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Sample records for leica rs500 leiat504

  1. Sample Preparation for TEM and FESEM: New Generation Coaters from Leica Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemova, S.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article informs about new desktop coaters for ap p lication of conductive layers in vacuum from Leica Mic ro systems. There are information about technical data and field of application of the coaters.

  2. Analysis of the form vault temple bearing by the laser apparatus LEICA TCR 305

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudovít Kovanič, jr.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As an object of mapping we choosed some of churches as an object of mapping. Ve determined the aisle of Rozalia church in Košice by means using the apparatus Leica TCR 305. The oblique transverse profile was measured. Making use horizontal and vertical lenght components we selected those that defined the beggining, course and the end of the oblique ceilling arch. On the basis of five paired data into a rectangular coordinate system of the vertical plane with the begining in the point of arch origin. The coordinate xi defined the stationing and the coordinate yi defined the height, resp. the superelevation from the apparatus horizont to the arch points securing that the whole course of the arch is retained regularly. First we considered the possibility of circle. The aisle of Rozalia church in Košice. We determined different radiuses using connecting lines of selected points (cords, however it is not important, for the arch. Therefore we considered the solution of the arch shape through a parabola.The comparison of results was realized by the mathematic-statistical methods. Parameters of regression were calculated by the method of least squares .We tried to analyze the curve of this arch using also the method of mathematically defined second grade, curves , namely circles and elipses.

  3. Production data from a Leica ZBA31H+ shaped e-beam mask writer located at the Photronics facility, Manchester, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen; Loughran, Dominic; Osborne, Peter; Sixt, Pierre; Doering, Hans-Joachim

    1999-06-01

    The ZBA31H+) is a variable shaped spot, vector scan e- beam lithography system operating at 20 keV. The specified performance is designed to produce reticles to 250 nanometer design rules, and beyond. In November 98 the acceptance results of a newly installed Leica ZBA31H+), at Photonic Manchester, were presented in a paper at the VDE/VDI 15th European Conference on Mask Technology. This paper is a continuation of that work and presents data from a capability study carried out, on 4000 angstrom EBR9 HS31 resist. Analysis of: mean to target, uniformity, X/Y bias, isolated vs. dense linewidths, linearity, and registration performance of the tool is presented, and the effects of re- iterative develop on process capability compared. Theoretically, a shaped beam system has advantages over raster scan in terms of write time and edge definition capabilities. In this paper, comparative write times against an Etec Mebes 4500 system are included. The ZBA31H+) has to write very small polygons in order to image non-axial or non-45 degree features. The resulting effect on image quality and write time is investigated. In order to improve the fidelity of small OPC structures, Leica have investigated alternative writing strategies, and their results to data are presented here.

  4. Quality assessment and comparison of smartphone, airborne and leica c10 laser scanner based point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirmacek, B.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    3D urban models are valuable for urban map generation, environment monitoring, safety planning and educational purposes. For 3D measurement of urban structures, generally airborne laser scanning sensors or multi-view satellite images are used as a data source. However, close-range sensors (such as

  5. Quality Assessment and Comparison of Smartphone and Leica C10 Laser Scanner Based Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmacek, Beril; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Wang, Jinhu

    2016-06-01

    3D urban models are valuable for urban map generation, environment monitoring, safety planning and educational purposes. For 3D measurement of urban structures, generally airborne laser scanning sensors or multi-view satellite images are used as a data source. However, close-range sensors (such as terrestrial laser scanners) and low cost cameras (which can generate point clouds based on photogrammetry) can provide denser sampling of 3D surface geometry. Unfortunately, terrestrial laser scanning sensors are expensive and trained persons are needed to use them for point cloud acquisition. A potential effective 3D modelling can be generated based on a low cost smartphone sensor. Herein, we show examples of using smartphone camera images to generate 3D models of urban structures. We compare a smartphone based 3D model of an example structure with a terrestrial laser scanning point cloud of the structure. This comparison gives us opportunity to discuss the differences in terms of geometrical correctness, as well as the advantages, disadvantages and limitations in data acquisition and processing. We also discuss how smartphone based point clouds can help to solve further problems with 3D urban model generation in a practical way. We show that terrestrial laser scanning point clouds which do not have color information can be colored using smartphones. The experiments, discussions and scientific findings might be insightful for the future studies in fast, easy and low-cost 3D urban model generation field.

  6. QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND COMPARISON OF SMARTPHONE AND LEICA C10 LASER SCANNER BASED POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sirmacek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D urban models are valuable for urban map generation, environment monitoring, safety planning and educational purposes. For 3D measurement of urban structures, generally airborne laser scanning sensors or multi-view satellite images are used as a data source. However, close-range sensors (such as terrestrial laser scanners and low cost cameras (which can generate point clouds based on photogrammetry can provide denser sampling of 3D surface geometry. Unfortunately, terrestrial laser scanning sensors are expensive and trained persons are needed to use them for point cloud acquisition. A potential effective 3D modelling can be generated based on a low cost smartphone sensor. Herein, we show examples of using smartphone camera images to generate 3D models of urban structures. We compare a smartphone based 3D model of an example structure with a terrestrial laser scanning point cloud of the structure. This comparison gives us opportunity to discuss the differences in terms of geometrical correctness, as well as the advantages, disadvantages and limitations in data acquisition and processing. We also discuss how smartphone based point clouds can help to solve further problems with 3D urban model generation in a practical way. We show that terrestrial laser scanning point clouds which do not have color information can be colored using smartphones. The experiments, discussions and scientific findings might be insightful for the future studies in fast, easy and low-cost 3D urban model generation field.

  7. Remote control of the microscope Leica DM IRM based on the technology of the Internet of things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sazonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization of any research activity involves obtaining and analyzing the results of ongoing research. This is a complex and time-consuming process, requiring large human costs and unique expensive equipment. The problem of using such unique equipment can make research difficult or even impossible at all. One of the ways to solve this problem can be the creation of remote access labs working in the collective mode. An important feature of remote access to equipment is the possibility of obtaining primary information and the correct organization of its transmission between individual subsystems and consumers. Convenient and mobile tools in such situations are the availability of compact control cards "type Arduino", which allow organizing effective interaction. The questions of remote control of the microscope using the technologies of the Internet of things are considered. The main software and hardware solutions used to implement access to the microscope are described. An electronic circuit for connecting stepper motors, as well as formulas for calculating the movements of the main microscope nodes, is given. In the process of remote access to the complex, the user has the opportunity to work with a microscope similar to a researcher working directly on the equipment itself. The proposed scheme will allow to carry out scientific research in the field of microstructural and microgeometric analysis of various samples and details under remote access conditions, which will significantly increase the efficiency of using expensive scientific equipment.

  8. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Leaf-on September 2004 0.5m resolution RGB orthoimagery that covers Connecticut's coastal communities. Data were collected by Earth Data, under contract to NOAA, using a Leica ADS40 sensor., Published in 2004, University of Connecticut.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2004. Leaf-on September 2004 0.5m resolution RGB orthoimagery that covers Connecticut's coastal...

  9. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Leaf-on September 2004 0.5m resolution CIR orthoimagery that covers Connecticut's coastal communities. Data were collected by Earth Data, under contract to NOAA, using a Leica ADS40 sensor., Published in 2004, University of Connecticut.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2004. Leaf-on September 2004 0.5m resolution CIR orthoimagery that covers Connecticut's coastal...

  10. Shape rheocasting of high purity aluminium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available silica. The electro-polishing step with 5ml perchloric acid in 95 ml acetic acid at 30 V DC potential and room temperature [13] already revealed the microstructure. A Leica DMI5000 M optical microscope equipped with a Leica DFC480 camera and Image...

  11. Influence of intermolecular interactions on the properties of carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    46

    Piotr Kamedulski , Anna Kaczmarek-Kedziera, Jerzy P. Lukaszewicz .... recent studies on this class of compounds/materials were predominantly .... Power 150 mW), Leica DM1300M camera Infinity 1; objective: Leica, N PLAN L50x/0.5).

  12. 2010-2011 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) Topobathy Lidar: Oregon and Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain topographic and bathymetric lidar data collected with the Leica ALS60 (topo) and SHOALS-1000T (bathy) systems along the coasts of Oregon and...

  13. Optical properties on thermally evaporated and heat-treated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    of the intra-molecular bonds between the powder compounds and thin films. The optical ... Keywords. Phthalocyanine; thin films; optical properties; absorption spectra. 1. .... Leica Cambridge scanning electron microscope (model. Stereoscan ...

  14. 2008 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) New York Lidar: Erie County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using Leica Geosystems ALS50 Laser Systems, 89 flight lines with a nominal point spacing = 1.4 meters (4.59 feet) were collected over Erie County, NY (approximately...

  15. Pattern of Mismatch Repair Protein loss and its clinicopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the USA with lifetime risk of about 4% and incidence of 40 per l00 000.1,2 Initially .... secondary antibody (Novolink, Maxpolymer detection system. 1250, Leica ..... immunohistochemistry testing: an audit and cost analysis. J Clin. Pathol.

  16. Isolation and identification of Metarhizium anisopliae from Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... 1Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (Key Laboratory of ... Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, isolation, identification, Chilo venosatus, culture medium, biological control. .... with a Leica microscope and average values were compared for all.

  17. Kumar et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(6):426 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Microscopic determination, counting of identifying number, measurement of ... In the present study, it is selected as control to monitor the variations to ... This process was repeated for each ingredient. (Table 1). Leica DMLS-2 Instrumentation.

  18. Effect of a re‑wetting agent on bond strength of an adhesive to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-29

    Nov 29, 2014 ... structural properties and composition.[1,2] While the ... All the dentine surfaces were grinded with 600‑grit silicon carbide paper ... Then, two drops of Aqua‑ ... were examined with an optical microscope (Leica Microscopy.

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - VOLUSIA 2006 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — 2006, 6 inch Pixel Color Orthophotography - - Panchromatic, red, green, blue and near infrared imagery was acquired using the Leica ADS40 multi-spectral scanner (see...

  20. 2016 NOAA Topobathy Lidar DEM: Upper Lake Michigan Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) was created from data collected by Leading Edge Geomatics using a Leica Chiroptera II Bathymetric & Topographic Sensor. The...

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-11-06

    Nov 6, 2016 ... conducted to determine the effect of the combination therapy of medicinal herbs in the ... amino acids and essential fatty acids), vitamins .... machine (Shandon 2000, Leica, Frankfurt, .... Disinfectants and Essential Oils. Intern J ...

  2. Novel Therapeutic Development of NF1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    generations of clinical investigations for MPNST. Impact on technology transfer: Nothing to report. Impact on society beyond science and technology ...dilution; Cell Signaling Technology , Danvers, MA). All immunostaining studies were performed on a Leica Bond-RX and Bond-3 automated stainer platform (Leica...monophasic, biphasic, and poorly differentiated examples, retained expression of this marker. A recent study showed that neurofibromin C-terminus ( NFC

  3. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  4. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Brecko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker. We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  5. Mixed-ligand binuclear copper(II) complex of 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The title compound was obtained as dark green ... tals were sorted using polarizing microscope (Leica. DMLSP). Crystals ... minimum peak heights of 0.405 and –0.285 e Å. −3. , respectively. .... placed in a centre of inversion. Each unit of the ...

  6. Transgenic overexpression of BAFF regulates the expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LI ZHANG

    Hubei 430030, People's Republic of China. 3Second ... body homogenate of zebrafish and demonstrated a significant increase in BAFF-transgenic group. Therefore, our ... diet and brine shrimp according to the conditions in our sys- tem (Li et al. 2014). ... images were captured using a Leica DM3000B microscope. Embryos ...

  7. Novel Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Depression and CognitiveDeficits in a Rodent Model of Gulf War Veterans’ Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    solutions to increase cell viability and was removed 15 min prior to imaging. Hippocampal slices (450 m) were cut on a vibrating microtome (Leica...Treatment Approaches for Neurological Morbidities in Gulf War Illness”. Invited Speaker Seminar Series at Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology

  8. Molecular Analysis Research at Community College of Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Community College of Philadelphia Community College of Philadelphia 1700 Spring Garden Street Philadelphia, PA 19130...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Molecular Analysis Research at Community College of Philadelphia The views, opinions...Molecular Analysis Research at Community College of Philadelphia Report Title AXIMA Assurance mass spectrometer, Leica DMI-8 fluorescent microscope

  9. Parameter Estimation And Hypothesis Testing In A Two Epoch Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also computed along with the least square solution and statistical testing were the minimum detectable Bias (MDB) and the Bias to Noise Ratio (BNR). All tests and adjustments were carried out using MOVE 3 software along with the LEICA SKI Pro 2.1. From the results of the tests, only observation to Rover station RF 8 ...

  10. Imagery - Lake Ashtabula, ND - 2009 4-Band Orthophoto

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 4-band aerial imagery was collected by Fugro Horizons using the Leica ADS40(SH52) camera with 30 percent side overlap on 8/26/09. The flight height was 9,600 feet...

  11. 2006 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Aiken County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LiDAR data acquisition was executed in five sessions, on March 15, 16 & 17, 2006, using a Leica ALS50 LiDAR System. Specific details about the ALS50 system...

  12. Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    capsules . 15 The samples were then sectioned on a Leica ultramicrotome at a thickness of 50-100 nm and collected on a TEM grid. To measure cell...of silver and palladium nanoparticles at room temperature using coffee and tea extract. Green Chem. 10, 859- 862. [119] Hernandez-Sanchez, B.A

  13. Measurement Technology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-29

    foundation and the welding of the gantry columns to the base plates. The cabling was appropriately dressed and the electrical installation was completed... duplex robust data transfer. The existing Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) product offering from LEICA is a simple cabling solution that exchanges a

  14. 40 keV Shaped electron beam lithography for LIGA intermediate mask fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttge, R.; Adam, D.; Burkhardt, F.; Hoke, F.; Schacke, H.; Schmidt, M.; Wolf, H.; Schmidt, A.

    1999-01-01

    High precision LIGA masks require a soft X-ray pattern transfer from intermediate masks by means of electron beam lithography. Such a process has been realized using an upgraded Leica ZBA 23 machine with an acceleration voltage of 40 kV. Three process variations of the developer system, so called GG

  15. Development and validation of an automated, microscopy-based method for enumeration of groups of intestinal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, GJ; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Tonk, RHJ; Franks, AH; Welling, G

    An automated microscopy-based method using fluorescently labelled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes directed against the predominant groups of intestinal bacteria was developed and validated. The method makes use of the Leica 600HR. image analysis system, a Kodak MegaPlus camera model 1.4 and

  16. Geographical Information System Redefined for Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    K, Srinivasan; Anand, V Nath

    2004-01-01

    In Kerala, the revenue generated by tourism i assessed as 6.29% of GDP and the employment in tourism is estimated as 7 lakhs. Total investments worth over Rs.500 Cr. has come into Kerala on account of the State's prioritizing the creation of basic infrastructure to support tourism and adopting a policy that i eco-friendly and environmentally sustainable says Kerala's Tourism's ministrer in 2003. The importance of information technology in increasing in all the sectors. Tourism one of the larg...

  17. Politics sans economics: commentary on the political economy of demonetization in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaad Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 8th November and 31st December 2016 the Indian government instituted one of the biggest demonetisation exercises in the world by withdrawing 86 percent of all currency in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes. This paper looks at the debate surrounding the demonetisation exercise and attempts to provide a political economy logic. Interrogating the various arguments around demonetisation, it argues that demonetisation has been reduced to a political posturing as the economic consequences remain highly debated.

  18. IMPACT ON E-BANKING DURING THE DEMONETIZATION PHASE IN INDI

    OpenAIRE

    Ms Harsimran Kaur

    2017-01-01

    This paper is about the high impact jolt, the Banking sector faced during the Demonetization drive initiated by our hon’ble PM Narendra Modi on the 8th November,2016. Banking sector is one of the most leading sectors in India-Urban,Rural or Punjab. To control parallel economy, the drive was initiated as a result there was a ban on notes of Rs500& Rs1000 denomination as a legal tender. The Indian Economy faced a huge cash crunch. Going cashless, the population did not have money to buy their d...

  19. LHC Survey Laser Tracker Controls Renovation

    CERN Document Server

    Charrondière, C

    2011-01-01

    The LHC survey laser tracker control system is based on an industrial software package (Axyz) from Leica Geosystems™ that has an interface to Visual Basic™, which we used to automate the geometric measurements for the LHC magnets. With the new version of the Leica software, this Visual Basic™ interface is no longerb available and we had to redesign the interface software to adapt to a PC-DMIS server that replaced the Axyz software. As this package is no longer supported, we have taken the decision to recode the automation application in LabVIEW. This presentation describes the existing equipment, interface and application showing the reasons for our decisions to move to PC-DMIS and LabVIEW. A comparison between the new and legacy system is made

  20. LHC survey laser tracker controls renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrondiere, C.; Nybo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LHC survey laser tracker control system is based on an industrial software package (Axyz) from Leica Geosystems (TM) that has an interface to Visual Basic (TM), which we used to automate the geometric measurements for the LHC magnets. With the new version of the Leica software, this Visual Basic (TM) interface is no longer available and we had to redesign the interface software to adapt to a PC-DMIS server that replaced the Axyz software. As this package is no longer supported, we have taken the decision to re-code the automation application in LabVIEW. This presentation describes the existing equipment, interface and application showing the reasons for our decisions to move to PC-DMIS and LabVIEW. A comparison between the new and the existing system is made. (authors)

  1. Precision of GNSS instruments by static method comparing in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír Labant

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tablet paper describes comparison of measuring accuracy two apparatus from the firm Leica. One of them recieve signals onlyfrom GPS satelites and another instrument is working with GPS and also with GLONASS satelites. Measuring is carry out by RTK staticmethod with 2 minutes observations. Measurement processing is separated to X, Y (position and h (heigh. Adjustment of directobservations is used as a adjusting method.

  2. Autophagosomal Sequestration of Mitochondria as an Indicator of Antiandrogen Therapy Resistance of Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    intensities using a Nikon A1 or a Leica Di8 fluorescence confocal microscope and Image J software . Results and Discussion: Our data show that the...intensities of the FRET signals from all optical sections have been quantified and integrated using Image J software with appropriate threshold to...journal when all the data are collected. Inventions, patent applications, and/or licenses Nothing to report Other products Nothing to report

  3. Iskolčenje i snimanje trase magistralnog plinovoda na dionici Kutina - Slavonski Brod

    OpenAIRE

    Sabolov, Tomislav

    2006-01-01

    U ovom članku dan je prikaz geodetskih radova prilikom iskolčenja i snimanja trase magistralnog plinovoda na dionici Kutina – Slavonski Brod. Iskolčenje i snimanje cijele trase obavljeno je dvjema različitim metodama: primjenom GPS sustava Thales Navigation ProMark2 i totalnim mjernim stanicama Leica TC 605 i TCR 407 power stations. Na kraju je objašnjen postupak izrade geodetskog elaborata za katastar vodova prema propisima Pravilnika o katastru vodova.

  4. The measuring of real state of the residential complex Vlčince II in Žilina by using of TLS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Pukanská

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction of blocks of flats Vlčince II in Žilina, realized by the building company Doprastav a.s., consists from two blocksA and B. For measuring of real status construction was used terrestrial laser scanner Leica ScanStation. Processing of measured datawas applicated in software Cyclone Scan, Register and Cloudworx for Microstation. Through measured objects was created horizontalsections in more high levels. Founded deviations are presented in attached tables.

  5. Effect of Cell-seeded Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds on Rabbit Radius Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-22

    OK) for 14 d via a tissue processer (Leica TP1020 system; Bannockburn, IL). Samples were then embedded in photocuring resin (Technovit 7200 VLC ...Kulzer, Germany) and polymerized under blue light for 24 h. Block samples were adhered to a parallel plexiglass slide using the Exakt 7210 VLC system...induction, choice of evaluation time point, and use of a nonhealing defect. For example, a more challenging radial defect (1.5 cm) in rabbits and the

  6. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  7. Technical Training Seminar: Laser Trackers: the Local Positioning Technology (LPT)

    CERN Document Server

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    Friday 20 May from 10:00 to 16:00, Training Centre (bldg. 593) Laser Trackers: the Local Positioning Technology (LPT) Simon Moser, Michael Lettau, Achim Lupus, Niklaus Suter, Leica GEOSYSTEMS AG, Switzerland Laser trackers are used at CERN for different applications within the LHC Project. Leica Geosystems AG have been developing during the last four years the revolutionary Local Positioning Technology (LPT). Laser trackers are increasingly used to ensure accuracy of large fabrications, and alignment in the final assembly process. Competing portable Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) with articulated arms require a frequent repositioning, known to lead to a loss of accuracy and efficiency. Leica Geosystems developed armless solutions, the T-Probe and T-Scan, for use with its laser trackers. The combination of the tracker technology with photogrammetry is the base of LPT, enabling real time measurements with free hand-held devices, such as the T-Probe and T-Scan. T-Probe and T-Scan overcome the proble...

  8. Insights on the molecular mechanism for the recalcitrance of biochars: interactive effects of carbon and silicon components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Baoliang

    2014-08-19

    Few studies have investigated the effects of structural heterogeneity (particularly the interactions of silicon and carbon) on the mechanisms for the recalcitrance of biochar. In this study, the molecular mechanisms for the recalcitrance of biochars derived from rice straw at 300, 500, and 700 °C (named RS300, RS500, and RS700, respectively) were elucidated. Short-term (24 h) and long-term (240 h) oxidation kinetics experiments were conducted under different concentrations of H2O2 to distinguish the stable carbon pools in the biochars. We discovered that the stabilities of the biochars were influenced not only by their aromaticity but also through possible protection by silicon encapsulation, which is regulated by pyrolysis temperatures. The aromatic components and recalcitrance of the biochars increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The morphologies of the carbon forms in all of the biochars were also greatly associated with those of silica. Silica-encapsulation protection only occurred for RS500, not for RS300 and RS700. In RS300, carbon and silica were both amorphous, and they were easily decomposed by H2O2. The separation of crystalline silica from condensed aromatic carbon in RS700 eliminated the protective role of silicon on carbon. The effect of the biochar particle size on the stability of the biochar was greatly influenced by C-Si interactions and by the oxidation intensities. A novel silicon-and-carbon-coupled framework model was proposed to guide biochar carbon sequestration.

  9. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue, conventional polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Balne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8% was higher (not significant, P value 0.2 than conventional PCR (57.6% and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%. Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20 by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.

  10. San Miguel's dozers get it right the first time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscow, S.

    2000-09-01

    The paper reports the latest machine guidance system developed for Leica Geosystem's new dozer 2000. The dozer 2000 system collects signals from the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine the machine's position with centimeter-level accuracy in real time. Position data from a vehicle-mounted GPS receiver is fed to an AutoCAD-based engineering software package running on a rugged touch-screen computer in the operator's cab. The operation of the system, cost saving and the software components have been described. 4 photos.

  11. Prilog ispitivanju korištenja instrumentarija različitih tehničkih izvedbi pri uspostavljanju nivelmanskih mreža posebnih namjena u inženjerskoj geodeziji : Contribution on study possibilities in using instruments of different technical performances in establishing special purposes leveling networks in engineering geodesy

    OpenAIRE

    Nihad Kapetanović; Jusuf Topoljak; Admir Mulahusić; Ramiz Selmani

    2015-01-01

    Ispitivanje mogućnosti korištenja geodetskih instrumenata sličnih tehničkih karakteristika, ali različitih tehničkih izvedbi je uvijek zanimljiva geodetska tema. Osnovna svrha ovog istraživanja je analiziranje tačnosti testne nivelmanske mreže, unutar koje su visinske razlike izmjerene nivelirima Koni 007CZJ i Leica DNA 03. Rezultati dobiveni na kraju istraživanja pokazali su da oba nivelira zadovoljavaju kriterije preciznog nivelmana, ali se prednost daje niveliru DNA 03. : Examination of po...

  12. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunoreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Jensen, Sussie Steen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of specific antibody-based test systems is essential to testing of HER2 protein expression. Here, we mapped epitopes recognized by three pharmacodiagnostic HER2 antibodies and investigated their specificity towards peptides and fusion proteins homologous to the intracellular doma...... domains of HER1, HER2, HER3 and HER4. The investigated antibodies were PATHWAY(®) HER2 (clone 4B5; Ventana Medical Systems Inc., Tucson, AZ, USA), HercepTest™ (Dako Denmark A/S, Glostrup, Denmark), and Oracle(®) HER2 (clone CB11; Leica Microsystems GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany)....

  13. Uncertainty estimation and multi sensor fusion for kinematic laser tracker measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Laser trackers are widely used to measure kinematic tasks such as tracking robot movements. Common methods to evaluate the uncertainty in the kinematic measurement include approximations specified by the manufacturers, various analytical adjustment methods and the Kalman filter. In this paper a new, real-time technique is proposed, which estimates the 4D-path (3D-position + time) uncertainty of an arbitrary path in space. Here a hybrid system estimator is applied in conjunction with the kinematic measurement model. This method can be applied to processes, which include various types of kinematic behaviour, constant velocity, variable acceleration or variable turn rates. The new approach is compared with the Kalman filter and a manufacturer's approximations. The comparison was made using data obtained by tracking an industrial robot's tool centre point with a Leica laser tracker AT901 and a Leica laser tracker LTD500. It shows that the new approach is more appropriate to analysing kinematic processes than the Kalman filter, as it reduces overshoots and decreases the estimated variance. In comparison with the manufacturer's approximations, the new approach takes account of kinematic behaviour with an improved description of the real measurement process and a reduction in estimated variance. This approach is therefore well suited to the analysis of kinematic processes with unknown changes in kinematic behaviour as well as the fusion among laser trackers.

  14. Prvi optički teodoliti : First optical theodolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Tuno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available U radu je dat pregled prvih optičkih teodolita, koji su označili veliku prekretnicu u razvoju i primjeni geodetskih instrumenata. Njihova pojava veže se za ime čuvenog konstruktora Heinricha Wilda i imala je nemjerljivo pozitivan uticaj na cjelokupnu industriju geodetskih instrumenata, koji se osjeća čak i danas. Svrha članka nije komercijalna u smislu reklamiranja pojedinih tehničkih rješenja iz tvornice Wild (Leica, već pokušaj da se prikaže mjerna tehnologija koja je dominirala u prethodnom stoljeću, kroz prizmu legendarnog teodolita T2. : The article gives an overview of the first optical theodolites, which marked a major milestone in the development and use of surveying instruments. Their appearance is connected to the name of the famous constructor Heinrich Wild and had a immeasurably positive impact on the entire industry of surveying instruments, that is still felt today. The purpose of the article is not commercial in terms of advertising of certain technical solutions of the manufacturer Wild (Leica, but an attempt to show the measurement technology that has dominated the previous century, through the lens of legendary T2 theodolite.

  15. Combined techniques for network measurements at accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pschorn, I.

    1999-01-01

    Usually network measurements at GSi (Gesellschaft fur Schwerionen forschung) are carried out by employing the Leica tachymeter TC2002K etc. Due to time constraints and the fact that GSi possesses only one of these selected, high precision total-stations, it was suddenly necessary to think about employing a Laser tracker as the major instrument for a reference network measurement. The idea was to compare the different instruments and to proof if it is possible at all to carry out a precise network measurement using a laser tracker. In the end the SMX Tracker4500 combined with Leica NA3000 for network measurements at GSi, Darmstadt and at BESSY Il, Berlin (both located in Germany) was applied. A few results are shown in the following chapters. A new technology in 3D metrology came up. Some ideas of applying these new tools in the field of accelerator measurements are given. Finally aspects of calibration and checking the performance of the employed high precision instrument are pointed out in this paper. (author)

  16. La documentación geométrica de elementos patrimoniales con láser escáner terrestre. La experiencia del Lapa en Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mañana Borrazás, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this text we show some geometric documentation of various elements of Cultural Heritage. We use a Terrestrial Laser Scanner, a Leica HDS3000, a survey instrument that allows a high density register with pinpoint accuracy. The basic aim of this article is to evaluate the documentation posibilities of this kind of Terrestrial Laser Scanner and the different problems that emerged. As an example, we present the work processing of the topographic survey of a hillfort, the record in full detail of an archaeological excavation, the survey of a building and a two site of Rock Art.

    En este texto se presentan una serie de trabajos de documentación geométrica de diversos elementos patrimoniales realizados con láser escáner 3D. En ellos hemos empleado el modelo de Leica HDS3000, un instrumento topográfico que permite una captura de datos densa y con una resolución milimétrica. El objetivo principal de este documento es evaluar las posibilidades de registro de este escáner en distintos tipos de sitios así como los problemas que se generaron. Como ejemplos, presentamos el proceso de trabajo para obtener la topografía de un castro, el registro de detalle de una excavación, el levantamiento de un edificio y de unos petroglifos.

  17. Prilog ispitivanju korištenja instrumentarija različitih tehničkih izvedbi pri uspostavljanju nivelmanskih mreža posebnih namjena u inženjerskoj geodeziji : Contribution on study possibilities in using instruments of different technical performances in establishing special purposes leveling networks in engineering geodesy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihad Kapetanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ispitivanje mogućnosti korištenja geodetskih instrumenata sličnih tehničkih karakteristika, ali različitih tehničkih izvedbi je uvijek zanimljiva geodetska tema. Osnovna svrha ovog istraživanja je analiziranje tačnosti testne nivelmanske mreže, unutar koje su visinske razlike izmjerene nivelirima Koni 007CZJ i Leica DNA 03. Rezultati dobiveni na kraju istraživanja pokazali su da oba nivelira zadovoljavaju kriterije preciznog nivelmana, ali se prednost daje niveliru DNA 03. : Examination of possibilities in using geodetic (survey instruments of the same specifications, but different technical performances is always an interesting geodetic topic. The main purpose of this research is to analyze the accuracy of special purposes leveling networks where height differences were measured with Koni 007 CZJ and Leica DNA 03 levels. Obtained results showed that both leveling results fulfill the required conditions of precision leveling, but the preference is given to level DNA 03.

  18. ANALYSIS OF TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY DATA FOR DOCUMENTATION OF HISTORICAL ARTIFACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kuçak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Historical artifacts living from the past until today exposed to many destructions non-naturally or naturally. For this reason, The protection and documentation studies of Cultural Heritage to inform the next generations are accelerating day by day in the whole world. The preservation of historical artifacts using advanced 3D measurement technologies becomes an efficient tool for mapping solutions. There are many methods for documentation and restoration of historic structures. In addition to traditional methods such as simple hand measurement and tachometry, terrestrial laser scanning is rapidly becoming one of the most commonly used techniques due to its completeness, accuracy and fastness characteristics. This study evaluates terrestrial laser scanning(TLS technology and photogrammetry for documenting the historical artifacts facade data in 3D Environment. PhotoModeler software developed by Eos System was preferred for Photogrammetric method. Leica HDS 6000 laser scanner developed by Leica Geosystems and Cyclone software which is the laser data evaluation software belonging to the company is preferred for Terrestrial Laser Scanning method. Taking into account the results obtained with this software product is intended to provide a contribution to the studies for the documentation of cultural heritage.

  19. Double-theodolite measurement system used in the image calibration of space photographic instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; QIAO Yan-feng; SU Wan-xin; LIU Ze-xun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of characterizing the image of space photographic instrument is to gain the space included angles from three coordinate axes in the three-dimensional coordinate of the image and the directionality of the three axes of coordinate in the frame of axes of the instrument. The two reference frames will keep in the same direction finally by adjusting according to space angles. This problem was solved by a new high-precision measurement system composed of a double-theodolite and a set of communication system. In the survey system, two TDA5005 total stations from Leica Company will be selected as the double-theodolite and the interdependence of both coordinate systems can be achieved by moving the stations only at one time. Therefore, this measurement system provides a highly efficient and high-precision surveying method to the image calibration of the space photographic instrument. According to the experiment, its measuring accuracy can reach arc-second level.

  20. Oblique Multi-Camera Systems - Orientation and Dense Matching Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.

    2014-03-01

    The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies (Blomoblique, IGI, Leica, Midas, Pictometry, Vexcel/Microsoft, VisionMap, etc.). The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. The paper reports an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and presents a workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given. Tests performed on two datasets acquired with two multi-camera systems over urban areas are also reported.

  1. SURVEY OF SELECTED PROCEDURES FOR THE INDIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE GROUP REFRACTIVE INDEX OF AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Dvořáček

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research was to evaluate numeric procedures of the indirect determination of the group refractive index of air and to choose the suitable ones for requirements of ordinary and high accuracy distance measurement in geodesy and length metrology. For this purpose, 10 existing computation methods were derived from various authors’ original publications and all were analysed for wide intervals of wavelengths and atmospheric parameters. The determination of the phase and the group refractive indices are essential parts in the evaluation of the first velocity corrections of laser interferometers and electronic distance meters. The validity of modern procedures was tested with respect to updated CIPM-2007 equations of the density of air. The refraction model of Leica AT401 laser tracker was analysed.

