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Sample records for leiden longevity study

  1. Familial longevity is marked by better cognitive performance at middle age: the Leiden Longevity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon Stijntjes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive performance is a highly prevalent health condition in elderly. We studied whether offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity, perform better on cognitive tests compared to their partners as controls. This is relevant since it could provide insights into determinants underlying decline in cognitive performance. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis within the longitudinal cohort of the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of middle-aged offspring of nonagenarian siblings together with their partners (n = 500, mean age (SD 66.3 (6.1 and 65.7 (7.2 years, respectively as controls. Memory function, attention and processing speed were tested using the 15-Picture Learning Test, Stroop test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Data were analyzed with regression adjusted for age, gender, years of education and additionally for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, alcohol use, smoking, inflammatory markers and apolipoprotein E genotype. Robust standard errors were used to account for familial relationships among the offspring. RESULTS: Cognitive performance was worse at higher calendar age (p<0.001, all except Stroop test part 1. The offspring performed better compared to their partners on trial 3 (p = 0.005, the immediate (p = 0.016 and delayed (p = 0.004 recall of the 15-Picture Learning Test as well as on the interference and combined interference score of the Stroop test (p = 0.014 and p = 0.036, respectively in the fully adjusted model. The difference between offspring and partners was estimated to be more than three years according to the observed difference in calendar age. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity have better cognitive performance compared to the group of their partners of comparable age. This effect is independent of age-related diseases and known possible confounders. Possible explanations might be differences in subclinical

  2. Familial Longevity Is Marked by Better Cognitive Performance at Middle Age: The Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijntjes, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; van Heemst, D.; Meskers, C.G.M.; van Buchem, M.A.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Slagboom, P.E.; Maier, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Decline in cognitive performance is a highly prevalent health condition in elderly. We studied whether offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity, perform better on cognitive tests compared to their partners as controls. This is relevant since it could

  3. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  4. On longevity and the aging process : a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the radiological phenotype of the human brain in familial longevity with regard to brain structure. This study was performed as part of the Leiden Longevity Study – a study population consisting of offspring of long-lived Dutch people who are genetically

  5. Homocysteine and familial longevity : The Leiden longevity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, Carolien A.; van Heemst, Diana; Rozing, Maarten P.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Maier, Andrea B.; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Blom, Henk J.; Mooijaart, Simon P.

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine concentrations are a read-out of methionine metabolism and have been related to changes in lifespan in animal models. In humans, high homocysteine concentrations are an important predictor of age related disease. We aimed to explore the association of homocysteine with familial

  6. Progression and regression of atherosclerosis in APOE3-Leiden transgenic mice : An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijbels, M.J.J.; Cammen, M. van der; Laan, L.J.W. van der; Emeis, J.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.; Kraal, G.

    1999-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E3-Leiden (APOE3-Leiden) transgenic mice develop hyperlipidemia and are highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. We have studied the progression and regression of atherosclerosis using immunohistochemistry. Female transgenic mice were fed a moderate fat diet to study

  7. Factor V Leiden: a case study and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Kimberlee B

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism accounts for approximately 600,000 hospitalizations and 50,000 deaths per year in the United States. Many inherited blood disorders predispose patients to this disorder. The most common of these disorders is factor V Leiden. Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is an inherited disorder, mutation, of the mechanisms of blood clotting. The mutation causes resistance to activated protein C and thus causes a defect in the natural anticoagulation system. This predisposes patients to recurrent deep vein thrombosis and in combination with other risk factors can cause significant morbidity. This article discusses the pathophysiology, disease characteristics, risk factors for venous thromboembolism, diagnosis and testing, management of factor V Leiden, and implications for nursing in regard to factor V Leiden. The frequency of factor V Leiden and its prevalence in thromboembolic disease emphasize the need for nursing professionals from many diverse backgrounds to better understand the consequences of the factor V Leiden mutation.

  8. Longevity studies in GenomEUtwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, Axel; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2003-01-01

    analytical approaches with special attention to the challenges due to censored data. Lexis diagrams are provided for the Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Italian, Norwegian, and Swedish Twin registries hereby outlining possibilities for longevity studies within GenomEUtwin. We extend previous analyses of lifespan...... for the Danish 1870-1900 twin cohorts to include the new 1901-1910 cohorts, which are consistent with the previous findings. The size of the twin cohorts in GenomEUtwin and the existence of population-based, nationwide health and death registers make epidemiological studies of longevity very powerful....... The combined GenomEUtwin sample will also allow detailed age-specific heritability analyses of lifespan. Finally, it will provide a resource for identifying unusual sibships (i.e., dizygotic twin pairs) where both survived to extreme ages, as a basis for discovering genetic variants of importance for extreme...

  9. A Family Longevity Selection Score: Ranking Sibships by Their Longevity, Size, and Availability for Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Hadley, Evan C; Province, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Family studies of exceptional longevity can potentially identify genetic and other factors contributing to long life and healthy aging. Although such studies seek families that are exceptionally long lived, they also need living members who can provide DNA and phenotype information. On the basis...... of these considerations, the authors developed a metric to rank families for selection into a family study of longevity. Their measure, the family longevity selection score (FLoSS), is the sum of 2 components: 1) an estimated family longevity score built from birth-, gender-, and nation-specific cohort survival...... probabilities and 2) a bonus for older living siblings. The authors examined properties of FLoSS-based family rankings by using data from 3 ongoing studies: the New England Centenarian Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and screenees for the Long Life Family Study. FLoSS-based selection yields families...

  10. Plasma hepcidin levels and anemia in old age. The Leiden 85-Plus Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Craen, A.J. de; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Swinkels, D.W.; Gussekloo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin, an important regulator of iron homeostasis, is suggested to be causally related to anemia of inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the role of plasma hepcidin in anemia among older persons from the general population. The Leiden 85-Plus Study is a population-based study of

  11. A half century of abstracting at the African Studies Centre Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van M.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the history of the abstracts and indexing journal originally known as 'Documentatieblad,' which was renamed to 'African Studies Abstracts (ASA)' and later to 'African Studies Abstracts Online' (ASAO), published by the African Studies Centre (ASC) in Leiden, the Netherlands

  12. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Longevity and age at sexual maturity in an Italian population of Rana latastei were studied by skeletochrono- ... [Guarino F M, Lunardi S, Carlomagno M and Mazzotti S 2003 A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a ..... (Italian Ministry for Higher Education, and Scientific and.

  13. Comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water from some longevity and non-longevity areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Hussain, Rahib

    2017-06-01

    There is an obvious regional longevity phenomenon in China and many longevity counties are located in South China. This study was carried out to find the characteristics of elemental contents of drinking water in longevity areas in South China and the differences to non-longevity areas in China. A total of 128 drinking water samples were collected from longevity areas in South China (n = 40), non-longevity areas in South China (n = 74) and non-longevity areas in North China (n = 14) and 46 parameters of water were determined or calculated. The results showed that drinking water in longevity areas of South China had a high ratio of sum concentration of essential micro-elements in sum concentration of micro-elements (SCME) and a low ratio of sum concentration of hazardous micro-elements in SCME. The concentration of total hardness (TH) and strontium in drinking water was 157.82 mg/L and 82.1 μg/L, respectively, and they were 14.61 mg/L, 7.45 μg/L and 291.69 mg/L, 748.65 μg/L in the non-longevity areas of South and North China, respectively. The study concluded that drinking water containing 157.82 mg/L TH and 82.1 μg/L strontium in South China may be optimum to human health.

  14. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Longevity is associated with changes in circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and/or TSH in animals and humans, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We explored in 38 offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study, who are enriched for longevity...... properties of TSH. The temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 at zero delay was higher in offspring (0.48 ± 0.2) compared with partners (0.26 ± 0.4) (P = .05), but the feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Familial longevity is associated with increased basal...

  15. Genes and Longevity: Lessons from Studies of Centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, AI; De Benedictis, G; Vaupel, JW

    2000-01-01

    In population studies of aging, the data on genetic markers are often collected for individuals from different age groups. The idea of such studies is to identify "longevity" or "frailty" genes by comparing the frequencies of genotypes in the oldest and in the younger groups of individuals. In th...

  16. Genetics of longevity. data from the studies on Sicilian centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balistreri Carmela R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The demographic and social changes of the past decades have determined improvements in public health and longevity. So, the number of centenarians is increasing as a worldwide phenomenon. Scientists have focused their attention on centenarians as optimal model to address the biological mechanisms of "successful and unsuccessful ageing". They are equipped to reach the extreme limits of human life span and, most importantly, to show relatively good health, being able to perform their routine daily life and to escape fatal age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Thus, particular attention has been centered on their genetic background and immune system. In this review, we report our data gathered for over 10 years in Sicilian centenarians. Based on results obtained, we suggest longevity as the result of an optimal performance of immune system and an over-expression of anti-inflammatory sequence variants of immune/inflammatory genes. However, as well known, genetic, epigenetic, stochastic and environmental factors seem to have a crucial role in ageing and longevity. Epigenetics is associated with ageing, as demonstrated in many studies. In particular, ageing is associated with a global loss of methylation state. Thus, the aim of future studies will be to analyze the weight of epigenetic changes in ageing and longevity.

  17. Influence of Factor V Leiden on susceptibility to and outcome from critical illness: a genetic association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Ejrnæs, Karen; Juul, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Disturbance of the pro-coagulatant and anti-coagulant balance is associated with a poor outcome from critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine whether the Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is associated with susceptibility to or death from critical illness...

  18. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...

  19. Limitations and risks of meta-analyses of longevity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Bae, Harold; Gurinovich, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Searching for genetic determinants of human longevity has been challenged by the rarity of data sets with large numbers of individuals who have reached extreme old age, inconsistent definitions of the phenotype, and the difficulty of defining appropriate controls. Meta-analysis - a statistical...... method to summarize results from different studies - has become a common tool in genetic epidemiology to accrue large sample sizes for powerful genetic association studies. In conducting a meta-analysis of studies of human longevity however, particular attention must be made to the definition of cases...... and controls (including their health status) and on the effect of possible confounders such as sex and ethnicity upon the genetic effect to be estimated. We will show examples of how a meta-analysis can inflate the false negative rates of genetic association studies or it can bias estimates of the association...

  20. Subjective wellbeing and longevity: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michael E; Miller, Christopher J; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    . The favorable effects associated with SWB have prompted new research aimed at raising happiness and wellbeing through individual interventions and public health initiatives. Standard observational studies of individual-level associations, however, are subject to potential confounding of exposure and outcome......Mental health is increasingly defined not only by the absence of illness but by the presence of subjective well-being (SWB). Previous cohort studies have consistently shown that indicators of SWB predict favorable life outcomes, including better mental and somatic health, and longevity...... by shared genes and environment. The present study explored the association between SWB and increased longevity, using twin pair analyses to determine whether the association is consistent with causality or is due to genetic or environmental confounding. The study sample of 3,966 twins aged 70 or older...

  1. Factor V Leiden mutation increases the risk for venous thromboembolism in cancer patients - results from the Vienna Cancer And Thrombosis Study (CATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabinger, I; Ay, C; Dunkler, D; Thaler, J; Reitter, E-M; Marosi, C; Zielinski, C; Mannhalter, C

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk varies markedly in different patient populations. Factor V (FV) Leiden is the most common genetic risk factor for VTE, and the impact of FV Leiden on cancer-associated thrombosis is not yet fully elucidated. To study the impact of FV Leiden on the risk of thrombosis in cancer patients. In the prospective observational Vienna Cancer And Thrombosis Study (CATS), 982 patients were included and were followed until occurrence of VTE or death, for a maximum period of 2 years. FV Leiden was determined by genotyping at inclusion. Main outcome measures were symptomatic or lethal objectively confirmed VTE. Of the 982 patients, FV Leiden was diagnosed in 72 (7.3%, 70 were heterozygous and 2 were homozygous). Ten of 72 (13.9%) patients with FV Leiden developed VTE, whereas this was the case in 69 of 910 (7.6%) patients without FV Leiden. In multivariate analysis that included age, sex, different tumor types, tumor stage, newly diagnosed vs. recurrence of disease, and the treatment modalities, the hazard ratio was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.0-4.0). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the probability for development of VTE was 13% in those with and 5.7% in those without FV Leiden after 6 months; after 1 year, the corresponding risks were 15% and 7.3%. FV Leiden is a genetically determined and thus disease-independent parameter, which is associated with VTE in cancer patients and could therefore be used for individual risk assignment. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C; Kleemann, Robert; van Koppen, Arianne; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Verschuren, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice, an established pre-clinical model of NASH. Methods: Human molecular inflammatory processes were defined using a publicly available NASH gene expression profiling dataset (GSE48452) allowing the comparison of biopsy-confirmed NASH patients with normal controls. Gene profiling data from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice (GSE109345) were used for assessment of the translational value of these mice. Results: In human NASH livers, we observed regulation of 65 canonical pathways of which the majority was involved in inflammation (32%), lipid metabolism (16%), and extracellular matrix/remodeling (12%). A similar distribution of pathways across these categories, inflammation (36%), lipid metabolism (24%) and extracellular matrix/remodeling (8%) was observed in HFD-fed Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice. Detailed evaluation of these pathways revealed that a substantial proportion (11 out of 13) of human NASH inflammatory pathways was recapitulated in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice. Furthermore, the activation state of identified master regulators of inflammation (i.e., specific transcription factors, cytokines, and growth factors) in human NASH was largely reflected in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice, further substantiating its translational value. Conclusion: Human NASH is characterized by upregulation of specific

  3. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C.; Kleemann, Robert; van Koppen, Arianne; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Verschuren, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice, an established pre-clinical model of NASH. Methods: Human molecular inflammatory processes were defined using a publicly available NASH gene expression profiling dataset (GSE48452) allowing the comparison of biopsy-confirmed NASH patients with normal controls. Gene profiling data from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice (GSE109345) were used for assessment of the translational value of these mice. Results: In human NASH livers, we observed regulation of 65 canonical pathways of which the majority was involved in inflammation (32%), lipid metabolism (16%), and extracellular matrix/remodeling (12%). A similar distribution of pathways across these categories, inflammation (36%), lipid metabolism (24%) and extracellular matrix/remodeling (8%) was observed in HFD-fed Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice. Detailed evaluation of these pathways revealed that a substantial proportion (11 out of 13) of human NASH inflammatory pathways was recapitulated in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice. Furthermore, the activation state of identified master regulators of inflammation (i.e., specific transcription factors, cytokines, and growth factors) in human NASH was largely reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice, further substantiating its translational value. Conclusion: Human NASH is characterized by upregulation of specific

  4. Factor V Leiden paradox in a middle-aged Swedish population: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Bengt; Melander, Olle; Svensson, Peter J; Engström, Gunnar

    2018-02-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the factor V paradox: factor V Leiden (FVL) is a stronger risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) than for pulmonary embolism (PE). The present study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first population-based study aimed to examine the relationship between FVL and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), DVT and PE in a prospective cohort study of middle-aged Swedish individuals. FVL was determined in 4890 subjects (aged 46-68 years, 57% women) from the general population without previous VTE or cancer, who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study between 1991 and 1994. Incident cases of VTE were identified from the Swedish patient register during a mean follow-up of 15.6 years. Of 4890 subjects with determination of FVL (10.2% carriers), 220 had VTE during follow-up (113 DVT, 78 PE, 29 both). Incidence of VTE was significantly higher in subjects with heterozygous and homozygous FVL: adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.6, p=0.001) and 6.5 (2.1-21, p=0.001), respectively. The population attributable fraction was 8.7% for FVL. Adjusted HRs for DVT were 2.2 (1.4-3.3, pfactor V allele.

  5. Factor V leiden and ischemic stroke risk: the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Although the FVL mutation is associated with increased risk for venous thrombosis, its association with ischemic stroke in young adults remains uncertain. Therefore, we examined the association between FVL and ischemic stroke in participants of the Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study. A population-based case control study identified 354 women and 476 men 15 to 49 years of age with first-ever ischemic stroke and 907 controls. Participant-specific data included vascular risk factors, FVL genotype and, for cases, the ischemic stroke subtype by modified Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke criteria. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the entire population and for subgroups stratified by risk factors and ischemic stroke subtype. The frequency of the FVL mutation was similar between ischemic stroke patients (3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5%-5.1%) and nonstroke controls (3.8%; 95% CI 2.7%-5.2%). This frequency did not change significantly when cases were restricted to patients with stroke of undetermined etiology (4.1%; 95% CI 2.6%-6.4%). Among young adults, we found no evidence for an association between FVL and either all ischemic stroke or the subgroup with stroke of undetermined etiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Longevity of repaired restorations: A practice based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Loomans, B.A.C.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate retrospectively the influence on restoration longevity of a repair and to evaluate longevity of repaired restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a practice, 1202 amalgam and 747 composite resin restorations were placed. 407 restorations failed (amalgam 293, composite 114),

  7. Relationship between Factor V Leiden Gene Variant and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Misra, Shubham; Sagar, Ram; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Arun K; Talwar, Pumanshi; Raj, Ritesh; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Factor V Leiden is the most common genetic variation among the blood coagulation pathway which leads to prothrombotic state, therefore, is considered an important gene for understating the stroke mechanism. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism at G1691A position of Factor V gene and risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in North Indian population. In a retrospective case-control study, 250 patients with IS and 250 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in the period of October 2012 to September 2014 from in- and out-patient department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Deoxyribonucleic acid for each case and control was isolated from peripheral blood using phenol-chloroform extraction method. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to determine the polymorphism. Data were analyzed using STATA Software Version 13. The mean age of IS patient was 52.8 ± 12.5 years and in control group was 50.97 ± 12.7 years. Genotypic frequency distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both cases and controls. As expected hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, heavy alcohol intake, family history of stroke, and poor economic status were significantly associated with the risk of IS. Multivariate analysis revealed 5.17 times higher odds for developing the risk of large vessel subtype of IS in patients carrying Factor V Leiden G1691A gene variation as compared to control subjects (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 1.32-20.3, P = 0.01). The present study suggests that Factor V Leiden G1691A polymorphism may be significantly associated with the risk of large vessel subtype of IS. Large sample size studies using prospective cohort designs are required to corroborate the present findings.

  8. Relationship between Factor V Leiden Gene Variant and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Misra, Shubham; Sagar, Ram; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Arun K; Talwar, Pumanshi; Raj, Ritesh; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Factor V Leiden is the most common genetic variation among the blood coagulation pathway which leads to prothrombotic state, therefore, is considered an important gene for understating the stroke mechanism. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism at G1691A position of Factor V gene and risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in North Indian population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case–control study, 250 patients with IS and 250 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled in the period of October 2012 to September 2014 from in- and out-patient department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Deoxyribonucleic acid for each case and control was isolated from peripheral blood using phenol-chloroform extraction method. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to determine the polymorphism. Data were analyzed using STATA Software Version 13. Results: The mean age of IS patient was 52.8 ± 12.5 years and in control group was 50.97 ± 12.7 years. Genotypic frequency distributions were in accordance with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in both cases and controls. As expected hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, heavy alcohol intake, family history of stroke, and poor economic status were significantly associated with the risk of IS. Multivariate analysis revealed 5.17 times higher odds for developing the risk of large vessel subtype of IS in patients carrying Factor V Leiden G1691A gene variation as compared to control subjects (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 1.32–20.3, P = 0.01). Conclusion: The present study suggests that Factor V Leiden G1691A polymorphism may be significantly associated with the risk of large vessel subtype of IS. Large sample size studies using prospective cohort designs are required to corroborate the present findings. PMID:28904463

  9. Case control study of the factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation frequency in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teremmahi Ardestani, Majid; Nodushan, Hossein Hadi; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by various genetic and non-genetic factors. After chromosome abnormality, thrombophilia is one of the most important genetic factors that could cause RPL. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation were the most common mutations cause thrombophilia in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombine gene mutations in women with RPL compared with women who had uneventful pregnancies. This case control study evaluates the frequency of factor V-Leiden and factor II G20210 genotypes in 80 women with two or more pregnancy losses, compared with 80 women without adverse pregnancy outcome. The mutations were assessed by PCR-RFLP. Frequency of the factor V Leiden among cases was 2.5%, which was higher than controls (1.25%), but the difference was not significant. No factor II G20210 mutation was found among cases and controls. These data did not confirm that factor V Leiden and factor II G20210 mutation might play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.

  10. Potential for clonal animals in longevity and ageing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Sköld, Helen; Obst, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Ageing is defined as a decline in reproductive and/or somatic performance over time, and as such is experienced by most organisms. Evolutionary theories explain ageing as a consequence of reduced selection pressure against mutations and reduced allocation to somatic maintenance in post-reproductive individuals. In addition, the fecundity of younger age-groups makes a more significant contribution than infinite maintenance of the parental body to the production of subsequent generations. However, in clonal animals, as well as in plants that reproduce by agametic cloning, the adult body is itself a reproductive unit that increases its fitness as a function of genet size. Given the apparent longevity of many such clonal organisms, species undergoing agametic cloning are often assumed to be non-ageing and even potentially immortal. Here, we present a brief overview of ageing in organisms undergoing agametic cloning, focusing on animals and molecular investigation. We discuss molecular and evolutionary aspects of ageing or non-ageing with respect to selection in clonal species. Of particular relevance to the search for potential mechanistic processes behind longevity is the notion that clonal organisms are frequently smaller than their obligate sexual counterparts. In conclusion, we find that while clonal animals also commonly age, evolutionary arguments together with empirical evidence suggest that they are likely to be long-lived and stress resistant at the genet level. However, theoretical modeling continues to predict the possibility of immortality, if the contribution from sexual reproduction is low. Future in-depth study of long-lived clones should present an excellent opportunity to discover novel mechanisms for renewal and long-term somatic maintenance and health.

  11. A retrospective clinical study on longevity of posterior composite and amalgam restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Loomans, B.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the longevity of class I and II amalgam and composite resin restorations placed in a general practice. METHODS: Patient records of a general practice were used for collecting the data for this study. From the files longevity and

  12. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...

  13. Residence as a Factor in Longevity: A Study of Louisianians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Yui-Huen; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    In order to test the hypothesis that the longevity of aged persons differs according to residence and by sex, race, and marital status, data from every third year between 1962 and 1974 in the Louisiana State Bureau of Vital Statistics were examined. Criteria for population inclusion were: people over 65 years of age; Louisiana residents at time of…

  14. Factor V Leiden, factor V Cambridge, factor II GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatnia, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansour; Movahedian, Ahmad; Shariat, Seyed Ziaeddin Samsam; Salari, Mehri; Tajmirriahi, Marzieh; Asadimobarakeh, Elham; Salehi, Rasoul; Amini, Gilda; Ebrahimi, Homa; Kheradmand, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    Factor V G1691A (FV Leiden), FII GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutations are the most common genetic risk factors for thromboembolism in the Western countries. However, there is rare data in Iran about cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of common genetic thrombophilic factors in CVST patients. Forty consequently CVST patients from two University Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences aged more than 15 years from January 2009 to January 2011 were recruited. In parallel, 51 healthy subjects with the same age and race from similar population selected as controls. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, MTHFR C677T, and FV Cambridge gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction technique were evaluated in case and control groups. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge gene mutations had very low prevalence in both case (5%, 2%, 0%) and control (2.5%, 0%, 0%) and were not found any significant difference between groups. MTHFR C677T mutations was in 22 (55%) of patients in case group and 18 (35.5%) of control group (P = 0.09). This study showed that the prevalence of FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge were low. Laboratory investigations of these mutations as a routine test for all patients with CVST may not be cost benefit.

  15. Do incident and recurrent venous thromboembolism risks truly differ between heterozygous and homozygous Factor V Leiden carriers? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Botero, J; Ormsby, W D; Ashrani, A A; McBane, R D; Wysokinski, W E; Patnaik, M M; Lewis, B R; Grill, D E; Pruthi, R K; Heit, J A

    2016-05-01

    While Factor V Leiden (F5 rs6025 A allele) is a known venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factor, VTE risk among heterozygous vs. homozygous carriers is uncertain. In a retrospective cohort study of Mayo Clinic patients referred for genotyping between 1996 and 2013, we tested Factor V Leiden genotype as a risk factor for incident and recurrent VTE. Among heterozygous (n=268) and homozygous (n=111) carriers, the prevalence of VTE was 54% and 68%, respectively (p=0.016). While mean patient age at first VTE event (43.9 vs. 42.9years; p=0.70) did not differ significantly, median VTE-free survival was modestly shorter for homozygous carriers (56.8 vs 59.5 years; p=0.04). Sixty-nine (48%) and 31 (42%) heterozygous and homozygous carriers had ≥1 VTE recurrence (p=0.42). In a multivariable model, idiopathic incident VTE and a second thrombophilia were associated with increased and anticoagulation duration >6months with reduced hazards of VTE recurrence; Factor V Leiden genotype was not an independent predictor of recurrence. Aside from a higher VTE prevalence and modestly reduced VTE-free survival, VTE penetrance and phenotype severity did not differ significantly among homozygous vs. heterozygous carriers, suggesting that VTE prophylaxis and management should not differ by Factor V Leiden genotype. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Life style and longevity among initially healthy middle-aged men: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Trond; Erikssen, Jan; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-09-11

    Few studies have examined how various lifestyle factors in midlife predict longevity, and none of these studies have examined the impact of physical fitness. The present study aimed to examine longevity in relation to smoking, overweight and physical fitness. We prospectively studied longevity (defined as reaching at least 85 years of age) in relation to smoking status, body mass index and physical fitness in 821 healthy men between 51 and 59 years of age. Of these, 369 were smokers, 320 were overweight, and 31 were obese. The associations were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Deaths were registered until the 31st of December, 2006. Physical fitness was measured as the total work performed in a maximal exercise tolerance bicycle test. 252 men survived to the age of 85 years (30.7%). Smoking status was significantly and independently related to longevity; 37.2% of the non-smokers survived to the age of 85, and 22.8% of the smokers. Among non-smokers, overweight and physical fitness were significantly and independently related to longevity after adjustment for age, blood pressure and cholesterol level, but not among smokers. Among non-smokers with high physical fitness, 48.8% reached the age of 85 years, compared to 27.9% among non-smokers with low physical fitness. Lifestyle variables appear to be strong and independent predictors of longevity in initially healthy middle-aged men. The probability of longevity may be a useful concept when informing the general public about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.

  17. Factor V Leiden thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujovich, Jody Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Factor V Leiden is a genetic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated Protein C and an increased risk for venous thromboembolism. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common manifestations, but thrombosis in unusual locations also occurs. The current evidence suggests that the mutation has at most a modest effect on recurrence risk after initial treatment of a first venous thromboembolism. Factor V Leiden is also associated with a 2- to 3-fold increased relative risk for pregnancy loss and possibly other obstetric complications, although the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome is high. The clinical expression of Factor V Leiden is influenced by the number of Factor V Leiden alleles, coexisting genetic and acquired thrombophilic disorders, and circumstantial risk factors. Diagnosis requires the activated Protein C resistance assay (a coagulation screening test) or DNA analysis of the F5 gene, which encodes the Factor V protein. The first acute thrombosis is treated according to standard guidelines. Decisions regarding the optimal duration of anticoagulation are based on an individualized assessment of the risks for venous thromboembolism recurrence and anticoagulant-related bleeding. In the absence of a history of thrombosis, long-term anticoagulation is not routinely recommended for asymptomatic Factor V Leiden heterozygotes, although prophylactic anticoagulation may be considered in high-risk clinical settings. In the absence of evidence that early diagnosis reduces morbidity or mortality, decisions regarding testing at-risk family members should be made on an individual basis.

  18. Genetic interplay between human longevity and metabolic pathways - a large-scale eQTL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, Robert; Venkatesh, Geetha; Tan, Qihua; Flachsbart, Friederike; Sinha, Anupam; Rosenstiel, Philip; Lieb, Wolfgang; Schreiber, Stefan; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Nebel, Almut

    2017-08-01

    Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by genetic and environmental components. Unraveling the contribution of genetic vs. nongenetic factors to longevity is a challenging task. Here, we conducted a large-scale RNA-sequencing-based expression quantitative trait loci study (eQTL) with subsequent heritability analysis. The investigation was performed on blood samples from 244 individuals from Germany and Denmark, representing various age groups including long-lived subjects up to the age of 104 years. Our eQTL-based approach revealed for the first time that human longevity is associated with a depletion of metabolic pathways in a genotype-dependent and independent manner. Further analyses indicated that 20% of the differentially expressed genes are influenced by genetic variants in cis. The subsequent study of twins showed that the transcriptional activity of a third of the differentially regulated genes is heritable. These findings suggest that longevity-associated biological processes such as altered metabolism are, to a certain extent, also the driving force of longevity rather than just a consequence of old age. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Validation of leiden score in predicting progression of rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Leiden Score, is a very useful tool for predicting future development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), among undifferentiated arthritis (UA) patients. This score has been validated in various western studies but rarely among south east Asian patients. Aims: To validate the Leiden early arthritis prediction rule in an ...

  20. [Activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden: clinical interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, S; Znazen, R

    2011-10-01

    Activated protein C resistance (APCR) is a coagulation abnormality often linked to FV Leiden mutation, a single nucleotide G1691A substitution resulting in arginine 506→glutamine missense factor V mutation. FV Leiden has a frequency of 20 to 30% in groups of patients with venous thrombosis while it is of 4 to 10% in normal subjects. FV Leiden is considered as a weak risk factor of thrombosis except in homozygote. FV Leiden is implicated in deep venous thrombosis occurrence. Duration of oral anticoagulant treatment is six months in patients developing a first venous thrombosis except in patients with combined defects or a clinical context suggesting a high risk of severe relapse. Detection of APCR by coagulation methods is often used in first intention with a high specificity if plasmas tested are diluted in factor V deficient plasma. Genotyping study is essential to establish the heterozygote or homozygote statute and certain teams perform it directly. Nevertheless, APCR not related to FV Leiden could be an independent thrombosis risk factor. APCR and FV Leiden are included in laboratory investigations of thrombophilic markers in patients less than 50 years with venous thrombosis. In arterial thrombosis, FV Leiden implication is weak or absent. FV Leiden increases the risk of thrombosis in other situations as in patients with cancer. An association with recurrent miscarriages and other vasculoplacental complications is also reported in many studies but the data concerning the efficacy of antithrombotic treatment to prevent recurrence are currently insufficient. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Is APOE ε3 a favourable factor for the longevity: an association study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... have recently found several candidate genes that influence human lifespan, only the role of APOE in longevity has been consistently demonstrated. Studies indicate that the ε4 allele, which is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and. Alzheimer's disease (AD), is less frequent in long-lived indi-.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: factor V Leiden thrombophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Factor V Leiden thrombophilia Factor V Leiden thrombophilia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is an inherited disorder of blood clotting . ...

  3. Effect of dabigatran on a prothrombinase-based assay for detecting activated protein C resistance: an ex vivo and in vitro study in normal subjects and factor V Leiden carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessoni, Gianluca; Valverde, Sara; Valle, Letizia; Caruso, Pierpaolo; Gessoni, Francesca; Valle, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ex vivo and in vitro interference of a direct factor IIa inhibitor, dabigatran, on a prothrombinase-based assay to detect activated protein C resistance. An ex vivo study was performed in six heterozygous factor V Leiden carriers and 12 normal subjects without the factor V Leiden mutation who were treated with dabigatran. An in vitro study was also performed considering 12 plasma samples (six from normal subjects and six from heterozygous factor V Leiden carriers) spiked with dabigatran. The dabigatran concentration was evaluated using a diluted thrombin time assay, activated protein C resistance was evaluated using a prothrombinase-based assay. In both the ex vivo and in vitro studies dabigatran interfered significantly with activated protein C resistance ratios observed in normal subjects and in factor V Leiden heterozygous carriers. The results reported in this paper seem to confirm that dabigatran is able to interfere with the Penthafarm prothrombinase-based assay used to study activated protein C resistance, significantly increasing observed ratios. This effect appears to be present already at low concentrations of dabigatran (6 ng/mL) and affects both normal subjects and heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden. In this group of patients, dabigatran, at concentrations in the therapeutic range (100-200 ng/mL), could markedly increase the activated protein C resistance ratio, bringing it up to within the reference range for normal subjects, thus potentially leading to misclassification of patients.

  4. Longevity Chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Britton Chance pursued his research and sailing until his death at age 97. His 100th anniversary was memorialized in this paper from longevity viewpoint. His lifelong work was very creative. His life was very colorful. His aging was very successful. He has lived a longevity.

  5. Data Resources for Biodemographic Studies on Familial Clustering of Human Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The main cause that hampered many previous biodemographic studies of human longevity is the lack of appropriate data. At the same time, many existing data resources (millions of genealogical records are under-utilized, because their very existence is not widely known, let alone the quality and scientific value of these data sets are not yet validated. The purpose of this work is to review the data resources that could be used in familial studies of human longevity. This is an extended and supplemented version of the previous study made by the authors upon the request of the National Institute on Aging (1998 NIH Professional Service Contract. The review describes: (1 data resources developed for biodemographic studies, (2 data collected in the projects on historical demography, (3 data resources for long lived individuals and their families, (4 publicly available computerized genealogical data resources, (5 published genealogical and family history data. The review also contains the description of databases developed by the participants of the Research Workshops "Genes, Genealogies, and Longevity" organized by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.

  6. A genetic study of Factor V Leiden (G1691A) mutation in young ischemic strokes with large vessel disease in a South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadure, Ravi; Christopher, Rita; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Narayanan, Coimbatore

    2017-10-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) has been, by far, the most investigated gene mutation, with 26 studies to date, on its role in arterial strokes. Overall, a meta-analysis of all these studies taken together showed that carriers of the Factor V Leiden allele were 1.33times more likely to develop arterial strokes when compared to controls. We subjected a highly select subset of young strokes, with large vessel infarcts, to genetic analysis for FVL mutation and compared them with matched healthy controls to look for a statistically significant association. In this prospective study, 6/120 cases (5%) and 2/120 controls (1.6%) were positive for heterozygous FVL (G1691A) mutation. The higher prevalence of FVL mutation in cases (5%) compared to controls (1.6%) did not show statistical significance with a Pearson's Chi square P value of 0.15. The Odds Ratio (OR) for risk of large vessel disease in FVL positive cases was 3.10 (95% CI of 0.61-15.7). FVL mutation (G1691A) in young Indian subjects with ischemic strokes does not seem to be significantly associated with large vessel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection bias in studies of human reproduction-longevity trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Samuli

    2017-12-13

    A shorter lifespan as a potential cost of high reproductive effort in humans has intrigued researchers for more than a century. However, the results have been inconclusive so far and despite strong theoretical expectations we do not currently have compelling evidence for the longevity costs of reproduction. Using Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown here that a common practice in human reproduction-longevity studies using historical data (the most relevant data sources for this question), the omission of women who died prior to menopausal age from the analysis, results in severe underestimation of the potential underlying trade-off between reproduction and lifespan. In other words, assuming that such a trade-off is expressed also during reproductive years, the strength of the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan is progressively weakened when women dying during reproductive ages are sequentially and non-randomly excluded from the analysis. In cases of small sample sizes (e.g. few hundreds of observations), this selection bias by reducing statistical power may even partly explain the null results commonly found in this field. Future studies in this field should thus apply statistical approaches that account for or avoid selection bias in order to recover reliable effect size estimates between reproduction and longevity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. A retrospective clinical study on longevity of posterior composite and amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdam, Niek J M; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Roeters, Joost M; Loomans, Bas A C

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the longevity of class I and II amalgam and composite resin restorations placed in a general practice. Patient records of a general practice were used for collecting the data for this study. From the files longevity and reasons for failure of 2867 class I and II amalgam and composite resin restorations placed in 621 patients by two operators between 1990 and 1997 were recorded in 2002. 912 amalgam restorations (502 by operator 1 and 410 by operator 2) and 1955 posterior composite resin restorations (1470 by operator 1 and 485 by operator 2) were placed. One hundred and eighty-two amalgam and 259 posterior composite resin restorations failed during the observation period. The main reasons for failure of the restorations were caries (34%), endodontic treatment (12%) and fracture of the tooth (13%). Life tables calculated from the data reveal a survival for composite resin of 91.7% at 5 years and 82.2% at 10 years. For amalgam the survival is 89.6% at 5 years and 79.2% at 10 years. Cox-regression analysis resulted in a significant effect of the amount of restored surfaces on the survival of the restorations. No significant effect of operator, material as well as combination of material and operator was found. In the investigated general practice, two dentists obtained comparable longevity for amalgam and composite resin restorations.

  9. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Fabio M Guarino1 Silvia Lunardi2 Michela Carlomagno1 Stefano Mazzotti2. Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Comparata, Università degli Studi Federico II, Via Mezzocannone, 8, I-80134 Napoli, Italy; Museo di Storia Naturale, via De Pisis 24, I-44100, Ferrara, Italy ...

  10. Recent advances in human gene-longevity association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Benedictis, G; Tan, Q; Jeune, B

    2001-01-01

    % of the variation in life span is genetically determined. Taking advantage of recent developments in molecular biology, researchers are now searching for candidate genes that might have an influence on life span. The data on unrelated individuals emerging from an ever-increasing number of centenarian studies makes...

  11. Handgrip strength and mortality in the oldest old population : The Leiden 85-plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Carolina H.Y.; Taekema, Diana; De Craen, Anton J.M.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor muscular strength has been shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in diverse samples of middle-aged and elderly people. However, the oldest old population (i.e., over 85 years) is underrepresented in such studies. Our objective was to assess the association

  12. Activation of innate immunity in patients with venous thrombosis: the Leiden Thrombophilia Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, P. H.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that levels of inflammatory mediators are risk indicators for venous thrombotic disease. We have Sought to confirm and extend these findings by measuring plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70

  13. Predicting outcomes of mood, anxiety and somatoform disorders: the Leiden routine outcome monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noorden, Martijn S; van Fenema, Esther M; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Rood, Yanda R; Carlier, Ingrid V E; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2012-12-15

    Mood, anxiety and somatoform (MAS) disorders are highly prevalent disorders with substantial mutual comorbidity and a large disease burden. Early identification of patients at risk for poor outcome in routine clinical practice is of clinical importance. The purpose of this study was to predict outcomes in outpatients with MAS disorders using routine outcome monitoring (ROM) data. We conducted a cohort study of 892 adult MAS patients in a naturalistic outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting and validated our results in a replication cohort of 1392 patients. Poor outcome was defined as a <50% reduction (compared to baseline) on the self-report brief symptom inventory (BSI) or a score of ≥3 on the observer-rated clinical global impression severity scale (CGI-S). During a follow-up of up to 2 years, Cox regression models were used to analyze the independent baseline predictors for poor outcome. In multivariable Cox regression models, independent and replicated predictors for poor outcome were higher age (overall p<0.001 for combined cohorts in multivariable Cox regression model), having comorbid MAS disorders or a somatoform disorder (<0.001), dysfunctional personality traits (i.e., tendency to self-harm [p<0.001], intimacy problems [p<0.001] and affective lability [p<0.001]), and a low reported general health status (p<0.001). Detailed treatment information was not available. MAS patients meeting the profile of being elderly, suffering from comorbid MAS disorders or a somatoform disorder, with cluster B personality traits, and a poor reported general health may need special preventive measures to minimise the risk of poor outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting outcome of depression using the depressive symptom profile: the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noorden, Martijn S; van Fenema, Esther M; van der Wee, Nic J A; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the predictive value of items for individual depressive symptoms measured with the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory-Revised (BDI-II) self-report scale on outcome in a large naturalistic cohort of depressive outpatients. We used a cohort of 1,489 adult patients aged 18-65 years with major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder established with the MINI-Plus diagnostic interview. All patients had a routine outcome monitoring baseline measurement in 2004-2009, with a maximum of 2 years follow-up. We used multivariable Cox regression models to predict remission (MADRS < 10; where MADRS stands for Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) and response (≥50% improvement), and adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics (i.e. marital status, level of education, working status, comorbid anxiety, avoidant and borderline personality traits, and suicidality) that were identified as predictors in earlier studies. Of the 21 BDI-II items, the items "pessimism" and "loss of energy" independently predicted for both remission and response. For pessimism, the hazard ratio (HR) for remission was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-0.89, P < .001) and for loss of energy, the HR was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72-0.92, P = .001). These findings of robust prediction of poor outcome by baseline items of "pessimism" and "loss of energy" in a naturalistic treatment setting may help clinicians to identify depressive patients in need for additional or alternative therapeutic approaches. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Genome-wide association study for longevity with whole-genome sequencing in 3 cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy production. Improvements in longevity could increase the average number of lactations per cow, thereby affecting the profitability of the dairy cattle industry. Improved longevity for cows reduces the replacement cost of stock and enables animals

  16. Biofouling on buoyant marine plastics: An experimental study into the effect of size on surface longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazey, Francesca M.C.; Ryan, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that roughly 100 times more plastic litter enters the sea than is found floating at the sea surface, despite the buoyancy and durability of many plastic polymers. Biofouling by marine biota is one possible mechanism responsible for this discrepancy. Microplastics (<5 mm in diameter) are more scarce than larger size classes, which makes sense because fouling is a function of surface area whereas buoyancy is a function of volume; the smaller an object, the greater its relative surface area. We tested whether plastic items with high surface area to volume ratios sank more rapidly by submerging 15 different sizes of polyethylene samples in False Bay, South Africa, for 12 weeks to determine the time required for samples to sink. All samples became sufficiently fouled to sink within the study period, but small samples lost buoyancy much faster than larger ones. There was a direct relationship between sample volume (buoyancy) and the time to attain a 50% probability of sinking, which ranged from 17 to 66 days of exposure. Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. Further research is required to determine how fouling rates differ on free floating debris in different regions and in different types of marine environments. Such estimates could be used to improve model predictions of the distribution and abundance of floating plastic debris globally. - Highlights: • We tested how fragment size affects the rate of buoyancy loss at sea due to biofouling for two low-density plastic polymers. • We found a strong direct relationship between fragment size and surface longevity. • Our longevity estimates ranged from 17 days for the thinnest microplastics to 66 days for thicker macroplastics. • Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. • The results could be used to improve model predictions of the

  17. Associations between insulin action and integrity of brain microstructure differ with familial longevity and with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; van Buchem, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes have been associated with cognitive decline, dementia, and with structural and functional brain features. However, it is unclear whether these associations differ in individuals that differ in familial longevity or age. Here, we investigated...... the association between parameters of glucose metabolism and microstructural brain integrity in offspring of long-lived families ("offspring") and controls; and age categories thereof. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS), 132 participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to assess glycemia......) peak-height was used to quantify differences in microstructural brain parenchymal tissue homogeneity that remain invisible on conventional MRI. Analyses were performed in offspring and age-matched controls, with and without stratification for age. In the full offspring group only, reduced MTR peak...

  18. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis : results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, HLA; Meinardi, [No Value; Vleggaar, FP; van Uum, SHM; Haagsma, EB; van der Meer, FJM; van Hattum, J; Chamuleau, RAFM; Adang, RP; Vandenbroucke, JP; van Hoek, B; Rosendaal, FR

    2000-01-01

    In a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT), We compared 43 BCS

  19. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis: results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H. L.; Meinardi, J. R.; Vleggaar, F. P.; van Uum, S. H.; Haagsma, E. B.; van der Meer, F. J.; van Hattum, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Adang, R. P.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; van Hoek, B.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    In a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). We compared 43 BCS

  20. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis: results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); J.P. Vandenbroucke (Jan); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); B. van Hoek (Bart); J.R. Meinardi; F.P. Vleggaar (Frank); S.H. van Uum; E.B. Haagsma (Els); F.J.M. van der Meer (Felix); J. van Hattum (Jan); R.A. Chamuleau; R.P.R. Adang (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein

  1. Blood group AB and factor V Leiden as risk factors for pre-eclampsia: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Leena M; Laivuori, Hannele; Rautanen, Anna; Kaaja, Risto; Kere, Juha; Krusius, Tom; Paunio, Mikko; Rasi, Vesa

    2009-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is still unknown. Clinical symptoms correlate with activation of coagulation and inherited thrombophilia has been associated with pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group has been associated with thrombotic disorders and pre-eclampsia. We assessed ABO blood group, seven thrombophilia associated polymorphisms, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies as risk factors for pre-eclampsia. We performed a population-based nested case-control study of 100,000 consecutive pregnancies in Finland. Cases and controls were identified by combining national registers and medical records were reviewed. We studied 248 cases fulfilling strict criteria for pre-eclampsia and 679 controls. Severe pre-eclampsia, early pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) were analyzed separately. Blood group AB increased the risk for pre-eclampsia as a whole (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), and in the three subgroups (OR 2.3, 3.8, 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-3.9, 2.0-7.1, 1.6-7.1). FV Leiden increased the risk as a whole (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.9), and in the three subgroups, although not statistically significantly. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies were not associated with pre-eclampsia. High body mass index, diabetes, first pregnancy, and twin pregnancy increased the risk from 1.5-fold to 8.2-fold. Our results confirm and extend the prior observation of blood group AB being a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group is known from all pregnant women. The value of blood group as risk factor for pre-eclampsia should be further assessed in prospective studies. In this study, FV Leiden was not statistically significant risk factor.

  2. Description and cohort characterization of the Longevity Study: learning from our elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Coon, David W; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Dugger, Brittany N; Schofield, Sharon; Nieri, Walter

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Longevity Study: Learning From Our Elders, a research program on healthy aging that began in 2007 at the Center for Healthy Aging at Banner Sun Health Research Institute. As of June 2015, 1139 participants (age range of 50-110 years) completed baseline assessments with the majority living in the Sun Cities retirement communities northwest of Phoenix, Arizona but expanding throughout the state. The registry includes over 830 currently active participants with 450 aged 80 years and older, 188 aged 90 and older, and 27 centenarians. Data from in-person interviews at the Center for Healthy Aging in Sun City or in the participants' residences which includes sociodemographic, medical, cognitive, physical and psychosocial variables have been collected since the study's inception. This paper outlines some of the key demographic and clinical characteristics of the Longevity Study, its progress, and future directions. It also reflects on how exceptional aging individuals function psychosocially, cognitively and physically, particularly among individuals aged 85 and older.

  3. Quantitative and empirical demonstration of the Matthew effect in a study of career longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-04

    The Matthew effect refers to the adage written some two-thousand years ago in the Gospel of St. Matthew: "For to all those who have, more will be given." Even two millennia later, this idiom is used by sociologists to qualitatively describe the dynamics of individual progress and the interplay between status and reward. Quantitative studies of professional careers are traditionally limited by the difficulty in measuring progress and the lack of data on individual careers. However, in some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, success, and prowess, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. Here we demonstrate testable evidence of the age-old Matthew "rich get richer" effect, wherein the longevity and past success of an individual lead to a cumulative advantage in further developing his or her career. We develop an exactly solvable stochastic career progress model that quantitatively incorporates the Matthew effect and validate our model predictions for several competitive professions. We test our model on the careers of 400,000 scientists using data from six high-impact journals and further confirm our findings by testing the model on the careers of more than 20,000 athletes in four sports leagues. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  4. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia

    2010-01-01

    and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage's chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples...... the direct approach. It also has low power in detecting non-additive effect genes. Indirect genetic association using offspring from families with both parents as nonagenarians is nearly as powerful as using offspring from families with one centenarian parent. In conclusion, the indirect design can be a good......Recently, an indirect genetic association approach that compares genotype frequencies in offspring of long-lived subjects and offspring from random families has been introduced to study gene-longevity associations. Although the indirect genetic association has certain advantages over the direct...

  5. A longitudinal study of the associations among adolescent conflict resolution styles, depressive symptoms, and romantic relationship longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict

  6. Anticoagulation duration in heterozygous factor V Leiden: a decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Anna K; Smith, Kenneth J; Ragni, Margaret V

    2013-01-01

    Current anticoagulation guidelines suggest that optimal anticoagulation duration for unprovoked venous thromboembolism is determined by an individual risk assessment, balancing risks of anticoagulation bleeding with venous thromboembolism recurrence. Among individuals heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation, while venous thromboembolism recurrence risk is greater, the risk for bleeding is recognized to be lower, suggesting longer duration anticoagulation could be considered. The objective of this study was to compare standard vs. lifelong anticoagulation in 20-year-old factor V Leiden heterozygotes with unprovoked venous thromboembolism. A Markov state-transition model was used, incorporating risks of major, minor, and fatal anticoagulation bleeding, bleeding and thromboembolism morbidity and mortality, and quality of life utilities. Model parameter values favoring lifelong anticoagulation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes were determined in sensitivity analyses. Outcomes were in quality-adjusted life years, discounted at 3% per year. In general population groups with odds ratios for venous thromboembolism recurrence and anticoagulation bleeding of 1.0, a short-term anticoagulation strategy gained 0.09 quality-adjusted life years more than a lifelong anticoagulation strategy. By contrast, in factor V Leiden heterozygotes, lifetime anticoagulation was favored if their relative risk of venous thromboembolism was greater than 1.07 or their relative risk for bleeding was less than 0.91. Results were relatively insensitive to individual variation in other parameter values. Lifelong anticoagulation may benefit individuals heterozygous for factor V Leiden and previous idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Studies assessing bleeding risk with anticoagulation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes and the costs of indefinite anticoagulation are needed to determine if lifelong anticoagulation is the optimal strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lower blood pressure and apathy coincide in older persons with poorer functional ability: the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Bertens, Anne Suzanne; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Smit, Roelof A J; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between blood pressure (BP) measures and symptoms of apathy and depression in older adults with various levels of functional ability. Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden. Primary care setting, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 75 and older (N = 430). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during home visits. Symptoms of apathy and depression were assessed using the Apathy Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), respectively. Stratified linear regression was performed in participants with better and worse functional ability according to the median of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. In participants with lower functional ability, each 10-mmHg lower SBP, DBP, and MAP was associated with higher Apathy Scale scores (0.63, 0.92, and 0.94 points, respectively, all P Apathy Scale or GDS-15 scores. In older participants with poorer functional ability, lower BP was associated with more symptoms of apathy but not depression. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Factor V Leiden Is Associated with Higher Risk of Deep Venous Thrombosis of Large Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsov, Todor; Miladinova, Daniela; Spiroski, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation in patients with different presentation of venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Methods The retrospective case-control study involved 190 patients with venous thromboembolic disease and 200 healthy individuals, who were screened for the presence of factor V Leiden mutation, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The prevalence of factor V Leiden was analyzed according to the localization of thrombosis, presence of risk factors, and family history of thrombosis. The odds of deep venous thrombosis were calculated with respect to the presence of factor V Leiden mutation. Results The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation among patients with venous thromboembolic disease was 21.1%, compared with 5.5% in the healthy individuals. Factor V Leiden positive patients had the first episode of deep venous thrombosis at a younger age, and the prevalence of the mutation was the highest among patients with a positive family history of thrombosis (33.9%, P = 0.003) and in patients with deep venous thrombosis affecting a large blood vessel (37.7%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was lower in patients with calf deep venous thrombosis and primary thromboembolism (13.3% and 13.1%, respectively; P>0.05). The odds ratio for iliofemoral or femoral deep venous thrombosis in factor V Leiden carriers was 10.4 (95% confidence interval, 4.7-23.1). Conclusion The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was high in patients with venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Factor V Leiden carriers have the highest odds of developing deep venous thrombosis affecting a large venous blood vessel. PMID:16758522

  9. Impact of changes in television viewing time and physical activity on longevity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Arem, Hannah; Moore, Steven C; Sampson, Joshua N; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-12-18

    Television viewing is a highly prevalent sedentary behavior among older adults, yet the mortality risks associated with hours of daily viewing over many years and whether increasing or decreasing viewing time affects mortality is unclear. This study examined: 1) the long-term association between mortality and daily viewing time; 2) the influence of reducing and increasing in television viewing time on longevity and 3) combined effects of television viewing and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on longevity. Participants included 165,087 adults in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health (aged 50-71 yrs) who completed questionnaires at two-time-points (Time 1: 1994-1996, and Time 2: 2004-2006) and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate Hazard Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with self-reported television viewing and MVPA and all-cause mortality. Over 6.6 years of follow-up, there were 20,104 deaths. Compared to adults who watched television at both time points, mortality risk was 28% greater (CI:1.21,1.34) those who watched 5+ h/day at both time-points. Decreasing television viewing from 5 + h/day to 3-4 h/d was associated with a 15% reduction in mortality risk (CI:0.80, 0.91) and decreasing to television. We confirm that prolonged television viewing time was associated with greater mortality in older adults and demonstrate for the first time that individuals who reduced the amount of time they spent watching television had lower mortality. Our findings provide new evidence to support behavioral interventions that seek to reduce sedentary television viewing in favor of more physically active pursuits, preferably MVPA. Given the high prevalence of physical inactivity and prolonged television viewing in older adults, favorable changes in these two modifiable behaviors could have substantial public health impact. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015.

