anxiety disorder (ROM patient-group). The MINI was used as diagnostic device in both the ROM reference group and the ROM patient group. To define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentile; P95) the outermost 5% of observations were used. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to yield alternative cut-off values for the anxiety questionnaires. For the ROM reference-group the mean age was 40.3 years (SD=12.6), and for the ROM patient-group it was 36.5 years (SD=11.9). Females constituted 62.8% of the reference-group and 64.4% of the patient-group. P95 ROM reference group cut-off values for reference versus clinically anxious populations were 11 for the BSA, 43 for the PI-R, 37 for the PAI Anticipated Panic, 47 for the PAI Perceived Consequences, 65 for the PAI Perceived Self-efficacy, 66 for the PSWQ, 74 for the WDQ, 32 for the SIAS, 19 for the SPS, and 36 for IES-R. ROC analyses yielded slightly lower reference values. The discriminative power of all eight anxiety questionnaires was very high. Substantial non-response and limited generalizability. For eight anxiety questionnaires a comprehensive set of reference values was provided. Reference values were generally higher in women than in men, implying the use of gender-specific cut-off values. Each instrument can be offered to every patient with MAS disorders to make responsible decisions about continuing, changing or terminating therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reference values for generic instruments used in routine outcome monitoring: the leiden routine outcome monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte-van Maaren Yvonne WM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, Mood & Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire −30 (MASQ-D30, Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36, and Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF are generic instruments that can be used in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM of patients with common mental disorders. We aimed to generate reference values usually encountered in 'healthy' and ‘psychiatrically ill’ populations to facilitate correct interpretation of ROM results. Methods We included the following specific reference populations: 1294 subjects from the general population (ROM reference group recruited through general practitioners, and 5269 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with mood, anxiety, or somatoform (MAS disorders (ROM patient group. The outermost 5% of observations were used to define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentiles for BSI, MASQ-D30 and DAPP-SF, and 5th percentiles for SF-36 subscales. Internal consistency and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analyses were performed. Results Mean age for the ROM reference group was 40.3 years (SD=12.6 and 37.7 years (SD=12.0 for the ROM patient group. The proportion of females was 62.8% and 64.6%, respectively. The mean for cut-off values of healthy individuals was 0.82 for the BSI subscales, 23 for the three MASQ-D30 subscales, 45 for the SF-36 subscales, and 3.1 for the DAPP-SF subscales. Discriminative power of the BSI, MASQ-D30 and SF-36 was good, but it was poor for the DAPP-SF. For all instruments, the internal consistency of the subscales ranged from adequate to excellent. Discussion and conclusion Reference values for the clinical interpretation were provided for the BSI, MASQ-D30, SF-36, and DAPP-SF. Clinical information aided by ROM data may represent the best means to appraise the clinical state of psychiatric outpatients.

  3. The Timing Effects of Reward, Business Longevity, and Involvement on Consumers’ Responses to a Reward Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Munir Sukoco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Managers could elicit customers’ repeat purchase behavior through a well-designed reward program. This study examines two extrinsic cues - business longevity and timing effects of reward – to determine the consumers’ perceived risk and intention to participate in this kind of program. Moreover, this study discusses how different levels of involvement might interact with these two cues. An experiment with a 2 (business longevity: long vs. short x 2 (timing of reward: delayed vs. immediate x 2 (involvement: high vs. low between-subject factorial design is conducted to validate the proposed research hypotheses. The results show that an immediate reward offered by an older, more established, firm for a highly-involved product, make loyalty programs less risky and consequently attract consumers to participate. Interestingly, immediate rewards that are offered by older firms for a product that customers are less involved in has the opposite effects. Managerial and academic implications are further presented in this study.

  4. List of the primary types of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) deposited in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, and the Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kojima, J.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    The primary types of social wasp subfamilies Vespinae, Polistinae and Stenogastrinae housed in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum in Leiden and the Zoölogisch Museum in Amsterdam are listed. Their complete label data are given unless they are available elsewhere. Lectotypes of Polistes snelleni

  5. The Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) Survey of Galactic HI : Final data release of the combined LDS and IAR surveys with improved stray-radiation corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaberla, P.M.W.; Burton, W.B.; Hartmann, L.; Arnal, E.M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W.G.L.

    2005-01-01

    We present the final data release of observations of ?21-cm emission from Galactic neutral hydrogen over the entire sky, merging the Leiden/Dwingeloo Survey (LDS: Hartmann & Burton 1997, Atlas of Galactic Neutral Hydrogen) of the sky north of ? = ?30? with the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía

  6. An early 'handwritten' shell exchange catalogue of the Leiden Museum, with notes on the collectors Rethaan Macaré and Tischbein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    2013-01-01

    A ‘handwritten’ (lithographed) shell exchange catalogue of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), dated 1850 and containing 864 nominal taxa (861 molluscs and 3 brachiopods), is discussed in the context of the history of the museum. This catalogue must have been

  7. African Studies Abstracts Online : number 53, 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    African Studies Centre Leiden (ASCL),

    2016-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 53 (2016). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  8. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 53, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    African Studies Centre Leiden (ASCL)

    2016-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 53 (2016). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  9. Mechanisms by Which Different Functional States of Mitochondria Define Yeast Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Svistkova, Veronika; Lutchman, Vicky; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial functionality is vital to organismal physiology. A body of evidence supports the notion that an age-related progressive decline in mitochondrial function is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes. Studies of the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unicellular eukaryote, have led to discoveries of genes, signaling pathways and chemical compounds that modulate longevity-defining cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms across phyla. These studies have provided deep insights into mechanistic links that exist between different traits of mitochondrial functionality and cellular aging. The molecular mechanisms underlying the essential role of mitochondria as signaling organelles in yeast aging have begun to emerge. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding mechanisms by which different functional states of mitochondria define yeast longevity, outline the most important unanswered questions and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25768339

  10. Mechanisms by Which Different Functional States of Mitochondria Define Yeast Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Beach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial functionality is vital to organismal physiology. A body of evidence supports the notion that an age-related progressive decline in mitochondrial function is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes. Studies of the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unicellular eukaryote, have led to discoveries of genes, signaling pathways and chemical compounds that modulate longevity-defining cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms across phyla. These studies have provided deep insights into mechanistic links that exist between different traits of mitochondrial functionality and cellular aging. The molecular mechanisms underlying the essential role of mitochondria as signaling organelles in yeast aging have begun to emerge. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding mechanisms by which different functional states of mitochondria define yeast longevity, outline the most important unanswered questions and suggest directions for future research.

  11. The impact of hair coat color on longevity of Holstein cows in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C N; Baek, K S; Parkhurst, A

    2016-01-01

    Over two decades of observations in the field in South East Asia and Hawai'i suggest that majority of the commercial dairy herds are of black hair coat. Hence a simple study to determine the accuracy of the observation was conducted with two large dairy herds in Hawaii in the mid-1990s. A retrospective study on longevity of Holstein cattle in the tropics was conducted using DairyComp-305 lactation information coupled with phenotypic evaluation of hair coat color in two large dairy farms. Cows were classified into 3 groups: a) black (B, >90%); b) black/white (BW, 50:50) and c) white (W, >90%). Cows with other hair coat distribution were excluded from the study. In farm A, 211 out of 970 cows were identified having 4 or more lactations. In farm B, 690 out of 1,350 cows were identified with 2 or more lactations for the study. The regression analyses and the Wilcoxon-Log-rank test for survival probability showed that Holstein cattle with 90% black hair coat had greater longevity compared to Holstein cattle with 90% white hair coat. This study suggests that longevity of Holstein cattle in tropical regions was influenced by hair coat color and characteristics.

  12. [AGING, HEALTH AND ACTIVE LONGEVITY: SEMANTIC CONTEXT OF THEIR MENTIONING IN SOCIAL NETWORKS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, I A; Bikkulov, A S

    2015-01-01

    Traditional media play a large role in shaping the image of oldsters as weak and sick members of society, while the gerontologists say the health of the elderly is quite specific. In a study of the views of the Internet audience, we tried to find out what this IT-competent part of society thinks on aging, what meanings they associate with aging and active longevity.

  13. The challenges in moving from ageing to successful longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Barzilai, Nir; Caruso, Calogero; Sikora, Ewa; Capri, Miriam; Tzanetakou, Irene P; Bilianou, Helen; Avery, Peter; Katsiki, Niki; Panotopoulos, George; Franceschi, Claudio; Benetos, Athanase; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades survival has significantly improved and centenarians are becoming a fast-growing group of the population. Human life span is mainly dependent on environmental and genetic factors. Favourable modifications of lifestyle factors (e.g. physical activity, diet and not smoking) and healthcare (e.g. effective vascular disease prevention) have also increased human life span. Genetic factors contribute to the variation of human life span by around 25%, which is believed to be more profound after 85 years of age. It is likely that multiple factors influence life span and we need answers to questions such as: 1) What does it take to reach 100?, 2) Do centenarians have better health during their lifespan compared with contemporaries who died at a younger age?, 3) Do centenarians have protective modifications of body composition, fat distribution and energy expenditure, maintain high physical and cognitive function, and sustained engagement in social and productive activities?, 4) Do centenarians have genes which contribute to longevity?, 5) Do centenarians benefit from epigenetic phenomena?, 6) Is it possible to influence the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (epigenetic memory) which leads to longevity?, 7) Is the influence of nutrigenomics important for longevity?, 8) Do centenarians benefit more from drug treatment, particularly in primary prevention?, and, 9) Are there any potential goals for drug research? Many definitions of successful ageing have been proposed, but at present there is no consensus definition. Such definitions may need to differentiate between "Longevity Syndrome" and "Exceptional Longevity".

  14. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of longevity represents a significant welfare opportunity for the domestic dog, given its unparalleled morphological diversity. Epidemiological research using electronic patient records (EPRs) collected from primary veterinary practices overcomes many inherent limitations of referral clinic, owner questionnaire and pet insurance data. Clinical health data from 102,609 owned dogs attending first opinion veterinary practices (n=86) in central and southeast England were analysed, focusing on 5095 confirmed deaths. Of deceased dogs with information available, 3961 (77.9%) were purebred, 2386 (47.0%) were female, 2528 (49.8%) were neutered and 1105 (21.7%) were insured. The overall median longevity was 12.0 years (IQR 8.9-14.2). The longest-lived breeds were the Miniature poodle, Bearded collie, Border collie and Miniature dachshund, while the shortest-lived were the Dogue de Bordeaux and Great Dane. The most frequently attributed causes of death were neoplastic, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The results of multivariable modelling indicated that longevity in crossbred dogs exceeded purebred dogs by 1.2 years (95% confidence interval 0.9-1.4; P<0.001) and that increasing bodyweight was negatively correlated with longevity. The current findings highlight major breed differences for longevity and support the concept of hybrid vigour in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphisms in retinopathy of prematurity in a Turkish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hatip; Gunay, Murat; Celik, Gokhan; Gunay, Betul Onal; Aydin, Umeyye Taka; Karaman, Ali

    2016-12-01

    To assess Factor V Leiden (FVL) (rs6025), Prothrombin G20210A (rs1799963), MTHFR C677T (rs1801133), and MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) gene mutations as risk factors in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A total of 105 children were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of 55 infants with a history of ROP and the control group comprised 50 healthy infants with term birth. All subjects were screened for the presence of certain mutations (FVL, Prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C) by Real-Time PCR at 1 year of age. The mean gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) of the study group were, 28.65 ± 2.85 weeks and 1171 ± 385.74 g, respectively. There were no significant differences of genotype and allele frequency of Prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR A1298C and MTHFR C677T between the study and control groups (p > 0.05). Eight children (14.5 %) had heterozygous and one child (1.8%) had homozygous FVL mutation in the study group. One child (2%) in the control group had heterozygous FVL mutation. There was statistically significant differences of FVL allele and genotype frequencies between the groups (p < 0.05). The prevalence of FVL polymorphism (16.3 %) was higher in ROP patients than control subjects in this Turkish cohort. We suggest a possible association of FVL mutation with ROP at the end of the study.

  16. Immunochip analysis identifies association of the RAD50/IL13 region with human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Ellinghaus, David; Gentschew, Liljana; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Caliebe, Amke; Christiansen, Lene; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare; Blanché, Hélène; Deleuze, Jean-François; Derbois, Céline; Galan, Pilar; Büning, Carsten; Brand, Stephan; Peters, Anette; Strauch, Konstantin; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Schreiber, Stefan; Nebel, Almut

    2016-06-01

    Human longevity is characterized by a remarkable lack of confirmed genetic associations. Here, we report on the identification of a novel locus for longevity in the RAD50/IL13 region on chromosome 5q31.1 using a combined European sample of 3208 long-lived individuals (LLI) and 8919 younger controls. First, we performed a large-scale association study on 1458 German LLI (mean age 99.0 years) and 6368 controls (mean age 57.2 years) by targeting known immune-associated loci covered by the Immunochip. The analysis of 142 136 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed an Immunochip-wide significant signal (PI mmunochip  = 7.01 × 10(-9) ) for the SNP rs2075650 in the TOMM40/APOE region, which has been previously described in the context of human longevity. To identify novel susceptibility loci, we selected 15 markers with PI mmunochip  association at SNP rs2706372 replicated in the French study collection and showed a similar trend in the Danish participants and was also significant in a meta-analysis of the combined French and Danish data after adjusting for multiple testing. In a meta-analysis of all three samples, rs2706372 reached a P-value of PI mmunochip+Repl  = 5.42 × 10(-7) (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.12-1.28). SNP rs2706372 is located in the extended RAD50/IL13 region. RAD50 seems a plausible longevity candidate due to its involvement in DNA repair and inflammation. Further studies are needed to identify the functional variant(s) that predispose(s) to a long and healthy life. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Three dimensions of the survival curve: horizontalization, verticalization, and longevity extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Siu Lan Karen; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tu, Edward Jow-Ching; Caselli, Graziella

    2005-05-01

    Three dimensions of the survival curve have been developed: (1) "horizontalization," which corresponds to how long a cohort and how many survivors can live before aging-related deaths significantly decrease the proportion of survivors; (2) "verticalization," which corresponds to how concentrated aging-related ("normal") deaths are around the modal age at death (M); and (3) "longevity extension," which corresponds to how far the highest normal life durations can exceed M. Our study shows that the degree of horizontalization increased relatively less than the degree of verticalization in Hong Kong from 1976 to 2001. After age normalization, the highest normal life durations moved closer to M, implying that the increase in human longevity is meeting some resistance.

  18. Effect of dystocia on subsequent reproductive performance and functional longevity in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dystocia on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in Iranian Holsteins. Data consisted of 1 467 064 lactation records of 581 421 Holstein cows from 3083 herds which were collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran from April 1987 to February 2014. Reproduction traits in this study included interval from first to second calving, days open and days from first calving to first service. The generalized linear model was used for the statistical analysis of reproductive traits. Survival analysis was performed using the Weibull proportional hazards models to analyse the impact of dystocia on functional longevity. The incidence of dystocia had an adverse effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Therefore, reproductive traits deteriorated along with increase in dystocia score (p dystocia (p 33 months had the greatest risk (p dystocia had important negative effects on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in dairy cows, and it should be avoided as much as possible to provide a good perspective in the scope of economic and animal welfare issues in dairy herds. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Intellectual maturity and longevity: late-blooming composers and writers live longer than child prodigies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkamp, Maurits P J; Slaets, Joris P J; van Bodegom, David

    2017-05-30

    Life history theory links human physical and sexual development to longevity. However, there have been no studies on the association of intellectual development with longevity. This observational study investigates the relationship between the onset of intellectual maturity and lifespan through the life histories of composers and creative writers, whose intellectual development can be gauged through their compositions and writings. In these groups we model the relationship between the age at first creative work, and age at death using multilevel regression, adjusting for sex, date of birth, and nationality. Historical biographical records on 1110 musical composers and 1182 creative writers, born in the period 1400 AD through 1915 AD, were obtained from the Oxford Companion to Music and the Oxford Companion to English Literature. Composers and creative writers lived, respectively 0.16 ( p = 0.02) and 0.18 ( p < 0.01) years longer for each later year of age at first work. When completion of the first creative work is interpreted as a proxy for the onset of intellectual maturity in composers and creative writers, our findings indicate that a later onset of intellectual maturity is associated with higher longevity.

  20. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used...... to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae...... buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per...

  1. The relative tail of longevity and the mean remaining lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Vaupel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaupel (1998 posed the provocative question, "When it comes to death, how do people and flies differ from Toyotas?" He suggested that as the force of natural selection diminishes with age, structural reliability concepts can be profitably used in mortality analysis. Vaupel (2003 went a step further, using simulations to investigate the impact of redundancy, repair capacity, and heterogeneity on the relative length of post-reproductive life spans, called relative tails of longevity. His 2003 paper showed that structural redundancy and the possibility of repair decrease the relative tail of longevity, whereas greater heterogeneity increases it. Here, we consider the problem in much greater generality and prove these results analytically. Structures with repairable and non-repairable components are considered. Heterogeneity is described by a frailty-type model and different definitions of the tail of longevity are discussed.