  2. Static terrestrial laser scanning of juvenile understory trees for field phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhuan; Lin, Yi

    2014-11-01

    This study was to attempt the cutting-edge 3D remote sensing technique of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for parametric 3D reconstruction of juvenile understory trees. The data for test was collected with a Leica HDS6100 TLS system in a single-scan way. The geometrical structures of juvenile understory trees are extracted by model fitting. Cones are used to model trunks and branches. Principal component analysis (PCA) is adopted to calculate their major axes. Coordinate transformation and orthogonal projection are used to estimate the parameters of the cones. Then, AutoCAD is utilized to simulate the morphological characteristics of the understory trees, and to add secondary branches and leaves in a random way. Comparison of the reference values and the estimated values gives the regression equation and shows that the proposed algorithm of extracting parameters is credible. The results have basically verified the applicability of TLS for field phenotyping of juvenile understory trees.

  3. OBLIQUE MULTI-CAMERA SYSTEMS – ORIENTATION AND DENSE MATCHING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rupnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies (Blomoblique, IGI, Leica, Midas, Pictometry, Vexcel/Microsoft, VisionMap, etc.. The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. The paper reports an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and presents a workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given. Tests performed on two datasets acquired with two multi-camera systems over urban areas are also reported.

  4. 3D laser scanning in civil engineering - measurements of volume of earth masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, J. A.; Szafranko, E.; Harasymiuk, J.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the constant drive to improve and accelerate building processes as well as possible applications of the latest technological achievements in civil engineering practice, the author has proposed to use 3D laser scanning in the construction industry. For example, data achieved through a 3D laser scanning process will facilitate making inventories of parameters of buildings in a very short time, will enable one to check irregularly shaped masses of earth, heavy and practically impossible to calculate precisely using traditional techniques. The other part of the research, performed in the laboratory, consisted of measurements of a model mound of earth. All the measurements were made with a 3D SkanStation C10 laser scanner manufactured by Leica. The data were analyzed. The results suggest that there are great opportunities for using the laser scanning technology in civil engineering

  5. Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Daniel Abraham [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

  6. Consideraciones sobre la exactitud de las redes de levantamiento topográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanis Esteban Batista-Legrá

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la exactitud de las poligonales medidas en el yacimiento Camarioca Sur lo que permitió obtener nuevos parámetros técnicos para la red de densificación geodésica, teniendo en cuenta el empleo de estaciones totales. Se utilizaron como referencia las poligonales trazadas por los técnicos de GEOCUBA, validándolas con los softwares Topo6, Autocad Map y Autocad Civil 3D 2010. Se empleó el sistema de posicionamiento global (GPS Leica 1200 para el control de los trabajos, tomando como referencia los puntos de apoyo utilizados por GEOCUBA Oriente Norte. Se concluye que cuando se usan estaciones totales es posible fusionar las poligonales de primera y segunda categoría en un solo grupo en virtud de que la exactitud de las mediciones es mayor.

  7. A new method to position the APS dipoles with the use of a laser tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, J.

    1994-01-01

    The alignment requirements for the synchrotron light sources have increased to the limit of today's alignment techniques. Some components such as dipoles can only be positioned after having obtained a three-dimensional outline of the as-built magnet. The laser tracking system provides the unique opportunity to map the dipole gap and relate the information to the outside reference marks for the placement of the magnet. In this case the Leica SMART 310 laser tracker is used as a 3D coordinate measuring system that provides the necessary information of twist, roll, sag, and gap changes over the full dipole length. On the basis of this information the best fitting plane is calculated to obtain the average roll angle for the positioning of the dipole. This paper describes the basic principal of this alignment technique and demonstrates the achieved results with examples

  8. Poster Presentation: Optical Test of NGST Developmental Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James B.; Geary, Joseph; Reardon, Patrick; Peters, Bruce; Keidel, John; Chavers, Greg

    2000-01-01

    An Optical Testing System (OTS) has been developed to measure the figure and radius of curvature of NGST developmental mirrors in the vacuum, cryogenic environment of the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The OTS consists of a WaveScope Shack-Hartmann sensor from Adaptive Optics Associates as the main instrument, a Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI), a Point Spread Function (PSF) imager, an alignment system, a Leica Disto Pro distance measurement instrument, and a laser source palette (632.8 nm wavelength) that is fiber-coupled to the sensor instruments. All of the instruments except the laser source palette are located on a single breadboard known as the Wavefront Sensor Pallet (WSP). The WSP is located on top of a 5-DOF motion system located at the center of curvature of the test mirror. Two PC's are used to control the OTS. The error in the figure measurement is dominated by the WaveScope's measurement error. An analysis using the absolute wavefront gradient error of 1/50 wave P-V (at 0.6328 microns) provided by the manufacturer leads to a total surface figure measurement error of approximately 1/100 wave rms. This easily meets the requirement of 1/10 wave P-V. The error in radius of curvature is dominated by the Leica's absolute measurement error of VI.5 mm and the focus setting error of Vi.4 mm, giving an overall error of V2 mm. The OTS is currently being used to test the NGST Mirror System Demonstrators (NMSD's) and the Subscale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBNM).

  9. Three-Dimensional Recording of Bastion Middleburg Monument Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of terrestrial laser scanning for the full three-dimensional (3D) recording of historical monument, known as the Bastion Middleburg. The monument is located in Melaka, Malaysia, and was built by the Dutch in 1660. This monument serves as a major hub for the community when conducting commercial activities in estuaries Malacca and the Dutch build this monument as a control tower or fortress. The monument is located on the banks of the Malacca River was built between Stadhuys or better known as the Red House and Mill Quayside. The breakthrough fort on 25 November 2006 was a result of the National Heritage Department through in-depth research on the old map. The recording process begins with the placement of measuring targets at strategic locations around the monument. Spherical target was used in the point cloud data registration. The scanning process is carried out using a laser scanning system known as a terrestrial scanner Leica C10. This monument was scanned at seven scanning stations located surrounding the monument with medium scanning resolution mode. Images of the monument have also been captured using a digital camera that is setup in the scanner. For the purposes of proper registration process, the entire spherical target was scanned separately using a high scanning resolution mode. The point cloud data was pre-processed using Leica Cyclone software. The pre-processing process starting with the registration of seven scan data set through overlapping spherical targets. The post-process involved in the generation of coloured point cloud model of the monument using third-party software. The orthophoto of the monument was also produced. This research shows that the method of laser scanning provides an excellent solution for recording historical monuments with true scale of and texture.

  10. Biopsy of Different Oral Soft Tissues Lesions by KTP and Diode Laser: Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Romeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of “in vivo” biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers. Material and Methods. 17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy. Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4. Results. Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ±0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula. Discussion. The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures. Conclusion. Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus.

  11. Comparative Study of the Volumetric Methods Calculation Using GNSS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şmuleac, Adrian; Nemeş, Iacob; Alina Creţan, Ioana; Sorina Nemeş, Nicoleta; Şmuleac, Laura

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to achieve volumetric calculations for different mineral aggregates using different methods of analysis and also comparison of results. To achieve these comparative studies and presentation were chosen two software licensed, namely TopoLT 11.2 and Surfer 13. TopoLT program is a program dedicated to the development of topographic and cadastral plans. 3D terrain model, level courves and calculation of cut and fill volumes, including georeferencing of images. The program Surfer 13 is produced by Golden Software, in 1983 and is active mainly used in various fields such as agriculture, construction, geophysical, geotechnical engineering, GIS, water resources and others. It is also able to achieve GRID terrain model, to achieve the density maps using the method of isolines, volumetric calculations, 3D maps. Also, it can read different file types, including SHP, DXF and XLSX. In these paper it is presented a comparison in terms of achieving volumetric calculations using TopoLT program by two methods: a method where we choose a 3D model both for surface as well as below the top surface and a 3D model in which we choose a 3D terrain model for the bottom surface and another 3D model for the top surface. The comparison of the two variants will be made with data obtained from the realization of volumetric calculations with the program Surfer 13 generating GRID terrain model. The topographical measurements were performed with equipment from Leica GPS 1200 Series. Measurements were made using Romanian position determination system - ROMPOS which ensures accurate positioning of reference and coordinates ETRS through the National Network of GNSS Permanent Stations. GPS data processing was performed with the program Leica Geo Combined Office. For the volumetric calculating the GPS used point are in 1970 stereographic projection system and for the altitude the reference is 1975 the Black Sea projection system.

  12. FROM SURVEY TO FEM ANALYSIS FOR DOCUMENTATION OF BUILT HERITAGE: THE CASE STUDY OF VILLA REVEDIN-BOLASCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guarnieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade advances in the fields of close-range photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and computer vision (CV have enabled to collect different kind of information about a Cultural Heritage objects and to carry out highly accurate 3D models. Additionally, the integration between laser scanning technology and Finite Element Analysis (FEA is gaining particular interest in recent years for structural analysis of built heritage, since the increasing computational capabilities allow to manipulate large datasets. In this note we illustrate the approach adopted for surveying, 3D modeling and structural analysis of Villa Revedin-Bolasco, a magnificent historical building located in the small walled town of Castelfranco Veneto, in northern Italy. In 2012 CIRGEO was charged by the University of Padova to carry out a survey of the Villa and Park, as preliminary step for subsequent restoration works. The inner geometry of the Villa was captured with two Leica Disto D3a BT hand-held laser meters, while the outer walls of the building were surveyed with a Leica C10 and a Faro Focus 3D 120 terrestrial laser scanners. Ancillary GNSS measurements were also collected for 3D laser model georeferencing. A solid model was then generated from the laser global point cloud in Rhinoceros software, and portion of it was used for simulation in a Finite Element Analysis (FEA. In the paper we discuss in detail all the steps and challenges addressed and solutions adopted concerning the survey, solid modeling and FEA from laser scanning data of the historical complex of Villa Revedin-Bolasco.

  13. Adjustment and transformation strategies of ItalPoS Permanent GNSS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Capra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A private network of 133 Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS permanent sites, named ItalPoS (Italian
    Positioning Service and uniformly covering the entire Italian territory, was established in April 2006 by the Italian
    Division of Leica Geosystems S.p.A. This network also involves several GPS stations of the INGV (Italian
    National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology RING (Real-time Integrated National Gps network and GPS
    stations from other public and private bodies. Indeed Leica Geosystems contributed with its experience and its
    products to these networks which currently fulfil the national coverage where there are no ItalPoS stations. For
    instance, the purpose of the ItalPoS network is mainly GNSS data distribution in terms of real time corrections
    and RINEX files for the post-processing.
    In order to compute and distribute to private and scientific users a set of adjusted coordinates of the ItalPoS network
    in the IGS05 and ETRF89-2000 reference frames, a dataset of RINEX of about 120 GPS permanent sites
    was created and processed, using the distributed sessions approach, by means of Gamit/Globk 10.3 GPS data
    processor, also using some SOPAC (Scripps Orbits and Permanent Array Center and EUREF (European Permanent
    Network solutions to improve the reference frame definition and the internal constraints.
    This paper describes all the strategies adopted to estimate coordinates and velocities of the ItalPoS Network in
    IGS05 and in ETRF89-2000 reference frames in the whole Italian territory.

  14. From Survey to FEM Analysis for Documentation of Built Heritage: the Case Study of Villa Revedin-Bolasco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, A.; Fissore, F.; Masiero, A.; Di Donna, A.; Coppa, U.; Vettore, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the last decade advances in the fields of close-range photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and computer vision (CV) have enabled to collect different kind of information about a Cultural Heritage objects and to carry out highly accurate 3D models. Additionally, the integration between laser scanning technology and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is gaining particular interest in recent years for structural analysis of built heritage, since the increasing computational capabilities allow to manipulate large datasets. In this note we illustrate the approach adopted for surveying, 3D modeling and structural analysis of Villa Revedin-Bolasco, a magnificent historical building located in the small walled town of Castelfranco Veneto, in northern Italy. In 2012 CIRGEO was charged by the University of Padova to carry out a survey of the Villa and Park, as preliminary step for subsequent restoration works. The inner geometry of the Villa was captured with two Leica Disto D3a BT hand-held laser meters, while the outer walls of the building were surveyed with a Leica C10 and a Faro Focus 3D 120 terrestrial laser scanners. Ancillary GNSS measurements were also collected for 3D laser model georeferencing. A solid model was then generated from the laser global point cloud in Rhinoceros software, and portion of it was used for simulation in a Finite Element Analysis (FEA). In the paper we discuss in detail all the steps and challenges addressed and solutions adopted concerning the survey, solid modeling and FEA from laser scanning data of the historical complex of Villa Revedin-Bolasco.

  15. High-resolution monitoring of fluvial bedrock erosion in a natural gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Alexander R.; Turowski, Jens M.

    2014-05-01

    Morphological evolution of terrestrial and planetary landscapes is of increasing interest in the geosciences. In mountainous regions stream development and stream shape as a consequence of the interaction of uplift and erosion is fundamental for surface formation. Bedrock stream sections are prevalent that are routings for water and sediments. Hence, the correct description of bedrock channel evolution is fundamental for landscape modelling. To analyse how in situ erosion rates depend on factors like discharge, sediment transport and topography, there is a need of highly resolved topographic field data that so far is not available. Here we present preliminary outcomes of a change detection study from the Gorner Gorge above Zermatt, Switzerland. The outflow of the Gorner glacier (the Gornera stream) is captured most of the time by a water intake for hydropower production. However this intake is flushed twice a day in summer to purge settled sediments. Then the Gornera, charged with erosive bedload, runs along its natural stream bed that cuts through a roche moutonnée. This bedrock section (25m long, 5m wide and 8m deep) was surveyed repeatedly twice a year benefiting from nearly dry bed conditions during water capturing. A Leica ScanStation C10 was used for capturing high density point clouds (aspired average point spacing 5mm) of the bedrock surfaces. Referencing each of the various scanning positions was conducted using Leica HDS targets attached to fixed anchor bolts in the bedrock, that were surveyed locally with a total station. Resulting DEMs were used to calculate DEMs of difference (DoDs) for the bedrock walls and a huge boulder residing on the gravel bed. Erosion rates are visualised and discussed in respect of to the local spatial arrangement of the bedrock to the stream flow and water level.

  16. Height and weight distribution of lower-middle income group of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.; Sharma, R.C.; Sunta, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Workers in the nuclear industry who are occasionally exposed to a radioactive environment were monitored for possible internal contamination. Calibration of the detection equipment was carried out with the help of a phantom. It is imperative that the phantom should have the physical dimensions of the subjects being monitored. As a step towards evolving a reference phantom, the height and weight distribution of the workers has been studied. The subjects included in this study are from lower middle income group drawing salaries between Rs 500 to 1000 per month. Mean weight +- SD was found to be 56.2 +- 8.70 kg and height 167 +- 5.90 cm. these averages match well with the data given by certain Life Insurance Companies in India. Although mean weight was found to be appreciably higher than the value reported in 1966, based on autopsy data, the mean weight and height are much less than the reference man values adopted by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which are based on western man (average weight = 70 kg., average height = 174 cm). (author)

  17. Assessment of microbial contamination and oral health risks associated with handling of Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional survey

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    D P Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accumulated data obtained over the last 20 years on the microbial status and survival of pathogens on currency notes indicate that this could represent a potential cause of sporadic cases of food borne illness. Objectives: To identify the micro-organisms present on the Indian currency notes and the oral health risks due to microbial contamination of Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and the Indian currency notes of various denominations (Rs. 10, Rs. 20, Rs. 50, Rs. 100, Rs. 500, and Rs. 1000 were collected from fruit vendors, hawkers, vegetable vendors, bus conductors, railway ticket counters, hotel counters, and butchers. Sample size was determined to be 70 Indian currency notes. Convenience sampling technique was used. Microbiological analysis of the collected currency notes was done. Results: The contamination rate of collected currency notes from the butchers and hawkers were 80% and 60% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was present on 15 currency notes (21.42% and was found to be higher in Rs. 10 than in other currency denominations. Streptococcus pyogenes was present on four currency notes (5.714% of Rs. 10. Conclusion: The Indian currency notes circulating in Bengaluru city were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. The oral health risks due to microbial contamination of Indian currency notes are acute pharyngitis, peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess, mastoiditis, sinusitis, otitis media, mild cellulitis, angular cheilitis, some endodontic infections, osteomyelitis of the jaw, parotitis, and oral mucositis.

  18. Stoichiometric calculations of combustion of Lakhra lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lakhra coal field is largest productive coal field of Pakistan. About 1.5 millions tonne of this coal is, annually, mined and transported daily to various parts of the country in 500 trucks each of 10 tonnes of coal. The major consumers of this coal are brick kilns located in Sindh and Punjab. It is available at Rs. 500/- per tonne at mine head. A number of attempts were made for the production of power (electricity) by foreign companies. Feasibility studies were undertaken but no one set up power plant. It may be due to inferior quality of coal as it is lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur contents. This coal is also, very sensitive to spontaneous combustion. Spontaneous combustion is the auto-ignition of coal at ambient conditions. Hence there are storage problems. In spite of these drawbacks, a 3(50) Mega Watt (3 units of each 50 mega watt power generation capacity) power plant, based on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of coal technology (AFBC), was setup in early nineties. The performance of this plant remained poor. The main reasons might be poor quality of coal and limestone. Limestone is used with high sulfur Lakhra lignite, in fluidized bed combustor, to arrest sulfur of the coal, fixing sulfur as calcium sulfate to minimize hazardous emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Spontaneous combustion of Lakhra lignite is responsible for each fire of coal and conveyor belt etc. (author)

  19. The political economy of abortion in India: cost and expenditure patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Ravi

    2004-11-01

    Access to abortion services is not difficult in India, even in remote areas. Providers of abortion range from traditional birth attendants to auxiliary nurse midwives and pharmacists, unqualified and qualified private doctors, to gynaecologists. Despite a well-defined law, there is a lack of regulation of abortion services or providers, and the cost to women is determined by supply side economics. The state is not a leading provider of abortions; services remain predominantly in the private sector. Abortions in the public sector are free only if the woman accepts some form of contraception; other fees may also be charged. The cost of abortion varies considerably, depending on the number of weeks of pregnancy, the woman's marital status, the method used, type of anaesthesia, whether it is a sex-selective abortion, whether diagnostic tests are carried out, whether the provider is registered and whether hospitalisation is required. A review of existing studies indicates that abortions cost a substantial amount--first trimester abortion averages Rs.500- 1000 and second trimester abortion Rs.2000-3000. Given the number of unqualified providers and with 15-20% of maternal deaths due to unsafe abortions, the costs of unsafe abortions must also be counted. It is imperative for the state to regulate the abortion economy in India, both to rationalise costs and assure safe abortions for women.

  20. Debris flow cartography using differential GNSS and Theodolite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, Giorgi; Guinau, Marta; Calvet, Jaume; Furdada, Gloria; Victoriano, Ane; Génova, Mar; Suriñach, Emma

    2016-04-01

    , limits the visibility of the satellites and thus, can result in meter-level errors while estimating the positions. We have conducted 2 measurements using various differential GNSS systems in March and in September of 2015. During these measurements we used Leica Viva GS14 receiver as a rover station, which was equipped with a GSM card to establish an internet connection in order to receive differential corrections from continuous GNSS networks. During the first campaign we have used the RTK positioning method using the SmartNet network (http://es.smartnet-eu.com) operated by Leica. This system had the advantage of transmitting differential corrections for GPS and GLONASS systems. During the second campaign, we have had an access to the ICGC (http://www.icc.cat) CatNet permanent GPS network, which only provides GPS satellite corrections. Here we present the analysis of the obtained precisions from these two RTK systems. Additionally, we have analyzed the geodetic data in a post-processing mode using the Leica Geo Office 8.4 software with IGS estimated final orbits. For this procedure, in addition to using the data from nearby CatNet CGPS stations, we have also used data from the base station(s) specifically setup near the study area during the campaign period. The work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation project CHARMA: CHAracterization and ContRol of MAss Movements. A Challenge for Geohazard Mitigation (CGL2013-40828-R) and RISKNAT group (2014GR/1243).

  1. Influence of the power level of an ultra-sonic system on dental cavity preparation Influência do nível de potência de um sistema de ultra-som em preparos cavitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Botelho Josgrilberg

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shape of dental cavities made with the CVDentus® system using different ultrasound power levels. One standard cavity was made on the buccal aspect of 15 bovine incisors with a CVDentus® cylindrical bur (82142. The sample was divided into three groups: G1 - ultrasound with power II; G2 - ultrasound with power III; and G3 - ultrasound with power IV. A standardizing device was used to obtain standardized preparations and ultrasound was applied during one minute in each dental preparation. The cavities were sectioned in the middle, allowing observation of the cavity’s profile with a magnifying glass, and width and depth measurement using the Leica Qwin program. The Kruskal-Wallis (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o formato dos preparos cavitários realizados com o sistema CVDentus® utilizando potências variadas do ultra-som. Uma cavidade padronizada foi realizada na face vestibular de 15 incisivos bovinos utilizando as pontas cilíndricas CVDentus® (82142. A amostra foi dividida em 3 grupos: G1 - ultra-som com potência II; G2 - ultra-som com potência III; e G3 - ultra-som com potência IV. Foi utilizada uma máquina padronizadora de preparos cavitários e o ultra-som foi aplicado durante 1 minuto em cada preparo. As cavidades foram seccionadas no centro, permitindo a visualização do perfil cavitário em uma lupa estereoscópica, e esse foi medido em largura e profundidade por meio do programa Leica Qwin. O teste estatístico Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 e o método de Dunn demonstraram diferenças entre os formatos das cavidades produzidas com as potências III e IV. Entretanto, as cavidades realizadas com a potência III apresentaram dimensões semelhantes às da ponta utilizada. Concluiu-se que a potência indicada pelo fabricante (III é a mais adequada para uso do sistema CVDentus®.

  2. Avaliações clínica e morfométrica da capacidade angiogênica da membrana de quitosana em córneas de coelhos Clinical and morphometric evaluations of the angiogenic capacity of chitosan membrane in rabbit corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago André Carreo Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a vascularização corneal (VC induzida pela membrana de quitosana (MQ implantada por enxertia interlamelar na córnea de coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 16 coelhos. No olho esquerdo procedeu-se enxertia interlamelar de um fragmento de 0,25 x 0,25 cm de MQ (olho tratado. No olho direito realizou-se apenas a microbolsa estromal (olho controle. Avaliaram-se clinicamente os animais aos 1, 3, 7, 15 e 30 dias de pós-operatório. Aos 30 dias mensurou-se a VC pelo Sistema Analisador de Imagens LEICA QWIN-550®. RESULTADOS: Aos sete dias observou-se VC a 1,5±0,93 mm do limbo em direção ao eixo visual. Aos 15 dias houve aumento da VC (4,75±3,20 mm, que se manteve aos 30 dias (4,25±4,10 mm. Os olhos controles não apresentaram quaisquer alterações oculares. Houve diferença estatística (pPURPOSE: To evaluate corneal vascularization (CV induced by interlamellar graft chitosan membrane (CM in rabbit cornea. METHODS: An interlamellar graft with a 0.25 x 0.25 cm CM fragment was performed in the left eye (treated eye. In the right eye, an estromal tunnel was done (control eye. The clinical evaluation was done at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days postoperatively. CV analysis was after 30 days by the Images Analizator System LEICA QWIN-550®. RESULTS: After 7 days, CV at 1.5±0.92 mm from the limbus in direction of the cornea axial area was observed. After 15 days CV increased (4.75±3.19 mm, remaining until day 30 (4.25±4.06 mm. The control eyes did not present any changes. There was a statistical differences of the vascularizated corneal areas between control and treated eyes from the 15th to the 30th postoperative day. CONCLUSION: The chitosan membrane induced corneal angiogenesis when applied to rabbit cornea through an interlamellar graft, which was maintained at low levels until 30 days postoperatively. Although further studies are necessary, the results found here demonstrated the usefulness of chitosan membrane in keratoplasties.

  3. Joint use of developed collagen-containing complexes and cell cultures in creating new tissue equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Kulakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the possibility of applying the integrated module as the basis of a celltissue equivalent for treatment of wounds of skin and soft tissues. In the frame of the set task the following problems were being solved: research of the spatial structure and architectonics of the surface of the developed base collagen-containing materials and their biocompatibility with cell cultures.Materials and methods. The study of a material which is a two-layer complex film, consisting of collagen and polysaccharide components was carried out. The collagen was separated from the dermis and was then impregnated with particulate demineralized bone matrix (DCM according to the original methodology. For the purposes of the study the dehydrated material was created in the form of a film. Electron microscopic examination of surfaces was performed on scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-IT300LV in high vacuum and at low values of probe current (< 0,1 nА. Studies to assess the viability of the cells cultivated on films of collagen material (tested for cytotoxicity and the adhesive capacity were performed in vitro using strains of diploid human fibroblasts 4–6 passage. The culture condition was visually assessed using an inverted Leica microscope DM IL (Carl Zeiss, Austria, equipped with a computerizes program of control of culture growth (Leica IM 1000.Results. The data obtained in the study of the surface structure of the developed complex module showed that it seems to be promising as a basic component of the cellular-tissue system with its large number of structural formations for fixation of the cells and a well-organized barrier layer capable of vapor - permeability. Experiments in vitro confirmed the absence of toxicity of the material being studied in relation to the culture of dermal human fibroblasts, suggesting the possibility of creation on its basis of cell-tissue complex and further experimental studies in vivo

  4. A new leech species of Helobdella (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae from San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina Una especie nueva de sanguijuela del género Helobdella (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae de San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina S. Gullo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A new freshwater leech species Helobdella fantasmae n. sp. is described. This description is based on the examination of 12 specimens collected in Laguna Fantasma, Bariloche (41° 05'S 71° 28'W, during December 2002. Leeches were found attached to submerged plants. They were relaxed with gradual addition of 70% ethanol, fixed in 10% formalin, stored in 70% ethanol and stained with borax carmine. Examination of external morphology, dissections and microphotographs were accomplished with a Leica Wild M3Z stereo microscope aided with an Olympus C-4000 digital camera. H. fantasmae n. sp. differs from other species of the genus by the presence of 1 pair of eyes on somite III, crop without gastric chambers, digitiform caeca and postcaeca., short sperm ducts reaching the back of somite XV, atrium pyriform, short ovisacs reaching somite XIII. This is the first record of leeches from an ephemeral wetland in North Patagonia. This finding expands current knowledge of the biodiversity of Hirudinea in South America, increasing the number of known Helobdella spp. from the Río Negro province (North Patagonia to 10 species.Se describe una especie de sanguijuela dulceacuícola Helobdella fantasmae n. sp. Esta descripción se basa en el examen de 12 ejemplares recolectados en la Laguna Fantasma, Bariloche (41° 05'S 71° 28'O durante diciembre de 2002. Los individuos se hallaron asociados a la vegetación sumergida. Fueron relajados con la adición gradual de etanol 70%, fijados en formalina al 10%, preservados en etanol 70% y teñidos con carmín borácico. El examen de la morfología externa, disecciones y microfotografías fueron realizados con la ayuda de un estereomicroscopio Leica Wild M3Z con cámara digital Olympus C-4000. H. fantasmae n. sp. difiere de otras especies del género por los siguientes caracteres: un par de ojos en el somito III, estómago recto sin cámaras, ciegos laterales ni postciegos, espermiductos cortos que descienden hasta el

  5. Understanding non-compliance with WHO-multidrug therapy among leprosy patients in Assam, India

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    Sumit Kar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study was undertaken to assess the adherence to World Health Organization (WHO-multidrug therapy (MDT and its successful completion by the leprosy patients and the extent of such defaulting, its correlates and reasons. Design: Retrograde cohort analysis was conducted during the first quarter of 2007 from the cases registered for WHO-MDT treatment during 2002 to 2005 in Kamrup district of Assam, India. Results: A total of 254 leprosy cases reflected the treatment seeking behavior of registered cases during the study period. Majority of the cases were from urban areas and defaulter rate higher in urban areas. The study group consisted of 60.63% males and 39.37% females.. Both the compliance and default was higher in the age group of 16 to 30 years. Majority of defaulters (32.28% had passed the high school leaving certificate examination had per capita monthly income between Rs 500 - 749 (30.71% and belonged to social class IV (33.86% and V (30.71%. Significant statistical association was found between gender, literacy status, per capita income per month and socioeconomic status with treatment outcome. On analysis for the reasons of defaulting treatment; majority (33.07% defaulted treatment due to loss of occupational hours when they come for receiving drugs at health center, 25.98% defaulted due to adverse reactions of drugs and 18.11% feared social stigma among major causes. Conclusions: The causes of defaulting treatment were related to gender, educational status, income as well as social class, or some combination of these. Recommendations, on strategic interventions to obviate the cause for noncompliance, were presented.

  6. Socioeconomics of long-term glaucoma therapy in India

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    Bhagabat Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the socioeconomic impact of long-term glaucoma therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive glaucoma patients on medical therapy, following up at our glaucoma service for at least 6 months were recruited. A questionnaire regarding monthly income, cost of glaucoma medications prescribed, availability of medications, travel time, time spent in review clinics, compliance, education status, medical insurance and systemic or local side-effects was administered. Results: The patients seen at the tertiary government hospital had an average monthly income of Rs. 10,912/- (range: Rs. 500/- to Rs. 50,000/- with approximately 56% of the patients having an income of less than Rs. 5000/month. The expenditure on anti-glaucoma medications ranged from 0.3% in high income group to 123% of their monthly gross income in low income group (P < 0.0001. The total expenditure including travel, stay, and loss of wages of patients and accompanying persons ranged from 1.6% in high income group to 137% of the monthly income in low income group (P < 0.0001. Mean time required for a glaucoma clinic visit was 15.66 h, (range: 6-96 h/month. About 2.7% experienced systemic side-effects and 21.3% had complaints of ocular adverse effects. About 90% of the patients were compliant. 92% were not covered by any insurance plan/government reimbursement for their treatment. Conclusions: Medical therapy for glaucoma is an economic burden to many patients and should be individualized, according to the socioeconomic status, availability of drugs and the required distance to travel to reach the specialist clinics.

  7. Comparison of LED and Conventional Fluorescence Microscopy for Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in a Low-Incidence Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minion, Jessica; Pai, Madhukar; Ramsay, Andrew; Menzies, Dick; Greenaway, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Light emitting diode fluorescence microscopes have many practical advantages over conventional mercury vapour fluorescence microscopes, which would make them the preferred choice for laboratories in both low- and high-resource settings, provided performance is equivalent. Methods In a nested case-control study, we compared diagnostic accuracy and time required to read slides with the Zeiss PrimoStar iLED, LW Scientific Lumin, and a conventional fluorescence microscope (Leica DMLS). Mycobacterial culture was used as the reference standard, and subgroup analysis by specimen source and organism isolated were performed. Results There was no difference in sensitivity or specificity between the three microscopes, and agreement was high for all comparisons and subgroups. The Lumin and the conventional fluorescence microscope were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears, but the Zeiss iLED was significantly time saving compared to both. Conclusions Light emitting diode microscopy should be considered by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, including those in high income countries, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. Our findings provide support to the recent World Health Organization policy recommending that conventional fluorescence microscopy be replaced by light emitting diode microscopy using auramine staining in all settings where fluorescence microscopy is currently used. PMID:21811622

  8. Comparison of LED and conventional fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid fast bacilli in a low-incidence setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Minion

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Light emitting diode fluorescence microscopes have many practical advantages over conventional mercury vapour fluorescence microscopes, which would make them the preferred choice for laboratories in both low- and high-resource settings, provided performance is equivalent. METHODS: In a nested case-control study, we compared diagnostic accuracy and time required to read slides with the Zeiss PrimoStar iLED, LW Scientific Lumin, and a conventional fluorescence microscope (Leica DMLS. Mycobacterial culture was used as the reference standard, and subgroup analysis by specimen source and organism isolated were performed. RESULTS: There was no difference in sensitivity or specificity between the three microscopes, and agreement was high for all comparisons and subgroups. The Lumin and the conventional fluorescence microscope were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears, but the Zeiss iLED was significantly time saving compared to both. CONCLUSIONS: Light emitting diode microscopy should be considered by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, including those in high income countries, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. Our findings provide support to the recent World Health Organization policy recommending that conventional fluorescence microscopy be replaced by light emitting diode microscopy using auramine staining in all settings where fluorescence microscopy is currently used.

  9. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for standardisation of ingredients of an ayurvedic powdered formulation Shatavaryadi churna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Puspendra; Jha, Shivesh; Naved, Tanveer

    2013-01-01

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of diagnostic characters of each ingredient of Shatavaryadi churna individually was carried out. Microscopic determination, counting of identifying number, measurement of area, length and breadth of identifying characters were performed using Leica DMLS-2 microscope. The method was validated for intraday precision, linearity, specificity, repeatability, accuracy and system suitability, respectively. The method is simple, precise, sensitive, and accurate, and can be used for routine standardisation of raw materials of herbal drugs. This method gives the ratio of individual ingredients in the powdered drug so that any adulteration of genuine drug with its adulterant can be found out. The method shows very good linearity value between 0.988-0.999 for number of identifying character and area of identifying character. Percentage purity of the sample drug can be determined by using the linear equation of standard genuine drug.