  10. China Back in the Frame. A comparative study of Canton, Whampoa and Macao harbour views in the Leiden Museum of Ethnology and in the Guangzhou Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.; Groenendijk, E.; Viallé, C.; Blussé, L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of research results deriving from the investigation of a group of 18th and 19th century export oil paintings from China in the collection of the National Museum of Ethnology n Leiden. The oils were compared with a group of reverse glass paintings in the same

  11. A risk-benefit analysis of factor V Leiden testing to improve pregnancy outcomes: a case study of the capabilities of decision modeling in genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Preeti S; Veenstra, David L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to assess the benefits, risks, and personal utility of factor V Leiden mutation testing to improve pregnancy outcomes and to assess the utility of decision-analytic modeling for complex outcomes in genomics. We developed a model to evaluate factor V Leiden testing among women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, including heparin therapy during pregnancy in mutation-positive women. Outcomes included venous thromboembolism, major bleeds, pregnancy loss, maternal mortality, and quality-adjusted life-years. Factor V Leiden testing in a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 women led to 7 fewer venous thromboembolic events, 90 fewer pregnancy losses, and an increase of 17 major bleeding events. Small improvements in quality-adjusted life-years were largely attributable to reduced mortality but also to improvements in health-related quality of life. However, sensitivity analyses indicate large variance in results due to data uncertainty. Furthermore, the complexity of outcomes limited our ability to fully capture the repercussions of testing in the quality-adjusted life-year measure. Factor V Leiden testing involves tradeoffs between clinical and personal utility, and additional effectiveness data are needed for heparin use to prevent pregnancy loss. Decision-analytic methods offer somewhat limited value in assessing these tradeoffs, suggesting that evaluation of complex outcomes will require novel approaches to appropriately capture patient-centered outcomes.Genet Med 2013:15(5):374-381.

  12. Pancreatic cancer-associated gene polymorphisms in a nation-wide cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers; a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potjer, Thomas P.; van der Stoep, Nienke; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Konings, Ingrid C. A. W.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van den Akker, Peter C.; Ausems, Margreet G.; Dommering, Charlotte J.; van der Kolk, Lizet E.; Maiburg, Merel C.; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Wagner, Anja; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Hes, Frederik J.

    2015-01-01

    The p16-Leiden founder mutation in the CDKN2A gene is the most common cause of Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome in the Netherlands. Individuals with this mutation are at increased risk for developing melanoma of the skin, as well as pancreatic cancer. However, there is a

  13. Pancreatic cancer-associated gene polymorphisms in a nation-wide cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers; A case-control study Medical Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potjer, Thomas P.; Van Der Stoep, Nienke; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Konings, Ingrid C A W; Aalfs, Cora M.; Van Den Akker, Peter C.; Ausems, Margreet G.; Dommering, Charlotte J.; Van Der Kolk, Lizet E.; Maiburg, Merel C.; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Wagner, Anja; Vasen, Hans F A; Hes, Frederik J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The p16-Leiden founder mutation in the CDKN2A gene is the most common cause of Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome in the Netherlands. Individuals with this mutation are at increased risk for developing melanoma of the skin, as well as pancreatic cancer. However,

  14. Pancreatic cancer-associated gene polymorphisms in a nation-wide cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers; a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potjer, Thomas P; van der Stoep, Nienke; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Konings, Ingrid C A W; Aalfs, Cora M; van den Akker, Peter C; Ausems, Margreet G; Dommering, Charlotte J; van der Kolk, Lizet E; Maiburg, Merel C; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Wagner, Anja; Vasen, Hans F A; Hes, Frederik J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The p16-Leiden founder mutation in the CDKN2A gene is the most common cause of Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome in the Netherlands. Individuals with this mutation are at increased risk for developing melanoma of the skin, as well as pancreatic cancer. However,

  15. Pancreatic cancer-associated gene polymorphisms in a nation-wide cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers; A case-control study Medical Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Potjer (Thomas P.); N. van der Stoep (Nienke); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); I.C.A.W. Konings (Ingrid C.A.W.); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); P.C. van den Akker (Peter); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.J. Dommering (Charlotte); L. van der Kolk (Lizet); M.C. Maiburg (Merel C.); L. Spruijt (Liesbeth); A. Wagner (Anja); H. Vasen (Hans); F.J. Hes (Frederik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The p16-Leiden founder mutation in the CDKN2A gene is the most common cause of Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome in the Netherlands. Individuals with this mutation are at increased risk for developing melanoma of the skin, as well as pancreatic cancer.

  16. Pancreatic cancer-associated gene polymorphisms in a nation-wide cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers; a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Potjer (Thomas P.); N. van der Stoep (Nienke); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); I.C.A.W. Konings (Ingrid C.A.W.); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); P.C. van den Akker (Peter); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.J. Dommering (Charlotte); L. van der Kolk (Lizet); M.C. Maiburg (Merel C.); L. Spruijt (Liesbeth); A. Wagner (Anja); H. Vasen (Hans); F.J. Hes (Frederik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The p16-Leiden founder mutation in the CDKN2A gene is the most common cause of Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome in the Netherlands. Individuals with this mutation are at increased risk for developing melanoma of the skin, as well as pancreatic cancer.

  17. The association of factor V leiden and prothrombin gene mutation and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Rodger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factor V Leiden (FVL and prothrombin gene mutation (PGM are common inherited thrombophilias. Retrospective studies variably suggest a link between maternal FVL/PGM and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications including pregnancy loss, small for gestational age, pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. Prospective cohort studies provide a superior methodologic design but require larger sample sizes to detect important effects. We undertook a systematic review and a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to estimate the association of maternal FVL or PGM carrier status and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A comprehensive search strategy was run in Medline and Embase. Inclusion criteria were: (1 prospective cohort design; (2 clearly defined outcomes including one of the following: pregnancy loss, small for gestational age, pre-eclampsia or placental abruption; (3 maternal FVL or PGM carrier status; (4 sufficient data for calculation of odds ratios (ORs. We identified 322 titles, reviewed 30 articles for inclusion and exclusion criteria, and included ten studies in the meta-analysis. The odds of pregnancy loss in women with FVL (absolute risk 4.2% was 52% higher (OR = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.19 as compared with women without FVL (absolute risk 3.2%. There was no significant association between FVL and pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 0.89-1.70 or between FVL and SGA (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.80-1.25. PGM was not associated with pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.79-1.99 or SGA (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.92-1.70. CONCLUSIONS: Women with FVL appear to be at a small absolute increased risk of late pregnancy loss. Women with FVL and PGM appear not to be at increased risk of pre-eclampsia or birth of SGA infants. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  18. A retrospective clinical study on the longevity of posterior Class II cast gold inlays/onlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulic, A; Svendsen, G; Kopperud, S E

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the longevity and reasons for failure of posterior cast Class II gold inlays and onlays among a group of Norwegian adults. The term inlay was used for both inlays and onlays. A cohort of 138 patients regularly attending a general practice for check-up were examined in 2016. The patients had a total of 391 posterior gold inlays placed in the period 1970-2015. The inlays were categorized as successful, repaired or failed. Reasons for failure were classified as either "secondary caries", "fractures", "lost inlay" or "other". Participation was voluntary and no compensation was given. The mean age of the patients at placement was 50.8 years (SD: 12.7 yr). Most gold inlays were placed in molars (85.9%) and 14.1% in premolars; 49.4% of the inlays were in the maxilla and the 50.6% in the mandibula. Average length of follow-up was 11.6 years (range: 1-46 years, SD: 7.9); 82.9% were classified as successful, 10.7% as repaired and 6.4% as failed. Reasons for failure were secondary caries (41.3%), lost inlay (25.4%), fractures (23.8%) and other (9.5%). Mean annual failure rate (AFR) was 1.69% for repaired and failed inlays combined. However, if repaired inlays were considered as success, the AFR decreased to 0.57%. Multi-level Cox regression analyses identified low age of the patient and high number of restored surfaces as risk factors for failure. The present retrospective clinical study demonstrated an acceptable annual failure rate for Class II cast gold inlays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factor V Leiden mutation and high FVIII are associated with an increased risk of VTE in women with breast cancer during adjuvant tamoxifen - results from a prospective, single center, case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Mirjana; Kovac, Zeljko; Tomasevic, Zorica; Vucicevic, Slavko; Djordjevic, Valentina; Pruner, Iva; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of the risk ratio of tamoxifen-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) in breast cancer patients range from 2.4 to 7.1. The occurrence of thrombosis in patients with breast cancer complicates the clinical condition and causes a change of treatment. Our study was conducted in order to investigate the influence of patient-related risk factors for thrombosis development in breast cancer patients whose treatment included adjuvant tamoxifen. The prospective, single center, case control study included 150 breast cancer women, 50 whom developed venous thrombosis during adjuvant tamoxifen and 100 whom did not have thrombosis, as a control group. Patient-related risk factors such as: age, body mass index, previous VTE, varicose veins, concomitant diseases, the presence of prothrombotic mutations (FV Leiden, FII G20210A) and FVIII activity were evaluated in both groups. In respect of prothrombotic mutations, the FV Leiden mutation was present in a higher number of women from the VTE group (10/50 vs 7/100; P=0.020). Additionally, FVIII activity was significantly higher in the VTE group; median (IQR), of 1.79 (0.69) vs 1.45 (0.55); P1.5IU/ml, who were carriers of prothrombotic mutations, an OR of 3.76 (CI 95% 1.276-11.096; P=0.016) was obtained for VTE. The results of our study showed that the factor V Leiden mutation and high FVIII are associated with an increased risk of VTE in women with breast cancer during adjuvant tamoxifen. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Does comedy kill? A retrospective, longitudinal cohort, nested case-control study of humour and longevity in 53 British comedians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Simon; Thompson, David R

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to test the hypothesis that the funniest comedians are most at risk of a premature death and reduced longevity compared to their relatively less funny counterparts. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study with a nested case-control analysis of longevity of 53 male British comedians born between 1900 and 1954 was conducted. All comedians were given a subjective score from 1 (relatively funny) to 10 (hilariously funny) by the study investigators. The survival profile of all comedians was then examined adjusting for decade of birth, whether they worked in a comedy team and their comedy score. A nested case-control analysis examined the longevity of those comedians working in teams according to their pre-specified status within the team (straight/less funny versus funny team member). On an adjusted basis, there was no correlation between the decade of birth (HR 0.94, 95% 0.65 to 1.38 per incremental decade; p=0.763) and comedy team status (HR 1.13, 95% 0.51 to 2.48 versus independent comedian; p=0.761) with longevity. However, an increasingly funny comedy score was associated with increased mortality (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.44 per unit funny score; p=0.006). Of the 23 comedians adjudged to be very funny (score 8-10), 18 (78%) had died versus 12 (40%) of the rest; mean age at death 63.3±12.2 versus 72.3±14.7 (p=0.079). Within comedy teams, those identified as the funnier member(s) of the partnership were, on an adjusted basis, more than three times more likely to die prematurely when compared to their more serious comedy partners (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.22, 10.1; p=0.020). These data suggest that elite comedians are at increased risk of premature death compared to their less funny counterparts. Mental health issues and personality characteristics that help shape their comedic talent and success may well explain their reduced longevity and raises serious issues for identifying and mitigating their risk of a premature death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  1. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.

  2. Ecological correlates of ex situ seed longevity: a comparative study on 195 species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Robin J; Daws, Matthew I; Hay, Fiona R

    2009-07-01

    Extended seed longevity in the dry state is the basis for the ex situ conservation of 'orthodox' seeds. However, even under identical storage conditions there is wide variation in seed life-span between species. Here, the effects of seed traits and environmental conditions at the site of collection on seed longevity is explored for195 wild species from 71 families from environments ranging from cold deserts to tropical forests. Seeds were rapidly aged at elevated temperature and relative humidity (either 45 degrees C and 60% RH or 60 degrees C and 60% RH) and regularly sampled for germination. The time taken in storage for viability to fall to 50% (p(50)) was determined using Probit analysis and used as a measure of relative seed longevity between species. Across species, p(50) at 45 degrees C and 60% RH varied from 0.1 d to 771 d. Endospermic seeds were, in general, shorter lived than non-endospermic seeds and seeds from hot, dry environments were longer lived than those from cool, wet conditions. These relationships remained significant when controlling for the effects of phylogenetic relatedness using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Seed mass and oil content were not correlated with p(50). The data suggest that the endospermic seeds of early angiosperms which evolved in forest understorey habitats are short-lived. Extended longevity presumably evolved as a response to climatic change or the invasion of drier areas. The apparent short-lived nature of endospermic seeds from cool wet environments may have implications for re-collection and re-testing strategies in ex situ conservation.

  3. Differential effects of amlodipine and atorvastatin treatment and their combination on atherosclerosis in ApoE*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, D.J.; Jukema, J.W.; van de Wiel, M.A.; Emeis, J.; van der Laarse, A.; Havekes, L.M.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential antiatherosclerotic effects of the calcium antagonist amlodipine as compared with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin and the combination of both in ApoE*3-Leiden transgenic mice. Four groups of 15 ApoE*3-Leiden mice were put on a

  4. Sustainability Cards: Design for Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie; Ræbild, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Product longevity is considered widely as a relevant strategic approach, amongst many, within the field of sustainability. Yet, how to design for increased product lifetime may not be so obvious for practitioners. The complexity of the surrounding issues can constitute a barrier for designers and...... in terms of product longevity. As the paper builds on a single case study and is situated within a single discipline (fashion and apparel), the outcome should be considered as tentative indications of future potential....

  5. Factor V Leiden and inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Wu, Shengjun; Feng, Bin; Lei, Shaoni; Luo, Guanhong; Wang, Jingbo; Li, Kai; Li, Xiaohua; Xie, Huahong; Zhang, Dexin; Wang, Xin; Wu, Kaichun; Miao, Danmin; Fan, Daiming

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies proved that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients had a higher risk of thromboembolism and a Factor V Leiden mutation that prevents the efficient inactivation of factor V, which leads to thromboembolism and thus contributes to a high potential risk of IBD. However, the relationship between Factor V Leiden mutation and IBD remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of studies assessing the association of Factor V Leiden mutation with the risk of IBD in humans. We extracted the number of IBD and control subjects with or without Factor V Leiden mutation from each study and conducted this analysis using a fixed-effects model. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. No significant heterogeneity was found in results across the 19 studies (I (2) = 18.8%, P = 0.23), which showed a slight but not significant increase in the risk of IBD with Factor V Leiden mutation in the general population (summary odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-1.46). Taking into account ethnic differences, further study exhibited a slight but not significant increase in risk of IBD with Factor V Leiden mutation in Europeans (summary OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.88-1.64). However, Factor V Leiden mutation was significantly associated with a higher risk of thromboembolism in IBD patients (summary OR 5.30, 95% CI 2.25-12.48). No publication bias was found in this study. This meta-analysis indicated that although Factor V Leiden mutation was not significantly associated with the risk of IBD, it was significantly associated with a higher risk of thromboembolism in IBD patients.

  6. Pharmacogenetic typing for oral anti-coagulant response among factor V Leiden mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Risha; Saxena, Renu; Deb, Roumi; Verma, Ishwar C.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Factor V Leiden mutation is the most common inherited predisposition for hypercoagulability and thereby a common genetic cause for initiation of oral anti-coagulation therapy. There is a dearth of knowledge of coumarin response profile in such thrombophilic population. Aims: The current pilot study aims to estimate coumarin sensitivity in an Indian cohort with an inherited thrombophilia risk factor (Factor V Leiden mutation carriers) based on the observed frequency of CYP2C9 FNx01...

  7. Family history of venous thromboembolism and identifying factor V Leiden carriers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L; Momirova, Valerija; Dizon-Townson, Donna; Wenstrom, Katharine; Wendel, George; Samuels, Philip; Sibai, Baha; Spong, Catherine Y; Cotroneo, Margaret; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Conway, Deborah; Wapner, Ronald J

    2010-03-01

    To estimate whether there is a correlation between family history of venous thromboembolism and factor V Leiden mutation carriage in gravid women without a personal history of venous thromboembolism. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of the frequency of pregnancy-related thromboembolic events among carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation. Family history of venous thromboembolism in either first- or second-degree relatives was self-reported. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of family history to predict factor V Leiden mutation carrier status were calculated. Women without a personal venous thromboembolism history and with available DNA were included (n=5,168). One hundred forty women (2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-3.2%]) were factor V Leiden mutation-positive. Four hundred twelve women (8.0% [95% CI 7.3-8.7%]) reported a family history of venous thromboembolism. Women with a positive family history were twofold more likely to be factor V Leiden mutation carriers than those with a negative family history (23 of 412 [5.6%] compared with 117 of 4,756 [2.5%], Pfactor V Leiden carriers were 16.4% (95% CI 10.7-23.6%), 92.3% (95% CI 91.5-93.0%), and 5.6% (95% CI 3.6-8.3%), respectively. Although a family history of venous thromboembolism is associated with factor V Leiden mutation in thrombosis-free gravid women, the sensitivity and positive predictive values are too low to recommend screening women for the factor V Leiden mutation based solely on a family history.

  8. LongevityMap: a database of human genetic variants associated with longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budovsky, Arie; Craig, Thomas; Wang, Jingwei; Tacutu, Robi; Csordas, Attila; Lourenço, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of human longevity remains a challenge but could lead to life-extending interventions and better treatments for age-related diseases. Toward this end we developed the LongevityMap (http://genomics.senescence.info/longevity/), the first database of genes, loci, and variants studied in the context of human longevity and healthy ageing. We describe here its content and interface, and discuss how it can help to unravel the genetics of human longevity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Kleemann, R.; Koppen, A. van; Hanemaaijer, R.; Verschuren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic

  10. Learning about Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning about Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions ...

  11. Approaches in methodology for population-based longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (TUA) among Malaysian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Omar, Azahadi; Vanoh, Divya; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mukari, Siti Zamratol Mai-Sarah; Din, Normah Che; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Mohammed, Zainora; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Loo, Won Hui; Meramat, Asheila; Kamaruddin, Mohd Zul Amin; Bagat, Mohamad Fazdillah; Razali, Rosdinom

    2016-12-01

    A number of longitudinal studies on aging have been designed to determine the predictors of healthy longevity, including the neuroprotective factors, however, relatively few studies included a wide range of factors and highlighted the challenges faced during data collection. Thus, the longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (LRGS TUA) has been designed to prospectively investigate the magnitude of cognitive decline and its risk factors through a comprehensive multidimensional assessment comprising of biophysical health, auditory and visual function, nutrition and dietary pattern and psychosocial aspects. At baseline, subjects were interviewed for their status on sociodemographic, health, neuropsychological test, psychosocial and dietary intake. Subjects were also measured for anthropometric and physical function and fitness. Biospecimens including blood, buccal swap, hair and toenail were collected, processed and stored. A subsample was assessed for sensory function, i.e., vision and auditory. During follow-up, at 18 and 36 months, most of the measurements, along with morbidity and mortality outcomes will be collected. The description of mild cognitive impairment, successful aging and usual aging process is presented here. A total 2322 respondents were recruited in the data analysis at baseline. Most of the respondents were categorized as experiencing usual aging (73 %), followed by successful aging (11 %) and mild cognitive impairment (16 %). The LRGS TUA study is the most comprehensive longitudinal study on aging in Malaysia, and will contribute to the understanding of the aging process and factors associated with healthy aging and mental well-being of a multiethnic population in Malaysia.

  12. Effect of discontinuation of antihypertensive medication on orthostatic hypotension in older persons with mild cognitive impairment: the DANTE Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; van der Mast, Roos C

    2016-03-01

    the relationship between antihypertensive medication and orthostatic hypotension in older persons remains ambiguous, due to conflicting observational evidence and lack of data of clinical trials. to assess the effect of discontinuation of antihypertensive medication on orthostatic hypotension in older persons with mild cognitive impairment. a total of 162 participants with orthostatic hypotension were selected from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study. This randomised clinical trial included community-dwelling participants aged ≥75 years, with mild cognitive impairment, using antihypertensive medication and without serious cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomised to discontinuation or continuation of antihypertensive treatment (ratio 1:1). Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a drop of at least 20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and/or 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure on standing from a seated position. Outcome was the absence of orthostatic hypotension at 4-month follow-up. Relative risks (RR) were calculated by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. at follow-up, according to intention-to-treat analyses, of the 86 persons assigned to discontinuation of antihypertensive medication, 43 (50%) were free from orthostatic hypotension, compared with 29 (38%) of the 76 persons assigned to continuation of medication [RR 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.87); P = 0.13]. Per-protocol analysis showed that recovery from orthostatic hypotension was significantly higher in persons who completely discontinued all antihypertensive medication (61%) compared with the continuation group (38%) [RR 1.60 (95% CI 1.10-2.31); P = 0.01]. in older persons with mild cognitive impairment and orthostatic hypotension receiving antihypertensive medication, discontinuation of antihypertensive medication may increase the probability of recovery from orthostatic hypotension. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  13. "Predicting" parental longevity from offspring endophenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, Anatoli I; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Kulminski, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    , cognitive functioning and health/well-being among offspring predict longevity in parents. Good predictors can be used as endophenotypes for exceptional survival. Our analyses revealed significant associations between cumulative indices describing physiological state, as well as a number of offspring...... phenotypes, and parental lifespan, supporting both their familial basis and relevance to longevity. We conclude that the study of endophenotypes within families is a valid approach to the genetics of human longevity....

  14. Families enriched for exceptional longevity also have increased health span: Findings from the Long Life Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eSebastiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesizing that members of families enriched for longevity delay morbidity compared to population controls and approximate the health-span of centenarians, we compared the health spans of older generation subjects of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS to controls without family history of longevity and to centenarians of the New England Centenarian Study (NECS using Bayesian parametric survival analysis. We estimated hazard ratios, the ages at which specific percentiles of subjects had onsets of diseases, and the gain of years of disease-free survival in the different cohorts compared to referent controls. Compared to controls, LLFS subjects had lower hazards for cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe dementia, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and stroke. The age at which 20% of the LLFS siblings and probands had one or more age-related diseases was approximately 10 years later than NECS controls. While female NECS controls generally delayed the onset of age-related diseases compared with males controls, these gender differences became much less in the older generation of the LLFS and disappeared amongst the centenarians of the NECS. The analyses demonstrate extended health-span in the older subjects of the LLFS and suggest that this aging cohort provides an important resource to discover genetic and environmental factors that promote prolonged health-span in addition to longer life-span.

  15. Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin Mutations in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutation are not common but they are involved in pediatric thrombosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of factor V Leiden & prohtrombin mutation in healthy population of Shiraz, south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study 195 healthy people (97 female and 98 male were randomly selected. Peripheral white blood cells obtained from 5 ml blood contained 1-2 mg/ml K2- EDTA. Genomic DNA extraction was performed following the protocol described by Miller et al. PCR amplification was carried out in 25μl reaction volume containing 0.5 units Taq polymerase, 200μM dNTP, 500 μM of each of the previously described primers. After initial denaturation, 35 cycles at 95◦c for 30s, and 72◦c for 20s and followed extention by 72 for 10 min were performed. About 10μl of PDR product was digested with MNI I or Mbo restriction enzymes. Results: In this study we determined factor V Leiden in 8 (4.1% and prothrombin mutation in 6 individual (3.07% of 198 cases in heterozygous form. No homozygous was seen for any of the mutations. Only one case presented a double heterozygous for factor V and prothrombin in this cohort. Conclusion: Several studies of factor V leiden and prothrombin mutations in the East of Asia showed the higher frequency of these mutations in Iran.

  16. Evaluation the frequency of factor V Leiden mutation in pregnant women with preeclampsia syndrome in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Samieh; Yavarian, Majid; Azinfar, Azadeh; Rajaei, Minoo; Azizi Kootenaee, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Role of genetic factors in etiology of preeclampsia is not confirmed yet. Gene defect frequency varies in different geographic areas as well as ethnic groups. In this study, the role of factor V Leiden mutation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia syndrome among the pregnant population of northern shore of Persian Gulf in Iran, were considered. Between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009, in a nested case control study, pregnant women with preeclampsia (N=198) as cases and healthy (N=201) as controls were enrolled in the study. DNA were extracted from 10 CC peripheral blood and analyzed for presence of factor V Leiden mutation in these subjects. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy according to the distribution of factor V Leiden were also compared among cases. In total, 17(8.6%) of cases and 2(1%) of controls showed the factor V Leiden mutation. The incidence of factor V Leiden was typically higher in preeclamptic women than control group (OR: 9.34 %95 CI: 2.12-41.01). There was no difference in incidence rate of preterm deliveryfactor V Leiden mutation. The pregnant women with factor V Leiden mutation are prone for preeclampsia syndrome during pregnancy, but this risk factor was not correlated to pregnancy complications in the studied women.

  17. Prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation in various populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F H; Koesling, M; Schrŏder, W; Altman, R; Jiménez Bonilla, R; Lopaciuk, S; Perez-Requejo, J L; Singh, J R

    1997-01-01

    Resistance to activated protein C (APC) is the most common inherited risk factor for venous thrombosis. Most cases of APC resistance are caused by the point mutation nt 1691 G-A in factor V gene, referred to as factor V Leiden mutation. As initially shown in a Dutch population, this mutation has a carrier rate of 2.9%, the most frequent genetic disposition for thrombophilia and deep venous thrombosis. By large-scale epidemiological studies we have determined the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation in populations from Poland (200), Argentina (215), Venezuela (126), Costa Rica (196), and India (150). The prevalences have been estimated for Poland (Warsaw) 5.0%, Argentina (Buenos Aires) 5.1%, Venezuela (Valencia) 1.6%, Costa Rica (San José) 2.0%, and India (Punjab) 1.3%. Based on worldwide distribution, it can be hypothesized that the factor V Leiden mutation has originated and accumulated in central European Caucasians and spread over the world by migration.

  18. Does having children extend life span? A genealogical study of parity and longevity in the Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Patrick F; Pollin, Toni I; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Sorkin, John D; Agarwala, Richa; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Streeten, Elizabeth A; King, Terri M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2006-02-01

    The relationship between parity and life span is uncertain, with evidence of both positive and negative relationships being reported previously. We evaluated this issue by using genealogical data from an Old Order Amish community in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, a population characterized by large nuclear families, homogeneous lifestyle, and extensive genealogical records. The analysis was restricted to the set of 2,015 individuals who had children, were born between 1749 and 1912, and survived until at least age 50 years. Pedigree structures and birth and death dates were extracted from Amish genealogies, and the relationship between parity and longevity was examined using a variance component framework. Life span of fathers increased in linear fashion with increasing number of children (0.23 years per additional child; p =.01), while life span of mothers increased linearly up to 14 children (0.32 years per additional child; p =.004) but decreased with each additional child beyond 14 (p =.0004). Among women, but not men, a later age at last birth was associated with longer life span (p =.001). Adjusting for age at last birth obliterated the correlation between maternal life span and number of children, except among mothers with ultrahigh (>14 children) parity. We conclude that high parity among men and later menopause among women may be markers for increased life span. Understanding the biological and/or social factors mediating these relationships may provide insights into mechanisms underlying successful aging.

  19. Trans-ethnical shift of the risk genotype in the CETP I405V with longevity: a Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The I405V polymorphism of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene (CETP has been suggested to be a protective factor conferring longevity in Ashkenazi Jews, although findings in other races are not supportive. This paper describes a case-control study and a meta-analysis conducted to derive a more precise estimation of the association between CETP 405V and longevity. METHODS: We enrolled 1,021 ethnic Han Chinese participants (506 in the longevity group and 515 controls, then performed a meta-analysis that integrated the current study and previously published ones. Pooled odds ratios (OR were calculated for allele contrasts, dominant and recessive inheritance models to assess the association between CETP 405V and longevity according to the ethnic stratification. RESULTS: Our case-control data indicated that CETP 405V is a longevity risk allele in all genetic models (P additive =0.008; P dominant =0.008, OR(dominant=0.673; P recessive =0.017, OR(recessive=0.654 after adjustment for the apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 allele, body mass index and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A synergy was detected between 405V and APOE ε4 (P=0.001, OR=0.530. Eight studies were eligible for meta-analysis, which confirmed 405V is the risky allele against longevity in all genetic models: allele contrasts (OR=0.81, 95%CI=0.74-0.88, dominant model (OR=0.72, 95%CI=0.64-0.82 and recessive model (OR=0.80, 95%CI=0.67-0.96. After ethnic stratification, 405V remained a risk allele in East Asians but no significant association was found in Europeans or white Americans. CONCLUSION: Our case-control study suggests CETP 405V as a risk allele against longevity in Chinese. The meta-analysis suggests the involvement of CETP 405V is protective in Ashkenazi Jews but is a risk allele against longevity in the East Asian (Chinese population.

  20. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on thrombin generation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, O; Simioni, P; Tormene, D; Castoldi, E

    2014-03-03

    Carriership of the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) ~4-fold, but the individual risk of each FV Leiden carrier depends on several co-inherited risk and protective factors. Under the hypothesis that thrombin generation might serve as an intermediate phenotype to identify genetic modulators of VTE risk, we enrolled 188 FV Leiden heterozygotes (11 with VTE) and determined the following parameters: thrombin generation in the absence and presence of activated protein C (APC); plasma levels of prothrombin, factor X, antithrombin, protein S and tissue factor pathway inhibitor; and the genotypes of 24 SNPs located in the genes encoding these coagulation factors and inhibitors. Multiple regression analysis was subsequently applied to identify the (genetic) determinants of thrombin generation. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) showed a striking inter-individual variability among different FV Leiden carriers and, especially when measured in the presence of APC, correlated with VTE risk. Several SNPs in the F2 (rs1799963, rs3136516), F10 (rs693335), SERPINC1 (rs2227589), PROS1 (Heerlen polymorphism) and TFPI (rs5940) genes significantly affected the ETP-APC and/or the ETP+APC in FV Leiden carriers. Most of these SNPs have shown an association with VTE risk in conventional epidemiological studies, suggesting that the genetic dissection of thrombin generation leads to the detection of clinically relevant SNPs. In conclusion, we have identified several SNPs that modulate thrombin generation in FV Leiden heterozygotes. These SNPs may help explain the large variability in VTE risk observed among different FV Leiden carriers.

  1. The longevity of gerontologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J T

    1975-05-01

    The forces of mortality are the prime determinants of longevity. Longevity is a basic consideration of gerontology and includes the life expectancy of the species, the average expectancy of survival at birth, and the average of lifespan. In the history of the study of old age, for which the modern period began about 1930, there are no reports of the average lifespan for the students of aging. A survey revealed that the average lifespan of 28 special groups (15,000 individuals) was 68 years; this included an average of 68.01 years for 394 gerontologists during the same eras. These figures are comparable because the attainment of a particular status in a profession or vocation is evidence of survival to maturity. Comparison could not be made with data for the general population whose vital statistics begin at birth. The average duration of life for men whose work in part or in whole prior to the 20th century was in gerontology falls midway between the high level of 77 years for classical Greek authors and the low level of 51 years for revolutionary statesmen, and exactly between the levels of life duration for eunuchs and physical and medical scientists.

  2. A longitudinal study of the associations among adolescent conflict resolution styles, depressive symptoms, and romantic relationship longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until break-up was assessed. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Results showed no support for conflict resolution styles as mediators. Girls' depressive symptoms were directly related to shorter relationships. Additionally, actor effects were found indicating that boys and girls with more depressive symptoms used negative resolution styles and were less likely to employ positive problems solving strategies. Finally, one partner effect was found: girls' depressive symptoms related to more positive problem solving in boys. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term Outcomes Following Concussion in the NFL: A Study of Player Longevity, Performance, and Financial Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sergio M; Sokunbi, Olumide F; Haeberle, Heather S; Schickendantz, Mark S; Mont, Michael A; Figler, Richard A; Ramkumar, Prem N

    2017-11-01

    A short-term protocol for evaluation of National Football League (NFL) athletes incurring concussion has yet to be fully defined and framed in the context of the short-term potential team and career longevity, financial risk, and performance. To compare the short-term career outcomes for NFL players with concussions by analyzing the effect of concussions on (1) franchise release rate, (2) career length, (3) salary, and (4) performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NFL player transaction records and publicly available injury reports from August 2005 to January 2016 were analyzed. All players sustaining documented concussions were evaluated for a change to inactive or DNP ("did not participate") status. A case-control design compared franchise release rates and remaining NFL career span. Career length was analyzed via survival analysis. Salary and performance differences were analyzed with publicly available contract data and a performance-scoring algorithm based on position/player level. Of the 5894 eligible NFL players over the 11-year period, 307 sustained publicly reported concussions resulting in the DNP injury protocol. Analysis of the probability of remaining in the league demonstrated a statistically significantly shorter career length for the concussion group at 3 and 5 years after concussion. The year-over-year change in contract value for the concussion group resulted in a mean overall salary reduction of $300,000 ± $1,300,000 per year (interquartile range, -$723,000 to $450,000 per year). The performance score reduction for all offensive scoring players sustaining concussions was statistically significant. This retrospective study demonstrated that NFL players who sustain a concussion face a higher overall franchise release rate and shorter career span. Players who sustained concussions may incur significant salary reductions and perform worse after concussion. Short-term reductions in longevity, performance, and salary after concussion exist and

  4. Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis and thrombophilic mutations in Western Iran: association with factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Hadi; Bigvand, Amir Hossein Amiri; Doulabi, Reza Mohammad; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Afshari, Dariush; Razazian, Nazanin; Rezaei, Mansour

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence of factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients and their possible association with CVST in Western Iran. A total of 24 CVST patients with the mean age of 37.1 +/- 11.7 years and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals from Kermanshah Province of Iran with ethnic background of Kurd were studied for factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T by PCR-RFLP method using Mnl I, Hind III, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, respectively. Prevalence of factor V Leiden was 16.7% in patients and 2% in control group. A significant association was found between factor V Leiden mutation and CVST with odds ratio (OR) of 9.8 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.68-57.2, P = .01). No prothrombin G20210A was found among patients. In patients, MTHFR C677T tended to be higher (58.3%) compared to control (44%), OR of 1.8 (95% CI 0.73-4.5, P = .2). Our study for the first time has determined the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia in a homogenous ethnic group of CVST patients and suggests that factor V Leiden, and not the prothrombin gene mutation is a risk factor for CVST in Western Iran.

  5. The effect of drinking water quality on the health and longevity of people-A case study in Mayang, Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Yuan, F.

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water is an important source for trace elements intake into human body. Thus, the drinking water quality has a great impact on people’s health and longevity. This study aims to study the relationship between drinking water quality and human health and longevity. A longevity county Mayang in Hunan province, China was chosen as the study area. The drinking water and hair of local centenarians were collected and analyzed the chemical composition. The drinking water is weak alkaline and rich in the essential trace elements. The daily intakes of Ca, Cu, Fe, Se, Sr from drinking water for residents in Mayang were much higher than the national average daily intake from beverage and water. There was a positive correlation between Ni and Pb in drinking water and Ni and Pb in hair. There were significant correlations between Cu, K in drinking water and Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in the hair at the 0.01 level. The concentrations of Mg, Sr, Se in drinking water showed extremely significant positive relation with two centenarian index 100/80% and 100/90% correlation. Essential trace elements in drinking water can be an important factor for local health and longevity.

  6. Genome-wide investigation of DNA methylation marks associated with FV Leiden mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssi, Dylan; Dennis, Jessica; Ladouceur, Martin; Truong, Vinh; Zwingerman, Nora; Rocanin-Arjo, Ares; Germain, Marine; Paton, Tara A; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gagnon, France; Trégouët, David-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate whether DNA methylation marks could contribute to the incomplete penetrance of the FV Leiden mutation, a major genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis (VT), we measured genome-wide DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood samples of 98 VT patients carrying the mutation and 251 VT patients without the mutation using the dedicated Illumina HumanMethylation450 array. The genome-wide analysis of 388,120 CpG probes identified three sites mapping to the SLC19A2 locus whose DNA methylation levels differed significantly (pmutation among which 53 were carriers and 161 were non-carriers of the mutation. In both studies, these three CpG sites were also associated (2.33 10-11mutation. A comprehensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of the whole locus revealed that the original associations were due to LD between the FV Leiden mutation and a block of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in SLC19A2. After adjusting for this block of SNPs, the FV Leiden mutation was no longer associated with any CpG site (p>0.05). In conclusion, our work clearly illustrates some promises and pitfalls of DNA methylation investigations on peripheral blood DNA in large epidemiological cohorts. DNA methylation levels at SLC19A2 are influenced by SNPs in LD with FV Leiden, but these DNA methylation marks do not explain the incomplete penetrance of the FV Leiden mutation.

  7. [Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A among Chilean patients with venous and arterial thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Iván; Pereira, Jaime; Alarcón, Marcelo; Pinochet, Carmen; Vélez, María T; Hidalgo, Patricia; Skagerberg, Karin; Poblete, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    Factor V Leiden and G20210A mutation of prothrombin gene are two important genetic polymorphisms associated with an increased risk for thrombosis. To establish the prevalence of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation in the Chilean population and their association to venous and arterial thromboembolism. A case-control study was conducted where 149 patients with thrombosis (87 with arterial and 62 with venous thrombosis) confirmed by CAT-scan, electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes or Doppler depending on the case, and 160 healthy blood donors were genetically analyzed for the presence of both polymorphisms. Factor V Leiden mutation was found in 5.4% of patients and in 1.3% of healthy controls (p=0.04). Heterozygosity for G20210A prothrombin mutation was found in 5.4% of patients and in 2.5% of the control group (p=NS). When arterial and venous thrombosis were considered as separate entities, 4.6% of patients with arterial thrombosis and 6.5% with venous thrombosis presented factor V Leiden (p=NS). Likewise, 8.1% of patients with venous thrombosis and 3.5% of patients with arterial thrombosis had G20210A prothrombin mutation (p=NS). In non selected consecutive Chilean patients with arterial and venous thrombosis the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A is less than we could expect from their prevalence in the general population.

  8. An in vivo study on brain microstructure in biological and chronological ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; de Craen, Anton J M; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A

    2015-01-01

    phenotype of familial longevity. Moreover, we aimed to describe cerebral ageing effects on MTI parameters in an elderly cohort. All subjects were included from the Leiden Longevity Study and underwent 3 Tesla MTI of the brain. In total, 183 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who are enriched for familial...... and superior region of the corona radiata (p age (p amygdala, caudate nucleus and putamen brain phenotype of human familial longevity is - at a mean age of 66......This study aimed to investigate whether magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) parameters of cortical gray and white matter and subcortical gray matter structures differ between subjects enriched for human familial longevity and control subjects to provide a thorough description of the brain...

  9. How the effects of aging and stresses of life are integrated in mortality rates: insights for genetic studies of human health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Anatoliy I; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Arbeeva, Liubov S; Wu, Deqing; Akushevich, Igor; Kovtun, Mikhail; Yashkin, Arseniy; Kulminski, Alexander; Culminskaya, Irina; Stallard, Eric; Li, Miaozhu; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V

    2016-02-01

    Increasing proportions of elderly individuals in developed countries combined with substantial increases in related medical expenditures make the improvement of the health of the elderly a high priority today. If the process of aging by individuals is a major cause of age related health declines then postponing aging could be an efficient strategy for improving the health of the elderly. Implementing this strategy requires a better understanding of genetic and non-genetic connections among aging, health, and longevity. We review progress and problems in research areas whose development may contribute to analyses of such connections. These include genetic studies of human aging and longevity, the heterogeneity of populations with respect to their susceptibility to disease and death, forces that shape age patterns of human mortality, secular trends in mortality decline, and integrative mortality modeling using longitudinal data. The dynamic involvement of genetic factors in (i) morbidity/mortality risks, (ii) responses to stresses of life, (iii) multi-morbidities of many elderly individuals, (iv) trade-offs for diseases, (v) genetic heterogeneity, and (vi) other relevant aging-related health declines, underscores the need for a comprehensive, integrated approach to analyze the genetic connections for all of the above aspects of aging-related changes. The dynamic relationships among aging, health, and longevity traits would be better understood if one linked several research fields within one conceptual framework that allowed for efficient analyses of available longitudinal data using the wealth of available knowledge about aging, health, and longevity already accumulated in the research field.

  10. Jewish denominations and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between affiliation with one of three denominations within Judaism representing a conservative-liberal continuum of Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism. The criterion for affiliation was burial in a cemetery maintained by these denominations. Longevities of married congregants born 1850-1910 were compared, controlling for birth year. Orthodox Jews had the shortest life spans (77 years); Conservative and Reform Jews had very similar life spans (80.7 years). Differences in years of survival of husbands after death of a spouse did not differ significantly. Reform widows survived longest (16.5 years) after death of a spouse. Conservative and Reform widows did not differ significantly from one another.

  11. Clinical characteristics of patients with factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A and a first episode of venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Telma; Roldán, Vanessa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; del Campo, Raquel; Poggio, Renzo; Monreal, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    The clinical characteristics of patients with factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A presenting with a first episode of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have not been thoroughly studied. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, or no thrombophilia, at presentation with a first episode of VTE. As of May 2009, 22428 patients had been enrolled with a first episode of VTE. Of these, 345 had factor V Leiden, 261 had prothrombin G20210A, and 2399 tested negative. Sixty-two percent of the VTE episodes in women with factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A (40% in men) were associated with an acquired risk factor. Among women, pregnancy or contraceptive use accounted for 63% and 67% of such risk factors. Patients with factor V Leiden presented with pulmonary embolism (PE) less likely than those with prothrombin G20210A (31% vs. 51%; pFactor V Leiden presented with hypoxaemia (Sat O(2) levelsfactor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A were associated with an acquired risk factor (mostly pregnancy or contraceptive use). Only 4.5% of patients with factor V Leiden presenting with acute PE had hypoxaemia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainability Cards: Design for Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie; Ræbild, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Product longevity is considered widely as a relevant strategic approach, amongst many, within the field of sustainability. Yet, how to design for increased product lifetime may not be so obvious for practitioners. The complexity of the surrounding issues can constitute a barrier for designers and...... in terms of product longevity. As the paper builds on a single case study and is situated within a single discipline (fashion and apparel), the outcome should be considered as tentative indications of future potential.......Product longevity is considered widely as a relevant strategic approach, amongst many, within the field of sustainability. Yet, how to design for increased product lifetime may not be so obvious for practitioners. The complexity of the surrounding issues can constitute a barrier for designers...... and companies, in terms of adopting and implementing the approach in the design process. This paper explores whether and possible how the ‘design card’ format (i.e. method card or alike), can be a way to support dissemination, application and communication of knowledge related to the notion of product longevity...

  13. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 μg/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective

  14. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  15. Modulating aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic collec....... The goal of research on ageing is not to increase human longevity regardless of the consequences, but to increase active longevity free from disability and functional dependence......Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic...... collection of data describing age-related changes in organisms, organs, tissues, cells and macromolecules, biogerontologists are now in a position to construct general principles of ageing and explore various possibilities of intervention using rational approaches. While not giving serious consideration...

  16. Potential long-term consequences of fad diets on health, cancer, and longevity: lessons learned from model organism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruden, Douglas M; Rasouli, Parsa; Lu, Xiangyi

    2007-06-01

    While much of the third world starves, many in the first world are undergoing an obesity epidemic, and the related epidemics of type II diabetes, heart disease, and other diseases associated with obesity. The amount of economic wealth being directly related to a decline in health by obesity is ironic because rich countries contribute billions of dollars to improve the health of their citizens. Nevertheless, nutritional experiments in model organisms such as yeast, C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice confirm that "caloric restriction" (CR), which is defined generally as a 30-40% decrease in caloric intake, a famine-like condition for humans seen only in the poorest of countries, promotes good health and increases longevity in model organisms. Because caloric restriction, and dieting in general, requires a great deal of will power to deal with the feelings of deprivation, many fad diets, such as the Atkins, South Beach, and Protein Power, have been developed which allow people to lose weight purportedly without the severe feelings of deprivation. However, the long-term effects of such fad diets are not known and few experiments have been performed in the laboratory to investigate possible side affects and adverse consequences. In this paper, we review studies with fad-like dietary conditions in humans and model organisms, and we propose a "Dietary Ames Test" to rapidly screen fad diets, dietary supplements, and drugs for potential long-term health consequences in model organisms.

  17. PAI-1 4G-4G, MTHFR 677TT, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A in Splanchnic Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of Individual Patient Data From Three Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Linda; Pasta, Francesca; D'Amico, Mario

    2016-03-01

    There are no univocal opinions on the role of genetic thrombophilia on splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). We defined genetic thrombophilia the presence of one of these thrombophilic genetic factors (THRGFs): PAI-1 4G-4G, MTHFR 677TT, V Leiden 506Q, and prothrombin 20210A. To evaluate the frequencies of these THRGFs in SVT patients, we analyzed individual data of 482 Caucasian patients, recruited from 2000 to 2014 in three prospective studies. SVT was defined as the presence of thrombosis of portal (PVT), mesenteric (MVT), splenic (SPVT), cava (CT), and hepatic vein (Budd Chiari syndrome, BCS). Pre-hepatic SVT (pre-HSVT) was defined as PVT with or without MVT/SPVT, without BCS. Post-hepatic SVT (post-HSVT) was BCS with or without PVT/MVT/SPVT. We compared 350 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), 47 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 37 myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), 38 associated disease (AD), 10 without any associated disease (WAD), vs 150 healthy controls (HC); 437 patients showed pre-HSVT and 45 post-HSVT. Thrombophilia was present in 294/482 (60.9%) patients: 189/350 LC (54.0%), 31/47 (66.0%) HCC, 29/39 (74.4%) MPN, 35/38 AD (92.1%), and 10/10 (100%) WAD, and 54/150 (36.0%) in HC. In the total group, we found 175 PAI-1 4G-4G, 130 MTHFR 677TT, 42V Leiden 506Q, and 27 prothrombin 20210A; 75 patients showed presence of >1 TRHGF; the more frequent association was PAI-1 4G-4G/MTHFR 677TT, in 36 patients. PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT were significantly more frequent in patients with SVT (P values 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT distributions deviated significantly from that expected from a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Thrombophilia was significantly less frequent in patients with pre-HSVT (250/437, 57.2%) than in patients with post-HSVT (44/45, 97.8%). Our study shows the significant prevalence of PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT in SVT, mainly in post-HSVT.

  18. Factor V Leiden and Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark; Marcoux, Jo-Anne; Olson, Marnie; Bezaire, Jennifer; Dalshaug, Gregory

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a patient with factor V Leiden with an antithrombin III activity of 67% who received a successful aortic valve replacement supported by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A safe level of anticoagulation was achieved by monitoring activated clotting time (ACT) and heparin concentration ensuring adequate anticoagulation throughout the procedure. Results from ACT, heparin dose response, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography are given. Factor V Leiden patients can be safely anti-coagulated using heparin for CPB procedures when monitored with ACT, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography. Postoperative chest tube losses were 360 mL, less than half our institutional average. Anticoagulation for the pre-and post-operative phase is also discussed.

  19. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  20. Longevity of Striga seeds reconsidered: results of a field study on purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica) in Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gbehounou, G.; Pieterse, A.H.; Verkley, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Germination and longevity of purple witchweed seeds stored in nylon gauze bags in the soil in situ were tested in northern Bénin over a 2-yr period, covering the rainy seasons in 1994 and 1995. The seeds were collected at Ina Station in November 1993 from corn and sorghum fields. It appeared that

  1. Lack of rivaroxaban influence on a prothrombinase-based assay for the detection of activated C protein resistance: an Italian ex vivo and in vitro study in normal subjects and factor V Leiden carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessoni, G; Valverde, S; Valle, L; Gessoni, F; Caruso, P; Valle, R

    2017-08-01

    Activated protein C resistance (APCr) leads to hypercoagulability and is due, often but not exclusively, to Factor V Leiden (FVL). The aim of this study was to assess the ex vivo and in vitro interference of the direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban (RIV) on a prothrombinase-based assay for APCr detection. An ex vivo study was performed on fresh plasma samples obtained from 44 subjects with FV wild-type and seven with FVL heterozygous, all treated with RIV. An in vitro study was performed on 15 plasma samples (six from normal subjects, six from heterozygous, and three from homozygous FVL carriers, all frozen specimens) spiked with RIV. RIV concentration was evaluated using a chromogenic assay, and APCr was evaluated by a prothrombinase-based assay. No significant interference of RIV on APCr results obtained by a prothrombinase-based assay was observed for drug concentrations up to 400 ng/mL in FV wild-type and FVL carriers (homozygous and heterozygous). These results were confirmed both ex vivo and in vitro. RIV did not significantly interfere with the prothrombinase-based assay used for the assessment of APCr, and this was observed to occur independently of FV status. However, only concentrations up to 400 ng/mL were tested and, therefore, what occurs in the presence of higher doses remains to be investigated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The risk of mortality and the factor V Leiden mutation in a population-based cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, B.T.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Knook, D.L.; Kluft, C.; Slagboom, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    The factor V Leiden mutation (conferring resistance to activated protein C) has been implicated in the risk of arterial thrombosis and is a well-established risk factor for venous thrombosis especially in the elderly. We studied whether the disease association of the factor V mutation is reflected

  3. The finger of God : anatomical practice in 17th century Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Tijs

    2008-01-01

    A description of 17th century anatomical activity at the major Dutch university in a cultural context This study offers a history of the Leiden anatomical theatre in the first century of its existence; who were the scientists working there in the 17th century, the Dutch Golden Age. What was the

  4. PXR agonism decreases plasma HDL levels in ApoE*3-Leiden.CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, W. de; Vries-van der Weij, J. de; Mol, I.M.; Hoekstra, M.; Romijn, J.A.; Jukema, J.W.; Havekes, L.M.; Princen, H.M.G.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonism has been shown to affect multiple steps in both the synthesis and catabolism of HDL, but its integrated effect on HDL metabolism in vivo remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the net effect of PXR agonism on HDL metabolism in ApoE*3-Leiden (E3L) and

  5. Longevity extension by phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, Anna; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Piano, Amanda; Svistkova, Veronika; Lutchman, Vicky; Medkour, Younes; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2015-04-13

    Phytochemicals are structurally diverse secondary metabolites synthesized by plants and also by non-pathogenic endophytic microorganisms living within plants. Phytochemicals help plants to survive environmental stresses, protect plants from microbial infections and environmental pollutants, provide them with a defense from herbivorous organisms and attract natural predators of such organisms, as well as lure pollinators and other symbiotes of these plants. In addition, many phytochemicals can extend longevity in heterotrophic organisms across phyla via evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In this review, we discuss such mechanisms. We outline how structurally diverse phytochemicals modulate a complex network of signaling pathways that orchestrate a distinct set of longevity-defining cellular processes. This review also reflects on how the release of phytochemicals by plants into a natural ecosystem may create selective forces that drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in heterotrophic organisms inhabiting this ecosystem. We outline the most important unanswered questions and directions for future research in this vibrant and rapidly evolving field.