  2. Running as a Key Lifestyle Medicine for Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck-Chul; Brellenthin, Angelique G; Thompson, Paul D; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, I-Min; Lavie, Carl J

    Running is a popular and convenient leisure-time physical activity (PA) with a significant impact on longevity. In general, runners have a 25%-40% reduced risk of premature mortality and live approximately 3 years longer than non-runners. Recently, specific questions have emerged regarding the extent of the health benefits of running versus other types of PA, and perhaps more critically, whether there are diminishing returns on health and mortality outcomes with higher amounts of running. This review details the findings surrounding the impact of running on various health outcomes and premature mortality, highlights plausible underlying mechanisms linking running with chronic disease prevention and longevity, identifies the estimated additional life expectancy among runners and other active individuals, and discusses whether there is adequate evidence to suggest that longevity benefits are attenuated with higher doses of running. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  4. Arbutin increases Caenorhabditis elegans longevity and stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbutin (p-hydroxyphenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor, has been widely used as a cosmetic whitening agent. Although its natural role is to scavenge free radicals within cells, it has also exhibited useful activities for the treatment of diuresis, bacterial infections and cancer, as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-tussive activities. Because function of free radical scavenging is also related to antioxidant and the effects of arbutin on longevity and stress resistance in animals have not yet been confirmed, here the effects of arbutin on Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated. The results demonstrated that optimal concentrations of arbutin could extend lifespan and enhance resistance to oxidative stress. The underlying molecular mechanism for these effects involves decreased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, improvement of daf-16 nuclear localization, and up-regulated expression of daf-16 and its downstream targets, including sod-3 and hsp16.2. In this work the roles of arbutin in lifespan and health are studied and the results support that arbutin is an antioxidant for maintaining overall health.

  5. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vinicius

    Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.

  6. Yield, quality and longevity of stems of Photinia fraseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The greens understand cutting the shoots of the plant without the flower, but with ornamental feature to the composition of arrangements. In Sierra of Santa Catarina a species that has emerged is the Photinia fraseri, known by the common name of fotinia, which features distinctive color of its leaves. The aim of this study was to assess the yield of stems and durability of this species in solutions containing sucrose and temperature. Were collected during two periods, 10 stems in each of the cutting heights (10, 30 and 50cm, classified by size, (CL1 greater than or equal to 60cm, (CL2 and between 60 and 45cm (CL3 less than 45cm and quantified. To test the durability stems greater than 60cm were subjected to aqueous solutions of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% sucrose for 24h at two temperatures and evaluated according to the stage of senescence (I, or II. The largest increase in number of stems at harvest was held in march in relation to november. The stems are longer, obtained after the long period of growth, harvest months of march and let the merchant handle best to use them in floral arrangements. This species has great potential in post-harvest, since the longevity of the stems with maintaining your ornamental quality is far superior to most plants grown as cut foliage.

  7. Vertebral bomb radiocarbon suggests extreme longevity in white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamady, Li Ling; Natanson, Lisa J; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and management efforts for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) remain hampered by a lack of basic demographic information including age and growth rates. Sharks are typically aged by counting growth bands sequentially deposited in their vertebrae, but the assumption of annual deposition of these band pairs requires testing. We compared radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) values in vertebrae from four female and four male white sharks from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (NWA) with reference chronologies documenting the marine uptake of (14)C produced by atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices to generate the first radiocarbon age estimates for adult white sharks. Age estimates were up to 40 years old for the largest female (fork length [FL]: 526 cm) and 73 years old for the largest male (FL: 493 cm). Our results dramatically extend the maximum age and longevity of white sharks compared to earlier studies, hint at possible sexual dimorphism in growth rates, and raise concerns that white shark populations are considerably more sensitive to human-induced mortality than previously thought.

  8. Of Malthus and Methuselah: does longevity treatment aggravate global catastrophic risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Global catastrophic risk is a term that refers to the risk of the occurrence of an event that kills at least millions of people across several continents. While it has been argued by a number of scholars that one major potential risk comes from technology, the obscure nature of future technologies makes it difficult to utilize traditional probabilistic risk for the meaningful study of these risks. This article describes an alternative approach and applies it to a research program that has attracted a considerable amount of resources recently: namely longevity research. The aim of this research is to delay or reverse the ageing process. This article argues that this research program is much more risky or less beneficial than its proponents argue. In particular, they tend to underestimate the concerns associated with the potentially drastic population growth that longevity treatment could cause. The ethical benefit often ascribed to longevity treatment is that such treatment would add more subjective life-years that are worth living. However, in light of contemporary environmental problems, such an increase of the human population might be reckless. Drastically reducing fertility to reduce risks associated with environmental stress would make the benefits of such technology much less compelling.

  9. Of Malthus and Methuselah: does longevity treatment aggravate global catastrophic risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Global catastrophic risk is a term that refers to the risk of the occurrence of an event that kills at least millions of people across several continents. While it has been argued by a number of scholars that one major potential risk comes from technology, the obscure nature of future technologies makes it difficult to utilize traditional probabilistic risk for the meaningful study of these risks. This article describes an alternative approach and applies it to a research program that has attracted a considerable amount of resources recently: namely longevity research. The aim of this research is to delay or reverse the ageing process. This article argues that this research program is much more risky or less beneficial than its proponents argue. In particular, they tend to underestimate the concerns associated with the potentially drastic population growth that longevity treatment could cause. The ethical benefit often ascribed to longevity treatment is that such treatment would add more subjective life-years that are worth living. However, in light of contemporary environmental problems, such an increase of the human population might be reckless. Drastically reducing fertility to reduce risks associated with environmental stress would make the benefits of such technology much less compelling. (invited comment)

  10. Enhanced longevity by ibuprofen, conserved in multiple species, occurs in yeast through inhibition of tryptophan import.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong He

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen has been associated with a reduced risk of some age-related pathologies. However, a general pro-longevity role for ibuprofen and its mechanistic basis remains unclear. Here we show that ibuprofen increased the lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, indicative of conserved eukaryotic longevity effects. Studies in yeast indicate that ibuprofen destabilizes the Tat2p permease and inhibits tryptophan uptake. Loss of Tat2p increased replicative lifespan (RLS, but ibuprofen did not increase RLS when Tat2p was stabilized or in an already long-lived strain background impaired for aromatic amino acid uptake. Concomitant with lifespan extension, ibuprofen moderately reduced cell size at birth, leading to a delay in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Similar changes in cell cycle progression were evident in a large dataset of replicatively long-lived yeast deletion strains. These results point to fundamental cell cycle signatures linked with longevity, implicate aromatic amino acid import in aging and identify a largely safe drug that extends lifespan across different kingdoms of life.

  11. Enhanced Longevity by Ibuprofen, Conserved in Multiple Species, Occurs in Yeast through Inhibition of Tryptophan Import

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chong; Tsuchiyama, Scott K.; Nguyen, Quynh T.; Plyusnina, Ekaterina N.; Terrill, Samuel R.; Sahibzada, Sarah; Patel, Bhumil; Faulkner, Alena R.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail V.; Tian, Ruilin; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Kaeberlein, Matt; Moskalev, Alexey A.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Polymenis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen has been associated with a reduced risk of some age-related pathologies. However, a general pro-longevity role for ibuprofen and its mechanistic basis remains unclear. Here we show that ibuprofen increased the lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, indicative of conserved eukaryotic longevity effects. Studies in yeast indicate that ibuprofen destabilizes the Tat2p permease and inhibits tryptophan uptake. Loss of Tat2p increased replicative lifespan (RLS), but ibuprofen did not increase RLS when Tat2p was stabilized or in an already long-lived strain background impaired for aromatic amino acid uptake. Concomitant with lifespan extension, ibuprofen moderately reduced cell size at birth, leading to a delay in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Similar changes in cell cycle progression were evident in a large dataset of replicatively long-lived yeast deletion strains. These results point to fundamental cell cycle signatures linked with longevity, implicate aromatic amino acid import in aging and identify a largely safe drug that extends lifespan across different kingdoms of life. PMID:25521617

  12. Economic trade-offs between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, A

    2017-05-01

    Genetic improvement in sires used for artificial insemination (AI) is increasing faster compared with a decade ago. The genetic merit of replacement heifers is also increasing faster and the genetic lag with older cows in the herd increases. This may trigger greater cow culling to capture this genetic improvement. On the other hand, lower culling rates are often viewed favorably because the costs and environmental effects of maintaining herd size are generally lower. Thus, there is an economic trade-off between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the principles, literature, and magnitude of these trade-offs. Data from the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding show that the estimated breeding value of the trait productive life has increased for 50 yr but the actual time cows spend in the herd has not increased. The average annual herd cull rate remains at approximately 36% and cow longevity is approximately 59 mo. The annual increase in average estimated breeding value of the economic index lifetime net merit of Holstein sires is accelerating from $40/yr when the sire entered AI around 2002 to $171/yr for sires that entered AI around 2012. The expectation is therefore that heifers born in 2015 are approximately $50 more profitable per lactation than heifers born in 2014. Asset replacement theory shows that assets should be replaced sooner when the challenging asset is technically improved. Few studies have investigated the direct effects of genetic improvement on optimal cull rates. A 35-yr-old study found that the economically optimal cull rates were in the range of 25 to 27%, compared with the lowest possible involuntary cull rate of 20%. Only a small effect was observed of using the best surviving dams to generate the replacement heifer calves. Genetic improvement from sires had little effect on the optimal cull rate. Another study that optimized culling decisions for individual cows also showed that the

  13. Explaining Optimistic Old Age Disability and Longevity Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Costa-Font, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Biased health care decision making has been regarded as responsible for inefficient behaviours (for example, the limited insurance purchase). This paper empirically examines two sets of biases in the perception of old age disability and longevity. Particularly, we test for the existence of a so called cumulative bias and, secondly, a so called…

  14. Delayed and accelerated aging share common longevity assurance mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, B.; van der Pluijm, I.; Moorhouse, M.J.; Kosteas, T.; Robinson, A.R.; Suh, Y.; Breit, T.M.; van Steeg, H.; Niedernhofer, L.J.; van IJcken, W.; Bartke, A.; Spindler, S.R.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; van der Horst, G.T.J.; Garinis, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mutant dwarf and calorie-restricted mice benefit from healthy aging and unusually long lifespan. In contrast, mouse models for DNA repair-deficient progeroid syndromes age and die prematurely. To identify mechanisms that regulate mammalian longevity, we quantified the parallels between the

  15. Delayed and accelerated aging share common longevity assurance mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Schumacher (Björn); I. van der Pluijm (Ingrid); M.J. Moorhouse (Michael); T. Kosteas (Theodore); A.R. Robinson (Andria Rasile); Y. Suh (Yousin); T.M. Breit (Timo); H. van Steeg (Harry); L.J. Niedernhofer (Laura); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); A. Bartke (Andrzej); S.R. Spindler (Stephen); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); G.A. Garinis (George)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMutant dwarf and calorie-restricted mice benefit from healthy aging and unusually long lifespan. In contrast, mouse models for DNA repair-deficient progeroid syndromes age and die prematurely. To identify mechanisms that regulate mammalian longevity, we quantified the parallels between

  16. Site fidelity and longevity of the Karoo Thrush Turdus smithi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and have a similar maximum longevity. We propose that adult thrushes are able to persist in a given home range because they are able to avoid resident predators, e.g. feral cats Felis sylvestris catus, by accurately predicting their hunting ...

  17. Small nucleoli are a cellular hallmark of longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiku, Varnesh; Jain, Chirag; Raz, Yotam; Nakamura, Shuhei; Heestand, Bree; Liu, Wei; Späth, Martin; Suchiman, H Eka D; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Slagboom, P Eline; Partridge, Linda; Antebi, Adam

    2016-08-30

    Animal lifespan is regulated by conserved metabolic signalling pathways and specific transcription factors, but whether these pathways affect common downstream mechanisms remains largely elusive. Here we show that NCL-1/TRIM2/Brat tumour suppressor extends lifespan and limits nucleolar size in the major C. elegans longevity pathways, as part of a convergent mechanism focused on the nucleolus. Long-lived animals representing distinct longevity pathways exhibit small nucleoli, and decreased expression of rRNA, ribosomal proteins, and the nucleolar protein fibrillarin, dependent on NCL-1. Knockdown of fibrillarin also reduces nucleolar size and extends lifespan. Among wildtype C. elegans, individual nucleolar size varies, but is highly predictive for longevity. Long-lived dietary restricted fruit flies and insulin-like-peptide mutants exhibit small nucleoli and fibrillarin expression, as do long-lived dietary restricted and IRS1 knockout mice. Furthermore, human muscle biopsies from individuals who underwent modest dietary restriction coupled with exercise also display small nucleoli. We suggest that small nucleoli are a cellular hallmark of longevity and metabolic health conserved across taxa.

  18. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  19. Societies in Transition: The Impact of Longevity on Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mering, Otto

    1992-01-01

    Longevity is leading to four-generation societies and transcendence of governmental and conventional age-controlled productivity. Elderly women's numerical superiority are influencing a firmer attitude toward self and lessening stereotypes of women as caregiver of the ill and elderly. "Fourth-age" people see empowerment as necessary for…

  20. Flies selected for longevity retain a young gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

      We investigated correlated responses in the transcriptomes of longevity-selected lines of Drosophila melanogaster to identify pathways that affect life span in metazoan systems. We evaluated the gene expression profile in young, middle-aged, and old male flies, finding that 530 genes were...

  1. Metabolic rate regulates L1 longevity in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inhwan Lee

    Full Text Available Animals have to cope with starvation. The molecular mechanisms by which animals survive long-term starvation, however, are not clearly understood. When they hatch without food, C. elegans arrests development at the first larval stage (L1 and survives more than two weeks. Here we show that the survival span of arrested L1s, which we call L1 longevity, is a starvation response regulated by metabolic rate during starvation. A high rate of metabolism shortens the L1 survival span, whereas a low rate of metabolism lengthens it. The longer worms are starved, the slower they grow once they are fed, suggesting that L1 arrest has metabolic costs. Furthermore, mutants of genes that regulate metabolism show altered L1 longevity. Among them, we found that AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK, as a key energy sensor, regulates L1 longevity by regulating this metabolic arrest. Our results suggest that L1 longevity is determined by metabolic rate and that AMPK as a master regulator of metabolism controls this arrest so that the animals survive long-term starvation.

  2. Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) affects variation in Drosophila longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Maria; Roshina, Nataliya V; Geiger-Thornsberry, Gretchen L; Lyman, Richard F; Pasyukova, Elena G; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2003-08-01

    Mutational analyses in model organisms have shown that genes affecting metabolism and stress resistance regulate life span, but the genes responsible for variation in longevity in natural populations are largely unidentified. Previously, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting variation in longevity between two Drosophila melanogaster strains. Here, we show that the longevity QTL in the 36E;38B cytogenetic interval on chromosome 2 contains multiple closely linked QTLs, including the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) locus. Complementation tests to mutations show that Ddc is a positional candidate gene for life span in these strains. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping in a sample of 173 alleles from a single population shows that three common molecular polymorphisms in Ddc account for 15.5% of the genetic contribution to variance in life span from chromosome 2. The polymorphisms are in strong LD, and the effects of the haplotypes on longevity suggest that the polymorphisms are maintained by balancing selection. DDC catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Thus, these data implicate variation in the synthesis of bioamines as a factor contributing to natural variation in individual life span.

  3. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Pycnogenol and Bacopa CDRI08 herbal medicines on cognitive, cardiovascular, and biochemical functioning in cognitively healthy elderly people: the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention (ARCLI study protocol (ANZCTR12611000487910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stough Con K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major challenges associated with our ageing population is the increasing incidence of age-associated cognitive decline, which has significant implications for an individual's ability to lead a productive and fulfilling life. In pure economic terms the costs of ageing reflects decreased productivity and engagement with the workforce. The maintenance of brain health underpinning intact cognition is a key factor to maintaining a positive, engaged, and productive lifestyle. In light of this, the role of diet, including supplementation with nutritional and even pharmacological interventions capable of ameliorating the neurocognitive changes that occur with age constitute vital areas of research. Methods In order to reduce cognitive ageing, the ARC longevity intervention (ARCLI was developed to examine the effects of two promising natural pharmacologically active supplements on cognitive performance. ARCLI is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-arm clinical trial in which 465 participants will be randomized to receive an extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI08 300 mg/day, Pycnogenol (150 mg/day, or placebo daily for 12 months. Participants will be tested at baseline and then at 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomization on a wide battery of cognitive, neuropsychological and mood measures, cardiovascular (brachial and aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as arterial stiffness, biochemical (assays to measure inflammation, oxidative stress and safety as well as genetic assessments (telomere length and several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. The primary aim is to investigate the effects of these supplements on cognitive performance. The secondary aims are to explore the time-course of cognitive enhancement as well as potential cardiovascular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning cognitive enhancement over the 12 months of administration. ARCLI will represent one of the largest and most comprehensive

  4. The Transcription Factor DAF-16 is Essential for Increased Longevity in C. elegans Exposed to Bifidobacterium longum BB68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Ruihai; Zheng, Xiaonan; Zhang, Min; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhang, Hao; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-08-07

    The longevity-promoting benefits of lactobacilli were hypothesized as early as 1907. Although the anti-aging effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been observed in nematodes, rodents and humans for over a century, the mechanisms underlying the effects of probiotics on aging have rarely been assessed. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model, various studies have elucidated the role of different signaling cascades, especially the DAF-16 cascade, on lifespan extension by LAB. In this study, the mechanisms through which Bifidobacterium longum strain BB68 affects the longevity of C. elegans were assessed. The lifespan of nematodes increased by 28% after worms were fed BB68, and this extension of lifespan was completely lost in backgrounds containing a mutated DAF-16 gene. High levels of DAF-16 (in the daf-16 (mu86); muIs61 strain) nuclear accumulation and high expression of the SOD-3 gene (a DAF-16-specific target gene) were observed as a result of BB68 treatment. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that TIR-1 and JNK-1 are involved in the phosphorylation and activation of DAF-16. Thus, BB68 increased the longevity of nematodes by activating the TIR-1 - JNK-1 - DAF-16 signaling pathway, and the cell wall component of BB68 contributed to longevity.