  10. A new Agraecina spider species from the Balkan Peninsula (FYR Macedonia) (Araneae: Liocranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltshev, Christo; Wang, Chunxia

    2016-05-30

            Specimens were collected using pitfall traps. Coloration is described from alcohol-preserved specimens. Specimens were examined and measured using a Wild M5A stereomicroscope. Further details were studied and measured under an Olympus BX41 compound microscope. All drawings were made using a drawing apparatus attached to a Leica stereomicroscope. Male palps and female genitalia were examined and illustrated after they were dissected from the spiders' bodies. Photos were taken with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera mounted on an Olympus SZX12 stereomicroscope. The images were montaged using Helicon Focus image stacking software. Measurements of the legs are taken from the dorsal side. Total length of the body includes the chelicerae. All measurements were taken in mm. Abbreviations used in text include: AME, anterior median eyes; ALE, anterior lateral eyes; EM, embolus; MA, median apophysis; CD, copulatory duct; ST, spermatheca; fe, femur; pa, patella; ti, tibia; mt, metatarsus; p, prolateral; d, dorsal; r, retrolateral; v, ventral. Type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural History (NMNHS), Sofia, Bulgaria.

  11. Evaluation of marginal fit of 2 CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Ji-Hee; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2015-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the marginal fit of two CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems compared to lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Shoulder and deep chamfer margin were formed on each acrylic resin tooth model of a maxillary first premolar. Two CAD-CAM systems (Prettau®Zirconia and ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max®press) crowns were made (n=16). Each crown was bonded to stone dies with resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Marginal gap and absolute marginal discrepancy of crowns were measured using a light microscope equipped with a digital camera (Leica DFC295) magnified by a factor of 100. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's HSD test were conducted to analyze the significance of crown marginal fit regarding the finish line configuration and the fabrication system. The mean marginal gap of lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) was significantly lower than that of the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) (Pmarginal discrepancy (Pmarginal gap than the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia). In terms of absolute marginal discrepancy, the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) had under-extended margin, whereas the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) had overextended margins.

  12. Diffusion of Boron in Cobalt Sinters

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    Borowiecka-Jamrozek J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badan procesu dyfuzji w warstwach powierzchniowych uzyskanych w wyniku nasycenia borem spieków otrzymanych z proszku kobaltu gatunku Co Extrafine. Warstwy otrzymano przy zastosowaniu proszkowej metody borowania opartej na wykorzystaniu mieszaniny o składzie: B4C jako składnik podstawowy stanowiacy zródło boru, (NH4Cl + NaF aktywator i Al2O3 jako wypełniacz. Zachowane były nastepujace parametry procesu: temperatura 950°C, czas 6h i 12h. Badania obejmowały wyznaczenie współczynnika dyfuzji w oparciu o strukture, grubosc uzyskanych i czas nasycenia warstw. Obserwacji naniesionych warstw dokonano za pomoca mikroskopu optycznego Leica DM-4000. Zdjecia ujawniły dwufazowa strukture warstw borkowych. Badania rentgenowskie potwierdziły wystepowanie faz o składzie: CoB i Co2B. Zbudowano model dyfuzji atomów boru w strukturze kobaltu zakładajac dyfuzje reaktywna. Obliczono współczynnik dyfuzji w oparciu o model atomowy dyfuzji wykorzystujac potencjały oddziaływan pomiedzy atomami boru i kobaltu. Otrzymane wyniki porównano z danymi doswiadczalnymi dyfuzji boru w innych materiałach.

  13. Cutting velocity accuracy as a criterion for comparing robot trajectories and manual movements for medical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotnikov, A. A.; Klimov, D. D.; Romash, E. V.; Bashevskaya, O. S.; Poduraev, Yu. V.; Bazykyan, E. A.; Chunihin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Industrial robots perform technological operations, such as spot and arc welding, machining and laser cutting along different trajectories within their performance characteristics. The evaluation of these characteristics is carried out according to the criteria of the standard ISO 9283. The criteria of this standard are applicable in industrial manufacturing, but not in the medical industry, as they are not developed in the framework of medical tasks. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate according to criteria built on different principles. In this article, the question of comparative evaluation of trajectories from program movements of a robot and manual movements of a surgeon, arising during the development of robotic medical complexes using industrial robots, is considered. A comparative evaluation is required to prove the expediency of automating medical operations in maxillofacial surgery. This study focuses on the estimation of velocity accuracy of a medical instrument. To obtain the velocity of the medical instrument, coordinates of the trajectory points from the program movements of the robot KUKA LWR4+ and trajectories from the manual movements of a professional surgeon have been measured. The measurement was carried out using a coordinate measuring machine, the laser tracker Leica LTD800. The accuracy estimation was carried out by two criteria: the criterion set out in the ISO 9283 standard, and the developed alternative criterion, the description of which is presented in this article. A quantitative comparative evaluation of the trajectories of a robot and a surgeon was obtained.

  14. Ray-tracing studies for a whole-viewing-angle retroreflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Friedsam, H.

    2000-01-01

    The APS Survey and Alignment team uses LEICA laser trackers for the majority of their alignment tasks. These instruments utilize several different retroreflectors for tracking the path of the laser interferometer. Currently in use are open-air corner cubes with an acceptance angle of ±20 degree, corner cube prisms with an acceptance angle of ±50degree, and a Cat's eye with an acceptance angle of ±60degree. Best measurement results can be achieved by using an open-air corner cube that eliminates the need for the laser beam to travel through a different medium before it returns to the instrument detector. However, the trade off is a small acceptance angle. In order to overcome the limitations of the small acceptance angles, Takatsuji et al. has proposed the creation of a full-viewing-angle retroreflector. Based on the notion that the radius R 1 of a common Cat's eye is proportional to R 2 , one can write: R 1 = (n minus 1)R 2 . In the case that n, the refractive index of glass, equals 2, the radii R 1 and R 2 are identical, and one can create a solid sphere Cat's eye. This design has the advantages that no adhesives are used to bond the two hemispheres together, misalignments between the hemispheres are not an issue, and most importantly, larger acceptance angles are possible. This paper shows the results of their ray tracing calculations characterizing the geometrical optics

  15. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  16. Histological Ex Vivo Evaluation of Peri-Incisional Thermal Effect Created by a New-Generation CO2 Superpulsed Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palaia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the evaluation of the histological effects of a new-generation superpulsed CO2 laser through an “ex vivo” study. A CO2 (λ = 10,600 nm ultra-speed laser (SmartUS20D, DEKA, Florence, Italy has been used at different parameters from 2 to 4 watt in Continuous Wave (CW and Pulsed Wave (PW, 50 Hz to obtain 30 samples from pig cadaver tongues. All the specimens have been subdivided into 6 groups (from A to F and each group consisted of 5 samples. A final specimen has been taken by scalpel and used as control group. Histological analysis has been performed using an optical microscope (Leica DM 2000 at a magnification of ×40. Results showed that histological readability was optimal in all the samples. The thermal damage has been negligible in all the groups. Furthermore, the average of thermal damage was 0,095 mm in the epithelial, while it was 0.245 mm in the connective tissue. Statistical analysis using Graphpad Prism 5 software showed no significant differences among the groups. CO2 laser demonstrated a good surgical effectiveness provoking little peripheral damage onto the cut edges and allowing a safe histological diagnosis.

  17. Moles, Laser, Mirrors and the Measurement of LHC Dipole Cold Masses

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Marta Bajko measuring the geometry of a dipole magnet with the 3-D laser measuring machine. Over in buildings 181 and SM 18 the LHC dipole magnets await final measurements to make sure they are of exactly the right geometry (shape). And since the dipole cold masses are not straight (they are slightly bent in the horizontal plane), getting them to meet their very tight assembly tolerances of tenth of millimetre is not an easy task. 'We are aiming for one order of magnitude better than that which we actually need for the accuracy of the measurements, and old school rulers of any sort cannot handle these requirements,' says Marta Bajko, one of the project's engineers, 'for our work we need to rely on optical measuring technology.' And rely on optical measuring is exactly what they have done. The dipole measurements are being taken with a gadget called LTD 500 (Laser Tracker and Absolute Distance-Meter), created by Leica Geosystems, a Swiss Company that designs and distributes high precision measurement technol...

  18. DEVELOPING VERIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS OF HERITAGE BUILDINGS WITH HETEROGENEOUS DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The digitization and abstraction of existing buildings into building information models requires the translation of heterogeneous datasets that may include CAD, technical reports, historic texts, archival drawings, terrestrial laser scanning, and photogrammetry into model elements. In this paper, we discuss a project undertaken by the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS that explored the synthesis of heterogeneous datasets for the development of a building information model (BIM for one of Canada’s most significant heritage assets – the Centre Block of the Parliament Hill National Historic Site. The scope of the project included the development of an as-found model of the century-old, six-story building in anticipation of specific model uses for an extensive rehabilitation program. The as-found Centre Block model was developed in Revit using primarily point cloud data from terrestrial laser scanning. The data was captured by CIMS in partnership with Heritage Conservation Services (HCS, Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC, using a Leica C10 and P40 (exterior and large interior spaces and a Faro Focus (small to mid-sized interior spaces. Secondary sources such as archival drawings, photographs, and technical reports were referenced in cases where point cloud data was not available. As a result of working with heterogeneous data sets, a verification system was introduced in order to communicate to model users/viewers the source of information for each building element within the model.

  19. A STUDY ABOUT TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF PRECAST CONCRETE TO SUPPORT QLASSIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Aziz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, terrestrial laser scanning shows the potential to improve construction productivity by measuring the objects changes using real-time applications. This paper presents the process of implementation of an efficient framework for precast concrete using terrestrial laser scanning that enables contractors to acquire accurate data and support Quality Assessment System in Construction (QLASSIC. Leica Scanstation C10, black/white target, Autodesk Revit and Cyclone software were used in this study. The results were compared with the dimensional of based model precast concrete given by the company as a reference with the AutoDesk Revit model from the terrestrial laser scanning data and conventional method (measuring tape. To support QLASSIC, the tolerance dimensions of cast in-situ & precast elements is +10mm / -5mm. The results showed that the root mean square error for a Revit model is 2.972mm while using measuring tape is 13.687mm. The accuracy showed that terrestrial laser scanning has an advantage in construction jobs to support QLASSIC.

  20. Studies on mRNA expression of the somatostatin receptor family in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Deng Jinglan; Wu Shengxi; Qiao Hongqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of expression and distribution of 5 subtypes of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1∼5) in lung cancer. Methods: With [α- 35 S]dATP labelled oligonucleotides of the 5 SSTR subtypes as probes, using in situ hybridization, patterns of mRNA expression were detected in lung cancer tissue sections of 21 cases which fell in varied pathologic types. Additionally, Leica Q-500 image analyzing device was employed to semi-quantitatively analyze density of the expression. Results: Patterns of SSTR1∼5 expression in lung cancer were as follows: SSTR2 expression was dominant in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) while in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) such as adenous and squamous, SSTR1 expression was stronger than that of the other 4 subtypes, In density of SSTR1∼5 expression in lung cancer, NSCLC was higher than SCLC (P<0.01). Conclusions: even though patterns and density of expression of SSTR subtypes in the lung cancer showed heterogeneity in different histopathologic types, as in SCLC and in NSCLC. Therefore, it has positive prospects for somatostatin analog-oriented agents to be used in treatment of both types of the lung cancers

  1. Expression of the somatostatin receptor family mRNAs in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Wang Liangang; Deng Jinglan; Wu Shengxi

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of expression and distribution of 5 subtypes of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5) in lung cancer, in situ hybridization was used to examine the expression patterns of SSTR mRNAs in 21 cases of different pathologic types of lung cancer tissues with [α- 35 S]dATP labelled oligonucleotides of the 5 SSTR subtypes as probes. Additionally, Leica Q-500 image analysis processing system was employed for the semi-quantitatively analysis of the hybridization signals. Patterns of SSTR1-5 expression in lung cancer tissues were found as follows. SSTR2 was prominent in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), whereas in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) including the adenous cancer (Ad) and the squamous cancer (Sq), the expression of SSTR1 mRNA was stronger than that of the other 4 types. the expression density of SSTR1-5 in the NSCLC was higher that the SCLC (p < 0.01). The expression patterns and densities of the SSTR subtypes showed heterogeneity in different pathologic types of lung cancer. The expressions of the SSTR mRNAs in both SCLC and NSCLC indicated the positive prospects for somatostatin analog (SSA)-oriented agents in the treatment of both types of the lung cancer

  2. High-Resolution Characterization of Intertidal Geomorphology by TLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, A.; Vettore, A.; Marani, M.

    2007-12-01

    Observational fluvial geomorphology has greatly benefited in the last decades from the wide availability of digital terrain data obtained by orthophotos and by means of accurate airborne laser scanner data (LiDAR). On the contrary, the spatially-distributed study of the geomorphology of intertidal areas, such as tidal flats and marshes, remains problematic owing to the small relief characterizing such environments, often of the order of a few tens of centimetres, i.e. comparable to the accuracy of state-of-the-art LiDAR data. Here we present the results of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) acquisitions performed within a tidal marsh in the Venice lagoon. The survey was performed using a Leica HDS 3000 TLS, characterized by a large Field of View (360 deg H x 270 deg V), a low beam divergence (DSM and a DTM. This is important e.g. in eco-geomorphic studies of intertidal environments, where conventional LiDAR technologies cannot easily separate first and last laser returns (because of the low vegetation height) and thus provide models of the surface as well as of the terrain. Furthermore, the DTM is shown to provide unprecedented characterizations of marsh morphology, e.g. regarding the cross-sectional properties of small-scale tidal creeks (widths of the order of 10 cm), previously observable only through conventional topographic surveys, thus not allowing a fully spatially-distributed description of their morphology.

  3. Evaluation of marginal fit of two all-ceramic copings with two finish lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Gulce; Ozturk, Nilgun; Inan, Ozgur; Bozogullari, Nalan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study investigated the marginal fit of two all-ceramic copings with 2 finish line designs. Methods: Forty machined stainless steel molar die models with two different margin designs (chamfer and rounded shoulder) were prepared. A total of 40 standardized copings were fabricated and divided into 4 groups (n=10 for each finish line-coping material). Coping materials tested were IPS e.max Press and Zirkonzahn; luting agent was Variolink II. Marginal fit was evaluated after cementation with a stereomicroscope (Leica MZ16). Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD test were performed to assess the influence of each finish line design and ceramic type on the marginal fit of 2 all-ceramic copings (α =.05). Results: Two-way analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences for marginal fit relative to finish lines (P=.362) and ceramic types (P=.065). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, both types of all-ceramic copings demonstrated that the mean marginal fit was considered acceptable for clinical application (⩽120 μm). PMID:22509119

  4. RESONANCE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN ENDOSONIC TIPS AND ULTRASONIC DEVICES OF DIFFERENT BRANDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin K. Shiyakov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the compatibility of 6 piezoelectric scalers - Mini Piezon (EMS, Pyon 2 LED (W&H, Woodpecker HW-3H (GWMI, Varios 550 (NSK, P5 Newtron (Satelec-Acteon and DTE HD-7H (GWMI with 8 types of endosonic tips for separated instruments removal - K-files # 20 and 25 (EMS, ET25 (Satelec, Redo 2 (VDW, CPR-tips 6,7,8 (Obtura Spartan, Proultra Endo tips 6,7,8 (Dentsply-Maillefer, RT3 (EMS, Endo E3 (W&H, E7 (NSK. Methods: Examined and measured was the change in the tips’ displacement amplitude with the power increase of the scalers under total magnification 80x with an optical microscope (Leica MZ6 and an image-measuring software (Klonk Image Measurement. Results: Ultrasonic devices’ compatibility with the examined tips was as follows: Woodpecker – 76,9%, Mini Piezon – 61,5%, Pyon 2 LED - 30,7%, Varios 550 – 83,3%, P5 Newtron – 83,3%, DTE – 33,3%. Lack of compatibility was found in 40,35% of all cases. In 29,82% of the cases of lack of compatibility it was demonstrated as a non-effective vibration, and in the rest of the cases – 10,53% - uncontrolled over-powerful vibration, which was dangerous to use. Conclusion: Endosonic tips should be carefully chosen in accordance with the ultrasonic scaler used.

  5. The Electrophoretic Mobility of Proteins near Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Perumal; Singh, Avtar; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2004-03-01

    We have attempted to apply the methods developed for surface DNA electrophoresis (1) for proteomics. Droplets of FITC stained Abumin, Poly- L-Lysine, or Casein purchased from Sigma were deposited on glass cover slips. The droplets were then place in contact with a TBE buffer solution contained in a cell molded from PDMS. Pt electrodes were inserted into the cell and a voltage was a applied. The motion of the protein was then imaged with a Leica Confocal microscope as a function of buffer concentration, distance from the surface, and applied voltage. The mobilities were then compared with those of uncharged one micron florescent Polystyrene beads. References: 1)Henzel WJ, Watanabe C, Stults JT., !0 Protein Identification: The Origins of Peptide Mass Fingerprinting. !1 J. American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 14 (September 2003): 931-942 2)Mathesius U, Imin N, Natera SH, Rolfe BG., !0 Proteomics as a functional genomics tool. !1 Methods of Molecular Biology 236: 395-414. *Work supported in part by the NSF-MRSEC program

  6. Electron Microscopist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives. The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR). The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and genetics. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL The Electron Microscopist will: Operate ultramicrotomes (Leica) and other instrumentation related to the preparation of embedded samples for EM (TEM and SEM) Operate TEM microscopes, (specifically Hitachi, FEI T20 and FEI T12) as well as SEM microscopes (Hitachi); task will include loading samples, screening, and performing data collection for a variety of samples: from cells to proteins Manage maintenance for the TEM and SEM microscopes Provide technical advice to investigators on sample preparation and data collection

  7. Storm-time ionization enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dmitriev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ion density enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere during a Bastille storm on 15–16 July 2000 and Halloween storms on 29–31 October 2003 were studied using data from ROCSAT-1/IPEI experiment. Prominent ion density enhancements demonstrate similar temporal dynamics both in the sunlit and in the nightside hemispheres. The ion density increases dramatically (up to two orders of magnitude during the main phase of the geomagnetic storms and reaches peak values at the storm maximum. The density enhancements are mostly localized in the region of a South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA, which is characterized by very intense fluxes of energetic particles. The dynamics of near-Earth radiation was studied using SAMPEX/LEICA data on >0.6 MeV electrons and >0.8 MeV protons at around 600 km altitude. During the magnetic storms the energetic particle fluxes in the SAA region and in its vicinity increase more than three orders of magnitude. The location of increased fluxes overlaps well with the regions of ion density enhancements. Two mechanisms were considered to be responsible for the generation of storm-time ion density enhancements: prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field and abundant ionization of the ionosphere by enhanced precipitation of energetic particles from the radiation belt.

  8. The Segmentation of Point Clouds with K-Means and ANN (artifical Neural Network)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuçak, R. A.; Özdemir, E.; Erol, S.

    2017-05-01

    Segmentation of point clouds is recently used in many Geomatics Engineering applications such as the building extraction in urban areas, Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation and the road or urban furniture extraction. Segmentation is a process of dividing point clouds according to their special characteristic layers. The present paper discusses K-means and self-organizing map (SOM) which is a type of ANN (Artificial Neural Network) segmentation algorithm which treats the segmentation of point cloud. The point clouds which generate with photogrammetric method and Terrestrial Lidar System (TLS) were segmented according to surface normal, intensity and curvature. Thus, the results were evaluated. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and Photogrammetry are commonly used to obtain point clouds in many remote sensing and geodesy applications. By photogrammetric method or LIDAR method, it is possible to obtain point cloud from terrestrial or airborne systems. In this study, the measurements were made with a Leica C10 laser scanner in LIDAR method. In photogrammetric method, the point cloud was obtained from photographs taken from the ground with a 13 MP non-metric camera.

  9. INTEGRATION OF GEODATA IN DOCUMENTING CASTLE RUINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Delis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Textured three dimensional models are currently the one of the standard methods of representing the results of photogrammetric works. A realistic 3D model combines the geometrical relations between the structure’s elements with realistic textures of each of its elements. Data used to create 3D models of structures can be derived from many different sources. The most commonly used tool for documentation purposes, is a digital camera and nowadays terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. Integration of data acquired from different sources allows modelling and visualization of 3D models historical structures. Additional aspect of data integration is possibility of complementing of missing points for example in point clouds. The paper shows the possibility of integrating data from terrestrial laser scanning with digital imagery and an analysis of the accuracy of the presented methods. The paper describes results obtained from raw data consisting of a point cloud measured using terrestrial laser scanning acquired from a Leica ScanStation2 and digital imagery taken using a Kodak DCS Pro 14N camera. The studied structure is the ruins of the Ilza castle in Poland.

  10. a New Approach for the Semi-Automatic Texture Generation of the Buildings Facades, from Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniga, E.

    2012-07-01

    The result of the terrestrial laser scanning is an impressive number of spatial points, each of them being characterized as position by the X, Y and Z co-ordinates, by the value of the laser reflectance and their real color, expressed as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values. The color code for each LIDAR point is taken from the georeferenced digital images, taken with a high resolution panoramic camera incorporated in the scanner system. In this article I propose a new algorithm for the semiautomatic texture generation, using the color information, the RGB values of every point that has been taken by terrestrial laser scanning technology and the 3D surfaces defining the buildings facades, generated with the Leica Cyclone software. The first step is when the operator defines the limiting value, i.e. the minimum distance between a point and the closest surface. The second step consists in calculating the distances, or the perpendiculars drawn from each point to the closest surface. In the third step we associate the points whose 3D coordinates are known, to every surface, depending on the limiting value. The fourth step consists in computing the Voronoi diagram for the points that belong to a surface. The final step brings automatic association between the RGB value of the color code and the corresponding polygon of the Voronoi diagram. The advantage of using this algorithm is that we can obtain, in a semi-automatic manner, a photorealistic 3D model of the building.

  11. THE EUROSDR PROJECT "RADIOMETRIC ASPECTS OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC IMAGES" – RESULTS OF THE EMPIRICAL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Honkavaara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  12. [Microscopic comparison of the miniscrew's surface used in orthodontics: before and after use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbar, M; Bourzgui, F; Lazrak, L; Aazzab, B; El Quars, F

    2012-11-01

    The aim of our work is to study the modifications affecting the surface condition of miniscrews retrieved from patients following an orthodontic treatment and comparing these miniscrews to unused ones. This study involved ten miniscrews placed in seven patients after orthodontic treatment for various indications. These miniscrews of the same manufacturer (Dual Top Anchor System® [Jeil Medical Corporation, Seoul, Korea]) were observed under optical microscope (Leica DM2500M) in order to examine their surface. Four new Miniscrews of different manufacturers, including the manufacturer of Miniscrews trademarks patients (Abso Anchor [Dentos, Daegu, South Korea] Infiniti [DB Orthodontics, Silsden, West Yorkshire, UK], Dual Top(®) [Jeil Medical Corporation, Seoul, Korea], IMTEC(®) [Ardmore, Okla]) were examined under the same microscope to compare with the used miniscrews. The study of the new miniscrews showed an irregular surface with machining and polishing defects, in the form of stripes that could constitute election's point for electrochemical attacks. Compared with the new one, the miniscrew used showed pitting corrosion attacks and cracks, mainly in the machining defects. These attacks were localized over the whole of miniscrews. It is suggested that improving the surface finish can increase the corrosion resistance of these miniscrews. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hong Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer(EMMPRINin retinoblastoma(Rband the relationships between MMP-2, EMMPRIN and tumor development.METHODS:Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in 39 cases of paraffin embedded Rb samples. Quantitative analysis of expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN were assessed by measuring the mean gray scale of Rb tissue with LEICA IM50 Color Pathologic Analysis System. The differences of expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in each clinical and pathological stage were statistically analyzed, and the same step was also undertaken to study the relationship between Rb with MMP-2 positive expression and that with EMMPRIN positive expression.RESULTS: The positive expression rate of MMP-2 was 90%(Gray value: 109.64±14.52; 35/39, and that of EMMPRIN was 85%(Gray value: 108.01±13.60; 33/39. The expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN were significantly higher in tumors of glaucomatous stage(Gray value: 108.21±11.47 and 107.56±14.32than those in intraocular stage(Gray value: 121.13±11.32 and 119.34±12.66; PPPPPPCONCLUSION: The positive expression levels of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN may correlate with tumor infiltration and metastasis.

  14. THE SEGMENTATION OF POINT CLOUDS WITH K-MEANS AND ANN (ARTIFICAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kuçak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of point clouds is recently used in many Geomatics Engineering applications such as the building extraction in urban areas, Digital Terrain Model (DTM generation and the road or urban furniture extraction. Segmentation is a process of dividing point clouds according to their special characteristic layers. The present paper discusses K-means and self-organizing map (SOM which is a type of ANN (Artificial Neural Network segmentation algorithm which treats the segmentation of point cloud. The point clouds which generate with photogrammetric method and Terrestrial Lidar System (TLS were segmented according to surface normal, intensity and curvature. Thus, the results were evaluated. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and Photogrammetry are commonly used to obtain point clouds in many remote sensing and geodesy applications. By photogrammetric method or LIDAR method, it is possible to obtain point cloud from terrestrial or airborne systems. In this study, the measurements were made with a Leica C10 laser scanner in LIDAR method. In photogrammetric method, the point cloud was obtained from photographs taken from the ground with a 13 MP non-metric camera.

  15. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  16. CCD Camera Lens Interface for Real-Time Theodolite Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Shane; Scott, V. Stanley, III

    2012-01-01

    Theodolites are a common instrument in the testing, alignment, and building of various systems ranging from a single optical component to an entire instrument. They provide a precise way to measure horizontal and vertical angles. They can be used to align multiple objects in a desired way at specific angles. They can also be used to reference a specific location or orientation of an object that has moved. Some systems may require a small margin of error in position of components. A theodolite can assist with accurately measuring and/or minimizing that error. The technology is an adapter for a CCD camera with lens to attach to a Leica Wild T3000 Theodolite eyepiece that enables viewing on a connected monitor, and thus can be utilized with multiple theodolites simultaneously. This technology removes a substantial part of human error by relying on the CCD camera and monitors. It also allows image recording of the alignment, and therefore provides a quantitative means to measure such error.

  17. Analysis of Deformations of the Skylight Construction at the Main Hall of the Warsaw University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odziemczyk, Waldemar

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents technology and results of measurements of the steel construction of the skylight of the Main Hall of the Warsaw University of Technology. The new version of the automated measuring system has been used for measurements. This system is based on Leica TCRP1201+ total station and the TCcalc1200 software application, developed by the author, which operates on a laptop computer connected with the total station by the wire. Two test measurements were performed. Each of them consisted of cyclic measurement using the polar method, from one station; points located on the skylight construction, as well as control points located on concrete, bearing poles, were successively measured. Besides geometrical values (such as Hz, V angles and the slope distance D), the changes of temperature and atmospheric pressure, were also recorded. Processed results of measurements contained information concerning the behaviour of the skylight; asymmetry of horizontal displacements with respect to the X axis have been proved. Changes of parameters of the instrument telescope and changes of the instrument orientation were also stated; they were connected with changes of the temperature. The most important results of works have been presented in the form of diagrams.

  18. T.O.F. LASER SCANNER FOR THE SURVEYING OF STATUES: A TEST ON A REAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Artese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution regards the surveying of two statues of famous contemporary sculptors that have been placed in the central zone of Cosenza, which has been transformed in an open air museum. To realize a 3-D representation of the museum, different methodologies have been used, based on classical surveying (total stations and GNSS, image data and range data. The increasing performances of the new models of Time Of Flight (T.O.F. laser scanners allow to build accurate models also for medium-size objects; on the other hand, the recent techniques of 3D modeling enable the processing of large amount of data and the effective removal of noises. Thus, if an extreme accuracy is not required, one can think to use the T.O.F. laser scanner, also for the surveying of statues. For the acquisition of the surfaces of the statues, two different types of laser scanning have been used: the Leica Scan StationC10, based on Time Of Flight, and the Minolta VIVID 300 triangulation scanner. In the paper, the comparison between the results obtained by using the different techniques is described.

  19. Developing Verification Systems for Building Information Models of Heritage Buildings with Heterogeneous Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L.; Fai, S.

    2017-08-01

    The digitization and abstraction of existing buildings into building information models requires the translation of heterogeneous datasets that may include CAD, technical reports, historic texts, archival drawings, terrestrial laser scanning, and photogrammetry into model elements. In this paper, we discuss a project undertaken by the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) that explored the synthesis of heterogeneous datasets for the development of a building information model (BIM) for one of Canada's most significant heritage assets - the Centre Block of the Parliament Hill National Historic Site. The scope of the project included the development of an as-found model of the century-old, six-story building in anticipation of specific model uses for an extensive rehabilitation program. The as-found Centre Block model was developed in Revit using primarily point cloud data from terrestrial laser scanning. The data was captured by CIMS in partnership with Heritage Conservation Services (HCS), Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC), using a Leica C10 and P40 (exterior and large interior spaces) and a Faro Focus (small to mid-sized interior spaces). Secondary sources such as archival drawings, photographs, and technical reports were referenced in cases where point cloud data was not available. As a result of working with heterogeneous data sets, a verification system was introduced in order to communicate to model users/viewers the source of information for each building element within the model.

  20. Research on the Testing Methods for IBIS-S System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, C; Zhou, X; Wang, P; Yu, Z Q

    2014-01-01

    The basic theoretical principles and key techniques of the IBIS-S system, which is a micro-deformation monitoring system based on the techniques of GB-InSAR, are introduced. The accuracy of IBIS-S is much higher than that of traditional deformation monitoring devices, so it is necessary to test the accuracy and reliability of the system. Some comparison experiments are designed for testing the parameters provided by the manufacturer, and these tests verify the accuracy and resolution of IBIS-S. A Leica TCRP 1201 total station (with an accuracy of 1mm + 1ppm) and a stepping motor (with an accuracy of 0.001mm) are used for testing the monitoring accuracy of IBIS-S. The results from different tests show that the monitoring data of IBIS-S is very accurate and higher than the traditional total station. The results also indicate that IBIS-S can be applied in the micro-deformation projects of high-rise buildings, bridges and some other objects with a high accuracy

  1. Antarctic glossopterid diversity on a local scale: the presence of multiple megasporophyll genera, Upper Permian, Mt. Achernar, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Patricia E; Taylor, Edith L; Taylor, Thomas N

    2012-09-01

    The glossopterids are a group of plants that thrived during a time of global warming similar to what is happening on the Earth today as well as the transition from archaic plant groups to the ancestors of modern groups. The diversity of the glossopterid clade is based on the megasporangiate structures assigned to the group, because the vegetative and pollen-bearing structures vary little. The presence of numerous reproductive genera from a single Upper Permian locality in the central Transantarctic Mountains provides important data on local glossopterid diversity in Antarctica. Impression/compression fossils were imaged with a Leica 5000C digital camera on a dissecting microscope or a Fujifilm FinePix S1pro digital camera. Two megasporangiate taxa are described: Scutum leiophyllum, which represents the first confirmed record of the genus in Antarctica, and Lidgettoniopsis ramulus, a new morphology consisting of a pinnate structure with oppositely attached megasporophylls. Plumsteadia ovata specimens indicate that this genus can be larger than previously recorded and illustrate the vegetative surface with a distinct midrib. The presence of a laminar, multiovulate structure and a pinnate structure at the same site indicates that local-level glossopterid diversity in Antarctica is greater than previously hypothesized. The discovery of a new megasporophyll morphology in Antarctica (confirming the presence of three distinctive morphologies on the continent) shows that Antarctic glossopterid heterogeneity is on a par with other Gondwanan continents. The diversity of the Antarctic landscape reveals that high polar latitudes can sustain a diverse ecosystem during times of global warming.

  2. Structure and properties of selected cemented carbides and cermets covered with TiN/(Ti,Al,SiN/TiN coatings obtained by the cathodic arc evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek A. Dobrzañski

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of microstructural examinations, mechanical tests and service performance tests carried out on thin TiN/(Ti,Al,SiN/TiN wear resistance coatings obtained by the CAE process on cermet and cemented carbide substrates. Microstructural examinations of the applied coatings and the substrate were made with an OPTON DSM 940 SEM and a LEICA MEF4A light microscope. Adhesion of the coatings on cemented carbides and cermets was measured using the scratch test. The cutting properties of the materials were determined from service tests in which continuous machining of C45E steel was carried out. The hardness of the substrate and the microhardness of the coatings were determined with a DUH 202 SHIMADZU ultra microhardness tester with a load of 70 mN. Roughness tests were also carried out before applying the coatings and after the PVD process. Cutting tests confirmed the advantages of the TiN/(Ti,Al,SiN/TiN type coatings obtained using the PVD method in the CAE mode on cemented carbides and cermets, as a material that undergoes very low abrasive, thermal and adhesion wear. These coatings extend tool life compared to commercially available uncoated tools with single and multi-layer coatings deposited using PVD/CVD methods.