  6. Different risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in carriers with factor V Leiden compared with non-carriers, but not in other thrombophilic defects. Results from a large retrospective family cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelburg, Anja B.U.; Veeger, Nic J.G.M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Hamulyák, Karly; Prins, Martin H.; Büller, Harry R.; Lijfering, Willem M.

    2010-01-01

    The term factor V Leiden (FVL) paradox is used to describe the different risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that has been found in carriers of FVL. In a thrombophilic family-cohort, we estimated differences in absolute risks of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism for various thrombophilic defects. Of 2,054 relatives, 1,131 were female, 41 had pulmonary embolism and 126 deep vein thrombosis. Annual incidence for deep vein thrombosis in non-carriers of FVL was 0.19% (95%CI, 0.16–0.23), and 0.41% (95%CI, 0.28–0.58) in carriers; relative risk (RR) 2.1 (95%CI, 1.4–3.2). For pulmonary embolism these incidences were similar in carriers and non-carriers 0.07%, respectively; RR 1.0 (95% CI, 0.4–2.5). When co-inheritance of other thrombophilic defects was excluded the RR for deep vein thrombosis in FVL carriers was 7.0 (95%CI, 2.3–21.7) compared to non-carriers and 2.8 (95%CI, 0.5–14.4) for pulmonary embolism. For other thrombophilic defects no such effect was observed. Thus the FVL paradox was confirmed in our study. However, a similar paradox in carriers of other thrombophilic defects was not observed. PMID:20007142

  7. Longevity in male and female joggers: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter; Jensen, Gorm B

    2013-04-01

    Since 1970, jogging has become an increasingly popular form of exercise, but concern about harmful effects has been raised following reports of deaths during jogging. The purpose of this study was to investigate if jogging, which can be very vigorous, is associated with increased all-cause mortality in men and women. Jogging habits were recorded in a random sample of 17,589 healthy men and women aged 20-98 years, invited between 1976 and 2003 to the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The expected lifetime was calculated by integrating the predicted survival curve estimated in the Cox model. In this study 1,878 persons (1,116 men and 762 women) were classified as joggers. During the 35-year maximum follow-up period, we registered 122 deaths among joggers and 10,158 deaths among nonjoggers. The age-adjusted hazard ratio of death among joggers was 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.67) for men and 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.80) for women. The age-adjusted increase in survival with jogging was 6.2 years in men and 5.6 years in women. This long-term study of joggers showed that jogging was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality and a substantial increase in survival for both men and women.

  8. Impact of social inequalities at birth on the longevity of children born 1914-1916: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nicolas; Le Fur, Sophie; Bougnères, Pierre; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Testing whether familial socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is a predictor of mortality has rarely been done on historical cohorts. The birth certificates of 4,805 individuals born 1914-1916 in 16 districts of the Paris region were retrieved. The handwritten information provided the occupation of parents, the legitimacy status, life events (e.g. marriage, divorce), and the precise date of death when after 1945 (i.e. age 31 years (y) in the cohort). We used the median age at death (MAD) as a global measure of mortality, then studied separately survival to and after 31 y. Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE), Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) and mixed effect Cox models were used. MAD showed large variations according to paternal occupation. The lowest MAD in both sexes was that of workers' children: it was 56.3 y (95% CI: [48.6-62.7]) in men and 67.4 y (95% CI: [60.8-72.7]) in women, respectively (95% CI: 13.4 y [5.7-21.3]) and 12.3 y (95% CI: [4.0-19.2]) below the highest MAD attained. MAD experienced by illegitimate children was 18.9 y (95% CI: [13.3-32.3]) shorter than of legitimate children. The multivariate analysis revealed that in both sexes survival to age 31 y was predicted independently by legitimacy and paternal occupation. Paternal occupation was found significantly associated with mortality after age 31 y in females only: accordingly difference in life expectancy at age 31 y was 4.4 y (95% CI: [1.2-7.6]) between upper class and workers' daughters. Paternal occupation and legitimacy status were strong predictors of offspring longevity in this one-century historical cohort born during World War One.

  9. Impact of social inequalities at birth on the longevity of children born 1914-1916: A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Todd

    Full Text Available Testing whether familial socioeconomic status (SES in childhood is a predictor of mortality has rarely been done on historical cohorts.The birth certificates of 4,805 individuals born 1914-1916 in 16 districts of the Paris region were retrieved. The handwritten information provided the occupation of parents, the legitimacy status, life events (e.g. marriage, divorce, and the precise date of death when after 1945 (i.e. age 31 years (y in the cohort. We used the median age at death (MAD as a global measure of mortality, then studied separately survival to and after 31 y. Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE, Generalized Additive Models (GAMs and mixed effect Cox models were used.MAD showed large variations according to paternal occupation. The lowest MAD in both sexes was that of workers' children: it was 56.3 y (95% CI: [48.6-62.7] in men and 67.4 y (95% CI: [60.8-72.7] in women, respectively (95% CI: 13.4 y [5.7-21.3] and 12.3 y (95% CI: [4.0-19.2] below the highest MAD attained. MAD experienced by illegitimate children was 18.9 y (95% CI: [13.3-32.3] shorter than of legitimate children. The multivariate analysis revealed that in both sexes survival to age 31 y was predicted independently by legitimacy and paternal occupation. Paternal occupation was found significantly associated with mortality after age 31 y in females only: accordingly difference in life expectancy at age 31 y was 4.4 y (95% CI: [1.2-7.6] between upper class and workers' daughters.Paternal occupation and legitimacy status were strong predictors of offspring longevity in this one-century historical cohort born during World War One.

  10. Evaluation the frequency of factor V Leiden mutation in pregnant women with preeclampsia syndrome in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Azinfar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of genetic factors in etiology of preeclampsia is not confirmed yet.Objective: Gene defect frequency varies in different geographic areas as well as ethnic groups. In this study, the role of factor V Leiden mutation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia syndrome among the pregnant population of northern shore of Persian Gulf in Iran, were considered.Materials and Methods: Between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009, in a nested case control study, pregnant women with preeclampsia (N=198 as cases and healthy (N=201 as controls were enrolled in the study. DNA were extracted from 10 CC peripheral blood and analyzed for presence of factor V Leiden mutation in these subjects. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy according to the distribution of factor V Leiden were also compared among cases.Results: In total, 17(8.6% of cases and 2(1% of controls showed the factor V Leiden mutation. The incidence of factor V Leiden was typically higher in preeclamptic women than control group (OR: 9.34 %95 CI: 2.12-41.01. There was no difference in incidence rate of preterm delivery< 37 weeks (OR: 1.23 %95 CI: 0.38-4.02, very early preterm delivery<32 weeks (OR: 1.00 %95 CI: 0.12-8.46, intra uterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR (OR: 1.32 %95 CI: 0.15-11.30 ,and the rate of cesarean section (OR: 0.88 %95 CI: 0.29-2.62 among cases based on the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation.Conclusion: The pregnant women with factor V Leiden mutation are prone for preeclampsia syndrome during pregnancy, but this risk factor was not correlated to pregnancy complications in the studied women

  11. Aging, longevity and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2011-01-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under...... the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress...... on Aging, Longevity and Health....

  12. Pneumococcal meningitis and endocarditis in an infant: possible improved survival with factor V Leiden mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sitikant; Doulah, Assaf; Brown, Elspeth

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of invasive meningeal and/or lung disease are not uncommon, Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis is rare especially in healthy pediatric population. New studies have suggested a strong association between factor V leiden (FVL) mutation and favorable outcomes in critically ill children. A healthy 10 month old presented with sepsis and meningeal signs, was later confirmed to have Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and endocarditis. She was found to have factor V leiden mutation and made a complete recovery despite initial complications. Presence of factor V leiden mutation in critically ill children with severe septicaemia possibly contributes to better outcomes. What is known: • Mortality and morbidity remain high with invasive pneumococcal disease. • Pneumococcal endocarditis is rare in healthy pediatric population and results in significant morbidity and mortality What is new: • New studies have suggested a strong association between factor V leiden (FVL) mutation and favorable outcomes in critically ill children. • The presence of factor V mutation in children with extensive invasive pneumococcal disease possibly contributes to a better outcome.

  13. Staying Alive: Molecular Aspects of Seed Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Rajjou, Loïc; North, Helen M; Debeaujon, Isabelle; Marion-Poll, Annie; Seo, Mitsunori

    2016-04-01

    Mature seeds are an ultimate physiological status that enables plants to endure extreme conditions such as high and low temperature, freezing and desiccation. Seed longevity, the period over which seed remains viable, is an important trait not only for plant adaptation to changing environments, but also, for example, for agriculture and conservation of biodiversity. Reduction of seed longevity is often associated with oxidation of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Seeds possess two main strategies to combat these stressful conditions: protection and repair. The protective mechanism includes the formation of glassy cytoplasm to reduce cellular metabolic activities and the production of antioxidants that prevent accumulation of oxidized macromolecules during seed storage. The repair system removes damage accumulated in DNA, RNA and proteins upon seed imbibition through enzymes such as DNA glycosylase and methionine sulfoxide reductase. In addition to longevity, dormancy is also an important adaptive trait that contributes to seed lifespan. Studies in Arabidopsis have shown that the seed-specific transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) plays a central role in ABA-mediated seed dormancy and longevity. Seed longevity largely relies on the viability of embryos. Nevertheless, characterization of mutants with altered seed coat structure and constituents has demonstrated that although the maternally derived cell layers surrounding the embryos are dead, they have a significant impact on longevity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Factor V leiden mutation in Behcet’s disease and the relationship with clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowla K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Behcet's disease (BD is a multisystemic inflammatory disease with unknown origin characterized by recurrent oral aphtous ulcers, genital, ocular and skin lesions. A single point mutation 1691G to A in the factor V gene increases the risk of venous thrombosis. This study designed to determine factor V Leiden mutation in Behcet's disease, and to find out it's relationship with the clinical manifestations in Khuzestan province, Iran. "n"nMethods: One hundred patients with Behcet's Disease (44 males and 56 females based on international diagnostic criteria and 70 healthy subjects were included in the study. Patients and controls were tested for the presence of factor V Leiden mutation using polymerase chain reaction method."n"nResults: The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was significantly higher in BD (10 out of 100, 10% compared with healthy control subjects (1 out of 70, 1.4%, (p=0.025. Vascular lesions in this study were deep vein thrombosis (DVT (7%, subcutaneous thrombophlebitis (5%, stroke (1% and retinal vasculitis (39%. It was found that there was no association between venous thrombosis and the factor V Leiden mutation in Khuzestanian patients. Also, no association between

  15. The association of factor V leiden mutation with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Sumreen; Kashif, Muhammad Ali; Saeed, Anjum

    2015-11-01

    To determine the association of factor V Leiden mutation with recurrent pregnancy loss. The case-control study was conducted at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2012, and comprised women of 18 to 45 years of age who had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, and controls with no history of pregnancy loss. All the subjects belonged to Punjabi ethnic group. Three ml blood was taken from cases and controls and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted. In order to identify Factor V Leiden mutation, polymerase chain reaction method was utilised combined with the amplification refractory mutation system. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. Of the 112 subjects, 56(50%) were in each of the two groups. The presence of factor V Leiden mutation among the cases was 3(5.4%) while it was absent among the controls. The mutation was significantly associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (p=0.017).Recurrent pregnancy loss was higher in cases than controls (p=0.001). Factor V Leiden mutation, Recurrent pregnancy loss, PCR (Polymerase chain reaction).

  16. Coexistence of hypofibrinogenemia and factor V Leiden mutation: is the balance shifted to thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljić, Predrag; Nedeljkov-Jančić, Ružica; Zuvela, Marinko; Subota, Vesna; Dorđević, Valentina

    2014-09-01

    Congenital hypofibrinogenemia and afibrinogenemia are usually associated with an increased risk of bleeding, but occurrence of arterial or venous thrombosis has also been reported in individuals with fibrinogen deficiency. This study reports on a 25-year-old patient with hypofibrinogenemia (fibrinogen 0.6 g/l) and congenital thrombophilia due to heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation who developed spontaneous deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in the right lower extremity. Regardless of hypofibrinogenemia, he was receiving anticoagulant therapy over 6 months, with no occurrence of bleeding. His father is also a heterozygous carrier of factor V Leiden, but with normal fibrinogen level and he remained asymptomatic despite having experienced surgery in the past. This case, as well as data from literature, suggests that risk of thrombosis in carriers of factor V Leiden mutation is not counterbalanced by moderate congenital hypofibrinogenemia, and that antithrombotic prophylaxis should not be omitted in high-risk situations for occurrence of thrombosis in patients with coinheritance of hypofibrinogenemia and factor V Leiden mutation.

  17. Polychaeten aus den Zoologischen Museen von Leiden und Amsterdam I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augener, H.

    1933-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung eines sehr umfangreichen Polychaeten-Materials niedergelegt, das mir von Herrn Prof. Dr. E. D. van Oort in Leiden und Herrn Prof. Dr. L. F. de Beaufort in Amsterdam zur Bearbeitung übergeben wurde. Von diesem Material ist der dem Museum in Leiden

  18. Different risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in carriers with factor V Leiden compared with non-carriers, but not in other thrombophilic defects. Results from a large retrospective family cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makelburg, Anja B. U.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Hamulyak, Karly; Prins, Martin H.; Buller, Harry R.; Lijfering, Willem M.

    The term factor V Leiden (FVL) paradox is used to describe the different risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that has been found in carriers of FVL. In a thrombophilic family-cohort, we estimated differences in absolute risks of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism for various

  19. Thrombomodulin-dependent effect of factor V Leiden mutation on the cross-linking of α2-plasmin inhibitor to fibrin and its consequences on fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncz, Zsuzsa; Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Haramura, Gizella; Mezei, Zoltán A; Muszbek, László

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that thrombomodulin (TM) considerably delays factor XIII (FXIII) activation and this effect is abrogated by Factor V Leiden (FV(Leiden)) mutation. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of TM on the cross-linking of α(2)-plasmin inhibitor (α(2)-PI) to fibrin in plasma samples of different FV genotypes and how this effect is related to the impaired fibrinolysis of FV(Leiden) carriers. In the plasma samples of fifteen individuals with different FV genotypes and in FV deficient plasma supplemented with wild type FV or FV(Leiden) coagulation was initiated by recombinant human tissue factor and phospholipids with or without recombinant human TM (rhTM). In the recovered clots the extent of α(2)-PI-fibrin cross-linking was evaluated by Western blotting and quantitative densitometry. The effect of rhTM on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) induced clot lysis was measured by turbidimetric method. rhTM significantly delayed the formation of α(2)-PI-fibrin α-chain heterodimers/oligomers in plasma samples containing wild type FV. This effect of rhTM was impaired in the presence of FV(Leiden). rhTM delayed tPA-induced clot lysis and this effect of rhTM was more pronounced in plasma containing FV(Leiden). When TAFIa was inhibited by potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor, rhTM accelerated clot lysis in the presence of wild type FV, which is explained by the delayed α(2)-PI-fibrin cross-linking. This effect of rhTM did not prevail in the presence of FV(Leiden). FV(Leiden) abrogates the delaying effect of rhTM on α(2)-PI-fibrin cross-linking, which contributes to the impaired fibrinolysis observed in FV(Leiden) carriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomics of human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagboom, P. E.; Beekman, M.; Passtoors, W. M.; Deelen, J.; Vaarhorst, A. A.M.; Boer, J. M.; Van Den Akker, E. B.; Van Heemst, D.; De Craen, A. J.M.; Maier, A. B.; Rozing, M.; Mooijaart, S. P.; Heijmans, B. T.; Westendorp, R. G.J.

    2011-01-01

    In animal models, single-gene mutations in genes involved in insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signalling pathways extend lifespan to a considerable extent. The genetic, genomic and epigenetic influences on human longevity are expected to be much more complex. Strikingly however, beneficial

  1. Loneliness, health, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Rottenberg, Yakir; Shimshilashvili, Inna; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2014-06-01

    Objective measures of loneliness and poor social contacts are associated with negative health outcomes. However, the influence of subjective loneliness among elderly persons is poorly documented. We hypothesized that loneliness among persons aged 70-90 years is associated with subsequent decline in health, function, and longevity. Mortality data for subjects aged 70-90 years were obtained; subjective loneliness, health, comorbidity, depression, and functional status were assessed through the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010), a prospective longitudinal study. A representative sample of 407, 661, and 1,113 participants born 1920-1921 were assessed at home at ages 70, 78, and 85, respectively. Participants were asked how often they felt lonely, with answers dichotomized to never versus rarely/often/very often. In the age group of 70, 78, and 85, we excluded 67, 141, and 408 depressed participants from the study sample, which, thus, comprised 340, 520, and 705 participants, respectively. At age 70, 78, and 85, prevalence of loneliness was 27.9% (n = 95), 23.8% (n = 124), and 24% (n = 169), respectively. The only factor consistently associated at all ages with increased likelihood of loneliness was not being married. After adjusting for baseline variables, we found no association between loneliness and subsequent deterioration 7 years later in functional status, mood, cognition, chronic pain, or rising comorbidity between ages 70 and 78 or 78 and 85. Loneliness was not associated with mortality among the participants aged 70-78, 78-85, and 85-90. We repeated all data analysis, without excluding depressed participants, without any change in overall findings. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that subjective loneliness is associated with increased morbidity or mortality from age 70 to 90. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  2. Genetic modulation of the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio and risk of venous thrombosis in factor V Leiden heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, O; Simioni, P; Tormene, D; Bulato, C; Gavasso, S; Rosing, J; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The factor (F)V Leiden mutation causes activated protein C (APC) resistance by decreasing the susceptibility of FVa to APC-mediated inactivation and by impairing the APC-cofactor activity of FV in FVIIIa inactivation. However, APC resistance and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary widely among FV Leiden heterozygotes. Common F5 genetic variation probably contributes to this variability. APC resistance was determined in 250 FV Leiden heterozygotes and 133 normal relatives using the prothrombinase-based assay, which specifically measures the susceptibility of plasma FVa to APC. The effects of 12 F5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the normalized APC sensitivity ratio (nAPCsr) and on FV levels were determined by multiple regression analysis. In FV Leiden heterozygotes,VTE risk increased with increasing nAPCsr, reaching an odds ratio (OR) of 9.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–80.5) in the highest nAPCsr quartile. The minor alleles of several F5 SNPs, including 327 A/G (Q51Q), 409 G/C (D79H), 2663 A/G(K830R, T2 haplotype), 6533 T/C (M2120T) and 6755 A/G (D2194G, R2 haplotype), increased the nAPCsr in FV Leiden heterozygotes, but not in their normal relatives. Most of these effects could be attributed to a shift in the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio. Four FV Leiden heterozygotes with extremely high nAPCsr turned out to be pseudo-homozygotes, i.e. they carried a deleterious mutation on the non-Leiden allele. In FV Leiden heterozygotes, the prothrombinase-based nAPCsr is a marker of VTE risk and is modulated by common F5 SNPs that affect the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio in plasma.

  3. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT......) of consecutively included men without known causes for spermatogenic failure, and performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of these two cohorts together with one previously published (Dutch, n = 908) cohort. We explored possible biological underpinnings for the relation between sperm count and FVL...... linkage disequilibrium of FVL with all known single nucleotide polymorphisms in a 1.5 MB region around the F5 gene with an R2 cutoff of 0.8. We sequenced exons of four candidate genes hypothesized to be linked to FVL in a subgroup of FVL carriers with extreme sperm count values. The animal studies...

  4. Late failure of a split-thickness skin graft in the setting of homozygous factor V Leiden mutation: a case report and correlative animal model from the Wound Etiology and Healing (WE-HEAL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Victoria K; McNish, Sean; Duncan, Joanna; Root, Brandy; Tassi, Elena; Wellstein, Anton; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Attinger, Christopher E

    2015-10-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian male smoker with remote history of left lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and a strong family history of thrombosis, who presented to the Center for Wound Healing at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital with spontaneous left leg ulceration. Prothrombotic evaluation showed homozygosity for the factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation. Therapeutic anticoagulation was commenced with warfarin (Coumadin®) and the patient underwent successful debridement and Apligraf® followed by split-thickness skin graft (STSG) of two wounds. He had an uneventful postoperative course and on the 27th postoperative day the grafts were 95% intact. However, by postoperative day 41 there was 10% graft loss, and over the subsequent 2 weeks both grafts necrosed. On further questioning, it transpired that the patient had discontinued his warfarin on postoperative day 37 because he thought that it was no longer necessary. The patient is enrolled in the Wound Etiology and Healing (WE-HEAL) study, and at the time of the original graft, residual skin fragments from the STSG were transplanted onto a nude mouse for development of an animal model of wound healing. The mouse graft was successful and was harvested at postoperative day 87 for pathological examination. We review the mechanisms by which prothrombotic states, particularly FVL mutation, can contribute to skin graft failure and delayed wound healing. This case highlights the importance of considering prothrombotic conditions in patients with spontaneous leg ulcerations and the impact of therapeutic anticoagulation on healing. It further allows us to demonstrate the efficacy of the animal model in which residual fragments of STSG tissue are utilised for transplant onto nude mice for manipulation in the laboratory. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Follow-up study of body mass index and risk of cognitive impairment among elderly adults aged ≥65 years old from longevity areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Lyu, Y B; Yin, Z X; Luo, J S; Shi, W H; Shi, X M

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To discuss the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive impairment among elderly adults aged ≥65 years old from longevity areas of China. Methods: A total of 2 439 elderly adults from 8 longevity areas were included in our baseline survey by answering questionnaire and taking body measurements and blood biochemical examinations in 2012. In the follow-up study in 2014, we studied the cognitive impairment status among the 1 135 elderly adults aging ≥65 years old. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between BMI and cognitive impairment risk. Results: 113 participants were defined as cognitive impairment, with a positive rate at 10.0%. The positive rate in group of underweight, normal weight, and overweight and obese elderly were 22.2% (51/230), 7.5% (47/629), 5.4% (15/276). The rate of cognitive impairment in groups of low BMI (23.1 kg/m(2)) were separately 17.7% (66/372), 7.1% (27/379) and 5.2% (20/384) ( Pelderly in normal weight, the elderly with under weight was in higher risk of cognitive impairment ( RR (95% CI: 2.19(1.31-3.66)) and there was no significant association found between the elderly with overweight ( RR (95% CI ): 1.18(0.58-2.38)). Conclusion: Among the elderly ≥65 years old from longevity area, low BMI level and underweight were associated with the increased risk of cognitive impairment.

  6. Leiden Mutation and the Course of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ershov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of Leiden mutation on the course of severe acute pancreatitis. Subjects and methods. One hundred and twelve people were examined. Group 1 comprised 50 patients diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis without coagulation factor V (Leiden mutation. Group 2 included 42 patients with severe acute pancreatitis who were found to have Leiden mutation. Acute pancreatitis was first diagnosed in both groups. Group 3 consisted of 20 apparently healthy individuals (a control group. The severity of the underlying disease was determined in accordance with the clinical and laboratory parameters recommended by the I. I. Dzhanelidze Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Emergence Care. Results. This investigation revealed an association of Leiden mutation with trends in the development of acute pancreatitis. Group 2 exhibited a more severe disease: large focal pancreatic necrosis was twice more common and infectious complications developed more frequently; more aggressive and radical treatments were more often used. The patients with Leiden mutation had higher mortality rates (33% in the Leiden mutation group and 24% in the non-mutation group. Conclusion. The findings should be kept in mind in elaborating new diagnostic methods and principles in the treatment of the underlying disease and in the prevention of its complications in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Key words: acute pancreatitis, Leiden mutation.

  7. Molecular characterization of factor V leiden G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Saudi newborns with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawish, Gihan E-H

    2011-10-01

    This study examined a possible association between the mutations related to Factor V Leiden and Factor II (prothrombin) and stroke in Saudi neonates. A multiplex PCR was established to detect Factor V Leiden G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutations in 72 neonatal stroke subjects and 70 healthy adult controls with no family history of thromboembolic diseases. The frequency of the homozygous normal genotype (GG) of both genes was found to be significantly lower in the stroke subjects than in the controls (P Factor II heterozygous mutant form (GA) and the homozygous normal Factor V (GG) (P Factor V and the homozygous normal Factor II genotypes (GG) (P = 0.0) than controls. The study concluded that prothrombin and Factor V Leiden may be important risk factors for neonatal stroke in Saudi children.

  8. Bioeconomic evaluation of sow longevity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Southey, B R; Knox, R V; Connor, J F; Lowe, J F; Roskamp, B J

    2003-12-01

    Sow production indicators, including litter size, litter weight, and the length of time that sows remained in the herd (sow longevity), were used to characterize sow performance and profitability. Sow longevity and production records from 148,568 sows in 32 commercial herds from Central Illinois from January 1995 to May 2001 were analyzed using survival and repeatability models, respectively. The factors studied included sow genetics (32 genetic lines), with eight major lines present in multiple herds, and the combination of herd and year of entry in the herd. The largest difference in longevity between the major genetic lines was approximately one parity. There were differences (P present value per sow (present value of future cash flows and the present value of the sow) was used to evaluate the effect of sow longevity and production traits on economic returns. Assuming a zero discount rate per parity, genetic lines with longer herd life resulted in greater profit than genetic lines with shorter herd life. This difference was reduced with increasing discount rates and was reversed with high discount rates and low net income per litter. These results suggest that the magnitude of the economic improvement attained through the use of sow genetic lines with longer longevity depends on the economic context under which the evaluation is made.

  9. A tragedy of annuitization? Longevity insurance in general equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Mierau, J.O.; Reijnders, L.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the microeconomic and macroeconomic effects of longevity insurance. Using a tractable discrete-time overlapping-generations model of a closed economy we first study different types of government redistribution of accidental bequests in general equilibrium. Individuals face longevity risk,

  10. Risk of recurrent venous thrombosis in homozygous carriers and double heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijfering, Willem M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Veeger, Nic J G M; Hamulyák, Karly; Prins, Martin H; Büller, Harry R; van der Meer, Jan

    2010-04-20

    Homozygous or double heterozygous factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A is a rare inherited thrombophilic trait. Whether individuals with this genetic background have an increased risk of recurrent venous thrombosis is uncertain. A case-control design within a large cohort of families with thrombophilia was chosen to calculate the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis in individuals with homozygosity or double heterozygosity of factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A. Cases were individuals with recurrent venous thrombosis, and controls were those with only 1 venous thrombosis. The cohort consisted of 788 individuals with venous thrombosis; 357 had factor V Leiden, 137 had prothrombin G20210A, 27 had factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A homozygosity, and 49 had double heterozygosity for both mutations. We identified 325 cases with recurrent venous thrombosis and 463 controls with only 1 venous thrombosis. Compared with noncarriers, crude odds ratio for recurrence was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.6) for heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden, 0.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.2) for prothrombin G20210A, 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 2.6) for homozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A, and 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.9) for double heterozygotes of both mutations. Adjustments for age, sex, family status, first event type, and concomitance of natural anticoagulant deficiencies did not alter the risk estimates. In this study, individuals with homozygous factor V Leiden and/or homozygous prothrombin G20210A or double heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A did not have a high risk of recurrent venous thrombosis.

  11. Livedoid vasculopathy and its association with factor V Leiden mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Angeline Anning; Tan, Audrey Wei Hsia; Giam, Yoke Chin; Tang, Mark Boon Yang

    2012-12-01

    Livedoid vasculopathy is a rare chronic relapsing disorder characterised by recurrent painful thrombotic and vasculitic ulcers on the legs. We present the cases of two Indian women with livedoid vasculopathy that were found to be associated with an underlying factor V Leiden heterozygous mutation. There were no other thrombotic manifestations, and livedoid vasculopathy was the sole presenting feature of the factor V Leiden mutation, although this could also be coincidental. Initial treatment with high-dose immunosuppressive therapy was suboptimal, and the addition of pentoxifylline and antiplatelet therapy was crucial in achieving disease control and remission. These cases highlight the possible association with an underlying prothrombotic disorder, such as factor V Leiden mutation, in patients with livedoid vasculopathy. Although this association is relatively uncommon, it is more relevant to Indian patients, as the presence of factor V Leiden mutation is highest in this ethnicity as compared to the local Malay and Chinese populations.

  12. Longevity of a small shield volcano revealed by crypto-tephra studies (Rangitoto volcano, New Zealand): Change in eruptive behavior of a basaltic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Phil; Gehrels, Maria; Zawalna-Geer, Aleksandra; Augustinus, Paul; Lindsay, Jan; Chaillou, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    The life-span of small volcanoes in terrestrial basaltic fields, commonly considered 'monogenetic', can be difficult to assess due to a paucity of datable materials capable of providing a 102-103-year age resolution. We have used microscopic tephra layers (crypto-tephra) in lake sediments to determine the longevity of Rangitoto volcano, a small shield that represents the most recent volcanism in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand. Previous studies suggested construction in a relatively short interval at ~ 550-500 cal yrs BP. In contrast, the tephra record shows evidence of intermittent activity from 1498 ± 140 to (at least) 504 ± 6 cal yrs BP, a longevity of ~ 1000 years. Rangitoto volcano is thought to represent about half the magma erupted in the 250-ka-history of AVF. Thus, the AVF has experienced a dramatic shift to prolonged and voluminous central-vent volcanism in its most recent history. This demonstrates the difficulty in determining time-erupted volume relationships in such fields. Previous AVF hazard-risk modeling based on isolated, short-lived (< 1 year) phenomena at sites that have not experienced activity needs to be revisited in light of the new Rangitoto chronology.

  13. Do Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutations Predict Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Older Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méan, Marie; Limacher, Andreas; Stalder, Odile; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Alberio, Lorenzo; Fontana, Pierre; Beer, Hans-Jürg; Rodondi, Nicolas; Lämmle, Bernhard; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2017-10-01

    The value of genetic thrombophilia testing in elderly patients with an unprovoked venous thromboembolism is unclear. We assessed whether the Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation are associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism in elderly patients in a prospective multicenter cohort study. We genotyped the Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation in 354 consecutive in- and outpatients aged ≥65 years with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism from 9 Swiss hospitals. Patients and managing physicians were blinded to testing results. The outcome was recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism during follow-up. We examined the association between the Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation and venous thromboembolism recurrence using competing risk regression, adjusting for age, sex, and periods of anticoagulation as a time-varying covariate. Overall, 9.0% of patients had a Factor V Leiden and 3.7% had a prothrombin G20210A mutation. At 36 months of follow-up, patients with a Factor V Leiden and a prothrombin G20210A mutation had a cumulative incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism of 12.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1%-30.8%) and 18.5% (95% CI, 4.9%-56.5%), respectively, compared with 16.7% (95% CI, 12.5%-22.1%) of patients without mutation (P = .91 by the log-rank test). After adjustment, neither the Factor V Leiden (sub-hazard ratio 0.98; 95% CI, 0.35-2.77) nor the prothrombin G20210A mutation (sub-hazard ratio 1.15; 95% CI, 0.25-5.19) was associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism. Our results suggest that testing for genetic thrombophilia may not be beneficial in elderly patients with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma (Gypsy) ethnic group of Eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bôžiková, Alexandra; Gabriková, Dana; Sovičová, Adriana; Behulová, Regina; Mačeková, Soňa; Boroňová, Iveta; Petrejčíková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan

    2012-10-01

    Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A are the two most prevalent causes of inherited thrombophilia. The prevalence of these mutations varies widely in healthy Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma ethnic group from Eastern Slovakia. We analyzed 540 asymptomatic individuals (269 individuals of Slovak ethnicity and 271 individuals of Roma ethnicity) by real-time PCR method. The detected allele frequencies were 2.97 versus 6.64 % for factor V Leiden (p = 0.0049), and 0.74 versus 0.92 % for prothrombin mutation (p = 0.7463) in Slovak and Roma population, respectively. The Roma ethnic group had significantly higher prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation when compared to Slovak ethnic group. The allele frequency of factor V Leiden in ethnic Romanies from Eastern Slovakia was one of the highest in Europe. Our results confirm an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of factor V Leiden.

  15. Three measures of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the trend over time in the measures of "typical" longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth...

  16. Measuring Longevity Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Martin M.; Mejza, Joanna; Stentoft, Lars

    2014-01-01

    , any shortcoming of funds in the future is often the employer's responsibility. It is therefore essential for the employer to be able to predict with a high degree of confidence the total amount that will be required to cover its future pension obligations. Applying mortality forecasting models...... to the case of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police pension plan, we illustrate the importance of mortality forecasting to value a pension fund's actuarial liabilities. As future survival rates are uncertain, pensioners may live longer than expected. We find that such longevity risk represents approximately 2...

  17. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han ...

  18. Heritability of and mortality prediction with a longevity phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Jason L; Minster, Ryan L; Barmada, M Michael

    2014-01-01

    Longevity-associated genes may modulate risk for age-related diseases and survival. The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) may be a subphenotype of longevity, which can be constructed in many studies for genetic analysis. We investigated the HAI's association with survival in the Cardiovascular Health Stu...

  19. Cancer and Longevity--Is There a Trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Pedersen, Jacob K; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B

    2012-01-01

    Animal models and a few human studies have suggested a complex interaction between cancer risk and longevity indicating a trade-off where low cancer risk is associated with accelerating aging phenotypes and, vice versa, that longevity potential comes with the cost of increased cancer risk. This h...

  20. Mitochondrial Polymorphisms Are Associated Both with Increased and Decreased Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castri, Loredana; Melendez-Obando, Mauricio; Villegas-Palma, Ramon; Barrantes, Ramiro; Raventos, Henrieta; Pereira, Reynaldo; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide; Madrigal, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    Previous work compared frequency of longevity-associated polymorphisms (LAPS) in long-lived individuals and in controls from the general population (primarily in Europe and Japan), suggesting the polymorphisms are responsible for unusual longevity. However, individuals from the general population are not the control group for long-lived subjects because both were born in different periods. We report results of a project which collected mtDNA from living subjects in Costa Rica, and traced back their maternal genealogy. Since mtDNA does not recombine and its probability of mutation is low, we can assume that the maternal ancestors had the same mtDNA of their descendants. We compared the longevity of individuals with LAPS with the longevity of controls born in the same time period. We did not confirm previous associations for several markers, but found that the 5178A mutation in haplogroup D is associated with decreased longevity, whereas the 150T mutation is associated with increased longevity. These associations however, are not significant for all time periods under study. While our data confirm that mtDNA make up affects longevity, they also indicate that the time period in which a person was born had a much greater impact on longevity than presence or absence of a marker. PMID:19077432

  1. Meta-analysis of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A polymorphism in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a frequent and disabling condition, which exhibits a substantial genetic background and is frequently associated with abnormalities of primary and secondary hemostasis. We performed a systematic literature search and a meta-analysis of available data about the potential associations between migraine and factor V (FV) Leiden or prothrombin (FII) G20210A gene polymorphism. The final number of studies included was 15 (all cross-sectional) about migraine and FV Leiden, and 12 (all cross-sectional) about migraine and FII G20210A polymorphism, with broad inter-study heterogeneity (I², 82 and 85%). The cumulative prevalence of the FV 1691A allele was found to be similar between cases (n = 1450; 4.9%) and controls (n = 3468; 4.7%; P = 0.74). The cumulative prevalence of the FII 20210A allele was also found to be similar between cases (n = 1226; 4.2%) and controls (n = 3144; 4.5%; P = 0.59). Nevertheless, sub-analysis of studies in adults and children revealed that both polymorphisms were not associated with migraine in adults, but FV Leiden and the FII 20210A allele were approximately two-fold more prevalent in children with migraine than in those without. In conclusion, despite migraine exhibits a clear neurovascular origin and is frequently associated with thrombotic disorders, isolate thrombophilic mutations seem to play a negligible pathogenetic role in this condition in adults, whereas the increased prevalence of FV Leiden and the FII 20210A allele in children with migraine deserves further scrutiny.

  2. Risk of stroke in young women and two prothrombotic mutations: factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene variant (G20210A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longstreth, W. T.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Siscovick, D. S.; Vos, H. L.; Schwartz, S. M.; Psaty, B. M.; Raghunathan, T. E.; Koepsell, T. D.; Reitsma, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Factor V Leiden and a prothrombin gene variant, G20210A, are mutations associated with a thrombotic risk. The aim of our study was to assess whether these mutations increase the risk of stroke in women under 45 years of age. We conducted a case-control study in western Washington state. Case

  3. Effects of dietary fish oil on serum lipids and VLDL kinetics in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Mensink, R.P.; Hof, H.B. van 't; Offermans, R.F.G.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Studying the effects of dietary fish oil on VLDL metabolism in humans is subject to both large intra- and interindividual variability. In the present study we therefore used hyperlipidentic apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice, which have impaired chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VDL)

  4. The genetic component of human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mette Sørensen; De Rango, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    In human longevity studies, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified a large number of genetic variants with small effects, yet not easily replicable in different populations. New insights may come from the combined analysis of different SNPs, especially when grouped by metabolic ...

  5. Snag longevity in managed northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Little information on standing snag and coarse woody debris longevity exists for New England forest types. Forest managers thus lack the information on changes over time of the habitat components influenced by the decay process. We examined the fate of 568 snags that occurred on a long-term hardwood growth study on the Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. Approximately...

  6. Effects of chronic kombucha ingestion on open-field behaviors, longevity, appetitive behaviors, and organs in c57-bl/6 mice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A M; Burleson, L E; Holmes, A K; Geist, C R

    2000-09-01

    Kombucha is a lightly fermented tea beverage popularly consumed as a self-prescribed folk-remedy for numerous ailments. Kombucha is claimed to enhance cognition, aid weight loss, and prolong life. This pilot study reports longevity, general health, and open-field exploratory behavioral outcomes from a 3-y longitudinal study of 64 C57-BL/6 mice (males and females), half of which chronically drank kombucha, and all of which experienced natural mortality. Compared by MANOVA to controls, mice that drank kombucha showed greater vertical exploration (P = 0.001) and a sex-interactive effect in novel object manipulation (P = 0.049). MANOVA of kombucha-drinking mice compared to controls detected differences in appetitive behaviors (food consumption, P kombucha lived longer than controls (P kombucha.

  7. Molecular markers as a tool for breeding for flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Segregation of flower longevity in two lily populations was studied and the genetic linkage of morphological markers and RAPD markers with loci involved in flower longevity was investigated. A large variation in flower longevity was found within the two populations tested at individual plant level.

  8. Clinical epidemiology of commonly occurring anxiety disorders : insights into the phenomenology and course of anxiety disorders from the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schat, A.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders as a group are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders. Although they have been studied extensively, previous research has focussed primarily on members of the general population, or on participants in clinical trials. As both groups may differ substantially from patients who are

  9. Five period measures of longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bongaarts

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a summary of recently proposed alternatives period measures of "longevity" and assesses whether empirical differences between these measures are consistent with predictions from analytic studies. Particular attention is given to the tempo effect. Three of the five period measures are virtually equal to one another in a simulated population in which mortality follows a Gompertz model with a constant rate of improvement. Similar results are observed among females in Denmark, England and Wales and Sweden in the last quarter century. However, these three measures differ substantially from the conventional period life expectancy when mortality changes over time. These findings are consistent with theoretical analysis by Bongaarts and Feeney (2002, 2003, 2005 which demonstrated that this deviation is caused by a tempo effect whose size varies with the rate of change in mortality.

  10. Paternal factor V Leiden and recurrent pregnancy loss: a new concept behind fetal genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, S; Aranda, F M; Latino, J O; de Larrañaga, G F

    2014-05-01

    In up to 50% of couples affected by recurrent pregnancy loss, no identifiable cause is established. Fetal and maternal factors may be equally important in the establishment and maintenance of the placental/maternal arteriovenous anastomoses. Therefore,the inheritance of thrombophilia-related genes may be an important factor in the pathophysiology of recurrent pregnancy loss. Most of the research on recurrent pregnancy loss and thrombophilia has focused on maternal factors, but little is known about the paternal contribution. On that basis, we studied the association between inherited paternal thrombophilias and recurrent pregnancy loss in a narrowly selective group of 42 Argentine males from couples that presented without any known risk factors for recurrent pregnancy loss. The genotypic distributions of factor (F) V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A among cases were compared with those from a reference group composed of 200 Argentine men. We found a significant difference in the distribution of FV Leiden between both groups (16.7% vs. 3.0%), but no difference was found in the distribution of prothrombin G20210A (2.4% vs.2.0%). Those couples with paternal FV Leiden carriage would be six times more likely to experience recurrent pregnancy loss despite no other apparent cause (OR = 6.47; 95% CI, 2.06–20.39). We found evidence of an association between the paternal carriage of FV Leiden and the predisposition to recurrent pregnancy loss, thereby supporting the hypothesis that genetic contributions from both parents are essential factors in the development of this obstetric disorder.

  11. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life and Midlife Conditions, and Familial Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL MECHANISM OF REGIONAL LONGEVITY IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated study on environment of typical China’s longevity areas was conducted by using comprehensive methods of health geography. It was found that Chinese longevity areas mainly located in the south China and clustered in Sichuan-Chongqing, Central plain and Southeast region, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta; in which drinking water was of weakly alkaline, Se, Fe, K content was moderate, higher content of Ca, Co, Mn, and low Cr, Cd, Pb; the concentration of trace elements benefit for health in soils and food staples was higher; hair of centenarians had higher Li, Mg, Mn, Ca, Zn content, lower concentration in Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni; healthy centenarians were also benefited from a favorable social environment factors, such as physiological health, psychological state, light meals and higher proportion of vegetables. The study was the first time to reveal quantitatively the relationship between longevity and the natural and human environment, and provided a scientific basis for the promotion of development of China’s longevity area, to achieve the construction of ecological civilization

  13. Right Ventricular Thrombus in a 36-Year-Old Man with Factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Naghshin, Roozbeh; Hejrati, Maral; Kerman, Scott Reza Jafarian

    2015-01-01

    Factor V Leiden deficiency is the most common hereditary hypercoagulable disease in the United States and involves 5% of the Caucasian population. Up to 30% of patients who present with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary thromboembolism present with this condition. This is a case report of a 36-year-old man who experienced one episode of DVT within the previous year and was admitted to our hospital due to productive coughs and hemoptysis. Paraclinical studies demonstrated a right ventricular thrombus. Additional investigation was done to find the underlying cause. Laboratory tests were positive for Factor V Leiden mutation. Other factors for hypercoagulability states were normal. Given that Factor V Leiden mutation is a life-threatening condition with a relatively high prevalence and considering its thrombogenesis, screening tests are necessary in young patients without obvious reasons for recurrent thrombus formation. It seems that medical noninvasive treatments can be an alternative therapy to surgery when a ventricular thrombus is suspected in these patients.

  14. Is the prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation in patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis really different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, F.; Karemaker, R.; Kuijer, P. M.; Prins, M. H.; Büller, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested a lower prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation in patients with pulmonary embolism, as compared to patients with deep leg vein thrombosis. We studied unselected patients with pulmonary embolism, in whom we also assessed the presence of deep vein thrombosis

  15. Risk of venous thromboembolism in carriers of factor V Leiden with a concomitant inherited thrombophilic defect: a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, J. R.; Middeldorp, S.; de Kam, P. J.; Koopman, M. M.; van Pampus, E. C.; Hamulyák, K.; Prins, M. H.; Büller, H. R.; van der Meer, J.

    2001-01-01

    Factor V Leiden is the most common genetic defect associated with venous thromboembolism. Its clinical expression is limited and shows a wide intrafamilial and interfamilial variation, which might be explained by the influence of other genetic risk factors. We retrospectively studied 226 patients

  16. Risk of venous thromboembolism in carriers of factor V Leiden with a concomitant inherited thrombophilic defect : a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi, [No Value; Middeldorp, S; de Kam, PJ; Koopman, AMW; van Pampus, ECM; Hamulyak, K; Prins, MH; Buller, HR; van der Meer, J

    2001-01-01

    Factor V Leiden is the most common genetic defect associated with venous thromboembolism. Its clinical expression is limited and shows a wide intrafamilial and interfamilial variation, which might be explained by the influence of other genetic risk factors. We retrospectively studied 226 patients

  17. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated...

  18. Short-term dexamethasone treatment inhibits vein graft thickening in hypercholesterolemic ApoE3Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.; Pires, N.M.M.; Eefting, D.; Vries, M.R. de; Bokel, J.H. van; Quax, P.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone can inhibit vein graft thickening without the occurrence of serious side effects. Methods: Venous interposition grafting was performed in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic ApoE3Leiden

  19. Social aspects of genetic testing for factor V leiden mutation in healthy individuals and their importance for daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Ivan; Scavenius, Michael P. R. B.; Büller, Harry R.; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2004-01-01

    To explore social aspects of asymptomatic carriership of factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) and how carriers have experienced procedure of screening for FVL, we have performed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Seventeen carriers of FVL without history of venous thromboembolism (VTE)

  20. Effects of up to 15 years of recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement on bone metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD): the Leiden Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M; Claessen, Kim M J A; Hamdy, Neveen A T; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adulthood may be associated with a decreased bone mineral density (BMD), a decreased bone mineral content (BMC) and an increased fracture risk. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement induces a progressive increase in BMD for up to 5-7 years of treatment. Data on longer follow-up are, however, scarce. Two hundred and thirty-adult GHD patients (mean age 47·1 years, 52·6% female), of whom 88% patients had adult-onset (AO) GHD, receiving rhGH replacement for ≥5 years were included in the study. Most patients had multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Bone turnover markers, BMC and BMD and T-scores at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were evaluated at baseline, and after 5, 10 and 15 years of rhGH replacement. In addition, clinical fracture incidence was assessed. Mean lumbar spine BMD, lumbar spine BMC and T-scores gradually increased during the first 10 years of rhGH replacement and remained stable thereafter. Largest effects of rhGH supplementation were found in men. In the small subset of patients using bisphosphonates, use of bisphosphonates did not impact additional beneficial effects in the long term. Low baseline BMD positively affected the change in BMD and BMC over time, but there was a negative effect of high GH dose at 1 year on the change in BMD and BMC over time. Clinical fracture incidence during long-term rhGH replacement was 20.1/1000 py. Fifteen years of rhGH replacement in GHD adults resulted in a sustained increase in BMD values at the lumbar spine, particularly in men, and stabilization of BMD values at the femoral neck. Clinical fracture incidence was suggested not to be increased during long-term rhGH replacement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Influence of the factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas L; Dahl, Mortens; Nordestgaard, Borge G

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial.......The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial....

  2. Factor V G1691A (Leiden is a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawhida Y. Abdel Ghaffar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Budd-Chiari syndrome is a multifactorial disease in which several prothrombotic disorders may predispose patients to the development of thrombosis at this uncommon location (hepatic veins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of inherited thrombophilia in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients.Materials and Methods: The study included 47 Budd-Chiari syndrome patients (20 children and 27 adults. Genotyping of Factor V G1691A (Leiden, prothrombin G20210A (PT, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were performed using real-time PCR and fluorescence melting curve detection analysis.Results: Factor V Leiden was observed in 29 patients (61.7%. It is the only factor that caused Budd-Chiari syndrome in 18 of the patients and in 5 of the patients with inferior vena cava involvement. Myeloproliferative disease was noted in 12 (25.5% patients, antiphospholipid syndrome in 5 (10.6%, and Behcet’s disease in 3 (6.4%. Interestingly, 3 of the children with Budd-Chiari syndrome had lipid storage disease.Conclusion: Factor V Leiden was a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients, which may have been related to the high frequency of this mutation in the study region. Factor V Leiden was also a strong thrombophilic factor and the leading cause of inferior vena cava thrombosis in these patients. Lipid storage disease should be included as a risk factor for Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  3. Meta-analysis of factor V Leiden and ischemic stroke in young adults: the importance of case ascertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2010-08-01

    The factor V Leiden mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Whether it is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, however, is uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies of ischemic stroke in adults 50 years of age and younger published before June 2009. Across all studies, factor V Leiden was detected in 154 of 2045 cases (7.5%) and 217 of 5307 controls (4.1%), yielding a fixed-effect odds ratio of 2.00 (95% CI, 1.59-2.51). However, further analyses revealed substantial heterogeneity among these studies (P=0.005 for Q-test of heterogeneity). Hypothesizing that this heterogeneity could be related to differences among studies in case selection criteria, we stratified the meta-analysis into studies for which case samples were enriched or not enriched to include cases having an increased likelihood of prothrombotic genetic involvement ("selected" ischemic stroke studies, n=9) and those that recruited cases from consecutive neurology referrals or hospitalizations ("unselected" ischemic stroke studies, n=8). Among the 9 "selected" ischemic stroke studies, factor V Leiden was more strongly associated with stroke (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.98-3.75), whereas among the 8 "unselected" ischemic stroke studies, the association between factor V Leiden and stroke was substantially weaker (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.998-1.95). This difference was found to be statistically significant (P=0.003 for Woolf test for heterogeneity). We conclude that factor V Leiden is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, particularly in patient populations in which there is an increased clinical suspicion of prothrombotic state.

  4. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran B. Pechter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that many bacteria can survive in a growth-arrested state for long periods of time, on the order of months or even years, without forming dormant structures like spores or cysts. How is such longevity possible? What is the molecular basis of such longevity? Here we used the Gram-negative phototrophic alphaproteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to identify molecular determinants of bacterial longevity. R. palustris maintained viability for over a month after growth arrest due to nutrient depletion when it was provided with light as a source of energy. In transposon sequencing (Tn-seq experiments, we identified 117 genes that were required for long-term viability of nongrowing R. palustris cells. Genes in this longevity gene set are annotated to play roles in a number of cellular processes, including DNA repair, tRNA modification, and the fidelity of protein synthesis. These genes are critically important only when cells are not growing. Three genes annotated to affect translation or posttranslational modifications were validated as bona fide longevity genes by mutagenesis and complementation experiments. These genes and others in the longevity gene set are broadly conserved in bacteria. This raises the possibility that it will be possible to define a core set of longevity genes common to many bacterial species.