  5. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials, Rev. 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David H. Tang

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials (CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999b), and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and crushed rock ballast. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts; (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period; (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment; (4) Evaluate factors affecting longevity of cement grouts for fully grouted rock bolt system. Provide updated information on cement grout mix design for fully grouted rock bolt system; and (5) Evaluate longevity of materials for the emplacement drift invert

  6. An early (1850) 'handwritten' shell exchange catalogue of the Leiden Museum, with notes on the collectors Rethaan Macaré and Tischbein

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggen, van, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    A ‘handwritten’ (lithographed) shell exchange catalogue of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), dated 1850 and containing 864 nominal taxa (861 molluscs and 3 brachiopods), is discussed in the context of the history of the museum. This catalogue must have been distributed in a limited edition to shell collectors interested in the exchange of specimens. Among the exchange partners of the museum were the well-known 19th century Dutch collector Lady (later Dowager) F...

  7. Macht, machinaties en musea. Jan van der Hoeven, Hermann Schlegel en hun strijd om het Rijksmuseum van natuurlijke historie te Leiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. de Jonge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Might, machinations and museums. Jan van der Hoeven, Hermann Schlegel and their battle over the National Museum for Natural History in LeidenMuseums had a central place in nineteenth-century natural history. Aside from being important places for carrying out research into nature, they were also powerful vehicles for transmitting and communicating scientific knowledge. That is why, in the nineteenth century, natural history museums were frequently battlegrounds for rival scientists. Often, clashes over scientific matters were at the same time conflicts about power and space. After all, the naturalist who could get control over a museum’s collection and decide how the specimens should be classified and exhibited ultimately had the power to dictate which scientific knowledge was communicated; which story was told by a collection of specimens. This article is about the power struggle over the directorate of the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden that broke out between Jan van der Hoeven, Professor of Natural History and Comparative Anatomy at Leiden and Herman Schlegel, the museum’s chief curator. Both were rooted in very different natural historical traditions and had completely different views on the role of the museum and how the collection should be arranged and exhibited. In this article, we follow the two scientists in their attempts to gain support for their nominations. In this way, we also get a picture of nineteenth century Dutch political culture and the role scientists could play in it.

  8. Intravenous Remifentanil Analgaesia for an Obstetric Patient with Type I Neurofibromatosis and a Factor V Leiden Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Gálvez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I neurofibromatosis is characterised by altered skin pigmentation and the growth of benign tumours, particularly along the peripheral nerves and central nervous system. We report a 36-year-old primigravida woman in labour who was admitted to the obstetric suite of the Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain, in 2007 with hypothyroidism, type I neurofibromatosis and a factor V Leiden mutation. Due to a lack of cranial and spinal imaging data, an epidural was not indicated; instead, continuous intravenous remifentanil analgaesia was administered. The remifentanil infusion was self-titrated by the patient using a visual analogue scale, with the dosage ranging from 0.01 to 0.25 μg/kg/minute. Due to rotational dystocia, Kjelland-type forceps were used during the delivery. After birth, the infant was found to have Apgar scores of 9 and 10, with no maternal or neonatal adverse effects observed. Although still controversial, remifentanil may be a successful alternative for analgaesia in similar cases; however, the specific risks and benefits for each patient should be considered prior to administration.

  9. Human longevity and common variations in the LMNA gene: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conneely, Karen N.; Capell, Brian C.; Erdos, Michael R.; Sebastiani, Paola; Solovieff, Nadia; Swift, Amy J.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Budagov, Temuri; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil; Puca, Annibale A.; Perls, Thomas T.; Geesaman, Bard J.; Boehnke, Michael; Collins, Francis S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A mutation in the LMNA gene is responsible for the most dramatic form of premature aging, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Several recent studies have suggested that protein products of this gene might have a role in normal physiological cellular senescence. To explore further LMNA's possible role in normal aging, we genotyped 16 SNPs over a span of 75.4 kb of the LMNA gene on a sample of long-lived individuals (US Caucasians with age ≥95 years, N=873) and genetically matched younger controls (N=443). We tested all common non-redundant haplotypes (frequency ≥ 0.05) based on subgroups of these 16 SNPs for association with longevity. The most significant haplotype, based on 4 SNPs, remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing (OR = 1.56, P=2.5×10−5, multiple-testing-adjusted P=0.0045). To attempt to replicate these results, we genotyped 3448 subjects from four independent samples of long-lived individuals and control subjects from 1) the New England Centenarian Study (NECS) (N=738), 2) the Southern Italian Centenarian Study (SICS) (N=905), 3) France (N=1103), and 4) the Einstein Ashkenazi Longevity Study (N=702). We replicated the association with the most significant haplotype from our initial analysis in the NECS sample (OR = 1.60, P=0.0023), but not in the other three samples (P>.15). In a meta-analysis combining all five samples, the best haplotype remained significantly associated with longevity after adjustment for multiple testing in the initial and follow-up samples (OR = 1.18, P=7.5×10−4, multiple-testing-adjusted P=0.037). These results suggest that LMNA variants may play a role in human lifespan. PMID:22340368

  10. Association Analysis of FOXO3 Longevity Variants With Blood Pressure and Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Chen, Randi; Donlon, Timothy A; Evans, Daniel S; Tranah, Gregory J; Parimi, Neeta; Ehret, Georg B; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Seto, Todd; Willcox, D Craig; Masaki, Kamal H; Kamide, Kei; Ryuno, Hirochika; Oguro, Ryosuke; Nakama, Chikako; Kabayama, Mai; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sugimoto, Ken; Ikebe, Kazunori; Masui, Yukie; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Rakugi, Hiromi; Willcox, Bradley J

    2016-11-01

    The minor alleles of 3 FOXO3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)- rs2802292 , rs2253310 , and rs2802288 -are associated with human longevity. The aim of the present study was to test these SNPs for association with blood pressure (BP) and essential hypertension (EHT). In a primary study involving Americans of Japanese ancestry drawn from the Family Blood Pressure Program II we genotyped 411 female and 432 male subjects aged 40-79 years and tested for statistical association by contingency table analysis and generalized linear models that included logistic regression adjusting for sibling correlation in the data set. Replication of rs2802292 with EHT was attempted in Japanese SONIC study subjects and of each SNP in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of BP in individuals of European ancestry. In Americans of Japanese ancestry, women homozygous for the longevity-associated (minor) allele of each FOXO3 SNP had 6mm Hg lower systolic BP and 3mm Hg lower diastolic BP compared with major allele homozygotes (Bonferroni corrected P 0.05, respectively). Frequencies of minor allele homozygotes were 3.3-3.9% in women with EHT compared with 9.5-9.6% in normotensive women ( P = 0.03-0.04; haplotype analysis P = 0.0002). No association with BP or EHT was evident in males. An association with EHT was seen for the minor allele of rs2802292 in the Japanese SONIC cohort ( P = 0.03), while in European subjects the minor allele of each SNP was associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP. Longevity-associated FOXO3 variants may be associated with lower BP and EHT in Japanese women.

  11. Metabolic signatures of extreme longevity in northern Italian centenarians reveal a complex remodeling of lipids, amino acids, and gut microbiota metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Collino

    Full Text Available The aging phenotype in humans has been thoroughly studied but a detailed metabolic profiling capable of shading light on the underpinning biological processes of longevity is still missing. Here using a combined metabonomics approach compromising holistic (1H-NMR profiling and targeted MS approaches, we report for the first time the metabolic phenotype of longevity in a well characterized human aging cohort compromising mostly female centenarians, elderly, and young individuals. With increasing age, targeted MS profiling of blood serum displayed a marked decrease in tryptophan concentration, while an unique alteration of specific glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are seen in the longevity phenotype. We hypothesized that the overall lipidome changes specific to longevity putatively reflect centenarians' unique capacity to adapt/respond to the accumulating oxidative and chronic inflammatory conditions characteristic of their extreme aging phenotype. Our data in centenarians support promotion of cellular detoxification mechanisms through specific modulation of the arachidonic acid metabolic cascade as we underpinned increased concentration of 8,9-EpETrE, suggesting enhanced cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme activity. Such effective mechanism might result in the activation of an anti-oxidative response, as displayed by decreased circulating levels of 9-HODE and 9-oxoODE, markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative products of linoleic acid. Lastly, we also revealed that the longevity process deeply affects the structure and composition of the human gut microbiota as shown by the increased extrection of phenylacetylglutamine (PAG and p-cresol sulfate (PCS in urine of centenarians. Together, our novel approach in this representative Italian longevity cohort support the hypothesis that a complex remodeling of lipid, amino acid metabolism, and of gut microbiota functionality are key regulatory processes marking exceptional longevity in humans.

  12. Impaired Perinatal Growth and Longevity: A Life History Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Sloboda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory proposes that early-life cues induce highly integrated responses in traits associated with energy partitioning, maturation, reproduction, and aging such that the individual phenotype is adaptively more appropriate to the anticipated environment. Thus, maternal and/or neonatally derived nutritional or endocrine cues suggesting a threatening environment may favour early growth and reproduction over investment in tissue reserve and repair capacity. These may directly affect longevity, as well as prioritise insulin resistance and capacity for fat storage, thereby increasing susceptibility to metabolic dysfunction and obesity. These shifts in developmental trajectory are associated with long-term expression changes in specific genes, some of which may be underpinned by epigenetic processes. This normative process of developmental plasticity may prove to be maladaptive in human environments in transition towards low extrinsic mortality and energy-dense nutrition, leading to the development of an inappropriate phenotype with decreased potential for longevity and/or increased susceptibility to metabolic disease.

  13. Extreme Longevity in Proteinaceous Deep-Sea Corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Fallon, S J; Mucciarone, D A

    2009-02-09

    Deep-sea corals are found on hard substrates on seamounts and continental margins world-wide at depths of 300 to {approx}3000 meters. Deep-sea coral communities are hotspots of deep ocean biomass and biodiversity, providing critical habitat for fish and invertebrates. Newly applied radiocarbon age date from the deep water proteinaceous corals Gerardia sp. and Leiopathes glaberrima show that radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 {micro}m yr{sup -1} and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years. The management and conservation of deep sea coral communities is challenged by their commercial harvest for the jewelry trade and damage caused by deep water fishing practices. In light of their unusual longevity, a better understanding of deep sea coral ecology and their interrelationships with associated benthic communities is needed to inform coherent international conservation strategies for these important deep-sea ecosystems.

  14. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336

  15. Effect of Exceptional Parental Longevity and Lifestyle Factors on Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbi, Sriram; Schwartz, Elianna; Crandall, Jill; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Atzmon, Gil; Braunstein, Rebecca; Barzilai, Nir; Milman, Sofiya

    2017-12-15

    Offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL) manifest lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of lifestyle factors in this unique cohort is not known. Our study tested whether OPEL have lesser prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle factors. Prevalence of CVD and CVD risk factors was assessed in a population of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 to 94 years. Participants included OPEL (n = 395), defined as having at least 1 parent living past the age of 95 years, and offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS, n = 450), defined as having neither parent survive to 95 years. Medical and lifestyle information was obtained using standardized questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was defined based on validated classification scores. Dietary intake was evaluated with the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (2000) in a subgroup of the study population (n = 234). Our study found no significant differences in the prevalence of obesity, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, social strata scores, and dietary intake between the 2 groups. After adjustment for age and gender, the OPEL demonstrated 29% lower odds of having hypertension (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53 to 0.95), 65% lower odds of having had a stroke (95% CI 0.14 to 0.88), and 35% lower odds of having CVD (95% CI 0.43 to 0.98), compared with OPUS. In conclusion, exceptional parental longevity is associated with lower prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and nutrition, thus highlighting the potential role of genetics in disease-free survival among individuals with exceptional parental longevity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-10-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  17. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Szekely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  18. Evaluation of quality of life, physical, and mental aspects in longevous patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Adriana; Ammirati, Adriano; Garcia, Carlos; Andrade, Carolina; Portela, Odete; Cendoroglo, Maysa S; Sesso, Ricardo

    2018-04-01

    The diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in elderly individuals has been increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical, mental and social aspects in longevous elderly patients with CKD. Eighty patients with CKD (stage 4 and 5, not on dialysis) and 60 longevous elderly (≥ 80 years) paired by gender and age living in the community were evaluated. Physical, cognitive, social and quality of life aspects were analyzed according to the following scales: Charlson comorbidity index, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item (SF-36), Medical Outcomes Study, Boston Naming Test, verbal fluency test (animal naming), sit-to-stand test, gait speed, and the Mini-Mental state examination. Compared to the control group, the CKD group had a higher mean in the comorbidities index (3.5 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 1, respectively, p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the CKD group presented worse performance in the SF-36 dimensions: 'physical functioning,' 'general health,' 'emotional functioning,' 'vitality,' and physical component summary. On the other hand, they presented better results for the 'mental health' dimension, in addition to lower  social support, worse verbal fluency and worse results on the sit-to-stand test. Longevous patients with stage 4 or 5 CKD presented worse evaluation in several domains of physical and emotional functioning, lower social support and evidence of worse cognitive performance. These aspects should be taken into account in order to improve the care provided to these patients, improve their quality of life and prevent their morbidity.

  19. The GH/IGF-1 axis in ageing and longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Murrey, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of growth hormone (GH), and consequently that of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), declines over time until only low levels can be detected in individuals aged ≥60 years. This phenomenon, which is known as the ‘somatopause’, has led to recombinant human GH being widely promoted and abused as an antiageing drug, despite lack of evidence of efficacy. By contrast, several mutations that decrease the tone of the GH/IGF-1 axis are associated with extended longevity in mice. In humans, corresponding or similar mutations have been identified, but whether these mutations alter longevity has yet to be established. The powerful effect of reduced GH activity on lifespan extension in mice has generated the hypothesis that pharmaceutically inhibiting, rather than increasing, GH action might delay ageing. Moreover, mice as well as humans with reduced activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis are protected from cancer and diabetes mellitus, two major ageing-related morbidities. Here, we review data on mouse strains with alterations in the GH/IGF-1 axis and their effects on lifespan. The outcome of corresponding or similar mutations in humans is described, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying increased longevity and the therapeutic benefits and risks of medical disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis in humans. PMID:23591370

  20. Fecundity and longevity of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ramos Jesus-Barros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is an exotic species considered a quarantine pest in Brazil, with distribution limited to the states of Amapá and Roraima. Knowledge of its biology under Brazilian conditions is still limited. The objective of this work was to determine the fecundity and longevity of B. carambolae females, reared on artificial diet, under laboratory conditions. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Amapá, where 20 newly emerged B. carambolae couples were selected (F3 generation. Each couple was placed in a plastic cage containing feed, distilled water and an artificial oviposition device and stored in an air-conditioned room (26 ± 1°C, 60 ± 10% R. H. and 12-hour photoperiod. The eggs deposited on each device were counted daily. Mean survival was 90.70 ± 9.97 days and the maximum longevity was 150 days. The mean duration of the pre-oviposition period was 25.15 ± 3.54 days and the oviposition period was 62.73 ± 7.84 days. Fecundity was variable over time, with an oviposition peak on the 28th day. The mean number of eggs per female was 1,088.26 ± 167.82. These results suggest that B. carambolae uses high fecundity and longevity as a reproductive strategy.

  1. DNA repair and longevity in three species of cold-blooded vertebrates. [uv, turtle, fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Grist, E.

    1980-01-01

    The error catastrophe mechanism of ageing proposes that senescence results from the progressive accumulation of unrepaired damage to DNA throughout the life span. Studies of the changes in DNA repair capability in ageing cells both in vivo and in vitro have given ambiguous results, but a clear relation has been demonstrated in mammals between the DNA repair capacity and potential longevity. We have found no difference in excision repair capacity in cultured cells from three species of cold-blooded vertebrates, the long-lived turtle, with a potential life span of 118+ yr, the rainbow trout, 8 yr, and Amazon molly, with 3 yr.

  2. Stability and longevity in the publication careers of U.S. doctorate recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waaijer, C.J.F.; Macaluso, B.; Sugimoto, C.R.; Larivière, V.