  3. Ion projection lithography: November 2000 status and sub-70-nm prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesmaier, Rainer; Wolter, Andreas; Loeschner, Hans; Schunck, Stefan

    2000-10-01

    Among all next generation lithography (NGL) options Ion Projection Lithography (IPL) offers the smallest (particle) wavelength of 5x10- 5nm (l00keV Helium ions). Thus, 4x reduction ion-optics has diffraction limits IOS) has been realized and assembled. In parallel to the PDT-IOS effort, at Leica Jena a test bench for a vertical vacuum 300mm-wafer stage has been realized. Operation of magnetic bearing supported stage movement has already been demonstrated. As ASML vacuum compatible optical wafer alignment system, with 3nm(3(sigma) ) precision demonstrated in air, has been integrated to this wafer test bench system recently. Parallel to the IPL tool development, Infineon Technologies Mask House and the Institute for Microelectronics Stuttgart are intensively working on the development of IPL stencil masks with success in producing 150mm and 200mm stencil masks as reported elsewhere. This paper is focused on information about the status of the PDT-IOS tool.

  4. FRACTAL ANALYSIS OF TRABECULAR BONE: A STANDARDISED METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Parkinson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A standardised methodology for the fractal analysis of histological sections of trabecular bone has been established. A modified box counting method has been developed for use on a PC based image analyser (Quantimet 500MC, Leica Cambridge. The effect of image analyser settings, magnification, image orientation and threshold levels, was determined. Also, the range of scale over which trabecular bone is effectively fractal was determined and a method formulated to objectively calculate more than one fractal dimension from the modified Richardson plot. The results show that magnification, image orientation and threshold settings have little effect on the estimate of fractal dimension. Trabecular bone has a lower limit below which it is not fractal (λ<25 μm and the upper limit is 4250 μm. There are three distinct fractal dimensions for trabecular bone (sectional fractals, with magnitudes greater than 1.0 and less than 2.0. It has been shown that trabecular bone is effectively fractal over a defined range of scale. Also, within this range, there is more than 1 fractal dimension, describing spatial structural entities. Fractal analysis is a model independent method for describing a complex multifaceted structure, which can be adapted for the study of other biological systems. This may be at the cell, tissue or organ level and compliments conventional histomorphometric and stereological techniques.

  5. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Survey and alignment of HIRFL-CSR at IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Kaidi; Guo Yizhen; Cai Guozhu; Yang Sengli; Wang Shoujin

    2003-01-01

    HIRFL-CSR (Heavy Ion Research Facility I Lanzhou- Cooler-Storage Ring project) is under construction in Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Science, and will be completed in 2004. It is the post-acceleration system and consists of main ring (CSRm), experimental ring (CSRe) and radioactive beam line to connect the two rings. The circumference of CSRm and CSRe is 161.21 m and 128.96 m, respectively. The desired installation tolerances are obtained. In order to meet the stringent requirement, two stages control network was established. One is global (primary) network; the other is local (secondary) network. After optimization of the designed control network, the maximum error of point position is 0.046 mm. The origin of magnet component system is on its geometric center. According to the coordinate system, the fiducial is measured and the data will be saved in the database of survey. The application software has been developed. This program of DSCS (Database System for CDR Survey) is used for survey and alignment of CSR. We use SMX Laser Tracker 4500, LEICA TCA 2003 total station and NA3004 digital level. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Fluorescent dyes with large Stokes shifts for super-resolution optical microscopy of biological objects: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sednev, Maksim V; Belov, Vladimir N; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with commercially available organic dyes possessing large Stokes shifts and their applications as fluorescent labels in optical microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED). STED microscopy breaks Abbe’s diffraction barrier and provides optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit. STED microscopy is non-invasive and requires photostable fluorescent markers attached to biomolecules or other objects of interest. Up to now, in most biology-related STED experiments, bright and photoresistant dyes with small Stokes shifts of 20–40 nm were used. The rapid progress in STED microscopy showed that organic fluorophores possessing large Stokes shifts are indispensable in multi-color super-resolution techniques. The ultimate result of the imaging relies on the optimal combination of a dye, the bio-conjugation procedure and the performance of the optical microscope. Modern bioconjugation methods, basics of STED microscopy, as well as structures and spectral properties of the presently available fluorescent markers are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the spectral properties of the commercial dyes are tabulated and correlated with the available depletion wavelengths found in STED microscopes produced by LEICA Microsytems, Abberior Instruments and Picoquant GmbH. (topical review)

  8. Advances in stereomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, H.; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter

    2008-09-01

    Similar to human's binocular vision, stereomicroscopes are comprised of two optical paths under a convergence angle providing a full perspective insight into the world's microstructure. The numerical aperture of stereomicroscopes has continuously increased over the years, reaching the point where the lenses of left and right perspective paths touched each other. This constraint appeared as an upper limit for the resolution of stereomicroscopes, as the resolution of a stereomicroscope was deduced from the numerical apertures of the two equally sized perspective channels. We present the optical design and advances in resolution of the world's first asymmetrical stereomicroscope, which is a technological breakthrough in many aspects of stereomicroscopes. This unique approach uses a large numerical aperture and thus an, so far, unachievable high lateral resolution in the one path, and a small aperture in the other path, which provides a high depth of field ("Fusion Optics"). This new concept is a technical challenge for the optical design of the zoom system as well as for the common main objectives. Furthermore, the new concept makes use of the particular way in which perspective information by binocular vision is formed in the human's brain. In conjunction with a research project at the University of Zurich, Leica Microsystems consolidated the functionality of this concept in to a new generation of stereomicroscopes.

  9. Study of flotation performance of kerosene after ultrasonic emulsified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Wen-ze; Wang Hui; Kong Xiao-hong; Lu Yu-ting; Hu Jung [Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin (China). School of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-01-15

    A Setaram calorimeter, a contact angle gauge DCAT21, surface tension apparatus and a Leica electron microscope were used to study the nature of emulsified kerosene and kerosene and their effects on slime. Batch flotation tests were carried out. The results show that the particle diameter of emulsified kerosene, the dispersibility in water, the wetting heat with slime, changing contact angle and decreasing gas-solution interfacial tension are all better than those of kerosene. The consumption of emulsified kerosene is only one third of that of kerosene when equivalent yields of clean coal are obtained. The flotation speed of emulsified kerosene is faster than that of kerosene. The yield of clean coal with emulsified kerosene is higher than that of kerosene by 7.38% and the ash content of clean coal emulsified in kerosene is lower than that of kerosene by 0.98% when equivalent amounts of the two reagents are used in the flotation process. The study shows that flotation selectivity and efficiency of emulsified kerosene are all higher than those of kerosene and the consumption of reagent is lower than that of kerosene. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. An immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization-based comparison between the Oracle HER2 Bond Immunohistochemical System, Dako HercepTest, and Vysis PathVysion HER2 FISH using both commercially validated and modified ASCO/CAP and United Kingdom HER2 IHC scoring guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, Anthony

    2010-12-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used as the frontline assay to determine HER2 status in invasive breast cancer patients. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of the Leica Oracle HER2 Bond IHC System (Oracle) with the current most readily accepted Dako HercepTest (HercepTest), using both commercially validated and modified ASCO\\/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines. A total of 445 breast cancer samples from 3 international clinical HER2 referral centers were stained with the 2 test systems and scored in a blinded fashion by experienced pathologists. The overall agreement between the 2 tests in a 3×3 (negative, equivocal and positive) analysis shows a concordance of 86.7% and 86.3%, respectively when analyzed using commercially validated and modified ASCO\\/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines. There is a good concordance between the Oracle and the HercepTest. The advantages of a complete fully automated test such as the Oracle include standardization of key analytical factors and improved turn around time. The implementation of the modified ASCO\\/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines has minimal effect on either assay interpretation, showing that Oracle can be used as a methodology for accurately determining HER2 IHC status in formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue.

  11. Terrain Extraction by Integrating Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data and Spectral Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C. L.; Halim, S.; Zulkepli, M.; Azwan, A. M.; Tang, W. L.; Chong, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of true terrain points from unstructured laser point cloud data is an important process in order to produce an accurate digital terrain model (DTM). However, most of these spatial filtering methods just utilizing the geometrical data to discriminate the terrain points from nonterrain points. The point cloud filtering method also can be improved by using the spectral information available with some scanners. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of using the three-channel (red, green and blue) of the colour image captured from built-in digital camera which is available in some Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) for terrain extraction. In this study, the data acquisition was conducted at a mini replica landscape in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai campus using Leica ScanStation C10. The spectral information of the coloured point clouds from selected sample classes are extracted for spectral analysis. The coloured point clouds which within the corresponding preset spectral threshold are identified as that specific feature point from the dataset. This process of terrain extraction is done through using developed Matlab coding. Result demonstrates that a higher spectral resolution passive image is required in order to improve the output. This is because low quality of the colour images captured by the sensor contributes to the low separability in spectral reflectance. In conclusion, this study shows that, spectral information is capable to be used as a parameter for terrain extraction.

  12. Anatomical and micro-morphological analysis of the fruit and vegetative organs of Inula oculus-christi L. in the Pannonian part of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Dunja S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inula oculus-christi L. is a perennial plant, 20-60 cm high, growing in south-east Europe, central and southern Russia and some parts of Asia. It belongs to Pontic-Pannonian floristic element. In Pannonian part of Serbia this species is extremely rare, with very few recently confirmed literature and herbarium data. According to the field data for the period from 2013 to 2015, only one population of this species was recorded in Pannonian part of Serbia, on the site of Rimski Šanac, which is threatened by anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, anatomical and micro-morphological features of I. oculus-christi have not been documented so far. Therefore, in order to get better knowledge of the biology this species, as well as on the basis of the abovementioned, its anatomical and micro-morphological characteristics were investigated. Cross sections of the leaf, stem, rhizome and fruit were obtained using cryotechnique procedure by Leica CM 1850 cryostat. Using a light microscopy, detailed descriptions of anatomical characteristics of the analysed organs were given. The scanning electron microscopy revealed specific qualitative features of leaf and fruit that characterize the species. Obtained data may be useful in determination of this species and represent the valuable contribution to its micro-morphological and anatomical differentiation from other congeneric and related species. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173002

  13. The innovation of cryo-SEM freeze-fracturing methodology demonstrated on high pressure frozen biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubanova, Kamila; Nebesarova, Jana; Ruzicka, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav

    2018-04-22

    In this study we present an innovative method for the preparation of fully hydrated samples of microbial biofilms of cultures Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and high-pressure freezing (HPF) rank among cutting edge techniques in the electron microscopy of hydrated samples such as biofilms. However, the combination of these techniques is not always easily applicable. Therefore, we present a method of combining high-pressure freezing using EM PACT2 (Leica Microsystems), which fixes hydrated samples on small sapphire discs, with a high resolution SEM equipped with the widely used cryo-preparation system ALTO 2500 (Gatan). Using a holder developed in house, a freeze-fracturing technique was applied to image and investigate microbial cultures cultivated on the sapphire discs. In our experiments, we focused on the ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix produced during cultivation and the relationships among microbial cells in the biofilm. The main goal of our investigations was the detailed visualization of areas of the biofilm where the microbial cells adhere to the substrate/surface. We show the feasibility of this technique, which is clearly demonstrated in experiments with various freeze-etching times. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NASA's Earth Science Use of Commercially Availiable Remote Sensing Datasets: Cover Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren W.; Goward, Samuel N.; Fearon, Matthew G.; Fletcher, Rose; Garvin, Jim; Hurtt, George

    2008-01-01

    The cover image incorporates high resolution stereo pairs acquired from the DigitalGlobe(R) QuickBird sensor. It shows a digital elevation model of Meteor Crater, Arizona at approximately 1.3 meter point-spacing. Image analysts used the Leica Photogrammetry Suite to produce the DEM. The outside portion was computed from two QuickBird panchromatic scenes acquired October 2006, while an Optech laser scan dataset was used for the crater s interior elevations. The crater s terrain model and image drape were created in a NASA Constellation Program project focused on simulating lunar surface environments for prototyping and testing lunar surface mission analysis and planning tools. This work exemplifies NASA s Scientific Data Purchase legacy and commercial high resolution imagery applications, as scientists use commercial high resolution data to examine lunar analog Earth landscapes for advanced planning and trade studies for future lunar surface activities. Other applications include landscape dynamics related to volcanism, hydrologic events, climate change, and ice movement.

  15. Integrating a Web-Based Whole-Slide Imaging System and Online Questionnaires in a National Cytopathology Peer Comparison Educational Program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jen-Fan; Liang, Wen-Yih; Hsu, Chih-Yi; Lai, Chiung-Ru

    2015-01-01

    In a peer comparison educational program, transferring glass slides between laboratories and collecting responses are time- and cost-consuming. Integrating a web-based whole-slide imaging (WSI) system and online questionnaires may serve as a promising solution. Five gynecologic Papanicolaou-stained smears and 5 nongynecologic slides were selected. The 10 whole-slide images were acquired by a Leica SCN-400 system and released via an Aperio eSlide Manager. Online questionnaires generated by Google Forms with access to the 10 whole-slide images were released to all the practitioners in Taiwan by e-mail. After closing the program, an online posttest feedback survey was conducted. A total of 302 participants joined the gynecologic test, and 291 joined the nongynecologic test. The correct interpretation rates were 81.8-93.7% in the former and 28.5-93.1% in the latter. In the posttest feedback survey, there were 63.2% of the participants reporting first-time WSI experience, and 97.9% of them said they would like to participate in a similar program again. Integrating a web-based WSI system and online questionnaires is an easy method to access nationwide practitioners. Participants can make interpretations using WSI even without prior experience. The model is valuable for those who want to initiate a large-scale cytopathology peer comparison educational program. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Investigations of Digital Levels at the SLAC Vertical Comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, G.

    2005-01-01

    Digital levels deliver highly accurate and fast measurements in an automated measuring process. A shortcoming is that they give less accurate measurements in some cases. There are several sources which are known to have a systematic effect on the height reading and therefore have to be investigated for our equipment. One parameter is the scale factor which has to be determined on a regular basis. Other sources for inaccurate height readings are measurements at critical distances and at the end sections of the rod, a defocused set-up and artificial illumination. With the findings of the experiments investigating the aforementioned error sources, rules for our fieldwork were established. The experiments were carried out with our instruments, a Trimble (formerly Zeiss) DiNi 12 (SW Version 1.21) and a Leica DNA--03 (SW Version 3.40). In some cases, when it is not possible to avoid a critical set-up with the digital leveling system, we use the analog level Wild NA3. Therefore the analog rods have to be also controlled. The calibration is performed with a CCD camera which automatically detects the edges in the image and compares them with the interferometer readings. The CCD camera system is also used to determine the height offset between rods

  17. An immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization-based comparison between the Oracle HER2 Bond Immunohistochemical System, Dako HercepTest, and Vysis PathVysion HER2 FISH using both commercially validated and modified ASCO/CAP and United Kingdom HER2 IHC scoring guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Anthony; Allen, David; Happerfield, Lisa; Johnson, Nicola; Provenzano, Elena; Pinder, Sarah E; Tee, Lilian; Gu, Mai; Kay, Elaine W

    2010-12-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used as the frontline assay to determine HER2 status in invasive breast cancer patients. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of the Leica Oracle HER2 Bond IHC System (Oracle) with the current most readily accepted Dako HercepTest (HercepTest), using both commercially validated and modified ASCO/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines. A total of 445 breast cancer samples from 3 international clinical HER2 referral centers were stained with the 2 test systems and scored in a blinded fashion by experienced pathologists. The overall agreement between the 2 tests in a 3×3 (negative, equivocal and positive) analysis shows a concordance of 86.7% and 86.3%, respectively when analyzed using commercially validated and modified ASCO/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines. There is a good concordance between the Oracle and the HercepTest. The advantages of a complete fully automated test such as the Oracle include standardization of key analytical factors and improved turn around time. The implementation of the modified ASCO/CAP and UK HER2 IHC scoring guidelines has minimal effect on either assay interpretation, showing that Oracle can be used as a methodology for accurately determining HER2 IHC status in formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue.

  18. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  19. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Emprego de estações totais robotizadas na automação, controle e aquisição de dados, voltado ao monitoramento de barragens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Debus Nadal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente com a evolução do instrumental utilizado em levantamentos geodésicos, especialmente no que diz respeito a robotização de estações totais, é possível a utilização destes em monitoramento geodésico contínuo, principalmente em estruturas de grande porte. No presente trabalho foi abordada a maneira de se estabelecer comunicação e controle destes instrumentos de medição através do desenvolvimento de programas que permitiram o envio e o recebimento de dados, em uma comunicação entre a estação total robotizada e o computador. Foram testadas as interfaces de comunicação que o instrumento utilizado neste trabalho, dentre elas: conexão via cabo serial, Bluetooth®, e link de rádio. Também foi estudado o protocolo de comunicação específico para este instrumento, disponibilizado pelo fabricante. O objetivo foi o desenvolvimento de um programa de computador que permitisse o controle de uma estação total robotizada Leica TCRA1205, voltado a aplicações de monitoramento geodésico.

  1. Retinal Layer Abnormalities as Biomarkers of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Niraj N; Proudlock, Frank A; Siram, Vasantha; Suraweera, Chathurie; Hutchinson, Claire; Nelson, Christopher P; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2018-06-06

    Schizophrenia is associated with several brain deficits, as well as visual processing deficits, but clinically useful biomarkers are elusive. We hypothesized that retinal layer changes, noninvasively visualized using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), may represent a possible "window" to these abnormalities. A Leica EnvisuTM SD-OCT device was used to obtain high-resolution central foveal B-scans in both eyes of 35 patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched controls. Manual retinal layer segmentation was performed to acquire individual and combined layer thickness measurements in 3 macular regions. Contrast sensitivity was measured at 3 spatial frequencies in a subgroup of each cohort. Differences were compared using adjusted linear models and significantly different layer measures in patients underwent Spearman Rank correlations with contrast sensitivity, quantified symptoms severity, disease duration, and antipsychotic medication dose. Total retinal and photoreceptor complex thickness was reduced in all regions in patients (P layer (P layer (P layer thickness (R = -.47, P = .005). Our novel findings demonstrate considerable retinal layer abnormalities in schizophrenia that are related to clinical features and visual function. With time, SD-OCT could provide easily-measurable biomarkers to facilitate clinical assessment and further our understanding of the disease.

  2. a Study about Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Reconstruction of Precast Concrete to Support Qlassic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. A.; Idris, K. M.; Majid, Z.; Ariff, M. F. M.; Yusoff, A. R.; Luh, L. C.; Abbas, M. A.; Chong, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, terrestrial laser scanning shows the potential to improve construction productivity by measuring the objects changes using real-time applications. This paper presents the process of implementation of an efficient framework for precast concrete using terrestrial laser scanning that enables contractors to acquire accurate data and support Quality Assessment System in Construction (QLASSIC). Leica Scanstation C10, black/white target, Autodesk Revit and Cyclone software were used in this study. The results were compared with the dimensional of based model precast concrete given by the company as a reference with the AutoDesk Revit model from the terrestrial laser scanning data and conventional method (measuring tape). To support QLASSIC, the tolerance dimensions of cast in-situ & precast elements is +10mm / -5mm. The results showed that the root mean square error for a Revit model is 2.972mm while using measuring tape is 13.687mm. The accuracy showed that terrestrial laser scanning has an advantage in construction jobs to support QLASSIC.

  3. High-accuracy local positioning network for the alignment of the Mu2e experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejdukova, Jana B. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-01

    This Diploma thesis describes the establishment of a high-precision local positioning network and accelerator alignment for the Mu2e physics experiment. The process of establishing new network consists of few steps: design of the network, pre-analysis, installation works, measurements of the network and making adjustments. Adjustments were performed using two approaches. First is a geodetic approach of taking into account the Earth’s curvature and the metrological approach of a pure 3D Cartesian system on the other side. The comparison of those two approaches is performed and evaluated in the results and compared with expected differences. The effect of the Earth’s curvature was found to be significant for this kind of network and should not be neglected. The measurements were obtained with Absolute Tracker AT401, leveling instrument Leica DNA03 and gyrotheodolite DMT Gyromat 2000. The coordinates of the points of the reference network were determined by the Least Square Meth od and the overall view is attached as Annexes.

  4. Modelos experimentais de desnutrição e sua influência no trofismo cutâneo Experimental models of malnutrition and its effect on skin trophism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Nani Leite

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A pele, para exercer suas funções, necessita de níveis adequados de nutrientes. OBJETIVO: Analisar o trofismo cutâneo de ratos nutridos e desnutridos por meio de dois modelos de desnutrição. MÉTODOS: No Modelo Marasmo, utilizaram-se 60 ratos Wistar em controle dietético, dos quais 30 foram selecionados aleatoriamente para receber metade da dieta diária durante 60 dias. No Modelo Gelatina, empregaram-se 60 ratos, dos quais 30 receberam dieta associada a proteína de baixa qualidade (gelatina durante 30 dias. Avaliou-se o estado nutricional dos animais por meio da massa corporal, dos sinais clínicos e da dosagem de albumina sérica. Após o período de desnutrição, fez-se a histologia da pele dos animais para análise da espessura da derme e epiderme com o software Leica Application Suite; nas lâminas coradas com tricrômio de Gomori, analisou-se a colagênese com o software ImageJ. RESULTADOS: A massa corporal dos animais desnutridos pelo marasmo e gelatina foi significativamente menor (pBACKGROUND: The skin requires adequate levels of nutrients to function properly. OBJECTIVE: To analyze skin trophism in well-nourished and undernourished rats using two models of malnutrition. METHODS: In the marasmus model, 60 Wistar rats were kept on a controlled diet, 30 being randomly selected to receive half the established diet for 60 days. In the gelatin model, 60 rats were used, 30 of which received a diet consisting of poor quality protein (gelatin for 30 days. The nutritional status of the animals was evaluated according to body mass index, clinical signs and serum albumin measurement. After the period of malnutrition, histology was performed on the animals' skin to analyze the thickness of the dermis and epidermis using the Leica Application Suite software. Collagen was analyzed on slides stained with Gömöri trichrome using the ImageJ software program. RESULTS: The body mass index of the malnourished animals in the marasmus

  5. New technology for the emulsification of petroleum residuals in water; Nueva tecnologia para la emulsificacion de residuales del petroleo en agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, M. Vita; Arriola, Alejandro M.; Sanchez S, Ramon; Manzanares P, Emilio; Romo M, Cesar A.; Yery de Coss P, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    It turns out of interest to Comision Federal de Electricidad and Petroleos Mexicanos to reduce costs of fuel oil, reducing the viscosity of the residues petroleum of high vacuum distillation emulsifying these with water. The parameters that define the characteristics of the emulsions are mainly the relation of their components, viscosity, size and drop distribution and its stability. The experimental work began producing emulsions in form of lots, using samples of approximately 500 milliliters of vacuum residue. In this first stage, at different concentrations, were examined eight different surfactants, as well as combinations among them, also seven different stabilizers were used. With these tests it has been managed to identify the concentrations, as well as the most adequate relations of surfactants and stabilizers for the production of emulsions of vacuum residues in water. The size and drop distribution has been determined by means of an optical LEICA microscope, model DMLS, that has adapted a photographic system in which an emulsion photo is obtained and, later, a system of analysis of images is used for obtaining of the values of the diameter of the drops present in the emulsion. Finally, by means of statistical software the average size of the particles is obtained, as well as the drop size distribution. The tests results of emulsions that remain fluid are shown and an example of the microstructure of an emulsion of vacuum residue-in-water is given. As well as an example of histogram of the drop size distribution of an emulsion of vacuum distillation-in-water, and another one of the viscosity in function of temperature at different cut efforts in one emulsion of vacuum distillate residue-in-water. [Spanish] Resulta de interes para la Comision Federal de Electricidad y Petroleos Mexicanos reducir costos del combustoleo, reduciendo la viscosidad de los residuos de vacio emulsionando estos en agua. Los parametros que definen las caracteristicas de las

  6. Significado da presença de esquizócitos no sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela de Fátima do Nascimento e Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presença de esquizócitos em esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hemólise e da gravidade da doença. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 76 lâminas de esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes portadoras de pré-eclâmpsia. Após a realização do esfregaço, as lâminas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas até a leitura, feita em microscópio modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imersão em óleo. O microscópio era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada lâmina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritrócitos. Foi considerada presença de esquizócitos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou triângulo quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presença de esquizócitos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hemólise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase lática e reticulócitos, marcadores da pré-eclâmpsia (proteinúria e número de plaquetas e com a gravidade da pré-eclâmpsia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS, versão 10.0, com valor de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each

  7. Acompanhamento da icterícia neonatal em recém-nascidos de termo e prematuros tardios Follow-up of neonatal jaundice in term and late premature newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perazzini Facchini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados de um projeto de acompanhamento de recém-nascidos de termo e próximos ao termo ictéricos no período neonatal. MÉTODOS: Foram encaminhados a ambulatório especializado neonatos com peso > 2.000 g e/ou idade gestacional > 35 semanas, cuja icterícia na alta foi avaliada inicialmente com o icterômetro de Ingram, Bilicheck® e, se indicado, com bilirrubinômetro Unistat (Leica. A bilirrubinemia destes recém-nascidos situava-se no ou acima do percentil 40 do nomograma elaborado por Bhutani. Todos recém-nascidos tratados com fototerapia durante internação foram reavaliados laboratorialmente 24 horas após suspensão do tratamento. A indicação de reinternação para tratamento fototerápico intensivo foi para paciente com nível > 20 mg/dL. RESULTADOS: De um total de 11.259 neonatos, 2.452 (21,8% foram encaminhados para acompanhamento, dos quais 87,2% (2.140 retornaram. Oitenta neonatos retornados foram reinternados. Dos 2.452 encaminhados para retorno, 180 (7,3% tinham bilirrubinemia > 15 mg/dL na alta. Destes, 151 retornaram para acompanhamento. Vinte (13,2% foram reinternados para tratamento. Do total de reinternados, dois recém-nascidos apresentaram nível > 25 mg/dL e nenhum > 30 mg/dL. Todos responderam rapidamente à fototerapia intensiva, e não houve necessidade de utilizar exsangüinotransfusões. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados sugerem que o esquema adotado é eficiente na detecção e prevenção de hiperbilirrubinemias de risco para produzir encefalopatia bilirrubínica em recém-nascidos de termo e próximos ao termo.OBJECTIVE: To report on the results of a project following term and near term newborn infants who were jaundiced during the neonatal period. METHODS: Neonates were referred to the follow-up clinic with weight > 2,000 g and/or gestational age > 35 weeks, and jaundice at discharge was initially assessed with an Ingram icterometer or Bilicheck and, if indicated, with a Unistat

  8. The impact of a port on the surrounding seashores based on the 13-year monitoring results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Kont, Are

    2017-04-01

    The study was carried out in the vicinity of Sillamäe town and industrial port, located on the north-eastern coast of Estonia in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland (The Baltic Sea). Sillamäe was potentially one of the most serious threats for the whole Baltic Sea environment. The town was founded together with the construction of a highly specialized chemical and metallurgy plant in 1946, where fuel rods and nuclear materials for the Soviet nuclear power plants and weapons were produced. The current study is focusing on the shore processes and the coastal sea fronting Sillamäe. The town is located east of the port. It is the region with the highest potential impact of the port. Until the town was founded and the factory with its nuclear waste depository was constructed, the shores near the town were described as one litho-dynamic system with a good natural balance. Major human influence (construction of the port, waste depository, etc.) and additionally climate warming has taken place since then. The shores in front of the nuclear waste depository are well protected today. However, the rapidly expanding port is the major obstacle of the longshore sediment transport since 2001. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of the port to the changes in coastal evolution and sediment budget in the vicinity of the port based on the regular monitoring results. The dynamics of the seashores was assessed using remote methods and in situ measurements. Remote methods included the analyses of shoreline changes and changes in scarp positions in space and time using orthophotos. The study is also based on the measurements of scarp edges, shorelines and shore profiles conducted in 2004-2016. The measurements were carried out using Leica GS09 RTK-GPS and Leica level. The volume of sediments in the active zone of each profile was calculated. The active zone was defined as the zone from the mean shoreline to the elevation where storm waves were still able to

  9. Organização celular dos testículos em Hylidae e Leptodactylidae, no Pantanal (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.3332 Cellular organization of the testes in Hylidae and Leptodactylidae, in the Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.3332

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barbara dos Santos Rosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e comparar a organização das células germinativas em diferentes estádios de diferenciação celular nos machos adultos de Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758 e Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Hylidae, e de Leptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 e L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Leptodactylidae, coletados no Pantanal e na serra da Bodoquena, no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Os testículos foram retirados, fixados, desidratados em uma série alcoólica e incluídos em resina plástica do tipo methacrilato glicol (Historesin Leica®; cortados a 3 µm, corados com azul de toluidina 1% e observados no microscópio de luz. Constatou-se que os indivíduos da família Hylidae apresentam, em todas as épocas do ano, presença de todas as células de linhagem germinativa da espermatogênese. Já os indivíduos da família Leptodactylidae apresentam todas as células da linhagem germinativa somente no período chuvoso. As variações das características na organização dos epitélios seminíferos, assim como da evidente diferença na quantidade de espermatozoides no interior dos túbulos, demonstram que os anuros estudados apresentam diferentes formas de desenvolvimento da espermatogênese ao longo do ano: de forma cíclica para os da família Hylidae e acíclica, com liberação explosiva de espermatozoides, para os da família LeptodactylidaeThe objective of this work was to make a comparative analysis of germ cell organization at different stages of cellular differentiation in adult males of Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, P. paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758, and Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Hylidae; and Leptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 and L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Leptodactylidae, collected in the Pantanal and in

  10. Organização celular dos testículos em Hylidae e Leptodactylidae, no Pantanal (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil = Cellular organization of the testes in Hylidae and Leptodactylidae, in the Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Ferreira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e comparar a organização das células germinativas em diferentes estádios de diferenciação celular nos machos adultos de Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758 e Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Hylidae, e deLeptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 e L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Leptodactylidae, coletados no Pantanal e na serra da Bodoquena, no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Os testículos foram retirados, fixados, desidratados em uma série alcoólica e incluídos em resina plástica do tipo methacrilato glicol (Historesin Leica®; cortados a 3 μm, corados com azul de toluidina 1% e observados no microscópio de luz. Constatou-se que os indivíduos da família Hylidae apresentam, em todas as épocas do ano, presença de todas as células de linhagem germinativa da espermatogênese. Já os indivíduos da família Leptodactylidae apresentam todas as células da linhagem germinativa somente no período chuvoso. As variações das características na organização dos epitélios seminíferos, assim como da evidente diferença na quantidade de espermatozoides no interior dos túbulos, demonstram que os anuros estudados apresentam diferentes formas de desenvolvimento da espermatogênese ao longo do ano: de forma cíclica para os da família Hylidae e acíclica, com liberação explosiva de espermatozoides, para os da família Leptodactylidae.The objective of this work was to make a comparative analysis of germ cell organization at different stages of cellular differentiation inadult males of Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, P. paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758, and Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Hylidae; andLeptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 and L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Leptodactylidae, collected in the Pantanal and in

  11. Design and Study of a Next-Generation Computer-Assisted System for Transoral Laser Microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Deshpande PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To present a new computer-assisted system for improved usability, intuitiveness, efficiency, and controllability in transoral laser microsurgery (TLM. Study Design Pilot technology feasibility study. Setting A dedicated room with a simulated TLM surgical setup: surgical microscope, surgical laser system, instruments, ex vivo pig larynxes, and computer-assisted system. Subjects and Methods The computer-assisted laser microsurgery (CALM system consists of a novel motorized laser micromanipulator and a tablet- and stylus-based control interface. The system setup includes the Leica 2 surgical microscope and the DEKA HiScan Surgical laser system. The system was validated through a first-of-its-kind observational study with 57 international surgeons with varied experience in TLM. The subjects performed real surgical tasks on ex vivo pig larynxes in a simulated TLM scenario. The qualitative aspects were established with a newly devised questionnaire assessing the usability, efficiency, and suitability of the system. Results The surgeons evaluated the CALM system with an average score of 6.29 (out of 7 in ease of use and ease of learning, while an average score of 5.96 was assigned for controllability and safety. A score of 1.51 indicated reduced workload for the subjects. Of 57 subjects, 41 stated that the CALM system allows better surgical quality than the existing TLM systems. Conclusions The CALM system augments the usability, controllability, and efficiency in TLM. It enhances the ergonomics and accuracy beyond the current state of the art, potentially improving the surgical safety and quality. The system offers the intraoperative automated scanning of customized long incisions achieving uniform resections at the surgical site.