  5. Haptoglobin (HP) polymorphisms and human longevity: a cross-sectional association study in a Central Italy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolioni, Valerio; Giannì, Paola; Carpi, Francesco M; Concetti, Fabio; Lucarini, Nazzareno

    2011-03-18

    Haptoglobin (HP), which scavenges free, cell-toxic hemoglobin and has anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory function in extravascular tissues, may represent an excellent candidate gene to investigate the life-span expectancy. HP 1/2 polymorphism has been determined for 1072 (569 females, 503 males) unrelated healthy individuals from Central Italy, 18-106 years old, divided into three gender-specific age classes defined according to demographic information and accounting for the different survivals between sexes. HP*1F/S subtyping was also performed to check the possible existence for a preferential advantage of HP*1F or HP*1S allele. HP*1/*1 genotype results associated to increased probability of young subjects of attaining longevity (Comparison 1: O.R. 1.709, p=0.0114) with a concomitant advantage of HP*1 allele (Comparison 1: O.R. 1.273, p=0.0194). On the other side, carriers of HP*2 allele displayed an overall significant disadvantage in reaching Age Class 2 (O.R. 0.585, p=0.0092). No significant differences were noticed between age groups either considering total HP*1F and HP*1S allele frequencies or according to HP 1/2 genotypes. The crucial role played by HP in aging process is warranted by its many established functions and its related phenotypes so that it may be considered an important gene involved in the determination of human survival. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis and management of factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campello, Elena; Spiezia, Luca; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of the factor V Leiden (FVL) missense mutation (Arg506Gln) causing factor V resistance to the anticoagulant action of activated protein C was a landmark that allowed a better understanding of the basis of inherited thrombotic risk. FVL mutation is currently the most common known hereditary defect predisposing to venous thrombosis. Areas covered: Novel data-driven FVL diagnosis and therapeutic approaches in the management of FVL carriers in various clinical settings. Brief conclusions on topics of direct clinical relevance including currently available indications for primary and secondary prophylaxis, the management of female, pediatric carriers and asymptomatic relatives. Latest evidence on the association between FVL and cancer, as well as the possible use of direct oral anticoagulant therapy. Expert commentary: Although FVL diagnosis nowadays is highly accurate, many doubts remain regarding the best management and therapeutic protocols. The main role of clinicians is to tailor therapeutic strategies to carriers and their relatives. High familial penetrance, distinctive aspects of the first thrombotic event (provoked/unprovoked, age, etc.) and laboratory biomarkers can guide the optimal management of secondary antithrombotic prophylaxis, primary prophylaxis in asymptomatic individuals, and whether to screen relatives.

  7. 21 CFR 864.7280 - Factor V Leiden DNA mutation detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....7280 Factor V Leiden DNA mutation detection systems. (a) Identification. Factor V Leiden... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factor V Leiden DNA mutation detection systems. 864.7280 Section 864.7280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. Reappraisal of the diagnostic and prognostic value of morning stiffness in arthralgia and early arthritis: results from the Groningen EARC, Leiden EARC, ESPOIR, Leiden EAC and REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nies, Jessica A B; Alves, Celina; Radix-Bloemen, Audrey L S; Gaujoux-Viala, Cécile; Huizinga, Tom W J; Hazes, Johanna M W; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Fautrel, Bruno; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2015-04-23

    Morning stiffness is assessed daily in the diagnostic process of arthralgia and arthritis, but large-scale studies on the discriminative ability are absent. This study explored the diagnostic value of morning stiffness in 5,202 arthralgia and arthritis patients and the prognostic value in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In arthralgia patients referred to the Early Arthritis Recognition Clinics (EARC) of Leiden (n = 807) and Groningen (n = 481) or included in the Rotterdam Early Arthritis Cohort (REACH) study (n = 353), the associations (cross-sectional analyses) between morning stiffness and presence of arthritis at physical examination were studied. In early arthritis patients, included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic (EAC) (n = 2,748) and Evaluation et Suivi de POlyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) (n = 813), associations with fulfilling the 2010-RA criteria after one year were assessed. In 2010-RA patients included in the EAC (n = 1,140) and ESPOIR (n = 677), association with the long-term outcomes of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-free sustained remission and radiological progression were determined. Morning stiffness was defined as a duration ≥60 minutes; sensitivity analyses were performed for other definitions. In arthralgia, morning stiffness (≥60 minutes) associated with the presence of arthritis; Leiden EARC odds ratio (OR) 1.49 (95% CI 1.001 to 2.20), Groningen EARC OR 2.21 (1.33 to 3.69) and REACH OR 1.55 (0.97 to 2.47) but the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were low (0.52, 0.57, 0.54). In early arthritis, morning stiffness was associated with 2010-RA independent of other predictors (Leiden EAC OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.31 to 2.25, AUC 0.68), ESPOIR OR 1.68 (1.03 to 2.74, AUC 0.64)). Duration of ≥30 minutes provided optimal discrimination for RA in early arthritis. Morning stiffness was not associated with radiological progression or DMARD-free sustained

  9. The Statistics of Health and Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    Increases in human longevity have made it critical to distinguish healthy longevity from longevity without regard to health. We present a new method for calculating the statistics of healthy longevity which extends, in several directions, current calculations of health expectancy (HE) and disabil...

  10. When longevity meets vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Rudi G J; Schalkwijk, Frank H

    2014-08-01

    Alarmed by the sustainability of our health and social security systems, longevity has become a great societal challenge. In line with evolutionary logic we see a continuous increase of average life expectancy and maximal lifespan. Striving for a healthy old age, however, is an infelicitous expression as for human subjects the ageing process cannot be ultimately postponed. Not disregarding the huge variation in health trajectories, in old age we will all suffer from frailty and infirmity. As yet efforts of the biomedical arena are almost exclusively focused on stalling the ageing process and preventing dysfunction. Too little effort is spend on how to inspire and coach the great majority of people who still feel relatively well notwithstanding the presence of multiple age-related disorders. There is a strong rationale to separate the quest to live in good health for longer from actively and effectively negotiating the challenge of functional decline in old age. In particular, we emphasise a focus on adjusting the environment in order to correct the gene-environment mismatch that contributes to ill health. An additional strategy is to empower people to set ambitions and to realise appropriate goals, in spite of infirmity. Striving for vitality presents a striking opportunity to achieve subjective feelings of life satisfaction when ageing.

  11. Concrete longevity overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.; Morreale, B.

    1991-01-01

    A number of compact host states and unaffiliated states are currently selecting appropriate disposal technology and construction materials for their planned low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Concrete is one of the candidate materials under consideration for the construction of LLW disposal facilities because of its strength, durability, abundant availability, and relatively low cost. The LLW disposal facilities must maintain intruder barrier integrity for up to 500 years, without active maintenance after the first 100 years. The ability of concrete to survive for such a long time as a construction material is a critical issue. This report provides a basic understanding of the composition and workings of concrete as a structural material in LLW disposal facilities and a description of degradation factors and state-of-the-art mitigative measures available to preserve the durability and longevity of concrete. Neither the paper nor the report is intended to be a design guidance document, and neither addresses using cement as a waste solidification agent. 5 refs., 1 tab

  12. Genetic interplay between human longevity and metabolic pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häsler, Robert; Venkatesh, Geetha; Tan, Qihua

    2017-01-01

    Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by genetic and environmental components. Unraveling the contribution of genetic vs. nongenetic factors to longevity is a challenging task. Here, we conducted a large-scale RNA-sequencing-based expression quantitative trait loci study (e......QTL) with subsequent heritability analysis. The investigation was performed on blood samples from 244 individuals from Germany and Denmark, representing various age groups including long-lived subjects up to the age of 104 years. Our eQTL-based approach revealed for the first time that human longevity is associated...

  13. [Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and factor V Leiden mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, S; Aissi, M; Chérif, Y; Daoussi, N; Boughammoura, A; Frih Ayed, M; Sfar, M H; Jerbi, S

    2014-07-01

    Activated proteinC resistance is a frequent prothrombotic abnormality. In most cases it is due to factorV Leiden mutation by nucleotide G1691A substitution. This recently described thrombophilic defect of activated proteinC resistance has been postulated to be implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). We report a case of factorV Leiden mutation in association with IIH and their likely link and implication in the management of IIH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A Multiplex Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MAS-PCR) for the Detection of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Morteza; Rad, Isa Abdi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In order to determine the frequencies of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A point mutations in the Iranian population with Azeri Turkish origin. Material and methods: 120 unrelated individuals from general population randomly selected and were examined for factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations using a multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) assay Outcomes: The frequency of prothrombin G20210A mutation was 2.08%, which means 5 chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes had prothrombin G20210A mutation. The distribution of prothrombin 20210 GG, GA, AA genotypes and prothrombin 20210A allele were 37(92.5%), 3(7.5%), 0(0%) and 3(3.75%) in males and 78(97.5%), 2(2.5%), 0(0%) and 2(1.25%) in females, respectively. Factor V Leiden was not found in our tested group (zero chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes). Analysis of the observed frequencies in the studied groups indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between females and males, regarding prothrombin G20210A mutation (p value>0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study in its own kind in this population and implies that the frequency of Factor V Leiden G1691A (R506Q, FV-Leiden) allele is extremely low but the prothrombin G20210A mutation is more frequent in the tested group. PMID:21977183

  15. Factor V Leiden 1691G/A and prothrombin gene 20210G/A polymorphisms as prothrombotic markers in adult Egyptian acute leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sissy, Azza Hamdy; El Sissy, Maha H; Elmoamly, Shereef

    2014-11-01

    Factor V Leiden 1691G/A and prothrombin gene 20210G/A mutations are the most common genetic defects leading to thrombosis. This work aimed to study the FV Leiden and the prothrombin gene polymorphism in adult Egyptian patients with acute leukemia and their importance in thrombophilia screening. The study included 76 patients with acute leukemia and 100 healthy controls. Genotyping was done by real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. For factor V Leiden, the frequency of G/A mutation conferred more than 2.5-fold of increased risk of (OR 2.639 95 % CI 1.045-6.669). The frequency of factor V Leiden combined (G/A + A/A) genotypes conferred 2.83-fold of increased risk (OR 2.828, CI 1.13-7.075), The A allele conferred almost threefold increased risk (OR 2.824, 95 % CI 1.175-6.785). Despite higher frequency in patients compared to controls, there was no risk of association between prothrombin gene mutation and acute leukemia in adult Egyptians nor was there between combined genotypes of prothrombin gene mutation and factor V Leiden.

  16. Genetic factors and epigenetic mechanisms of longevity: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jessica; Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Kwok, John B J

    2015-01-01

    The exceptional longevity phenotype, defined as living beyond the age of 95, results from complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, mediate the interaction of these factors. This review will provide an overview of animal model studies used to examine age-related epigenetic modifications. Key human studies will be used to illustrate the progress made in the identification of the genetic loci associated with exceptional longevity, including APOE and FOXO3 and genes/loci that are also differentially methylated between long-lived individuals and younger controls. Future studies should focus on elucidating whether identified longevity genetic loci directly influence epigenetic mechanisms, especially on differentially methylated regions associated with longevity.

  17. Assortative Mating by Ethnicity in Longevous Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sebastiani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS, and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS. In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations. These findings in studies of human longevity suggest that spouses marrying into longevous families may not be powerful controls for genetic association studies, and that there may be important ethnicity-specific, genetic influences and/or gene–environment interactions that influence extreme survival in old generations. In addition, the decreasing trend of genetic similarity of more recent generations might have ramifications for the incidence of homozygous rare variants necessary for survival to the most extreme ages.

  18. Assortative Mating by Ethnicity in Longevous Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Gurinovich, Anastasia; Bae, Harold; Andersen, Stacy L; Perls, Thomas T

    2017-01-01

    Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS). In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations. These findings in studies of human longevity suggest that spouses marrying into longevous families may not be powerful controls for genetic association studies, and that there may be important ethnicity-specific, genetic influences and/or gene-environment interactions that influence extreme survival in old generations. In addition, the decreasing trend of genetic similarity of more recent generations might have ramifications for the incidence of homozygous rare variants necessary for survival to the most extreme ages.

  19. Factor v Leiden mutation in severe infection and sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Marcel; Schouten, Marcel; van't Veer, Cees; van der Poll, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In severe infection and sepsis, activation of coagulation frequently occurs, which contributes to the development of multiple organ dysfunction. Factor V Leiden is a relatively common mutation resulting in a mild prohemostatic state and consequently with an increased tendency to develop thrombosis.

  20. Power Estimation for Gene-Longevity Association Analysis Using Concordant Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical power is one of the major concerns in genetic association studies. Related individuals such as twins are valuable samples for genetic studies because of their genetic relatedness. Phenotype similarity in twin pairs provides evidence of genetic control over the phenotype variation in a population. The genetic association study on human longevity, a complex trait that is under control of both genetic and environmental factors, has been confronted by the small sample sizes of longevity subjects which limit statistical power. Twin pairs concordant for longevity have increased probability for carrying beneficial genes and thus are useful samples for gene-longevity association analysis. We conducted a computer simulation to estimate the power of association study using longevity concordant twin pairs. We observed remarkable power increases in using singletons from longevity concordant twin pairs as cases in comparison with cases of sporadic proband. A similar power would require doubled sample sizes for fraternal twins than for identical twins who are concordant for longevity suggesting that longevity concordant identical twins are more efficient samples than fraternal twins. We also observed an approximate of 2- to 3-fold increase in sample sizes needed for longevity cutoff at age 90 as compared with that at age 95. Overall, our results showed high value of twins in genetic association studies on human longevity.

  1. Longevity of dental amalgam in comparison to composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windisch, Friederike

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Caries is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. For (direct restaurations of carious lesions, tooth-coloured composite materials are increasingly used. The compulsory health insurance pays for composite fillings in front teeth; in posterior teeth, patients have to bear the extra cost. Scientific background: Amalgam is an alloy of mercury and other metals and has been used in dentistry for more than one hundred and fifty years. Composites consist of a resin matrix and chemically bonded fillers. They have been used for about fifty years in front teeth. Amalgam has a long longevity; the further development of composites has also shown improvements regarding their longevity. Research questions: This HTA-report aims to evaluate the longevity (failure rate, median survival time (MST, median age of direct amalgam fillings in comparison to direct composite fillings in permanent teeth from a medical and economical perspective and discusses the ethical, legal and social aspects of using these filling materials. Methods: The systematic literature search yielded a total of 1,149 abstracts. After a two-step selection process based on defined criteria 25 publications remained to be assessed. Results: The medical studies report a longer longevity for amalgam fillings than for composite fillings. However, the results of these studies show a large heterogeneity. No publication on the costs or the cost-effectiveness of amalgam and composite fillings exists for Germany. The economic analyses (NL, SWE, GB report higher costs for composite fillings when longevity is assumed equal (for an observation period of five years or longer for amalgam compared to composite fillings. These higher costs are due to the higher complexity of placing composite fillings. Discussion: Due to different study designs and insufficient documentation of study details, a comparison of different studies on longevity of direct amalgam and composite

  2. Longevity of dental amalgam in comparison to composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Katja; Genser, Dieter; Hiebinger, Cora; Windisch, Friederike

    2008-11-13

    Caries is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. For (direct) restaurations of carious lesions, tooth-coloured composite materials are increasingly used. The compulsory health insurance pays for composite fillings in front teeth; in posterior teeth, patients have to bear the extra cost. Amalgam is an alloy of mercury and other metals and has been used in dentistry for more than one hundred and fifty years. Composites consist of a resin matrix and chemically bonded fillers. They have been used for about fifty years in front teeth. Amalgam has a long longevity; the further development of composites has also shown improvements regarding their longevity. This HTA-report aims to evaluate the longevity (failure rate, median survival time (MST), median age) of direct amalgam fillings in comparison to direct composite fillings in permanent teeth from a medical and economical perspective and discusses the ethical, legal and social aspects of using these filling materials. The systematic literature search yielded a total of 1,149 abstracts. After a two-step selection process based on defined criteria 25 publications remained to be assessed. The medical studies report a longer longevity for amalgam fillings than for composite fillings. However, the results of these studies show a large heterogeneity. No publication on the costs or the cost-effectiveness of amalgam and composite fillings exists for Germany. The economic analyses (NL, SWE, GB) report higher costs for composite fillings when longevity is assumed equal (for an observation period of five years) or longer for amalgam compared to composite fillings. These higher costs are due to the higher complexity of placing composite fillings. Due to different study designs and insufficient documentation of study details, a comparison of different studies on longevity of direct amalgam and composite fillings in posterior teeth is difficult. Apart from the difficulties in conducting a randomized, controlled long-term study

  3. Human longevity and variation in DNA damage response and repair: Study of the contribution of sub-processes using competitive gene-set analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Sørensen, Mette; Flachsbart, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    the competitive gene-set analysis by Wang et al indicated that BER, HRR and RECQ associated stronger with longevity than the respective remaining genes of the pathway (P-values=0.004-0.048). For HRR and RECQ, only one gene contributed to the significance, whereas for BER several genes contributed....... These associations did, however, generally not pass correction for multiple testing. Still, these findings indicate that, of the entire pathway, variation in BER might influence longevity the most. These modest sized P-values were not replicated in a German sample. This might, though, be due to differences...

  4. Role of the factor V Leiden mutation in septic peritonitis assessed in factor V Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüggemann, Lois W.; Schoenmakers, Saskia H. H. F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation (Arg506Glu) results in the production of an FV protein that when activated is relatively resistant to inactivation by activated protein C and thereby leads to predisposition to thrombosis. The rather high prevalence of the FVL mutation in the general

  5. Increased risk of venous thrombosis by AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden in a Brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Magaly B. P. L. V.; de Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir Branco; Campos, Júlia F.; Melo, Fárida C. B. C.; Neves, Washington Batista das; Melo, Raul Antônio Morais; Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Most cases of a predisposition to venous thrombosis are caused by resistance to activated protein C, associated in 95% of cases with the Factor V Leiden allele (FVL or R506Q). Several recent studies report a further increased risk of thrombosis by an association between the AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden. The present study investigated this association with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in individuals treated at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. A case-c...

  6. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten; Gyntelberg, Finn; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-03-19

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population. We used data from 2 Danish studies that followed members of the general public from 1977 through 2010. We obtained the genotype of 66 001 white participants for ABO blood type, factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population attributable risk. Our main outcome measures were venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. The multivariable adjusted HR for venous thromboembolism was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.5) for non-O blood type (v. O blood type). For the factor V Leiden R506Q mutation, the adjusted HR was 2.2 (95% CI 2.0-2.5) for heterozygous participants and 7.0 (95%CI 4.8-10) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). For prothrombin G20210A, the adjusted HR was 1.5 (95%CI 1.2-1.9) for heterozygous participants and 11 (95% CI 2.8-44) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). When we combined ABO blood type and factor V Leiden R506Q or prothrombin G20210A genotype, there was a stepwise increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (trend, pfactor V Leiden R506Q and 1% for prothrombin G20210A. Multivariable adjusted HRs for myocardial infarction by genotypes did not differ from 1.0. ABO blood type had an additive effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism when combined with factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations; blood type was the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in the general population.

  7. DAF-16/FOXO Transcription Factor in Aging and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with age-related diseases and an increase susceptibility of cancer. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underlie aging and longevity would contribute to implications for preventing and treating the age-dependent diseases or cancers. Multiple signaling pathways such as the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, TOR signaling, AMPK pathway, JNK pathway and germline signaling have been found to be involved in aging and longevity. And DAF-16/FOXO, as a key transcription factor, could integrate different signals from these pathways to modulate aging, and longevity via shuttling from cytoplasm to nucleus. Hence, understanding how DAF-16/FOXO functions will be pivotal to illustrate the processes of aging and longevity. Here, we summarized how DAF-16/FOXO receives signals from these pathways to affect aging and longevity. We also briefly discussed the transcriptional regulation and posttranslational modifications of DAF-16/FOXO, its co-factors as well as its potential downstream targets participating in lifespan according to the published data in C. elegans and in mammals, and in most cases, we may focus on the studies in C. elegans which has been considered to be a very good animal model for longevity research.

  8. Jewish Medical Students and Graduates at the Universities of Padua and Leiden: 1617–1740

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Collins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Jewish medical graduates at the University of Padua qualified in the fifteenth century. Indeed, Padua was the only medical school in Europe for most of the medieval period where Jewish students could study freely. Though Jewish students came to Padua from many parts of Europe the main geographical sources of its Jewish students were the Venetian lands. However, the virtual Padua monopoly on Jewish medical education came to an end during the seventeenth century as the reputation of the Dutch medical school in Leiden grew. For aspiring medieval Jewish physicians Padua was, for around three hundred years, the first, simplest, and usually the only choice.

  9. Genetic parameters for longevity in Holteins cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Junqueira Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The milk yield has been the most selected trait in dairy cattle breeding programs. However various studies have shown a decline in adaptive and longevity traits in herds that are under selection for improving production, especially in taurine breeds, as the Holstein, who was highly selected for milk production. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for first lactation 305-day milk yield (Y305 and for longevity traits and to verify the association among them, in high production Holstein cows. The data sets used were from Agrindus Farm, with calving occurring between 1989 and 2005. The traits analyzed were Y305, productive life (PL, calculated as the length of lactation days from the first day of lactation until the culling, and age at culling (AC. Variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood, applying multi-trait animal model. Heritability estimates for Y305, PL and AC were, respectively, 0.35, 0.07 and 0.10. Heritability estimates for PL and AC suggest small genetic variability to get genetic gains by direct selection for these traits, because they are influenced by decisions of voluntary and involuntary culling, being largely affected by factors related to the environment. It is difficult to measure these traits because it is necessary to evaluate culling of animals and causes of culling. The magnitude of the heritability estimate for Y305 evidences the existence of reasonable additive genetic variability, which allows efficiency by selecting for this trait. The genetic correlations between Y305 and PL was 0.02 and between Y305 and AC was 0.01, suggesting small genetic association between Y305 and longevity traits. In this case, the selection for Y305 is viable due to high heritability estimate and the favorable and almost null genetic correlation between Y305 and the longevity traits. Some studies have used to analyze longevity traits as threshold and since this trait has great economic importance, it

  10. Power Estimation for Gene-Longevity Association Analysis Using Concordant Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Kruse, Torben A

    2014-01-01

    Statistical power is one of the major concerns in genetic association studies. Related individuals such as twins are valuable samples for genetic studies because of their genetic relatedness. Phenotype similarity in twin pairs provides evidence of genetic control over the phenotype variation...... in a population. The genetic association study on human longevity, a complex trait that is under control of both genetic and environmental factors, has been confronted by the small sample sizes of longevity subjects which limit statistical power. Twin pairs concordant for longevity have increased probability...... for carrying beneficial genes and thus are useful samples for gene-longevity association analysis. We conducted a computer simulation to estimate the power of association study using longevity concordant twin pairs. We observed remarkable power increases in using singletons from longevity concordant twin pairs...

  11. Apolipoprotein E and familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schupf, Nicole; Barral, Sandra; Perls, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Exceptional longevity is associated with substantial heritability. The ε4 allele in apolipoprotein E and the linked G allele in rs2075650 of TOMM40 have been associated with increased mortality and the ε2 allele with decreased mortality, although inconsistently. Offspring from long-lived families...

  12. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  13. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  14. 77 FR 5443 - Longevity Annuity Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Longevity Annuity Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed... purchase of longevity annuity contracts under tax-qualified defined contribution plans under section 401(a... section 401(a)(9). The regulations will affect individuals for whom a longevity annuity contract is...

  15. Genes, Demography, and Life Span: The Contribution of Demographic Data in Genetic Studies on Aging and Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, AI; De Benedictis, G; Vaupel, JW

    1999-01-01

    In population studies on aging, the data on genetic markers are often collected for individuals from different age groups. The purpose of such studies is to identify, by comparison of the frequencies of selected genotypes, “longevity” or “frailty” genes in the oldest and in younger groups of indi...

  16. Using an in vitro system for maintaining Varroa destructor mites on Apis mellifera pupae as hosts: studies of mite longevity and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egekwu, Noble I; Posada, Francisco; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Cook, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Varroa destructor mites (varroa) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is likely a causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Research has produced an arsenal of control agents against varroa mites, which have become resistant to many chemical means of their control, and other means have uncertain efficacy. Novel means of control will result from a thorough understanding of varroa physiology and behavior. However, robust knowledge of varroa biology is lacking; mites have very low survivability and reproduction away from their natural environment and host, and few tested protocols of maintaining mites in vitro are available as standardized methods for varroa research. Here, we describe the 'varroa maintenance system' (VMS), a tool for maintaining in vitro populations of varroa on its natural host, and present best practices for its use in varroa and host research. Additionally, we present results using the VMS from research of varroa and host longevity and varroa feeding behavior. Under these conditions, from two trials, mites lived an average of 12 and 14 days, respectively. For studies of feeding behavior, female mites inflicted wounds located on a wide range of sites on the host's integument, but preferred to feed from the host's abdomen and thorax. Originally in the phoretic-phase, female mites in VMS had limited reproduction, but positive instances give insights into the cues necessary for initiating reproduction. The VMS is a useful tool for laboratory studies requiring long-term survival of mites, or host-parasite interactions.

  17. Column study of enhanced Cr(VI) removal and longevity by coupled abiotic and biotic processes using Fe0 and mixed anaerobic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiawei; Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinhua; Jiang, Gangbiao; Gu, Jingjing; Liang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    In this study, Fe 0 and mixed anaerobic culture were integrated in one column to investigate the coupled abiotic and biotic effects on hexa-valent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal and column longevity with an abiotic Fe 0 column in the control experiments. According to the breakthrough study, a slower Cr(VI) breakthrough rate of 0.19 cm/PV was observed in the biotic Fe 0 column whereas the value in the abiotic Fe 0 column was 0.30 cm/PV, resulting in 64% longer life-span and 62% higher Cr(VI) removal capacity in the biotic Fe 0 column than the abiotic one. The solid phase characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that this enhancement was attributed to the higher consumption of iron and greater production of diverse reactive minerals (e.g., green rust, magnetite and lepidocrocite) induced by the synergistic interaction of Fe 0 and anaerobic culture, providing more reactive sites for Cr(VI) adsorption, reduction and co-precipitation. Furthermore, the decreasing breakthrough rates and growing iron corrosion along the biotic Fe 0 column demonstrated an inhomogeneous distribution of reactive zones in the column and its latter 3/5 section was considered to be the most reactive area for Cr(VI) removal. These results indicate that the inoculation of microorganisms in Fe 0 -based permeable reactive barriers will enable this technology a higher removal capacity and longer life-span for the remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does FVL have an effect on longevity? | Akın | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factor V 1691 G-A, Prothrombin 20210 G-A and methylenetetrahydrofolate ... the old and young study groups were similar for all polymorphisms, but MTHFR 677T may have synergy with FVL (Factor V Leiden) imparting a risk of thromboembolism.

  19. Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR Mutation in Patients with Preeclamsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Placental Abruption

    OpenAIRE

    Livrinova, Vesna; Lega, Marija Hadzi; Dimcheva, Anita Hristova; Samardziski, Igor; Isjanovska, Rozalinda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR gene mutation, could have an influence in pregnancy with adverse outcome Preeclamsia, IUGR and Placental abruption. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of above mentioned inherited thrombophilias and its statistical significance, distribution among the complicated and normal pregnancy, and relative risk for carrier of mutation to develop preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectiv...

  20. Genome-Wide Scan Informed by Age-Related Disease Identifies Loci for Exceptional Human Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Fortney, Kristen; Dobriban, Edgar; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Monti, Daniela; Mari, Daniela; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir; Franceschi, Claudio; Owen, Art B.; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new statistical framework to find genetic variants associated with extreme longevity. The method, informed GWAS (iGWAS), takes advantage of knowledge from large studies of age-related disease in order to narrow the search for SNPs associated with longevity. To gain support for our approach, we first show there is an overlap between loci involved in disease and loci associated with extreme longevity. These results indicate that several disease variants may be depleted in centena...

  1. The somatotropic axis may not modulate ageing and longevity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2016-04-01

    Studies in nematodes and mice have shown that the somatotropic axis can modulate their longevity and it has been argued that it could also modulate human longevity. Thus, like nematodes and mice, human beings should live longer when facing starvation and genetic variation of the somatotropic axis should be linked to longevity. This article argues that, because the life-history strategies of humans are very different from those of mice, these hypotheses are not warranted.

  2. Enhancement by factor V Leiden mutation of risk of deep-vein thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives containing a third-generation progestagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemenkamp, K. W.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Helmerhorst, F. M.; Büller, H. R.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Recent concern about the safety of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) with third-generation progestagens prompted an examination of data from a population-based case-control study (Leiden Thrombophilia Study). We compared the risk of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) during use of the newest OCs,

  3. The Gynaecologic Leiden Questionnaire: psychometric properties of a self-report questionnaire of sexual function and vaginal changes for gynaecological cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Q. D.; ter Kuile, M. M.; Maas, C. P.; Kenter, G. G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the items concerning sexual functioning of the Gynaecologic Leiden Questionnaire (LQ), which consists of items for post operative morbidity for women with cancer. METHODS: The total study sample consisted of 198

  4. Why is factor V Leiden so rare in the Basques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduer, F

    2015-05-01

    Factor V Leiden is the most common inherited trait in Caucasians that predisposes individuals to venous thrombosis. However, it is almost absent amongst the Basque people that live in the south western part of Europe. To explain this finding, we speculate upon the putative contribution of various evolutionary forces through which the Basque genome may have been shaped. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  5. Heterogeneous ethnic distribution of the factor v leiden mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Rendrik F.; Elion, Jacques; Santos, Sidney E.B.; Araújo, Amélia G.; Tavella, Marli H.; Zago, Marco A.

    1999-01-01

    Inherited resistance to activated protein C caused by the factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is the most common genetic cause of venous thrombosis yet described, being found in 20-60% of patients with venous thrombophilia. A relationship between the FVL mutation and an increased predisposition to arterial thrombosis in young women was recently reported. We assessed the prevalence of the FVL mutation in 440 individuals (880 chromosomes) belonging to four different ethnic groups: Caucasians, Africa...

  6. Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR Mutation in Patients with Preeclamsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Placental Abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livrinova, Vesna; Lega, Marija Hadzi; Dimcheva, Anita Hristova; Samardziski, Igor; Isjanovska, Rozalinda

    2015-12-15

    Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR gene mutation, could have an influence in pregnancy with adverse outcome Preeclamsia, IUGR and Placental abruption. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of above mentioned inherited thrombophilias and its statistical significance, distribution among the complicated and normal pregnancy, and relative risk for carrier of mutation to develop preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption. Prospective cohort study is implemented at University Clinic for Obstetric and Gynecology in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The study included 109 delivered patients: 40 with preeclapmsia, 22 with IUGR, 17 with placental abruption and 30 as control group with normal pregnancy. The amount of 3 ml venous blood has been used for detection of these point mutations using ThromboStrip -Opegen, QIAGEN kit manufactured for thrombotic risk. The highest frequency was found: in the group with preeclampsia 35% were MTHFR homozygous, IUGR -MTHFR heterozygous 45%, Placental abruption- 52.9% MTHFR heterozygous, and in the control group without thrombophilia 56.7%. There were combined thrombophilia in 3 patients. There aren`t statistical significance in presence of thrombophilia among groups (p > 0.05). Statistical significance (p Factor V Leiden heterozygous was 4.50 (0.47Factor V Leiden for placental abruption. Further investigations with more patients are warranted.

  7. The impact of age and race on longevity in pediatric astrocytic tumors: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, M Constantine; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2015-09-01

    Despite improvements in pediatric brain tumor outcomes, the survivors of childhood brain tumor are burdened by multiple comorbidities. This work reports on the relative survival ratios and excess mortality rate in children with astrocytic tumors over the past four decades. Survival analysis was conducted using flexible parametric model to estimate relative survival and excess mortality rate for non-white and white children (0-19 years old) using the Surveillance, Epidemiology & End Results (SEER) database. We incorporated age group and year of diagnosis into the model to estimate these indices for the period of 1973-2010. Progressive decline in relative survival ratios was noted over time. Non-white children had lower survival rates than white children, and these survival patterns persisted over the four-decade span of the study. Fifty percent of non-white survivors were deceased 30 years post diagnosis, compared to 35 years in white survivors. Survivors of childhood brain tumors have progressively lower survival rates as they get older, and this is higher in non-white when compared to white children. Future research efforts need to focus on understanding the factors mediating the effect of the tumor or its treatment on survival in these patients, and the ethnic variations that derive these survival trends. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A serum miRNA profile of human longevity: findings from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Christine; Gorospe, Myriam; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gill, Thomas M.; Slack, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    In C. elegans, miRNAs are genetic biomarkers of aging. Similarly, multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed between younger and older persons, suggesting that miRNA-regulated biological mechanisms affecting aging are evolutionarily conserved. Previous human studies have not considered participants' lifespans, a key factor in identifying biomarkers of aging. Using PCR arrays, we measured miRNA levels from serum samples obtained longitudinally at ages 50, 55, and 60 from 16 non-Hispanic males who had documented lifespans from 58 to 92. Numerous miRNAs showed significant changes in expression levels. At age 50, 24 miRNAs were significantly upregulated, and 73 were significantly downregulated in the long-lived subgroup (76-92 years) as compared with the short-lived subgroup (58-75 years). In long-lived participants, the most upregulated was miR-373-5p, while the most downregulated was miR-15b-5p. Longitudinally, significant Pearson correlations were observed between lifespan and expression of nine miRNAs (p valueaging-associated proteins, including PARP1, IGF1R, and IGF2R. We propose that the expression profiles of the six miRNAs (miR-211-5p, 374a-5p, 340-3p, 376c-3p, 5095, and 1225-3p) may be useful biomarkers of aging. PMID:27824314

  9. To determine the frequency of Factor V Leiden in cases of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Anjum; Sumreen; Kashif, Muhammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of Factor V Leiden in cases of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Healthy controls. This case control study was performed in Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi, From 21(st) March to 25(th) September 2013. One hundred patients with diagnostic evidence of Deep vein thrombosis on Doppler ultrasound/Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan were included in the study through non probability convenient sampling and compared with 100 matched healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the blood sample by kit method. In order to identify Factor V Leiden mutation, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was utilized combined with the Amplification refractory mutation system. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17. In 100 patients of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), frequency of Factor V Leiden (FVL) was 13% and it is was 2% in healthy control group. A significant association was found between FVL and DVT with odds ratio of 7.32 and with P value (P = 0.003). FVL was found to be highly prevalent among patients of DVT, Signifying strong association between the two.

  10. Frequency of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin Polymorphism in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Dehbozorgian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal hemostasis requires balanced regulation of prothromboticand antithrombotic factors. Inherited alteration of factor Vand prothrombin gene, the G20210A mutation, increases the resistanceof factor V to degradation and booster production ofprothrombin respectively. These alterations can increase hypercoagulabilityleading to thrombotic consequences. We aimed toassess the frequencies of these mutations in a group of the populationof southern Iran. In total, 198 healthy volunteers with theage range of 1-64 years were selected and screened for factor VLeiden and prothrombin mutations using polymerase chain reactionand restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques.The carrier frequencies for factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutationin the studied cohort were 4.1% and 3.07%, respectively.In the studied area, the allele frequency of factor V ishigher than the prothrombin G20210A mutation (0.0204 v0.0153. According to the data and Hardy-Weinberger equation,the total risk of thrombosis caused by homozygosity andheterozygosity of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutationand compound heterozygosity of these mutations areabout 1 in 500 individuals.

  11. Plasma and liver lipidomics response to an intervention of rimonabant in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Hu

    Full Text Available Lipids are known to play crucial roles in the development of life-style related risk factors such as obesity, dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension and diabetes. The first selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant, an anorectic anti-obesity drug, was frequently used in conjunction with diet and exercise for patients with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2 with associated risk factors such as type II diabetes and dyslipidaemia in the past. Less is known about the impact of this drug on the regulation of lipid metabolism in plasma and liver in the early stage of obesity.We designed a four-week parallel controlled intervention on apolipoprotein E3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein (ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice with mild overweight and hypercholesterolemia. A liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometric approach was employed to investigate plasma and liver lipid responses to the rimonabant intervention. Rimonabant was found to induce a significant body weight loss (9.4%, p<0.05 and a significant plasma total cholesterol reduction (24%, p<0.05. Six plasma and three liver lipids in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP transgenic mice were detected to most significantly respond to rimonabant treatment. Distinct lipid patterns between the mice were observed for both plasma and liver samples in rimonabant treatment vs. non-treated controls. This study successfully applied, for the first time, systems biology based lipidomics approaches to evaluate treatment effects of rimonabant in the early stage of obesity.The effects of rimonabant on lipid metabolism and body weight reduction in the early stage obesity were shown to be moderate in ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mice on high-fat diet.

  12. Indy mutations and Drosophila longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka eRogina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decreased expression of the fly and worm Indy genes extends longevity. The fly Indy gene and its mammalian homolog are transporters of Krebs cycle intermediates, with the highest rate of uptake for citrate. Cytosolic citrate has a role in energy regulation by affecting fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis. Fly, worm and mice Indy gene homologues are predominantly expressed in places important for intermediary metabolism. Consequently, decreased expression of Indy in fly and worm, and the removal of mIndy in mice exhibit changes associated with calorie restriction, such as decreased levels of lipids, changes in carbohydrate metabolism and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we report that several Indy alleles in a diverse array of genetic backgrounds confer increased longevity.

  13. Insulin, IGF-1 and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    van Heemst, Diana

    2010-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in invertebrate species that the evolutionarily conserved insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) pathway plays a major role in the control of longevity. In the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, single mutations that diminish insulin/IGF-1 signaling can increase lifespan more than twofold and cause the animal to remain active and youthful much longer than normal. Likewise, substantial increases in lifespan are associated with mutations that reduce...

  14. Prothrombin 20210 G: a mutation and Factor V Leiden mutation in women with a history of severe preeclampsia and (H)ELLP syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pampus, M. G.; Wolf, H.; Koopman, M. M.; van den Ende, A.; Buller, H. R.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    The 20210 G-A prothrombin gene variant and the Factor V Leiden mutation are mutations associated with venous thrombotic risk. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of these specific mutations in women with a history of preeclampsia or hemolysis elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet

  15. Fibrinogen γ' increases the sensitivity to activated protein C in normal and factor V Leiden plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Farida; Uitte de Willige, Shirley; Simioni, Paolo; Ariëns, Robert A S; Bertina, Rogier M; Rosing, Jan; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2014-08-28

    Activated protein C (APC) resistance, often associated with the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation, is the most common risk factor for venous thrombosis. We observed increased APC resistance in carriers of fibrinogen γ gene (FGG) haplotype 2, which is associated with reduced levels of the alternatively spliced fibrinogen γ' chain. This finding prompted us to study the effects of fibrinogen and its γ' chain on APC resistance. Fibrinogen, and particularly the γA/γ' isoform, improved the response of plasma to added APC in the thrombin generation-based assay. Similarly, a synthetic peptide mimicking the C-terminus of the fibrinogen γ' chain, which binds thrombin and inhibits its activities, greatly increased the APC sensitivity of normal and FV Leiden plasma, likely due to its ability to inhibit thrombin-mediated activation of FV and FVIII. Although the fibrinogen γ' peptide also inhibited protein C activation by the thrombin/thrombomodulin complex, it still increased the sensitivity of plasma to endogenously formed APC when thrombin generation was measured in the presence of soluble thrombomodulin. We conclude that fibrinogen, and particularly fibrinogen γ', increases plasma APC sensitivity. The fibrinogen γ' peptide might form the basis for pharmacologic interventions to counteract APC resistance. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Increased risk of venous thrombosis by AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly B.P.L.V. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of a predisposition to venous thrombosis are caused by resistance to activated protein C, associated in 95% of cases with the Factor V Leiden allele (FVL or R506Q. Several recent studies report a further increased risk of thrombosis by an association between the AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden. The present study investigated this association with deep vein thrombosis (DVT in individuals treated at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. A case-control comparison showed a significant risk of thrombosis in the presence of Factor V Leiden (OR = 10.1, which was approximately doubled when the AB alleles of the ABO blood group were present as well (OR = 22.3. These results confirm that the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis in the combined presence of AB alleles and Factor V Leiden is also applicable to the Brazilian population suggesting that ABO blood group typing should be routinely added to FVL in studies involving thrombosis.

  17. Survival advantage of heterozygous fV Leiden carriers in murine sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschen, Edward; Hernandez, Irene; Zogg, Mark; Maas, Matthias; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The high allelic frequency of the prothrombotic Leiden polymorphism in human blood coagulation factor V (fV) has been speculated to reflect positive selection during evolution. Heterozygous Leiden carriers enrolled in the placebo arm of the PROWESS sepsis trial, and heterozygous Leiden mice challenged with endotoxin both showed reduced mortality, whereas homozygous Leiden mice were not protected from lethal endotoxemia. Follow-up analyses of clinical outcomes, and of mouse models of infection with various pathogens remained inconclusive. Objective To establish whether aPC-resistance of fV Leiden modifies the outcome of bacterial infection in murine sepsis models. Methods Homozygous and heterozygous fV Leiden mice were subjected to gram-positive (S.aureus) or gram-negative (Y.pestis; E.coli) septic peritonitis, or polymicrobial, focal septic peritonitis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); and the effect of fV Leiden on 7-day survival and bacterial dissemination was assessed. Outcomes were compared to the sepsis survival of mice with genetically impaired hemostasis (hemophilia A, thrombocytopenia, thrombin receptor PAR4 deficiency, protein C receptor ProcR/EPCR-deficiency). Results Heterozygous, but not homozygous Leiden mice were protected from lethal infection with highly virulent S.aureus and Y.pestis strains. FV Leiden did not affect the outcome of sepsis induced by CLP, staphylokinase-deficient S.aureus, Pla-deficient Y.pestis, or E.coli. Thrombocytopenia, deficiency of PAR1 or PAR4 did not affect S.aureus sepsis survival, whereas hemophilia A increased mortality. ProcR-deficiency selectively abolished the survival advantage of heterozygous Leiden mice. Conclusions In mice, heterozygous fV Leiden carriers are protected from sepsis mortality after infection with clinically relevant human bacterial pathogens. PMID:25690763

  18. Survival advantage of heterozygous factor V Leiden carriers in murine sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschen, E; Hernandez, I; Zogg, M; Maas, M; Weiler, H

    2015-06-01

    The high allelic frequency of the prothrombotic Leiden polymorphism in human blood coagulation factor V (FV) has been speculated to reflect positive selection during evolution. Heterozygous Leiden carriers enrolled in the placebo arm of the PROWESS sepsis trial and heterozygous Leiden mice challenged with endotoxin both showed reduced mortality, whereas homozygous Leiden mice were not protected from lethal endotoxemia. Follow-up analyses of clinical outcomes and of mouse models of infection with various pathogens remained inconclusive. To establish whether activated protein C resistance of FV Leiden modifies the outcome of bacterial infection in murine sepsis models. Homozygous and heterozygous FV Leiden mice were subjected to gram-positive (S. aureus) or gram-negative (Y. pestis; E. coli) septic peritonitis or polymicrobial, focal septic peritonitis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The effect of FV Leiden on 7-day survival and bacterial dissemination was assessed. Outcomes were compared with the sepsis survival of mice with genetically impaired hemostasis (hemophilia A, thrombocytopenia, thrombin receptor PAR4 [protease activated receptor 4] deficiency, endothelial protein C receptor [ProcR/EPCR] deficiency). Heterozygous, but not homozygous, Leiden mice were protected from lethal infection with highly virulent S. aureus and Y. pestis strains. FV Leiden did not affect the outcome of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, staphylokinase-deficient S. aureus, Pla-deficient Y. pestis, or E. coli. Thrombocytopenia, deficiency of PAR1 or PAR4 did not affect S. aureus sepsis survival, whereas hemophilia A increased mortality. ProcR deficiency selectively abolished the survival advantage of heterozygous Leiden mice. In mice, heterozygous FV Leiden carriers are protected from sepsis mortality after infection with clinically relevant human bacterial pathogens. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Personality predictors of longevity: Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between personality traits and longevity. Methods Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age: 17 to 98 years, M = 50) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables. Results In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored one SD above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average two to three years longer than those scoring one SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every one SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness. Conclusions In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active. PMID:18596250

  20. Reduced prevalence of cognitive impairment in families with exceptional longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Family studies of centenarians and long-lived persons have found substantial familial aggregation of survival to extreme ages; however, the extent to which such familial longevity is characterized by cognitively intact survival is not established. OBJECTIVE To determine whether families...... of probands had significantly lower rates than spouse controls. Results suggest a delayed onset of cognitive impairment in families with exceptional longevity, but assessment of age-specific incidence rates is required to confirm this hypothesis....... with exceptional longevity are protected against cognitive impairment consistent with Alzheimer disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING Multisite study in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1870 individuals (1510 family members and 360 spouse controls) recruited...

  1. Exploring the genetics of longevity in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, John; Post, Wendy; Pollin, Toni I; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R

    2005-02-01

    Lifespan is a complex phenotype determined by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This makes the identification of variants in genes that influence longevity challenging. We believe that the Old Order Amish (OOA) of Lancaster, Pennsylvania is an excellent population for studying the genetics of longevity. They are a closed population derived from a limited number of founders. They have large families and maintain extensive genealogic records dating to the 1700 s. They eschew modern technology; their lifestyle is little changed over the last 250 years. Homogeneity of environment and lifestyle factors across time and across the OOA population minimizes the influence that environmental factors have in determining the differences in lifespan between individuals. We hypothesize that this reduction in environmental variability will make it easier to identify the genetic factors that influence lifespan. In this article, we describe our strategy for identifying variants in genes that influence longevity in the Amish and present the results of our studies to date.

  2. Prevalence of coagulation factor II G20210A and factor V G1691A Leiden polymorphisms in Chechans, a genetically isolated population in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajani, Rana; Fatahallah, Raja; Dajani, Abdelrahman; Al-Shboul, Mohammad; Khader, Yousef

    2012-09-01

    Coagulation factor II G20210A and coagulation factor V (Leiden) G1691A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are major inherited risk factors of venous thromboembolism. In view of the heterogeneity in their world distribution and lack of sufficient information about their distribution among Chechans, we addressed the prevalence of these SNPs in the Chechan population in Jordan, a genetically isolated population. Factor II G20210A and factor V Leiden SNPs were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and Amplification refractory mutation detection system (ARMS) respectively in 120 random unrelated subjects from the Chechan population in Jordan. Among the subjects studied for factor II G20210A mutation there were three individuals carrying this mutation as heterozygous (one female and two male), giving a prevalence of 2.5 % and an allele frequency of 1.25 %. No homozygous factor II allele was found. Factor V Leiden G1691A mutation was detected as heterozygous in 22 of 120 of individuals (17 female and five male) indicating a prevalence of 18.3 % and allele frequency of 9.2 %. No homozygous allele was found. Our results indicated that prevalence of factor II G20210A mutation in the Chechan population is similar to prevalence in Jordan and Caucasian populations (1-6 %) while the prevalence of factor V Leiden was higher in the Chechan population compared to Jordan and Caucasian populations (2-15 %).

  3. Intellectual maturity and longevity : Late-blooming composers and writers live longer than child prodigies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, Maurits P. J.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van Bodegom, David

    Life history theory links human physical and sexual development to longevity. However, there have been no studies on the association of intellectual development with longevity. This observational study investigates the relationship between the onset of intellectual maturity and lifespan through the

  4. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The unique radioresistance of burros has resulted in a large-animal life-span study that began in 1951. During the course of radiation exposures, some animals at three low exposures to gamma photons survived (10, 10, and 9 exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively). In 1953, 20 burros exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/wk increments were added to this life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons were added. Six burros exposed to 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a ''Godiva-type'' reactor were added in 1959 along with 22 controls. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures (320-545 R), there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia). Afterward, however, all deaths have been attributable to common equine diseases; none from malignancies. Today, 20 of the original 112 burros in these studies survive (13 irradiated and 7 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma and gamma-only irradiated burros show significant differences. Median survival time: controls, 28 yrs; gamma irradiation, 26 yrs; neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 yrs. A Weibull probability analysis predicts maximum life-span to be 42 yrs

  5. Factor XIII Val34Leu and the risk of venous thromboembolism in factor V Leiden carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, R. F.; Middeldorp, S.; Meinardi, J. R.; van Pampus, E. C.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    A mutation in factor XIII (Val34Leu) was reported to protect against venous thromboembolism. We evaluated the effect of Val34Leu on thrombotic risk in 352 factor V Leiden carriers who were first-degree relatives of 132 thrombotic propositi carrying factor V Leiden. The total observation period was

  6. Factor XIII Va134Leu and the risk of venous thromboembolism in factor V Leiden carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, RF; Middeldorp, S; Meinardi, [No Value; van Pampus, ECM; Reitsma, PH

    2000-01-01

    A mutation in factor XIII (Val34Leu) was reported to protect against Venous thromboembolism. We evaluated the effect of Val34Leu on thrombotic risk in 352 factor V Leiden carriers who were first-degree relatives of 132 thrombotic propositi carrying factor V Leiden. The total observation period was

  7. Scavenger receptor deficiency leads to more complex atherosclerotic lesions in APOE3Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winther, M. P.; Gijbels, M. J.; van Dijk, K. W.; van Gorp, P. J.; Suzuki, H.; Kodama, T.; Frants, R. R.; Havekes, L. M.; Hofker, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E3Leiden is a dysfunctional apo E variant associated with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia in humans. Transgenic mice carrying the APOE3Leiden gene develop hyperlipidemia and are highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. An early step in atherosclerosis is foam cell

  8. Characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in apo E3-leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leppänen, P.; Luoma, J.S.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.

    1998-01-01

    Apo E3-leiden transgenic mice express human dysfunctional apo E variant and develop hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis on a high fat/high cholesterol diet. We characterized diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in apo E3-leiden transgenic mice using immunocytochemical methods in order to examine foam

  9. Clashes of discourses: Humanists and Calvinists in seventeenth-century academic Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2016-01-01

    Using Michel Foucault's concept of discursive change and Stephen Greenblatt's ideas about social poetics and self-fashioning, 'Clashes of Discourses: Calvinists and Humanists in Seventeenth-Century Academic Leiden' explains developments in the literary works of leading Leiden humanists against the

  10. Weldenkende burgers en Oranjeliefhebbers. Patriotten en Prinsgezinden in Leiden, 1775-1795

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the conflicts between Patriots and Orangists in Leiden, which will be assessed with the help of the theory of collective action by the American sociologist Charles Tilly. The urban economy in Leiden was dominated by a textile industry that concentrated on exports and was very

  11. The APO(*)E3-Leiden mouse as an animal model for basal laminar deposit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliffen, M.; Lutgens, E.; Daemen, M. J.; de Muinck, E. D.; Mooy, C. M.; de Jong, P. T.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the APO(*)E3-Leiden mouse as an animal model for age related maculopathy (ARM) related extracellular deposits. Eyes were obtained from APO(*)E3-Leiden transgenic mice on a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet (n=12) or on a normal mouse chow (n=6), for 9 months. As controls, eyes were

  12. The APO(*)E3-Leiden mouse as an animal model for basal laminar deposit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kliffen (Mike); E. Lutgens; M.J. Daemen (Mat); E.D. de Muinck; C.M. Mooy (Cornelia); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To investigate the APO(*)E3-Leiden mouse as an animal model for age related maculopathy (ARM) related extracellular deposits. METHODS: Eyes were obtained from APO(*)E3-Leiden transgenic mice on a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet (n=12) or on a normal mouse chow

  13. The South American Nematognathi of the museums at Leiden and Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigchel, van der J.W.B.