    2016-07-01

    Since the 1950s, the number of doctorate recipients has risen dramatically in the United States. In this paper, we investigate whether the longevity of doctorate recipients’ publication careers has changed. This is achieved by matching 1951-2010 doctorate recipients in astrophysics, chemistry, economics, genetics and psychology with rare names in the dissertation database ProQuest to their publications in the publication database Web of Science. Our study shows that post-PhD publication career spans have not changed much in most fields, with the share of doctorate recipients who have published for over twenty years having remained stable over time. (Author)

  3. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of ancient cement based building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements in plasters, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of an examination of selected ancient building materials and provides insights into the durability of certain ancient structures. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehold environment. Analyses were conducted by petrographic, SEM, chemical, and x-ray diffraction techniques. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  4. Floral Longevity and Nectar Secretion of Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Rchb. (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    STPICZYŃSKA, MAŁGORZATA

    2003-01-01

    Flowering and nectar secretion were studied in Platanthera chlorantha in two years. Nectar was secreted and accumulated in this orchid’s spur, originating from part of the labellum. The nectary spur was, on average, 32 mm long. It produced 6·86 µl nectar in 1999 and 7·84 µl in 2000. The number of flowers per inflorescence and the volume of nectar secreted per flower were not correlated. Nectar secretion and flower longevity differed depending on pollination and flower position in the inflores...

  5. Association of Family History of Exceptional Longevity With Decline in Physical Function in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Crandall, Jill P; Milman, Sofiya; Verghese, Joe

    2017-11-09

    Although many genetic and nongenetic factors interact to determine an individual's physical phenotype, there has been limited examination of the contribution of family history of exceptional parental longevity on decline in physical function in aging. The LonGenity study recruited a relatively genetically homogenous cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish adults age 65 and older, who were defined as either offspring of parents with exceptional longevity ([OPEL]: having at least one parent who lived to age 95 or older) or offspring of parents with usual survival ([OPUS]: neither parent survived to age 95). Decline in performance on objective measures of strength (grip strength), balance (unipedal stance), and mobility (gait speed) as well as a composite physical function measure, the Short physical performance battery (SPPB), were compared between the two groups over a median follow-up of 3.2 years, accounting for age, sex, education, and comorbidities. Of the 984 LonGenity participants (mean age 76, 55% women), 448 were OPEL and 536 were OPUS. Compared to OPUS, OPEL had slower decline on measures of unipedal stance (-0.03 log-units/year, p = .026), repeated chair rise (0.13 s/year, p = .020) and SPPB (-0.11 points/year, p = .002). OPEL women had slower decline on chair rise and SPPB scores compared to OPUS women, although OPEL men had slower decline on unipedal stance compared to OPUS men. Our findings provide evidence that variation in late-life decline in physical function is associated with familial longevity, and may vary for men and women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Longevity and relationships with children: the importance of the parental role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Maria-Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks predict longevity across societies but specific mechanisms are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to examine the role of children in the longevity of elderly men and women in a cohort of community dwelling elderly people in Spain. Methods The data were taken from the "Aging in Leganes" cohort study with 15 years of follow-up. The baseline population was an age- and sex-stratified random sample of community dwelling people over 65 living in Leganés (Madrid in 1993. Poor relationship with at least one child, emotional support and the perceived roles elders play in the lives of their children, extended family, spouse and friends were assessed at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to investigate the effects of social roles variables on longevity, adjusting for a wide range of socioeconomic, behavioural and health covariates. Results In the fully adjusted model, having a poor relationship with at least one child increased mortality by 30%. Elderly persons who felt their role in their children's lives was important (HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.54; 0.91 had a lower mortality risk than those who felt they played a small role. Feeling loved and listened to by one's children did not have an effect on survival. Maintaining an important role in the extended family was also significantly associated with survival. Conclusion In this Mediterranean population, maintaining an important role in the lives of one's children is associated with survival. Functions of social networks related to meaning of life and different forms of social support may have important effects on mortality, and these functions may vary across cultures according to family norms and values.

  7. Angiostrongylus cantonensis daf-2 regulates dauer, longevity and stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baolong; Sun, Weiwei; Shi, Xiaomeng; Huang, Liyang; Chen, Lingzi; Wang, Suhua; Yan, Lanzhu; Liang, Shaohui; Huang, Huicong

    2017-06-15

    The insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway is considered to be significant in regulating fat metabolism, dauer formation, stress response and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. "Dauer hypothesis" indicates that similar IIS transduction mechanism regulates dauer development in free-living nematode C. elegans and the development of infective third-stage larvae (iL3) in parasitic nematodes, and this is bolstered by a few researches on structures and functions of the homologous genes in the IIS pathway cloned from several parasitic nematodes. In this study, we identified the insulin-like receptor encoding gene, Acan-daf-2, from the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and determined the genomic structures, transcripts and functions far more thorough in longevity, stress resistance and dauer formation. The sequence of Acan-DAF-2, consisting of 1413 amino acids, contained all of the characteristic domains of insulin-like receptors from other taxa. The expression patterns of Acan-daf-2 in the C. elegans surrogate system showed that pAcan-daf-2:gfp was only expressed in intestine, compared with the orthologue in C. elegans, Ce-daf-2 in both intestine and neurons. In addition to the similar genomic organization to Ce-daf-2, Acan-DAF-2 could also negatively regulate Ce-DAF-16A through nuclear/cytosolic translocation and partially restore the C. elegans daf-2(e1370) mutation in longevity, dauer formation and stress resistance. These findings provided further evidence of the functional conservation of DAF-2 between parasitic nematodes and the free-living nematode C. elegans, and might be significant in understanding the developmental biology of nematode parasites, particularly in the infective process and the host-specificity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. From leaf longevity to canopy seasonality: a carbon optimality phenology model for tropical evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Wu, J.; Wright, S. J.; Kitajima, K.; Pacala, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical evergreen forests play a key role in the global carbon, water and energy cycles. Despite apparent evergreenness, this biome shows strong seasonality in leaf litter and photosynthesis. Recent studies have suggested that this seasonality is not directly related to environmental variability but is dominated by seasonal changes of leaf development and senescence. Meanwhile, current terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) can not capture this pattern because leaf life cycle is highly underrepresented. One challenge to model this leaf life cycle is the remarkable diversity in leaf longevity, ranging from several weeks to multiple years. Ecologists have proposed models where leaf longevity is regarded as a strategy to optimize carbon gain. However previous optimality models can not be readily integrated into TBMs because (i) there are still large biases in predicted leaf longevity and (ii) it is never tested whether the carbon optimality model can capture the observed seasonality in leaf demography and canopy photosynthesis. In this study, we develop a new carbon optimality model for leaf demography. The novelty of our approach is two-fold. First, we incorporate a mechanistic photosynthesis model that can better estimate leaf carbon gain. Second, we consider the interspecific variations in leaf senescence rate, which strongly influence the modelled optimal carbon gain. We test our model with a leaf trait database for Panamanian evergreen forests. Then, we apply the model at seasonal scale and compare simulated seasonality of leaf litter and canopy photosynthesis with in-situ observations from several Amazonian forest sites. We find that (i) compared with original optimality model, the regression slope between observed and predicted leaf longevity increases from 0.15 to 1.04 in our new model and (ii) that our new model can capture the observed seasonal variations of leaf demography and canopy photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the phenology in tropical evergreen

  9. Longevity following the experience of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leslie R; Friedman, Howard S; Clark, Kathleen M; Tucker, Joan S

    2005-11-01

    An archival prospective design was used to study mediating and moderating variables for the association between parental divorce and increased mortality risk, using a sub-group (n = 1183) of individuals from the US Terman Life Cycle Study covering the period 1921-2000. In childhood, both socioeconomic status (SES) and family psychosocial environment were related to parental divorce but did little to explain its effects. The higher mortality risk associated with experiencing parental divorce was ameliorated among individuals (especially men) who achieved a sense of personal satisfaction by mid-life. Behaviorally, smoking was the strongest mediator of the divorce-mortality link. This study extends previous work on the long-term effects of parental divorce and reveals some reasons why the stress of parental divorce in childhood need not necessarily lead to negative later-life outcomes.

  10. Longevity in male and female joggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Since 1970, jogging has become an increasingly popular form of exercise, but concern about harmful effects has been raised following reports of deaths during jogging. The purpose of this study was to investigate if jogging, which can be very vigorous, is associated with increased all-cause mortal...

  11. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  12. Physical Activity for Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Selina; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aging process is commonly associated with declines in health, cognitive function and well-being. However, lifestyle factors like diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity were repeatedly highlighted as predictors of a healthy aging process. However, recent research has shown that physical activity is the strongest predictor of health in older adults. Recent studies have confirmed the strong effect of physical activity on cardiovascular, metabolic, mu...

  13. From Innovation Community to Community Innovation User-initiated Innovation in Wireless Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oost, Elizabeth C.J.; Verhaegh, Stefan; Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.

    2009-01-01

    The role of users in innovation processes has gained increasing attention in innovation studies, technology studies, and media studies. Scholars have identified users and use practices as a source of innovation. So far, however, little insight has been generated in innovation processes in which

  14. Longevity of a mixture of acetamiprid and bifenthrin (Transport(TM) ) at the termiticidal application rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris J

    2012-07-01

    The 30 month longevity, mobility and insecticidal activity of a combination of acetamiprid and bifenthrin currently marketed in the United States for the prevention of termite infestation in buildings was investigated in greenhouse and laboratory studies. Acetamiprid dissipated to below the limit of detection within 7 months of application, while bifenthrin remained in the soil at levels sufficient to kill termites for the duration of the study. Acetamiprid was detected in decreasing amounts in eluates of treated soil from months 1 to 4, while no bifenthrin was detected in eluates at any time. The treated soil remained toxic to termites for the 30 month duration of the study. Two indices of synergy between technical-grade acetamiprid and bifenthrin demonstrated that it is unlikely that there would be any synergism between the two active ingredients in the field. The presence of vegetation did not have a significant effect on the longevity of bifenthrin, except at intermediate times, where residues in the treated soil were higher in vegetated plots, depending on depth and time. Acetamiprid has a short residual time in soil, and this formulation's effectiveness beyond about 7 months against subterranean termites is due to the bifenthrin content. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Longevity of magma in the near subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, B.D.; Resmini, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Small, sporadic occurrences of basaltic volcanism are particularly difficult to evaluate in terms of long term threat to mankind because of their short overall eruptive history. Insight into future eruptive vigor and possible subsurface magma storage may be furnished by studying the ages of crystals in the eruptive products themselves. In this paper, the authors do this by applying the method of crystal size distribution theory (CSD) to a stack of basaltic lavas within the Nevada test site; namely the Dome Mtn. lavas. Preliminary results suggest a pre-eruptive residence time of 10 - 20 years, decreasing with decreasing age of lava within the sequence. These times are similar to those found by M.T. Mangan for the 1959 Kilauea (Hawaii) eruptions, and may suggest a relatively vigorous magmatic system at this time some 8 m.y. ago. Work is progressing on a greatly expanded CSD analysis of the Dome Mtn. lavas

  16. Longevity Genes Revealed by Integrative Analysis of Isoform-Specific daf-16/FoxO Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Albert Tzong-Yang; Guo, Chunfang; Itani, Omar A; Budaitis, Breane G; Williams, Travis W; Hopkins, Christopher E; McEachin, Richard C; Pande, Manjusha; Grant, Ana R; Yoshina, Sawako; Mitani, Shohei; Hu, Patrick J

    2015-10-01

    FoxO transcription factors promote longevity across taxa. How they do so is poorly understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the A- and F-isoforms of the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 extend life span in the context of reduced DAF-2 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) signaling. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for DAF-16/FoxO-dependent life span extension, we performed an integrative analysis of isoform-specific daf-16/FoxO mutants. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that DAF-16F plays a more prominent role in life span control than DAF-16A, isoform-specific daf-16/FoxO mutant phenotypes and whole transcriptome profiling revealed a predominant role for DAF-16A over DAF-16F in life span control, stress resistance, and target gene regulation. Integration of these datasets enabled the prioritization of a subset of 92 DAF-16/FoxO target genes for functional interrogation. Among 29 genes tested, two DAF-16A-specific target genes significantly influenced longevity. A loss-of-function mutation in the conserved gene gst-20, which is induced by DAF-16A, reduced life span extension in the context of daf-2/IGFR RNAi without influencing longevity in animals subjected to control RNAi. Therefore, gst-20 promotes DAF-16/FoxO-dependent longevity. Conversely, a loss-of-function mutation in srr-4, a gene encoding a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor family member that is repressed by DAF-16A, extended life span in control animals, indicating that DAF-16/FoxO may extend life span at least in part by reducing srr-4 expression. Our discovery of new longevity genes underscores the efficacy of our integrative strategy while providing a general framework for identifying specific downstream gene regulatory events that contribute substantially to transcription factor functions. As FoxO transcription factors have conserved functions in promoting longevity and may be dysregulated in aging-related diseases, these findings promise to illuminate fundamental

  17. Linguistic Evidence for the Failure Mindset as a Predictor of Life Span Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Ian B; Persich, Michelle R; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    When people think that their efforts will fail to achieve positive outcomes, they sometimes give up their efforts after control, which can have negative health consequences. Problematic orientations of this type, such as pessimism, helplessness, or fatalism, seem likely to be associated with a cognitive mindset marked by higher levels of accessibility for failure words or concepts. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to determine whether there are individual differences in the frequency with which people think about failure, which in turn are likely to impact health across large spans of time. Following self-regulatory theories of health and the learned helplessness tradition, two archival studies (total n = 197) scored texts (books or speeches) for their use of failure words, a category within the Harvard IV dictionary of the General Inquirer. People who used failure words more frequently exhibited shorter subsequent life spans, and this relationship remained significant when controlling for birth year. Furthermore, study 2 implicated behavioral factors. For example, the failure/longevity relationship was numerically stronger among people whose causes of death appeared to be preventable rather than non-preventable. These results significantly extend our knowledge of the personality/longevity relationship while highlighting the value of individual differences in word usage as predictors of health and mortality.

  18. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  19. Reproduction alters oxidative status when it is traded-off against longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Geiger, Rina E; Reim, Elisabeth; Zielke, Luisa; Fischer, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed to mediate one of the most important aspects of life-history evolution: the trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance. However, empirical studies have cast doubt on the generality of this intriguing notion. Here, we hypothesize that reproduction alters oxidative status only when a trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance occurs. Accordingly, in female Bicyclus anynana butterflies, we found that reproduction affected oxidative markers only under challenging thermal conditions that made the trade-off between reproduction and longevity emerge. Interestingly, under such conditions, butterflies favored longevity over reproduction, suggesting that self-maintenance mechanisms were activated. Accordingly, butterflies reproducing under challenging thermal conditions exhibited enhanced antioxidant defenses and stable oxidative damage. Altogether, our results indicate that a trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance is indeed a necessary condition for reproduction to alter oxidative status, and that the effects of such a trade-off on oxidative status depend on whether priority is given to self-maintenance or reproduction. Assessing the existence of the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction, and whether self-maintenance is prioritized relative to reproduction is therefore crucial for understanding variation in oxidative status in reproducing animals, which may clarify the general implication of oxidative stress in the resolution of life-history trade-offs. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Immunochip analysis identifies association of the RAD50/IL13 region with human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Ellinghaus, David; Gentschew, Liljana

    2016-01-01

    Human longevity is characterized by a remarkable lack of confirmed genetic associations. Here, we report on the identification of a novel locus for longevity in the RAD50/IL13 region on chromosome 5q31.1 using a combined European sample of 3208 long-lived individuals (LLI) and 8919 younger controls....... First, we performed a large-scale association study on 1458 German LLI (mean age 99.0 years) and 6368 controls (mean age 57.2 years) by targeting known immune-associated loci covered by the Immunochip. The analysis of 142 136 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed an Immunochip...... (1257 LLI, mean age 102.4 years; 1811 controls, mean age 49.1 years) and Denmark (493 LLI, mean age 96.2 years; 740 controls, mean age 63.1 years). The association at SNP rs2706372 replicated in the French study collection and showed a similar trend in the Danish participants and was also significant...

  1. Power of non-parametric linkage analysis in mapping genes contributing to human longevity in long-lived sib-pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, J H; Iachine, I

    2004-01-01

    This report investigates the power issue in applying the non-parametric linkage analysis of affected sib-pairs (ASP) [Kruglyak and Lander, 1995: Am J Hum Genet 57:439-454] to localize genes that contribute to human longevity using long-lived sib-pairs. Data were simulated by introducing a recently...... developed statistical model for measuring marker-longevity associations [Yashin et al., 1999: Am J Hum Genet 65:1178-1193], enabling direct power comparison between linkage and association approaches. The non-parametric linkage (NPL) scores estimated in the region harboring the causal allele are evaluated...... in case of a dominant effect. Although the power issue may depend heavily on the true genetic nature in maintaining survival, our study suggests that results from small-scale sib-pair investigations should be referred with caution, given the complexity of human longevity....

  2. Longevity and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia in receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Konetsky, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield no toxicity outcomes even if pollutants are present. The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) determine whether tests with longer exposure periods to low concentrations of contaminants in ambient water might reveal evidence of toxicity that could not be discerned from 7-d tests and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia longevity and reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (a negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only. Before testing, though, water in the second set of tests was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. Ceriodaphnia dubia longevity and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but both longevity and reproduction were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water quality factors but sensitive to food-related factors. In five of the six full life-cycle tests, lifetime reproduction by C. dubia could not be reliably predicted from reproduction data from the first 7 d of testing. The increase in predictability of lifetime reproduction of C. dubia as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests and among treatments in the second set of tests. This, it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of 7-d tests with C. dubia to longer time scales

  3. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Strapáková, Eva; Candrák, Juraj; Strapák, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the breeding values (BVs) of lactation persistency, the test day of milk yield, the somatic cell score, reproductive traits (calving interval, days open), longevity in Slovak Holstein dairy cattle. BVs were used for the detection of relationships among the persistency of lactation and other selected traits. Data for the estimation of BVs of milk production and somatic cell score were collected from 855 240 cows. BVs for reproductive t...