  12. a Fast and Flexible Method for Meta-Map Building for Icp Based Slam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, A.; Morin, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments in LiDAR sensors make mobile mapping fast and cost effective. These sensors generate a large amount of data which in turn improves the coverage and details of the map. Due to the limited range of the sensor, one has to collect a series of scans to build the entire map of the environment. If we have good GNSS coverage, building a map is a well addressed problem. But in an indoor environment, we have limited GNSS reception and an inertial solution, if available, can quickly diverge. In such situations, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is used to generate a navigation solution and map concurrently. SLAM using point clouds possesses a number of computational challenges even with modern hardware due to the shear amount of data. In this paper, we propose two strategies for minimizing the cost of computation and storage when a 3D point cloud is used for navigation and real-time map building. We have used the 3D point cloud generated by Leica Geosystems's Pegasus Backpack which is equipped with Velodyne VLP-16 LiDARs scanners. To improve the speed of the conventional iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, we propose a point cloud sub-sampling strategy which does not throw away any key features and yet significantly reduces the number of points that needs to be processed and stored. In order to speed up the correspondence finding step, a dual kd-tree and circular buffer architecture is proposed. We have shown that the proposed method can run in real time and has excellent navigation accuracy characteristics.

  13. Integration of Point Clouds Dataset from Different Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, C. K. A. F. Che Ku; Baharuddin, N. Z. S.; Ariff, M. F. M.; Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.; Idris, K. M.; Aspuri, A.

    2017-02-01

    Laser Scanner technology become an option in the process of collecting data nowadays. It is composed of Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). ALS like Phoenix AL3-32 can provide accurate information from the viewpoint of rooftop while TLS as Leica C10 can provide complete data for building facade. However if both are integrated, it is able to produce more accurate data. The focus of this study is to integrate both types of data acquisition of ALS and TLS and determine the accuracy of the data obtained. The final results acquired will be used to generate models of three-dimensional (3D) buildings. The scope of this study is focusing on data acquisition of UTM Eco-home through laser scanning methods such as ALS which scanning on the roof and the TLS which scanning on building façade. Both device is used to ensure that no part of the building that are not scanned. In data integration process, both are registered by the selected points among the manmade features which are clearly visible in Cyclone 7.3 software. The accuracy of integrated data is determined based on the accuracy assessment which is carried out using man-made registration methods. The result of integration process can achieve below 0.04m. This integrated data then are used to generate a 3D model of UTM Eco-home building using SketchUp software. In conclusion, the combination of the data acquisition integration between ALS and TLS would produce the accurate integrated data and able to use for generate a 3D model of UTM eco-home. For visualization purposes, the 3D building model which generated is prepared in Level of Detail 3 (LOD3) which recommended by City Geographic Mark-Up Language (CityGML).

  14. Ray-tracing studies for a whole-viewing-angle retro-reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Friedsam, H.

    1999-01-01

    The APS Survey and Alignment team uses LEICA laser trackers for the majority of their alignment tasks. These instruments utilize several different retro-reflectors for tracking the path of the laser interferometer. Currently in use are open-air comer cubes with an acceptance angle of ±20 deg C, comer cube prisms with an acceptance angle of ±50 deg C, and a Cat's eye with an acceptance angle of ±60 deg C. Best measurement results can be achieved by using an open-air comer cube that eliminates the need for the laser beam to travel through a different medium before it returns to the instrument detector. However, the trade off is a small acceptance angle. In order to overcome the limitations of the small acceptance angles, Takatsuji et al. have proposed the creation of a full-viewing-angle retro-reflector. Based on the notion that the radius R 1 of a common Cat's eye is proportional to R 2 , one can write: R 1 = (n-1)R 2 In the case that n, the refractive index of glass, equals 2, the radii R 1 and R 2 are identical, and one can create a solid sphere Cat's eye. This design has the advantages that no adhesives are used to bond the two hemispheres together, misalignments between the hemispheres are not an issue, and most importantly, larger acceptance angles are possible. This paper shows the results of our ray tracing calculations characterizing the geometrical optics. In Section 2 we derived the analytical expressions for choosing the index of refraction n of a glass sphere based on the specifications of the reflected beam. We also provided an approximation for calculating the minimum radius of a reflector sphere based on efficiency considerations. Finally, in section 3, the analytically derived results were confirmed in a design study for a Cat's eye. (authors)

  15. Avaliação de uma técnica para geração de modelos digitais de superfície utilizando múltiplas imagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Alves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available A utilização de imagens ópticas para a geração de Modelos Digitais de Superfície (MDSs é explorada há muitos anos e os resultados dependem, além das características do projeto (resolução das imagens, tamanho da área de sobreposição entre as imagens, etc, das técnicas de correspondência de imagens aplicadas e da capacidade computacional para o processamento das imagens. Os pontos gerados com erros no processo de correspondência influenciam diretamente a qualidade dos produtos obtidos e, consequentemente, aumentam a necessidade da etapa onerosa de edição. O objetivo deste trabalho é a avaliação da técnica de geração de MDSs utilizando a correspondência simultânea entre múltiplas imagens pelo método de busca em linhas verticais (Vertical Line Locus-VLL. Nos experimentos foram utilizadas seis imagens da área urbana de Presidente Prudente-SP, com elemento de resolução aproximado de 7cm. Para análise da qualidade foram gerados MDSs de uma pequena área contendo áreas homogêneas, padrão repetitivo, objetos em movimento incluindo sombras e árvores grandes. O MDS obtido foi comparado com dados de varredura a LASER (Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation e com o MDS gerado pelo software Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS. Os resultados mostraram a compatibilidade da qualidade entre os modelos gerados pela técnica implementada e os dados de referência.

  16. Response of CR39 detector to 5 A GeV Si14+ ions and measurement of total charge changing cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Renu; Kumar, Ashavani

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, response of CR39 track etch detector was obtained by cone-height measurement technique. CR39 track etch detector was used to identify the incident charged particles and their fragments by the measurements of cone-height of tracks using an optical microscope DM6000 M and automated image analyzer system installed with Leica QWin Plus software. The CR39 detector was calibrated and the response points were fitted with a linear relation and all the points are within the limits of the experimental errors. The charge resolution of the detector was calculated to be 0.2e. The response function is obtained and fitted with a linear relation which is good throughout Z/β=6.1–14.1. The experimental value of the total charge changing cross-section of 5 A GeV Si 14+ ion beam in polyethylene and CR39 combined target is σ tot =(734±128) mb. The total charge changing cross-section is compared with the experimental results of others based on cone base-area measurement technique and also fitted by the Bradt–Peters geometrical cross-section. - Highlights: • Charge resolution of 0.2e was obtained by cone-height measurement. • Consistency in manual measurements of cone-heights is presented. • Response of CR39 detector was obtained and fitted with first degree polynomial. • Total charge changing cross-section of 5 A GeV Si 14+ ions in CH 2 and CR39 as a combined target was calculated

  17. Multi Temporal Interferometry as Tool for Urban Landslide Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, A.; Colangelo, G.; Famiglietti, N.; Cecere, G.; Stramondo, S.; Viggiano, D.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Differential Interferometry (A-DInSAR) are Multi Temporal Interferometry(MTI) techniques suitable for the monitoring of deformation phenomena in slow kinematics. A-DInSAR methodologies include both Coherence-based type, as well as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Berardino et al., 2002, Lanari et al., 2004) and Persistent/Permanent Scatterers (PS), (Ferretti et al., 2001). Such techniques are capable to provide wide-area coverage (thousands of km2) and precise (mm-cm resolution), spatially dense information (from hundreds to thousands of measurementpoints/km2) on groundsurfacedeformations. SBAS and PShavebeenapplied to the town of Stigliano (MT) in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy), where the social center has been destroyed after the reactivation of a known landslide. The comparison of results has shown that these techniques are equivalent in terms of obtained coherent areas and displacement patterns, although lightly different velocity values for individual points (-5/-25 mm/y for PS vs. -5/-15 mm/y for SBAS) have been pointed out. Differences are probably due to scattering properties of the ground surface (e.g. Lauknes et al., 2010). Furthermore, on the crown of the landslide body, a Robotics Explorer Total Monitoring Station (Leica Nova TM50) that measures distance values with 0.6 mm of resolution has been installed. In particular, 20 different points corresponding to that identified through satellite techniques have been chosen, and a sampling time of 15 minutes has been fixed. The displacement values obtained are in agreement with the results of the MTI analysis, showing as these techniques could be a useful tool in the case of early - warning situations.

  18. Urban planning and agriculture. Methodology for assessing rooftop greenhouse potential of non-residential areas using airborne sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Ana; Alamús, Ramón; Pipia, Luca; Ruiz, Antonio; Corbera, Jordi; Cuerva, Eva; Rieradevall, Joan; Josa, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    The integration of rooftop greenhouses (RTGs) in urban buildings is a practice that is becoming increasingly important in the world for their contribution to food security and sustainable development. However, the supply of tools and procedures to facilitate their implementation at the city scale is limited and laborious. This work aims to develop a specific and automated methodology for identifying the feasibility of implementation of rooftop greenhouses in non-residential urban areas, using airborne sensors. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) data and the Leica ALS50-II and TASI-600 sensors allow for the identification of some building roof parameters (area, slope, materials, and solar radiation) to determine the potential for constructing a RTG. This development represents an improvement in time and accuracy with respect to previous methodology, where all the relevant information must be acquired manually. The methodology has been applied and validated in a case study corresponding to a non-residential urban area in the industrial municipality of Rubí, Barcelona (Spain). Based on this practical application, an area of 36,312m 2 out of a total area of 1,243,540m 2 of roofs with ideal characteristics for the construction of RTGs was identified. This area can produce approximately 600tons of tomatoes per year, which represents the average yearly consumption for about 50% of Rubí total population. The use of this methodology also facilitates the decision making process in urban agriculture, allowing a quick identification of optimal surfaces for the future implementation of urban agriculture in housing. It also opens new avenues for the use of airborne technology in environmental topics in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of radiological and morphologic assessments of myocardial bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercakmak, Burcu; Bulut, Elif; Hayran, Mutlu; Kaymaz, Figen; Bilgin, Selma; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Bayramoglu, Alp; Erbil, Mine

    2015-09-01

    In this study we aimed to compare the findings of coronary dual-source computed tomography angiography of myocardial bridges with cadaveric dissections. Forty-one isolated, non-damaged fresh sheep hearts were used in this study. Myocardial bridges of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery were demonstrated and analyzed by a coronary dual-source computed tomography angiography. Dissections along the left anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery were performed by using Zeiss OPMI pico microscope and the length of the bridges were measured. The depths of the myocardial bridges were measured from the stained sections by using the light microscope (Leica DM 6000B). MBs were found in all 41 hearts (100%) during dissections. Dual-source computed tomography angiography successfully detected 87.8% (36 of the 41 hearts) of the myocardial bridges measured on left anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery. The lengths of the myocardial bridges were found 5-40 and 8-50 mm with dissection and dual-source computed tomography angiography, respectively. And the depths were found 0.7-4.5 mm by dual-source computed tomography angiography and 0.745-4.632 mm morphologically. Comparison of the mean values of the lengths showed statistically significantly higher values (22.0 ± 8.5, 17.7 ± 7.7 mm, p = 0.003) for the dissections. Radiological assessment also effectively discriminated complete bridges from incomplete ones. Our study showed that coronary computed tomography angiography is reliable in evaluating the presence and depth of myocardial bridges.

  20. AERIAL IMAGES FROM AN UAV SYSTEM: 3D MODELING AND TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION IN A PARK AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of aerial imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs is scheduled within the FoGLIE project (Fruition of Goods Landscape in Interactive Environment: it starts from the need to enhance the natural, artistic and cultural heritage, to produce a better usability of it by employing audiovisual movable systems of 3D reconstruction and to improve monitoring procedures, by using new media for integrating the fruition phase with the preservation ones. The pilot project focus on a test area, Parco Adda Nord, which encloses various goods' types (small buildings, agricultural fields and different tree species and bushes. Multispectral high resolution images were taken by two digital compact cameras: a Pentax Optio A40 for RGB photos and a Sigma DP1 modified to acquire the NIR band. Then, some tests were performed in order to analyze the UAV images' quality with both photogrammetric and photo-interpretation purposes, to validate the vector-sensor system, the image block geometry and to study the feasibility of tree species classification. Many pre-signalized Control Points were surveyed through GPS to allow accuracy analysis. Aerial Triangulations (ATs were carried out with photogrammetric commercial software, Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS and PhotoModeler, with manual or automatic selection of Tie Points, to pick out pros and cons of each package in managing non conventional aerial imagery as well as the differences in the modeling approach. Further analysis were done on the differences between the EO parameters and the corresponding data coming from the on board UAV navigation system.

  1. Laser Tracker Utilization Methodology in Measuring Truth Trajectories for INS Testing on 6 Degree of Freedom Table at the Marshall Space Flight Center's Contact Dynamics Simulation Laboratory with Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Jared O.; Bryant, Thomas C.; Cowen, Charles T.; Clifton, Billy W.

    2018-01-01

    When performing Inertial Navigation System (INS) testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Contact Dynamics Simulation Laboratory (CDSL) early in 2017, a Leica Geosystems AT901 Laser Tracker system (LLT) measured the twist & sway trajectories as generated by the 6 Degree Of Freedom (6DOF) Table in the CDSL. These LLT measured trajectories were used in the INS software model validation effort. Several challenges were identified and overcome during the preparation for the INS testing, as well as numerous lessons learned. These challenges included determining the position and attitude of the LLT with respect to an INS-shared coordinate frame using surveyed monument locations in the CDSL and the accompanying mathematical transformation, accurately measuring the spatial relationship between the INS and a 6DOF tracking probe due to lack of INS visibility from the LLT location, obtaining the data from the LLT during a test, determining how to process the results for comparison with INS data in time and frequency domains, and using a sensitivity analysis of the results to verify the quality of the results. While many of these challenges were identified and overcome before or during testing, a significant lesson on test set-up was not learned until later in the data analysis process. It was found that a combination of trajectory-dependent gimbal locking and environmental noise introduced non-negligible noise in the angular measurements of the LLT that spanned the evaluated frequency spectrum. The lessons learned in this experiment may be useful for others performing INS testing in similar testing facilities.

  2. A FAST AND FLEXIBLE METHOD FOR META-MAP BUILDING FOR ICP BASED SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in LiDAR sensors make mobile mapping fast and cost effective. These sensors generate a large amount of data which in turn improves the coverage and details of the map. Due to the limited range of the sensor, one has to collect a series of scans to build the entire map of the environment. If we have good GNSS coverage, building a map is a well addressed problem. But in an indoor environment, we have limited GNSS reception and an inertial solution, if available, can quickly diverge. In such situations, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM is used to generate a navigation solution and map concurrently. SLAM using point clouds possesses a number of computational challenges even with modern hardware due to the shear amount of data. In this paper, we propose two strategies for minimizing the cost of computation and storage when a 3D point cloud is used for navigation and real-time map building. We have used the 3D point cloud generated by Leica Geosystems's Pegasus Backpack which is equipped with Velodyne VLP-16 LiDARs scanners. To improve the speed of the conventional iterative closest point (ICP algorithm, we propose a point cloud sub-sampling strategy which does not throw away any key features and yet significantly reduces the number of points that needs to be processed and stored. In order to speed up the correspondence finding step, a dual kd-tree and circular buffer architecture is proposed. We have shown that the proposed method can run in real time and has excellent navigation accuracy characteristics.

  3. Visualization of target inspection data at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Daniel, E-mail: potter15@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Antipa, Nick, E-mail: antipa1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Target surfaces are measured using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Datasets are several gigabytes that consist of tens to hundreds of files. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Software tools that provide a high-level overview of the entire dataset. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single datasets loaded into the visualization session can be individually rotated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple datasets with common features are found then datasets can be aligned. - Abstract: As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the target capsules used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure capsule surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. These instruments produce multi-gigabyte datasets which consist of tens to hundreds of files. Existing software can handle viewing a small subset of an entire dataset, but none can view a dataset in its entirety. Additionally, without an established mode of transport that keeps the target capsules properly aligned throughout the assembly process, a means of aligning the two dataset coordinate systems is needed. The goal of this project is to develop web based software utilizing WebGL which will provide high level overview visualization of an entire dataset, with the capability to retrieve finer details on demand, in addition to facilitating alignment of multiple datasets with one another based on common features that have been visually identified by users of the system.

  4. Laser microdissection reveals that transcripts for five plant and one fungal phosphate transporter genes are contemporaneously present in arbusculated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Gómez-Ariza, Jorge; Lanfranco, Luisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-09-01

    The establishment of a symbiotic interaction between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi requires both partners to undergo significant morphological and physiological modifications which eventually lead to reciprocal beneficial effects. Extensive changes in gene expression profiles recently have been described in transcriptomic studies that have analyzed the whole mycorrhizal root. However, because root colonization by AM fungi involves different cell types, a cell-specific gene expression pattern is likely to occur. We have applied the laser microdissection (LMD) technology to investigate expression profiles of both plant and fungal genes in Lycopersicon esculentum roots colonized by Glomus mosseae. A protocol to harvest arbuscule-containing cells from paraffin sections of mycorrhizal roots has been developed using a Leica AS LMD system. RNA of satisfactory quantity and quality has been extracted for molecular analysis. Transcripts for plant phosphate transporters (LePTs), selected as molecular markers for a functional symbiosis, have been detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays and associated to distinct cell types, leading to novel insights into the distribution of LePT mRNAs. In fact, the transcripts of the five phosphate transporters (PTs) have been detected contemporaneously in the same arbusculated cell population, unlike from the neighboring noncolonized cells. In addition, fungal H(+)ATPase (GmHA5) and phosphate transporter (GmosPT) mRNAs were found exclusively in arbusculated cells. The discovery that five plant and one fungal PT genes are consistently expressed inside the arbusculated cells provides a new scenario for plant-fungus nutrient exchanges.

  5. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE MONUMENTAL TREE MONITORING BASED ON TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING - A CASE STUDY OF THE OAK BARTEK IN ZAGNAŃSK (POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wezyk Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In April 2013, the Laboratory of Geomatics launched the project under the acronym “Bartek 3D” in cooperation with the Research Section of Students from the AGH in Krakow, Pedagogical University and the Jagiellonian University as well. The main aim of the project is to monitor the biggest and probably one of the oldest treesin Poland - Oak Bartek in Zagnańsk (N 50o59’14”; E 20o38’59”, based on multi-temporal Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS technology. One of the results of the project should be a 3D model ofOak Bartek and detection of the changes in the shape of the tree. Terrestrial Laser Scanning and the traditional forest inventory measurements were performed during the Leaf-OFF season in April 2013 and April 2014 and repeated in Leaf-ON period in July 2013 and October 2014 with using scanners: FARO FOCUS 3D, RIEGL VZ-400, LEICA C10 and RevScan (HandyScan. The results based on TLS technology showed some differences comparing to existing data obtained by traditional measurements for forestry inventory: • Height (H of the tree: altimeter Vertex (Haglöf H = 29.31m; HTLS= 28.49 m; • Trunk circumference (L measured with stretched tape: LST = 9.80 m; adjacent along the shape of bark: LT= 13.70 m; TLS measurments: LTLS1/4 = 9.97 m and LRevScan= 13.54 m • The average diameter at breast height (DBH130cm calculated on the basis of 3D basal area of stem DBHTLS1/4 = 3.03 m (DBHT= 3.12 m.

  6. Effects of thyroxine on the migration of hippocampal neurons in newborn rat exposed to HTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Erpeng; Qiu Jun; Wang Yongsheng; Wu Cuiping; Yao Xiaobo; Wang Mingming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of thyroxine (TH) on the migration of hippocampal neurons in newborn rat exposed to tritiated water (HTO). Methods: The hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats were primarily cultured, 7 days later, randomly divided into control group, HTO group, TH group and HTO + TH group (3.7 × 10 5 Bq/ml HTO and 0.3 μg/ml TH were simultaneously added). After 24 h, the distance of neuronal migration was measured with Leica AF 6000, the expressions of BDNF and Reelin mRNA in neurons were analyzed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the expression of β-tubulin protein in neurons was assayed with Western blot and immunocytochemical staining. Results: Compared with control group, the expression of Reelin mRNA, BDNF mRNA and β-tubulin in HTO group were significantly reduced (t=5.80, 5.48, 5.47, P<0.01), but those in HTO + TH group and TH group were obviously increased (t=7.75, 12.06, 13.65, P<0.01; t=4.34, 5.47, 5.65, P<0.01) and higher than that in HTO group (t=2.92, 10.32, 8.76, P<0.01; t=18.07, 20.55, 40.13, P<0.01). Accordingly, the neuronal migration distance in HTO group was much shorter than that in control (t=8.62, P<0.01), and in HTO + TH group and TH group was far longer than that in control (t=7.64, 4.93, P<0.01). Moreover, the neuronal migration distance in HTO + TH group was notably elongated in comparison with that in HTO group (t=11.32, 12.31, P<0.01). Conclusions: Thyroxine may promote the migration of hippocampal neurons in newborn rat exposed to HTO. (authors)

  7. Macro- and micro- geodynamic of Terebliya-Riksk geodetic man-caused polygon of Ukrainian Carpathians influenced by specificities of structure-geological and hydro-geological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchyzkyy, A.; Serebryannyy, Y.; Tretyak, K.; Trevogo, I.; Zadoroznnyy, V.

    2009-04-01

    Terebliya-Riksk diversion power station is located on two levels ( with difference of 180m ) of south mountainside of Ukrainian Carpathians and separate parts of this power station lie inside rock. Therefore influential parameters of it's stability are geological, tectonic and hydrogeological conditions in complex. Monitoring of intensity and nature of displacements of flow ( pressure) pipe and other objects of power station with geoditic methods indicates that fluctuations of water-level in reservoir caused bouth by natural and artificial efects are of great influence on objects mentioned. Based on geodetical high-precision observations made by LeicaTPS 1201 robotic total station short-periodic components of fundamental vibrations which result in their destructive deformation were determined. Mathematical apparatus ( which uses function of Fourie series and theory of cinematic coefficients ) for displacements determinations of pressure pipe was disigned. Complex of engineering-geological surveys gave an opportunity to define the origin of macro- and micro- geodynamics movements of Terebliya-Riksk diversion power station region. Engineering-geological conditions which influence on power station structure most of all were determined as following : small foldings and cleavage areas appearances, also fluctuations of level of underground water (refered to hydrogeological conditions). Periodic micro-displacemets appearances ( which operate on reducing-stretching scheme) fixed on power station structure are turned to be in direct relation on to what exend reservoir is filled up. Permanent macro- displacements appearances ( which operates in north-west direction ) fixed on pressure pipe are the result sum of residual micro-displacements caused by return periodic movements and are determined by structure-geological, engineering-geological and tectonic conditions.

  8. Sensitivity and Specificity of Cardiac Tissue Discrimination Using Fiber-Optics Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Sachse, Frank B; Hitchcock, Robert W; Kaza, Aditya K

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances of the cardiac conduction system constitute a major risk after surgical repair of complex cases of congenital heart disease. Intraoperative identification of the conduction system may reduce the incidence of these disturbances. We previously developed an approach to identify cardiac tissue types using fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores. Here, we applied this approach to investigate sensitivity and specificity of human and automated classification in discriminating images of atrial working myocardium and specialized tissue of the conduction system. Two-dimensional image sequences from atrial working myocardium and nodal tissue of isolated perfused rodent hearts were acquired using a fiber-optics confocal microscope (Leica FCM1000). We compared two methods for local application of extracellular fluorophores: topical via pipette and with a dye carrier. Eight blinded examiners evaluated 162 randomly selected images of atrial working myocardium (n = 81) and nodal tissue (n = 81). In addition, we evaluated the images using automated classification. Blinded examiners achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 99.2 ± 0.3% and 98.0 ± 0.7%, respectively, with the dye carrier method of dye application. Sensitivity and specificity was similar for dye application via a pipette (99.2 ± 0.3% and 94.0 ± 2.4%, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity for automated methods of tissue discrimination were similarly high. Human and automated classification achieved high sensitivity and specificity in discriminating atrial working myocardium and nodal tissue. We suggest that our findings facilitate clinical translation of fiber-optics confocal microscopy as an intraoperative imaging modality to reduce the incidence of conduction disturbances during surgical correction of congenital heart disease.

  9. Shipborne LiDAR system for coastal change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, chang hwan; Park, chang hong; Kim, hyun wook; hyuck Kim, won; Lee, myoung hoon; Park, hyeon yeong

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas, used as human utilization areas like leisure space, medical care, ports and power plants, etc., are regions that are continuously changing and interconnected with oceans and land and the sea level has risen by about 8cm (1.9mm / yr) due to global warming from 1964 year to 2006 year in Korea. Coastal erosion due to sea-level rise has caused the problem of marine ecosystems and loss of tourism resources, etc. Regular monitoring of coastal erosion is essential at key locations with such volatility. But the survey method of land mobile LiDAR (light detection and ranging) system has much time consuming and many restrictions. For effective monitoring beach erosion, KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology) has constructed a shipborne mobile LiDAR system. The shipborne mobile LiDAR system comprised a land mobile LiDAR (RIEGL LMS-420i), an INS (inertial navigation system, MAGUS Inertial+), a RTKGPS (LEICA GS15 GS25), and a fixed platform. The shipborne mobile LiDAR system is much more effective than a land mobile LiDAR system in the measuring of fore shore areas without shadow zone. Because the vessel with the shipborne mobile LiDAR system is continuously moved along the shoreline, it is possible to efficiently survey a large area in a relatively short time. Effective monitoring of the changes using the constructed shipborne mobile LiDAR system for seriously eroded coastal areas will be able to contribute to coastal erosion management and response.

  10. An Approach to Maximize Weld Penetration During TIG Welding of P91 Steel Plates by Utilizing Image Processing and Taguchi Orthogonal Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Debnath, Tapas; Dey, Vidyut; Rai, Ram Naresh

    2017-10-01

    P-91 is modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Fabricated structures and components of P-91 has a lot of application in power and chemical industry owing to its excellent properties like high temperature stress corrosion resistance, less susceptibility to thermal fatigue at high operating temperatures. The weld quality and surface finish of fabricated structure of P91 is very good when welded by Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG). However, the process has its limitation regarding weld penetration. The success of a welding process lies in fabricating with such a combination of parameters that gives maximum weld penetration and minimum weld width. To carry out an investigation on the effect of the autogenous TIG welding parameters on weld penetration and weld width, bead-on-plate welds were carried on P91 plates of thickness 6 mm in accordance to a Taguchi L9 design. Welding current, welding speed and gas flow rate were the three control variables in the investigation. After autogenous (TIG) welding, the dimension of the weld width, weld penetration and weld area were successfully measured by an image analysis technique developed for the study. The maximum error for the measured dimensions of the weld width, penetration and area with the developed image analysis technique was only 2 % compared to the measurements of Leica-Q-Win-V3 software installed in optical microscope. The measurements with the developed software, unlike the measurements under a microscope, required least human intervention. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) confirms the significance of the selected parameters. Thereafter, Taguchi's method was successfully used to trade-off between maximum penetration and minimum weld width while keeping the weld area at a minimum.

  11. [Study on genetic instability of nm23H1 gene in Chinese with original gallbladder tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai Ying; Zhang, Guo Qiang; Li, Ji Cheng

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of locus D17S396 on chromosome 17 and their influence on the expression of nm23H1 in gallbladder tumors, which may provide experimental basis for the tumor occurrence and metastasis. Techniques such as DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), ordinary silver stain were used to study MSI and LOH of locus D17S396. Envision immunohistochemistry and Leica-Qwin computer imaging techniques were used to assess the expression of gene nm23H1. In our experiment, the frequency of genetic instability of malignant gallbladder tumors was 42.55%, which was higher than that of gallbladder adenomas, while there were no genetic instability occurred in chronic cholecystitis tissue. The frequency of LOH seemed higher with the deteriorism of gallbladder tumor. Among 47 gallbladder carcinomas, the frequency of LOH and MSI were different between different differentiation cases (P gallbladder carcinoma, gallbladder adenoma and chronic cholecystitis tissue were different (P gallbladder carcinomas, the positive frequency of nm23H1 protein in LOH positive group was lower than that of LOH negative group (P gallbladder tumor. Both MSI and LOH of nm23H1 gene controlled the development of gallbladder tumor independently in different paths. MSI may be an early stage molecule marker of gallbladder carcinoma. LOH may be molecule marker for the deteriorism of gallbladder tissue, which could inhibit the expression of nm23H1 in local tissue of gallbladder carcinoma and endow it with high aggressive and poor prognosis. Increasing the amount of nm23H1 protein expression could effectively restrain gallbladder carcinoma metastasis and improve prognosis of patients.

  12. Deformation analysis of LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, F.; Mayoud, M.; Quesnel, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    LEP (Large Electron Positron Collider) is in an underground accelerator, located in a tunnel of 27 km circumference and from 40 to 160 m deep. It is the largest accelerator in the world. The electrons and positrons circulate in opposite directions and hit each other in four points. The collisions are observed by means of detectors, housed in large underground caverns. Due to the sensitivity of such accelerators to alignment errors a complete leveling is made every year, followed by a 'smoothing' process - i.e. an optimal refinement of successive positions - which makes that the accelerator is kept operational with respect to misalignments. The annual leveling of LEP can be characterised as follows: - A quasi circle of 27 km circumference in tunnel; - Measurements with a LEICA NA3000 (σ = ± 0.4 mm/km, statistically ± 0.04 to ± 0.05 mm/station, at intervals of 39.5 m); - Maximum height difference of 120 m between the highest point and the lowest point; - Measured points: alignment reference targets of the quadrupole magnets (entrance and exit points); -800 quadrupole magnets, 1600 points to measure; - Cholesky method, with two independent traverses (forward/backward loops). The data processing is made by least squares, according to a free network concept. In addition, a smoothing procedure (successive fits within a sliding window) is also carried out after each annual leveling measurement, in the purpose of refining the successive positions and finding the points being vertically too far (more than 0.3 mm in general) from the local smoothing curve. These points are then brought physically on their smoothed position (realignment) in order to keep the vertical configuration of LEP as optimal as possible. Tilt (transverse slope) measurements are also taken during this realignment process, thus putting the corrected element back to its right transverse position and reducing the correlated radial movement associated to this defect. (authors)

  13. DEM ASSESSMENT DERIVED FROM CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY: A CASE STUDY FROM KADAVUR AREA, KARUR DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbarasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet. (Matthews, N.A, 2008. Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000 DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002. In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

  14. ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF CROWN DELINEATION METHODS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL TREES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy density and height are used as variables in a number of environmental applications, including the estimation of biomass, forest extent and condition, and biodiversity. The airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR is very useful to estimate forest canopy parameters according to the generated canopy height models (CHMs. The purpose of this work is to introduce an algorithm to delineate crown parameters, e.g. tree height and crown radii based on the generated rasterized CHMs. And accuracy assessment for the extraction of volumetric parameters of a single tree is also performed via manual measurement using corresponding aerial photo pairs. A LiDAR dataset of a golf course acquired by Leica ALS70-HP is used in this study. Two algorithms, i.e. a traditional one with the subtraction of a digital elevation model (DEM from a digital surface model (DSM, and a pit-free approach are conducted to generate the CHMs firstly. Then two algorithms, a multilevel morphological active-contour (MMAC and a variable window filter (VWF, are implemented and used in this study for individual tree delineation. Finally, experimental results of two automatic estimation methods for individual trees can be evaluated with manually measured stand-level parameters, i.e. tree height and crown diameter. The resulting CHM generated by a simple subtraction is full of empty pixels (called "pits" that will give vital impact on subsequent analysis for individual tree delineation. The experimental results indicated that if more individual trees can be extracted, tree crown shape will became more completely in the CHM data after the pit-free process.

  15. From Tls Survey to 3d Solid Modeling for Documentation of Built Heritage: the Case Study of Porta Savonarola in Padua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, A.; Fissore, F.; Masiero, A.; Vettore, A.

    2017-08-01

    It is a matter of fact that 3D visualisation and proper documentation of cultural objects helps to preserve the history and memories of historic buildings, archaeological sites and cultural landscapes, and supports economic growth by stimulating cultural tourism. Preservation, visualisation and recreation of valuable historical and architectural objects and places has always been a serious challenge for specialists in the field. Today, the rapid developments in the fields of close-range photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and computer vision (CV) enable to carry out highly accurate 3D models so as to be extremely effective and intuitive for users who have stringent requirements and high expectations. In this note we present the results of the survey and 3D modeling of an ancient gate, Porta Savonarola, located within the remains of the medieval town walls surrounding the historical city center of Padua, Italy. The work has been undertaken within the framework of the project "Walls Multimedia Museum" (WMM) promoted by the local private association "Padua Walls Committee". The goal of the project was to develop a prototype of an "extended" virtual museum, spreaded along most interesting locations of the town walls. The survey of the ancient gate was performed with a Leica C10 and P20 terrestrial laser scanners. Once the acquired scans were properly merged together, a solid model was generated from the global point cloud, and plans and elevations were extracted from it for restoration purposes. A short multimedia video was also created for the "Walls Multimedia Museum", showing both the outer and inner part of the gate. In the paper we will discuss all the steps and challenges addressed to provide the 3D solid model of Porta Savonarola from the TLS data.