    1947-01-01

    The collections of the South American Nematognathi in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, referred to in this publication as "Museum Leiden", and of those in the Zoölogisch Museum at Amsterdam, referred to as "Museum Amsterdam", consist of valuable material, which for a very

  14. Understanding the natural and social factors behind regional longevity in Guangxi, China—Is centenarian ratio a good enough indicator for assessing the longevity level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Despite a number of longevity indicators having been used in previous longevity studies, few studies have critically evaluated whether these indicators are suitable. In addition, an increasing number of studies have attempted to determine the influence of socio-economic and natural factors on regional longevity, but only certain factors were considered. The present study bridges this gap by determining the relationship between the seven longevity indicators and selecting 24 natural and socio-economic indicators in the 91 selected counties and districts in Guangxi, China. The seven longevity indicators here refer to Centenarian ratio, Longevity index, Longevity level, Aging tendency, 80+ ratio, 90+ ratio and 95+ ratio. Natural indicators in this study mainly refer to climatic ones. Socio-economic indicators can be categorized into those related to economic, education, local infrastructure, and health care facilities. These data were mainly drawn from the Meteorological Data Sharing Service System and Guangxi's sixth population census. Stepwise regression analysis has been used as the primary research method to determine the relationship between the longevity indicators and the natural, social, and economic indicators. The results show that the climate factors regarding atmospheric pressure, humidity, and rainfall are the most significant contributors to the longevity of the 60- to 90-year-old elderly in Guangxi, while the difference of mean annual temperature could have negative impacts. Also, the natural and socioeconomic factors that impact the extremely old population (those over 95 years old) in Guangxi are still not clear. This study reveals that the longevity index and longevity level are useful supplementary indexes to the centenarian ratio for assessing the regional longevity as they could help reflect the regional longevity regarding the proportion of young-old and old-old population and not just limit to those over 100 years old. The elderly (those from 60

  15. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Longevity of Thai physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Piyasing, Veera; Boontheaim, Benjaporn; Ratanamongkolgul, Suthee; Wattanasirichaigoon, Somkiat

    2004-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore characteristics of the long-lived Thai physicians. We sent 983 posted questionnaires to 840 male and 143 female physicians. We obtained 327 of them back after 2 rounds of mailing, yielding a response rate of 33.3 percents. The response rate of male physicians was 32.4 percents and that of female physicians was 38.5 percents. Their ages were between 68-93 years (75.1 +/- 4.86 years on average). The majority were married, implying that their spouses were also long-lived. Around half of them still did some clinical work, one-fourth did some charity work, one-fourth did various voluntary works, one-fifth did some business, one-fifth did some academic work, and some did more than one type of work. Most long-lived physicians were not obese, with BMI of 16.53-34.16 (average 23.97 +/- 2.80). Only 8 had BMI higher than 30. BMIs were not different between male and female physicians. However, four-fifths of them had diseases that required treatment, and some of them had more than one disease. The five most frequent diseases were hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, and benign prostate hypertrophy, respectively. Most long-lived physicians did exercise (87.8%), and some did more than one method. The most frequent one was walking (52.3%). Most did not drink alcohol or drank occasionally, only 9.0% drank regularly. Most of them slept 3-9 hours per night (average 6.75 +/- 1.06). Most (78.3%) took some medication regularly; of most were medicine for their diseases. Most did not eat macrobiotic food, vegetarian food, or fast food regularly. Most long-lived physicians practiced some religious activities by praying, paying respect to Buddha, giving food to monks, practicing meditation, and listening to monks' teaching. They also used Buddhist practice and guidelines for their daily living and work, and also recommended these to their younger colleagues. Their recreational activities were playing musical instruments

  17. Membrane phospholipid composition may contribute to exceptional longevity of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): a comparative study using shotgun lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Todd W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hulbert, A J

    2007-11-01

    Phospholipids containing highly polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly prone to peroxidation and membrane composition may therefore influence longevity. Phospholipid molecules, in particular those containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from the skeletal muscle, heart, liver and liver mitochondria were identified and quantified using mass-spectrometry shotgun lipidomics in two similar-sized rodents that show an approximately 9-fold difference in maximum lifespan. The naked mole rat is the longest-living rodent known with a maximum lifespan of >28 years. Total phospholipid distribution is similar in tissues of both species; DHA is only found in phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylserines (PS), and DHA is relatively more concentrated in PE than PC. Naked mole-rats have fewer molecular species of both PC and PE than do mice. DHA-containing phospholipids represent 27-57% of all phospholipids in mice but only 2-6% in naked mole-rats. Furthermore, while mice have small amounts of di-polyunsaturated PC and PE, these are lacking in naked mole-rats. Vinyl ether-linked phospholipids (plasmalogens) are higher in naked mole-rat tissues than in mice. The lower level of DHA-containing phospholipids suggests a lower susceptibility to peroxidative damage in membranes of naked mole-rats compared to mice. Whereas the high level of plasmalogens might enhance membrane antioxidant protection in naked mole-rats compared to mice. Both characteristics possibly contribute to the exceptional longevity of naked mole-rats and may indicate a special role for peroxisomes in this extended longevity.

  18. Is there a trade-off between fertility and longevity? A comparative study of women from three large historical databases accounting for mortality selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alain; Smith, Ken R; Tremblay, Marc; Vézina, Hélène; Paré, Paul-Philippe; Desjardins, Bertrand

    2009-01-01

    Frontier populations provide exceptional opportunities to test the hypothesis of a trade-off between fertility and longevity. In such populations, mechanisms favoring reproduction usually find fertile ground, and if these mechanisms reduce longevity, demographers should observe higher postreproductive mortality among highly fertile women. We test this hypothesis using complete female reproductive histories from three large demographic databases: the Registre de la population du Québec ancien (Université de Montréal), which covers the first centuries of settlement in Quebec; the BALSAC database (Université du Québec à Chicoutimi), including comprehensive records for the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ) in Quebec in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; and the Utah Population Database (University of Utah), including all individuals who experienced a vital event on the Mormon Trail and their descendants. Together, the three samples allow for comparisons over time and space, and represent one of the largest set of natural fertility cohorts used to simultaneously assess reproduction and longevity. Using survival analyses, we found a negative influence of parity and a positive influence of age at last child on postreproductive survival in the three populations, as well as a significant interaction between these two variables. The effect sizes of all these parameters were remarkably similar in the three samples. However, we found little evidence that early fertility affects postreproductive survival. The use of Heckman's procedure assessing the impact of mortality selection during reproductive ages did not appreciably alter these results. We conclude our empirical investigation by discussing the advantages of comparative approaches. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Factor V Leiden associated with flap loss in microsurgical breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Colakoglu, Salih; Tomich, David C; Nguyen, Minh-Doan; Lee, Bernard T

    2011-07-01

    Two cases are reported of flap loss following microsurgical perforator flap breast reconstruction in patients diagnosed with a factor V Leiden mutation. Factor V Leiden is the most common inherited cause of hypercoagulability, leading to an increased risk of thrombotic events. The first patient underwent a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap and then had recurrent arterial thrombosis both intraoperatively and postoperatively. This patient was subsequently diagnosed with a factor V Leiden mutation. The second patient had a known factor V Leiden mutation and underwent a superior gluteal artery perforator flap, which developed thrombosis and flap loss 2 days later. Preoperative assessment of a personal or family history of unexplained venous or arterial thrombosis should prompt suspicion of a factor V Leiden mutation. This mutation places patients at high risk for thromboembolic events in microvascular breast reconstruction, particularly when oral contraceptives or tamoxifen are used in conjunction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The Prevalence of Longevity Among Leading Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Hudson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of brands is embedded in scholarship involving brand processes that evolve over time such as brand equity, loyalty, nostalgia, and lifecycle. It is also an important conceptual element in the emerging topic of brand heritage. This paper offers new insight regarding the prevalence of brand longevity in a variety of industries, based on historical research about 148 leading brands ranked in prior studies by the consulting firm Interbrand. The author finds that a significant proportion (64 brands representing 43% of the total number are aged 100 years or more. The oldest brands are grouped in the food industry, while some of the youngest brands are grouped in the hospitality industry. The author applies the principles of scale and scope from the work of business historian Alfred Chandler to explain the timing of this industry emergence. The advanced age of many leading brands suggests the need for stewardship to preserve and protect the equity that resides in historic brands, and supports the argument that further attention should be directed toward the study of brand heritage effects.

  1. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. TCR Vβ repertoire in an Italian longeval population including centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, G; Morellini, M; Lulli, P; Cappellacci, S; Brioli, G; Franceschi, C; Trabace, S

    2001-04-01

    During the last years, the hypothesis that aging and diseases are two distinct phenomena, and that successful aging is possible for most humans, has been put forward. We studied the TCR Vβ repertoire of T lymphocytes of healthy longevals and centenarians as crossing point of genetic predisposition and environmental effects to longevity, using the Spectra-typing method. TCR Vβ1, Vβ8, and Vβ20 were found to be expanded in the longeval population, compared with the younger control population. This repertoire can have been shaped by the selective action of particular HLA alleles, or by the clonal expansion of specific T cell clones, able to modulate the immune response to endogenous and exogenous antigens. Moreover, the skewed Vβ usage and the clonal expansion seem to be the effects of physiological changes occurring with aging and not pathological signs of malignity.

  3. The Statistics of Health and Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    Increases in human longevity have made it critical to distinguish healthy longevity from longevity without regard to health. We present a new method for calculating the statistics of healthy longevity which extends, in several directions, current calculations of health expectancy (HE) and disabil......Increases in human longevity have made it critical to distinguish healthy longevity from longevity without regard to health. We present a new method for calculating the statistics of healthy longevity which extends, in several directions, current calculations of health expectancy (HE......) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), from data on prevalence of health conditions. Current methods focus on binary conditions (e.g., disabled or not disabled) or on categorical classifications (e.g. in good, poor, or very bad health) and report only expectations. Our method, based on Markov chain theory......, applies to both binary and continuous measures, and provides not only the expectation but also the variance, coefficient of variation, skewness and other distributional properties of longevity. We apply the method to 9 European countries using the SHARE survey data on disability and on grip strength...

  4. Longevity of cryogenically stored seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Christina; Wheeler, Lana; Stanwood, Phillip C

    2004-06-01

    Though cryogenic storage is presumed to provide nearly infinite longevity to cells, the actual shelf life achieved under ultra-cold temperatures has not been addressed theoretically or empirically. Here, we report measurable changes in germination of dried seeds stored under liquid nitrogen conditions for >10 years. There was considerable variability in the extent of deterioration among species and accessions within a species. Aging time courses for lettuce seeds stored at temperatures between 50 and -196 degrees C were fit to a form of the Avrami equation to determine rate coefficients and predict half-life of accessions. A reduction in the temperature dependency on aging rate, determined as a break in the Arrhenius plot, occurred at about -15 degrees C, and this resulted in faster deterioration than anticipated from extrapolation of kinetics measured at higher temperatures. The break in Arrhenius behavior occurred at temperatures in between the glass transition temperature (28 degrees C) and the Kauzmann temperature (-42 degrees C) and also coincided with a major triacylglycerol phase change (-40 to -7 degrees C). In spite of the faster than anticipated deterioration, cryogenic storage clearly prolonged shelf life of lettuce seeds with half-lives projected as approximately 500 and approximately 3400 years for fresh lettuce seeds stored in the vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The benefit of low temperature storage (-18 or -135 degrees C) on seed longevity was progressively lost if seeds were first stored at 5 degrees C. Collectively, these results demonstrate that lowering storage temperature progressively increases longevity of seeds. However, cryogenic temperatures were not sufficient to stop deterioration, especially if initial stages of aging were allowed to progress at higher storage temperatures. This work contributes to reliable assessments of the potential benefit and cost of different genebanking strategies.

  5. The emergence of longevous populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colchero, Fernando; Rau, Roland; Jones, Owen R

    2016-01-01

    The human lifespan has traversed a long evolutionary and historical path, from short-lived primate ancestors to contemporary Japan, Sweden, and other longevity frontrunners. Analyzing this trajectory is crucial for understanding biological and sociocultural processes that determine the span of life....... Here we reveal a fundamental regularity. Two straight lines describe the joint rise of life expectancy and lifespan equality: one for primates and the second one over the full range of human experience from average lifespans as low as 2 y during mortality crises to more than 87 y for Japanese women...... for research on inequality, sociality, and aging....

  6. Fertility and longevity in the Reggiana cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons between commercial and local breeds should be based on both productive and functional traits. Proper performance evaluations of local breeds may enlighten possible strong points and provide elements for conservation decisions. The analysis of functional traits, such as fertility, milkability, longevity and disease resistance is required for developing sustainable breeding programs (Olesen et al., 2000. This study is part of a project aimed to compare productivity between Reggiana and Italian Holstein herds (Maltecca et al., 2000; Bagnato et al., 2001. Here we report on fertility and longevity traits...........

  7. Leaf longevity of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) increases with depth in the canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Benjamin A; Duursma, Remko A; Marshall, John D

    2005-05-01

    Leaf longevity determines the annual cost of replacing foliage biomass and influences water and nutrient budgets. Longevity is readily estimated in most evergreen species by annual bud scars along the shoot. However, some species with indeterminate growth do not show these annual markers, making estimation of longevity difficult. One of these species is the widespread and economically valuable western red cedar (Thuja plicata J. Donn ex D. Don), for which no dependable estimates of leaf longevity exist. In this study, we estimated leaf longevity for western red cedar by counting growth rings in shoots at the point of leaf abscission. Estimates were obtained on 26 dominant or codominant trees growing in natural stands in a montane forest in northern Idaho, USA. Leaf longevity averaged 8.9 (SE = 0.2) years, but it strongly increased with depth in the canopy (0.3 year m(-1); mean crown depth was 15 m), increasing from a mean of 6.8 years in the upper third of the canopy to 10.6 years in the lower third. The increase in longevity with depth in the crown is consistent with many reports showing that longevity increases in resource-limiting environments. Longevity did not vary significantly with altitude or solar insolation in these montane forests. Among stand-level variables, longevity was correlated only with leaf area index: it increased slightly in stands with high leaf area indices. This approach to longevity estimation may be useful for any species that produces annual rings but no obvious bud scars, including many Cupressaceae species.

  8. Activated protein C resistance testing for factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Khor, Bernard; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    Activated protein C resistance assays can detect factor V Leiden with high accuracy, depending on the method used. Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban and direct thrombin inhibitors including dabigatran, argatroban, and bivalirudin can cause falsely normal results. Lupus anticoagulants can cause incorrect results in most current assays. Assays that include dilution into factor V-deficient plasma are needed to avoid interference from factor deficiencies or elevations, which can arise from a wide variety of conditions such as warfarin, liver dysfunction, or pregnancy. The pros and cons of the currently available assays are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Parental divorce and adult longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal

    2013-02-01

    Life course research has established associations between adverse childhood events and later life health. We examine the relationship of experiencing parental divorce before the age of 16 and survival across 34 years of adulthood. Analysis of panel data from a USA-based survey of 6,928 adults residing in Alameda County, California in 1965. Cox regression was used to examine associations between parental divorce and longevity. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, and childhood socioeconomic position, respondents who recalled a parental divorce during childhood had increased risk of mortality compared to those with no separation. The association was stronger for premature mortality and deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Divorce in childhood was also associated with lowered adult education, fewer social network ties, more depression, and worse health practices. These factors appeared to explain the association with longevity. Parental divorce in childhood is associated with lowered well-being in adulthood and long-term survival. Early prevention and health promotion efforts may be warranted for children who experience parental divorce or discord as a means of supporting enhanced trajectories of health and well-being.

  10. Genetic improvement of longevity in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, van Mathijs

    2017-01-01

    Improving longevity helps to increase the profit of the farmer, and it is seen as an important measure of improved animal welfare and sustainability of the sector. Breeding values for longevity have been published since in 1999 in the Netherlands. For AI-companies and farmers it is necessary that

  11. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span. PMID:26937346

  12. Does FVL have an effect on longevity?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilara Fatma Akın

    Abstract Background: Different genetic and non-genetic factors have been reported to play a role in human longevity. Longevity has been associated with genetically favourable conditions which protected humans from cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have tried to confirm this statement in Turkish young and old aged ...

  13. Myotonic Dystrophy-1 Complicated by Factor-V (Leiden Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Presence of a factor-V Leiden mutation in a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 has been reported only once. Here we report the second DM1 patient carrying a factor-V mutation who died from long-term complications of this mutation. Case Report. A 66-year-old DM1 patient with multi-organ-disorder syndrome developed a first deep venous thrombosis (DVT and consecutive pulmonary embolism (PE at age 50 y. Acetyl-salicylic acid was given. One year later he experienced a second DVT; that is why phenprocoumon was started. Despite anticoagulation, he experienced a third DVT bilaterally and a second PE bilaterally at 61 y; that is why a vena cava filter was additionally deployed. Despite therapeutic anticoagulation, he experienced a vena cava filter thrombosis at age 62 y. Genetic workup revealed a heterozygous factor-V mutation in addition to a CTG-repeat expansion of 500. As a consequence of PE he developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and experienced recurrent pulmonary infections, which were lastly responsible for decease at age 66 y despite intensive care measures. Conclusion. The heterozygous Leiden mutation may severely affect DM1 patients to such a degree that they die from its complications. If DM1 patients present with unusual manifestations, search for causes other than a CTG-repeat expansion is indicated.

  14. Early and extraordinary peaks in physical performance come with a longevity cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Vijver, Paul L; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-01-01

    studies found a trade-off between early and high fecundity and longevity in women. Development encompasses more than fecundity and also concerns growth and physical performance. Here, we show a life history trade-off between early and above average physical performance and longevity in male Olympic...... suffered a 4.7-year longevity cost. (95% CI 2.1-7.5 years, p=0.001). This is the first time a life history trade-off between physical performance and longevity has been found in humans. This finding deepens our understanding of early developmental influences on the variation of longevity in humans....... athletes. Athletes who peaked at an earlier age showed 17-percent increased mortality rates (95% CI 8-26% per SD, p≤0.001) and athletes who ranked higher showed 11-percent increased mortality rates (95% CI 1-22% per SD, p=0.025). Male athletes who had both an early and extraordinary peak performance...

  15. Dietary restriction increases variability in longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, D.; Simpson, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional environments, particularly those experienced during early life, are hypothesized to affect longevity. A recent cross-taxa meta-analysis found that, depending upon circumstance, average longevity may be increased or decreased by early-life dietary restriction. Unstudied are the effects of diet during development on among-individual variance in longevity. Here, we address this issue using emerging methods for meta-analysis of variance. We found that, in general, standard deviation (s.d.) in longevity is around 8% higher under early-life dietary restriction than a standard diet. The effects became especially profound when dietary insults were experienced prenatally (s.d. increased by 29%) and/or extended into adulthood (s.d. increased by 36.6%). Early-life dietary restriction may generate variance in longevity as a result of increased variance in resource acquisition or allocation, but the mechanisms underlying these largely overlooked patterns clearly warrant elucidation. PMID:28298596

  16. Effect of neem azal and neemol on survival, longevity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the biological activity of neem azal and neemol against nymphs and adults of the shield bug, Bathycoelia thalassina, in the laboratory at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. Toxicity of the neem products and their effect on moulting, nymphal survival, development time, adult longevity, and oviposition ...

  17. A prospective clinical evaluation of the longevity of resorbable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The objectives of this prospective randomized study were to clinically evaluate the longevity of resorbable sutures (chromic catgut and vicryl) and determine the effect of chlorhexidine mouth wash on their absorption time in oral surgical procedures. Both sutures were of size 3/0 with round body needle and were ...

  18. Age of failed restorations: A deceptive longevity parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Wilson, N.H.F.

    2011-01-01

    There is pressing need to enhance evidence base in respect of longevity of restorations. Currently, there is lack of appreciation of differences between survival data based on the age of failed restorations as compared to gold standard Kaplan-Meier statistics. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken

  19. Effect of interleukin-6 polymorphisms on human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Bona, Danilo; Vasto, Sonya; Capurso, Cristiano

    2009-01-01

    -6 levels. However, discordant results have been obtained. To explore the relationship between this polymorphism and longevity, we analyzed individual data on long-living subjects and controls from eight case-control studies conducted in Europeans, using meta-analysis. There was no significant...

  20. Natural variation for seed longevity and seed dormancy are negatively correlated in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Keizer, Paul; van Eeuwijk, Fred; Smeekens, Sjef; Bentsink, Leónie

    2012-12-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy and seed longevity described as two traits. Seed dormancy is defined as a temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate in conditions that favor germination, whereas seed longevity is defined as seed viability after dry storage (storability). In plants, the association of seed longevity with seed dormancy has not been studied in detail. This is surprising given the ecological, agronomical, and economic importance of seed longevity. We studied seed longevity to reveal its genetic regulators and its association with seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Integrated quantitative trait locus analyses for seed longevity, in six recombinant inbred line populations, revealed five loci: Germination Ability After Storage1 (GAAS1) to GAAS5. GAAS loci colocated with seed dormancy loci, Delay Of Germination (DOG), earlier identified in the same six recombinant inbred line populations. Both GAAS loci and their colocation with DOG loci were validated by near isogenic lines. A negative correlation was observed, deep seed dormancy correlating with low seed longevity and vice versa. Detailed analysis on the collocating GAAS5 and DOG1 quantitative trait loci revealed that the DOG1-Cape Verde Islands allele both reduces seed longevity and increases seed dormancy. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a negative correlation between seed longevity and seed dormancy.

  1. Factor V Leiden mutation is not a predisposing factor for acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himabindu, G; Rajasekhar, D; Latheef, K; Sarma, P V G K; Vanajakshamma, V; Chaudhury, Abhijit; Bitla, Aparna R

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Coronary artery disease (CAD) in India has increased considerably over the past few years and could become the number one killer disease if interventions are not done. Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation and FII G20210A polymorphism are two recently described genetic factors with a propensity towards venous thrombosis. This warrants the investigations for thrombophilia in myocardial infarction patients in India. The study cohort consisted of 51 patients aged below 50 years presenting with acute coronary syndromes. In both patient group and normal individuals the major risk factors Protein C deficiency, Protein S deficiency, anticardiolipin antibodies, Fibrinogen and Lipoprotein [a] were studied. Factor V Leiden (FVL) G1691A mutation in both control and patient group was looked by using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing of the PCR products. Our results indicated significantly higher levels of anticardiolipin antibodies and fibrinogen in the patients and absence of FVL (G1691A) mutation in our study cohort. One of the patients (H5) showed insertion of an extra A nucleotide in exon 10 of the Factor V gene resulting in frame shift mutation in this patient. The results of present study showed absence of FVL mutation in our population. However, there is a need to confirm the above findings on patients from different populations from different parts of the country. The insertion of an extra A in exon 10 in the patient needs to be ascertained to confirm that it is one of its kinds or is prevalent in the population. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Increased activation of blood coagulation in pregnant women with the Factor V Leiden mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Ulla; van Rooijen, Marianne; Bremme, Katarina; Hellgren, Margareta

    2014-10-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism is enhanced in pregnant carriers of the Factor V Leiden mutation. The primary aim of the study was to compare prothrombin fragments 1+2, soluble fibrin and D-dimer levels in pregnant Factor V Leiden mutation carriers with those in non-carriers. Secondary aims were to evaluate whether these biomarkers could predict placenta-mediated complications or venous thromboembolism, and to study blood coagulation after caesarean section with thromboprophylaxis and after vaginal delivery without thromboprophylaxis. Prothrombin fragments 1+2, soluble fibrin and D-dimer levels were studied longitudinally in 476 carriers with singleton pregnancies from gestational weeks 23-25 until 8-10 weeks postpartum. Prothrombin fragments 1+2 and D-dimer levels gradually increased during pregnancy. D-dimer levels were higher in carriers, both during pregnancy and puerperium, compared to non-carriers. D-dimer levels above 0.5mg/l were found in about 30% and 20% of the heterozygous carriers at 4-5 and 8-10 weeks postpartum, respectively. Soluble fibrin levels were mainly unchanged during pregnancy, with no difference between carriers and non-carriers. Biomarker levels were similar in carriers with uncomplicated and complicated pregnancies. Higher D-dimer levels indicate increased blood coagulation and fibrinolysis activity in carriers. The high proportion of carriers with D-dimer levels exceeding 0.5mg/l postpartum must be considered when assessing the probability of venous thromboembolism. Large overlaps in biomarker levels in normal and complicated pregnancies suggest that these biomarkers cannot be used as predictors. Thromboprophylaxis following caesarean section may prevent increased activation of blood coagulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacogenetic typing for oral anti-coagulant response among factor V Leiden mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Risha; Saxena, Renu; Deb, Roumi; Verma, Ishwar C.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Factor V Leiden mutation is the most common inherited predisposition for hypercoagulability and thereby a common genetic cause for initiation of oral anti-coagulation therapy. There is a dearth of knowledge of coumarin response profile in such thrombophilic population. AIMS: The current pilot study aims to estimate coumarin sensitivity in an Indian cohort with an inherited thrombophilia risk factor (Factor V Leiden mutation carriers) based on the observed frequency of CYP2C9 *2, *3 and VKORC1-1639G >A genotype combinations. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study carried out in a tertiary health care center in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Carriers of FVL mutation were genotyped for CYP2C9 (*2, F*3) and VKORC1 (-1639G >A) variants by PCR-RFLP technique. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test to analyze difference in expected and observed genotype frequency. RESULTS: Sixty-one (n = 61) unrelated carriers of FVL mutation were observed in the 13 years study period. The allele frequency of CYP2C9 *2, CYP2C9 *3, and VKORC1-1639A in this cohort was 0.06, 0.11, and 0.16, respectively. Six (9.7%) individuals had two of the three variant alleles (heterozygous or homozygous), and 28 (45.9%) were heterozygous for at least one polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-prescription genotyping for coumarin drugs, if introduced in Indians with inherited thrombophilia (in whom oral anti-coagulant therapy may be necessary), is likely to identify 9.7% (hypersensitive) subjects in whom the optimum anti-coagulation may be achieved with reduced dosages, 44.3% (normal sensitivity) who may require higher dose and also 55.6% (hyper and moderate sensitivity) subjects who are likely to experience bleeding episodes. PMID:23716941

  4. Happiness and longevity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Rogers, Richard G; Wadsworth, Tim

    2015-11-01

    This is the first study to our knowledge to examine the relationship between happiness and longevity among a nationally representative sample of adults. We use the recently-released General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset and Cox proportional hazards models to reveal that overall happiness is related to longer lives among U.S. adults. Indeed, compared to very happy people, the risk of death over the follow-up period is 6% (95% CI 1.01-1.11) higher among individuals who are pretty happy and 14% (95% CI 1.06-1.22) higher among those who are not happy, net of marital status, socioeconomic status, census division, and religious attendance. This study provides support for happiness as a stand-alone indicator of well-being that should be used more widely in social science and health research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z; Takizawa, A; Peter, J; Jørgensen, N; Szecsi, P B; Meijers, J C M; Weiler, H; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Repping, S; Middeldorp, S

    2017-11-01

    Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox. We determined FVL status in two cohorts (Dutch, n = 627; Danish, n = 854) of consecutively included men without known causes for spermatogenic failure, and performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of these two cohorts together with one previously published (Dutch, n = 908) cohort. We explored possible biological underpinnings for the relation between sperm count and FVL, by use of a FVL-mouse model and investigations of genetic linkage. Participants were male partners of subfertile couples (two Dutch cohorts) and young men from the general population (Danish cohort): FVL carrier rate was 4.0%, 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. There were differences in smoking, abstinence time and age between the cohorts. We corrected for these in the primary analysis, which consisted of a mixed linear effects model, also incorporating unobjectified population differences. In public haplotype data from subjects of European descent, we explored linkage disequilibrium of FVL with all known single nucleotide polymorphisms in a 1.5 MB region around the F5 gene with an R2 cutoff of 0.8. We sequenced exons of four candidate genes hypothesized to be linked to FVL in a subgroup of FVL carriers with extreme sperm count values. The animal studies consisted of never mated 15-18-week-old C57BL/J6 mice heterozygous and homozygous for FVL and wild-type mice. We compared spermatogenesis parameters (normalized internal genitalia weights, epididymis sperm content and sperm motility) between FVL and wild-type mice. Human FVL carriers have a higher total sperm

  6. Comparative endocrinology of aging and longevity regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eAllard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hormones regulate growth, development, metabolism, and other complex processes in multicellular animals. For many years it has been suggested that hormones may also influence the rate of the aging process. Aging is a multifactorial process that causes biological systems to break down and cease to function in adult organisms as time passes, eventually leading to death. The exact underlying causes of the aging process remain a topic for debate, and clues that may shed light on these causes are eagerly sought after. In the last two decades, gene mutations that result in delayed aging and extended longevity have been discovered, and many of the affected genes have been components of endocrine signaling pathways. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of endocrine signaling in the regulation of aging and longevity in various animals. We begin by discussing the notion that conserved systems, including endocrine signaling pathways, regulate the aging process. Findings from the major model organisms: worms, flies and rodents, are then outlined. Unique lessons from studies of non-traditional models: bees, salmon and naked mole rats, are also discussed. Finally, we summarize the endocrinology of aging in humans, including changes in hormone levels with age, and the involvement of hormones in aging-related diseases. The most well studied and widely conserved endocrine pathway that affects aging is the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system. Mutations in genes of this pathway increase the lifespan of worms, flies, and mice. Population genetic evidence also suggests this pathway’s involvement in human aging. Other hormones including steroids have been linked to aging only in a subset of the models studied. Because of the value of comparative studies, it is suggested that the aging field could benefit from adoption of additional model organisms.

  7. Therapeutic landscapes and longevity: Wellness tourism in Bama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyuan; Xu, Honggang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the rising demand for healthcare products and concern over environmental pollution, wellness tourism has been booming in China in recent years. The therapeutic landscape theory provides a multi-scale interpretation of wellness tourism to explore how wellness tourists achieve health in healing places. By presenting the results of 83 interviews conducted in Bama, China, this study reveals that the "longevity village" Bama, endorsed by centenarians, provides a retreat that combines natural beauty and a harmonious neighbourhood for wellness tourists. This article argues that although three themes-natural environment, social interaction and symbolic landscape-work together in the healing process of tourists, the symbolic landscape, which is significantly shaped by the longevity culture, plays a dominant role. Longevity in Chinese culture symbolizes the alignment of a strong body, graceful mind, and pleasant habitat. Furthermore, tourism reinforces the importance of symbols and imagination (of a place), the perception of longevity demonstrates the symbolic landscape and thus increases tourists' attachment to the place, and the unusual environment leads to a different therapeutic landscape from that of daily life. Finally, since to date there has been very few works on therapeutic landscapes in China, it is expected that this study will fill the knowledge gap and broaden the scope of application as well as conceptualization of the therapeutic landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amerindian ancestry and extended longevity in Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Jorge; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Leal, Alejandro; Gerlovin, Hanna; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address the hypothesis that Amerindian ancestry is associated with extended longevity in the admixed population of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica has been considered a "longevity island," particularly for males. We estimated Amerindian ancestry using 464 ancestral informative markers in 20 old Nicoyans aged ≥99 years, and 20 younger Nicoyans (60-65 years). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association of Amerindian ancestry and longevity. Older Nicoyans had higher Amerindian ancestry compared to younger Nicoyans (43.3% vs 36.0%, P = .04). Each 10% increase of Amerindian ancestry was associated with more than twice the odds of being long-lived (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03-5.25). To our knowledge, this is the first time that ancestry is implicated as a likely determinant of extended longevity. Amerindian-specific alleles may protect against early mortality. The identification of these protective alleles should be the focus of future studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Physiological aspects of music and longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymnikowa, M

    The article provides an overview of the results of studies on the effect of music on the function of various physiological systems of the organism including the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, also on the effect of Mozart's music and the later mature Baroque music. Particular attention is paid to information on the influence of different kinds of music (classical, jazz and rock), of the nature and of the degree of musical activity (listeners, amateurs and professional performers) on cognitive and behavioral function, on health status, life expectancy and longevity. Structural acoustical attributes of music defining its treatment effect, are described with the comparison of aspects of rock music and of classical music. The article also considers the prospects for using of music in the treatment and prevention of age-associated diseases.

  10. Clinical significance of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A-mutations in cerebral venous thrombosis - comparison with arterial ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beye, Aida; Pindur, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are considered in a different way concerning their etiology with regard to arterial and venous occlusion. The role of thrombophilia in this context remains undetermined. For this reason, a case-control study was conducted including a total of 202 patients (154 females, 48 males) aged from 18 to 76 years (mean: 39.8 years) suffering either from cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (n = 101) or from arterial ischemic stroke (n = 101). Study groups were evaluated on the basis of age- and gender-matched pairs. Gene mutations of factor V-1691 (factor V Leiden) and prothrombin-20210 being considered as the most common thrombophilia markers were analyzed in this study. Factor V Leiden-mutations were found in 16.8% of patients with cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CVT) and in 17.8% of patients with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), which was significantly more frequent than in controls at a rate of 4.95% (ORs: 3.89 and 4.16). Prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT at a rate of 14.9% versus 2.97% in controls (OR: 5.70). This does not apply for AIS showing a rate of 4.95% prothrombin-mutations. Rates of factor V Leiden-mutations are not different in CVT compared with AIS. In contrast, however, prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT than in AIS with a rate of 14.9% versus 4.95% (OR 3.35). Furthermore, 3 cases with combined heterozygosity of factor V Leiden- and prothrombin-mutation have been identified in CVT, but not in AIS or controls. All of the above mentioned mutations were exclusively heterozygous. We conclude from these data that thrombophilia in terms of factor V Leiden genotype is a risk factor for both CVT and AIS in equal measure. In contrast, prothrombin-20210-mutations were different playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of cerebral sinus vein thrombosis, but not in arterial ischemic stroke. Also, the combined occurrence of heterozygous prothrombin- and factor V Leiden

  11. Battery longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mian Bilal; Munir, Muhammad Bilal; Rattan, Rohit; Flanigan, Susan; Adelstein, Evan; Jain, Sandeep; Saba, Samir

    2014-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) deliver high burden ventricular pacing to heart failure patients, which has a significant effect on battery longevity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether battery longevity is comparable for CRT-ICDs from different manufacturers in a contemporary cohort of patients. All the CRT-ICDs implanted at our institution from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were included in this analysis. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected on all patients using the electronic medical record. Detailed device information was collected on all patients from scanned device printouts obtained during routine follow-up. The primary endpoint was device replacement for battery reaching the elective replacement indicator (ERI). A total of 646 patients (age 69 ± 13 years), implanted with CRT-ICDs (Boston Scientific 173, Medtronic 416, and St Jude Medical 57) were included in this analysis. During 2.7 ± 1.5 years follow-up, 113 (17%) devices had reached ERI (Boston scientific 4%, Medtronic 25%, and St Jude Medical 7%, P battery was significantly worse for Medtronic devices compared with devices from other manufacturers (94% for Boston scientific, 67% for Medtronic, and 92% for St Jude Medical, P battery longevity by manufacturer was independent of pacing burden, lead parameters, and burden of ICD therapy. There are significant discrepancies in CRT-ICD battery longevity by manufacturer. These data have important implications on clinical practice and patient outcomes.

  12. Liebe ohne Leiden? Love without Sorrows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Müller

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Sammelband werden unterschiedliche Zugänge und Herangehensweisen zum Thema ‚Liebe im Kapitalismus‘ nebeneinandergestellt. Die Idee der Liebe innerhalb der ‚Logik des Kapitalismus‘ soll genauer untersucht werden. Dafür werden Erfahrungen und Reflexionen aus Kunst, Literatur, Philosophie und Psychoanalyse sowie aus Datenerhebungen und Interviews herangezogen und analysiert. Die Beiträge gruppieren sich zumeist allerdings stärker um das Themenfeld der Liebe. Veränderungen der kapitalistischen Logik nachzuzeichnen, wird in den Ausführungen kaum angestrebt.The volume at hand compares varying approaches to the theme of ‘love under capitalism.’ The intention is to more closely examine the idea of love within the ‘logic of capitalism.’ In order to achieve this, experiences and reflections from art, literature, philosophy, and psychoanalysis as well as data collections and interviews are drawn out and analyzed. The contributions, however, are mostly grouped around the thematic of love. Most of the studies barely begin to sketch the changes of capitalist logic.

  13. On longevity of I-ball/oscillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukaida, Kyohei [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Takimoto, Masahiro [Theory Center, KEK,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Yamada, Masaki [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2017-03-23

    We study I-balls/oscillons, which are long-lived, quasi-periodic, and spatially localized solutions in real scalar field theories. Contrary to the case of Q-balls, there is no evident conserved charge that stabilizes the localized configuration. Nevertheless, in many classical numerical simulations, it has been shown that they are extremely long-lived. In this paper, we clarify the reason for the longevity, and show how the exponential separation of time scales emerges dynamically. Those solutions are time-periodic with a typical frequency of a mass scale of a scalar field. This observation implies that they can be understood by the effective theory after integrating out relativistic modes. We find that the resulting effective theory has an approximate global U(1) symmetry reflecting an approximate number conservation in the non-relativistic regime. As a result, the profile of those solutions is obtained via the bounce method, just like Q-balls, as long as the breaking of the U(1) symmetry is small enough. We then discuss the decay processes of the I-ball/oscillon by the breaking of the U(1) symmetry, namely the production of relativistic modes via number violating processes. We show that the imaginary part is exponentially suppressed, which explains the extraordinary longevity of I-ball/oscillon. In addition, we find that there are some attractor behaviors during the evolution of I-ball/oscillon that further enhance the lifetime. The validity of our effective theory is confirmed by classical numerical simulations. Our formalism may also be useful to study condensates of ultra light bosonic dark matter, such as fuzzy dark matter, and axion stars, for instance.

  14. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase mutations and stillbirth: the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert M; Saade, George R; Thorsten, Vanessa; Parker, Corette B; Reddy, Uma M; Drews-Botsch, Carey; Conway, Deborah; Coustan, Donald; Dudley, Donald J; Bukowski, Radek; Rowland Hogue, Carol J; Pinar, Halit; Varner, Michael W; Goldenberg, Robert; Willinger, Marian

    2016-10-01

    An evaluation for heritable thrombophilias is recommended in the evaluation of stillbirth. However, the association between thrombophilias and stillbirth remains uncertain. We sought to assess the association between maternal and fetal/placental heritable thrombophilias and stillbirth in a population-based, case-control study in a geographically, racially, and ethnically diverse population. We conducted secondary analysis of data from the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network, a population-based case-control study of stillbirth. Testing for factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C, and plasminogen activating inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G mutations was done on maternal and fetal (or placental) DNA from singleton pregnancies. Data analyses were weighted for oversampling and other aspects of the design. Odds ratios (OR) were generated from univariate models regressing stillbirth/live birth status on each thrombophilia marker. Results were available for ≥1 marker in 488 stillbirths and 1342 live birth mothers and 405 stillbirths and 990 live birth fetuses. There was an increased odds of stillbirth for maternal homozygous factor V Leiden mutation (2/488; 0.4% vs 1/1380; 0.0046%; OR, 87.44; 95% confidence interval, 7.88-970.92). However, there were no significant differences in the odds of stillbirth for any other maternal thrombophilia, even after stratified analyses. Fetal 4G/4G PAI-1 (OR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.91) was associated with decreased odds of stillbirth. Other fetal thrombophilias were similar among groups. Most maternal and fetal thrombophilias were not associated with stillbirth. Maternal factor V Leiden was weakly associated with stillbirth, and the fetal PAI-1 4G/4G polymorphism was associated with live birth. Our data do not support routine testing for heritable thrombophilias as part of an evaluation for possible causes of stillbirth. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Longevity and stress in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Katherine I.; Pincus, Zachary; Slack, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been understood that many of the same manipulations that increase longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans also increase resistance to various acute stressors, and vice-versa; moreover these findings hold in more complex organisms as well. Nevertheless, the mechanistic relationship between these phenotypes remains unclear, and in many cases the overlap between stress resistance and longevity is inexact. Here we review the known connections between stress resistance and longevity, discuss instances in which these connections are absent, and summarize the theoretical explanations that have been posited for these phenomena. PMID:21937765

  16. [A perspective cohort study on influence factors of survival outcome among the elderly aged ≥80 years old from longevity areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Y B; Zhang, J; Luo, J S; Shi, W H; Yin, Z X; Su, L Q; Fang, J L; Wang, J N; Shi, X M

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To investigate the influence factors of survival outcome among elderly aged ≥80 years old. Methods: In baseline survey in 2009, 930 participants aged ≥80 years old were enrolled from 7 longevity areas, to collect the information of socioeconomic factors, life style, cognitive function, activities of daily living and diseases, as well as physical examination to test biomarkers of blood and urine. The survival status was followed up at 2012 and 2014 survey. Stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to screen influence factors of 5-year survival. Results: During 5 years of follow-up, 571 participants died, 133 participants were lost to follow up, and the all-cause mortality was 63.4%. In stepwise Cox proportional hazards models, male, unmarried, self-reported poor life quality, disability in daily life, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases were risk factors for elderly survival outcome, with the HR (95% CI ) at 1.75 (1.40-2.12), 1.49 (1.10-2.03), 1.40 (1.16-1.69), 1.37 (1.11-1.70), 1.51 (1.22-1.88), 1.62 (1.18-2.23) and 1.48 (1.23-1.77) respectively. Each 1 year increase in age corresponded to 4% increase in mortality risk ( HR (95% CI )=1.04 (1.02-1.05)); each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI corresponded to 5% increase in mortality risk ( HR (95% CI )=0.95 (0.93-0.98)); each 1.0×10(9)/L increase in total lymphocyte count (TLC) corresponded to 13% increase in mortality risk ( HR (95% CI )=0.87 (0.76-0.99)). Additionally, the mortality risk decreased 19% ( HR (95% CI )=0.81 (0.66-0.98)) in participants with regularly physical exercise compared to those without; and the mortality risk decreased 41% ( HR (95% CI )=0.59 (0.40-0.88)) in participants with elevated triglycerides (TG, ≥2.26 mmol/L) compared to those without. Conclusion: In Chinese longevity areas, some nutritional and immune indices such as relatively higher level of BMI, TLC and TG were independent protective factors for 5-year

  17. Factor V Leiden in women: a thrombotic risk factor or an evolutionary advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2011-04-01

    Factor V Leiden is a common gain-of-function gene mutation resulting in a genetic predisposition to thromboembolic complications. Growing evidence in the literature indicates an interaction between factor V Leiden thrombophilia and acquired prothrombotic conditions such as contraceptive use or hormone replacement therapy, resulting in an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Similarly, when combined with the prothrombotic influence of pregnancy, women who are carriers of factor V Leiden are faced with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including VTE, pre-eclampsia, fetal loss, placental abruption, and fetal growth restriction. The results of the most important meta-analyses on the relationship between inherited (factor V Leiden) and acquired thrombophilia in women are analyzed in this review, along with the possible evolutionary role of this mutation. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  18. Exceptional longevity in female Rottweiler dogs is not encumbered by investment in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Suckow, C L; Chiang, E C; Waters, D J

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the potential trade-off between female reproductive investment and longevity in an emerging model of human healthspan, we studied pet dogs to determine whether intensity of reproduction (total number of offspring) encumbered the likelihood of exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, including complete reproductive histories, for a cohort of canine "centenarians"--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than the breed's average life expectancy. Reproductive intensity (number of litters, total number of pups) and tempo of reproductive effort (age at first reproduction, mean interbirth interval, age at last reproduction) in 78 exceptionally long-lived female Rottweilers (>13 years old) were compared to a cohort of 97 female Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death 8.0-10.75 years). We found no evidence that a mother's physiological investment in offspring was associated with disadvantaged longevity. Instead, similar to some studies in women, our data showed an inverted U-shaped trend, suggesting that moderate investment in reproduction may promote longevity. Late reproductive success, a much-studied surrogate of maternal fitness in women, was not a strong predictor of longevity in this canine cohort. Instead, independent of reproductive investment, the duration of lifetime ovary exposure was significantly associated with highly successful aging. Our results from exceptionally long-lived pet dogs provide rationale for further investigative efforts to understand the ovary-sensitive biological factors that promote healthy longevity in women and pet dogs.

  19. Risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications or pregnancy-related VTE in VTE-asymptomatic families of probands with VTE and heterozygosity for factor V Leiden or G20210 prothrombin mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Iris; Pegenaute, Carlota; González-López, Tomás José; Chillon, Carmen; Sarasquete, Maria Eugenia; Martin-Herrero, Francisco; Guerrero, Carmen; Cabrero, Mónica; Garcia Sanchez, Maria Helena; Pabon, Pedro; Lozano, Francisco Santiago; Gonzalez, Marcos; Alberca, Ignacio; González-Porras, José Ramón

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of pregnancy-related adverse events in asymptomatic relatives of probands for VTE and factor V Leiden or the G20210A variant. The antepartum management of this population ranges from antepartum anticoagulation therapy to clinical surveillance. To evaluate the risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and pregnancy-related VTE in VTE-asymptomatic families of probands with VTE and who are heterozygous carriers of either factor V Leiden or PT-G20210A mutation. One hundred and fifty-eight relatives, who had 415 pregnancies, were retrospectively evaluated. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with and without thrombophilia. In the factor V Leiden group, 22 placenta-mediated pregnancy events of 152 pregnancies (14.4%) were reported, compared with 25 adverse events of 172 pregnancies in the G20210A prothrombin group (14.5%) and 13 adverse events of 91 pregnancies in the non-carrier group (14.2%). Carriers of factor V Leiden or G20210A prothrombin were not associated with a higher risk of pregnancy-adverse outcomes compared with non-carriers: OR 1.02 (95% CI, 0.40-2.25) and 1.25 (95% CI, 0.48-3.24), respectively. Four episodes of pregnancy-associated VTE of 415 pregnancies (0.96%) were recorded. Two episodes of VTE in the G20210A group, one in the factor V Leiden group, and one episode in the non-carrier group were noted. In VTE-asymptomatic relatives of probands with VTE, the presence of factor V Leiden or the G20210A prothrombin mutation in heterozygosis should not lead to a decision to instigate antepartum prophylaxis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Lipoprotein genotype and conserved pathway for exceptional longevity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Atzmon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of single genes involved in nutrient and lipoprotein metabolism increases longevity in several animal models. Because exceptional longevity in humans is familial, it is likely that polymorphisms in genes favorably influence certain phenotypes and increase the likelihood of exceptional longevity. A group of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians (n = 213, their offspring (n = 216, and an age-matched Ashkenazi control group (n = 258 were genotyped for 66 polymorphisms in 36 candidate genes related to cardiovascular disease (CVD. These genes were tested for association with serum lipoprotein levels and particle sizes, apolipoprotein A1, B, and C-3 levels and with outcomes of hypertension, insulin resistance, and mortality. The prevalence of homozygosity for the -641C allele in the APOC3 promoter (rs2542052 was higher in centenarians (25% and their offspring (20% than in controls (10% (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively. This genotype was associated with significantly lower serum levels of APOC3 and a favorable pattern of lipoprotein levels and sizes. We found a lower prevalence of hypertension and greater insulin sensitivity in the -641C homozygotes, suggesting a protective effect against CVD and the metabolic syndrome. Finally, in a prospectively studied cohort, a significant survival advantage was demonstrated in those with the favorable -641C homozygote (p < 0.0001. Homozygosity for the APOC3 -641C allele is associated with a favorable lipoprotein profile, cardiovascular health, insulin sensitivity, and longevity. Because modulation of lipoproteins is also seen in genetically altered longevity models, it may be a common pathway influencing lifespan from nematodes to humans.

  1. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein’s Leiden chair throws ...

  2. Genome-Wide Scan Informed by Age-Related Disease Identifies Loci for Exceptional Human Longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Fortney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new statistical framework to find genetic variants associated with extreme longevity. The method, informed GWAS (iGWAS, takes advantage of knowledge from large studies of age-related disease in order to narrow the search for SNPs associated with longevity. To gain support for our approach, we first show there is an overlap between loci involved in disease and loci associated with extreme longevity. These results indicate that several disease variants may be depleted in centenarians versus the general population. Next, we used iGWAS to harness information from 14 meta-analyses of disease and trait GWAS to identify longevity loci in two studies of long-lived humans. In a standard GWAS analysis, only one locus in these studies is significant (APOE/TOMM40 when controlling the false discovery rate (FDR at 10%. With iGWAS, we identify eight genetic loci to associate significantly with exceptional human longevity at FDR < 10%. We followed up the eight lead SNPs in independent cohorts, and found replication evidence of four loci and suggestive evidence for one more with exceptional longevity. The loci that replicated (FDR < 5% included APOE/TOMM40 (associated with Alzheimer's disease, CDKN2B/ANRIL (implicated in the regulation of cellular senescence, ABO (tags the O blood group, and SH2B3/ATXN2 (a signaling gene that extends lifespan in Drosophila and a gene involved in neurological disease. Our results implicate new loci in longevity and reveal a genetic overlap between longevity and age-related diseases and traits, including coronary artery disease and Alzheimer's disease. iGWAS provides a new analytical strategy for uncovering SNPs that influence extreme longevity, and can be applied more broadly to boost power in other studies of complex phenotypes.

  3. Ageing and longevity in Volga region population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova T.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of complete clinical and demographic investigation of Volga Region population of long-livers have been presented. Anthropologic, social, clinical, laboratory and instrumental markers of longevity have been determined.

  4. Fator V de Leiden na doença de Legg-Calvé-Perthes Leiden's V-factor in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Lira Olivier Sanders

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trobofilias hereditárias têm sido implicadas na patogênese da doenca de Legg-Calvé-Perthes. Uma investigação do fator de risco hereditário mais comum para hipercoagulabilidade - a mutação no gene do fator V (fator V de Leiden - foi conduzida em 20 pacientes com Legg-Calvé-Perthes e 214 controles sadios. A prevalência do fator V de Leiden foi maior nos pacientes com Legg-Calvé-Perthes que no grupo controle (30 vs. 1,87%. A razão de chances (odds ratio para o desenvolvimento de Legg-Calvé-Perthes foi de 22,5 (pInherited tendency to hypercoagulability has been suggested as a cause of vascular thrombosis resulting in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. An investigation of the most common inherited risk factor for hypercoagulability - the mutation in the V-factor gene (Leiden's V-factor - was carried out among 20 Patients diagnosed with Legg- Calvé-Perthes disease. Patients were compared with 214 healthy controls. The prevalence of the Leiden's V-factor was higher in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease than in controls (30% vs. 1,87%. The odds ratio for the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in the presence of the Leiden's V-factor mutation was 22,5 (p<0,05; confidence interval: 5,68-89.07. These data suggest the Leiden's V-factor as an inherited risk factor for hypercoagulability associated with the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  5. Longevity of posterior tooth dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2005-02-01

    Several forms of restorative techniques are used for posterior teeth. They vary significantly in cost and longevity. The following restorative concepts are the most commonly used: amalgam, resin-based composite, PFM, cast gold alloy restorations and all-ceramic restorations. I suggest that patients be informed about the potential longevity of restorative treatment for posterior teeth as they make decisions about treatment for their oral restorative needs.