  4. Longevity of Self-etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives Compared to Etch-and-rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Nader; Mohamed, Ahmed; Abou-Rabii, Iyad; Abu Zaghlan, Rawan; Steier, Liviu

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare longevity of Self-Etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives to Etch-and-Rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives. The following databases were searched for PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library complemented by a manual search of the Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. The MESH keywords used were: "etch and rinse," "total etch," "self-etch," "dentin bonding agent," "bond durability," and "bond degradation." Included were in-vitro experimental studies performed on human dental tissues of sound tooth structure origin. The examined Self-Etch Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and One Step Self-Etch Bonds, while Etch-and-Rinse Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and Three Steps. The included studies measured micro tensile bond strength (μTBs) to evaluate bond strength and possible longevity of both types of dental adhesives at different times. The selected studies depended on water storage as the aging technique. Statistical analysis was performed for outcome measurements compared at 24 h, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of water storage. After 24 hours (p-value = 0.051), 3 months (p-value = 0.756), 6 months (p-value=0.267), 12 months (p-value=0.785) of water storage self-etch adhesives showed lower μTBs when compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesives, but the comparisons were statistically insignificant. In this study, longevity of Dentin Bonds was related to the measured μTBs. Although Etch-and-Rinse bonds showed higher values at all times, the meta-analysis found no difference in longevity of the two types of bonds at the examined aging times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Longevity in Calumma parsonii, the World's largest chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Giulia; Glaw, Frank; Andreone, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Large body size of ectothermic species can be correlated with high life expectancy. We assessed the longevity of the World's largest chameleon, the Parson's chameleon Calumma parsonii from Madagascar by using skeletochronology of phalanges taken from preserved specimens held in European natural history museums. Due to the high bone resorption we can provide only the minimum age of each specimen. The highest minimum age detected was nine years for a male and eight years for a female, confirming that this species is considerably long living among chameleons. Our data also show a strong correlation between snout-vent length and estimated age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein damage and repair controlling seed vigor and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogé, Laurent; Broyart, Caroline; Collet, Boris; Godin, Béatrice; Jallet, Denis; Bourdais, Gildas; Job, Dominique; Grappin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The formation of abnormal isoaspartyl residues derived from aspartyl or asparaginyl residues is a major source of spontaneous protein misfolding in cells. The repair enzyme protein L: -isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) counteracts such damage by catalyzing the conversion of abnormal isoaspartyl residues to their normal aspartyl forms. Thus, this enzyme contributes to the survival of many organisms, including plants. Analysis of the accumulation of isoaspartyl-containing proteins and its modulation by the PIMT repair pathway, using germination tests, immunodetection, enzymatic assays, and HPLC analysis, gives new insights in understanding controlling mechanisms of seed longevity and vigor.

  7. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  8. Identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers of glucose intolerance in ApoE3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, S.; Radonjic, M.; Rubingh, C.; Erk, M. van; Smilde, A.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Cnubben, N.; Kooistra, T.; Ommen, B. van; Kleemann, R.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type 2 could be significantly reduced by early identification of subjects at risk, allowing for better prevention and earlier treatment. Glucose intolerance (GI) is a hallmark of the prediabetic stage. This study aims at identifying 1) prognostic biomarkers

  9. Sugar and Multivitamin Diet Effects on The Longevity and Mating Capacity of Laboratory-Reared Male Anopheline Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Pantuwatana, Kanchana; Tawong, Jaruwan; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Khaosanorh, Sakon; Wanja, Elizabeth W; Davidson, Silas A

    2017-09-01

    Successful mating by male mosquitoes is dependent on several factors, with sugar feeding being particularly important. The effect of ingested vitamins on adult male mosquitoes is poorly understood. This laboratory study used 3 anopheline species, Anopheles campestris, An. dirus, and An. sawadwongporni, to study the effect of sugar and vitamins on male longevity, copulation, and fecundity. Males were fed 1 of 5 diets containing different combinations of sugar and vitamins: 10% glucose, 10% sucrose, 10% multivitamin syrup, 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% glucose, and 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose. The longevity of males was measured for a period of 15 days. Forced mating was used to simulate copulation, and fecundity was measured by counting the number of eggs oviposited and the hatch rate of larvae. The longevity of An. campestris and An. dirus was greatest when fed a diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% glucose, and the longevity of An. sawadwongporni was greatest when fed a diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose. The 1st mating routinely produced the most viable eggs when males were mated with several females. The diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose produced numerically greater egg production and larval emergence for all 3 species, although this was not always statistically significant due to variability and small sample size. These results indicate that the addition of multivitamin syrup to sucrose may produce healthier and more fit male anophelines. This has potential implications for increasing insectary operations and improving the fitness of laboratory-reared male mosquitoes that will be released for mosquito and disease-pathogen control studies.

  10. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae) fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae) or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuncio,José Cola; Beserra,Eduardo Barbosa; Molina-Rugama,Adrián José; Zanuncio,Teresinha Vinha; Pinon,Tobias Baruc Moreira; Maffia,Vanessa Pataro

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) or Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. mol...

  11. Replication of an Association of Variation in the FOXO3A Gene with Human Longevity Using Both Case-control and Longitudinal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Dato, Serena; Christensen, Kaare

    2010-01-01

    correction for multiple testing) of 8 SNPs; 4 (rs13217795, rs2764264, rs479744 and rs9400239) previously reported to be associated with longevity and 4 novel SNPs (rs12206094, rs13220810, rs7762395 and rs9486902 (corrected p-values 0.001-0.044). Moreover, we found association of the haplotypes TAC and CAC...... of rs9486902, rs10499051 and rs12206094 (corrected p-values: 0.01-0.03) with longevity. Moreover, we here present data applying a longitudinal study design; when using follow-up survival data on the oldest old in a longitudinal analysis we found no SNPs to hold up for correction of multiple testing...

  12. The effect of growth regulators on post-harvest Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. leaf longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. were the subject of the study. The leaves were harvested early in the morning from the department’s ornamental plant collection. Selected leaves were fully-developed and showed no signs of damage or discolouring. Gibberellic acid (GA3, benzyladenine (BA, meta-methoxytopolin (MemT and its riboside (MemTR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg dm−3 were applied in the form of solutions to four-hour leaf-conditioning in the room at a temperature of 18-20°C. After conditioning, the leaves were placed in distilled water. Leaves put into distilled water immediately after cutting served as the control. The post-harvest longevity of leaves of Alchemilla mollis was 7.2-11.8 days. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid solutions at concentrations of 25-50 mg dm−3, benzyladenine at concentrations of 25 mg dm−3 and meta-methoxytopolin and its riboside at concentrations of 75 mg dm−3 extended the post-harvest longevity of leaves by 10.1-81.9%. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid at a concentration of 50 mg dm−3 inhibited the degradation of chlorophyll, as indicated by the highest SPAD index values.

  13. Longevity and Stress Resistant Property of 6-Gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; An, Chang Wan; Kim, Yeong Jee; Noh, Yun Jeong; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ju-Eun; Shrestha, Abinash Chandra; Ham, Ha-Neul; Leem, Jae-Yoon; Jo, Hyung-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Sung; Moon, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Kyung Ok; Kim, Dae Keun

    2018-03-14

    In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions. Additionally, 6-gingerol elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities of C. elegans , and showed a dose-depend reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Further studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of 6-gingerol-mediated worms could result from the promotion of stress resistance proteins such as heat shock protein (HSP-16.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-3). The lipofuscin levels in 6-gingerol treated intestinal worms were decreased in comparison to the control group. No significant 6-gingerol-related changes, including growth, food intake, reproduction, and movement were noted. These results suggest that 6-gingerol exerted longevity-promoting activities independently of these factors and could extend the human lifespan.

  14. Longevity of anterior resin-bonded bridges: survival rates of two tooth preparation designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, M; Locke, J; Burt, G; Clausen, G; Escobar, K

    2018-04-16

    Significant developments have occurred in the design of resin-bonded bridges (RBB) over the past two decades. They are commonly used as an alternative treatment option for a single missing tooth. The longevity of these bridges needs to be further investigated to evaluate long-term outcomes for this option to remain relevant. A cohort of patients who received anterior resin-bonded bridges (ARBB) over two decades was studied retrospectively. Longevity of 206 ARBB was assessed using Kaplan-Meier probability estimates. The two modified tooth preparation designs investigated were: (A) mesial and distal vertical grooves only; and (B) one proximal groove adjacent to the pontic and two palatal grooves. Age and gender of the patient cohort were also recorded. Overall survival rate of ARBB was 98% at 5 years, 97.2% at 10 years, and 95.1% from 12 years till 21 years. Survival curves showed minor differences when compared for the two designs, age groups and gender of ARBB recipients. Differences in the proportion of surviving bridges for design A (95.96%) and design B (98.13%) were not statistically significant (Fisher's exact test). Anterior RBB with described tooth preparation designs demonstrate a high survival rate. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Lipid and Alzheimer's disease genes associated with healthy aging and longevity in healthy oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindale, Lauren C; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2017-03-28

    Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect. We compared a group of 446 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' (individuals 85 or older who have never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes or major pulmonary disease) to 421 random population-based midlife controls. Cases and controls were of European ancestry. Association tests of individual SNPs showed that Super-Seniors were less likely than controls to carry an APOEε4 allele or a haptoglobin HP2 allele. Interactions between APOE/FOXO3, APOE/CRYL1, and LPA/CRYL1 did not remain significant after multiple testing correction. In a network analysis of the candidate genes, lipid and cholesterol metabolism was a common theme. APOE, HP, and CRYL1 have all been associated with Alzheimer's Disease, the pathology of which involves lipid and cholesterol pathways. Age-related changes in lipid and cholesterol maintenance, particularly in the brain, may be central to healthy aging and longevity.

  16. Independent and additive effects of glutamic acid and methionine on yeast longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    It is established that glucose restriction extends yeast chronological and replicative lifespan, but little is known about the influence of amino acids on yeast lifespan, although some amino acids were reported to delay aging in rodents. Here we show that amino acid composition greatly alters yeast chronological lifespan. We found that non-essential amino acids (to yeast) methionine and glutamic acid had the most significant impact on yeast chronological lifespan extension, restriction of methionine and/or increase of glutamic acid led to longevity that was not the result of low acetic acid production and acidification in aging media. Remarkably, low methionine, high glutamic acid and glucose restriction additively and independently extended yeast lifespan, which could not be further extended by buffering the medium (pH 6.0). Our preliminary findings using yeasts with gene deletion demonstrate that glutamic acid addition, methionine and glucose restriction prompt yeast longevity through distinct mechanisms. This study may help to fill a gap in yeast model for the fast developing view that nutrient balance is a critical factor to extend lifespan.

  17. Walking four times weekly for at least 15 min is associated with longevity in a cohort of very elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Sperati, Alessandra; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, PierGiorgio; Francesco, Forastiere; Agabiti, Nerina; Piras, Giovanna; Amleto, D'Amicis; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the role of walking outdoors on longevity, controlling for individual and other life-style factors as possible confounders. A 10-year cohort study was conducted with 152 self-caring and mobile, mean age 80 years, were enrolled in the study. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and biochemical data, diet, physical activity, smoking, depression status, cognitive status and anthropometrics measurements, were obtained for all participants. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to determine independent predictors of longevity. During the 10-years of follow-up, 96 (63%) died. Old age, chronic diseases, smoking, depression, CD4/CD8 ratio and coffee consumption were significantly predictors of mortality. Over-all survival was highest for subjects walking at open air for 4 times weekly for at least 15 min in comparison to subjects walking less than 4 times weekly (40% versus 22%). After adjusting for sex, age, education, chronic diseases, smoking, Body Mass Index and CD4/CD8 ratio, elderly people walking at open air for four times weekly had 40% decreased risk of mortality that individuals who walked less than four times weekly [relative risk (RR)=0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.32-0.88, p=0.01]. Findings suggest an independent and protective effect of walking on mortality and supports the encouragement of physical activity in advanced age for increasing longevity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A regulatory network-based approach dissects late maturation processes related to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and longevity of Medicago truncatula seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Jerome; Lalanne, David; Pelletier, Sandra; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Righetti, Karima; Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Leprince, Olivier; Chatelain, Emilie; Vu, Benoit Ly; Gouzy, Jerome; Gamas, Pascal; Udvardi, Michael K; Buitink, Julia

    2013-10-01

    In seeds, desiccation tolerance (DT) and the ability to survive the dry state for prolonged periods of time (longevity) are two essential traits for seed quality that are consecutively acquired during maturation. Using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling together with a conditional-dependent network of global transcription interactions, we dissected the maturation events from the end of seed filling to final maturation drying during the last 3 weeks of seed development in Medicago truncatula. The network revealed distinct coexpression modules related to the acquisition of DT, longevity, and pod abscission. The acquisition of DT and dormancy module was associated with abiotic stress response genes, including late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes. The longevity module was enriched in genes involved in RNA processing and translation. Concomitantly, LEA polypeptides accumulated, displaying an 18-d delayed accumulation compared with transcripts. During maturation, gulose and stachyose levels increased and correlated with longevity. A seed-specific network identified known and putative transcriptional regulators of DT, including ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (MtABI3), MtABI4, MtABI5, and APETALA2/ ETHYLENE RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN (AtAP2/EREBP) transcription factor as major hubs. These transcriptional activators were highly connected to LEA genes. Longevity genes were highly connected to two MtAP2/EREBP and two basic leucine zipper transcription factors. A heat shock factor was found at the transition of DT and longevity modules, connecting to both gene sets. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches of MtABI3 confirmed 80% of its predicted targets, thereby experimentally validating the network. This study captures the coordinated regulation of seed maturation and identifies distinct regulatory networks underlying the preparation for the dry and quiescent states.

  19. Intrinsic aerobic capacity sets a divide for aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Kemi, Ole J; Qi, Nathan; Leng, Sean X; Bijma, Piter; Gilligan, Lori J; Wilkinson, John E; Wisløff, Helene; Høydal, Morten A; Rolim, Natale; Abadir, Peter M; van Grevenhof, Elizabeth M; Smith, Godfrey L; Burant, Charles F; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Britton, Steven L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2011-10-28

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. Together, these findings suggest a fundamental connection between aerobic capacity and longevity. Through artificial selective breeding, we developed an animal model system to prospectively test the association between aerobic exercise capacity and survivability (aerobic hypothesis). Laboratory rats of widely diverse genetic backgrounds (N:NIH stock) were selectively bred for low or high intrinsic (inborn) treadmill running capacity. Cohorts of male and female rats from generations 14, 15, and 17 of selection were followed for survivability and assessed for age-related declines in cardiovascular fitness including maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), myocardial function, endurance performance, and change in body mass. Median lifespan for low exercise capacity rats was 28% to 45% shorter than high capacity rats (hazard ratio, 0.06; PPhysical activity levels, energy expenditure (Vo(2)), and lean body mass were all better sustained with age in rats bred for high aerobic capacity. These data obtained from a contrasting heterogeneous model system provide strong evidence that genetic segregation for aerobic exercise capacity can be linked with longevity and are useful for deeper mechanistic exploration of aging.

  20. The crucial impact of lysosomes in aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Hughes, Adam L; Madeo, Frank; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomes are the main catabolic organelles of a cell and play a pivotal role in a plethora of cellular processes, including responses to nutrient availability and composition, stress resistance, programmed cell death, plasma membrane repair, development, and cell differentiation. In line with this pleiotropic importance for cellular and organismal life and death, lysosomal dysfunction is associated with many age-related pathologies like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, as well as with a decline in lifespan. Conversely, targeting lysosomal functional capacity is emerging as a means to promote longevity. Here, we analyze the current knowledge on the prominent influence of lysosomes on aging-related processes, such as their executory and regulatory roles during general and selective macroautophagy, or their storage capacity for amino acids and ions. In addition, we review and discuss the roles of lysosomes as active players in the mechanisms underlying known lifespan-extending interventions like, for example, spermidine or rapamycin administration. In conclusion, this review aims at critically examining the nature and pliability of the different layers, in which lysosomes are involved as a control hub for aging and longevity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anécdotas castellanas en escritura hebraica. Apuntes paremiológicos conservados en las anotaciones hebreas de Alfonso de Zamora (Ms. Leiden Or. 645

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Fontela, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems of translation and interpretation are addressed in this presentation of Alfonso de Zamora’s Hebrew and Hebrew “Aljamiado” Spanish notes (ca. 1530 from Leiden University Library Ms. Or. 645 (ol. Warner 65 containing anecdotes, sayings and short tales. Additional notes dealing with a manuscript copy of the Targum to the Prophets comissioned by the University of Salamanca are also discussed.