  16. Comparison of glacier loss on Qori Kalis, Peru and Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania over the last decade using digital photogrammetry and stereo analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamantia, K.

    2017-12-01

    Rising global temperatures have created cause for concern, particularly among those who study the world's glaciers. Given their high sensitivity to climate change tropical glaciers can be used not only as indicators of change but can provide information necessary for more accurate interpretations of the mechanisms driving climate change. In the past, measurements of glacier extent changes such as for the Qori Kalis Glacier in Peru have been based on terrestrial photography and hand-plotted photogrammetry. Recent technological advances now provide an opportunity to modify the way these glaciers are observed and measured. New developments have opened doors for digital photogrammetry software such as the Leica Photogrammetry Suite and stereo analyst from ERDAS, which offers stereoscopic tools with the ability to plot the ice extent in a three dimensional image. At least two images from different perspectives are required to create the file for stereo analysis. The resulting three-dimensional digital content will offer more flexibility in analysis, quantification, and visualization for better documentation of retreating glaciers. It is possible to produce both two-and three-dimensional surface area estimations for glaciers such as Qori Kalis and the Kilimanjaro ice fields. Beyond a surface area measurement, the software also possesses the capability to create contours for the surface of the glacier as well as view and analyze properties such as slope and aspect. The surface area measurements taken with the digital method are compared with the hand-plotted measurements made in the past and are found to be comparable. A comparison of glacier loss over time as well as a comparison between both tropical locations, will be presented and should provide better insight to the drivers that are influencing current glacier loss. Making the transition from terrestrial, to aerial, and now to satellite imagery provides a simpler method for accessing and assessing changes in

  17. Selected Problems of Determining the Course of Railway Routes by Use of GPS Network Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Władysław; Specht, Cezary

    2011-09-01

    The main problem related to railroad surveying design and its maintenance is the necessity to operate in local geodetic reference systems caused by the long rail sections with straight lines and curvatures of the running edge. Due to that reason the geodetic railroad classical surveying methods requires to divide all track for a short measurement section and that caused additional errors. Development of the Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning methods operating in the standardized World Geodetic System (WGS-84) allowed verification of capability of utilization GPS measurements for railroad surveying. It can be stated that implemented satellite measurement techniques opens a whole new perspective on applied research and enables very precise determination of data for railway line determining, modernization and design. The research works focused on implementation GNSS multi-receivers measurement positioning platform for projecting and stock-taking working based on polish active geodesic network ASG-EUPOS, as a reference frame. In order to eliminate the influence of random measurement errors and to obtain the coordinates representing the actual shape of the track few campaigns were realized in 2009 and 2010. Leica GPS Total station system 1200 SmartRover (with ATX1230 GG antennas) receivers were located in the diameter of the measurement platform. Polish Active Geodetic Network ASG-EUPOS was used as a reference network transmitted Real Time Kinematic Positioning Service according to RTCM 3.1 standard. Optimum time period were selected for GNSS campaign and testing area was chosen without large obstructions. The article presents some surveying results of the measurement campaigns and also discusses the accuracy of the course determination. Analyzes and implementation of results in railroad design process are also discussed.

  18. MORPHO-BATHYMETRIC PARAMETERS OF RECESS CRUCII LAKE (STÂNIŞOAREI MOUNTAINS

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    ALIN MIHU-PINTILIE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Morpho-bathymetric parameters of recess Crucii Lake (Stânişoarei Mountains. Crucii Lake from Stânişoarei Mountains was formed in 1978 as a result of riverbed dam Cuejdel after a landslide triggered on the western slope of Muncelul Peak. The event led initially to a small accumulation of 250-300 acvatoriu m, 25-30 m wide and 4-5 m maximum depth. In the summer of 1991 following the construction of a forest road in the flysch, and amid a high humid conditions, the slide was reactivated, leading to the formation of the largest natural dam lake in Romania. It has a length of 1 km, area of 12.2 ha, maximum depth of 16 m and a water volume of ca. 907.000 m3. Morphometric and morpho-bathymetric measurements performed in the summer of 2011, with the help of the integrated 1.200 GPS of Station Leica System 1.200 surveying measurements and bathymetric measurements Valeyport Ecosounder Midas showed new values for the morpho-bathymetric parameters. Among them stands out: 13,95 ha area, perimeter 2801,1 m, maximum length of 1004,82 m, 282,6 m maximum width, maximum depth 16,45 m. To achieve the numerical model of the lake basin were more than 45.000 points bali reading, with equidistance of 0,25 m. The scale of detail work aimed to draw up a proper database to eliminate suspicions about the old analytical methods inaccuracies. At the same time was studied the evolution of the lake’s basin in the context of relatively recent geomorphological changes.

  19. Test field for airborne laser scanning in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahokas, E.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Litkey, P.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely spread operational measurement tool for obtaining 3D coordinates of the ground surface. There is a need for calibrating the ALS system and a test field for ALS was established at the end of 2013. The test field is situated in the city of Lahti, about 100 km to the north of Helsinki. The size of the area is approximately 3.5 km × 3.2 km. Reference data was collected with a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system assembled on a car roof. Some streets were measured both ways and most of them in one driving direction only. The MLS system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) consists of a navigation system (NovAtel SPAN GNSS-IMU) and a laser scanner (FARO Focus3D 120). In addition to the MLS measurements more than 800 reference points were measured using a Trimble R8 VRS-GNSS system. Reference points are along the streets, on parking lots, and white pedestrian crossing line corners which can be used as reference targets. The National Land Survey of Finland has already used this test field this spring for calibrating their Leica ALS-70 scanner. Especially it was easier to determine the encoder scale factor parameter using this test field. Accuracy analysis of the MLS points showed that the point height RMSE is 2.8 cm and standard deviation is 2.6 cm. Our purpose is to measure both more MLS data and more reference points in the test field area to get a better spatial coverage. Calibration flight heights are planned to be 1000 m and 2500 m above ground level. A cross pattern, southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, will be flown both in opposite directions.

  20. ANALYZING SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHADOW AREA FROM ADS-40 HIGH RADIOMETRIC RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGES

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    Y.-T. Hsieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40 is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  1. GIS for the needs of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority

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    Jitka Mikšová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA is a state organisation responsible for the management of activities related to the disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel classed as a waste in Czech Republic. Worldwide, a deep geological repository is considered the highest degree of safety for a nuclear waste disposal. Such a repository has to be built in a stable geological environment ensuring the isolation of the stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment for a long period of time. The selection of suitable site for the deep geological repository construction is a complicated and long term process. Considering this fact and also in respect to an assumed volume of varied datasets the GIS RAWRA was established to ensure convenient management and availability of data containing spatial information.The system is based on ESRI (ArcInfo including extensions, ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Leica Geosystems (Image Analysis and Microsoft software (MS SQL Server. Resulting datasets from six recommended potentially suitable sites for the location of a geological repository have been incorporated into the geodatabase to date. The necessary analysis was made using ESRI software tools and, in addition, custom applications were developed including the metadata editor, etc. This analysis was carried out with respect to existing geological and non-geological criteria defined for a nuclear waste repository. Finally, all six investigated sites with a total area of 240 km2 were reduced in area, each of them resulting in an area of approximately 10km2 for further detailed characterisation.

  2. A Comparative Study of Precise Point Positioning (PPP Accuracy Using Online Services

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    Malinowski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a technique used to determine the position of receiver antenna without communication with the reference station. It may be an alternative solution to differential measurements, where maintaining a connection with a single RTK station or a regional network of reference stations RTN is necessary. This situation is especially common in areas with poorly developed infrastructure of ground stations. A lot of research conducted so far on the use of the PPP technique has been concerned about the development of entire day observation sessions. However, this paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of accuracy of absolute determination of position from observations which last between 1 to 7 hours with the use of four permanent services which execute calculations with PPP technique such as: Automatic Precise Positioning Service (APPS, Canadian Spatial Reference System Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP, GNSS Analysis and Positioning Software (GAPS and magicPPP - Precise Point Positioning Solution (magicGNSS. On the basis of acquired results of measurements, it can be concluded that at least two-hour long measurements allow acquiring an absolute position with an accuracy of 2-4 cm. An evaluation of the impact on the accuracy of simultaneous positioning of three points test network on the change of the horizontal distance and the relative height difference between measured triangle vertices was also conducted. Distances and relative height differences between points of the triangular test network measured with a laser station Leica TDRA6000 were adopted as references. The analyses of results show that at least two hours long measurement sessions can be used to determine the horizontal distance or the difference in height with an accuracy of 1-2 cm. Rapid products employed in calculations conducted with PPP technique reached the accuracy of determining coordinates on a close level as in elaborations which employ

  3. Innovazione tecnologica e sinergie tra soluzioni geospaziali Lo "scenario Intergraph" (Parte Seconda

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    Andrea Fiduccia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Continua in quest'articolo la descrizione delle soluzioni geospatial del nuovo scenario Intergraph che si sta delineando a seguito della fusione di molti player del settore della geomatica al'interno del gruppo Hexagon AB. La prima parte di questo articolo è stata pubblicata su GEOmedia 4/2011.Technological  innovation  and  synergies  between  geospatial solutions. The "Intergraph's scenario". 2nd Part.In  October  2010,  Intergraph  was  acquired  by  and  is  now  a wholly owned subsidiary of Hexagon AB. Hexagon is a lead-ing global provider of precision measurement technology sys-tems. Intergraph Security, Government & Infrastructure (SG&I provides geospatially powered solutions to the public safety and  security,  defense  and  intelligence,  government,  trans-portation, utilities, and communications industries. Now since ERDAS is part of Intergraph,  Intergraph provides integrated products for remote sensing, photogrammetry, and geospatial data management and delivery. Using Leica sensors and tech-nologies enhanced by Intergraph-ERDAS software technolo-gies, IMoSS (another company of HEXAGON AB is a reliable partner  when  it  is  needed  to  monitor,  analyse  and  visualise movements  at  millimetre  level  accuracy  and  to  trasform  the monitoring data into actionable intelligence.

  4. Innovazione tecnologica e sinergie tra soluzioni geospaziali Lo "scenario Intergraph" (Parte Seconda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fiduccia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Continua in quest'articolo la descrizione delle soluzioni geospatial del nuovo scenario Intergraph che si sta delineando a seguito della fusione di molti player del settore della geomatica al'interno del gruppo Hexagon AB. La prima parte di questo articolo è stata pubblicata su GEOmedia 4/2011. Technological  innovation  and  synergies  between  geospatial solutions. The "Intergraph's scenario". 2nd Part. In  October  2010,  Intergraph  was  acquired  by  and  is  now  a wholly owned subsidiary of Hexagon AB. Hexagon is a lead-ing global provider of precision measurement technology sys-tems. Intergraph Security, Government & Infrastructure (SG&I provides geospatially powered solutions to the public safety and  security,  defense  and  intelligence,  government,  trans-portation, utilities, and communications industries. Now since ERDAS is part of Intergraph,  Intergraph provides integrated products for remote sensing, photogrammetry, and geospatial data management and delivery. Using Leica sensors and tech-nologies enhanced by Intergraph-ERDAS software technolo-gies, IMoSS (another company of HEXAGON AB is a reliable partner  when  it  is  needed  to  monitor,  analyse  and  visualise movements  at  millimetre  level  accuracy  and  to  trasform  the monitoring data into actionable intelligence.

  5. Water content determination of soil surface in an intensive apple orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riczu, Péter; Nagy, Gábor; Tamás, János

    2015-04-01

    Currently in Hungary, less than 100,000 hectares of orchards can be found, from which cultivation of apple is one of the most dominant ones. Production of marketable horticulture products can be difficult without employing advanced and high quality horticulture practices, which, in turn, depends on appropriate management and irrigation systems, basically. The got out water amount depend on climatic, edafic factors and the water demand of plants as well. The soil water content can be determined by traditional and modern methods. In order to define soil moisture content, gravimetry measurement is one of the most accurate methods, but it is time consuming and sometimes soil sampling and given results are in different times. Today, IT provides the farmers such tools, like global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). These tools develop in a great integration rapidly. RS methods are ideal to survey larger area quick and accurate. Laser scanning is a novel technique which analyses a real-world or object environment to collect structural and spectral data. In order to obtain soil moisture information, the Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial 3D laser scanner was used on an intensive apple orchard on the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, near Pallag. Previously, soil samples from the study area with different moisture content were used as reference points. Based on the return intensity values of the laser scanner can be distinguished the different moisture content areas of soil surface. Nevertheless, the error of laser distance echo were examined and statistically evaluated. This research was realized in the frames of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 "National Excellence Program - Elaborating and operating an inland student and researcher personal support system". The project was subsidized by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  6. Contribution of glomerular morphometry to the diagnosis of pediatric nephropathies

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    Mariana Barreto Marini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies describe histopathological changes in renal biopsies performed in pediatric patients. This study was conducted to identify an association between morphometric data in renal biopsies and renal function of these patients. Fifty-nine individuals with ages between 2 and 18 years old were selected, who were divided into six groups consisting of frequent nephropathies in children and adolescents and one control group. Proteinuria, urea, and creatinine values of the patients were recorded. Interactive image analysis software Leica QWin[®]was used for morpho- metric analysis of Bowman′s capsule, glomerular capillary tuft, and Bowman′s space area. The mean glomerular tuft area was higher in the membranous glomerulopathy group than in the podo- cytopathy group (57,101 ± 25,094 vs. 27,420 c ± 6279 µm2; P <0.05. The median of Bowman′s space area was higher in the control group than in the podocytopathy group and in the thin basement membrane/Alport syndrome group [12,210 (7676-26,945 vs. 5801 (3031-7852 µm2; P <0.01 and 12210 (7676-26,945 vs. 4183 (3797-7992 µm2; P <0.01, respectively]. There was a positive and significant correlation between Bowman′s capsule area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea of the patients, as well as between the glomerular tuft area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea in the patients, regardless of their nephropathy. Glomerular morphometry may contribute to the diagnosis of some glomerulopathies and the association between glomerular morphometric parameters, and laboratory data may promote a better understanding of the prognosis of these patients.

  7. Inclusão de material herborizado em metacrilato para estudos de anatomia vegetal

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    Meira Renata Maria Strozi Alves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As técnicas usuais empregadas no processamento de materiais herborizados são limitantes porque não permitem reproduzir um laminário permanente e porque o registro dos resultados é temporário. Em estudos de anatomia aplicada à taxonomia, muitas vezes, é necessário utilizar exsicatas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo testar a utilização de metacrilato (Historesin, Leica na preparação e inclusão de material herborizado, visando a obtenção de laminário permanente. Foram utilizadas folhas de plantas herborizadas do gênero Senecio Tourn. ex L. (Asteraceae, previamente reidratadas em H2O e armazenadas em etanol 70%. As amostras foram desidratadas em série etanólica e submetidas à (1v:1v mistura de AE 95% e resina pura. Durante a infiltração, com resina pura, o material foi submetido a vácuo durante 72 horas. Os blocos foram cortados em micrótomo de avanço automático, com navalhas de aço descartáveis, e os cortes foram corados com azul-de-toluidina (pH 4,0. As lâminas foram montadas em Permount. O laminário permanente obtido apresentou qualidade superior à dos produzidos pelas técnicas usuais, pois foi possível obter cortes seriados, com espessura determinada. Essa técnica possibilitou otimizar a obtenção de cortes, a partir de pequenos fragmentos de exsicatas.

  8. Avulsion research using flume experiments and highly accurate and temporal-rich SfM datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javernick, L.; Bertoldi, W.; Vitti, A.

    2017-12-01

    SfM's ability to produce high-quality, large-scale digital elevation models (DEMs) of complicated and rapidly evolving systems has made it a valuable technique for low-budget researchers and practitioners. While SfM has provided valuable datasets that capture single-flood event DEMs, there is an increasing scientific need to capture higher temporal resolution datasets that can quantify the evolutionary processes instead of pre- and post-flood snapshots. However, flood events' dangerous field conditions and image matching challenges (e.g. wind, rain) prevent quality SfM-image acquisition. Conversely, flume experiments offer opportunities to document flood events, but achieving consistent and accurate DEMs to detect subtle changes in dry and inundated areas remains a challenge for SfM (e.g. parabolic error signatures).This research aimed at investigating the impact of naturally occurring and manipulated avulsions on braided river morphology and on the encroachment of floodplain vegetation, using laboratory experiments. This required DEMs with millimeter accuracy and precision and at a temporal resolution to capture the processes. SfM was chosen as it offered the most practical method. Through redundant local network design and a meticulous ground control point (GCP) survey with a Leica Total Station in red laser configuration (reported 2 mm accuracy), the SfM residual errors compared to separate ground truthing data produced mean errors of 1.5 mm (accuracy) and standard deviations of 1.4 mm (precision) without parabolic error signatures. Lighting conditions in the flume were limited to uniform, oblique, and filtered LED strips, which removed glint and thus improved bed elevation mean errors to 4 mm, but errors were further reduced by means of an open source software for refraction correction. The obtained datasets have provided the ability to quantify how small flood events with avulsion can have similar morphologic and vegetation impacts as large flood events

  9. Study into Point Cloud Geometric Rigidity and Accuracy of TLS-Based Identification of Geometric Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemyslaw; Mitka, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    Capability of obtaining a multimillion point cloud in a very short time has made the Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) a widely used tool in many fields of science and technology. The TLS accuracy matches traditional devices used in land surveying (tacheometry, GNSS - RTK), but like any measurement it is burdened with error which affects the precise identification of objects based on their image in the form of a point cloud. The point’s coordinates are determined indirectly by means of measuring the angles and calculating the time of travel of the electromagnetic wave. Each such component has a measurement error which is translated into the final result. The XYZ coordinates of a measuring point are determined with some uncertainty and the very accuracy of determining these coordinates is reduced as the distance to the instrument increases. The paper presents the results of examination of geometrical stability of a point cloud obtained by means terrestrial laser scanner and accuracy evaluation of solids determined using the cloud. Leica P40 scanner and two different settings of measuring points were used in the tests. The first concept involved placing a few balls in the field and then scanning them from various sides at similar distances. The second part of measurement involved placing balls and scanning them a few times from one side but at varying distances from the instrument to the object. Each measurement encompassed a scan of the object with automatic determination of its position and geometry. The desk studies involved a semiautomatic fitting of solids and measurement of their geometrical elements, and comparison of parameters that determine their geometry and location in space. The differences of measures of geometrical elements of balls and translations vectors of the solids centres indicate the geometrical changes of the point cloud depending on the scanning distance and parameters. The results indicate the changes in the geometry of scanned objects

  10. A field study of the geomorphic effects of sublimating CO2 blocks on dune slopes at Coral Pink Dunes, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Mary; Nield, Jo; Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candy; McElwaine, Jim

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal sublimation of CO2 ice is an active driver of present-day surface change on Mars. Diniega et al (2013) proposed that a discrete type of Martian gully, found on southern hemisphere dunes, were formed by the movement of CO2 seasonal ice blocks. These 'Linear Gullies' consist primarily of long (100 m - 2.5 km) grooves with near-uniform width (few-10 m wide), and typical depth of nudge it moved downslope. The dynamics of the block movement were recorded using a pair of high resolution video cameras. Geomorphological observations were noted and topographic change was quantified using a Leica P20 terrestrial laser scanner with a resolution of 0.8 mm at 10 m, and change detection limits less than 3 mm. The block run was repeated a total of 10 times and launched from the same location at the dune brink. The experiment ran for 45 minutes. The block size was reduced to (45 x 190 x 195 mm) by the end of the run series. The resultant geomorphology shows that the separate block runs occupied different tracks leading to a triangular plan form shape with a maximum width of 3.5 m. This is different from the findings in Arizona where a narrower track span was recorded (1.7m) (Bourke et al, 2016). Similar block dynamics were observed at both sites (as blocks moved straight, swiveled and bounced downslope). Distinctive pits with arcuate rims on their downslope edge were formed where blocks bounced on the surface. These pits are at an almost equidistant spacing. Despite a longer slope (16 m as opposed to 8m at Grand Falls), no depositional apron was formed. Levee development was less consistent compared to the Arizona site, but a pronounced unpaired-levee formed towards the base of the lee slope. These data show that sublimating blocks of CO2 ice leave signatures of transport paths and are capable of eroding and transporting sediment. Diniega,S. et al (2013) A new dry hypothesis for the formation of Martian linear gullies. Icarus. Vol. 225, 1, p. 526-537. Bourke, M.C. et

  11. Technical note on the validation of a semi-automated image analysis software application for estrogen and progesterone receptor detection in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The immunohistochemical detection of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors in breast cancer is routinely used for prognostic and predictive testing. Whole slide digitalization supported by dedicated software tools allows quantization of the image objects (e.g. cell membrane, nuclei) and an unbiased analysis of immunostaining results. Validation studies of image analysis applications for the detection of ER and PR in breast cancer specimens provided strong concordance between the pathologist's manual assessment of slides and scoring performed using different software applications. Methods The effectiveness of two connected semi-automated image analysis software (NuclearQuant v. 1.13 application for Pannoramic™ Viewer v. 1.14) for determination of ER and PR status in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded breast cancer specimens immunostained with the automated Leica Bond Max system was studied. First the detection algorithm was calibrated to the scores provided an independent assessors (pathologist), using selected areas from 38 small digital slides (created from 16 cases) containing a mean number of 195 cells. Each cell was manually marked and scored according to the Allred-system combining frequency and intensity scores. The performance of the calibrated algorithm was tested on 16 cases (14 invasive ductal carcinoma, 2 invasive lobular carcinoma) against the pathologist's manual scoring of digital slides. Results The detection was calibrated to 87 percent object detection agreement and almost perfect Total Score agreement (Cohen's kappa 0.859, quadratic weighted kappa 0.986) from slight or moderate agreement at the start of the study, using the un-calibrated algorithm. The performance of the application was tested against the pathologist's manual scoring of digital slides on 53 regions of interest of 16 ER and PR slides covering all positivity ranges, and the quadratic weighted kappa provided almost perfect agreement (κ = 0.981) among the two

  12. Virtual slides in peer reviewed, open access medical publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of virtual slides (VS, the digitalization of complete glass slides, is in its infancy to be implemented in routine diagnostic surgical pathology and to issues that are related to tissue-based diagnosis, such as education and scientific publication. Approach Electronic publication in Pathology offers new features of scientific communication in pathology that cannot be obtained by conventional paper based journals. Most of these features are based upon completely open or partly directed interaction between the reader and the system that distributes the article. One of these interactions can be applied to microscopic images allowing the reader to navigate and magnify the presented images. VS and interactive Virtual Microscopy (VM are a tool to increase the scientific value of microscopic images. Technology and Performance The open access journal Diagnostic Pathology http://www.diagnosticpathology.org has existed for about five years. It is a peer reviewed journal that publishes all types of scientific contributions, including original scientific work, case reports and review articles. In addition to digitized still images the authors of appropriate articles are requested to submit the underlying glass slides to an institution (DiagnomX.eu, and Leica.com for digitalization and documentation. The images are stored in a separate image data bank which is adequately linked to the article. The normal review process is not involved. Both processes (peer review and VS acquisition are performed contemporaneously in order to minimize a potential publication delay. VS are not provided with a DOI index (digital object identifier. The first articles that include VS were published in March 2011. Results and Perspectives Several logistic constraints had to be overcome until the first articles including VS could be published. Step by step an automated acquisition and distribution system had to be implemented to the corresponding

  13. A Novel Methodology to Estimate Single-Tree Biophysical Parameters from 3D Digital Imagery Compared to Aerial Laser Scanner Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Hernández-Clemente

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanner (ALS data provide an enhanced capability to remotely map two key variables in forestry: leaf area index (LAI and tree height (H. Nevertheless, the cost, complexity and accessibility of this technology are not yet suited for meeting the broad demands required for estimating and frequently updating forest data. Here we demonstrate the capability of alternative solutions based on the use of low-cost color infrared (CIR cameras to estimate tree-level parameters, providing a cost-effective solution for forest inventories. ALS data were acquired with a Leica ALS60 laser scanner and digital aerial imagery (DAI was acquired with a consumer-grade camera modified for color infrared detection and synchronized with a GPS unit. In this paper we evaluate the generation of a DAI-based canopy height model (CHM from imagery obtained with low-cost CIR cameras using structure from motion (SfM and spatial interpolation methods in the context of a complex canopy, as in forestry. Metrics were calculated from the DAI-based CHM and the DAI-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the estimation of tree height and LAI, respectively. Results were compared with the models estimated from ALS point cloud metrics. Field measurements of tree height and effective leaf area index (LAIe were acquired from a total of 200 and 26 trees, respectively. Comparable accuracies were obtained in the tree height and LAI estimations using ALS and DAI data independently. Tree height estimated from DAI-based metrics (Percentile 90 (P90 and minimum height (MinH yielded a coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.71 and a root mean square error (RMSE = 0.71 m while models derived from ALS-based metrics (P90 yielded an R2 = 0.80 and an RMSE = 0.55 m. The estimation of LAI from DAI-based NDVI using Percentile 99 (P99 yielded an R2 = 0.62 and an RMSE = 0.17 m2/m−2. A comparative analysis of LAI estimation using ALS-based metrics (laser penetration index

  14. Corrosive and cytotoxic properties of compact specimens and microparticles of Ni-Cr dental alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Ljubisa; Vucevic, Dragana; Radovic, Ljubica; Djordjevic, Snezana; Nikacevic, Milutin; Colic, Miodrag

    2014-04-01

    Nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) dental alloys have been widely used in prosthodontic practice, but there is a permanent concern about their biocompatibility due to the release of metal ions. This is especially important when Ni-Cr metal microparticles are incorporated into gingival tissue during prosthodontic procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine and compare the corrosion and cytotoxic properties of compact specimens and microparticles of Ni-Cr dental alloy. Ni-Cr alloy, Remanium CSe bars (4 mm diameter), were made by the standard casting method and then cut into 0.5-mm-thick disks. Metal particles were obtained by scraping the bars using a diamond instrument for crown preparation. The microstructure was observed by an optical microscope. Quantitative determination and morphological and dimensional characterization of metal particles were carried out by a scanning electron microscope and Leica Application Suite software for image analysis. Corrosion was studied by conditioning the alloy specimens in the RPMI 1640 medium, containing 10% fetal calf serum in an incubator with 5% CO2 for 72 hours at 37°C. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to assess metal ion release. The cytotoxity of conditioning medium (CM) was investigated on L929 cells using an MTT test. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. After casting, the microstructure of the Remanium CSe compact specimen composed of Ni, Cr, Mo, Si, Fe, Al, and Co had a typical dendritic structure. Alloy microparticles had an irregular shape with a wide size range: from less than 1 μm to more than 100 μm. The release of metal ions, especially Ni and Mo from microparticles, was significantly higher, compared to the compact alloy specimen. The CM prepared from compact alloy was not cytotoxic at any tested dilutions, whereas CM from alloy microparticles showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity (90% CM and 45% CM versus control; p alloy. This could affect health on long

  15. Geologic and Geophysicsal Studies of Natural Hazards and Risks in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Shcherbakov, Viktor; Motychko, Viktor; Slinchenkov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Georgy; Kotov, Sergey; Kartashov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The area of the Gulf of Peter the Great is socially, economically and culturally one of the most important regions for the Russian Far East. At the same time, there have been reported palpable natural hazards, which pose a real threat to local infrastructure. Complex field team of the Gramaberg VNIIOkeangeologia institute carried out geological and geophysical studies of natural hazards in the water area and coastal zone of the gulf in the summer and autumn of 2012. The research program included - geodetic deformation monitoring of the coastal zone by the HDS 3000 Leica tachometer; - echo sounding of the underwater part of the coastal slope by the LCX-37C depth sounder equipped with active external 12-channel GPS Lowrance antenna LGC-3000; - high-frequency acoustic profiling by GeoPulse Subbotom Profilier with oscillator frequency of 12.2 kHz for the study of bottom sediments to a depth of 40 m; - hydromagnetic measurements by SeaSPY Marine Magnetics magnetometer for investigation of deep geological structure; - sonar measurements by GEO SM C-MAX, 325 kHz frequency emitters for studying seafloor features; - studies of the water column (sensing and sampling); - bottom sediment sampling. Analytic work was performed by mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gamma spectrometry and included the following. For water - the content of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg in solution and in suspension, polycyclic aromatic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, oil, methane. For sediments - grade analysis, mineralogical analysis of sand, determination of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg content; identification of petroleum products, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the specific activity of Cs-137. As a result, a set of geological maps was composed: maps of pre-Quaternary and Quaternary rocks and deposits, lithological map, geomorphological map, map of engineering

  16. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  17. Performance evaluation of laser guided leveler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hoque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI farm on clay loam soil during Rabi season of 2010-2011. The treatments consisted of laser land leveling (T1 and control (non-leveled (T2. A preliminary field survey was done using staff gage. Initially a base station was established to dispense laser ray uniformly. The laser ray erected from base station guided the sensor of the stuff gage and the leveler. Elevation data was collected from the different points of the field and made an average. The maximum gage reading were 247.0 cm and the minimum gage reading was 219.2 cm. Average gage readings of the laser leveled plot was 235.66 cm that was settled for auto adjustment. Therefore, huge amount of soils (16.46 cm high was cut from the highest point and subsequently had to fill to the low points. Finally, an equal gage reading of 235.66 cm was observed after leveling the plot. The laser leveler (Leica MLS700 was used hitching with a TAFE tractor. The field was leveled with manual control initially and finally it was operated with auto adjustment. Two operators, 25 litter diesels and total 6 hours time were required during this leveling. Wheat was cultivated in leveled land (T1 and non-leveled land (T2. Laser leveling was insured for improvement in nutrient use efficiencies, option for precision farming, reduces weed problems, and improves uniformity of crop maturity. There was better distribution of water in leveled plot, which helped to reduce irrigation application time 1 hour. Due to uniformity of moisture content improved germination and crop establishment was found which reflected in higher plant population (239 m-2. Maximum yield (3.41 t ha-1 was obtained in T1 due to longer panicle (10.89 cm, more grain per plant (27.47 and 1000 grain weight (47.38 g compared to yield of T2 (2.62 t ha-1.