  6. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diddahally Govindaraju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP map approach and niche-construction theory, and b discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span.

  7. The pursuit of longevity - the bringer of peace to the middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common apprehensions regarding the aging population, this work aims to argue, on both deontological and utilitarian moral grounds, that any increase in general life-expectancy will be beneficial for the Middle East, countering the common fears associated with this increase. A set of ethical arguments concerning increasing longevity is presented, from both the deontological and utilitarian perspective. A wide selection of economic, psychological, demographic and epidemiological literature and databases is analyzed to determine common correlates of extended longevity. On the deontological grounds, the value of extended longevity is derived from the value of life preservation, regardless of its term. On the utilitarian grounds, the value of extended longevity is demonstrated by its correlation with further human values, such as education level and intellectual activity, economic prosperity, equality, solidarity and peacefulness. With the common apprehensions of stagnation and scarcity due to life extension found wanting, the pursuit of longevity by the population can be seen as a cross-cultural and cross-generational good. Though the current study mainly refers to sources and data relevant to the Middle East, a similar pro-longevity argument can be also made for other cultural contexts. In view of its numerous benefits, normatively, the goal of longevity should be set clearly and openly by the society, and actively pursued, or at least discussed, in academia, the political system and broader public.

  8. Floral longevity and autonomous selfing are altered by pollination and water availability in Collinsia heterophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Rachael; Arathi, H S

    2013-09-01

    A plant investing in reproduction partitions resources between flowering and seed production. Under resource limitation, altered allocations may result in floral trait variations, leading to compromised fecundity. Floral longevity and timing of selfing are often the traits most likely to be affected. The duration of corolla retention determines whether fecundity results from outcrossing or by delayed selfing-mediated reproductive assurance. In this study, the role of pollination schedules and soil water availability on floral longevity and seed production is tested in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). Using three different watering regimes and pollination schedules, effects on floral longevity and seed production were studied in this protandrous, flowering annual. The results reveal that soil water status and pollination together influence floral longevity with low soil water and hand-pollinations early in the floral lifespan reducing longevity. However, early pollinations under excess water did not extend longevity, implying that resource surplus does not lengthen the outcrossing period. The results also indicate that pollen receipt, a reliable cue for fecundity, accelerates flower drop. Early corolla abscission under drought stress could potentially exacerbate sexual conflict in this protandrous, hermaphroditic species by ensuring self-pollen paternity and enabling male control of floral longevity. While pollination schedules did not affect fecundity, water stress reduced per-capita seed numbers. Unmanipulated flowers underwent delayed autonomous selfing, producing very few seeds, suggesting that inbreeding depression may limit benefits of selfing. In plants where herkogamy and dichogamy facilitate outcrossing, floral longevity determines reproductive success and mating system. Reduction in longevity under drought suggests a strong environmental effect that could potentially alter the preferred breeding mode in this mixed-mated species. Extrapolating the

  9. The Trade-Off between Female Fertility and Longevity during the Epidemiological Transition in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C

    2015-01-01

    as an evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and survival. We examine the relationship between fertility and longevity during the epidemiological transition in the Netherlands. This period of rapid decline in mortality from infectious diseases offers a good opportunity to study the relationship between...... fertility and longevity, using registry data from 6,359 women born in The Netherlands between 1850 and 1910. We hypothesize that an initially negative relationship between women's fertility and their longevity gradually turns less negative during the epidemiological transition, because of decreasing costs...

  10. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  11. Factor V Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T mutations as risk factors for venous thrombosis during pregnancy and puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Valentina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Venous thrombosis is the most common cause of obstetric morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and puerperium. The incidence of pregnancy associated venous thrombosis varies from 1 in 1000 to 1 in 2000 deliveries. Factor V G1691A (FV Leiden, FII G20210A and MTHFR C677T mutations are the most common genetic risk factors for thromboembolism. The aim of this study was to establish the presence of these risk factors in a group of women with an episode of deep venous thrombosis during pregnancy or puerperium. Methods. The study was carried in a group of 45 women with the first episode of deep venous thrombosis during pregnancy or puerperium. The patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, antithrombin III, protein C or protein S deficiency, and autoimmune and malignant diseases were excluded from the study. FV Leiden, FII G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction, followed by digestion with specific restriction enzymes. Results. Twenty heterozygous carriers of the FV Leiden mutation and one homozygous carrier were detected, which represents the frequencies of 44.4% and 2.2%, respectively. For the FII G20210A mutation, six heterozygous carriers were identified, giving the frequency of 13.3%. The MTHFR C677T mutation was observed in 31 patients (22 heterozygous and 9 homozygous carriers which represents the frequencies of 48.9% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion. Our study suggested that the obligatory testing for FV Leiden and FII G20210A mutations was strongly recommended in women with history of venous thrombosis during pregnancy and puerperium. We found a slight effect of MTHFR 677T allele, but it should be considered in association with other risk factors.

  12. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  13. Molecular characterization of the acquisition of longevity during seed maturation in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Lima, Juliana Joice; Buitink, Julia; Lalanne, David; Rossi, Rubiana Falopa; Pelletier, Sandra; da Silva, Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral; Leprince, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Seed longevity, defined as the ability to remain alive during storage, is an important agronomic factor. Poor longevity negatively impacts seedling establishment and consequently crop yield. This is particularly problematic for soybean as seeds have a short lifespan. While the economic importance of soybean has fueled a large number of transcriptome studies during embryogenesis and seed filling, the mechanisms regulating seed longevity during late maturation remain poorly understood. Here, a detailed physiological and molecular characterization of late seed maturation was performed in soybean to obtain a comprehensive overview of the regulatory genes that are potentially involved in longevity. Longevity appeared at physiological maturity at the end of seed filling before maturation drying and progressively doubled until the seeds reached the dry state. The increase in longevity was associated with the expression of genes encoding protective chaperones such as heat shock proteins and the repression of nuclear and chloroplast genes involved in a range of chloroplast activities, including photosynthesis. An increase in the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)/sucrose ratio together with changes in RFO metabolism genes was also associated with longevity. A gene co-expression network analysis revealed 27 transcription factors whose expression profiles were highly correlated with longevity. Eight of them were previously identified in the longevity network of Medicago truncatula, including homologues of ERF110, HSF6AB, NFXL1 and members of the DREB2 family. The network also contained several transcription factors associated with auxin and developmental cell fate during flowering, organ growth and differentiation. A transcriptional transition occurred concomitant with seed chlorophyll loss and detachment from the mother plant, suggesting the activation of a post-abscission program. This transition was enriched with AP2/EREBP and WRKY transcription factors and genes

  14. Investigating longevity of corrosion inhibitors and performance of deicer products under storage or after pavement application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the longevity of corrosion inhibitors and the performance of inhibited deicer products under storage or after pavement application. No significant degradation of corrosion inhibitor or loss of chlorides was seen during the months...

  15. The impact of biomedical innovation on longevity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R Lichtenberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have expressed the view that a substantial portion of recent gains in longevity and health is due to biomedical research and innovation. This article describes the methodologies and findings of a number of studies based on observational data that have sought to measure the impact of biomedical innovation on the longevity and health of Americans and other populations during recent decades. Most of these studies have examined the impact of innovation in pharmaceuticals, the most research-intensive medical good or service. Two measures of medical innovation that have been used are the mean vintage of the medical goods or procedures used by an individual or population, and the number of distinct products (e.g. drugs available for treating a condition. Longevity (e.g. time till death is the health outcome that has been analyzed the most, but several studies have studied the impact of medical (i.e. pharmaceutical innovation on the ability of people to work or engage in activities of daily living. Some studies have been based on cross-sectional patient-level data. Others have been based on longitudinal, region-level data; they have investigated whether regions (e.g. states undergoing more rapid medical innovation have exhibited larger improvements in health. And some studies have been based on longitudinal, disease-level data; they have investigated whether the medical conditions undergoing more rapid innovation have exhibited larger gains in health outcomes. Innovation related to some specific major diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer has been investigated, but the overall impact of innovation related to other major diseases (e.g. diabetes has not.These studies provide considerable support for the hypothesis that a substantial portion of recent gains in longevity and health is due to biomedical research and innovation. It would be desirable to apply these methods to data from developing countries.

  16. Multiple melanomas after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma in a non-Dutch p16-Leiden mutation carrier with 2 MC1R high-risk variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Adina; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Ugurel, Selma; Gast, Andreas; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2007-04-01

    A 19-base pair germline deletion in exon 2 of the CDKN2A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) gene (Leiden mutation) has been detected in Dutch families with familial melanomas. The penetrance of CDKN2A mutations varies widely and is influenced by environmental and unrelated genetic factors such as variants in the MC1R gene. We describe a 25-year-old German woman who developed 8 invasive melanomas and 6 in situ melanomas after radiation therapy and polychemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma. Genetic testing revealed a constitutional CDKN2A Leiden mutation in the proband and her sister, mother, and mother's sister. The proband also carried high-risk MC1R variant alleles R151C and R160W, which she had inherited from her father and her mother, respectively. The less affected mutation carrier sister did not have high-risk MC1R variant alleles. Analysis of DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues showed loss of heterozygosity at CDKN2A loci in all 3 melanomas studied but not in Hodgkin lymphoma. The pedigree revealed several types of cancers on both sides of the family, but no Dutch ancestors were found. No mutations in the CDK4, B-raf, and N-ras genes were detected either in the germline or in tumors from the patient. This study shows the variability of the penetrance of the CDKN2A Leiden mutation within the same family, which could be due to genetic or exogenous factors.

  17. High prevalence of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20101A mutations in Kashmiri patients with venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafia, Syed; Zargar, Mahrukh H; Khan, Nabeela; Ahmad, Rehana; Shah, Zafar Amin; Asimi, Ravouf

    2018-05-15

    The genetic variants of the factor V (G1691A), prothrombin (G20210A) and MTHFR (C677T) genes have been widely implicated as inherited risk factors for developing venous thrombosis. This study was undertaken to reveal the frequency of these mutations in Kashmiri patients with venous thromboembolism. A case-control study was designed with 250 VTE patients and 250 healthy controls. The mutations were analysed using ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP approach. The factor V Leiden G1691A mutation was found in 17/250 (6.8%) VTE patients and prothrombin G20210A mutation was found in 7/250 (2.8%) VTE patients while no mutation was found in any of the healthy controls. Both the mutations were found to be significantly associated with the increased risk of VTE (p = 0.0001 and 0.0150 respectively) while no association of VTE risk with MTHFR C677T polymorphism was found (p = 0.53). The increased frequency of factor V Leiden G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutation in VTE patients indicates a significant role of these mutations in the development of VTE in our population. We therefore suggest the routine screening of these two mutations as thrombophilic markers in Kashmiri patients with venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating Connections between Metabolism, Longevity, and Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, George A; Ashrafi, Kaveh

    2016-08-01

    An overview of Caenorhabditis elegans as an experimental organism for studying energy balance is presented. Some of the unresolved questions that complicate the interpretation of lipid measurements from C. elegans are highlighted. We review studies that show that both lipid synthesis and lipid breakdown pathways are activated and needed for the longevity of hermaphrodites that lack their germlines. These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of triglyceride-rich lipid particles in C. elegans and reveal specific lipid signals that promote longevity. Finally, we provide a brief overview of feeding behavioral responses of C. elegans to varying nutritional conditions and highlight an unanticipated metabolic pathway that allows the incorporation of experience in feeding behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Job longevity as a situational factor in job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1978-06-01

    This study investigates the relationships between overall job satisfaction and the five task dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback-from-job for employees at different stages of their careers, as measured by their length of employment on their current jobs, as well as in their current organizations. Basically, the analysis shows that the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and each of the task dimensions depends on both the job longevity and organizational longevity of the sampled individuals. For employees new to an organization, for example, only task significance is related positively to job satisfaction, while autonomy has a strongly negative correlation. The study presents other significant correlational differences and discusses the implications of its findings for task design, as well as for managing new employees. Approximately 3500 respondents from four different governments--two metropolitan, one county, and one state--participated in the collection of survey data.

  20. Longevity of orders is related to the longevity of their constituent genera rather than genus richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholdt, Stefan; Sneppen, Kim; Westphal, Hildegard

    2009-05-01

    Longevity of a taxonomic group is an important issue in understanding the dynamics of evolution. In this respect a key observation is that genera, families or orders can each be assigned a characteristic average lifetime (Van Valen in Evol Theory 1:1-30, 1973). Using the fossil marine animal genera database (Sepkoski in Bull Am Paleontol 363, pp 563, 2002) we here examine the relationship between longevity of a higher taxonomic group (orders) and the longevity of its lower taxonomic groups (genera). We find insignificant correlation between the size of an order and its longevity, whereas we observe large correlation between the lifetime of an order and the lifetime of its constituent genera. These observations suggest that longevity of taxonomic groups is heritable intrinsically or on the grounds of environmental preferences.

  1. Lack of association between factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms in Tunisian subjects with a history of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berredjeb Ben Slama, Dhouha; Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Haggui, Abdeddayem; Nsiri, Brahim; Baraket, Nadia; Haouala, Habib; Gritli, Nasreddine

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is a multifactorial disease. It is provoked by occlusions in the coronary arteries resulting from exposure to multiple risk factors. To study the risk of myocardial infarction associated with the gene polymorphisms of factor V Leiden and factor II (G20210A). Cases consisted of 100 myocardial infarction patients who were hospitalized in the Principal Military Hospital of Tunis and 200 control subjects with no history of myocardial infarction. The prevalence of the factor V Leiden was higher in myocardial infarction patients (9%) than in control subjects (6%) with an OR=1.55 (95% CI=0.58-4.12), whereas the prevalence of prothrombin G20210A mutation was 3% and 2.5% in the patient and control groups, respectively [OR=1.21 (95% CI=0.22-5.94)]. Our results indicate that neither factor V Leiden nor the prothrombin G20210A contributed to the risk factors for myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beyond Expected Utility in the Economics of Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Cordoba, Juan Carlos; Ripoll, Marla

    2013-01-01

    We document various limitations of the expected utility model for the study of health and longevity. The model assumes individuals are indifferent between early and late resolution of uncertainty. This assumption gives rise to predictions regarding the economic value of life that are inconsistent with relevant evidence. For example, poor individuals would price life below the present value of foregone income or even negatively. We show that a non-expected utility model disentangling intertemp...

  3. Bilateral Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease and Kienbock's Disease in a Child With Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Heather L; Riester, Scott; Moran, Steven L

    2016-09-01

    Background: The etiology of multifocal osteonecrosis is not definitively known; however, hypercoagulable state is a very plausible cause. Methods: We present an unusual case of a 12-year-old boy with a history of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease presenting with right wrist pain who was subsequently diagnosed with Kienbock's disease. The finding of multifocal osteonecrosis prompted testing for a hypercoagulable state that was positive for Factor V Leiden thrombophilia. A thorough literature review using Medline database was conducted to investigate associations between inherited hypercoagulable states and multifocal osteonecrosis. Results: Our literature review identified 2 similar cases of multifocal osteonecrosis associated with a hypercoagulable disorder in adult patients. There were no reports among the pediatric patient population. Meta-analysis has demonstrated a potential link between Legg-Calve-Perthes disease and Factor V Leiden thrombophilia. Conclusions: This study offers further evidence to support the theory that multifocal osteonecrosis may be linked to a hypercoagulable state. Patients presenting with multifocal osteonecrosis should undergo screening for hypercoagulable states. Further investigation is needed to ascertain the potential benefit of prophylactic anticoagulation in patients with a known hypercoagulable state and multifocal osteonecrosis.

  4. Prevalentie van chronische-vermoeidheidsyndroom in 4 huisartspraktijken in de regio Leiden [Prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome in four general practices in Leyden region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, R.G.J.A.; Waal, M.W.M. de; Opmeer, C.; Petri, H.; Springer, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Doel. De prevalentie vaststellen van chronische-vermoeidheidsyndroom (CVS) in de huisartspraktijk. Opzet. Descriptief. Plaats. Huisartspraktijken in Leiden en omstreken. Methode. Het geanonimiseerde geautomatiseerde databestand van het Registratie Netwerk Universitaire Huisartspraktijken Leiden en

  5. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Willems, Leo; van Arkel, Jeroen; Dekkers, Bas J W; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-05-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increased costs in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive for seed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive correlation between galactinol content and seed longevity in the three species tested, which indicates that this correlation is conserved in the Brassicaceae and beyond. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in tomato revealed a co-locating QTL for galactinol content and seed longevity on chromosome 2. A candidate for this QTL is the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene (Solyc02g084980.2.1) that is located in the QTL interval. GALACTINOL SYNTHASE is a key enzyme of the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) pathway. To investigate the role of enzymes in the RFO pathway in more detail, we applied a reverse genetics approach using T-DNA knock-out lines in genes encoding enzymes of this pathway (GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 1, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE, STACHYOSE SYNTHASE and ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE) and overexpressors of the cucumber GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2 gene in Arabidopsis. The galactinol synthase 2 mutant and the galactinol synthase 1 galactinol synthase 2 double mutant contained the lowest seed galactinol content which coincided with lower seed longevity. These results show that galactinol content of mature dry seed can be used as a biomarker for seed longevity in Brassicaceae and tomato. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-Wide Scan Informed by Age-Related Disease Identifies Loci for Exceptional Human Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Kristen; Dobriban, Edgar; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Monti, Daniela; Mari, Daniela; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir; Franceschi, Claudio; Owen, Art B; Kim, Stuart K

    2015-12-01

    We developed a new statistical framework to find genetic variants associated with extreme longevity. The method, informed GWAS (iGWAS), takes advantage of knowledge from large studies of age-related disease in order to narrow the search for SNPs associated with longevity. To gain support for our approach, we first show there is an overlap between loci involved in disease and loci associated with extreme longevity. These results indicate that several disease variants may be depleted in centenarians versus the general population. Next, we used iGWAS to harness information from 14 meta-analyses of disease and trait GWAS to identify longevity loci in two studies of long-lived humans. In a standard GWAS analysis, only one locus in these studies is significant (APOE/TOMM40) when controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at 10%. With iGWAS, we identify eight genetic loci to associate significantly with exceptional human longevity at FDR Alzheimer's disease), CDKN2B/ANRIL (implicated in the regulation of cellular senescence), ABO (tags the O blood group), and SH2B3/ATXN2 (a signaling gene that extends lifespan in Drosophila and a gene involved in neurological disease). Our results implicate new loci in longevity and reveal a genetic overlap between longevity and age-related diseases and traits, including coronary artery disease and Alzheimer's disease. iGWAS provides a new analytical strategy for uncovering SNPs that influence extreme longevity, and can be applied more broadly to boost power in other studies of complex phenotypes.

  7. Seed longevity: survival and maintenance of high germination ability of dry seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Debeaujon, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    The seed constitutes the main vector of plant propagation and it is a critical development stage with many specificities. Seed longevity is a major challenge for the conservation of plant biodiversity and for crop success. Seeds possess a wide range of systems (protection, detoxification, repair) allowing them to survive in the dry state and to preserve a high germination ability. Therefore, the seed system provides an appropriate model to study longevity and aging.

  8. Genome-Wide Scan Informed by Age-Related Disease Identifies Loci for Exceptional Human Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Kristen; Dobriban, Edgar; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Monti, Daniela; Mari, Daniela; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir; Franceschi, Claudio; Owen, Art B.; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new statistical framework to find genetic variants associated with extreme longevity. The method, informed GWAS (iGWAS), takes advantage of knowledge from large studies of age-related disease in order to narrow the search for SNPs associated with longevity. To gain support for our approach, we first show there is an overlap between loci involved in disease and loci associated with extreme longevity. These results indicate that several disease variants may be depleted in centenarians versus the general population. Next, we used iGWAS to harness information from 14 meta-analyses of disease and trait GWAS to identify longevity loci in two studies of long-lived humans. In a standard GWAS analysis, only one locus in these studies is significant (APOE/TOMM40) when controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at 10%. With iGWAS, we identify eight genetic loci to associate significantly with exceptional human longevity at FDR Alzheimer’s disease), CDKN2B/ANRIL (implicated in the regulation of cellular senescence), ABO (tags the O blood group), and SH2B3/ATXN2 (a signaling gene that extends lifespan in Drosophila and a gene involved in neurological disease). Our results implicate new loci in longevity and reveal a genetic overlap between longevity and age-related diseases and traits, including coronary artery disease and Alzheimer’s disease. iGWAS provides a new analytical strategy for uncovering SNPs that influence extreme longevity, and can be applied more broadly to boost power in other studies of complex phenotypes. PMID:26677855

  9. Non-existence of Steady State Equilibrium in the Neoclassical Growth Model with a Longevity Trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mikkel Nørlem

    of steady state equilibrium when considering the empirically observed trend in longevity. We extend a standard continuous time overlapping generations model by a longevity trend and are thereby able to study the properties of mortality-driven population growth. This turns out to be exceedingly complicated...... to handle, and it is shown that in general no steady state equilibrium exists. Consequently analytical results and long run implications cannot be obtained in a setting with a realistic demographic setup....

  10. Personality, burnout, and longevity among professional music therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Victoria P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible relationships between personality, burnout level, longevity, and demographic variables among professional music therapists. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) were used to test personality and burnout. Subjects were 137 professional music therapists from all seven American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) regions with an overall average longevity of 17.85 years. The 16PF showed the personality traits that most describe music therapists are emotional sensitivity, reasoning, apprehension, warmth, openness to change, self-reliance, extraversion, anxiety, abstractedness, rule-consciousness, and self-control. Logistic regressions showed that the personality factor of anxiety (p personality factor of dominance (p personal accomplishment. While no personality factor significantly predicts the MBI-HSS subscales of depersonalization, social boldness (p music therapists who are staying and thriving in the profession.

  11. Longevity of restorations in posterior teeth and reasons for failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, R; Manhart, J

    2001-01-01

    This article compiles a survey on the longevity of restorations in stress-bearing posterior cavities and assesses possible reasons for failure. The dental literature predominantly of the last decade was reviewed for longitudinal, controlled clinical studies and retrospective cross-sectional studies of posterior restorations. Only studies investigating the clinical performance of restorations in permanent teeth were included. Longevity and annual failure rates of amalgam, direct composite restorations, glass ionomers and derivative products, composite and ceramic inlays, and cast gold restorations were determined for Class I and II cavities. Annual failure rates in posterior stress-bearing restorations are: 0% to 7% for amalgam restorations, 0% to 9% for direct composites, 1.4% to 14.4% for glass ionomers and derivatives, 0% to 11.8% for composite inlays, 0% to 7.5% for ceramic restorations, 0% to 4.4% for CAD/CAM ceramic restorations, and 0% to 5.9% for cast gold inlays and onlays. Longevity of dental restorations is dependent upon many different factors that are related to materials, the patient, and the dentist. The principal reasons for failure were secondary caries, fracture, marginal deficiencies, wear, and postoperative sensitivity. A distinction must be made between factors causing early failures and those that are responsible for restoration loss after several years of service.

  12. Worker life tables, survivorship, and longevity in colonies of Bombus (Fervidobombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Vieira da Silva-Matos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Survivorship curves and longevity of workers were studied in two queenright and two queenless colonies of Bombus (Fervidobombus atratus. Survivorship curves for workers of all colonies were, in general, convex, indicating an increasing mortality rate with increasing age. The mean longevity for the workers from queenright colonies, 24.3 days and 17.6 days, was not significantly different from that in queenless colonies, 21.2 days and 20.2 days. In all colonies workers started foraging activities when aged 0-5 days, and the potential forager rates rose progressively with increasing age. Mortality rates within each age interval were significantly correlated with the foraging worker rates in all colonies. Only in two of the colonies (one queenright and one queenless longevity was significantly correlated with worker size. The duration of brood development period seems to be one of the most important factors influencing adult worker longevity in this bumble bee species.

  13. Heterogeneous ethnic distribution of the factor v leiden mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rendrik F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherited resistance to activated protein C caused by the factor V Leiden (FVL mutation is the most common genetic cause of venous thrombosis yet described, being found in 20-60% of patients with venous thrombophilia. A relationship between the FVL mutation and an increased predisposition to arterial thrombosis in young women was recently reported. We assessed the prevalence of the FVL mutation in 440 individuals (880 chromosomes belonging to four different ethnic groups: Caucasians, African Blacks, Asians and Amerindians. PCR amplification followed by MnlI digestion was employed to define the genotype. The FVL mutation was found in a heterozygous state in four out of 152 Whites (2.6%, one out of 151 Amerindians (0.6%, and was absent among 97 African Blacks and 40 Asians. Our results confirm that FVL has a heterogeneous distribution in different human populations, a fact that may contribute to geographic and ethnic differences in the prevalence of thrombotic diseases. In addition, these data may be helpful in decisions regarding the usefulness of screening for the FVL mutation in subjects at risk for thrombosis.

  14. Lifelong pathways to longevity: personality, relationships, flourishing, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L; Della Porta, Serenity S; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-12-01

    Building upon decades of research with the lifelong (nine-decade) Terman Life Cycle Study, we present a life pathway model for understanding human thriving that accounts for long-term individual difference in health and longevity, with a particular focus on child personality and adult social relationships. Developing data derived and supplemented from the Terman study (N = 570 males, 451 females), we employed regression and survival analyses to test models of childhood personality predicting adult psychosocial factors (subjective well-being, family relationships, community involvement, subjective achievement, hardships) and subsequent longevity. Child personality differentially related to midlife social relationships, well-being, and hardships. Conscientiousness and good social relationships predicted longer life, whereas subjective well-being was unrelated to mortality risk. Examining multiple life factors across long time periods uncovers important pathways through which personality relates to premature mortality or longevity. Typical stress-and-illness models are untenable and should be replaced with life span trajectory approaches. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Recurrent venous thromboembolism in a patient with heterozygous factor v leiden mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Whitney; Thomason, Angela R; Prince, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    To report a patient case identifying risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation. A 54-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation in 2008 after experiencing a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and bilateral pulmonary embolism. The patient was treated appropriately and started on anticoagulation therapy with warfarin through an anticoagulation management clinic. After approximately 17 months of warfarin therapy without incident, warfarin was discontinued. Within 2 months after discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy, the patient experienced his second DVT and left pulmonary artery embolus. The risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation is documented as an approximate 1.4-fold increase compared to patients without thrombophilia. However, the risk increases dramatically when nonreversible (age) or reversible risk factors (obesity, smoking, and long air flights) are present in this population. Based on recent literature, heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation exponentially increases the risk of recurrent VTE, especially in the presence of other risk factors. Health care providers should complete a comprehensive review of the patients' other risk factors when deciding on duration of anticoagulation therapy for patients with positive heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation.

  16. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C; Pyke, David A

    2012-03-01

    Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30-40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and seeds in the seed bank was highly heterogeneous both spatially and temporally, and attrition varied significantly by region. Our study suggests that Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  17. Dual PPARα/γ agonist tesaglitazar reduces atherosclerosis in insulin-resistant and hypercholesterolemic ApoE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Boesten, L.S.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Kooistra, T.; Emeis, J.J.; Lundholm, E.; Camejo, G.; Havekes, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - We investigated whether the dual PPARα/γ agonist tesaglitazar has anti-atherogenic effects in ApoE*3Leiden mice with reduced insulin sensitivity. METHODS AND RESULTS - ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice were fed a high-fat (HF) insulin-resistance-inducing diet. One group received a

  18. Factor V Leiden does not have a role in cryptogenic ischemic stroke among Iranian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Meraj; Amini, Gilda; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Different risk factors have been suggested for ischemic stroke in young adults. In a group of these patients despite of extensive diagnostic work-up, the primary cause remains unknown. Coagulation tendency is accounted as a possible cause in these patients. Previous studies on factor V Leiden (FVL) as the main cause of inherited thrombophilia for clarifying the role of FVL in stroke have resulted in controversial findings. The current study investigates the role of this factor in ischemic stroke among Iranians. This case-control study was performed between September 2007 and December 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The case group comprised of 22 patients of which 15 were males and 7 were females with age range of ≤50 years, diagnosed as ischemic stroke without classic risk factors and the control group consisted of 54 healthy young adults. After filling consent form, venous blood samples were obtained and sent to the laboratory for genetic examination. No FVL mutation was found in the case group. There was one carrier of the mutation as heterozygous in the control group (relative frequency = 1.85%). Based on our study, FVL might not be considered as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in Iranian individuals who are not suffering from other risk factors of ischemic stroke.

  19. Lack of association between factor V Leiden and sepsis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; He, Yanxian; Song, Weibing; Lu, Yong; Li, Ping; Zou, Li; Zhong, Wuzhuang

    2015-04-01

    Some studies evaluated the association of factor V Leiden (FVL) with sepsis risk and mortality risk. However, the results were conflicting. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to address the association between FVL and sepsis. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random effects model. Five case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were included. Overall, no significant association between FVL and sepsis risk was observed (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.74-1.15; P = .49). In addition, there was no significant association between FVL and sepsis-related mortality (OR = 1.17; 95% CI 0.73-1.88; P = .52). In the subgroup analysis, no increased sepsis risk and mortality risk were found in caucasian population. This meta-analysis suggested that FVL was not a risk factor for sepsis and sepsis mortality. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in type IV Ehlers-Danlos patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Marwan; Hotait, Mostafa; Winston, Brion

    2014-03-16

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. Several hemostatic abnormalities have been described in EDS patients that increase the bleeding tendencies of these patients. This case report illustrates a patient with an unusual presentation of a patient with type IV EDS, platelet δ-storage pool disease and factor V Leiden mutation. Young woman having previous bilateral deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli coexisting with ruptured splenic aneurysm and multiple other aneurysms now presented with myocardial infarction. Presence of factor V Leiden mutation raises the possibility that the infarct was due to acute coronary thrombosis, although coronary artery aneurysm and dissection with myocardial infarction is known to occur in vascular type EDS. This is the first report in the medical literature of factor V Leiden mutation in an EDS patient which made the management of our patient challenging with propensity to both bleeding and clotting.

  1. Testosterone, anastrozole, factor V Leiden heterozygosity and osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Ramesh S; Glueck, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Our specific aim is to describe the development of thrombotic osteonecrosis of the jaws after testosterone-anastrozole therapy in a 55-year-old white man subsequently found to have previously undiagnosed factor V Leiden heterozygosity. Before the diagnosis of V Leiden heterozygosity, he was given testosterone gel, 50 mg/day, and on testosterone, serum testosterone (963 ng/dl) and estradiol were high (50 pg/ml). Anastrozole was started, and testosterone was continued. Six months later, osteonecrosis of the jaws was diagnosed. Exogenous testosterone is aromatized to estradiol and estradiol-induced thrombophilia, when superimposed on underlying familial thrombophilia, as in this case, may lead to thrombosis and osteonecrosis. We recommend that before giving testosterone, at a minimum, screening for the factor V Leiden and G20210A mutations, and factor VIII and XI activity be carried out, to avoid unanticipated thrombosis.

  2. A RARE CASE OF FACTOR V LEIDEN MUTATION COMPLICATING PREGNANCY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Factor V Leiden mutation (Factor V Leiden is an autosomal dominant haemostatic disorder that predisposes affected persons to venous thromboembolic events (VTE. Although the mutation causing FVL is easily diagnosed using molecular DNA techniques, (1 patients who are heterozygous for this disorder often remain asymptomatic until they develop a concurrent prothrombotic condition. Pregnancy, which may increase an individual woman’s risk of venous thromboembolic events by 5- to 6-fold. (2 Because there are potentially serious effects of FVL for both the mother and the child, and availability of effective treatment strategies, early detection and treatment of this condition is warranted. (3 We are presenting this case in order to emphasise the existence of Factor V Leiden in Indian population and its approach during pregnancy.

  3. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity - The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    . We develop an overlapping generations model in continuous time which encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for both trend increases in longevity and productivity, we address the issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...

  4. Natural Variation for Seed Longevity and Seed Dormancy Are Negatively Correlated in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Keizer, Paul; van Eeuwijk, Fred; Smeekens, Sjef; Bentsink, Leónie

    2012-01-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy and seed longevity described as two traits. Seed dormancy is defined as a temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate in conditions that favor germination, whereas seed longevity is defined as seed viability after dry storage (storability). In plants, the association of seed longevity with seed dormancy has not been studied in detail. This is surprising given the ecological, agronomical, and economic importance of seed longevity. We studied seed longevity to reveal its genetic regulators and its association with seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Integrated quantitative trait locus analyses for seed longevity, in six recombinant inbred line populations, revealed five loci: Germination Ability After Storage1 (GAAS1) to GAAS5. GAAS loci colocated with seed dormancy loci, Delay Of Germination (DOG), earlier identified in the same six recombinant inbred line populations. Both GAAS loci and their colocation with DOG loci were validated by near isogenic lines. A negative correlation was observed, deep seed dormancy correlating with low seed longevity and vice versa. Detailed analysis on the collocating GAAS5 and DOG1 quantitative trait loci revealed that the DOG1-Cape Verde Islands allele both reduces seed longevity and increases seed dormancy. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a negative correlation between seed longevity and seed dormancy. PMID:23085841

  5. World-Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca. Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science. Series: Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science, Text and Studies 36, Leiden (Brill) / London (Furqan Foundation), 1999. (Awarded the world prize for

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, Benno van

    2010-01-01

    This beautifully executed book with numerous colour photographs deals with two fascinating metal instruments that surfaced in 1989 and 1995 (a third copy was identified too late to be included in the study). Both consist of a world-map centered around Mecca with a rule that enables one to read off the qibla (sacred direction for Muslim prayer) of more than one hundred localities engraved on the map as well as their distance from Mecca. The metalwork is clearly Safavid and can be dated to appr...

  6. An investigation of the association of the factor V Leiden mutation and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, N; Standen, G R; Probert, C S

    1999-11-01

    A thrombotic aetiology for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been proposed as a result of its association with thrombo-embolic complications, smoking, the oral contraceptive pill and the response of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients to heparin. The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is the commonest inherited risk factor for thrombo-embolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that the pro-thrombotic state associated with the FVL mutation is involved in the aetiology of IBD. A prospective cohort study of patients attending the Bristol Royal Infirmary IBD outpatient clinic was performed. Fifty-four patients with IBD (30 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 24 with UC) and 55 historical controls were screened for the presence of FVL using the activated protein C (APC) ratio. Abnormal APC ratios were confirmed to be due to FVL using a heteroduplex-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Five patients had the FVL mutation, compared to two controls. One of the patients was homozygous. Two of the patients had CD and three UC. The differences between controls and IBD patients was significant when the allelic frequency of the FVL mutation in patients with UC was compared with controls, with a risk ratio of 2.27, but with limited data. There appears to be a weak association between FVL and UC. This association is not strong enough to imply a causal relationship, but may be responsible for some of the thrombo-embolic complications.

  7. Differential longevities in desiccated anhydrobiotic plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance is a wide-spread phenomenon in the plant kingdom, particularly in small propagules lacking own root or rhizome system, such as seeds, pollen, spores of spore plants, and whole moss plants, but rare in whole, vascular plants. Longevities in the desiccated state vary from a few

  8. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries in

  9. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  10. Paradigms and pitfalls of yeast longevity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, David A

    2002-04-30

    Over the past 10 years, considerable progress has been made in the yeast aging field. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that a cause of yeast aging stems from the inherent instability of repeated ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Over 16 yeast longevity genes have now been identified and the majority of these have been found to affect rDNA silencing or stability. Environmental conditions such as calorie restriction have been shown to modulate this mode of aging via Sir2, an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) that binds at the rDNA locus. Although this mechanism of aging appears to be yeast-specific, the longevity function of Sir2 is conserved in at least one multicellular organism, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). These findings are consistent with the idea that aging is a by-product of natural selection but longevity regulation is a highly adaptive trait. Characterizing this and other mechanisms of yeast aging should help identify additional components of longevity pathways in higher organisms.

  11. Membrane chemical stability and seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; As, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we investigate the relationships between the chemical stability of the membrane surface and seed longevity. Dry embryos of long-lived tomato and short-lived onion seeds were labeled with 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DS). Temperature-induced loss of the electron spin resonance signal caused by

  12. Longevity and aging in vertebrate evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, G.A

    1978-08-01

    Mammalian lifespan has a close allometric association with brain weight, body weight, metabolic rate, and body temperature. Longevity, then, if governed by natural selection acting on positive genetic mechanisms for stabilizing life processes, rather than by the random accumulation of ''senescence genes.'' This paper compares the social implications of these hypotheses.

  13. Nectarine promotes longevity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative damage and gradual decline of physiology function with age, and is modulated by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Functional fruits are thought to be ideal candidates for promoting longevity and healthspan due to their high contents of polypheno...

  14. Longevity and Patau syndrome: what determines survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroos, Sherina; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pugh, Jennifer Harriet; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Hodes, Deborah

    2012-12-06

    The authors report of an 8-year-old girl with non-mosaic Patau syndrome. The median life expectancy of Patau syndrome is 7-10 days, and 90% die in the first year of life. Survival is often attributed to mosaicism and the severity of associated malformations. We delineate the developing phenotype and review the literature discussing potential contributory factors to longevity.

  15. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2012-06-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.

  16. No associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiographic features in knee osteoarthritis patients prior to Total Knee Arthroplasty: A cross-sectional analysis of the Longitudinal Leiden Orthopaedics Outcomes of Osteo-Arthritis study (LOAS) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtenberg, Claudia S; Meesters, Jorit J L; Kroon, Herman M; Verdegaal, Suzan H M; Tilbury, Claire; Dekker, Joost; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van der Esch, Martin

    2017-08-01

    To describe the prevalence of self-reported knee joint instability in patients with pre-surgery knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to explore the associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiological features. A cross-sectional study including patients scheduled for primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). Self-reported knee instability was examined by questionnaire. Radiological features consisted of osteophyte formation and joint space narrowing (JSN), both scored on a 0 to three scale. Scores >1 are defined as substantial JSN or osteophyte formation. Regression analyses were provided to identify associations of radiological features with self-reported knee joint instability. Two hundred and sixty-five patients (mean age 69years and 170 females) were included. Knee instability was reported by 192 patients (72%). Substantial osteophyte formation was present in 78 patients (41%) reporting and 33 patients (46%) not reporting knee joint instability. Substantial JSN was present in 137 (71%) and 53 patients (73%), respectively. Self-reported knee instability was not associated with JSN (relative to score 0, odds ratios (95% CI) of score 1, 2 and 3 were 0.87 (0.30-2.54), 0.98 (0.38-2.52), 0.68 (0.25-1.86), respectively) or osteophyte formation (relative to score 0, odds ratios (95% CI) of score 1, 2 and 3 were 0.77 (0.36-1.64), 0.69 (0.23-1.45), 0.89 (0.16-4.93), respectively). Stratified analysis for pain, age and BMI showed no associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiological features. Self-reported knee joint instability is not associated with JSN or osteophyte formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Hoving

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1% diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  18. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Lisa R; de Vries, Margreet R; de Jong, Rob C M; Katiraei, Saeed; Pronk, Amanda; Quax, Paul H A; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko

    2018-02-03

    The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden ( E3L ) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  19. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio are associated with depressive symptoms in older Chinese women: results from the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study (RuLAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Tingfan; Wang, Qunshan; Liu, Zuyun; Zhu, Yinsheng; Wang, Yong; Shi, Rui; Wang, Zhengdong; Chu, Xuefeng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xiaoyan

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to determine whether obesity is associated with depressive symptoms among older Chinese. Data from the cross-sectional Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study were used including anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)), socio-demographic characteristics, living habits, physical health and cognitive impairment. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between obesity and depressive symptoms. Among 1732 elderly Chinese aged 70-84 years, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 6.7% (5.0%-8.5%) in men and 12.5% (10.4%-14.6%) in women. A negative linear trend was found between depressive symptoms and BMI in women (P for trend symptoms compared with their normal weight counterparts. Furthermore, consistent trends were observed with lower depression prevalence rates in higher WC and WHR categories in women. However, no such associations were apparent in men. Higher BMI, WC and WHR categories were all associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms in older women.

  20. Is extreme climate or moderate climate more conducive to longevity in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Rosenberg, Mark; Wang, Yingli

    2018-02-01

    Climate is closely related to human longevity. In China, there are many climate types. According to national population censuses from 1982 to 2000, most provinces with a high ratio of centenarians are located in western and northwestern China far from the sea; these areas are characterized by a dry, cold climate, very high altitude, very high daily temperature range, strong winds, and partial hypoxia. Meanwhile, provinces with a high ratio of nonagenarians from 1982 to 2000 are located in southern China near the sea. Previous studies have attributed the high ratio of centenarians in western and northwestern China to the extreme local climate. However, centenarians in these areas decreased greatly in 2010, whereas residents in southern China frequently reached 90 to 100 years old in 2010. This study aims to explain this strange phenomenon and find whether extreme climate in Tibetan plateau and northwestern China or moderate climate in southern China is more conducive to longevity. The study found that mortality rate in Tibetan plateau is much higher than southern China, then a population evolution experiment was proposed to compare longevity indicators between low mortality rate and high mortality rate and shows that longevity indicators will decrease in the near future and increase above their original levels after several decades when the mortality rate is decreased. Results of this study show individuals in northwestern China do not live as long as those in eastern and southern China. A moderate climate is more conducive to longevity than extreme climate in China. The longevity of a region should be judged by long-term longevity indicators.

  1. Shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Managbanag

    network analysis of aging to be extensively validated in a biological system. The novel longevity genes identified in this study are likely to yield further insight into the molecular mechanisms of aging and age-associated disease.

  2. Pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism in combined heterozygous factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Couto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pregnancy and puerperium raise the risk of thromboembolic events, and these risks are increased in women who are carriers of thrombophilia factors. Prothrombin (FII G20210A and factor V Leiden heterozygous mutations are associated with moderate risk of thrombosis. The association of these thrombophilic conditions is very rare in pregnancy, and the real risk of thrombosis is unknown. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a pregnant woman who was found to be carrier of heterozygous factor V Leiden and prothrombin (FII G20210A mutations. Five years before pregnancy she had had an episode of extensive deep venous thrombosis in the ileofemoral region, while using hormonal contraceptives. Anticardiolipin antibody (ACA, lupus anticoagulant and deficiencies of protein C, protein S and antithrombin III were evaluated by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, dilute Russell Viper Venom time (dRVVT, coagulometric and chromogenic methods. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to study the factor V Leiden and G20210A mutations in the prothrombin gene and C677T mutation in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene. In the sixth week of her first pregnancy, she developed another episode of deep venous thrombosis in the femoropopliteal veins of the right leg. She was treated with low-molecular weight heparin (nadroparin until parturition (0.3 ml or 2,850 UI/day. The pregnancy evolved without any significant obstetric morbidity. The patient delivered a healthy baby by cesarean section. During the puerperium, she used prophylactic doses of nadroparin for (0.3 ml or 2,850 UI/day six weeks and had no complications. We suggest that women who have an association of thrombophilia factors and a prior episode of venous thromboembolism must have antepartum anticoagulation management using unfractioned or low-molecular weight heparin and postpartum management using low-molecular weight heparin or

  3. Contemporary views on human aging and longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is currently stimulating intense interest of both researchers and the general public. In developed countries, the average life expectancy has increased by roughly 30 years within the last century, and human senescence has been delayed by around a decade. Although aging is arguably the most familiar aspect of human biology, its proximate and ultimate causes have not been elucidated fully and understood yet. Nowadays there are two main approaches to the ultimate causes of aging. These are deterministic and stochastic models. The proximate theories constitute a distinct group of explanations. They focus on mechanistic causes of aging. In this view, there is no reason to believe that there is only one biological mechanism responsible for aging. The aging process is highly complex and results from an accumulation of random molecular damage. Currently, the disposable soma theory (DST, proposed by Thomas Kirkwood, is the most influential and coherent line of reasoning in biogerontology. This model does not postulate any particular mechanism underpinning somatic defense. Therefore, it is compatible with various models, including mechanistic and evolutionary explanations. Recently, however, an interesting theory of hyper-function of mTOR as a more direct cause of aging has been formulated by Mikhail Blagosklonny, offering an entirely different approach to numerous problems and paradoxes in current biogerontology. In this view, aging is quasi-programmed, which means that it is an aimless continuation of developmental growth. This mTOR-centric model allows the prediction of completely new relationships. The aim of this article is to present and compare the views of both parties in the dispute, based on the results of some recent experimental studies, and the contemporary knowledge of selected major aspects of human aging and longevity

  4. Estimation of the effects of multipoint pacing on battery longevity in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerström, Finn; Narváez, Irene; Puchol, Alberto; Pachón, Marta; Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Arias, Miguel A

    2017-09-23

    Multipoint pacing (MPP) permits simultaneous multisite pacing of the left ventricle (LV); initial studies suggest haemodynamic and clinical benefits over conventional (single LV site) cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of MPP activation on battery longevity in routine clinical practice. Patient (n = 46) and device data were collected from two centres at least 3 months after MPP-CRT device implantation. Multipoint pacing programming was based on the maximal possible anatomical LV1/LV2 separation according to three predefined LV pacing capture threshold (PCT) cut-offs (≤1.5 V; ≤4.0 V; and ≤6.5 V). Estimated battery longevity was calculated using the programmed lower rate limit, lead impedances, outputs, and pacing percentages. Relative to the longevity for conventional CRT using the lowest PCT (8.9 ± 1.2 years), MPP activation significantly shortened battery longevity for all three PCT cut-offs (≤1.5 V, -5.6%; ≤4.0 V, -16.9%; ≤6.5 V, -21.3%; P's battery longevity was significantly shortened for the MPP ≤ 4.0 V and ≤6.5 V cut-offs (-10.8 and -15.7%, respectively; P's battery longevity compared with that for conventional CRT configuration. When reasonable MPP LV vector PCTs (≤4.0 V) are achieved, the decrease in battery longevity is relatively small which may prompt the clinician to activate MPP.

  5. Some agricultural aspects of seed longevity (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hołubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a vast and numerous literature concerning seed longevity. Most of these works however has focused solely on theoretical and biological aspects of this problem. Some works although deal with practical problems of seed storage. vigour or deterioration. have had relatively little connection with agricultural crops. practical farming or gardening. Therefore, there has been a need to look at this problem from the seednian's and farmer's point of view. The paper comments on how long seeds of agricultural crops species can keep their longevity, how long it is economically reasonable to store them. the effect of the seeds chemical composition on their longevity, how seeds storage conditions can be modified in order to eventually improve their longevity and environment circumstances influence on the final seed longevity. The paper contains a synthetic summary of expected seed longevity of the most important agricultural species and many examples of long longevity of agricultural species.

  6. Orthopterological notes I : On the Lesini of the Leiden Museum (Tettigoniidae, Copiphorinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.

    1942-01-01

    When rearranging a part of the collections of Orthoptera in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden I found a number of specimens belonging to this tribus, which by former authors is considered as a separate subfamily with the name Eumegalodontinae (Kirby, 1906, p. 289; Caudell, 1927, p.

  7. Onderzoek naar radioactieve objecten en mogelijk contaminatie hiervan in het Museum Boerhaave te Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuile; C.R.ter; Glastra; P.; Dongen; R.van

    1985-01-01

    In het Boerhaave Museum te Leiden is door het Laboratorium voor Stralingsonderzoek van het RIVM een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar opgeslagen museummateriaal en een mogelijke contaminatie hierdoor van het museumgebouw. Uit het onderzoek bleek dat de besmetting ver beneden de toegestane norm ligt. Een

  8. Die Scyphomedusen-Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Reichsmuseums in Leiden : II. Stauromedusae, Coronatae, Semaeostomeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1919-01-01

    ALLGEMEINER TEIL. Die Bearbeitung der umfangreichen Scyphomedusen-Sammlung im Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden ist nunmehr so weit vorgeschritten, dass sich eine Übersicht über dieselbe gewinnen lässt. In einer früheren Mitteilung wurde über die Cubomedusen berichtet, eine weitere zur

  9. Unusual etiology of acute myocardial infarction – factor V Leiden mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghafek Almorraweh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Factor V Leiden is the most common cause of inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, accounting for 40-50% of cases. The prothrombin gene mutation, deficiencies in protein S, protein C, and antithrombin account for most of the remaining cases.

  10. Cerebral venous thrombosis following spinal surgery in a patient with Factor V Leiden mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Konya, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a devastating event leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of cerebral venous thrombosis that occurred following spinal surgery in a patient with Factor V Leiden mutation and G1691A heterozygosity. Possible prevention and treatment strategies have been discussed.

  11. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a “special” visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation

  12. The Leiden Manifesto Under Review: What Libraries Can Learn From It

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coombs, S.K. (Sarah); Peters, I. (Isabella)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is a critical discussion of the Leiden Manifesto for libraries already engaged in bibliometric practices. It offers practical recommendations based on the work of the European Association for Research Libraries (LIBER) Working Group on Metrics. This work is in the beginning phase

  13. Type specimens of Maastrichtian fossils in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.

    2002-01-01

    The type specimens of Maastrichtian invertebrate fossils from Limburg, The Netherlands, present in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, are listed. The Upper Cretaceous plant type specimens from Limburg of Miquel that were once part of the Staring collection present in the Palaeobotanical

  14. Verzeichnis der Echiuridae, Sipunculidae und Priapulidae des Naturhistorichen Reichsmuseums in Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1930-01-01

    Die vorliegende Mitteilung ist das Ergebnis der Bearbeitung zumeist älteren Materiales an Echiuriden, Sipunculiden und Priapuliden des Naturhistorischen Reichs-Museums in Leiden. Obwohl die Sammlung nach Anzahl der Exemplare nicht umfangreich ist, zeigt sie einen überraschenden Reichtum an Formen

  15. Increased sperm count may account for high population frequency of factor V Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, D. M.; Repping, S.; Büller, H. R.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Middeldorp, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Factor V Leiden (FVL) increases the risk of venous thrombosis and pregnancy loss in carriers. Nevertheless, this relatively old mutation is prevalent in Caucasion populations, which could be explained by positive selection pressure. Men with FVL have previously been found to have higher

  16. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Andre R.; Arthur, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  17. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  18. PTEN, Longevity and Age-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Izak S.; Li, Yan; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of PTEN, this protein has been shown to be an effective suppressor of cancer and a contributor to longevity. This report will review, in depth, the associations between PTEN and other molecules, its mutations and regulations in order to present how PTEN can be used to increase longevity. This report will collect recent research of PTEN and use this to discuss PTEN’s role in caloric restriction, antioxidative defense of DNA-damage and the role it plays in suppressing tumors. The report will also discuss that variety of ways that PTEN can be compromised, through mutations, complete loss of alleles and its main antagonist, the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:28548055

  19. Longevity and Patau syndrome: what determines survival?

    OpenAIRE

    Peroos, Sherina; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pugh, Jennifer Harriet; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Hodes, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The authors report of an 8-year-old girl with non-mosaic Patau syndrome. The median life expectancy of Patau syndrome is 7–10 days, and 90% die in the first year of life. Survival is often attributed to mosaicism and the severity of associated malformations. We delineate the developing phenotype and review the literature discussing potential contributory factors to longevity.