    Este artículo estudia algunas notas manuscritas de Alfonso de Zamora en hebreo y en aljamía hebraico-castellana datadas hacia 1530, y procedentes del ms. Or. 645 (ol. Warner 65 de la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Leiden. Dichas notas contienen anécdotas, refranes y «cuentecillos», tales como las anécdotas «de fray Palomo», «de un portugués», y «de lo que dijo el gallego». Otras anotaciones de Zamora tratan de un trabajo de copia del Targum a los Profetas por encargo de la Universidad de Salamanca.

  2. Haploinsufficiency of myostatin protects against aging-related declines in muscle function and enhances the longevity of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Christopher L; Bakhurin, Konstantin I; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Shallal-Ayzin, Mark V; Davis, Carol S; Faulkner, John A

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind aging-related declines in muscle function are not well understood, but the growth factor myostatin (MSTN) appears to play an important role in this process. Additionally, epidemiological studies have identified a positive correlation between skeletal muscle mass and longevity. Given the role of myostatin in regulating muscle size, and the correlation between muscle mass and longevity, we tested the hypotheses that the deficiency of myostatin would protect oldest-old mice (28-30 months old) from an aging-related loss in muscle size and contractility, and would extend the maximum lifespan of mice. We found that MSTN(+/-) and MSTN(-/-) mice were protected from aging-related declines in muscle mass and contractility. While no differences were detected between MSTN(+/+) and MSTN(-/-) mice, MSTN(+/-) mice had an approximately 15% increase in maximal lifespan. These results suggest that targeting myostatin may protect against aging-related changes in skeletal muscle and contribute to enhanced longevity. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Empirical Validation of a Hypothesis of the Hormetic Selective Forces Driving the Evolution of Longevity Regulation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Gomez-Perez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exogenously added lithocholic bile acid and some other bile acids slow down yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response and altering mitochondrial functionality. Unlike animals, yeast cells do not synthesize bile acids. We therefore hypothesized that bile acids released into an ecosystem by animals may act as interspecies chemical signals that generate selective pressure for the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in yeast within this ecosystem. To empirically verify our hypothesis, in this study we carried out a 3-step process for the selection of long-lived yeast species by a long-term exposure to exogenous lithocholic bile acid. Such experimental evolution yielded 20 long-lived mutants, 3 of which were capable of sustaining their considerably prolonged chronological lifespans after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. The extended longevity of each of the 3 long-lived yeast species was a dominant polygenic trait caused by mutations in more than two nuclear genes. Each of the 3 mutants displayed considerable alterations to the age-related chronology of mitochondrial respiration and showed enhanced resistance to chronic oxidative, thermal and osmotic stresses. Our findings empirically validate the hypothesis suggesting that hormetic selective forces can drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms within an ecosystem.

  4. Association of Polymorphisms in Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Genes With Human Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Timothy A; Morris, Brian J; He, Qimei; Chen, Randi; Masaki, Kamal H; Allsopp, Richard C; Willcox, D Craig; Tranah, Gregory J; Parimi, Neeta; Evans, Daniel S; Flachsbart, Friederike; Nebel, Almut; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Park, Joobae; Willcox, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Growth pathways play key roles in longevity. The present study tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the connective tissue growth factor gene (CTGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) for association with longevity. Comparison of allele and genotype frequencies of 12 CTGF SNPs and 41 EGFR SNPs between 440 American men of Japanese ancestry aged ≥95 years and 374 men of average life span revealed association with longevity at the p cases, consistent with heterozygote advantage in living to extreme old age. No associations of the most significant SNPs were observed in whites or Koreans. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that genetic variation in CTGF and EGFR may contribute to the attainment of extreme old age in Japanese. More research is needed to confirm that genetic variation in CTGF and EGFR contributes to the attainment of extreme old age across human populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Determinants of longevity and all-cause mortality among middle-aged men. Role of 48 personal characteristics in 40-year follow-up of Italian Rural Areas in the Seven Countries Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, A.; Lanti, M.; Maiani, G.; Kromhout, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: Forty-year all-cause mortality and its association with entry risk factor levels are reported for men enrolled in the Italian Rural Areas of the Seven Countries Study of Cardiovascular Diseases. Methods: Forty-eight potential risk factors were measured in 1712 men aged 40-59 at

  6. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksaharju, Anna; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Miettinen, Minja; Lappalainen, Jani; Lindstedt, Ken A; Kovanen, Petri T; Korpela, Riitta; Kekkonen, Riina A

    2013-07-14

    A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. Probiotic bacteria, again, help to maintain the homeostasis of the gut microbiota by protecting the gut epithelium and regulating the local immune system. In the present study, we explored the effects of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS (PJS), on high fat-fed ApoE*3Leiden mice by estimating the mast cell numbers and the immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-10 in the intestine, as well as plasma levels of several markers of inflammation and parameters of lipid metabolism. We found that mice that received GG and PJS exhibited significantly lower numbers of intestinal mast cells compared with control mice. PJS lowered intestinal immunoreactivity of TNF-α, while GG increased intestinal IL-10. PJS was also observed to lower the plasma levels of markers of inflammation including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and also the amount of gonadal adipose tissue. GG lowered alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that probiotic GG and PJS tend to down-regulate both intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory changes induced by a high-fat diet in this humanised mouse model.

  7. [A clinical case of young, oral combined contraceptive using women, heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden) which revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S; Ramshev, K; Ramsheva, Z; Ivanov, A; Ganovska, A

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophilia is associated with increased risks of venous thrombosis in women taking oral contraceptive preparations. Universal thrombophilia screening in women prior to prescribing oral contraceptive preparations is not supported by current evidence. The case is presented of a 23 year-old women with a personal history of interruption and on the same day started with oral contraceptive (0.03 microg ethynil estradiol - 0.075 microg gestodene), which due on a 18 pill/day to acute headache, increasing vomiting and speaking defects. Physical/neurologic/gynecologic examinations observed a normal status. The MRI and CT revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke. The acute therapy of thrombotic findings was accompanied with many tests. The thrombophilia PCR-Real time - test finds heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden). This case shows the need of large prospective studies that should be undertaken to refine the risks and establish the associations of thrombophilias with venous thrombosis among contraceptive users. The key to a prompt diagnosis is to know the risk factors. The relative value of a thrombophilia screening programme before contraceptive using needs to be established.

  8. Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Natural Phenolic Content Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Adipose Tissue and Attenuates the Severity of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Sierra, Amparo; Alvarez-Amor, Leticia; Kleemann, Robert; Martín, Franz; Varela, Lourdes M

    2018-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of olive oils with different phenolic content in high-fat diets (HFDs) on hypertrophy and inflammation in adipose tissue and associated atherosclerosis, in the context of obesity. Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice were fed three different HFDs for 32 weeks and were compared with mice fed the standard low-fat diet (LFD). The different fats provided in the HFDs were lard (HFD-L), extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO; 79 mg kg -1 of phenolic compounds, HFD-EVOO), or EVOO rich in phenolic compounds (OL, 444 mg kg -1 of phenolic compounds, HFD-OL). All HFD-fed mice became obese, but only HFD-L-induced adipocyte hypertrophy. HFD-EVOO mice exhibited the greatest levels of Adiponectin in adipose tissue and presented atherosclerotic lesions similar to the LFD group, with a very low count of monocyte/macrophage compared with HFD-L and HFD-OL mice. Enrichment of the phenolic content of olive oil reduced the secretion of nitrites/nitrates in the aorta, but atherosclerosis was not attenuated in HFD-OL mice compared to other HFD mice. Consumption of olive oil with a natural content of phenolic compounds attenuates adipose tissue hypertrophy and inflammation and exerts antiatherosclerotic effects in mice. A higher phenolic content of olive oil did not provide further benefits in the prevention of atherosclerosis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Regional Distribution of Longevity Population and Elements in Drinking Water in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Yuan, Yuyang; Luo, Kunli

    2017-10-25

    In order to determine the spatial variation of longevity population and elements contained in the drinking water of longevity region in Jiangjin and investigate the relationship between the elements in drinking water and longevity, population censuses on township level and 98 drinking water samples from Jiangjin District, Chongqing City in West China were collected and analyzed. Population statistics on township level showed that the number of centenarians per 100,000 inhabitants (OC), centenarity index (CI), and number of centenarians per 10,000 over 65-year-old subjects (UC) present obvious geographic distribution properties, generally Central region > Northern region > Southern region (Kruskal-Wallis test, p water (150 mg/L water from longevity township (OC > 7.5) in Jiangjin District, whereas soft water (75 mg/L strontium (Sr) (0.73 mg/L) in drinking water from the longevity township was apparently higher than that of non-longevity township (0.44 mg/L) (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.019 water from longevity township were also higher than those of non-longevity township (Mann-Whitney U test, p water might be good for the health and prolong people's life.

  10. Solid lubricant mass contact transfer technology usage for vacuum ball bearings longevity increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzymatov, B.; Deulin, E.

    2016-07-01

    A contact mass transfer technological method of solid lubricant deposition on components of vacuum ball bearings is presented. Physics-mathematical model of process contact mass transfer is being considered. The experimental results of ball bearings covered with solid lubricant longevity in vacuum are presented. It is shown that solid lubricant of contact mass transfer method deposition is prospective for ball bearing longevity increasing.

  11. JUNGBRUNNEN1, a Reactive Oxygen Species–Responsive NAC Transcription Factor, Regulates Longevity in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, A.; Devi Allu, A.; Garapati, P.; Siddiqui, H.; Dortay, H.; Zanor, M.I.; Amparo Asensi-Fabado, M.; Munne´ -Bosch, S.; Antonio, C.; Tohge, T.; Fernie, A.R.; Kaufmann, K.; Xue, G.P.; Mueller-Roeber, B.; Balazadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from juvenility through maturation to senescence is a complex process that involves the regulation of longevity. Here, we identify JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1), a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced NAC transcription factor, as a central longevity regulator in Arabidopsis thaliana. JUB1

  12. Longevity Candidate Genes and Their Association With Personality Traits in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luciano, M.; Lopez, L.M.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Harris, S.E.; Davies, G.; Nutile, T.; Krueger, R.F.; Esko, T.; Schlessinger, D.; Toshiko, T.; Derringer, J.; Realo, A.; Hansell, N.K.; Pergadia, M.L.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Sanna, S.; Terracciano, A.; Madden, P.A.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Spinhoven, Ph.D.; Hartman, C.A.; Oostra, B.A.; Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Eriksson, J.G.; Starr, J.M.; Cannas, A.; Ferrucci, L.; Metspalu, A.; Wright, M.J.; Heath, A.C.; van Duijn, C.M.; Bierut, L.J.; Raikkonen, K.; Martin, N.G.; Ciullo, M.; Rujescu, D.; Boomsma, D.I.; Deary, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    Human longevity and personality traits are both heritable and are consistently linked at the phenotypic level. We test the hypothesis that candidate genes influencing longevity in lower organisms are associated with variance in the five major dimensions of human personality (measured by the NEO-FFI

  13. Longevity candidate genes and their association with personality traits in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luciano, Michelle; Lopez, Lorna M.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Davies, Gail; Nutile, Teresa; Krueger, Robert F.; Esko, Tonu; Schlessinger, David; Toshiko, Tanaka; Derringer, Jaime L.; Realo, Anu; Hansell, Narelle K.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Sanna, Serena; Terracciano, Antonio; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Penninx, Brenda; Spinhoven, Philip; Hartman, Catherina A.; Oostra, Ben A.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Starr, John M.; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Metspalu, Andres; Wright, Margeret J.; Heath, Andrew C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Bierut, Laura J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Martin, Nicholas G.; Ciullo, Marina; Rujescu, Dan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Deary, Ian J.

    Human longevity and personality traits are both heritable and are consistently linked at the phenotypic level. We test the hypothesis that candidate genes influencing longevity in lower organisms are associated with variance in the five major dimensions of human personality (measured by the NEO-FFI

  14. Effect of floral bud reduction on flower longevity in Asiatic hybrids lilies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Muisers, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Floral bud abortion was found to be an undesirable source of non-genetic variation in breeding trials directed on the improvement of individual flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies. It increased the longevity of the remaining flowers of the inflorescence. A similar response was found after

  15. Longevity of posterior resin composite restorations in permanent teeth in Public Dental Health Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan W V; Halken, Jette

    2013-01-01

    To investigate in a prospective follow up the longevity of posterior resin composites (RC) placed in permanent teeth of children and adolescents attending Public Dental Health Service.......To investigate in a prospective follow up the longevity of posterior resin composites (RC) placed in permanent teeth of children and adolescents attending Public Dental Health Service....

  16. Adiposity Impacts Intrarenal Hemodynamic Function in Adults With Long-standing Type 1 Diabetes With and Without Diabetic Nephropathy: Results From the Canadian Study of Longevity in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstad, Petter; Lovshin, Julie A; Lytvyn, Yuliya; Boulet, Genevieve; Lovblom, Leif E; Alhuzaim, Omar N; Farooqi, Mohammed A; Lai, Vesta; Tse, Josephine; Cham, Leslie; Orszag, Andrej; Scarr, Daniel; Weisman, Alanna; Keenan, Hillary A; Brent, Michael H; Paul, Narinder; Bril, Vera; Perkins, Bruce A; Cherney, David Z I

    2018-04-01

    Central adiposity is considered to be an important cardiorenal risk factor in the general population and in type 1 diabetes. We sought to determine the relationship between central adiposity and intrarenal hemodynamic function in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes with and without diabetic nephropathy (DN). Patients with type 1 diabetes ( n = 66, duration ≥50 years) and age-/sex-matched control subjects ( n = 73) were studied. The cohort was stratified into 44 DN Resistors (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] >60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and inulin [GFR INULIN ], effective renal plasma flow for p -aminohippuric acid [ERPF PAH ]) was measured. Afferent arteriolar resistance, efferent arteriolar resistance, renal blood flow, renal vascular resistance [RVR], filtration fraction, and glomerular pressure were derived from the Gomez equations. Fat and lean mass were quantified by DXA. Whereas measures of adiposity did not associate with GFR INULIN or ERPF PAH in healthy control subjects, trunk fat mass inversely correlated with GFR INULIN ( r = -0.46, P INULIN values in DN and DN Resistors, but the relationships between central adiposity and ERPF PAH and RVR were attenuated and/or reversed in patients with DN compared with DN Resistors. The adiposity-intrarenal hemodynamic function relationship may be modified by the presence of type 1 diabetes and DN, requiring further study of the mechanisms by which adiposity influences renal hemodynamic function. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  18. Evaluating the virulence and longevity of non-woven fiber bands impregnated with Metarhizium anisopliae against the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan P. Shanley; Melody Keena; Micheal M. Wheeler; Jarrod Leland; Ann E. Hajek

    2009-01-01

    Fiber bands impregnated with entomopathogenic fungi (=fungal bands) provide an effective method for controlling the invasive Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study we investigated the effective longevity of fungal bands for use against A. glabripennis, using...

  19. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain: a magnetization transfer imaging study of brain macro- and micro-structure in older adults without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; Jansen, Steffy W; van Buchem, Mark A; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-08-01

    Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain MRI was used to detect macro-structural damage (atrophy, white matter hyper-intensities, infarcts and/or micro-bleeds) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) to detect loss of micro-structural homogeneity that remains otherwise invisible on conventional MRI. Macro-structurally, higher fasted glucose was significantly associated with white matter atrophy (P = 0.028). Micro-structurally, decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) peak height in gray matter was associated with higher fasted insulin (P = 0.010), AUCinsulin (P = 0.001), insulinogenic index (P = 0.008) and lower HOMA-IS index (P glucose was associated with macro-structural damage, impaired insulin action was associated more strongly with reduced micro-structural brain parenchymal homogeneity. These findings offer some insight into the association between different parameters of glucose metabolism (impairment of which is characteristic of diabetes mellitus) and brain aging.

  20. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of cement-based ancient building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate and contain nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of a preliminary examination of selected ancient, old, and modern building materials (14 specimens) and was intended to document and explain the remarkable durability of these portland cement-related materials. This study has provided insights into reasons for the durability of certain structures and also into the long-term stability of calcium silicate binders (cements) used in archaeologic materials. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehole environment. A multimethod analysis was used and included: macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic and SEM) analyses, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction analyses. 61 figures, 11 tables

  1. Sexual Cooperation: Mating Increases Longevity in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen; Cremer, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    Divergent reproductive interests of males and females often cause sexual conflict [1] and [2] . Males of many species manipulate females by transferring seminal fluids that boost female short-term fecundity while decreasing their life expectancy and future reproductivity [3] and [4] . The life...... history of ants, however, is expected to reduce sexual conflict; whereas most insect females show repeated phases of mating and reproduction, ant queens mate only during a short period early in life and undergo a lifelong commitment to their mates by storing sperm [5] . Furthermore, sexual offspring can...... sterilized male lived considerably longer and started laying eggs earlier than virgin queens. Only queens that received viable sperm from fertile males showed increased fecundity. The lack of a trade-off between fecundity and longevity is unexpected, given evolutionary theories of aging [6] . Our data...

  2. Perspectives on the Biodemography of Longevity and Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Biodemography is a timely and exciting area of research that has been emerging over the past 15–20 years and might arguably be the most quickly growing area of demography. From the perspective of longevity and aging, questions arise that touch on the biological foundation of aging. With a focus...... on mortality, this article offers a perspective on recent developments in evolutionary biodemography. These include new theories, methods, and data that have resulted in striking new findings on the diversity of life courses (including the option of escape from aging for some species) that is licensed...... by nature across the tree of life. As the human life course is rapidly changing due to unimpeded population aging, advances in development of biodemographic theories, methods and databases may prove useful and inspire advances in sociology....