  18. Multi-GNSS phase delay estimation and PPP ambiguity resolution: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Keke; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wickert, Jens

    2018-06-01

    This paper focuses on the precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR) using the observations acquired from four systems: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo (GCRE). A GCRE four-system uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation model and multi-GNSS undifferenced PPP AR method were developed in order to utilize the observations from all systems. For UPD estimation, the GCRE-combined PPP solutions of the globally distributed MGEX and IGS stations are performed to obtain four-system float ambiguities and then UPDs of GCRE satellites can be precisely estimated from these ambiguities. The quality of UPD products in terms of temporal stability and residual distributions is investigated for GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo satellites, respectively. The BDS satellite-induced code biases were corrected for GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites before the UPD estimation. The UPD results of global and regional networks were also evaluated for Galileo and BDS, respectively. As a result of the frequency-division multiple-access strategy of GLONASS, the UPD estimation was performed using a network of homogeneous receivers including three commonly used GNSS receivers (TRIMBLE NETR9, JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA, and LEICA). Data recorded from 140 MGEX and IGS stations for a 30-day period in January in 2017 were used to validate the proposed GCRE UPD estimation and multi-GNSS dual-frequency PPP AR. Our results show that GCRE four-system PPP AR enables the fastest time to first fix (TTFF) solutions and the highest accuracy for all three coordinate components compared to the single and dual system. An average TTFF of 9.21 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation angle can be achieved for GCRE PPP AR, which is much shorter than that of GPS (18.07 min), GR (12.10 min), GE (15.36 min) and GC (13.21 min). With observations length of 10 min, the positioning accuracy of the GCRE fixed solution is 1.84, 1.11, and 1.53 cm, while the GPS-only result is 2.25, 1.29, and 9.73 cm for the east, north, and vertical

  19. Digital immunohistochemistry platform for the staining variation monitoring based on integration of image and statistical analyses with laboratory information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurinaviciene, Aida; Plancoulaine, Benoit; Baltrusaityte, Indra; Meskauskas, Raimundas; Besusparis, Justinas; Lesciute-Krilaviciene, Daiva; Raudeliunas, Darius; Iqbal, Yasir; Herlin, Paulette; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

    2014-01-01

    Digital immunohistochemistry (IHC) is one of the most promising applications brought by new generation image analysis (IA). While conventional IHC staining quality is monitored by semi-quantitative visual evaluation of tissue controls, IA may require more sensitive measurement. We designed an automated system to digitally monitor IHC multi-tissue controls, based on SQL-level integration of laboratory information system with image and statistical analysis tools. Consecutive sections of TMA containing 10 cores of breast cancer tissue were used as tissue controls in routine Ki67 IHC testing. Ventana slide label barcode ID was sent to the LIS to register the serial section sequence. The slides were stained and scanned (Aperio ScanScope XT), IA was performed by the Aperio/Leica Colocalization and Genie Classifier/Nuclear algorithms. SQL-based integration ensured automated statistical analysis of the IA data by the SAS Enterprise Guide project. Factor analysis and plot visualizations were performed to explore slide-to-slide variation of the Ki67 IHC staining results in the control tissue. Slide-to-slide intra-core IHC staining analysis revealed rather significant variation of the variables reflecting the sample size, while Brown and Blue Intensity were relatively stable. To further investigate this variation, the IA results from the 10 cores were aggregated to minimize tissue-related variance. Factor analysis revealed association between the variables reflecting the sample size detected by IA and Blue Intensity. Since the main feature to be extracted from the tissue controls was staining intensity, we further explored the variation of the intensity variables in the individual cores. MeanBrownBlue Intensity ((Brown+Blue)/2) and DiffBrownBlue Intensity (Brown-Blue) were introduced to better contrast the absolute intensity and the colour balance variation in each core; relevant factor scores were extracted. Finally, tissue-related factors of IHC staining variance were

  20. The Correlation of Interphase Chromatin Structure with the Radiation-Induced Inter- and Intrachromosome Exchange Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Purgason, Ashley M.; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between chromosome aberrations induced by radiation and chromatin folding, we reconstructed three dimensional structure of chromosome 3 and measured the physical distances between different regions of the chromosome. Previously, we have investigated the location of breaks involved in inter- and intrachromosomal type exchange events in human chromosome 3, using the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. In human epithelial cells exposed to both low- and high-LET radiations in vitro, we reported that intra-chromosome exchanges occurred preferentially between a break in the 3p21 and one in the 3q11 regions, and the breaks involving in inter-chromosome exchanges occurred in two regions towards the telomeres of the chromosome. Exchanges were also observed between a break in 3p21 and one in 3q26, but few exchanges were observed between breaks in 3q11 and 3q26, even though the two regions are located on the same arm of the chromosome. In this study, human epithelial cells were fixed at G1 phase and the interphase cells were hybridized using the XCyte3 mBAND kit from MetaSystems. The z-section images of chromosome 3 were captured with a Leica and an LSM 510 Meta laser scanning confocal microscopes. A total of 100 chromosomes were analyzed. The reconstruction of three dimensional structure of interphase chromosome 3 with six different colored regions was achieved using the Imaris software. The relative distance between different regions was measured as well. We further analyzed fragile sites on the chromosome that have been identified in various types of cancers. The data showed that, in majority of the cells, the regions containing 3p21 and 3q11 are colocalized in the center of the chromosome, whereas, the regions towards the telomeres of the chromosome are either physically wrapping outside the chromosome center or with arms sticking out. Our results demonstrated that the distribution of breaks involved in radiation

  1. Hindlimb Suspension as a Model to Study Ophthalmic Complications in Microgravity Status Report: Optimization of Rat Retina Flat Mounts Staining to Study Vascular Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Corey A.; Zanello, Susana B.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary data from a prior tissue-sharing experiment has suggested that early growth response protein-1 (Egr1), a transcription factor involved in various stress responses in the vasculature, is induced in the rat retina after 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS) and may be evidence that mechanical stress is occurring secondary to the cephalad fluid shift. This mechanical stress could cause changes in oxygenation of the retina, and the subsequent ischemia- or inflammation-driven hypoxia may lead to microvascular remodeling. This microvascular remodeling process can be studied using image analysis of retinal vessels and can be then be quantified by the VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, a computational tool that quantifies remodeling patterns of branching vascular trees and capillary or vasculogenic networks. Our project investigates whether rodent HS is a valid model to study the effects of simulated-weightlessness on ocular structures and their relationship with intracranial pressure (ICP). One of the hypotheses to be tested is that HS-induced cephalad fluid shift is accompanied by vascular engorgement that produces changes in retinal oxygenation, leading to oxidative stress, hypoxia, microvascular remodeling, and cellular degeneration. We have optimized the procedure to obtain flat mounts of rat retina, staining of the endothelial lining in vasculature and acquisition of high quality images suitable for VESGEN analysis. Briefly, eyes were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 24 hours and retinas were detached and then mounted flat on microscope slides. The microvascular staining was done with endothelial cell-specific isolectin binding, coupled to Alexa-488 fluorophore. Image acquisition at low magnification and high resolution was performed using a new Leica SP8 confocal microscope in a tile pattern across the X,Y plane and multiple sections along the Z-axis. This new confocal microscope has the added capability of dye separation using the Linear

  2. Automated processing of fluorescence in-situ hybridization slides for HER2 testing in breast and gastro-esophageal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafe, Laura J; Allen, Samantha F; Steinmetz, Heather B; Dokus, Betty A; Cook, Leanne J; Marotti, Jonathan D; Tsongalis, Gregory J

    2014-08-01

    HER2 fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) is used in breast and gastro-esophageal carcinoma for determining HER2 gene amplification and patients' eligibility for HER2 targeted therapeutics. Traditional manual processing of the FISH slides is labor intensive because of multiple steps that require hands on manipulation of the slides and specifically timed intervals between steps. This highly manual processing also introduces inter-run and inter-operator variability that may affect the quality of the FISH result. Therefore, we sought to incorporate an automated processing instrument into our FISH workflow. Twenty-six cases including breast (20) and gastro-esophageal (6) cancer comprising 23 biopsies and three excision specimens were tested for HER2 FISH (Pathvysion, Abbott) using the Thermobrite Elite (TBE) system (Leica). Up to 12 slides can be run simultaneously. All cases were previously tested by the Pathvysion HER2 FISH assay with manual preparation. Twenty cells were counted by two observers for each case; five cases were tested on three separate runs by different operators to evaluate the precision and inter-operator variability. There was 100% concordance in the scoring between the manual and TBE methods as well as among the five cases that were tested on three runs. Only one case failed due to poor probe hybridization. In total, seven cases were positive for HER2 amplification (HER2:CEP17 ratio >2.2) and the remaining 19 were negative (HER2:CEP17 ratio <1.8) utilizing the 2007 ASCO/CAP scoring criteria. Due to the automated denaturation and hybridization, for each run, there was a reduction in labor of 3.5h which could then be dedicated to other lab functions. The TBE is a walk away pre- and post-hybridization system that automates FISH slide processing, improves work flow and consistency and saves approximately 3.5h of technologist time. The instrument has a small footprint thus occupying minimal counter space. TBE processed slides performed

  3. Innovazione tecnologica e sinergie tra soluzioni geospaziali Lo "scenario Intergraph"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fiduccia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni abbiamo potuto assistere all’espansione delle tecnologie per l’Informazione Geografica dall’originale ambito della cartografia numerica per la conoscenza del territorio (automated mapping o per la gestione delle infrastrutture e delle reti tecnologiche (facility management verso un dominio più ampio denominato "geospatial".Technological innovation and synergies between geospatial solutions. The "Intergraph's scenario".Geospatial  is  much  more  than  GIS.  We  can  understand  the evolution  of  Geographic  Information  considering  some  new working groups and OWS demonstrations of Open Geospa-tial Consortium: Sensor Web Enablement, Sensor Fusion Ena-blement, Feature & Decision Fusion, Aviation, Emergency and Disaster Management, etc. Another point of observation is to analyze some brand new products of a multinational enterprise committed to the innovation like Intergraph Corporation. Part of Hexagon AB, Intergraph, Leica Geosystems and ERDAS are working together to leverage joint strengths in geospatial in-novation.Intergraph’s Motion Video Exploitation solution leverages full motion video, giving analysts the ability to collect, analyze, and maximize the value of video assets.GeoMedia  3D  is  a  GeoMedia  add-on  product  that  extends the functionality of Intergraph’s geospatial solutions through an integrated 3D visualization and analysis environment. You can visualize, navigate, analyze, and interact with 3D data na-tively in GeoMedia.GeoMedia Smart Client delivers an enterprise geospatial plat-form engineered to support large numbers of users who are unable to operate full desktop products, but whose workflows need  advanced  geospatial  functionality  that  cannot  be  sup-ported by Web mapping tools.G/Technology Fiber Optic Works 1.0 streamlines the management  of  fiber  optic  infrastructure  for  utilities,  municipalities, agencies and

  4. Innovazione tecnologica e sinergie tra soluzioni geospaziali Lo "scenario Intergraph"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fiduccia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni abbiamo potuto assistere all’espansione delle tecnologie per l’Informazione Geografica dall’originale ambito della cartografia numerica per la conoscenza del territorio (automated mapping o per la gestione delle infrastrutture e delle reti tecnologiche (facility management verso un dominio più ampio denominato "geospatial". Technological innovation and synergies between geospatial solutions. The "Intergraph's scenario".Geospatial  is  much  more  than  GIS.  We  can  understand  the evolution  of  Geographic  Information  considering  some  new working groups and OWS demonstrations of Open Geospa-tial Consortium: Sensor Web Enablement, Sensor Fusion Ena-blement, Feature & Decision Fusion, Aviation, Emergency and Disaster Management, etc. Another point of observation is to analyze some brand new products of a multinational enterprise committed to the innovation like Intergraph Corporation. Part of Hexagon AB, Intergraph, Leica Geosystems and ERDAS are working together to leverage joint strengths in geospatial in-novation.Intergraph’s Motion Video Exploitation solution leverages full motion video, giving analysts the ability to collect, analyze, and maximize the value of video assets.GeoMedia  3D  is  a  GeoMedia  add-on  product  that  extends the functionality of Intergraph’s geospatial solutions through an integrated 3D visualization and analysis environment. You can visualize, navigate, analyze, and interact with 3D data na-tively in GeoMedia.GeoMedia Smart Client delivers an enterprise geospatial plat-form engineered to support large numbers of users who are unable to operate full desktop products, but whose workflows need  advanced  geospatial  functionality  that  cannot  be  sup-ported by Web mapping tools.G/Technology Fiber Optic Works 1.0 streamlines the management  of  fiber  optic  infrastructure  for  utilities,  municipalities, agencies and

  5. [Skin cell response after jellyfish sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamicová, Katarína; Výbohová, Desanka; Fetisovová, Želmíra; Nováková, Elena; Mellová, Yvetta

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish burning is not commonly part of the professional finding in the central Europe health care laboratory. Holiday seaside tourism includes different and unusual presentations of diseases for our worklplaces. Sea water-sports and leisure is commonly connected with jellyfish burning and changes in the skin, that are not precisely described. Authors focused their research on detection of morphological and quantitative changes of some inflammatory cells in the skin biopsy of a 59-years-old woman ten days after a jellyfish stinging. Because of a comparison of findings the biopsy was performed in the skin with lesional and nonlesional skin. Both excisions of the skin were tested by imunohistochemical methods to detect CD68, CD163, CD30, CD4, CD3, CD8, CD20 a CD1a, to detect histiocytes, as well as several clones of lymphocytes and Langerhans cells (antigen presenting cells of skin), CD 117, toluidin blue and chloracetase esterase to detect mastocytes and neutrophils. Material was tested by immunofluorescent methods to detect IgA, IgM, IgG, C3, C4, albumin and fibrinogen. Representative view-fields were documented by microscope photocamera Leica DFC 420 C. Registered photos from both samples of the skin were processed by morphometrical analysis by the Vision Assistant software. A student t-test was used for statistical analysis of reached results. Mean values of individual found cells in the sample with lesion and without lesion were as follows: CD117 -2.64/0.37, CD68-6.86/1.63, CD163-3.13/2.23, CD30-1.36/0.02, CD4-3.51/0.32, CD8-8.22/0.50, CD3-10.69/0.66, CD20-0.56/0.66, CD1a-7.97/0.47 respectively. Generally mild elevation of eosinofils in lesional skin was detected. Increased values of tested cells seen in excision from lesional skin when compared with nonlesional ones were statistically significant in eight case at the level p = 0.033 to 0.001. A not statistically significant difference was found only in the group of CD163+ histiocytes. Authors detected numbers

  6. Object-Based Crop Species Classification Based on the Combination of Airborne Hyperspectral Images and LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of crop species is an important issue in agricultural management. In recent years, many studies have explored this topic using multi-spectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. In this study, we perform dedicated research to propose a framework for mapping crop species by combining hyperspectral and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data in an object-based image analysis (OBIA paradigm. The aims of this work were the following: (i to understand the performances of different spectral dimension-reduced features from hyperspectral data and their combination with LiDAR derived height information in image segmentation; (ii to understand what classification accuracies of crop species can be achieved by combining hyperspectral and LiDAR data in an OBIA paradigm, especially in regions that have fragmented agricultural landscape and complicated crop planting structure; and (iii to understand the contributions of the crop height that is derived from LiDAR data, as well as the geometric and textural features of image objects, to the crop species’ separabilities. The study region was an irrigated agricultural area in the central Heihe river basin, which is characterized by many crop species, complicated crop planting structures, and fragmented landscape. The airborne hyperspectral data acquired by the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI with a 1 m spatial resolution and the Canopy Height Model (CHM data derived from the LiDAR data acquired by the airborne Leica ALS70 LiDAR system were used for this study. The image segmentation accuracies of different feature combination schemes (very high-resolution imagery (VHR, VHR/CHM, and minimum noise fractional transformed data (MNF/CHM were evaluated and analyzed. The results showed that VHR/CHM outperformed the other two combination schemes with a segmentation accuracy of 84.8%. The object-based crop species classification results of different feature integrations indicated that

  7. Measurements and properties of ice particles and carbon dioxide bubbles in aqueous mixture utilizing optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Amadou O.

    Optical techniques are used to determine the size, shape and many other properties of particles ranging from the micro to a nano-level. These techniques have endless applications. This research is based on a project assigned by a "Vendor" that wants anonymity. The Leica optical microscope and the Dark Field Polarizing Metallurgical Microscope is used to determine the size and count of ice crystals (Vendors products) in multiple time frames. Since the ice temperature influences, its symmetry and the shape is subject to changes at room temperature (300 K) and the atmospheric pressure that is exerted on the ice crystals varies. The ice crystals are in a mixture of water, electrolytes and carbon dioxide with the optical spectroscopy (Qpod2) and Spectra suite, the optical density of the ice crystals is established from the absorbance and transmission measurements. The optical density in this case is also referred to as absorption; it is plotted with respect to a frequency (GHz), wavelength (nm) or Raman shift (1/cm) which shows the light colliding with the ice particles and CO2. Depending on the peaks positions, it is possible to profile the ice crystal sizes using a mean distribution plots. The region of absorbency wavelength expected for the ice is in the visible range; the water molecules in the (UV) Ultra-violet range and the CO2 in the (IR) infrared region. It is also possible to obtain the reflection and transmission output as a percentage change with the wavelengths ranging from 200 to 1100 nm. The refractive index of the ice can be correlated to the density based on the optical acoustic theorem, or Mie Scattering Theory. The viscosity of the ice crystals and the solutions from which the ice crystals are made of as well are recorded with the SV-10 viscometer. The baseline viscosity is used as reference and set lower than that of the ice crystals. The Zeta potential of the particles present in the mixture are approximated by first finding the viscosity of the

  8. Direct Georeferencing of Uav Data Based on Simple Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2016-06-01

    for the LSTM application at low cost. Our results show that image orientation calculations from building structure essentially improve the accuracy of direct georeferencing procedure adjusted also by the GCPs. To gain three dimensional (3D) point clouds in local coordinate system, an extraction procedure has been performed by using Agisoft Photo Scan. Subsequently, a Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated from the acquired data is the main output for LSTM that has to be assessed using standard field and conventional mapping workflows. For an appraisal, our DSM is compared directly with a similar DSM obtained by conventional airborne data acquisition using Leica RCD-30 metric camera as well as Trimble Phase One (P65+) camera. The comparison reveals that our approach can achieve meter level accuracy both in planimetric and vertical dimensions.

  9. Effectiveness of Vascular Markers (Immunohistochemical Stains) in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Namra; Mushtaq, Sajid; Akhter, Noreen; Hussain, Mudassar; Hassan, Usman

    2018-05-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of IHC markers of vascular origin like CD31, CD34, FLI1 and ERG in vascular soft tissue sarcomas including angiosarcomas, Kaposi sarcomas, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and a non-vascular soft tissue sarcoma (Epithelioid sarcoma). Descriptive study. Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from 2011 to 2017. Diagnosed cases of angiosarcomas (n=48), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (n=9), Kaposi sarcoma (n=9) and epithelioid sarcoma (n=20) were selected. Immunohistochemical staining as performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. The sections were stained for the following markers: CD34 (VENTANA clone Q Bend 10), CD31 (Leica clone 1 A 10), FLI1 (CELL MARQUE clone MRQ-1) and ERG (CELL MARQUE clone EP111). A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 8/48 cases of angiosarcomas with triple positivity in 6 cases. Eight cases showed positivity for only CD31 and ERG and 2 cases showed positivity for only ERG. A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 3/9 cases of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with positivity for all markers in 2 cases. Combined positivity for ERG and CD34 was seen in 2 cases and on 4 cases only CD31 immunohistochemical was solely applied with 100% positivity. FLI1 was not applied on any case. Among 9 cases of Kaposi sarcoma, ERG, CD34 and CD31 in combination were applied on only 1 case with triple positivity. Remaining cases show positivity for either CD34, CD31 or FLI1. Majority of cases of epithelioid sarcomas were diagnosed on the basis of cytokeratin and CD34 positivity with loss of INI1. The other vascular markers showed negativity in all cases. Among these four markers, ERG immunohistochemical stain is highly effective for endothelial differentiation due to its specific nuclear staining pattern in normal blood vessel endothelial cells (internal control) as well as neoplastic cells of vascular tumors and lack of background staining.

  10. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish

  11. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  12. A walk by the river: three-dimensional reconstruction of surface sedimentology and topography using wearable laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.; Lamy, M. L.; Stott, E.; Maniatis, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the last two decades, quantification of fluvial topography has been transformed by a number of geomatics technologies that have enabled the acquisition of data with unprecedented spatial resolution. Hyperscale surveys with spatial extents of <1 km2 have been widely demonstrated, by means of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Recent advances in the development and integration of GNSS, IMU, lightweight laser scanning and SLAM technologies are now resulting in the emergence of wearable, mobile laser scanning systems that have the potential to increase data acquisition and processing rates by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to TLS/SfM, and thus challenge the recent dominance of these two geomatics technologies. In this study we describe the methods and results of a comparison between a wearable laser scanning survey, using a Leica Pegasus Backpack, and a multi-station static TLS survey, using a Riegl VZ-1000 scanner. The evaluation is undertaken on a 600 m long reach of the braided River Feshie, Scotland, using data acquired in June 2017. Comparison between the DEMs produced from static and mobile laser scanning, across non-vegetated areas, revealed a Mean Error (ME) of -0.002 m and a Standard Deviation Error (SDE) of 0.109 m. Comparison to 100 independent check point resulted in a similar ME and SDE for static (ME = 0.061m; SDE = 0.030 m) and mobile (ME = 0.044 m; SDE = 0.029 m) laser scanning. Empirical relationships between sub-metre topographic variability and median sediment grain size (10-100 mm), across 14 grid-by-number samples, were similar and demonstrate that surface roughness from wearable laser scanning can be used to derive reach-scale maps of median grain size. These results demonstrate that wearable laser scanning generates hyperscale topographic models that are comparable in quality to more time-consuming multi-station TLS setups. Wearable laser scanning is likely to be commonly adopted for fluvial

  13. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAV DATA BASED ON SIMPLE BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2016-06-01

    effective tool for the LSTM application at low cost. Our results show that image orientation calculations from building structure essentially improve the accuracy of direct georeferencing procedure adjusted also by the GCPs. To gain three dimensional (3D point clouds in local coordinate system, an extraction procedure has been performed by using Agisoft Photo Scan. Subsequently, a Digital Surface Model (DSM generated from the acquired data is the main output for LSTM that has to be assessed using standard field and conventional mapping workflows. For an appraisal, our DSM is compared directly with a similar DSM obtained by conventional airborne data acquisition using Leica RCD-30 metric camera as well as Trimble Phase One (P65+ camera. The comparison reveals that our approach can achieve meter level accuracy both in planimetric and vertical dimensions.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of low cost UAV generated topography for geomorphic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    With the recent explosion in the use and availability of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms and development of easy to use structure from motion software, UAV based photogrammetry is increasingly being adopted to produce high resolution topography for the study of surface processes. UAV systems can vary substantially in price and complexity, but the tradeoffs between these and the quality of the resulting data are not well constrained. We look at one end of this spectrum and evaluate the effectiveness of a simple low cost UAV setup for obtaining high resolution topography in a challenging field setting. Our study site is the Daan River gorge in western Taiwan, a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge that we have monitored with terrestrial Lidar since 2009. The site presents challenges for the generation and analysis of high resolution topography, including vertical gorge walls, vegetation, wide variation in surface roughness, and a complicated 3D morphology. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV-derived topography, we compare it with terrestrial Lidar data collected during the same survey period. Our UAV setup combines a DJI Phantom 2 quadcopter with a 16 megapixel Canon Powershot camera for a total platform cost of less than $850. The quadcopter is flown manually, and the camera is programmed to take a photograph every 5 seconds, yielding 200-250 pictures per flight. We measured ground control points and targets for both the Lidar scans and the aerial surveys using a Leica RTK GPS with 1-2 cm accuracy. UAV derived point clouds were obtained using Agisoft Photoscan software. We conducted both Lidar and UAV surveys before and after a summer typhoon season, allowing us to evaluate the reliability of the UAV survey to detect geomorphic changes in the range of one to several meters. We find that this simple UAV setup can yield point clouds with an average accuracy on the order of 10 cm compared to the Lidar point clouds. Well-distributed and accurately located ground

  15. Accuracy Assessment of a Complex Building 3d Model Reconstructed from Images Acquired with a Low-Cost Uas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniga, E.; Chirilă, C.; Stătescu, F.

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are a wide used technique for acquisition in order to create buildings 3D models, providing the acquisition of a high number of images at very high resolution or video sequences, in a very short time. Since low-cost UASs are preferred, the accuracy of a building 3D model created using this platforms must be evaluated. To achieve results, the dean's office building from the Faculty of "Hydrotechnical Engineering, Geodesy and Environmental Engineering" of Iasi, Romania, has been chosen, which is a complex shape building with the roof formed of two hyperbolic paraboloids. Seven points were placed on the ground around the building, three of them being used as GCPs, while the remaining four as Check points (CPs) for accuracy assessment. Additionally, the coordinates of 10 natural CPs representing the building characteristic points were measured with a Leica TCR 405 total station. The building 3D model was created as a point cloud which was automatically generated based on digital images acquired with the low-cost UASs, using the image matching algorithm and different software like 3DF Zephyr, Visual SfM, PhotoModeler Scanner and Drone2Map for ArcGIS. Except for the PhotoModeler Scanner software, the interior and exterior orientation parameters were determined simultaneously by solving a self-calibrating bundle adjustment. Based on the UAS point clouds, automatically generated by using the above mentioned software and GNSS data respectively, the parameters of the east side hyperbolic paraboloid were calculated using the least squares method and a statistical blunder detection. Then, in order to assess the accuracy of the building 3D model, several comparisons were made for the facades and the roof with reference data, considered with minimum errors: TLS mesh for the facades and GNSS mesh for the roof. Finally, the front facade of the building was created in 3D based on its characteristic points using the PhotoModeler Scanner

  16. Scientific and interdisciplinary method as support for the restoration project. The balustrade steps of Villa Cerami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Sanfilippo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work an interdisciplinary study of the weathering forms of the Villa Cerami balustrade, was carried out with the aim to identify the type and causes of these and to plan conservation measures. The studied balustrade adorns and protects the steps of Villa Cerami garden, which is a suggestive example of 18th century ‘urban villa’, located in the very core of the Baroque Catania. Sadly, these stunning steps, whose magnificence and placement characterises the out-door environment of the building, at present suffer from bad degradation conditions, and the decorative details adorning the baluster are affected by irreversible damage. The causes of this ongoing degradation process are: material features, humidity, pollution and the consumption caused by the activities performed in the building. Since 1957 it has been the location of the Faculty of Law of the University of Catania. In this study, three balusters affected by the main weathering forms (biological colonization, black crust and granular disintegration recognised in the entire balustrade, were selected. The lithological type and the weathering forms were defined on the basis of an in situ investigation, using respectively the comparison of materials, to identify the calcarenites type, and the Italian norm UNI 11182 along with the Fitzner formalism, to classify the degradation forms.  A 3D survey of the selected balusters was performed with a time of flight Laser Scanner HDS300 of the Leica Geosystem with the aim to better define the volume and total surfaces of the material parts affected by erosion. The surfaces affected by black crust, were obtained by means of an image modelling technique. Data were used to calculate the damage indices through equations proposed by Fitzner and the limit at break for crushing. The potentiality of this interdisciplinary approach (architects, engineers and geologists is shown with the aim to apply it to the restoration of the entire monument

  17. Integrating wireless sensor network for monitoring subsidence phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturià, Jordi; Lopez, Ferran; Gigli, Giovanni; Intrieri, Emanuele; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Fornaciai, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    An innovative wireless sensor network (WSN) for the 3D superficial monitoring of deformations (such as landslides and subsidence) is being developed in the frame of the Wi-GIM project (Wireless sensor network for Ground Instability Monitoring - LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). The surface movement is detected acquiring the position (x, y and z) by integrating large bandwidth technology able to detect the 3D coordinates of the sensor with a sub-meter error, with continuous wave radar, which allows decreasing the error down to sub-cm. The Estació neighborhood in Sallent is located over the old potassium mine Enrique. This zone has been affected by a subsidence process over more than twenty years. The implementation of a wide network for ground auscultation has allowed monitoring the process of subsidence since 1997. This network consists of: i) a high-precision topographic leveling network to control the subsidence in surface; ii) a rod extensometers network to monitor subsurface deformation; iii) an automatic Leica TCA Total Station to monitor building movements; iv) an inclinometers network to measure the horizontal displacements on subsurface and v) a piezometer to measure the water level. Those networks were implemented within an alert system for an organized an efficient response of the civil protection authorities in case of an emergency. On 23rd December 2008, an acceleration of subsoil movements (of approx. 12-18 cm/year) provoked the activation of the emergency plan by the Catalan Civil Protection. This implied the preventive and scheduled evacuation of the neighbours (January 2009) located in the area with a higher risk of collapse: around 120 residents of 43 homes. As a consequence, the administration implemented a compensation plan for the evacuation of the whole neighbourhood residents and the demolition of 405 properties. In this work, the adaptation and integration process of Wi-GIM system with those conventional monitoring network are presented for its testing

  18. RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF LARGE AIRBORNE IMAGE DATA SETS ACQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SENSOR TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gehrke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage. We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor’s properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling – with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images – allows for adaptation to each sensor’s geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image’s histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in

  19. Airborne digital-image data for monitoring the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 2009 - Image-mosaic production and comparison with 2002 and 2005 image mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne digital-image data were collected for the Arizona part of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam in 2009. These four-band image data are similar in wavelength band (blue, green, red, and near infrared) and spatial resolution (20 centimeters) to image collections of the river corridor in 2002 and 2005. These periodic image collections are used by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey to monitor the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the downstream ecosystem. The 2009 collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits, unlike the image sensors that GCMRC used in 2002 and 2005. This study examined the performance of the SH52 sensor, on the basis of the collected image data, and determined that the SH52 sensor provided superior data relative to the previously employed sensors (that is, an early ADS40 model and Zeiss Imaging's Digital Mapping Camera) in terms of band-image registration, dynamic range, saturation, linearity to ground reflectance, and noise level. The 2009 image data were provided as orthorectified segments of each flightline to constrain the size of the image files; each river segment was covered by 5 to 6 overlapping, linear flightlines. Most flightline images for each river segment had some surface-smear defects and some river segments had cloud shadows, but these two conditions did not generally coincide in the majority of the overlapping flightlines for a particular river segment. Therefore, the final image mosaic for the 450-kilometer (km)-long river corridor required careful selection and editing of numerous flightline segments (a total of 513 segments, each 3.2 km long) to minimize surface defects and cloud shadows. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects. The final image mosaic for the western end of the corridor has

  20. Clinical evaluation and induced corneal vascularization study by native and anionic collagen membranes in rabbits corneas Avaliação clínica e estudo da vascularização corneal induzida pelas membranas de colágeno nativo e aniônico em córneas de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Eliane Binotto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the corneal vascularization (CV and the clinical aspects induced by interlamellar graft with native (NCM and anionic (ACM collagen membranes in rabbits corneas. METHODS: An interlamellar graft with a 0.25 x 0.25 cm NCM (group 1 or ACM (group 2 fragment was performed in the right eye (treated eye. In the left eye, an estromal tunnel was done (control eye. Sixteen rabbits were used, and they were subdivided into two experimental groups of eight animals each. The clinical evaluation was performed at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th and 30th postoperative days. Corneal vascularization analysis was performed after 30 days by the Images Analizator System Leica Qwin-550®. RESULTS: After 7 days, corneal vascularization was observed at about 2.25 ± 0.71 mm (NCM and at about 1.0 ± 1.69 mm (ACM, respectively, from the limbus in direction to the central cornea. After 15 days, CV increased in both groups (5.25 ± 1.03 mm - NCM; 2.0 ± 2.39 mm - ACM and then progressively decreased until day 30 (2.25 ± 2.10 mm - NCM; 0.75 ± 2.12 mm - ACM. The statistical analysis indicated that the averages of the distances from the limb vessels to the grafts observed after 7 and 15 days had not differed statistically (p=0.17, and after 15 and 30 postoperative days had a tendency to differ statistically (p=0.09. The control eyes did not present any changes. CONCLUSION: The interlamellar graft with native and anionic collagen membranes induced corneal vascularization when applied to rabbit corneas, but anionic collagen membrane induced a smaller corneal vascularization when compared to native collagen membrane. Although further studies are required, the results found in this study demonstrated the usefulness of interlamellar graft with native and anionic collagen membranes in keratoplasties. These membranes consists in one more graft option for the surgical treatment of corneal repair in rabbits and others animals, when other forms of medical and surgical

  1. Towards effective and stable probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarullina, D R; Damshkaln, L G; Bruslik, N L; Konovalova, O A; Ilinskaya, O N; Lozinsky, V I

    2015-01-01

    -MDT, Moscow, Russia).Starch swelling and dissolution was studied in simulated colonic fluid (SCF), prepared according to [3] and in distilled water (pH = 6.0) as control. Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (A8220, Sigma) was added to the solutions to study the influence of amylase. The formulation form was examined visually during 14 h incubation time.Fluorescence microscopy images were obtained with a Leica DM6000B (Germany) fluorescent microscope using Leica FW4000 software.L. plantarum 8PA3 loaded in SPS were placed either in HCl solution (pH 2), or in 2% oxgall bile solution, or in 0.85% NaCl solution. Viability was tested after 2, 4 and 6 h incubation at 37°C by plating diluted aliquots onto MRS agar with subsequent counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFU). In addition, viability was determined using LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit L-7012 (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen) as described elsewhere [4]. Fluorescence in the stained samples was estimated with BD FACS Canto II (USA) flow cytometer or fluorescent microscope.Nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed with DAF-FM DA and DAA fluorescent dyes as described earlier [4]. Each experiment was performed in triplicate. In the present study we studied the probiotic composition comprising of SPS and bacteria L. plantarum 8PA3. We used AFM to confirm effective fixation of the cells to carbohydrate. The compositions were found to swell quickly (~5 min) in aqueous solutions either containing amylase, or not. Tested starch formulations disintegrated during the first 5-10 min of incubation in amylase solutions whereas in amylase-free probes dissolution was less intensive (after ~30 min). Amylolysis of starch excipients was less pronounced in aqueous amylase solution than in SCF, supplemented with amylase. None of 19 studied Lactobacillus strains hydrolyzed SPS when growing on MRS agar supplemented with it. The amount of viable L. plantarum 8PA3 cells formulated with SPS was high and did not change when stored for 6