  20. Hormetic efficacy of rutin to promote longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Chitnis, Atith; Talekar, Aishwarya; Mulay, Prajakta; Makkar, Manyata; James, Joel; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2017-06-01

    Hormetins are compounds that mediate hormesis by being beneficial at low doses but detrimental at high doses. Recent studies have highlighted that many compounds that extended lifespan in model organisms did so by mediating hormesis. Rutin is a glycosylate conjugate of quercetin and rutinose and is abundant in citrus fruits and buckwheat seeds. Rutin possess ROS scavenging, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, skin-regenerative and neuro-protective properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an attractive model organism for longevity studies owing to its homology of organ and cellular-pathways with mammals. In this study, we aimed to understand the effect of rutin on extending longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies were administered with a range of rutin doses (100-800 µM) to analyse whether rutin mediated lifespan-extension by hormesis. Effect of rutin on physiological parameters like food intake, fecundity, climbing activity, development and resistance to various stresses was also studied. Lifespan assays showed that rutin at 200 and 400 µM significantly extended median lifespan in both male and female flies beyond which flies exhibited drastically reduced longevity. Increase in survival at 400 µM was associated with reduced food intake and fecundity. Flies exhibited improved climbing capability with both 200 and 400 µM rutin. Flies fed with 100 and 200 µM rutin exhibited enhanced survival upon exposure to oxidative stress with 400 µM rutin exhibiting no improvement in median lifespan following oxidative stress. Analysis of endogenous peroxide upon treatment with rutin (100-400 µM) with or without 5% H 2 O 2 showed elevated levels of endogenous peroxide with 400 µM rutin whereas no increase in hydrogen peroxide level was observed with rutin at 100 and 200 µM. Finally, gene expression studies in male flies revealed that rutin treatment at 200 and/or 400 µM elevated transcript levels of dFoxO, MnSod, Cat, dTsc1, dTsc2, Thor, dAtg1, d

  1. INVERSION POLYMORPHISM, LONGEVITY, AND BODY SIZE IN A NATURAL POPULATION OF DROSOPHILA BUZZATII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Constantina; Fanara, Juan J; Hasson, Esteban

    1999-04-01

    In this study we present the results of an analysis of differential longevity associated with Drosophila buzzatii second chromosome inversion karyotypes based on the assessment of more than 1000 individuals collected in a natural population. Comparisons of inversion frequencies between emerged and bait-collected flies showed not only that inversion arrangements were associated with differential longevity, but also that selection was sex specific. Because each individual fly was scored for thorax length and karyotype, we were able to show that longevity selection favoring larger flies coupled with the average effect of inversions on thorax length can account for the change of inversion frequencies due to longevity in females. The observed genotypic-by-sex interaction could be an important mechanism involved in the maintenance of the polymorphism. Arrangement 2Jz 3 , which was shown to impaired fecundity in two independent previous studies, exhibited a positive effect on longevity. This pattern of negative pleiotropy may be another plausible mechanism accounting for the maintenance of the polymorphism. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Daughters increase longevity of fathers, but daughters and sons equally reduce longevity of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Jasienski, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Reproduction is energetically and physiologically expensive, and an individual investing resources into producing offspring should suffer costs such as deterioration in health condition and possibly shorter life span. Since the energetic and nutritional demands of pregnancy and breastfeeding render reproductive costs much higher in women than in men, women with a large number of children should show signs of deterioration in condition, while men with large families should not. However, whether reproductive costs reduce longevity in women is still questionable, and in men this issue has not been adequately addressed. In addition, since sons are energetically more expensive to produce than daughters, having sons should have a more pronounced negative impact on maternal longevity than having daughters. Here we document a striking disparity in the impact of children on the life span of mothers and fathers in a Polish rural population. We show for the first time that number of daughters was positively related to a longer life span of their fathers, increasing their longevity on average by 74 weeks per daughter born, while number of sons did not have a significant effect on paternal longevity. In contrast, in women, the number of daughters and number of sons reduced maternal longevity and did so to the same extent, on average by 95 weeks per son or daughter, indicating that for women, the costs of having sons and daughters are similar.

  3. Evolution of ageing, costs of reproduction and the fecundity-longevity trade-off in eusocial insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Pierre; Huggins, Timothy J; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2017-07-12

    Eusocial insects provide special opportunities to elucidate the evolution of ageing as queens have apparently evaded costs of reproduction and reversed the fecundity-longevity trade-off generally observed in non-social organisms. But how reproduction affects longevity in eusocial insects has rarely been tested experimentally. In this study, we took advantage of the reproductive plasticity of workers to test the causal role of reproduction in determining longevity in eusocial insects. Using the eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris , we found that, in whole colonies, in which workers could freely 'choose' whether to become reproductive, workers' level of ovarian activation was significantly positively associated with longevity and ovary-active workers significantly outlived ovary-inactive workers. By contrast, when reproductivity was experimentally induced in randomly selected workers, thereby decoupling it from other traits, workers' level of ovarian activation was significantly negatively associated with longevity and ovary-active workers were significantly less long-lived than ovary-inactive workers. These findings show that workers experience costs of reproduction and suggest that intrinsically high-quality individuals can overcome these costs. They also raise the possibility that eusocial insect queens exhibit condition-dependent longevity and hence call into question whether eusociality entails a truly reversed fecundity-longevity trade-off involving a fundamental remodelling of conserved genetic and endocrine networks underpinning ageing. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Transgenerational programming of longevity and reproduction by post-eclosion dietary manipulation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Brian; de Belle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early-life diet may program one's health status by causing permanent alternations in specific organs, tissues, or metabolic or homeostatic pathways, and such programming effects may propagate across generations through heritable epigenetic modifications. However, it remains uninvestigated whether postnatal dietary changes may program longevity across generations. To address this question of important biological and public health implications, newly-born flies (F0) were collected and subjected to various post-eclosion dietary manipulations (PDMs) with different protein-carbohydrate (i.e., LP, IP or HP for low-, intermediate- or high-protein) contents or a control diet (CD). Longevity and fecundity analyses were performed with these treated F0 flies and their F1, F2 and F3 offspring, while maintained on CD at all times. The LP and HP PDMs shortened longevity, while the IP PDM extended longevity significantly up to the F3 generation. Furthermore, the LP reduced while the IP PDM increased lifetime fecundity across the F0-F2 generations. Our observations establish the first animal model for studying transgenerational inheritance of nutritional programming of longevity, making it possible to investigate the underlying epigenetic mechanisms and identify gene targets for drug discovery in future studies. PMID:27025190

  5. Personality and Longevity: Knowns, Unknowns, and Implications for Public Health and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Roberts, Brent; Duberstein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We review evidence for links between personality traits and longevity. We provide an overview of personality for health scientists, using the primary organizing framework used in the study of personality and longevity. We then review data on various aspects of personality linked to longevity. In general, there is good evidence that higher level of conscientiousness and lower levels of hostility and Type D or “distressed” personality are associated with greater longevity. Limited evidence suggests that extraversion, openness, perceived control, and low levels of emotional suppression may be associated with longer lifespan. Findings regarding neuroticism are mixed, supporting the notion that many component(s) of neuroticism detract from life expectancy, but some components at some levels may be healthy or protective. Overall, evidence suggests various personality traits are significant predictors of longevity and points to several promising directions for further study. We conclude by discussing the implications of these links for epidemiologic research and personalized medicine and lay out a translational research agenda for integrating the psychology of individual differences into public health and medicine. PMID:21766032

  6. Genetic cartography of longevity in humans and mice: Current landscape and horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Michael; Roy, Suheeta; Williams, Evan G; Bou Sleiman, Maroun; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Nelson, James F; Lu, Lu; Auwerx, Johan; Williams, Robert W

    2018-02-02

    Aging is a complex and highly variable process. Heritability of longevity among humans and other species is low, and this finding has given rise to the idea that it may be futile to search for DNA variants that modulate aging. We argue that the problem in mapping longevity genes is mainly one of low power and the genetic and environmental complexity of aging. In this review we highlight progress made in mapping genes and molecular networks associated with longevity, paying special attention to work in mice and humans. We summarize 40 years of linkage studies using murine cohorts and 15 years of studies in human populations that have exploited candidate gene and genome-wide association methods. A small but growing number of gene variants contribute to known longevity mechanisms, but a much larger set have unknown functions. We outline these and other challenges and suggest some possible solutions, including more intense collaboration between research communities that use model organisms and human cohorts. Once hundreds of gene variants have been linked to differences in longevity in mammals, it will become feasible to systematically explore gene-by-environmental interactions, dissect mechanisms with more assurance, and evaluate the roles of epistasis and epigenetics in aging. A deeper understanding of complex networks-genetic, cellular, physiological, and social-should position us well to improve healthspan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Activated Protein C-Resistance Determination and Vascular Access Thrombosis in Populations with High Prevalence of Factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Nikolaos E; Tzenakis, Nikolaos; Nioti, Eleni; Spatharaki, Paraskevi; Vyzoukaki, Rodanthi; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Kokonozaki, Maria; Alexandrakis, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Factor V Leiden heterozygosity occurs in 3-8% of the general European and US populations. Activated protein C resistance (APC-R)--a non-molecular laboratory test--can efficiently demonstrate the presence of this mutation and can be performed on most coagulation analyzers. On the other hand, fistula or graft thrombosis is a common and costly complication in hemodialysis patients. Our aim was to establish the value of APC-R determination in hemodialysis patients by assessing the risk of access thrombosis in patients with increased APC-R. A total of 133 patients (81 men, mean age 64.5 ± 14.9 years and 52 women, mean age 63.6 ± 15 years) were selected. Participants were divided into 2 groups: those with access thrombosis (54 patients, 40.6%) and those with no access thrombosis (79 patients, 59.4%), and they were tested for the most common congenital or acquired thrombophilia risk factors. Overall, 12 patients (9%) had an increased APC-R and 10 of them had at least 1 episode of access thrombosis (83.3%). Univariate analysis to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) showed an OR of 8.8 (95% CI 1.8-41.8) times higher risk for access thrombosis in these patients. No significant differences were found after adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and malignancy. Sex was also a factor influencing thrombosis, presenting a higher OR for women (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4). This study revealed a significant association between access thrombosis and increased APC-R in hemodialysis patients. This indicates that the determination of APC-R should be considered--especially, in populations with a high prevalence of Factor V Leiden--as proper anticoagulant therapy in these patients may reduce the risk of access thrombosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The predictive value of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T Gene mutations on the location of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Bilici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to consider the relation between the manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE and gene mutations including factor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T. Methods: One hundred and forty four patients with idiopathic VTE were enrolled in this study. The data of patients were obtained from the medical records in hospital information system. The patients were grouped according to the location of VTE. In all subjects FVL, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T were analyzed by specific polymerase chain reactions and restriction enzymes. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the relation between the groups and the gene mutations including factor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T. Results: The mean age of patients was 41.16 ± 13.23 years and the male / female ratio was 1.18. Among the patients with VTE, 44 (30.6% had only DVT, 41 (28.5% had only PE, 26 (18.1% had both DVT and PE, 23 (16% had cerebral veins thrombosis (CVT and 10 (6.9% had abdominal vein thrombosis The prevalence was found to be 46.5% for FVL, 13.2% for prothrombin G20210A and 45.1% for MTHFR C677T gene mutation among patients. There was no statistically difference between the manifestations of VTE regarding the gene mutations (p>0,05. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that gene mutations including factor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T are not sufficient to determine the location of VTE.

  9. Report on the International Workshop “The Golden Horde in a Global Perspective: Imperial Strategies”, Leiden University, May 7–8, 2015 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a report on the international conference organized by the University of Leiden in May 2015. According to its organizers, this conference has become the first Western European symposium dedicated to the study of the long history of the Golden Horde. The conference became a fruitful meeting place of the leading Russian and Tatar historians and archaeologists with their Western colleagues from the Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Hungary, Poland, and Finland. International participants of the Leiden conference discussed the most topical issues of historiography associated with eventful history of the Golden Horde. In particular, the conference participants paid special attention to the study of the administration of the ulus of Jochi that naturally combined governmental models of the Mongol Empire of the Chingizids with local administrative elements. A separate section of the conference was devoted to the analysis of the religious policy of the Golden Horde khans, where special attention was paid to the historiographical debate on the Islamization of the ulus of Jochi. The conference participants also paid considerable attention to the consideration of the material culture of the Golden Horde known both from written sources and, above all, from the materials of archaeological findings. Also, a number of reports of the confe­rence was devoted to foreign and domestic policies of the Golden Horde rulers, at the same time reflecting the central geopolitical role of the ulus of Jochi on the Eurasian continent and the high level of civilization of the Golden Horde. The main achievement of the Leiden conference was a statement on the need of deeper study of the Golden Horde history in order to overcome a number of stereotypes regarding misconceptions of the ulus of Jochi represented as backward and parasitic State formation. The conference participants agreed in general opinion about the necessity of similar

  10. Geochemical factors in borehole-shaft plug longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical investigations that address factors controlling the longevity of repository sealing materials in a geochemical environment are discussed. Studies are being made of cement-based materials as major candidates for seals for borehole plugging, and shaft and tunnel sealing in certain potential repository environments. Factors controlling the extent of attainment of equilibrium of the plug components with time and the rate of approach to a state of stable equilibrium of the plug component chemical subsystem within the total system are discussed. The effect of these factors on changes in physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a seal system, and the consequent effectiveness of the seal in preventing transport of radioactive waste species are the dominant features to be determined. Laboratory experiments on the effects of anticipated temperature, pressure, and environmental factors (including chemical composition and specific rock type) are described. Thermodynamic studies are used to determine the potentially stable reaction products under conditions similar to those anticipated for the repository boreholes, shafts, and tunnels during and after the operating stage. Multitemperature reaction series are studied, and reaction kinetics are investigated for the purpose of predicting the course of likely reactions. Detailed studies of permeability, diffusion, and interfacial properties and chemical and microphase characterization of the products of experiments are carried out. Characterization studies of old and ancient cements, mortars, and concretes and prototype man-made seal materials are performed to further assess the factors associated with longevity

  11. Linear vs. piecewise Weibull model for genetic evaluation of sires for longevity in Simmental cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Raguž

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on genetic evaluation of longevity in Croatian Simmental cattle using linear and survival models. The main objective was to create a genetic model that is most appropriate to describe the longevity data. Survival analysis, using piecewise Weibull proportional hazards model, used all information on the length of productive life including censored as well as uncensored observations. Linear models considered culled animals only. The relative milk production within herd had a highest impact on cows’ longevity. In comparison of estimated genetic parameters among methods, survival analysis yielded higher heritability value (0.075 than linear sire (0.037 and linear animal model (0.056. When linear models were used, genetic trend of Simmental bulls for longevity was slightly increasing over the years, unlike a decreasing trend in case of survival analysis methodology. Average reliability of bulls’ breeding values was higher in case of survival analysis. The rank correlations between survival analysis and linear models bulls’ breeding values for longevity were ranged between 0.44 and 0.46 implying huge differences in ranking of sires.

  12. Work-Family Context and the Longevity Disadvantage of US Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Martikainen, Pekka; Remes, Hanna; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Female life expectancy is currently shorter in the United States than in most high-income countries. This study examines work-family context as a potential explanation. While work-family context changed similarly across high-income countries during the past half century, the United States has not implemented institutional supports, such as universally available childcare and family leave, to help Americans contend with these changes. We compare the United States to Finland—a country with similar trends in work-family life but generous institutional supports—and test two hypotheses to explain US women's longevity disadvantage: (1) US women may be less likely than Finnish women to combine employment with childrearing; and (2) US women's longevity may benefit less than Finnish women's longevity from combining employment with childrearing. We used data from women aged 30–60 years during 1988–2006 in the US National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File and harmonized it with data from Finnish national registers. We found stronger support for hypothesis 1, especially among low-educated women. Contrary to hypothesis 2, combining employment and childrearing was not less beneficial for US women's longevity. In a simulation exercise, more than 75 percent of US women's longevity disadvantage was eliminated by raising their employment levels to Finnish levels and reducing mortality rates of non-married/non-employed US women to Finnish rates. PMID:27773947

  13. Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR Mutation in Patients with Preeclamsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Placental Abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Livrinova

    2015-09-01

    CONCLUSION: The presence of mutation MTHFR homozygous could increase the risk for development of IUGR and mutation of Factor V Leiden for placental abruption. Further investigations with more patients are warranted.

  14. Annotated catalogue of recent Echinoderm type specimens in the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, M.; Ridder, de C.

    1987-01-01

    The Leiden Museum houses 82 type specimens of recent echinoderms representing 59 nominal species, one nominal subspecies and one variety. Each species, subspecies or variety is presented (original name, current status, Museum characteristics, brief bibliography, and eventual remarks).

  15. Venous thrombosis with both heterozygous factor V Leiden (R507Q) and factor II (G20210A) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaijee, Feriyl; Jordan, Brenda; Pepper, Dominique J; Leacock, Rodney; Rock, William A

    2012-01-01

    Both hereditary and acquired factors increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, thus the clinical management of affected patients involves evaluation of genetic factors that predispose to hypercoagulability. Factor V Leiden (R507Q) and factor II (prothrombin) mutation (G20210A) are the two most common inherited hypercoagulability disorders among populations of European origin. Both factor V Leiden and factor II mutation (G20210A) represent gain-of-function mutations: factor V Leiden causes resistance to activated protein C, and factor II mutation (G20210A) results in higher levels of plasma prothrombin. Herein, we present an uncommon case of combined factor V Leiden mutation (R507Q) and factor II mutation (G20210A), and discuss the prevalence and features of each entity, as well as their role in the clinical management of affected patients.

  16. The longevity effect of echinacoside in Caenorhabditis elegans mediated through daf-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Zhang, Jiaolong; Lu, Lulu; Zhou, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Echinacoside (ECH), a natural polyphenolic compound, has been reported to possess important pharmacological activities. However, very little is known about whether or how ECH affects longevity in vivo. We have examined the effects of ECH on the life span and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our studies demonstrate that the life span of wild-type worms could be extended in the presence of ECH. Furthermore, ECH was found to increase tolerance of worms to heat shock and oxidative stress, while not exerting any influence on pharyngeal pumping rate and progeny production. Our mechanistic studies indicate that supplementation of ECH increases the transcript level of daf-16. ECH treatment also modulates the nuclear localization and transcriptional activities of daf-16, thus fine tunes the expression of daf-16 target genes to promote longevity and increases stress response in C. elegans. Overall, this work reveals the longevity effect of ECH and elucidates the underpinning mechanisms.

  17. Laboratory selection for increased longevity in Drosophila melanogaster reduces field performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Sarup, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    traits when tested in the laboratory. Functional senescence in longevity selected lines has also been shown to occur at a slower rate. However, it is known that performance in a controlled laboratory setting is not necessarily representative of performance in nature. In this study the effect of ageing......, environmental temperature and longevity selection on performance in the fieldwas tested. Flies fromlongevity selected and control lines of different ages (2, 5, 10 and 15 days) were released in an environment free of natural food sources. Control flies were tested at low, intermediate and high temperatures......Drosophilamelanogaster is frequently used in ageing studies to elucidate whichmechanisms determine the onset and progress of senescence. Lines selected for increased longevity have often been shown to performaswell as or superior to control lines in life history, stress resistance and behavioural...

  18. The association between Factor V Leiden with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, Mohammadali; Pourgholi, Leila; Ziaee, Shayan; Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Jalali, Arash; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza

    2014-04-01

    The presence of Factor V Leiden (FVL) is proposed to be associated with a higher risk for arterial thrombosis. The aim of this study was to examine a relationship between FVL with the presence and severity of angiographically determined coronary artery disease (CAD). In this case-control study, 1083 patients having angiographic evidence of atherosclerosis with ≥50% luminal stenosis in their epicardial coronary tree were compared with patients with no luminal stenosis (n=320) or with luminal stenosis Factor V polymorphisms was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). FVL was found to be independently associated with the occurrence of CAD (p=0.020). As compared to wild genotype, heterozygote or homozygote mutant genotypes were more likely associated with a trend towards more severe CAD (adjusted OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.26 to 2.72; p=0.002, and adjusted OR=3.70, 95% CI=1.71 to 8.00; p=0.001; respectively). In addition, the median and inter-quartile range for Gensini score were significantly different among the GG (27.8, 3 to 66.5), GA (53.5, 10 to 104.1), and AA (92.8, 48.1 to 125.9) genotypes (p<0.001). Our results confirmed the hypothesis that FVL mutation is a significant determinant of CAD risk. Furthermore, we observed that FVL is independently associated with increasing CAD severity. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A casein hydrolysate based formulation attenuates obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis in LDLr-/-.Leiden mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Marieke H; Kleemann, Robert; Morrison, Martine C; Verheij, Joanne; Salic, Kanita; van Tol, Eric A F; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y

    2017-01-01

    Obesity frequently associates with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) seems to be an important driver of these manifestations. This study investigated a combination of an extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHC), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG) (together referred to as nutritional ingredients, NI) on the development of obesity, metabolic risk factors, WAT inflammation, NAFLD and atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed LDLr-/-.Leiden mice, a model that mimics disease development in humans. LDLr-/-.Leiden male mice (n = 15/group) received a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 Kcal%) for 21 weeks with or without the NI (23.7% eHC, 0.083% DHA, 0.166% ARA; all w/w and 1x109 CFU LGG gavage 3 times/week). HFD and HFD+NI diets were isocaloric. A low fat diet (LFD, 10 Kcal%) was used for reference. Body weight, food intake and metabolic risk factors were assessed over time. At week 21, tissues were analyzed for WAT inflammation (crown-like structures), NAFLD and atherosclerosis. Effects of the individual NI components were explored in a follow-up experiment (n = 7/group). When compared to HFD control, treatment with the NI strongly reduced body weight to levels of the LFD group, and significantly lowered (Pliver collagen (Pobesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (NAFLD, atherosclerosis) in LDLr-/-.Leiden mice. The observed reduction of inflammation in adipose tissue and in the liver provides a rationale for these comprehensive health effects.

  20. Longevity-Related Gene Transcriptomic Signature in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal S. Fawzy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM (grade IV astrocytoma has been assumed to be the most fatal type of glioma with low survival and high recurrence rates, even after prompt surgical removal and aggressive courses of treatment. Transcriptional reprogramming to stem cell-like state could explain some of the deregulated molecular signatures in GBM disease. The present study aimed to quantify the expression profiling of longevity-related transcriptional factors SOX2, OCT3/4, and NANOG to evaluate their diagnostic and performance values in high-grade gliomas. Forty-four specimens were obtained from glioblastoma patients (10 females and 34 males. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied for relative gene expression quantification. In silico network analysis was executed. NANOG and OCT3/4 mRNA expression levels were significantly downregulated while that of SOX2 was upregulated in cancer compared to noncancer tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed high diagnostic performance of NANOG and OCT3/4 than SOX2. However, the aberrant expressions of the genes studied were not associated with the prognostic variables in the current population. In conclusion, the current study highlighted the aberrant expression of certain longevity-associated transcription factors in glioblastoma multiforme which may direct the attention towards new strategies in the treatment of such lethal disease.

  1. Longevity pathways and memory aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Ilias; Petratou, Dionysia; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    The aging process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of aging. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviors. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of aging and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both aging and memory formation and consolidation.

  2. Longevity pathways and memory ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias eGkikas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ageing process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of ageing. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviours. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain ageing. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of ageing and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both ageing and memory formation and consolidation.

  3. Longevity risks and capital markets: The 2010-2011 update

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, David; Courbage, Christophe; MacMinn, Richard; Sherris, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This Special Issue of Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice contains 10 contributions to the academic literature all dealing with longevity risk and capital markets. Draft versions of the papers were presented at Longevity Six: The Sixth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference that was held in Sydney on 9-10 September 2010. It was hosted by the Australian Institute for Population Ageing Research, the Australian School of Business and the Unive...

  4. The longevity legacy: the problem of old animals in zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchener, Andrew; Macdonald, Alastair A

    2002-01-01

    Zoos once demonstrated their skill in keeping wild mammals in captivity by longevity records. However, as our knowledge of animal husbandry in zoos has increased and breeding in most species has become commonplace, so the emphasis has shifted to continued breeding success and the management of sustainable zoo populations. There has also been undoubtedly an increase in the maximum and mean longevities of most species. For example, in a period of 30 years, the maximum longevities of gorillas (G...

  5. Motivating factors for physician ordering of Factor V Leiden genetic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindorff, Lucia A.; Burke, Wylie; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Rice, Kenneth M.; Lumley, Thomas; Leppig, Kathleen; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Larson, Eric B.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Factor V Leiden (FVL) genetic test is used by many physicians despite its uncertain clinical utility. This study investigated whether self-reported motivations and behaviors concerning FVL genetic testing differed between two groups of primary care physicians defined by frequency of prior FVL test use. Methods In January 2007, 112 primary care physicians (60 frequent, 52 infrequent FVL test users) at Group Health, a large health care delivery system, were surveyed. Survey content areas included: primary reasons and motivating factors for ordering FVL; likelihood of ordering FVL for hypothetical patients; potential barriers to genetic testing, and practices and skills regarding FVL test ordering. Results Responses between groups agreed concerning most clinical- or patient-related factors. Frequent-FVL physicians were more likely than infrequent-FVL physicians to report ordering FVL for hypothetical patients with mesenteric venous thrombosis (adjusted OR 4.57, 95% CI 1.55, 13.53) or venous thrombosis following hospital discharge (adjusted OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.30, 8.95). Frequent-FVL physicians were also less likely to agree with several potential barriers to genetic testing and more likely to report high confidence in interpreting and explaining FVL test results. Conclusions Generally, both groups of physicians reported similar motivating factors for ordering FVL, and reported behaviors were consistent with existing guidelines. More striking differences were observed for measures such as barriers to and confidence in using genetic tests. Though additional research is necessary to evaluate their impact, these results inform several knowledge-to-practice translation issues that are important to the successful integration of genetic testing into primary care. PMID:19139326

  6. Thromboembolic events in Fabry disease and the impact of factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Malte; Karabul, Nesrin; Duning, Thomas; Schmitz, Boris; Schelleckes, Michael; Mesters, Rolf; Hense, Hans-Werner; Beck, Michael; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2015-03-10

    Although several reports suggest an increased thromboembolic event rate, especially regarding strokes and TIAs at early age in patients with Fabry disease (FD), the risk for patients with FD to experience these events, the clinical relevance of additional risk factors including the concurrence of factor V Leiden (FVL), and the benefit of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) regarding these events remain unclear. Three hundred four consecutively recruited patients with FD were evaluated for their lifetime occurrence of thromboembolic events such as stroke, TIA, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. The thromboembolic risk was determined in patients with FD and concurrent FVL, and the impact of ERT was assessed. The 304 patients with FD had a median age of 41 years and 53 (17.4%) had experienced at least one thromboembolic event during their lifetime. Among 226 patients with FD screened for FVL, 16 gene carriers were identified (7.1%). The occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients with FD and concurrent FVL was significantly increased compared to those without FVL (hazard ratio = 5.45, 95% confidence interval 2.29-12.99; p risk of thromboembolic events compared to those without ERT (hazard ratio = 0.362, 95% confidence interval 0.132-0.992; p = 0.0422). This observational study confirms that patients with FD have a high risk of clinically relevant thromboembolic events, which could be aggravated by a concurrence of FVL. ERT might be of benefit in preventing vascular events in patients with FD. The latter observation needs confirmation, however, by randomized and controlled clinical trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Growth Culture Conditions and Nutrient Signaling Modulating Yeast Chronological Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of nutrient-signaling pathways in yeast has uncovered the impact of environmental growth conditions in longevity. Studies using calorie restriction show that reducing glucose concentration of the culture media is sufficient to increase replicative and chronological lifespan (CLS. Other components of the culture media and factors such as the products of fermentation have also been implicated in the regulation of CLS. Acidification of the culture media mainly due to acetic acid and other organic acids production negatively impacts CLS. Ethanol is another fermentative metabolite capable of inducing CLS reduction in aged cells by yet unknown mechanisms. Recently, ammonium was reported to induce cell death associated with shortening of CLS. This effect is correlated to the concentration of NH4+ added to the culture medium and is particularly evident in cells starved for auxotrophy-complementing amino acids. Studies on the nutrient-signaling pathways regulating yeast aging had a significant impact on aging-related research, providing key insights into mechanisms that modulate aging and establishing the yeast as a powerful system to extend knowledge on longevity regulation in multicellular organisms.

  8. A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anne B; Walter, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Garcia, Melissa E; Slagboom, P Eline; Christensen, Kaare; Arnold, Alice M; Aspelund, Thor; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Christiansen, Lene; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Franceschini, Nora; Glazer, Nicole L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Kaplan, Robert; Karasik, David; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kiel, Douglas P; Launer, Lenore J; Marciante, Kristin D; Massaro, Joseph M; Miljkovic, Iva; Nalls, Michael A; Hernandez, Dena; Psaty, Bruce M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Taylor, Kent D; Tiemeier, Henning; Uh, Hae-Won; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaupel, James W; Walston, Jeremy; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Harris, Tamara B; Lumley, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Murabito, Joanne M

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort. There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p < .0001, but none reached the prespecified significance level of 5 x 10(-8). Of the most significant SNPs, 24 were independent signals, and 16 of these SNPs were successfully genotyped in the second discovery stage, with one association for rs9664222, reaching 6.77 x 10(-7) for the combined meta-analysis of CHARGE and the stage 2 cohorts. The SNP lies in a region near MINPP1 (chromosome 10), a well-conserved gene involved in regulation of cellular proliferation. The minor allele was associated with lower odds of survival past age 90 (odds ratio = 0.82). Associations of interest in a homologue of the longevity assurance gene (LASS3) and PAPPA2 were not strengthened in the second stage. Survival studies of larger size or more extreme or specific phenotypes may support or refine these initial findings.

  9. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, David H.

    2001-05-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4) Evaluate factors

  10. Implications for public health of the religiosity-longevity relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Saad

    Full Text Available Summary A growing body of scientific studies has demonstrated a consistently positive association between religious-spiritual (R/S involvement and beneficial effects on physical health, culminating with increased longevity. This protective effect on the mortality risk is not only statistically significant but also clinically relevant. The mechanisms involved in this association include psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, greater adherence to healthy behaviors and diverse social factors. Public health strategies could better explore this association. This can be done on an individual (health professionals adopting simple measures or institutional scale (health institutions joining religious organizations. Some evidence suggests that the benefits of R/S to health and longevity would be more present in populations from more religious regions. In this sense, the Americas (Latin and North are privileged places for the exploration of this association, compared to regions where there is certain indifference about R/S practices. Exploring this interface can improve the supply and usage of health care, especially for marginalized populations. To achieve this, health professionals, religious leaders and policy makers need to work together.

  11. The Survival of Spouses Marrying Into Longevity-Enriched Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Elo, Irma T; Schupf, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    be expected to have better health than the background population due to shared family environment with the longevity-enriched family members and due to assortative mating. METHODS: A Danish cohort study of 5,363 offspring of long-lived siblings, born 1917-1982, and 4,498 "first spouses" of these offspring...... deaths and 502 offspring spouse deaths were observed. Compared with the background population, the hazard ratio for male offspring was 0.44 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-0.50) and for female offspring it was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.49-0.66). For male spouses, the hazard ratio was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.......59-0.74), whereas for female spouses it was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54-0.76). Sensitivity analyses in restricted samples gave similar results. CONCLUSION: The mortality for ages 20-69 years of spouses marrying into longevity-enriched families is substantially lower than the mortality in the background population, although...

  12. Implications for public health of the religiosity-longevity relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Marcelo; Medeiros, Roberta de

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of scientific studies has demonstrated a consistently positive association between religious-spiritual (R/S) involvement and beneficial effects on physical health, culminating with increased longevity. This protective effect on the mortality risk is not only statistically significant but also clinically relevant. The mechanisms involved in this association include psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, greater adherence to healthy behaviors and diverse social factors. Public health strategies could better explore this association. This can be done on an individual (health professionals adopting simple measures) or institutional scale (health institutions joining religious organizations). Some evidence suggests that the benefits of R/S to health and longevity would be more present in populations from more religious regions. In this sense, the Americas (Latin and North) are privileged places for the exploration of this association, compared to regions where there is certain indifference about R/S practices. Exploring this interface can improve the supply and usage of health care, especially for marginalized populations. To achieve this, health professionals, religious leaders and policy makers need to work together.

  13. Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár, S

    2010-01-01

    Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar.

  14. What We Have Learned from San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment and Leiden Manifesto?

    OpenAIRE

    Carey Ming-Li Chen; Wen-Yau Cathy Lin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the research performance evaluation of members of the academic community conducted by government or institutions has been applied with multiple indicators and peer review, however, there are many controversies about the design and application of research evaluation indicators. This article aims to introduce the development process of San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA) and Leiden Manifesto and summarize their contents of guidelines and attempts to compare ...

  15. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Hoving; Margreet R. de Vries; Rob C. M. de Jong; Saeed Katiraei; Amanda Pronk; Paul H. A. Quax; Vanessa van Harmelen; Ko Willems van Dijk

    2018-01-01

    The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce...

  16. Evaluation of maternal serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels andfactor V Leiden, factor II g.20210G>A, and MTHFR variations in prenatallydiagnosed neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hatip; Arisoy, Resul; Karaman, Ali; Erdoğdu, Emre; Çetinkaya, Arda; B Geçkinli, Bilge; Şimşek, Hasan; Demirci, Oya

    2016-02-17

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common congenital malformations that develop as a result of interactions between several genes and environmental factors. Many factors have been investigated in order to understand the etiology of NTDs, and many studies have identified folate intake as a common contributing factor. The exact etiology of the disease is still unknown. In this study, we compared serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels, along with common thrombophilia-related genetic variations, including factor V Leiden, factor II g.20210G>A, MTHFR c.677C>T, and MTHFR c.1298A>C, in 35 pregnant women with fetal NTDs and 38 pregnant women with healthy fetuses. A significant difference in serum vitamin B12 level and factor V Leiden frequency was detected between the two groups. On the other hand, serum folate, homocysteine levels, and factor II g.20210G>A, MTHFR c.677C>T, and MTHFR c.1298A>C were not significantly different in the NTD group compared to the controls. These results indicate that vitamin B12 supplementation along with folate may help in lowering NTD frequency. In addition, this is the first study that provides evidence for a possible relationship between increased NTD risk and factor V Leiden.

  17. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M and O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used

  18. What are the longevities of teeth and oral implants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Lang, Niklaus P; Müller, Frauke

    2007-01-01

    To analyse tooth loss and to evaluate the longevity of healthy teeth and teeth compromised by diseases and influenced by therapy as well as that of oral implants.......To analyse tooth loss and to evaluate the longevity of healthy teeth and teeth compromised by diseases and influenced by therapy as well as that of oral implants....

  19. Intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing with changing longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2014-01-01

    retirement and cohort-specific longevity to address intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing. While it is well known that a utilitarian planner strives for consumption smoothing, it is shown that healthy ageing calls for work smoothing in the sense that retirement ages increase with longevity. Hence...

  20. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity: The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    2016-01-01

    develop an overlapping-generations model in continuous time that encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for trend increases in both longevity and productivity, we address the normative issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...

  1. SAFRING longevity and movement records for southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longevity and displacement records aid in the understanding of animal senescence and the possible range of a species. Within wild populations this information is infrequent with most longevity reports being based on captive individuals and displacements being calculated from few monitored individuals within the ...

  2. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118 nonagenarian Caucasian...

  3. Preferences of heart failure patients in daily clinical practice : quality of life or longevity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, Imke H.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Luttik, Marie Louise A.; Hoekstra, Tialda; Jaarsma, Trijntje; Hillege, Hans L.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of patient preferences is vital for delivering optimal healthcare. This study uses utility measurement to assess the preferences of heart failure (HF) patients regarding quality of life or longevity. The utility approach represents the perspective of a patient; facilitates the combination

  4. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  5. Longevity in services: the case of the Dutch warehousing companies 1600-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Driel (Hugo); H.W. Volberda (Henk); S. Eikelboom

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we explore the factors that determine the longevity of firms. Five central factors were distilled from the literature: position in the supply chain, the nature of the technology used, structure, culture, and financial policy. We made an extensive case-study of the Dutch

  6. Prevalence of Factor V Leiden-G1691A and MTHFR-C677T Thrombosis Gene Modifier in Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Pathophysiological Effect in Indian Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S K; Pandey, S; Mishra, R M; Indurkar, M

    2017-03-01

    Normal iron levels are required to prevent thrombocytosis by inhibiting thrombopoiesis. Thrombocytosis is usually associated with a mild iron deficiency and is the result of a lack of inhibition of thrombopoiesis. Study participants were 430 iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients. Ten (10) mL of venous blood were collected for the subjects. Ferritin analysis was done by ELISA method while Hemogram analysis was done by auto-analyzer. Factor V Leiden, PRTG20210A, and MTHFR C677T genotype analysis was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Among the patients, 9 were heterozygous (G>A) and 2 were homozygous (A>A) carrier of FV Leiden; while 20 were heterozygous (C>T) and 3 were homozygous (T>T) for MTHFR polymorphism. None of the patient was identified with PT mutation. Patients with thrombosis gene marker had lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin levels, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration than patients without thrombosis gene marker. Serum ferritin was elevated in subject with the absence of thrombosis gene markers. Our data suggest a high impact of inherited hypercoagulability risk factors in the pathogenesis of IDA and its complications.

  7. Aging, cancer, and longevity: the uncertain road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Novera H; Jovanova-Nesic, Katica; Gertz, Alida M

    2013-02-01

    First, the latest scientific and clinical reports will be evaluated to separate the wheat from the chaff, that is, good data versus merely anecdotal evidence. Thus, the famous (infamous) Stromboli Cocktail will be brought up to date. Second, longevity statistics will be reviewed: Why do the most scientifically advanced countries have such low (comparatively) life expectancies? Scientific knowledge expands exponentially each decade, whereas there have been no significant advances in our knowledge, government, economics, politics, anti-corruption, and so forth since the dawn of history. What can we expect in the future? Will the human species outlive the cockroach? Can we expect to get closer to that theoretical asymptote of 120 years of human life? Will this ceiling ever be lifted? Finally, we offer two vital challenges to scientists of today.

  8. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    to affect lifespan. The progress in modern genetic techniques has allowed researchers to test this idea. The general stress response involves the expression of stress proteins, such as chaperones and antioxidative proteins, downregulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and the release of protective......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...... briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...

  9. Membrane chemical stability and seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Elena A; Van As, Henk; Hoekstra, Folkert A

    2010-03-01

    Here, we investigate the relationships between the chemical stability of the membrane surface and seed longevity. Dry embryos of long-lived tomato and short-lived onion seeds were labeled with 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DS). Temperature-induced loss of the electron spin resonance signal caused by chemical conversion of 5-DS to nonparamagnetic species was used to characterize the membrane surface chemical stability. No difference was found between temperature plots of 5-DS signal intensity in dry onion and tomato below 345 K. Above this temperature, the 5-DS signal remained unchanged in tomato embryos and irreversibly disappeared in onion seeds. The role of the physical state and chemical status of the membrane environment in the chemical stability of membrane surfaces was estimated for model systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) dried alone or in the presence of trehalose or glucose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to follow temperature-induced structural changes in dry POPC. Spin-label technique was used to relate the chemical stability of 5-DS with the dynamic properties of the bilayer and 5-DS motion behavior. In all the models, the decrease in 5-DS signal intensity was always observed above T(m) for the membrane surface. The 5-DS signal was irreversibly lost at high temperature when dry POPC was embedded in a glucose matrix. The loss of 5-DS signal was moderate when POPC was dried alone or in the presence of trehalose. Comparison of model and in vivo data shows that the differences in longevity between onion and tomato seeds are caused by differences in the chemical status of the membrane surface rather than the degree of its immobilization.

  10. Post-harvest longevity of ornamental grasses conditioned in gibberellic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Florists’ greens are becoming increasingly important in contemporary floristry. Numerous studies conducted on cut flowers have led to the development of technologies for their post-harvest handling; however, in the case of florists’ greens they are still insufficient. Moreover, the extensive range of florists’ greens lacks leaves and the leafy culms of grasses. The aim of this study was to determine the post-harvest longevity of the leaves and leafy culms of ornamental grasses conditioned in water solutions of gibberellic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate. The post-harvest longevity of leaves was examined in cultivars of the following species: Glyceria maxima Hartm. ‘Variegata’, Miscanthus sinensis Thunb. ‘Zebrinus’ and Spartina pectinata Link. ‘Aureomarginata’. The post-harvest longevity of leafy culms was investigated in Alopecurus pratensis L. ‘Aureovariegatus’, Chasmanthium latifolium Michx., Miscanthus sinensis Thunb. ‘Silberspinne’, Pennisetum alopecuroides L. and Phalaris arundinacea L. ‘Picta’. Conditioning in gibberellic acid had a positive effect on the post-harvest longevity and fresh weight loss and the index of leaf greenness of leaves in the case of Miscanthus sinensis ‘Zebrinus’, while conditioning in 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate improved fresh weight loss and the index of leaf greenness of the leafy culms of Miscanthus sinensis ‘Zebrinus’, Pennisetum alopecuroides and the leaves of Glyceria maxima ‘Variegata’.

  11. A mitochondrial superoxide signal triggers increased longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuo-6 and isp-1 genes of C. elegans encode, respectively, subunits of complex I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Partial loss-of-function mutations in these genes decrease electron transport and greatly increase the longevity of C. elegans by a mechanism that is distinct from that induced by reducing their level of expression by RNAi. Electron transport is a major source of the superoxide anion (O(⋅ (-, which in turn generates several types of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS, and aging is accompanied by increased oxidative stress, which is an imbalance between the generation and detoxification of ROS. These observations have suggested that the longevity of such mitochondrial mutants might result from a reduction in ROS generation, which would be consistent with the mitochondrial oxidative stress theory of aging. It is difficult to measure ROS directly in living animals, and this has held back progress in determining their function in aging. Here we have adapted a technique of flow cytometry to directly measure ROS levels in isolated mitochondria to show that the generation of superoxide is elevated in the nuo-6 and isp-1 mitochondrial mutants, although overall ROS levels are not, and oxidative stress is low. Furthermore, we show that this elevation is necessary and sufficient to increase longevity, as it is abolished by the antioxidants NAC and vitamin C, and phenocopied by mild treatment with the prooxidant paraquat. Furthermore, the absence of effect of NAC and the additivity of the effect of paraquat on a variety of long- and short-lived mutants suggest that the pathway triggered by mitochondrial superoxide is distinct from previously studied mechanisms, including insulin signaling, dietary restriction, ubiquinone deficiency, the hypoxic response, and hormesis. These findings are not consistent with the mitochondrial oxidative stress theory of aging. Instead they show that increased superoxide generation acts as a

  12. Is rate of skin wound healing associated with aging or longevity phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2011-12-01

    Wound healing (WH) is a fundamental biological process. Is it associated with a longevity or aging phenotype? In an attempt to answer this question, we compared the established mouse models with genetically modified life span and also an altered rate of WH in the skin. Our analysis showed that the rate of skin WH in advanced ages (but not in the young animals) may be used as a marker for biological age, i.e., to be indicative of the longevity or aging phenotype. The ability to preserve the rate of skin WH up to an old age appears to be associated with a longevity phenotype, whereas a decline in WH-with an aging phenotype. In the young, this relationship is more complex and might even be inversed. While the aging process is likely to cause wounds to heal slowly, an altered WH rate in younger animals could indicate a different cellular proliferation and/or migration capacity, which is likely to affect other major processes such as the onset and progression of cancer. As a point for future studies on WH and longevity, using only young animals might yield confusing or misleading results, and therefore including older animals in the analysis is encouraged.

  13. Reversal of hypercholesterolemia in apolipoprotein E2 and apolipoprotein E3-Leiden transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the VLDL receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, K.W. van; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Zee, A. van der; Hof, B. van 't; Boom, H. van der; Kobayashi, K.; Chan, L.; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction of apolipoprotein E2(Arg158- Cys) (apoE2) and apolipoprotein E3Leiden (apoE3-Leiden) with the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor in vivo and in vitro to define the possible role of this receptor in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. The in vivo

  14. Plasma lipoproteins in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia associated with apolipoproteins E2 (Arg158 -->Cys), E3-Leiden, and E2 (Lys146-->Gln), and effects of treatment with simvastatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, S.P.; Smelt, A.H.; Maagdenberg, A.M. van den; Tol, A. van; Vroom T.F.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Frants, R.R.; Havekes, L.M.; Laarse, A. van der; Hooft, F.M. van 't

    1994-01-01

    Using a density-gradient ultracentrifugation technique, we analyzed in detail the plasma lipoprotein profiles of 18 patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) who had apolipoprotein (apo) E2(Arg158-->Cys) homozygosity (the E2-158 variant, n = 6), apoE3-Leiden heterozygosity (the E3-Leiden

  15. Association of Vitamin D Receptor with Longevity and Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghaderpanahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Longevity is a multifaceted trait in which variety of genes and environmental factors are involved. Newly, the role of vitamin D has been revived regarding its potential advantage on delaying the aging process. Vitamin D exerts its effect through vitamin D receptor (VDR. VDR-FokI is the only polymorphism which alters the VDR length. We examined the frequency of FokI genotypes in old age population as compared to young adults to determine the discerning genotype of FokI polymorphism leading to longer living. In addition, to highlight the position of FokІ polymorphism in quality of life; a cognitive function assessment was performed. 728 participants participated in this study of which 166 individuals were elderly residents of Kahrizak Charity Foundation. The rest were participants of Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and VDR genotype was detected by the polymerase chain reaction. The participants in the elderly group underwent a cognitive function assessment. Cognitive function was measured with the mini mental state examination (MMSE. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.5. The prevalence of ff genotype showed 48% decrease in elderly population as compared to young adults (P=0.06. In addition, F allele was over-represented in the elderly group as compared to controls (P=0.05. Also, “FF” participants of elderly group had higher MMSE as compared to “ff” genotype (18.16Vs17.12. Our data suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in FokI may be possibly involved in longevity and cognitive function

  16. Coagulopathy triggered autoimmunity: experimental antiphospholipid syndrome in factor V Leiden mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated interactions between genetically and autoimmune-mediated coagulopathies by inducing experimental antiphospholipid syndrome (eAPS) in mice carrying the factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation. Methods eAPS was induced in heterozygous and homozygous FVL transgenic mice (C57BL/6 background) by immunization with β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI). Autoantibody levels were measured at 1 and 5 months post-immunization. Mice were tested at 4 months post-immunization for behavior and cognitive function in the staircase, elevated plus-maze, and swim T-maze tests. Brains were removed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for inflammatory markers and neurodegenerative processes. Results A single immunization with β2-GPI induced significantly higher and longer-lasting immune responses, and this was dependent on the number of FVL alleles. At 1 and 5 months post-immunization, levels of antibodies rose from 1.17 ± 0.07 to 1.62 ± 0.17 (optical density units; ODU) in homozygous FVL mice, compared with stable levels of 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.48 ± 0.16 ODU in heterozygous FVL mice and a drop from 1.62 ± 0.21 to 0.61 ± 0.13 ODU in wild-type mice. Behavioral and cognitive clinical features of eAPS were also correlated with FVL allele load, as assessed by the elevated plus-maze (altered anxiety), staircase (hyperactivity and higher exploration), and swim T-maze (impaired learning) tests. Histological studies identified significant neurodegenerative changes in both grey and white matter in the eAPS-FVL brains. In spite of the potential interaction of two prothrombotic disease states, there were no ischemic lesions seen in this group. Conclusions The results indicate that genetically mediated coagulopathies increase the risk of developing coagulation-targeted autoimmune responses, and suggest the importance of antibody-mediated neurodegenerative processes in the brain in APS. PMID:23566870

  17. Life in the cold: links between mammalian hibernation and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The biological process of aging is the primary determinant of lifespan, but the factors that influence the rate of aging are not yet clearly understood and remain a challenging question. Mammals are characterized by >100-fold differences in maximal lifespan, influenced by relative variances in body mass and metabolic rate. Recent discoveries have identified long-lived mammalian species that deviate from the expected longevity quotient. A commonality among many long-lived species is the capacity to undergo metabolic rate depression, effectively re-programming normal metabolism in response to extreme environmental stress and enter states of torpor or hibernation. This stress tolerant phenotype often involves a reduction in overall metabolic rate to just 1-5% of the normal basal rate as well as activation of cytoprotective responses. At the cellular level, major energy savings are achieved via coordinated suppression of many ATP-expensive cell functions; e.g. global rates of protein synthesis are strongly reduced via inhibition of the insulin signaling axis. At the same time, various studies have shown activation of stress survival signaling during hibernation including up-regulation of protein chaperones, increased antioxidant defenses, and transcriptional activation of pro-survival signaling such as the FOXO and p53 pathways. Many similarities and parallels exist between hibernation phenotypes and different long-lived models, e.g. signal transduction pathways found to be commonly regulated during hibernation are also known to induce lifespan extension in animals such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we highlight some of the molecular mechanisms that promote longevity in classic aging models C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, while providing a comparative analysis to how they are regulated during mammalian hibernation.

  18. Environmentally induced transgenerational changes in seed longevity: maternal and genetic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoni, A; Orsenigo, S; Donà, M; Balestrazzi, A; Probert, R J; Hay, F R; Petraglia, A; Abeli, T

    2014-06-01

    Seed longevity, a fundamental plant trait for ex situ conservation and persistence in the soil of many species, varies across populations and generations that experience different climates. This study investigates the extent to which differences in seed longevity are due to genetic differences and/or modified by adaptive responses to environmental changes. Seeds of two wild populations of Silene vulgaris from alpine (wA) and lowland (wL) locations and seeds originating from their cultivation in a lowland common garden for two generations (cA1, cL1, cA2 and cL2) were exposed to controlled ageing at 45 °C, 60 % relative humidity and regularly sampled for germination and relative mRNA quantification (SvHSP17.4 and SvNRPD12). The parental plant growth environment affected the longevity of seeds with high plasticity. Seeds of wL were significantly longer lived than those of wA. However, when alpine plants were grown in the common garden, longevity doubled for the first generation of seeds produced (cA1). Conversely, longevity was similar in all lowland seed lots and did not increase in the second generation of seeds produced from alpine plants grown in the common garden (cA2). Analysis of parental effects on mRNA seed provisioning indicated that the accumulation of gene transcripts involved in tolerance to heat stress was highest in wL, cL1 and cL2, followed by cA1, cA2 and wA. Seed longevity has a genetic basis, but may show strong adaptive responses, which are associated with differential accumulation of mRNA via parental effects. Adaptive adjustments of seed longevity due to transgenerational plasticity may play a fundamental role in the survival and persistence of the species in the face of future environmental challenges. The results suggest that regeneration location may have important implications for the conservation of alpine plants held in seed banks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All

  19. Ages at menarche and menopause and reproductive lifespan as predictors of exceptional longevity in women: the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadyab, Aladdin H; Macera, Caroline A; Shaffer, Richard A; Jain, Sonia; Gallo, Linda C; Gass, Margery L S; Waring, Molly E; Stefanick, Marcia L; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and survival to age 90 years. This was a prospective study of postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative recruited from 1993 to 1998 and followed until the last outcomes evaluation on August 29, 2014. Participants included 16,251 women born on or before August 29, 1924 for whom survival to age 90 during follow-up was ascertained. Women were classified as having survived to age 90 (exceptional longevity) or died before age 90. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of ages at menarche and menopause (natural or surgical) and reproductive lifespan with longevity, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive characteristics. Participants were on average aged 74.7 years (range, 69-81 y) at baseline. Of 16,251 women, 8,892 (55%) survived to age 90. Women aged at least 12 years at menarche had modestly increased odds of longevity (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.19). There was a significant trend toward increased longevity for later age at menopause (natural or surgical; Ptrend = 0.01), with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.19 (1.04-1.36) and 1.18 (1.02-1.36) for 50 to 54 and at least 55 compared with less than 40 years, respectively. Later age at natural menopause as a separate exposure was also significantly associated with increased longevity (Ptrend = 0.02). Longer reproductive lifespan was significantly associated with increased longevity (Ptrend = 0.008). The odds of longevity were 13% (OR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25) higher in women with more than 40 compared with less than 33 reproductive years. Reproductive characteristics were associated with late-age survival in older women.