  3. In Search of Rationality in Human Longevity and Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Gopal C

    2016-01-01

    The human body is machine-like, but self-moving, self-regulating, and self-adjusting, governed by willpower and intelligence. Aging of the body is basically a maintenance problem and so it could perhaps be postponed by thorough and frequent maintenance. Aging brings on a cascade of ills and health problems leading to deterioration of physical, mental, emotional, and social dimensions of life. This paper deals with solution of the problem philosophically in the light of Indian scriptures without entering into traditional bioethical issues. With a meaningful reason for existence, life can be extended. Examining the scientific perspectives on aging, some common manipulations for its extension are discussed. These are calorie restriction, vitamin and antioxidant treatment, exercise and hormonal interventions, etc. Finally, the question of longevity is explored through pursuance of eternal value-based activity and spirituality in the tradition of Indian heritage.

  4. Cement based grouts - longevity laboratory studies: leaching behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.; Roe, L.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a series of laboratory tests carried out to determine the possible leaching behaviour of cement-based grouts in repository environments. A reference high-performance cement-based grout, comprised of Canadian Type 50 (U.S. Type V) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, silica fume, potable water and superplasticizer, and a commercially available cement grout were subjected to leaching in distilled water and three simulated groundwaters of different ionic strength. Hardened, monolithic specimens of the grout were leached in static, pulsed-flow and continuous flow conditions at temperatures from 10 degrees C to 150 degrees C for periods of up to 56 days. The changes in concentration of ions in the leachants with time were determined and the changes in the morphology of the surfaces of the grout specimens were examined using electron microscopy. After a review of possible mechanisms of degradation of cement-based materials, the data from these experiments are presented. The data show that the grouts will leach when in contact with water through dissolution of more soluble phases. Comparison of the leaching performance of the two grouts indicates that, while there are some minor differences, they behaved quite similarly. The rate of the leaching processes were found to tend to decrease with time and to be accompanied by precipitation and/or growth of an assemblage of secondary alteration phases (i.e., CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 ). The mechanisms of leaching depended on the environmental conditions of temperature, groundwater composition and water flow rate. Matrix dissolution occurred. However, in many of the tests leaching was shown to be limited by the precipitated/reaction layers which acted as protective surface coatings. (37 refs.) (au)

  5. Cell longevity and sustained primary growth in palm stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, P Barry; Huggett, Brett A

    2012-12-01

    Longevity, or organismal life span, is determined largely by the period over which constituent cells can function metabolically. Plants, with modular organization (the ability continually to develop new organs and tissues) differ from animals, with unitary organization (a fixed body plan), and this difference is reflected in their respective life spans, potentially much longer in plants than animals. We draw attention to the observation that palm trees, as a group of monocotyledons without secondary growth comparable to that of lignophytes (plants with secondary growth from a bifacial cambium), retain by means of sustained primary growth living cells in their trunks throughout their organismal life span. Does this make palms the longest-lived trees because they can grow as individuals for several centuries? No conventional lignophyte retains living metabolically active differentiated cell types in its trunk for this length of time, even though the tree as a whole can exist for millennia. Does this contrast also imply that the long-lived cells in a palm trunk have exceptional properties, which allows this seeming immortality? We document the long-life of many tall palm species and their inherent long-lived stem cell properties, comparing such plants to conventional trees. We provide a summary of aspects of cell age and life span in animals and plants. Cell replacement is a feature of animal function, whereas conventional trees rely on active growth centers (meristems) to sustain organismal development. However, the long persistence of living cells in palm trunks is seen not as evidence for unique metabolic processes that sustain longevity, but is a consequence of unique constructional features. This conclusion suggests that the life span of plant cells is not necessarily genetically determined.

  6. Phospholipid composition and longevity: lessons from Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencak, Teresa G; Ruf, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Membrane fatty acid (FA) composition is correlated with longevity in mammals. The "membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing" proposes that animals which cellular membranes contain high amounts of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) have shorter life spans because their membranes are more susceptible to peroxidation and further oxidative damage. It remains to be shown, however, that long-lived phenotypes such as the Ames dwarf mouse have membranes containing fewer PUFAs and thus being less prone to peroxidation, as would be predicted from the membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing. Here, we show that across four different tissues, i.e., muscle, heart, liver and brain as well as in liver mitochondria, Ames dwarf mice possess membrane phospholipids containing between 30 and 60 % PUFAs (depending on the tissue), which is similar to PUFA contents of their normal-sized, short-lived siblings. However, we found that that Ames dwarf mice membrane phospholipids were significantly poorer in n-3 PUFAs. While lack of a difference in PUFA contents is contradicting the membrane pacemaker hypothesis, the lower n-3 PUFAs content in the long-lived mice provides some support for the membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing, as n-3 PUFAs comprise those FAs being blamed most for causing oxidative damage. By comparing tissue composition between 1-, 2- and 6-month-old mice in both phenotypes, we found that membranes differed both in quantity of PUFAs and in the prevalence of certain PUFAs. In sum, membrane composition in the Ames dwarf mouse supports the concept that tissue FA composition is related to longevity.

  7. A genome-wide scan reveals important roles of DNA methylation in human longevity by regulating age-related disease genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hui Xiao

    Full Text Available It is recognized that genetic factors contribute to human longevity. Besides the hypothesis of existence of longevity genes, another suggests that a lower frequency of risk alleles decreases the incidence of age-related diseases in the long-lived people. However, the latter finds no support from recent genetic studies. Considering the crucial role of epigenetic modification in gene regulation, we then hypothesize that suppressing disease-related genes in longevity individuals is likely achieved by epigenetic modification, e.g. DNA methylation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the genome-wide methylation profile in 4 Chinese female centenarians and 4 middle-aged controls using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. 626 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed between both groups. Interestingly, genes with these DMRs were enriched in age-related diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. This pattern remains rather stable after including methylomes of two white individuals. Further analyses suggest that the observed DMRs likely have functional roles in regulating disease-associated gene expressions, with some genes [e.g. caspase 3 (CASP3] being down-regulated whereas the others [i.e. interleukin 1 receptor, type 2 (IL1R2] up-regulated. Therefore, our study suggests that suppressing the disease-related genes via epigenetic modification is an important contributor to human longevity.

  8. Influence of Nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study is to determine the influence of nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) barrier longevity. There is a wide spread groundwater plume of 60 mg/L nitrate upgradient of the ISRM barrier with lower nitrate concentrations downgradient, suggestive of nitrate reduction occurring. Batch and 1-D column experiments showed that nitrate is being slowly reduced to nitrite and ammonia. These nitrate reduction reactions are predominantly abiotic, as experiments with and without bactericides present showed no difference in nitrate degradation rates. Nitrogen species transformation rates determined in experiments covered a range of ferrous iron/nitrate ratios such that the data can be used to predict rates in field scale conditions. Field scale reaction rate estimates for 100% reduced sediment (16 C) are: (a) nitrate degradation = 202 ± 50 h (half-life), (b) nitrite production = 850 ± 300 h, and (c) ammonia production = 650 ± 300 h. Calculation of the influence of nitrate reduction on the 100D Area reductive capacity requires consideration of mass balance and reaction rate effects. While dissolved oxygen and chromate reduction rates are rapid and essentially at equilibrium in the aquifer, nitrate transformation reactions are slow (100s of hours). In the limited (20-40 day) residence time in the ISRM barrier, only a portion of the nitrate will be reduced, whereas dissolved oxygen and chromate are reduced to completion. Assuming a groundwater flow rate of 1 ft/day, it is estimated that the ISRM barrier reductive capacity is 160 pore volumes (with no nitrate), and 85 pore volumes if 60 mg/L nitrate is present (i.e., a 47% decrease in the ISRM barrier longevity). Zones with more rapid groundwater flow will be less influenced by nitrate reduction. For example, a zone with a groundwater flow rate of 3 ft/day and 60 mg/L nitrate will have a reductive capacity of 130 pore volumes. Finally, long-term column experiments

  9. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gidske L; Krzywinski, Knut

    2007-06-15

    Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  10. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywinski Knut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Results Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. Conclusion The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  11. Mating with an allopatric male triggers immune response and decreases longevity of ant queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrempf, A; von Wyschetzki, K; Klein, A; Schrader, L; Oettler, J; Heinze, J

    2015-07-01

    In species with lifelong pair bonding, the reproductive interests of the mating partners are aligned, and males and females are expected to jointly maximize their reproductive success. Mating increases both longevity and fecundity of female reproductives (queens) of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, indicating a tight co-evolution of mating partners. Here, we show that mating with a male from their own population increases lifespan and reproductive success of queens more than mating with a male from a different population, with whom they could not co-evolve. A comparison of transcriptomes revealed an increased expression of genes involved in immunity processes in queens, which mated with males from a different population. Increased immune response might be proximately associated with decreased lifespan. Our study suggests a synergistic co-evolution between the sexes and sheds light on the proximate mechanisms underlying the decreased fitness of allopatrically mated queens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Longevity and admission to nursing home according to age after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristinn; Andreasen, Jan; Mortensen, Rikke N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Data on nursing home admission in patient's ≥80 years after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longevity and subsequent admission to a nursing home stratified by age in a nationwide CABG cohort. METHODS: All patients who...... underwent isolated CABG from 1996 to 2012 in Denmark were identified through nationwide registers. The cumulative incidence of admission to a nursing home after CABG was estimated. A Cox regression model was constructed to identify predictors for living in a nursing home 1 year after CABG. Kaplan.......1% of patients ≥80 years had received home care. The proportion of patients admitted to a nursing home at 1, 5 and 10 years after CABG was 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0% (nursing home 1 year postoperatively were: age ≥80 years...

  13. Effect of Smaller Left Ventricular Capture Threshold Safety Margins to Improve Device Longevity in Recipients of Cardiac Resynchronization-Defibrillation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Waks, Jonathan W; Collins, Robert; Kleckner, Karen; Kramer, Daniel B; Zimetbaum, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    Device longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is affected by the pacing capture threshold (PCT) and programmed pacing amplitude of the left ventricular (LV) pacing lead. The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of LV pacing thresholds in a nationwide sample of CRT defibrillator recipients and to determine potential longevity improvements associated with a decrease in the LV safety margin while maintaining effective delivery of CRT. CRT defibrillator patients in the Medtronic CareLink database were eligible for inclusion. LV PCT stability was evaluated using ≥2 measurements over a 14-day period. Separately, a random sample of 7,250 patients with programmed right atrial and right ventricular amplitudes ≤2.5 V, LV thresholds ≤ 2.5 V, and LV pacing ≥90% were evaluated to estimate theoretical battery longevity improvement using LV safety margins of 0.5 and 1.5 V. Threshold stability analysis in 43,256 patients demonstrated LV PCT stability of 1 V had the greatest increases in battery life (mean increase 0.86 years, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.87). In conclusion, nearly all CRT defibrillator patients had LV PCT stability <1.0 V. Decreasing the LV safety margin from 1.5 to 0.5 V provided consistent delivery of CRT for most patients and significantly improved battery longevity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Activation of DAF-16/FOXO by reactive oxygen species contributes to longevity in long-lived mitochondrial mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchuk, Megan M; Dues, Dylan J; Schaar, Claire E; Johnson, Benjamin K; Madaj, Zachary B; Bowman, Megan J; Winn, Mary E; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2018-03-01

    Mild deficits in mitochondrial function have been shown to increase lifespan in multiple species including worms, flies and mice. Here, we study three C. elegans mitochondrial mutants (clk-1, isp-1 and nuo-6) to identify overlapping genetic pathways that contribute to their longevity. We find that genes regulated by the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 are upregulated in all three strains, and that the transcriptional changes present in these worms overlap significantly with the long-lived insulin-IGF1 signaling pathway mutant daf-2. We show that DAF-16 and multiple DAF-16 interacting proteins (MATH-33, IMB-2, CST-1/2, BAR-1) are required for the full longevity of all three mitochondrial mutants. Our results suggest that the activation of DAF-16 in these mutants results from elevated levels of reactive oxygen species. Overall, this work reveals an overlapping genetic pathway required for longevity in three mitochondrial mutants, and, combined with previous work, demonstrates that DAF-16 is a downstream mediator of lifespan extension in multiple pathways of longevity.

  15. Short telomeres in hatchling snakes: erythrocyte telomere dynamics and longevity in tropical pythons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Madsen, Thomas

    2009-10-16

    Telomere length (TL) has been found to be associated with life span in birds and humans. However, other studies have demonstrated that TL does not affect survival among old humans. Furthermore, replicative senescence has been shown to be induced by changes in the protected status of the telomeres rather than the loss of TL. In the present study we explore whether age- and sex-specific telomere dynamics affect life span in a long-lived snake, the water python (Liasis fuscus). Erythrocyte TL was measured using the Telo TAGGG TL Assay Kit (Roche). In contrast to other vertebrates, TL of hatchling pythons was significantly shorter than that of older snakes. However, during their first year of life hatchling TL increased substantially. While TL of older snakes decreased with age, we did not observe any correlation between TL and age in cross-sectional sampling. In older snakes, female TL was longer than that of males. When using recapture as a proxy for survival, our results do not support that longer telomeres resulted in an increased water python survival/longevity. In fish high telomerase activity has been observed in somatic cells exhibiting high proliferation rates. Hatchling pythons show similar high somatic cell proliferation rates. Thus, the increase in TL of this group may have been caused by increased telomerase activity. In older humans female TL is longer than that of males. This has been suggested to be caused by high estrogen levels that stimulate increased telomerase activity. Thus, high estrogen levels may also have caused the longer telomeres in female pythons. The lack of correlation between TL and age among old snakes and the fact that longer telomeres did not appear to affect python survival do not support that erythrocyte telomere dynamics has a major impact on water python longevity.

  16. Short telomeres in hatchling snakes: erythrocyte telomere dynamics and longevity in tropical pythons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Ujvari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL has been found to be associated with life span in birds and humans. However, other studies have demonstrated that TL does not affect survival among old humans. Furthermore, replicative senescence has been shown to be induced by changes in the protected status of the telomeres rather than the loss of TL. In the present study we explore whether age- and sex-specific telomere dynamics affect life span in a long-lived snake, the water python (Liasis fuscus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Erythrocyte TL was measured using the Telo TAGGG TL Assay Kit (Roche. In contrast to other vertebrates, TL of hatchling pythons was significantly shorter than that of older snakes. However, during their first year of life hatchling TL increased substantially. While TL of older snakes decreased with age, we did not observe any correlation between TL and age in cross-sectional sampling. In older snakes, female TL was longer than that of males. When using recapture as a proxy for survival, our results do not support that longer telomeres resulted in an increased water python survival/longevity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In fish high telomerase activity has been observed in somatic cells exhibiting high proliferation rates. Hatchling pythons show similar high somatic cell proliferation rates. Thus, the increase in TL of this group may have been caused by increased telomerase activity. In older humans female TL is longer than that of males. This has been suggested to be caused by high estrogen levels that stimulate increased telomerase activity. Thus, high estrogen levels may also have caused the longer telomeres in female pythons. The lack of correlation between TL and age among old snakes and the fact that longer telomeres did not appear to affect python survival do not support that erythrocyte telomere dynamics has a major impact on water python longevity.

  17. Adiponectin in mice with altered growth hormone action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ellen R.; List, Edward O.; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high molecular weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered growth hormone (GH) signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH versus IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot-specific. Interestingly rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity. PMID:23261955

  18. Adiponectin in mice with altered GH action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D; Kineman, Rhonda D; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2013-03-01

    Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered GH signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH vs IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying that the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot specific. Interestingly, rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity.

  19. The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Björn; Vikström, Max; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2014-02-01

    Sedentary time is increasing in all societies and results in limited non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) of daily life. The importance of low NEPA for cardiovascular health and longevity is limited, especially in elderly. To examine the association between NEPA and cardiovascular health at baseline as well as the risk of a first cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and total mortality after 12.5 years. Cohort study. Every third 60-year-old man and woman in Stockholm County was invited to a health screening study; 4232 individuals participated (78% response rate). At baseline, NEPA and exercise habits were assessed from a self-administrated questionnaire and cardiovascular health was established through physical examinations and laboratory tests. The participants were followed for an average of 12.5 years for the assessment of CVD events and mortality. At baseline, high NEPA was, regardless of regular exercise and compared with low NEPA, associated with more preferable waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in both sexes and with lower insulin, glucose and fibrinogen levels in men. Moreover, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in those with higher NEPA levels in non-exercising and regularly exercising individuals. Furthermore, reporting a high NEPA level, compared with low, was associated with a lower risk of a first CVD event (HR=0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94) and lower all-cause mortality (0.70; 0.53 to 0.98). A generally active daily life was, regardless of exercising regularly or not, associated with cardiovascular health and longevity in older adults.