  20. Outcome of Patients with Venous Thromboembolism and Factor V Leiden or Prothrombin 20210 Carrier Mutations During the Course of Anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoran, Inna; Papadakis, Manolis; Brenner, Benjamin; Fidalgo, Ángeles; Rivas, Agustina; Wells, Philip S; Gavín, Olga; Adarraga, María Dolores; Moustafa, Farès; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A mutations are at a higher risk to develop venous thromboembolism. However, the influence of these polymorphisms on patient outcome during anticoagulant therapy has not been consistently explored. We used the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica database to compare rates of venous thromboembolism recurrence and bleeding events occurring during the anticoagulation course in factor V Leiden carriers, prothrombin mutation carriers, and noncarriers. Between March 2001 and December 2015, 10,139 patients underwent thrombophilia testing. Of these, 1384 were factor V Leiden carriers, 1115 were prothrombin mutation carriers, and 7640 were noncarriers. During the anticoagulation course, 160 patients developed recurrent deep vein thrombosis and 94 patients developed pulmonary embolism (16 died); 154 patients had major bleeding (10 died), and 291 patients had nonmajor bleeding. On multivariable analysis, factor V Leiden carriers had a similar rate of venous thromboembolism recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.64), half the rate of major bleeding (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.25-0.99) and a nonsignificantly lower rate of nonmajor bleeding (adjusted HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.43-1.01) than noncarriers. Prothrombin mutation carriers and noncarriers had a comparable rate of venous thromboembolism recurrence (adjusted HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.48), major bleeding (adjusted HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.42-1.34), and nonmajor bleeding events (adjusted HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.57). During the anticoagulation course, factor V Leiden carriers had a similar risk for venous thromboembolism recurrence and half the risk for major bleeding compared with noncarriers. This finding may contribute to decision-making regarding anticoagulation duration in selected factor V Leiden carriers with venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Longevity of HDPE Geomembranes in Geoenvironmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewais, Amr Mohamed Ragab Abdel Samad

    With sufficient time, a high density polyethylene geomembrane will degrade and lose its engineering properties until ruptures signal the end of its service-life. This thesis examines the longevity of nine different geomembranes; five of them were of different thickness manufactured from the same resin. The degradation of properties and time to failure are investigated for geomembranes: in immersion tests; as a part of a landfill composite liner; and, exposed to the elements. The different thermal and stress histories associated with manufacturing geomembranes of different thickness are shown to affect their morphological structure; consequently, their stress crack resistance. When immersed in synthetic leachate, it was found that: (a) thicker geomembranes have a longer antioxidants depletion time but the effect of thickness decreases with temperature and is less than expected; (b) inferences of geomembrane's longevity based on its initial properties may be misleading because a geomembrane may chemically degrade (as manifested by the change in melt index) despite the presence of a significant amount of stabilizers (as manifested by the measured high pressure oxidative induction time); and, (c) stress crack resistance may change before antioxidant depletion or chemical degradation takes place, likely, due to changes in geomembrane morphological structure with the maximum decrease being observed at 55°C. Reductions also were measured for geomembrane immersed in air and water at 55°C. The geomembrane aged in a simulated landfill liner at 85°C is shown to have service-life as little as three years with 30,000 to >2.0 million ruptures/hectare at failure. For exposed geomembranes in Alumbrera (Argentina), samples were exhumed from two mine facilities after ~16 years of exposure. The antioxidants in exposed samples depleted to residual and the stress crack resistance had dropped to as low as 70 hours. Samples were exhumed from a different exposed geomembrane in a test

  2. HELLP Syndrome and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Ozcan Dag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The neurological complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for a major proportion of the morbidity and mortality for women and their infants alike. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and the puerperium carry an increased risk of venous thromboembolism including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST. Factor 5 leiden (FVL is a procoagulant mutation associated primarily with venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications. We report a patient with FVL mutation who presented with CVST at 24th week of pregnancy and was diagnosed as HELLP syndrome at 34th week of pregnancy.

  3. Familial Longevity Is Not Associated with Major Differences in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Jansen, Steffy W.

    2016-01-01

    Context: A trade-off between fertility and longevity possibly exists. The association of the male hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis with familial longevity has not yet been investigated. Objective: To study 24-h hormone concentration profiles of the HPG axis in men enriched for familial....../feedback regulation within the HPG axis were similar between offspring of long-lived families and controls. Conclusion: This relatively small study suggests that in healthy male middle-aged participants, familial longevity is not associated with major differences in the HPG axis. Selection on both fertility...

  4. Longevity of Electronic/Digital Records: An Annotated Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deken, J

    2004-03-02

    Current resources, publications, web sites and projects on the longevity and preservation of electronic/digital records are provided, along with brief comments about sites and publications of particular relevance and interest.

  5. Information technology as a facilitator of suppliers’ collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness about the paramount importance of information technology within business in the context of large businesses. However, research about the investigation of the role of information technology resources in fostering collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in the small and medium enterprise sector has remained scant. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of information technology on collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in Zimbabwe’s SME sector. Five research hypotheses were posited and sample data from 162 small and medium enterprise suppliers were collected and used to empirically test the hypotheses. The results of this study showed that information technology resources positively influenced small and medium enterprise suppliers’ collaborative communication, network governance and consequential relationship longevity with their buyers in a significant way. Overall, the current study findings provided tentative support to the proposition that information technology resources, collaborative communication and network governance should be recognised as significant antecedents for improved relationship longevity between suppliers and their buyers in the SME setting. Therefore, managers in the small and medium enterprise sector and small and medium enterprise owners need to pay attention to both collaborative communication and network governance in order to optimise information technology resource impact on their relationship longevity with their business counterparts. Limitations and future research directions were also indicated.

  6. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-06-16

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n = 90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n = 88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176) = 2.92, P = 0.004; d = 0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being.

  7. Protective effect of compression socks in a marathon runner with a genetic predisposition to thrombophilia due to Factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Amanda L; Pescatello, Linda S; Thompson, Paul D; Taylor, Beth A

    2015-07-01

    The present case study is an analysis of the effect of compression socks on hemostatic activation following a marathon in a female endurance athlete found to be heterozygous for the coagulation factor V (F5 1691 G>A [Arg>Gln rs6025/560]) risk allele that predisposes one to a genetically inherited disorder of blood clotting, Factor V Leiden. Markers for coagulation and fibrinolysis were obtained 24 h prior to (PRE), immediately after (FINISH) and 24 h after (POST) completion of two marathons: the first in which the runner was not wearing compression socks, and the second in which the runner wore compression socks throughout the race. Compression socks worn during a marathon appeared to lower the overall impact on hemostasis as well as clot formation in this particular athlete as evidenced by lower t-PA (-56%), TAT (-63%) and D-dimer (-30%). Hemostatic activation may be lower with the use of compression socks, and thus may be effective for preserving hemostasis in endurance athletes at risk.

  8. [The 1691 G > A (factor V Leiden) and 1328 T > C V coagulation factor polymorphisms and recurrent miscarriages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałajewicz-Nowak, Marta; Pityński, Kazimierz; Milewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Inherited thrombophilia might lead to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of V coagulation factor polymorphisms related with inherited thrombophilia among women in Malopolska region.Material and methods: Group of 136 women, who experienced at least 2 unexplained, idiopathic pregnancy loss. 106 healthy women having at least one uncomplicated pregnancy and delivered healthy children constituted a control group. Each patient were examined for factor V Leiden (FVL) and mutation 1328 T>C of factor V gene with use of real –time PCR and Taq-Man probes.Results: Among patients with RPL inhabiting region of Malopolska compared to control group occurred higher prevalence of FVL and mutation 1328 T>C. There is coincidence of polymorphism 1328 T>C of factor V gene and FVL in group of early and late RPL.Conclusions: TC genotype of 1328 T>C mutation carriers reveal tendency toward RPL below 7 weeks of pregnancy.Based on results of these findings inherited thrombophilia evaluation in patients after two or more RPL should be recommended.

  9. A comparative cellular and molecular biology of longevity database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jeffrey A; Liang, Ping; Luo, Xuemei; Page, Melissa M; Gallagher, Emily J; Christoff, Casey A; Robb, Ellen L

    2013-10-01

    Discovering key cellular and molecular traits that promote longevity is a major goal of aging and longevity research. One experimental strategy is to determine which traits have been selected during the evolution of longevity in naturally long-lived animal species. This comparative approach has been applied to lifespan research for nearly four decades, yielding hundreds of datasets describing aspects of cell and molecular biology hypothesized to relate to animal longevity. Here, we introduce a Comparative Cellular and Molecular Biology of Longevity Database, available at ( http://genomics.brocku.ca/ccmbl/ ), as a compendium of comparative cell and molecular data presented in the context of longevity. This open access database will facilitate the meta-analysis of amalgamated datasets using standardized maximum lifespan (MLSP) data (from AnAge). The first edition contains over 800 data records describing experimental measurements of cellular stress resistance, reactive oxygen species metabolism, membrane composition, protein homeostasis, and genome homeostasis as they relate to vertebrate species MLSP. The purpose of this review is to introduce the database and briefly demonstrate its use in the meta-analysis of combined datasets.

  10. Multiple Brain Abscesses in an Immunocompetent Patient With Factor V Leiden Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Saeed Zubair; Pervin, Najwa; Manthri, Sukesh; Bhattarai, Mukul

    2016-01-01

    Multiple brain abscesses in an immunocompetent patient is a challenging clinical problem in the medical world despite advances in imaging techniques, laboratory diagnostics, surgical interventions, and antimicrobial treatment. It is a clinical entity that typically tends to occur in the presence of known predisposing factors. Clinicians seek to determine the potential risk factors responsible for the development of brain abscess because it is very crucial for management of this life-threatening condition. At times, like in our case, there are clinical situations where it is difficult to reveal any traditional risk factors. We report a case of multiple brain abscesses in a 51-year-old female with a past medical history significant only for factor V Leiden mutation, and deep vein thrombosis on chronic anticoagulation. She underwent thorough evaluation but no predisposing factors were found. Based on our extensive literature review, this is the index case of multiple brain abscesses in a patient with history of factor V Leiden mutation and the absence of any conventional risk factors. We also postulate a possible mechanism of infection in such patients.

  11. A casein hydrolysate based formulation attenuates obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis in LDLr-/-.Leiden mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke H Schoemaker

    Full Text Available Obesity frequently associates with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT seems to be an important driver of these manifestations.This study investigated a combination of an extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHC, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (ARA, and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG (together referred to as nutritional ingredients, NI on the development of obesity, metabolic risk factors, WAT inflammation, NAFLD and atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed LDLr-/-.Leiden mice, a model that mimics disease development in humans.LDLr-/-.Leiden male mice (n = 15/group received a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 Kcal% for 21 weeks with or without the NI (23.7% eHC, 0.083% DHA, 0.166% ARA; all w/w and 1x109 CFU LGG gavage 3 times/week. HFD and HFD+NI diets were isocaloric. A low fat diet (LFD, 10 Kcal% was used for reference. Body weight, food intake and metabolic risk factors were assessed over time. At week 21, tissues were analyzed for WAT inflammation (crown-like structures, NAFLD and atherosclerosis. Effects of the individual NI components were explored in a follow-up experiment (n = 7/group.When compared to HFD control, treatment with the NI strongly reduced body weight to levels of the LFD group, and significantly lowered (P<0.01 plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin and serum amyloid A (P<0.01. NI also reduced WAT mass and inflammation. Strikingly, NI treatment significantly reduced macrovesicular steatosis, lobular inflammation and liver collagen (P<0.05, and attenuated atherosclerosis development (P<0.01. Of the individual components, the effects of eHC were most pronounced but could not explain the entire effects of the NI formulation.A combination of eHC, ARA, DHA and LGG attenuates obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (NAFLD, atherosclerosis in LDLr-/-.Leiden mice. The observed reduction of inflammation in adipose tissue and

  12. Post-harvest longevity of ornamental grasses conditioned in gibberellic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Henschke Monika; Pers Katarzyna; Opalińska Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Florists’ greens are becoming increasingly important in contemporary floristry. Numerous studies conducted on cut flowers have led to the development of technologies for their post-harvest handling; however, in the case of florists’ greens they are still insufficient. Moreover, the extensive range of florists’ greens lacks leaves and the leafy culms of grasses. The aim of this study was to determine the post-harvest longevity of the leaves and leafy culms of ornamental grasses conditioned in ...

  13. Longevity of the Adult Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, and the Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington Apple Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P.; Wiman, Nik G.

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed. PMID:20337564

  14. The Timing Effects of Reward, Business Longevity, and Involvement on Consumers’ Responses to a Reward Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Munir Sukoco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Managers could elicit customers’ repeat purchase behavior through a well-designed reward program. This study examines two extrinsic cues - business longevity and timing effects of reward – to determine the consumers’ perceived risk and intention to participate in this kind of program. Moreover, this study discusses how different levels of involvement might interact with these two cues. An experiment with a 2 (business longevity: long vs. short x 2 (timing of reward: delayed vs. immediate x 2 (involvement: high vs. low between-subject factorial design is conducted to validate the proposed research hypotheses. The results show that an immediate reward offered by an older, more established, firm for a highly-involved product, make loyalty programs less risky and consequently attract consumers to participate. Interestingly, immediate rewards that are offered by older firms for a product that customers are less involved in has the opposite effects. Managerial and academic implications are further presented in this study.

  15. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.

    1981-01-01

    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are

  16. Update 1996: Blood collection and handling procedures for assessment of plasminogen activators and inhibitors (Leiden Fibrinolysis Workshop)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluft, C.; Meijer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Procedures of blood collection and handling can be different for the various variables in fibrinolysis. Some of them may require adaptation to the progress in assay methodology and in biochemical and physiological knowledge. During the Leiden Fibrinolysis Workshop 6 in 1996, the procedures described

  17. Life-threatening aortic thrombosis in a trauma patient homozygous for factor V Leiden mutation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopterides Petros

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of near fatal aortic thrombosis in a trauma patient homozygous for mutation of Factor V Leiden. He responded well to vascular surgery and intensive care unit management and was discharged successfully from the hospital one month later.

  18. Effect of the factor V Leiden mutation on the incidence and outcome of severe infection and sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of coagulation frequently occurs in severe infection and sepsis and may contribute to the development of multiple organ dysfunction. Factor V Leiden is a relatively common mutation resulting in a mild prohaemostatic state and consequently with an increased tendency to develop thrombosis.

  19. Has one of Captain Cook’s possums landed in Leiden? The possible holotype of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, C.

    2009-01-01

    The identity of an old female specimen of Pseudocheirus peregrinus (Boddaert, 1785) in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, is discussed and the early descriptions and nomenclatural history of the species are reviewed. The assumption by Temminck (1824) and Jentink (1888) that the animal

  20. Catalogue of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic holotypes in the collection of plant fossils in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnenburg-van Cittert, van J.H.A.; Waveren, van I.M.; Jonckers, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    This is an inventory of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic type material in the original palaeobotanical collections of the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, The Netherlands. In total 60 holotypes are documented and one is noted as missing from the collections. One new combination is made

  1. Training van gezinstherapeuten: verslag van de cursus in het NIPG te Leiden gehouden van augustus tootnovember 1967

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boszormenyi-Nagy, I.; Rubinstein, D.; Zuk, G.

    1967-01-01

    De cursus gezinstherapie waarop dit verslag betrekking heeft. werd gehouden van medio augustus tot medio november 1967 in het Nederlands lnstituut voor Praeventieve Geneeskunde te Leiden. Hij werd georganiseerd op initiatief en onder auspiciën van de Werkgroep Gezinsbenadering, een

  2. Cenozoic Molluscan types from Java (Indonesia) in the Martin Collection (Division of Cenozoic Mollusca), National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of type material in the ‘Martin Collection’ at the Division of Cenozoic Mollusca of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands has been made. In total 1842 lots containing over 5700 type specimens of 912 species were encountered. The status of the types is outlined.

  3. Charles Darwin’s lost Cinereous Harrier found in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouw, van H.; Steinheimer, F.D.

    2008-01-01

    During reorganisation of the Leiden bird collection a mounted harrier was found what seemed to be one of the still lost specimens collected by Darwin. After closer research it turned out it was indeed the last missing harrier of the Darwin collection.

  4. The Trouble with Opium. Taste, Reason and Experience in Late Galenic Pharmacology with Special Regard to the University of Leiden (1575-1625).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerk, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, the discrepancy between the taste of some drugs and their effects on the body was used to criticize Galenic medicine. In this paper, I argue that such contradictions were brought to light by the sixteenth-century study of drug properties within the Galenic tradition itself. Investigating how the taste of a drug corresponded to the effects it had on the body became a core problem for maintaining a medical practice that was both rational and effective. I discuss four physicians, connected to the University of Leiden, who attempted to understand drug properties, including taste, within a Galenic framework. The sixteenth-century discussions about the relationship between the senses, reason and experience, will help us understand the seventeenth-century criticism of Galenic medicine and the importance of discussions about materia medica for ideas regarding the properties of matter proposed in this period.

  5. Mechanisms by Which Different Functional States of Mitochondria Define Yeast Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Svistkova, Veronika; Lutchman, Vicky; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial functionality is vital to organismal physiology. A body of evidence supports the notion that an age-related progressive decline in mitochondrial function is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes. Studies of the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unicellular eukaryote, have led to discoveries of genes, signaling pathways and chemical compounds that modulate longevity-defining cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms across phyla. These studies have provided deep insights into mechanistic links that exist between different traits of mitochondrial functionality and cellular aging. The molecular mechanisms underlying the essential role of mitochondria as signaling organelles in yeast aging have begun to emerge. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding mechanisms by which different functional states of mitochondria define yeast longevity, outline the most important unanswered questions and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25768339

  6. Longevity and admission to nursing home according to age after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristinn; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    O5 Longevity and admission to nursing home according to age after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery: A nationwide cohort study Kristinn Thorsteinsson, Jan Jesper Andreasen, Christian Torp Pedersen, Kirsten Fonager, Rikke Nørmark Mortensen, Kristian Kragholm, Gunnar Gislason, Lars Køber....... Aalborg, Denmark Background: Data on nursing home admission in patients >80 years of age after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are scarce. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate longevity and subsequent admission to nursing home stratified by age in a nationwide CABG cohort....... Methods: All patients who underwent isolated CABG in 1996-2012 in Denmark were identified through nationwide administrative registers and included. The cumulative incidence of admission to a nursing home after CABG was estimated. A cause specific Cox-regression model was constructed to identify predictors...

  7. Longevidad: estado cognoscitivo, validismo y calidad de vida Longevity: cognitive state, validism and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martínez Querol

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, con ancianos de 90 años y más del Policlínico “Ana Betancourt” del municipio Playa, durante el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2004 y marzo de 2005, con la intención de evaluar el comportamiento del fenómeno longevidad en dicha área de salud y proceder a su caracterización. Se detectaron 70 longevos, lo que representó un índice de prevalencia de 2,3 %; predominó el grupo de 90 a 94 años con un total de 47 (72 %; mientras que solo 3 llegan o sobrepasan los 100 años de edad. El nivel escolar predominante fue el de primaria concluida con el 43 %, y se comprobó un predominio en un 75 % de la raza blanca, en el 66 % de longevos viudos, y el 57 % tuvo antecedentes patológicos familiares de longevidad. Mostraron independencia total en la realización de las actividades básicas de la vida diaria el 38 % y en las instrumentales solo el 14. El 20 % de los longevos exhiben trastornos cognitivos mínimos y el 42 % sufren demencias en sus diferentes modalidades. La calidad de vida es considerada como buena en el 48 % de la muestra.A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly aged 90 and over from “Ana Betancourt” Polyclinic, in Playa municipality, between September 2004 and March 2005, in order to evaluate the behavior of the longevity phenomenon in such health area and to characterize it. 70 longevous individuals were detected, which represented a prevalence index of 2.3 %. There was a predominance of the age group 90-94 with a total of 47 longevous subjects (72 %, whereas only 3 are 100 years old or more. The prevailing educational level was primary school concluded, accounting for 43 %. It was found a predominance in 75 % of the white individuals and in 66 % of the longevous widowers. 57 % had pathological family history of longevity. 38 % showed independence to carry out the basic activities of daily life, and only 14 % to perform instrumental

  8. The impact of hair coat color on longevity of Holstein cows in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over two decades of observations in the field in South East Asia and Hawai‘i suggest that majority of the commercial dairy herds are of black hair coat. Hence a simple study to determine the accuracy of the observation was conducted with two large dairy herds in Hawaii in the mid-1990s. Methods A retrospective study on longevity of Holstein cattle in the tropics was conducted using DairyComp-305 lactation information coupled with phenotypic evaluation of hair coat color in two large dairy farms. Cows were classified into 3 groups: a black (B, >90%; b black/white (BW, 50:50 and c white (W, >90%. Cows with other hair coat distribution were excluded from the study. In farm A, 211 out of 970 cows were identified having 4 or more lactations. In farm B, 690 out of 1,350 cows were identified with 2 or more lactations for the study. Results The regression analyses and the Wilcoxon-Log-rank test for survival probability showed that Holstein cattle with 90% black hair coat had greater longevity compared to Holstein cattle with 90% white hair coat. Conclusions This study suggests that longevity of Holstein cattle in tropical regions was influenced by hair coat color and characteristics.

  9. Canonische data-analyse : leiden verschillende procedures tot verschillende resultaten ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, A.W. Verhoef, P.J.G. & Oppe, S.

    2000-01-01

    Concerning the analysis of problems in road safety, the classical techniques for multivariate analysis are often not applicable. Non-linear canonical analysis can be used, when one wants to study the relations between non-linear characteristics. A canonical analysis can take place, according to

  10. [AGING, HEALTH AND ACTIVE LONGEVITY: SEMANTIC CONTEXT OF THEIR MENTIONING IN SOCIAL NETWORKS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, I A; Bikkulov, A S

    2015-01-01

    Traditional media play a large role in shaping the image of oldsters as weak and sick members of society, while the gerontologists say the health of the elderly is quite specific. In a study of the views of the Internet audience, we tried to find out what this IT-competent part of society thinks on aging, what meanings they associate with aging and active longevity.

  11. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of longevity represents a significant welfare opportunity for the domestic dog, given its unparalleled morphological diversity. Epidemiological research using electronic patient records (EPRs) collected from primary veterinary practices overcomes many inherent limitations of referral clinic, owner questionnaire and pet insurance data. Clinical health data from 102,609 owned dogs attending first opinion veterinary practices (n=86) in central and southeast England were analysed, focusing on 5095 confirmed deaths. Of deceased dogs with information available, 3961 (77.9%) were purebred, 2386 (47.0%) were female, 2528 (49.8%) were neutered and 1105 (21.7%) were insured. The overall median longevity was 12.0 years (IQR 8.9-14.2). The longest-lived breeds were the Miniature poodle, Bearded collie, Border collie and Miniature dachshund, while the shortest-lived were the Dogue de Bordeaux and Great Dane. The most frequently attributed causes of death were neoplastic, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The results of multivariable modelling indicated that longevity in crossbred dogs exceeded purebred dogs by 1.2 years (95% confidence interval 0.9-1.4; P<0.001) and that increasing bodyweight was negatively correlated with longevity. The current findings highlight major breed differences for longevity and support the concept of hybrid vigour in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Longevity of Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth inflorescences treated with nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO acts as anti senescence substance, which may extend the postharvest life of fruits, vegetables and flowers when they are treated with micro molar concentrations of compounds like the donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP. This work aimed to evaluate the effect pulsing or spraying of NO on the longevity of cut Epidendrum ibaguense inflorescences. After harvested, the inflorescences were pulsed for 6, 24 or 48 hours with 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 µM SNP or sprayed until run off with the same mentioned solutions. Controls were treated with distilled water. After the treatment, the flowers were placed in deionized water, which was changed every 2 days. No significant differences were observed on the longevity of flowers treated with 5, 10, 50 or 100 µM SNP, regardless of the mode of application. Inflorescences treated with 500 µM SNP had reduced longevity and increased flower abscission. In inflorescences kept in SNP solution, toxic symptoms such as darkening of the labellum resulting in reduced longevity compared with the control. The longevity of inflorescences sprayed with 500 µM SNP reduced from 6.8±0.57 to 5.1±0.82 days. Collectively, NO treatments were not able to extend the shelf life of E. ibaguense inflorescences and high concentrations of the NO donor compound in vase solution or spraying leads to toxicity symptoms on the flower labellum.

  13. Cloning Approaches for Identifying Aging and Longevity-Related Genes in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davina C. Simoes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a phenomenon that affects nearly all animal species. Several studies using different systems have identified a number of processes thought to contribute to the aging phenotype. Many differentially expressed genes have been implicated, but the mechanisms governing mammalian aging (and longevity are not yet fully understood, and the list of concerned genes is still incomplete and fragmented. Different approaches have been used to clone aging and longevity-related genes. In this article we review these cloning techniques and discuss their advantages and limitations. Further research on the function of these genes as well as the network of their protein products will give better insight into the aging process as a whole and its associated pathologies.

  14. The impact of recent chemotherapy innovation on the longevity of myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Lichtenberg, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    The longevity of multiple myeloma patients increased sharply since the late 1990s. This increase coincided with the introduction of several important innovations in chemotherapy for myeloma. In this study, we aim to quantify the impact of recent chemotherapy innovation on the longevity of myeloma...... on a back-of-the-envelope calculation, this means that the cost per US life-year gained from post-1997 chemotherapy innovation is unlikely to have exceeded $46,000.We also investigate the impact of chemotherapy innovation on the myeloma mortality rate using longitudinal country-level data on 38 countries...... chemotherapy regimen is similar in other countries to its effect in the US. Non-US prices of two of the three new drugs were lower than US prices, so recent myeloma chemotherapy innovation may have been more cost-effective in other countries than it was in the US.Recent chemotherapy innovation has had...

  15. Why increasing longevity may favour a PAYG pension system over a funded system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediev, Dalkhat M

    2014-03-01

    When pension systems are contrasted it is common to use simplified demographic models, such as overlapping generation models with time-invariant mortality. Breaking with this tradition, we show that for a population with increasing longevity, the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system may be more advantageous than a funded system (FS). Increasing longevity favours the PAYG system because for the workers living longer at retirement than current retirees, it is less costly to fund others' current pensions than their own. At present, the effect amounts to around 15 per cent in terms of the dependency ratio, or six more years at work in the FS, or 1 per cent per annum in terms of the real interest rate. In most developed countries the effect substantially exceeds that of the usually studied biological interest rate.

  16. Clinical impact of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations among sickle cell disease patients of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishank, Sudhansu Sekhar; Singh, Mendi Prema Shyam Sunder; Yadav, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    It is known that patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) present activation of the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, especially during vaso-occlusive crises and also during the steady state of the disease. We determined whether the presence of the factor prothrombin gene G20210A variant, factor V gene G1691A mutation (factor V Leiden), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms may be risk factors for vascular complications in individuals with SCD. The study involved 150 patients with sickle cell anemia and 150 healthy controls of Central India. Genotyping of three thrombophilic mutations was carried out by PCR-RFLP methods using MnlI, Hind III, and Hinf I, respectively, for factor V Leiden, prothrombin, and MTHFR mutations. Patients with SCD had significantly higher prevalence of mutant variants of MTHFR gene (28.0% heterozygotes and 14.6% homozygotes) and FVL gene (14.6% heterozygotes) as compared to normal/control individuals, but complete absence of mutant variants of prothrombin gene. The patients with SCD having mutant variants of MTHFR and FVL genes showed higher incidence of pain in chest, abdomen, and bone joints along with early age of onset of clinical manifestations as well as frequent dependence on blood transfusion than those patients with SCD having wild variants of these thrombotic genes. As compared to control subjects, SCD individuals having mutant variants of FVL and MTHFR genes had significant association with higher levels of prothrombin fragment (F1+2), D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), and lower level of protein C. MTHFR C677T and FVL G1691A polymorphisms may be risk factors for increased vascular complications in patient with SCD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The relationship of the factor V Leiden mutation or the deletion-deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme to postoperative thromboembolic events following total joint arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Carrie

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although all patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty are subjected to similar risk factors that predispose to thromboembolism, only a subset of patients develop this complication. The objective of this study was to determine whether a specific genetic profile is associated with a higher risk of developing a postoperative thromboembolic complication. Specifically, we examined if the Factor V Leiden (FVL mutation or the deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene increased a patient's risk for postoperative thromboembolic events. The FVL mutation has been associated with an increased risk of idiopathic thromboembolism and the deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene has been associated with increased vascular tone, attenuated fibrinolysis and increased platelet aggregation. Methods The presence of these genetic profiles was determined for 38 patients who had a postoperative symptomatic pulmonary embolus or proximal deep venous thrombosis and 241 control patients without thrombosis using molecular biological techniques. Results The Factor V Leiden mutation was present in none of the 38 experimental patients and in 3% or 8 of the 241 controls (p = 0.26. Similarly there was no difference detected in the distribution of polymorphisms for the ACE gene with the deletion-deletion genotype present in 36% or 13 of the 38 experimental patients and in 31% or 74 of the 241 controls (p = 0.32. Conclusions Our results suggest that neither of these potentially hypercoaguable states are associated with an increased risk of symptomatic thromboembolic events following total hip or knee arthroplasty in patients receiving pharmacological thromboprophylaxis.

  18. COMMUNICATION: Minocycline increases quality and longevity of chronic neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennaker, R. L.; Miller, J.; Tang, H.; Wilson, D. A.

    2007-06-01

    Brain/machine interfaces could potentially be used in the treatment of a host of neurological disorders ranging from paralysis to sensory deficits. Insertion of chronic micro-electrode arrays into neural tissue initiates a host of immunological responses, which typically leads to the formation of a cellular sheath around the implant, resulting in the loss of useful signals. Minocycline has been shown to have neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in certain neural injury and neurodegenerative disease models. This study examined the effects of minocycline administration on the quality and longevity of chronic multi-channel microwire neural implants 1 week and 1 month post-implantation in auditory cortex. The mean signal-to-noise ratio for the minocycline group stabilized at the end of week 1 and remained above 4.6 throughout the following 3 weeks. The control group signal-to-noise ratio dropped throughout the duration of the study and at the end of 4 weeks was 2.6. Furthermore, 68% of electrodes from the minocycline group showed significant stimulus-driven activity at week 4 compared to 12.5% of electrodes in the control group. There was a significant reduction in the number of activated astrocytes around the implant in minocycline subjects, as well as a reduction in total area occupied by activated astrocytes at 1 and 4 weeks.

  19. Effects of some insecticides on longevity of the foragers honey bee worker of local honey bee race Apis mellifera jemenatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljedani, Dalal Musleh; Almehmadi, Roqaya Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Honeybees are constantly exposed to a wide range of vital and non-vital pressures that may interact with each other and affect the health or survival of the insects. Pesticides are the main danger for the insects, and they subsequently have impacts on human and environmental health. Field research was conducted in the apiary of Hada Al Sham Research Station, where the worker honeybees forager Apis mellifera jemenatica were selected to examine the effect of pesticides on workers' longevity. We used three insecticides, i.e., deltamethrin, malathion, and abamectin, in different concentrations. The longevity of worker honeybee foragers was calculated; the honeybees were supplied with water, food, natural protein, and sugar solution laced with selected insecticide by mouth under laboratory conditions. The longest period of insect longevity was 15.5 days when using deltamethrin concentrate at a concentration of 1.00 ppm; the lowest longevity was two days when using abamectin at a concentration 1.00 ppm. The longevity of the unexposed forager worker honeybees was 18 days, as the variation in the intensity of the effect of the insecticide on the bees appeared with the severity of the effect diminishing in the order of abamectin followed by malathion followed by deltamethrin. The study found that the type and concentration of the insecticides that are found in the honeybees' food had a significant impact on the time of survival of the insects. The longevity of a worker honeybee depends on the health and safety of all of the members of the beehive, and safe alternatives to insecticides must be used because of the danger imposed by the application of insecticides on the continuity of life of the entire society depends on the life of this layer bee community.

  20. Identification of markers for imminent death in mice used in longevity and aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Maria A; Johnston, Nancy A; Verhulst, Steven; Trammell, Rita A; Toth, Linda A

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to identify objective criteria that would reliably predict imminent death in aged mice. Male and female ICR mice (age, 8 mo) were subcutaneously implanted with an identification chip for remote measurement of body temperature. Mice then were weighed and monitored regularly until spontaneous death occurred or until euthanasia was administered for humane reasons. Clinical signs that signaled implementation of euthanasia included inability to walk, lack of response to manipulation, large or ulcerated tumors, seizures, and palpable hypothermia. In mice that died spontaneously, gradual weight loss was the most frequent and earliest sign of imminent death. Hypothermia developed during the 2 wk prior to death. Slow or labored breathing were observed in about half of the mice before death. A composite score of temperature x weight can be used to provide an objective benchmark to signal increased observation or euthanasia of individual mice. Such assessment may allow the collection of terminal tissue samples without markedly altering longevity data, although application of this criterion may not be appropriate for all studies of longevity. Timely euthanasia of mice based on validated markers of imminent death can allow implementation of endpoints that alleviate terminal distress in aged mice, may not significantly affect longevity data, and can permit timely collection of biologic samples.

  1. The impact of pharmaceutical innovation on longevity and medical expenditure in France, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal, disease-level data are used to analyze the impact of pharmaceutical innovation on longevity (mean age at death) and medical expenditure in France during the period 2000-2009. The estimates imply that pharmaceutical innovation increased mean age at death by 0.29 years (3.43 months) during this period-about one-fifth of the total increase in longevity. This estimate is smaller than those obtained in previous studies of Germany and the U.S., but the rate of adoption of new drugs was lower in France. Longevity is much more strongly related to the number of drugs than it is to the number of drug classes. Pharmaceutical innovation during 2000-2009 is estimated to have increased per capita pharmaceutical expenditure by $125 (26%) in 2009, but most (87%) of this increase was offset by a reduction in hospital expenditure. The baseline estimate of the cost per life-year gained from pharmaceutical innovation in France during 2000-2009 is about $8100. This estimate is fairly close to the mean of estimates obtained ($10,800) from U.S., German, and Australian studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intellectual maturity and longevity: late-blooming composers and writers live longer than child prodigies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkamp, Maurits P J; Slaets, Joris P J; van Bodegom, David

    2017-05-30

    Life history theory links human physical and sexual development to longevity. However, there have been no studies on the association of intellectual development with longevity. This observational study investigates the relationship between the onset of intellectual maturity and lifespan through the life histories of composers and creative writers, whose intellectual development can be gauged through their compositions and writings. In these groups we model the relationship between the age at first creative work, and age at death using multilevel regression, adjusting for sex, date of birth, and nationality. Historical biographical records on 1110 musical composers and 1182 creative writers, born in the period 1400 AD through 1915 AD, were obtained from the Oxford Companion to Music and the Oxford Companion to English Literature. Composers and creative writers lived, respectively 0.16 ( p = 0.02) and 0.18 ( p < 0.01) years longer for each later year of age at first work. When completion of the first creative work is interpreted as a proxy for the onset of intellectual maturity in composers and creative writers, our findings indicate that a later onset of intellectual maturity is associated with higher longevity.

  3. Thrombophilic Genetic Factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A in Noncirrhotic Portal Vein Thrombosis and Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a Caucasian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D’Amico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilic genetic factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A were studied as risk factors in 235 Caucasian subjects: 85 patients with abdominal thrombosis (54 with portal vein thrombosis (PVT and 31 with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and 150 blood bank donors. Seventy-five patients with PVT/BCS showed associated disease or particular clinical status (46 PVT/29 BCS: 37 myeloproliferative neoplasm (20 PVT/17 BCS, 12 abdominal surgery (10 PVT/2 BCS, 10 contraception or pregnancy (6 PVT/4 BCS, 7 abdominal acute disease (6 PVT/1 BCS, and 9 chronic disease (4 PVT/5 BCS; ten patients did not present any association (8 PVT/2 BCS. PAI-14G-4G, MTHFR677TT, and V Leiden 506Q were significantly frequent (OR 95% CI and χ2 test with P value in abdominal thrombosis; in these patients PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT distributions deviated from that expected from a population in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (PAI-1: χ2=13.8, P<0.001; MTHFR677: χ2=7.1, P<0.01, whereas the equilibrium was respected in healthy controls. V Leiden Q506 and Prothrombin 20210A were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium both in patients with abdominal thrombosis and healthy controls. Our study shows an important role of PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT in abdominal thrombosis without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutations and the risk of VTE recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Wang, Xiao; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Hedelius, Anna; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Zöller, Bengt; Memon, Ashfaque A

    2015-11-25

    Plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is an important inhibitor of the plasminogen/plasmin system. PAI-1 levels are influenced by the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter. We investigated the relationship between the PAI-1 polymorphism and VTE recurrence, and its possible modification by factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PTM) mutations. Patients (n=1,069) from the Malmö Thrombophilia Study were followed from discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment until diagnosis of VTE recurrence or the end of the study (maximum follow-up 9.8 years). One hundred twenty-seven patients (11.9 %) had VTE recurrence. PAI-1 was genotyped by TaqMan PCR. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and acquired risk factors of VTE showed no evidence of an association between PAI-1 genotype and risk of VTE recurrence in the study population as a whole. However, by including an interaction term in the analysis we showed that FVL but not PTM modified the effect of PAI-1 genotype: patients with the 4G allele plus FVL had a higher risk of VTE recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) =2.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.5-3.3] compared to patients with the 4G allele but no FVL (reference group) or FVL irrespective of PAI-1 genotype (HR=1.8, 95 % CI=1.3-2.5). Compared to reference group, 5G allele irrespective of FVL was associated with lower risk of VTE recurrence only when compared with 4G allele together with FVL. In conclusion, FVL has a modifying effect on PAI-1 polymorphism in relation to risk of VTE recurrence. The role of PAI-1 polymorphism as a risk factor of recurrent VTE may be FVL dependent.

  5. Total immediate ancestral longevity (TIAL) score as a longevity indicator: an analysis on Einstein and three of his scientist peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, S

    2001-04-01

    The total immediate ancestral longevity (TIAL) score was first introduced by Raymond Pearl as a convenient parameter for quantitating human longevity. TIAL is the summed ages at death of the six immediate ancestors (namely parents and four grandparents) of a propositus. In this communication, I present the calculations of TIAL score for Einstein (1879--1955) and three of his scientist peers, namely Charles Darwin (1809--1882), Irene Joliot Curie (1897--1956) and Aage Bohr (1922--). The TIAL scores for Einstein, Darwin, Irene Curie and Aage Bohr were 390, 378, 372 and 436 respectively. These are markedly lower than 477 reported for Jeanne Calment, the French woman who died in 1997 at the oldest authenticated age of 122 years and 164 days. I conclude that the TIAL score is a convenient and easily quantifiable longevity parameter which anyone interested in determining his or her longevity can use to estimate a tentative number. More light could be shed on the worth of the TIAL score as a longevity indicator, if additional data on the TIAL scores of royalty and celebrities (for whom verified genealogical data are available) are reported. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  6. The purple toe syndrome in female with Factor V Leiden mutation successfully treated with enoxaparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulíček, Petr; Bártová, J; Beránek, M; Malý, J; Pecka, M

    2013-01-01

    Purple toe syndrome is a rare complication of warfarin therapy. It occurs usually after 3 to 8 weeks of therapy and it is caused by cholesterol emboli from atheromatous plaque. Sudden onset of pain in affected area, typically in toes and feet, is the main characteristic of the syndrome. We describe a case of a 65-year-old female with purple toe syndrome after 6 weeks of warfarin. Indication of warfarin was a proximal deep venous thrombosis, which developed after prolonged immobilization. Factor V (FV) Leiden and persistent high FVIII activity were found as additional eliciting factors for venous thromboembolism. After warfarin withdrawal and enoxaparin treatment, symptoms disappeared promptly but a slight discoloration of the toe persists.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACTIVATED PROTEIN C RESISTANCE AND FACTOR V LEIDEN MUTATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez Mehrez M. Jadaon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolic disorders (VTE are serious disorders with high morbidity and mortality rates. Many genetic and acquired risk factors were identified to cause VTE The most common genetic risk factor is Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL. FVL was found in high percentage of populations of Caucasian origin but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. It was also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East.  This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  8. Recurrent pregnancy loss in a subject with heterozygote factor V Leiden mutation; a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal, Reza; Azam, Roza; Ghazarian, Arvin; Hajesmaeili, Mogge; Ranji, Najmeh; Ezzati, Mohammad Reza; Sadri, Mehrdad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Khavandi, Siamak

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss is usually defined as the loss of two or more consecutive pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation, which occurs in approximately 5% of reproductive-aged women. It has been suggested that women with thrombophilia have an increased risk of pregnancy loss and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thrombophilia is an important predisposition to blood clot formation and is considered as a significant risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss. The inherited predisposition to thrombophilia is most often associated with factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin G20210A mutation, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene variants. The net effect is an increased cleavage of prothrombin to thrombin and excessive blood coagulation. PMID:26989729

  9. Epidemiology of Activated Protein C Resistance and Factor V Leiden Mutation in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaon, Mehrez M.

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disorders (VTE) are serious disorders with high morbidity and mortality rates. Many genetic and acquired risk factors were identified to cause VTE. The most common genetic risk factor is Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL). FVL was found in high percentage of populations of Caucasian origin but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. It was also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East. This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area. PMID:22224194

  10. An improved algorithm for activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Adrianna Z; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Lemire, Susan J; Lindeman, Neal I; Dorfman, David M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a Russell viper venom-based activated protein C resistance (APCR) screening test relative to DNA analysis for the factor V Leiden mutation. We evaluated the concordance between Pefakit APCR screening results and DNA analysis for 435 patients homozygous (n = 11), heterozygous (n = 310), or wild-type (n =114) for the G1691A allele. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, we found that a cutoff of 1.89 for the APCR ratio yields a sensitivity and specificity of 99.1%. In patients with discrepant genotype-phenotype correlation, their APCR may provide a more clinically relevant result. We compared several strategies for employing reflex testing and found that performing initial APCR screening followed by confirmatory molecular analysis on a subset of cases in the borderline regions between the diagnostic groups can reduce unnecessary testing by approximately 80% without compromising diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in a Subject with Heterozygote Factor V Leiden Mutation; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent pregnancy loss is usually defined as the loss of two or more consecutive pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation, which occurs in approximately 5% of reproductive-aged women. It has been suggested that women with thrombophilia have an increased risk of pregnancy loss and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thrombophilia is an important predisposition to blood clot formation and is considered as a significant risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss. The inherited predisposition to thrombophilia is most often associated with factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin G20210A mutation, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene variants. The net effect is an increased cleavage of prothrombin to thrombin and excessive blood coagulation.

  12. Die Leiden des jungen Werthers à luz da história do conceito de subjetividade

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    Felipe Vale da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os paralelos entre o retrato do 'sujeito moderno em crise' visto no romance Die Leiden des jungen Werthers de Goethe e, por outro lado, o perfil psicossocial do 'homem do sentimento' do século XVIII, fruto da cultura da Empfindsamkeit. Defendo a perspectiva de que, no romance, Goethe não apenas se utiliza do formato literário mais tradicional da Empfindsamkeit (o do romance epistolar, como também se apropria de topói e técnicas discursivas que lhe são próprias em registro radicalmente heterodoxo. A argumentação nos ligará a uma dedução da visão do conceito de subjetividade moderna com que Goethe trabalha em sua fase final do Sturm und Drang, e que o situa como importante nome do discurso filosófico da modernidade.

  13. What We Have Learned from San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment and Leiden Manifesto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Ming-Li Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research performance evaluation of members of the academic community conducted by government or institutions has been applied with multiple indicators and peer review, however, there are many controversies about the design and application of research evaluation indicators. This article aims to introduce the development process of San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA and Leiden Manifesto and summarize their contents of guidelines and attempts to compare the differences between these two documents. It hopes that this article can arise the attention and reflection of research evaluation indicators and relevant issues from Taiwan academic community to reach consensus of utilization of research evaluation indicators. It will be beneficial to develop the version of declaration with local characteristics in the future.

  14. Somatotropic Signaling: Trade-Offs Between Growth, Reproductive Development, and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liou Y.; Longo, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a key determinant of postnatal growth and plays an important role in the control of metabolism and body composition. Surprisingly, deficiency in GH signaling delays aging and remarkably extends longevity in laboratory mice. In GH-deficient and GH-resistant animals, the “healthspan” is also extended with delays in cognitive decline and in the onset of age-related disease. The role of hormones homologous to insulin-like growth factor (IGF, an important mediator of GH actions) in the control of aging and lifespan is evolutionarily conserved from worms to mammals with some homologies extending to unicellular yeast. The combination of reduced GH, IGF-I, and insulin signaling likely contributes to extended longevity in GH or GH receptor-deficient organisms. Diminutive body size and reduced fecundity of GH-deficient and GH-resistant mice can be viewed as trade-offs for extended longevity. Mechanisms responsible for delayed aging of GH-related mutants include enhanced stress resistance and xenobiotic metabolism, reduced inflammation, improved insulin signaling, and various metabolic adjustments. Pathological excess of GH reduces life expectancy in men as well as in mice, and GH resistance or deficiency provides protection from major age-related diseases, including diabetes and cancer, in both species. However, there is yet no evidence of increased longevity in GH-resistant or GH-deficient humans, possibly due to non-age-related deaths. Results obtained in GH-related mutant mice provide striking examples of mutations of a single gene delaying aging, reducing age-related disease, and extending lifespan in a mammal and providing novel experimental systems for the study of mechanisms of aging. PMID:23589828

  15. The influence of cone age on the relative longevity of Banksia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, A D; Plummer, J A; Probert, R J; Steadman, K J

    2011-02-01

    Serotiny is common in the genus Banksia, so any seed collection is likely to be comprised of seeds that were produced in many different years. This study aimed to determine the impact of cone age and degree of serotiny on longevity in ex situ storage. Cones of identifiable age classes were collected from three species of Banksia. Seeds were extracted from cones and the degree of serotiny calculated. An estimate of initial viability (K(i)), the time for viability to fall by one probit (σ) and the relative longevity of seeds (p(50)) for each species and cone age class was determined using a comparative longevity test (50 °C, 63 % relative humidity). The degree of serotiny ranged from moderate (7·9) for Banksia attenuata to strong (40·4) for B. hookeriana. Survival curves for all seed age classes within each species could be described by regressions with a common slope (1/σ), but with different values for K(i). The time taken for viability to fall by one probit (σ) could be described by a common value (29·1 d) for all three species. Differences in seed longevity between cone age classes and species was related to variation in initial viability (K(i)) rather than to differences in σ. While targeting the youngest mature seed cohort on a plant will maximize the viability of seeds collected, a wide range of age classes should be collected (but stored as separate cohorts if possible) for quality conservation/restoration seed collections where genetic diversity is important.

  16. Vertebral bomb radiocarbon suggests extreme longevity in white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamady, Li Ling; Natanson, Lisa J; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and management efforts for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) remain hampered by a lack of basic demographic information including age and growth rates. Sharks are typically aged by counting growth bands sequentially deposited in their vertebrae, but the assumption of annual deposition of these band pairs requires testing. We compared radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) values in vertebrae from four female and four male white sharks from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (NWA) with reference chronologies documenting the marine uptake of (14)C produced by atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices to generate the first radiocarbon age estimates for adult white sharks. Age estimates were up to 40 years old for the largest female (fork length [FL]: 526 cm) and 73 years old for the largest male (FL: 493 cm). Our results dramatically extend the maximum age and longevity of white sharks compared to earlier studies, hint at possible sexual dimorphism in growth rates, and raise concerns that white shark populations are considerably more sensitive to human-induced mortality than previously thought.

  17. Variation in Male Reproductive Longevity across Traditional Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicius, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation) and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause. PMID:25405763

  18. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vinicius

    Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.

  19. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  20. Sensitized mutagenesis screen in Factor V Leiden mice identifies thrombosis suppressor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Randal J; Tomberg, Kärt; Siebert, Amy E; Zhu, Guojing; Winn, Mary E; Dobies, Sarah L; Manning, Sara L; Brake, Marisa A; Cleuren, Audrey C; Hobbs, Linzi M; Mishack, Lena M; Johnston, Alexander J; Kotnik, Emilee; Siemieniak, David R; Xu, Jishu; Li, Jun Z; Saunders, Thomas L; Ginsburg, David

    2017-09-05

    Factor V Leiden ( F5 L ) is a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in humans. We conducted a sensitized N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant thrombosuppressor genes based on perinatal lethal thrombosis in mice homozygous for F5 L ( F5 L/L ) and haploinsufficient for tissue factor pathway inhibitor ( Tfpi +/- ). F8 deficiency enhanced the survival of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- mice, demonstrating that F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality is genetically suppressible. ENU-mutagenized F5 L/L males and F5 L/+ Tfpi +/- females were crossed to generate 6,729 progeny, with 98 F5 L/L Tfpi +/- offspring surviving until weaning. Sixteen lines, referred to as "modifier of Factor 5 Leiden ( MF5L1-16 )," exhibited transmission of a putative thrombosuppressor to subsequent generations. Linkage analysis in MF5L6 identified a chromosome 3 locus containing the tissue factor gene ( F3 ). Although no ENU-induced F3 mutation was identified, haploinsufficiency for F3 ( F3 +/- ) suppressed F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality. Whole-exome sequencing in MF5L12 identified an Actr2 gene point mutation (p.R258G) as the sole candidate. Inheritance of this variant is associated with suppression of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality ( P = 1.7 × 10 -6 ), suggesting that Actr2 p.R258G is thrombosuppressive. CRISPR/Cas9 experiments to generate an independent Actr2 knockin/knockout demonstrated that Actr2 haploinsufficiency is lethal, supporting a hypomorphic or gain-of-function mechanism of action for Actr2 p.R258G Our findings identify F8 and the Tfpi/F3 axis as key regulators in determining thrombosis balance in the setting of F5 L and also suggest a role for Actr2 in this process.