  20. Gender-specific association of ADA genetic polymorphism with human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolioni, Valerio; Lucarini, Nazzareno

    2010-08-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate whether the polymorphic ADA (Adenosine Deaminase, EC 3.5.4.4) gene, which determines the cellular level of adenosine and plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune system and in the control of metabolic rates, is involved in longevity. 884 unrelated healthy individuals (age range 10-106 years, 400 males and 484 females) from central Italy were studied. ADA genotyping was performed by RFLP-PCR. Frequency distributions were compared using the chi-square test and a three-way contingency table analysis by a log linear model was applied to test independence between the variables. We found that ADA influences human life-span in a sex and age specific way. An increased frequency of ADA*2 carriers was found in males aged 80-85, and a decreased frequency in males over 85 (chi(2) = 13.93; df = 3; P = 0.003); significant differences among the age groups was not found in females. A strong interaction among age groups, ADA genotype and sex (G = 15.086; df = 3; P = 0.0017) was found. Males aged 80-85 could be protected from ischemic stroke by higher levels of adenosine (determined by the ADA*2 allele). The decrease of ADA*2 carriers in males over 85 may depend essentially on immunological factors; reduced levels of adenosine protect from asthma and other pulmonary diseases and lead to a reduced activation of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the low level of adenosine may potentiate the activity of NK and other cellular effectors against tumor cells. The negligible effect of ADA genetic polymorphism in females suggest a marginal influence of genetic factors in determining longevity in this sex, confirming previous reports.

  1. Effect of Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People on Cognitive Functioning-the DANTE Study Leiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; de Ruijter, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    whether discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment in older persons with mild cognitive deficits improves cognitive, psychological, and general daily functioning. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A community-based randomized clinical trial with a blinded outcome assessment at the 16-week follow...... in secondary outcomes, including differences (95% CIs) in change in compound scores of the 3 cognitive domains (executive function, -0.07 [-0.29 to 0.15; P = .52], memory, 0.08 [-0.12 to 0.29; P = .43], and psychomotor speed, -0.85 [-1.72 to 0.02; P = .06]), symptoms of apathy (0.17 [-0.65 to 0.99; P = .68...

  2. Pre-adult versus adult onset major depressive disorder in a naturalistic patient sample: the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noorden, M S; Minkenberg, S E; Giltay, E J; den Hollander-Gijsman, M E; van Rood, Y R; van der Wee, N J; Zitman, F G

    2011-07-01

    Pre-adult onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) may predict a more severe phenotype of depression. As data from naturalistic psychiatric specialty care settings are scarce, we examined phenotypic differences between pre-adult and adult onset MDD in a large sample of consecutive out-patients. Altogether, 1552 out-patients, mean age 39.2 ± 11.6 years, were diagnosed with current MDD on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus diagnostic interview as part of the usual diagnostic procedure. A total of 1105 patients (71.2%) had complete data on all variables of interest. Pre-adult onset of MDD was defined as having experienced the signs and symptoms of a first major depressive episode before the age of 18 years. Patients were stratified according to the age at interview (20-40/40-65 years). Correlates of pre-adult onset were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for age, age squared and gender. Univariate analyses showed that pre-adult onset of MDD had a distinct set of demographic (e.g. less frequently living alone) and clinical correlates (more co-morbid DSM-IV - Text Revision diagnoses, more social phobia, more suicidality). In the multivariate model, we found an independent association only for a history of suicide attempts [odds ratio (OR) 3.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.97-5.05] and current suicidal thoughts (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.26-2.60) in patients with pre-adult versus adult onset MDD. Pre-adult onset of MDD is associated with more suicidality than adult onset MDD. Age of onset of depression is an easy to ascertain characteristic that may help clinicians in weighing suicide risk.

  3. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring...... of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  4. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenchao; Tian, Yuanyuan; Han, Mingfeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution,...

  5. Efikasi Chitosan untuk Memperpanjang Flower Longevity Bunga Anggrek Dendrobium Hibrida dalam Pot (Potted Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUKEWIJAYA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effication of Chitosan on Lengthening The Flower Longevity of Potted Orchid ofDendrobium Hybrid. The aim of the current research is to investigate general effects of Chitosantreatment on the flowering of Dendrobium orchid and to find out the optimum concentration of Chitosanin lengthening flower longevity of potted orchid of Dendrobium hybrid. Results of the research showedthat Chitosan application significantly affected variables of the number of flower per-plant, the length ofindividual flower, period of time to get full blooming, and the flower longevity. The best results for thoseof variables was achieved with Chitosan concentration of 0.15%.

  6. Extended longevity of reproductives appears to be common in Fukomys mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Dammann

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive "helpers" in their natal families, often for several years. This "reproductive subdivision" of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli, breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5-2.2fold depending on the sex, irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats.

  7. Longevity of contributions to SOC stocks from roots and aboveground plant litter below a Miscanthus plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; Bottoms, Emily; McNamara, Niall

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by improving the carbon (C) budgets associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), however the longevity and origin of this 'new' SOC must be assessed. Consequently, we combined an input manipulation experiment with physio-chemical soil fractionation to quantify new SOC and CO2 emissions from Miscanthus roots, decomposing plant litter and soil individually. Further, fractionation of SOC from the top 30 cm gave insight into the longevity of that SOC. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. Treatments excluded roots only ("No Roots"), surface litter only ("No Litter"), both roots and surface litter ("No Roots or Litter") or had double the litter amount added to the soil surface ("Double Litter"). A fifth treatment was a control with undisturbed roots and an average amount of litter added. Monthly measurements of CO2 emissions were taken at the soil surface from each treatment between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC was determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and soil fractionation was then used to establish the longevity of that Miscanthus-derived SOC. Ongoing results for CO2 emissions indicate a strong seasonal variation; litter decomposition forms a large portion of the CO2

  8. A novel generalized normal distribution for human longevity and other negatively skewed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Henry T; Allison, David B

    2012-01-01

    Negatively skewed data arise occasionally in statistical practice; perhaps the most familiar example is the distribution of human longevity. Although other generalizations of the normal distribution exist, we demonstrate a new alternative that apparently fits human longevity data better. We propose an alternative approach of a normal distribution whose scale parameter is conditioned on attained age. This approach is consistent with previous findings that longevity conditioned on survival to the modal age behaves like a normal distribution. We derive such a distribution and demonstrate its accuracy in modeling human longevity data from life tables. The new distribution is characterized by 1. An intuitively straightforward genesis; 2. Closed forms for the pdf, cdf, mode, quantile, and hazard functions; and 3. Accessibility to non-statisticians, based on its close relationship to the normal distribution.

  9. Ageing Drosophila selected for longevity retain a young gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete

    and longevity selected lines. Among the latter genes we found a clear overrepresentation of genes involved in immune functions supporting the hypothesis of the life shortening effect of an overactive immune system (inflammaging). Eighty-four genes were differentially expressed at the same physiological age...... between control and longevity selected lines, and the overlap between the same chronological and physiological age gene lists counted 40 candidate genes for increased longevity. Among these were genes with functions in starvation resistance, a regulator of immune responses and several genes which have......  We have investigated how the gene-expression profile of longevity selected lines of Drosophila melanogaster differed from control lines in young, middle-aged and old male flies. 530 genes were differentially expressed between selected and control flies at the same chronological age. We used...

  10. A novel 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that regulates reproductive development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wollam

    Full Text Available Endogenous small molecule metabolites that regulate animal longevity are emerging as a novel means to influence health and life span. In C. elegans, bile acid-like steroids called the dafachronic acids (DAs regulate developmental timing and longevity through the conserved nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, a homolog of mammalian sterol-regulated receptors LXR and FXR. Using metabolic genetics, mass spectrometry, and biochemical approaches, we identify new activities in DA biosynthesis and characterize an evolutionarily conserved short chain dehydrogenase, DHS-16, as a novel 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Through regulation of DA production, DHS-16 controls DAF-12 activity governing longevity in response to signals from the gonad. Our elucidation of C. elegans bile acid biosynthetic pathways reveals the possibility of novel ligands as well as striking biochemical conservation to other animals, which could illuminate new targets for manipulating longevity in metazoans.

  11. Training and research reactor facility longevity extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriveau, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1943, over 550 training and research reactors have been in operation. According to statistics from the International Atomic Energy Agency, ∼325 training and research reactors are currently in service. This total includes a wide variety of designs covering a range of power and research capabilities located virtually around the world. A program has been established at General Atomics (GA) that is dedicated to the support of extended longevity of training and research reactor facilities. Aspects of this program include the following: (1) new instrumentation and control systems; (2) improved and upgraded nuclear monitoring and control channels; (3) facility testing, repair and upgrade services that include (a) pool or tank integrity, (b) cooling system, and (c) water purification system; (4) fuel element testing procedures and replacement; (5) control rod drive rebuilding and upgrades; (6) control and monitoring system calibration and repair service; (7) training services, including reactor operations, maintenance, instrumentation calibration, and repair; and (8) expanded or new uses such as neutron radiography and autoradiography, isotope production, nuclear medicine, activation analysis, and material properties modification

  12. Spermidine: a novel autophagy inducer and longevity elixir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Frank; Eisenberg, Tobias; Büttner, Sabrina; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Kroemer, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Spermidine is a ubiquitous polycation that is synthesized from putrescine and serves as a precursor of spermine. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine all are polyamines that participate in multiple known and unknown biological processes. Exogenous supply of spermidine prolongs the life span of several model organisms including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and significantly reduces age-related oxidative protein damage in mice, indicating that this agent may act as a universal anti-aging drug. Spermidine induces autophagy in cultured yeast and mammalian cells, as well as in nematodes and flies. Genetic inactivation of genes essential for autophagy abolishes the life span-prolonging effect of spermidine in yeast, nematodes and flies. These findings complement expanding evidence that autophagy mediates cytoprotection against a variety of noxious agents and can confer longevity when induced at the whole-organism level. We hypothesize that increased autophagic turnover of cytoplasmic organelles or long-lived proteins is involved in most if not all life span-prolonging therapies.

  13. Gamma thermometer longevity test: Laguna Verde 2 instruments recent performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas V, G.; Avila N, A.; Calleros M, G.

    2013-10-01

    This paper is informative of the General Electric Hitachi and Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas are collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad in a longevity test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices. The test conclusions will serve for final engineering design in detailing the Automated Fixed In-core Probes for calibration of the Local Power Range Monitors (LPRMs) of the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. This paper introduces the collaboration description and some recent performance evaluation of the thermocouples that are sensitive to gamma radiation and are known generically as Gamma Thermometers (G T). The G Ts in Laguna Verde 2 are radially located inside six instrumentation tubes in the core and consist of seven thermocouples, four are aligned with the LPRM heights and three are axially located between LPRM heights. The Laguna Verde 2 G T test has become the longest test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices in a BWR industry history and confirms their reliability in terms of time-dependent small noise under steady state reactor conditions and good agreement against Traversing In-core Probes power measurements. (Author)

  14. Gamma thermometer longevity test: Laguna Verde 2 instruments recent performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G. [Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, North Carolina (United States); Avila N, A.; Calleros M, G., E-mail: Gabriel.Cuevas-Vivas@gnf.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verda, Carretera Veracruz-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This paper is informative of the General Electric Hitachi and Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas are collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad in a longevity test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices. The test conclusions will serve for final engineering design in detailing the Automated Fixed In-core Probes for calibration of the Local Power Range Monitors (LPRMs) of the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. This paper introduces the collaboration description and some recent performance evaluation of the thermocouples that are sensitive to gamma radiation and are known generically as Gamma Thermometers (G T). The G Ts in Laguna Verde 2 are radially located inside six instrumentation tubes in the core and consist of seven thermocouples, four are aligned with the LPRM heights and three are axially located between LPRM heights. The Laguna Verde 2 G T test has become the longest test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices in a BWR industry history and confirms their reliability in terms of time-dependent small noise under steady state reactor conditions and good agreement against Traversing In-core Probes power measurements. (Author)

  15. The system capacity view of aging and longevity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Dong J.Han; Lei Hou; Na Sun; Chi Xu; Joseph McDermott; Dan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background:Aging is a complex systems level problem that needs a systems level solution.However,system models of aging and longevity,although urgently needed,are still lacking,largely due to the paucity of conceptual frameworks for modeling such a complex process.Results:We propose that aging can be viewed as a decline in system capacity,defined as the maximum level of output that a system produces to fulfill demands.Classical aging hallmarks and anti-aging strategies can be well-aligned to system capacity.Genetic variants responsible for lifespan variation across individuals or species can also be explained by their roles in system capacity.We further propose promising directions to develop systems approaches to modulate system capacity and thus extend both healthspan and lifespan.Conclusions:The system capacity model of aging provides an opportunity to examine aging at the systems level.This model predicts that the extent to which aging can be modulated is normally limited by the upper bound of the system capacity of a species.Within such a boundary,aging can be delayed by moderately increasing an individual's system capacity.Beyond such a boundary,increasing the upper bound is required,which is not unrealistic given the unlimited potential of regenerative medicine in the future,but it requires increasing the capacity of the whole system instead of only part of it.

  16. Translational Geroscience: Emphasizing function to achieve optimal longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R.; Melov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Among individuals, biological aging leads to cellular and organismal dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and disability. This sequence of events in combination with the projected increases in the number of older adults will result in a worldwide healthcare burden with dire consequences. Superimposed on this setting are the adults now reaching traditional retirement ages--the baby boomers--a group that wishes to remain active, productive and physically and cognitively fit as they grow older. Together, these conditions are producing an unprecedented demand for increased healthspan or what might be termed “optimal longevity”—to live long, but well. To meet this demand, investigators with interests in the biological aspects of aging from model organisms to human epidemiology (population aging) must work together within an interactive process that we describe as translational geroscience. An essential goal of this new investigational platform should be the optimization and preservation of physiological function throughout the lifespan, including integrative physical and cognitive function, which would serve to increase healthspan, compress morbidity and disability into a shorter period of late-life, and help achieve optimal longevity. To most effectively utilize this new approach, we must rethink how investigators and administrators working at different levels of the translational research continuum communicate and collaborate with each other, how best to train the next generation of scientists in this new field, and how contemporary biological-biomedical aging research should be organized and funded. PMID:25324468

  17. L-Plastin promotes podosome longevity and supports macrophage motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Julie Y.; Szasz, Taylor P.; Stewart-Hutchinson, Phillip J.; Sivapalan, Janardan; Todd, Elizabeth M.; Deady, Lauren E.; Cooper, John A.; Onken, Michael D.; Morley, S. Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular regulation of macrophage migration is essential for understanding the patho-physiology of multiple human diseases, including host responses to infection and autoimmune disorders. Macrophage migration is supported by dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, with formation of actin-based structures such as podosomes and lamellipodia. Here we provide novel insights into the function of the actin-bundling protein l-plastin (LPL) in primary macrophages. We found that podosome stability is disrupted in primary resident peritoneal macrophages from LPL−/− mice. Live-cell imaging of F-actin using resident peritoneal macrophages from LifeACT-RFP+ mice demonstrated that loss of LPL led to decreased longevity of podosomes, without reducing the number of podosomes initiated. Additionally, macrophages from LPL−/− mice failed to elongate in response to chemotactic stimulation. These deficiencies in podosome stabilization and in macrophage elongation correlated with impaired macrophage transmigration in culture and decreased monocyte migration into murine peritoneum. Thus, we have identified a role for LPL in stabilizing long-lived podosomes and in enabling macrophage motility. PMID:27614263

  18. Theoretical investigations of grout seal longevity - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, S.; Coons, W.; Christian-Frear, T.; Wallace, M.

    1992-04-01

    Theoretical investigations into the longevity of repository seals have dealt primarily with the development of a methodology to evaluate interactions between portland cement-based grout and groundwater. Evaluation of chemical thermodynamic equilibria between grout and groundwater, and among grout, groundwater, and granitic host rock phases using the geochemical codes EQ3NR/EQ6 suggests that a fracture filled with grout and saturated with groundwater will tend to fill and 'tighten' with time. Results of these investigations suggest that cement grout seals will maintain an acceptable level of performance for tens of thousands to millions of years, provided the repository is sited where groundwater chemistry is compatible with the seals and hydrologic gradients are low. The results of the grout: groundwater: rock calculations suggest that buffering of the fracture seals chemical systems by the granite rock may be important in determining the long-term fate of grout seals and the resulting phase assemblage in the fracture. The similarity of the modelled reaction products to those observed in naturally filled fractures suggests that with time equilibrium will be approached and grouted fractures subject to low hydrologic gradients will continue to seal. If grout injected into fractures materially reduces groundwater flux, the approach to chemical equilibrium will likely be accelerated. In light of this, even very thin or imperfectly grouted fractures would tighten in suitable hydrogeologic environments. (29 refs.) (au)

  19. Sperm fractions obtained following density gradient centrifugation in human ejaculates show differences in sperm DNA longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: 1 Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2 Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.

  20. Importance of a 5′ Stem-Loop for Longevity of papA mRNA in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Angela L.; Belasco, Joel G.

    1999-01-01

    High-level expression of the major pilus subunit (PapA) of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli results in part from the unusually long lifetime of the mRNA that encodes this protein. Here we report that the longevity of papA mRNA derives in large measure from the protection afforded by its 5′ untranslated region. This papA RNA segment can prolong the lifetime of an otherwise short-lived mRNA to which it is fused. In vivo alkylation studies indicate that, in its natural milieu, the papA ...