  2. Identification of Thrips Species on Garlic Fields in Hamedan Province and Determination of Dominant Species

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    Majid Mirab-balou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic (Allium sativum (family Amaryllidaceae are one of important crops in Hamedan province. There are several insects and mites that by feeding on this plant cause to damage garlic yield. Among the insect pests, the most dangerous pests of garlic are thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera. In this group, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman is widely distributed and is a dominant species. Its sap sucking causes tiny and silvery spots on the leaves that may spread all over the leaf surface with an unfavorable effect on yield production. In addition, imagoes and larvae living and feeding on this plant cause more serious damages. Due to serious damage of thrips in garlic fields of Hamedan province, it is necessary to identify thripsspecies for pest control programs. Materials and Methods: Thrips specimens were collected on leaves of garlic in Hamedan province (Maryanaj and Heydareh situated in the west of Iran, during 2012–2013. Herein, specimens were collected by shaking plants to white dish and specimens were kept in 70 % ethanol and transferred to the laboratory. All collected material was macerated in 5% KOH and subjected to dehydration in an ethanol series before being mounted onto glass slides. Subsequently, thrips specimens mounted onto slides in Hoyer’s medium form of the protocol given in Mirab-balou and Chen (2010. All descriptions, measurements and photos were made with a Leica DM IRB microscope, with a Leica Image 1000 system. Thrips specimens were identified by author in species level. Specimens are deposited in the collection of Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Ilam University, Iran (ILAMU. In addition, dominant thrips species were also determined. For this purpose, regular samplings were done in fields of two regions of Hamedan province every two weeks, and totally, 2040 specimens (adult were collected. Results and Discussion: The world fauna of Thysanoptera, are presently known to be

  3. Physical incorporation of particles in a porous media: a path to a smart wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerriaa, Azza; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Gerardin, Christine; Tazibt, Abdel; Gabsi, Slimane

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a functional wood incorporating, in its surface, physical and chemical properties that meet society demand. For instance: fire resistance, magnetic electrical conduction (metal-wood particles), antibacterial reaction (copper-wood), anti-pollution (zeolite-wood), dry coloring, reflective effects (minerals-wood). As part of the research on wooden materials, the technique of "JAZOLTHOP1" driving micrometric particles before combining them and moving in supersonic speeds was used in the framework of enriching a wooden substrate. Various tests were conducted on two wooden materials (fir and ash tree) submitted to four typologies of particles (steel shot, garnet, corundum and glass beads). The surfaces of the test samples were machined beforehand for a use of conventional smooth quality, thus defining a reference surface before incorporation. The enriched samples were characterized by using two optical techniques; firstly a surface technique through macroscopy Leica 110X ZP, then a volume technique through tomography2. Subsequently, volume simulations (wood-inclusions) were implemented to study the thermal transfer. The obtained results showcase the existence of certain set conditions to reach the critical fluency of incorporation and to localize the enrichment on a parallel plan to the sample surface. The results show also the influence of particles concentration and the kind of the chosen wood on the final composite matrix/particle media. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui http:// http:// http:// http:// http:// http://Nunzihttp:// http://Jean-Michelhttp:// http:// http:// http:// http:// http://Bennacerhttp:// http://Rachidhttp:// http:// http:// http:// http:// http://El Ganaouihttp:// http://Mohammedhttp:// http:// http:// http://Guest editorshttp:// http:// authors

  4. First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, K.; Itten, K.; Schaepman, M.

    2009-04-01

    APEX, ESA-Prodex "Airborne Prism Experiment" comprises the development of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer and has originally been designed as flexible hyperspectral mission simulator and calibrator for existing and upcoming or planned future space missions. The APEX project is co-funded by Switzerland and Belgium and built by a Belgian-Swiss industrial team under the prime RUAG Aerospace (CH), responsible for the total system and the mechanical components, OIP (Oudenaarde, BE) contributing the spectrometer, and Netcetera (Zurich, CH) being responsible for the electronics. RSL (University of Zurich, CH) acts as scientific PI together with the Co-PI VITO (Mol, BE). The APEX sensor is operating between 380 nm and 2500 nm in more than 300 freely configurable bands (up to 512 bands in full spectral mode), by means of two dispersive spectrometer channels. 1000 pixels across track and a total field of view of 28° define the ground pixel size (e.g. 2,5 m from 5000 m AGL). A stabilized platform (Leica PAV-30) reduces major geometric distortions due to aircraft instabilities while a GPS/IMU system (Applanix PosAV 410) measures continuously the sensors' position and orientation allowing direct georeferencing of the acquired data . The system is currently is phase D, the calibration and test phase, and first testflights have been performed on a Do-228 in cooperation of DLR while the acquired data is currently under evaluation. Discussions are ongoing to fly APEX on the new DLR High Altitude Research Aircraft (HALO) as well. The system is currently in phase D, the calibration and test phase, and will deliver first scientific data to users by mid 2009. The APEX processing and archiving facility (PAF) is hosted by VITO in the APEX Operations Center (AOC) at Mol, Belgium . A specific level 0-1 processing software module producing uniform, radiometrically calibrated data has been developed by RSL and is integrated into the PAF by VITO. An APEX Calibration

  5. Analyzing RCD30 Oblique Performance in a Production Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M. E.; Kornus, W.; Magariños, A.; Pla, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2014 the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) decided to incorporate digital oblique imagery in its portfolio in response to the growing demand for this product. The reason can be attributed to its useful applications in a wide variety of fields and, most recently, to an increasing interest in 3d modeling. The selection phase for a digital oblique camera led to the purchase of the Leica RCD30 Oblique system, an 80MPixel multispectral medium-format camera which consists of one Nadir camera and four oblique viewing cameras acquiring images at an off-Nadir angle of 35º. The system also has a multi-directional motion compensation on-board system to deliver the highest image quality. The emergence of airborne oblique cameras has run in parallel to the inclusion of computer vision algorithms into the traditional photogrammetric workflows. Such algorithms rely on having multiple views of the same area of interest and take advantage of the image redundancy for automatic feature extraction. The multiview capability is highly fostered by the use of oblique systems which capture simultaneously different points of view for each camera shot. Different companies and NMAs have started pilot projects to assess the capabilities of the 3D mesh that can be obtained using correlation techniques. Beyond a software prototyping phase, and taking into account the currently immature state of several components of the oblique imagery workflow, the ICGC has focused on deploying a real production environment with special interest on matching the performance and quality of the existing production lines based on classical Nadir images. This paper introduces different test scenarios and layouts to analyze the impact of different variables on the geometric and radiometric performance. Different variables such as flight altitude, side and forward overlap and ground control point measurements and location have been considered for the evaluation of aerial triangulation and

  6. Development of a Whole Slide Imaging System on Smartphones and Evaluation With Frozen Section Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Liren; Ma, Shuoxin

    2017-09-15

    The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a WSI system based on mainstream smartphones coupled with regular optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry objective lenses of different magnifications, and reasonably high throughput. These performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a whole slide imaging system based on smartphones coupled with optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry object lens of different magnification. All performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. In the sWSI design, the digitization process is split asynchronously between light-weight clients on smartphones and powerful cloud servers. The client apps automatically capture FoVs at up to 12-megapixel resolution and process them in real-time to track the operation of users, then give instant feedback of guidance. The servers first restitch each pair of FoVs, then automatically correct the unknown nonlinear distortion introduced by the lens of the smartphone on the fly, based on pair-wise stitching, before finally combining all FoVs into one gigapixel VS for each scan. These VSs can be viewed using Internet browsers anywhere. In the evaluation experiment, 100 frozen section slides from patients randomly selected among in-patients of the participating hospital were scanned by both a high-end Leica scanner and sWSI. All VSs were examined by senior pathologists whose diagnoses were compared against those made using optical microscopy as ground truth to evaluate the image quality. The sWSI system is developed for both Android and iPhone smartphones and is currently being offered to the

  7. Development of a Whole Slide Imaging System on Smartphones and Evaluation With Frozen Section Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liren

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a WSI system based on mainstream smartphones coupled with regular optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry objective lenses of different magnifications, and reasonably high throughput. These performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. Objective The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a whole slide imaging system based on smartphones coupled with optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry object lens of different magnification. All performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. Methods In the sWSI design, the digitization process is split asynchronously between light-weight clients on smartphones and powerful cloud servers. The client apps automatically capture FoVs at up to 12-megapixel resolution and process them in real-time to track the operation of users, then give instant feedback of guidance. The servers first restitch each pair of FoVs, then automatically correct the unknown nonlinear distortion introduced by the lens of the smartphone on the fly, based on pair-wise stitching, before finally combining all FoVs into one gigapixel VS for each scan. These VSs can be viewed using Internet browsers anywhere. In the evaluation experiment, 100 frozen section slides from patients randomly selected among in-patients of the participating hospital were scanned by both a high-end Leica scanner and sWSI. All VSs were examined by senior pathologists whose diagnoses were compared against those made using optical microscopy as ground truth to evaluate the image quality. Results The sWSI system is developed for both Android and iPhone smartphones and

  8. The clinical and morphological aspects of aetiology and pathogenesis of sacrococcygeal pilonidal cysts

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    Ye. V. Tsema

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The occurrence of pilonidal cysts in Ukrainian population is up to 50 cases per 100.000. Nevertheless, the cause and the pathogenesis of pilonidal cyst to date remain unclear. There are two opposite views on the etiology of the pilonidal disease stating it has congenital or acquired origin. Authors suggest the definite answer should be based primarily on the results of the morphologic evaluation of pilonidal cyst tissue. Aim: To explore the morphological features of sacrococcygeal pilonidal cysts by means of histological evaluation of cyst tissue after the wide local excision of the cyst. Methods: We performed complex morphological evaluation of cyst tissue obtained after the wide local excision of pilonidal cyst to find out particulars of sacrococcygeal pilonidal cyst histological structure. In total, we evaluated 42 surgical specimens obtained after the wide local excision of pilonidal cyst complicated by the secondary sinus tract formation. The microscopy was performed with the light microscope Leica DM LS2 (ocular lens: х10, objective lens х10 or х20, camera’s optical zoom х4. Histological samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin using the standard method. Discussion. The absence of own epithelial elements in the pilonidal cysts and the secondary sinus tracts have been demonstrated. Hypertrophic growth of skin or hair follicle epithelium was evident in some specimens. Such changes seen in the deep layers of skin on the border with adipose tissue were similar to epidermal polyps. Results. There are some morphological features suggesting the acquired origin of the pilonidal disease as follows: - Hair found in the pilonidal cyst’s tissue is not associated with hair follicles, and occurs as loose shafts with atrophied hair bulb, and their exogenous transdermal penetration is evident. - Pilonidal cyst doesn’t have own epithelium, and the epithelial fragments that occur are the fragments of disorganized hair

  9. Chemical and microbiological evaluation of the internal surfaces of aluminum tubes both unlined and lined with epoxi resin by means of the stereoscope and scanning electron microscope Avaliação química e microbiológica da superfície interna dos tubos de alumínio não revestido e revestido com resina epóxi por meio de microscópio estereoscópio e eletrônico de varredura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Loshchagin Pizzolitto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal surfaces of aluminum tubes, both unlined and lined with epoxy resin, which are used for packaged medicines such as creams, ointments, gels, etc., were evaluated chemically, and microbiologically with regard to microorganism adherence. Proof of porosity of the unlined aluminum surface and lined with epoxy resin, and the resistance to removal of the resin were observed using a scanning electron microscope and a stereoscope, with a digitalized image system. To evaluate the microorganisms adherence to the aluminum surface, unlined and lined with epoxy resin, sterilized disks (10mm in diameter were immersed in Mueller Hinton Broth and placed in tubes of polypropylene with screw caps. The liquid culture medium was then inoculated with suspensions (10(9CFU/ml of the following microorganisms: Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida albicans and incubated at 37°C under constant agitation (100rpm for 12 days. The culture broth was changed every 3 days, after which the disks were removed, and observed under the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic observations revealed adherence of the microorganisms and biofilm on the aluminum surfaces both unlined and lined with epoxy resin.A superfície interna das bisnagas fabricadas com alumínio não revestido e revestido com resina epóxi, utilizadas para acondicionar cremes, pomadas, géis, etc., foram avaliadas quimicamente e por métodos microbiológicos correlacionados com a aderência de microrganismos. A prova da porosidade e da resistência à remoção da resina foi observada por meio do microscópio eletrônico de varredura (Topcon FM300 e estereoscópio Leica (MZ12 acoplado a Sistema de Digitalização de Imagens. Para avaliar a ação dos microrganismos foram utilizados corpos-de-prova esterilizados (discos de 10mm de diâmetro, imersos em caldo Mueller Hinton (Difco e colocados em tubos de polipropileno com tampa de rosca (Corning. Foram

  10. Comparative morpho-anatomical studies of the lesions caused by citrus leprosis virus on sweet orange

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    João P.R. Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leprosis disease shows a viral etiology and the citrus leprosis virus is considered its etiologic agent. The disease may show two types of cytopatologic symptom caused by two virus: nuclear (CiLV-N and cytoplasmic (CiLV-C types. The aim of this study was to compare the morpho-anatomical differences in the lesions caused by leprosis virus-cytoplasmic and nuclear types in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. Leaf and fruit lesions were collected in Piracicaba/São Paulo (cytoplasmic type and Monte Alegre do Sul/São Paulo and Amparo/São Paulo (nuclear type. The lesions were photographed and then fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated in a graded ethylic series, embedded in hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate resin (Leica Historesin, sectioned (5 μm thick, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. The digital images were acquired in a microscope with digital video camera. Leaf and fruit lesions caused by the two viruses were morphologically distinct. Only the lesion caused by CiLV-N virus presented three well-defined regions. In both lesions there was the accumulation of lipidic substances in necrotic areas that were surrounded by cells with amorphous or droplets protein. Only leaf and fruit lesions caused by CiLV-N virus exhibited traumatic gum ducts in the vascular bundles.A doença leprose dos citros tem etiologia viral sendo o citrus leprosis virus seu agente etiológico. Demonstrou-se que há dois vírus distintos que causam sintomas de leprose em ci-tros: citoplasmático (CiLV-C e o nuclear (CiLV-N. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar as diferenças morfo-anatômicas nas lesões causadas por CiLV-C e por CiLV-N em laranjeira doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. As lesões foliares e dos frutos foram coletadas em Piracicaba/SP (tipo citoplas-mático e em Monte Alegre do Sul/SP e Amparo/SP (tipo nuclear. As lesões foram fotografadas e em seguida fixadas em solução Karnovsky, desidratadas em série etílica, incluídas em historesina e

  11. Repeated isoflurane exposure and neuroapoptosis in the midgestation fetal sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, Olutoyin A; Sheikh, Fariha; Zamora, Irving J; Yu, Ling; Akinkuotu, Adesola C; Adesina, Adekunle M; Olutoye, Oluyinka O

    2016-04-01

    Advances in surgery and technology have resulted in increased in-utero procedures. However, the effect of anesthesia on the fetal brain is not fully known. The inhalational anesthetic agent, isoflurane, other gamma amino butyric acid agonists (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, propofol, other inhalation anesthetics), and N-methyl D aspartate antagonists, eg, ketamine, have been shown to induce neuroapoptosis. The ovine model has been used extensively to study maternal-fetal physiologic interactions and to investigate different surgical interventions on the fetus. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of different doses and duration of isoflurane on neuroapoptosis in midgestation fetal sheep. We hypothesized that repeated anesthetic exposure and high concentrations of isoflurane would result in increased neuroapoptosis. Time-dated, pregnant sheep at 70 days gestation (term 145 days) received either isoflurane 2% × 1 hour, 4% × 3 hours, or 2% × 1 hour every other day for 3 exposures (repeated exposure group). Euthanasia occurred following anesthetic exposure and fetal brains were processed. Neuroapoptosis was detected by immunohistochemistry using anticaspase-3 antibodies. Fetuses unexposed to anesthesia served as controls. Another midgestation group with repeated 2% isoflurane exposure was examined at day 130 (long-term group) and neuronal cell density compared to age-matched controls. Representative sections of the brain were analyzed using Aperio Digital imaging (Leica Microsystems Inc, Buffalo Grove, IL). Data, reported by number of neurons per cubic millimeter of brain tissue are presented as means and SEM. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests as appropriate. A total of 34 fetuses were studied. There was no significant difference in neuroapoptosis observed in fetuses exposed to 2% isoflurane for 1 hour or 4% isoflurane for 3 hours. Increased neuroapoptosis was observed in the frontal cortex following repeated 2

  12. Using a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to analyze the stability of a natural rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Mastrorocco, Giovanni; Seddaiu, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of a rotary wing RPAS for monitoring the stability of a natural rock slope in the municipality of Vecchiano (Pisa, Italy). The slope under investigation is approximately oriented NNW-SSE and has a length of about 320 m; elevation ranges from about 7 to 80 m a.s.l.. The hill consists of stratified limestone, somewhere densely fractured, with dip direction predominantly oriented in a normal way respect to the slope. Fracture traces are present in variable lengths, from decimetre to metre, and penetrate inward the rock versant with thickness difficult to estimate, often exceeding one meter in depth. The intersection between different fracture systems and the slope surface generates rocky blocks and wedges of variable size that may be subject to phenomena of gravitational instability (with reference to the variation of hydraulic and dynamic conditions). Geometrical and structural info about the rock mass, necessary to perform the analysis of the slope stability, were obtained in this work from geo-referenced 3D point clouds acquired using photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques. In particular, a terrestrial laser scanning was carried out from two different point of view using a Leica Scanstation2. The laser survey created many shadows in the data due to the presence of vegetation in the lower parts of the slope and limiting the feasibility of geo-structural survey. To overcome such a limitation, we utilized a rotary wing Aibotix Aibot X6 RPAS geared with a Nikon D3200 camera. The drone flights were executed in manual modality and the images were acquired, according to the characteristics of the outcrops, under different acquisition angles. Furthermore, photos were captured very close to the versant (a few meters), allowing to produce a dense 3D point cloud (about 80 Ma points) by the image processing. A topographic survey was carried out in order to guarantee the necessary spatial accuracy to the process of images exterior

  13. Vegetation Structure, Tree Volume and Biomass Estimation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mangrove Forests in the Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that

  14. Integration of X-band SAR interferometry, continuous and periodic D-GPS and in-place inclinometers to characterize and monitor a deep-seated earthslide in the Dolomites (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Marco; Corsini, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Manunta, Michele; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Chinellato, Giulia; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Monsorno, Roberto; Thiebes, Benni; Piantelli, Elena; Magnani, Massimo; Meroni, Marco; Mair, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    The Corvara landslide is an active, large-scale, deep-seated and slow moving earthslide of about 30 Mm3 located in the Dolomites (Italy). It is frequently damaging a national road and, occasionally, isolated buildings and recreational ski facilities. Since the mid '90s it has been mapped, dated and monitored thanks to field surveys, boreholes, radiocarbon dating, inclinometers, piezometers and periodic D-GPS measurements, carried out by the Geology and the Forestry Planning offices of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, the Municipality of Corvara in Badia, the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, the IRPI-CNR of Padua. In 2013, a new phase of characterization and monitoring has started which also involves the EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing, the geodesy group of University La Sapienza, the CNR-IREA of Naples and the Leica Geosystems office in Italy. This new phase of characterization and monitoring is meant to investigate the opportunities of innovative SAR interferometry, D-GPS and in-place inclinometers techniques to provide for a high frequency monitoring of the study site in support to the analysis of the investigation of forcing factors leading unsteady, nonuniform landslide motion through different seasons of the year. Monitoring results are also expected to provide a validation of innovative interferometric techniques so to fully evaluate their conformity to be used as a long-term monitoring system in land-use planning and risk management procedures. The monitoring infrastructure now integrates: 16 Corner Reflector for satellite X-Band SAR interferometric products, 13 benchmarks for D-GPS periodic surveys, three on-site GPS receivers for continuous positioning and remote ftp data pushing, two in-place inclinometers and a pressure transducer to record pore-pressure variations. The coupling of SAR-based products with GPS records is achieved using especially designed Corner Reflectors having an appendix dedicated to hold Dual-Frequency GPS

  15. Surveying a fossil oyster reef using terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, A.; Exner, U.; Harzhauser, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Korneuburg Basin, situated north-west of Vienna, is well known to contain a rich variety of fossils from the Early Miocene (16.5 ma) and therefore has been investigated extensively by scientists in the past decades. An exceptional discovery was made in 2005: a large fossil oyster reef has been excavated and documented carefully during the last years. Aside from the giant-sized oyster (Crassostrea gryphoides), the excavation site contains numerous species of molluscs along with teeth of sharks and rays and even isolated bones of sea cows. The oysters, having lengths of up to 80 cm, are protruding from the ground surface, which is more or less a tilted plane (25˚ ) with a size of about 300 m2. The entire site is crosscut by a network of geological faults, often also offsetting individual oyster shells. Displacements along the normal faults do not exceed ~ 15 cm. The faulted fossils offer a unique opportunity to measure displacement distribution along the faults in great detail and provide insight in deformation mechanisms in porous, barely lithified sediments. In order to get a precise 3D model of the oyster reef, the terrestrial laser scanner system Leica HDS 6000 is used. It is a phase-based laser scanner, i.e. the distance measurement is performed using the phase-shift principle. Compared to the time-of-flight principle, this method is generally more appropriate to projects like this one, where the distances to be measured are relatively small (< 35 m) and where a high point density (point spacing of about 1 cm) and precision (some mm) is required for capturing the oysters adequately. However, due to fact that they occlude each other, one single scan is not sufficient to get all sides of their surface. Therefore, scans from different positions had to be acquired. These scans have to be merged, which involves the problem of sensor orientation as well as sampling of the entire 3D point cloud. Furthermore, a representation of the surface data is required that

  16. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    where necessary. In the end, 61 manuscripts were accepted for publication. The Editors are very grateful to the following colleagues for their rapid and careful reviewing of manuscripts: M Albrecht, J S Barnard, R Beanland, G A Botton, D Cooper, L Clement, A J Craven, A G Cullis, N Daneu, V Grillo, E Grünbaum, A Gustafsson, P-H Jouneau, O L Krivanek, D Larson, M Luysberg, S I Molina, F A Ponce, A Rosenauer, F M Ross, I M Ross, J-L Rouviere, and Z L Wang. Prizes for student presentations at the conference were awarded to Mr Alberto Eljarrat, Universitat de Barcelona, and Mr Thibaud Denneulin, CEA-LETI Grenoble, both of whom are presenting their results also as contributions to this proceedings volume. Entertainment during the conference dinner was provided by the college's string quartet, and after the meal we held the now traditional friendly competition between teams of microscopists; this year teams were asked to construct models of scientific instruments using only cardboard, paper, sticky tape and glue. By unanimous vote, the team who presented the 'Atomic Food Microscope (AFM)' prototype won first prize - the deft 'dipping mode' of the cardboard cantilever (see photo) was a highlight! Figure 2 Figure 2. The prize winning 'Atomic Food Microscope (AFM)' in action! The organisers are very grateful to the following companies who contributed to the success of the meeting by presenting trade stands during an exhibition on the evening of 5 April: Agar Scientific, Bruker, CamScan, FEI, Gatan, Hitachi High Technologies, HREM Research, IOP Publishing, JEOL, Leica Microsystems and MICOS. Finally, we would like to thank the staff of the Institute of Physics for their expert assistance in planning and organising this conference and in particular Claire Garland for her dedicated professional support and her always joyful approach to any issues that arose. October 2011 T Walther P A Midgley

  17. The effect of space microgravity on the physiological activity of mammalian resident cardiac stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotskaya, Galina; Zakharov, Eugeny

    Prolonged exposure to weightlessness during space flights is known to cause depression of heart function in mammals. The decrease in heart weight and its remodeling under the influence of prolonged weightlessness (or space microgravity) is assumed to be due to both morphological changes of working cardiomyocytes and their progressive loss, as well as to possible depletion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) population, or their inability to self-renewal and regeneration of muscle tissue under conditions of weightlessness. We have previously shown that the presence of different maturity clones formed by resident CSCs not only in culture but also in the mammalian myocardium can be used as an indicator of the regenerative activity of myocardial cells [Belostotskaya, et al., 2013: 2014]. In this study, we were interested to investigate whether the 30-day near-Earth space flight on the spacecraft BION-M1 affects the regenerative potential of resident CSCs. Immediately after landing of the spacecraft, we had examined the presence of resident c-kit+, Sca-1+ and Isl1+ CSCs and their development in suspension of freshly isolated myocardial cells of C57BL mice in comparison to controls. Cardiac cell suspension was obtained by enzymatic digestion of the heart [Belostotskaya and Golovanova, 2014]. Immunocytochemically stained preparations of fixed cells were analyzed with confocal microscope Leica TCS SP5 (Germany) in the Resource Center of St-Petersburg State University. CSCs were labeled with appropriate antibodies. CSCs differentiation into mature cardiomyocytes was verified using antibodies to Sarcomeric α-Actinin and Cardiac Troponin T. Antibodies to Connexin43 were used to detect cell-cell contacts. All antibodies were conjugated with Alexa fluorochromes (488, 532, 546, 568, 594 and/or 647 nm), according to Zenon-technology (Invitrogen). It has been shown that, under identical conditions of cell isolation, more complete digestion of heart muscle was observed in

  18. A mobile GPR system for evaluating road landslide damage and effectiveness of the restoration works at Potenza District scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperte, A.; Bavusi, M.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) is affected by a large amount of landslides due to its geological structure and orogenic history. In particular, due to its location in the Italian Apennine chain, the District of Potenza is particularly affected by this natural hazard, which threatens private buildings and public infrastructures. In this framework, the transport infrastructures result greatly exposed to this kind of damage since there is a great probability that a road intercepts a landslide in its path. In addition, this can have relevant "social and economic" effects at large distance from the landslide due to the interconnected character of the road network. A classical remediation strategy for a damaged road, especially when affected by a localised landslide, consists in restoring its planarity by filling the depression induced by the damage. Moreover a such intervention often causes the recurrence of the damage since it results in a weakness zone in the road section. The result is that there is always an interrupted road somewhere in Basilicata. In order to design an effective remediation strategy at the scale of the district road network, a fast low-cost diagnosis method is needed in order to: • Detect damaged/restored treats of roads; • Characterize previous restoration intervention quality; • Provide a geo-database reporting all at-risk road sections; • Predict which road sections might be damaged with the upcoming rainfall events. In this framework, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA-CNR), also thanks to the cooperation of the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA-CNR) has equipped a van with a high-resolution Ground Penetrating Radar and differential GPS instrumentations so to achieve a mobile GPR system. The main elements of the GPR are the control unit IDS DAD MCH Fast-Wave, horn antenna air-launched IDS HN-1000b and high speed encoder, differential GPS 1200 Leica. Main feature of this

  19. ANALYZING RCD30 OBLIQUE PERFORMANCE IN A PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Soler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC decided to incorporate digital oblique imagery in its portfolio in response to the growing demand for this product. The reason can be attributed to its useful applications in a wide variety of fields and, most recently, to an increasing interest in 3d modeling. The selection phase for a digital oblique camera led to the purchase of the Leica RCD30 Oblique system, an 80MPixel multispectral medium-format camera which consists of one Nadir camera and four oblique viewing cameras acquiring images at an off-Nadir angle of 35º. The system also has a multi-directional motion compensation on-board system to deliver the highest image quality. The emergence of airborne oblique cameras has run in parallel to the inclusion of computer vision algorithms into the traditional photogrammetric workflows. Such algorithms rely on having multiple views of the same area of interest and take advantage of the image redundancy for automatic feature extraction. The multiview capability is highly fostered by the use of oblique systems which capture simultaneously different points of view for each camera shot. Different companies and NMAs have started pilot projects to assess the capabilities of the 3D mesh that can be obtained using correlation techniques. Beyond a software prototyping phase, and taking into account the currently immature state of several components of the oblique imagery workflow, the ICGC has focused on deploying a real production environment with special interest on matching the performance and quality of the existing production lines based on classical Nadir images. This paper introduces different test scenarios and layouts to analyze the impact of different variables on the geometric and radiometric performance. Different variables such as flight altitude, side and forward overlap and ground control point measurements and location have been considered for the evaluation of aerial

  20. Open Source Web Tool for Tracking in a Lowcost Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, F.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2017-11-01

    During the last decade several Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs), i.e. systems able to acquire efficiently three dimensional data using moving sensors (Guarnieri et al., 2008, Schwarz and El-Sheimy, 2004), have been developed. Research and commercial products have been implemented on terrestrial, aerial and marine platforms, and even on human-carried equipment, e.g. backpack (Lo et al., 2015, Nex and Remondino, 2014, Ellum and El-Sheimy, 2002, Leica Pegasus backpack, 2016, Masiero et al., 2017, Fissore et al., 2018). Such systems are composed of an integrated array of time-synchronised navigation sensors and imaging sensors mounted on a mobile platform (Puente et al., 2013, Tao and Li, 2007). Usually the MMS implies integration of different types of sensors, such as GNSS, IMU, video camera and/or laser scanners that allow accurate and quick mapping (Li, 1997, Petrie, 2010, Tao, 2000). The typical requirement of high-accuracy 3D georeferenced reconstruction often makes such systems quite expensive. Indeed, at time of writing most of the terrestrial MMSs on the market have a cost usually greater than 50000, which might be expensive for certain applications (Ellum and El-Sheimy, 2002, Piras et al., 2008). In order to allow best performance sensors have to be properly calibrated (Dong et al., 2007, Ellum and El-Sheimy, 2002). Sensors in MMSs are usually integrated and managed through a dedicated software, which is developed ad hoc for the devices mounted on the mobile platform and hence tailored for the specific used sensors. Despite the fact that commercial solutions are complete, very specific and particularly related to the typology of survey, their price is a factor that restricts the number of users and the possible interested sectors. This paper describes a (relatively low cost) terrestrial Mobile Mapping System developed at the University of Padua (TESAF, Department of Land Environment Agriculture and Forestry) by the research team in CIRGEO, in order to test an

  1. Evaluating the accuracy of low cost UAV generated topography and its effectiveness for geomorphic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen

    2015-04-01

    With the recent explosion in the use and availability of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms and development of easy to use structure from motion (SfM) software, UAV based photogrammetry is increasingly being adopted to produce high resolution topography for the study of surface processes. UAV systems can vary substantially in price and complexity, but the tradeoffs between these and the quality of the resulting data are not well constrained. We look at one end of this spectrum and evaluate the effectiveness of a simple low cost UAV setup for obtaining high resolution topography in a challenging field setting. Our study site is the Daan River gorge in western Taiwan, a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge that we have monitored with terrestrial Lidar since 2009. The site presents challenges for the generation and analysis of high resolution topography, including vertical gorge walls, vegetation, wide variation in surface roughness, and a complicated 3D morphology. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV-derived topography, we compare it with terrestrial Lidar data collected during the same survey period. Our UAV setup combines a DJI Phantom 2 quadcopter with a 16 megapixel Canon Powershot camera for a total platform cost of less than 850. The quadcopter is flown manually, and the camera is programmed to take a photograph every 4 seconds, yielding 200-250 pictures per flight. We measured ground control points and targets for both the Lidar scans and the aerial surveys using a Leica RTK GPS with 1-2 cm accuracy. UAV derived point clouds were obtained using Agisoft Photoscan software. We conducted both Lidar and UAV surveys before and after the 2014 typhoon season, allowing us to evaluate the reliability of the UAV survey to detect geomorphic changes in the range of one to several meters. The accuracy of the SfM point clouds depends strongly on the characteristics of the surface being considered, with vegetation and small scale texture causing inaccuracies. However, we

  2. Multi-Segment Radius Measurement Using an Absolute Distance Meter Through a Null Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Cormic; Wick, Eric; Hayden, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This system was one of the test methods considered for measuring the radius of curvature of one or more of the 18 segmented mirrors that form the 6.5 m diameter primary mirror (PM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The assembled telescope will be tested at cryogenic temperatures in a 17-m diameter by 27-m high vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center. This system uses a Leica Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), at a wavelength of 780 nm, combined with beam-steering and beam-shaping optics to make a differential distance measurement between a ring mirror on the reflective null assembly and individual PM segments. The ADM is located inside the same Pressure-Tight Enclosure (PTE) that houses the test interferometer. The PTE maintains the ADM and interferometer at ambient temperature and pressure so that they are not directly exposed to the telescope s harsh cryogenic and vacuum environment. This system takes advantage of the existing achromatic objective and reflective null assembly used by the test interferometer to direct four ADM beamlets to four PM segments through an optical path that is coincident with the interferometer beam. A mask, positioned on a linear slide, contains an array of 1.25 mm diameter circular subapertures that map to each of the 18 PM segments as well as six positions around the ring mirror. A down-collimated 4 mm ADM beam simultaneously covers 4 adjacent PM segment beamlets and one ring mirror beamlet. The radius, or spacing, of all 18 segments can be measured with the addition of two orthogonally-oriented scanning pentaprisms used to steer the ADM beam to any one of six different sub-aperture configurations at the plane of the ring mirror. The interferometer beam, at a wavelength of 687 nm, and the ADM beamlets, at a wavelength of 780 nm, pass through the objective and null so that the rays are normally incident on the parabolic PM surface. After reflecting off the PM, both the ADM and interferometer beams return to their respective

  3. Multiphotonic Confocal Microscopy 3D imaging: Application to mantle sulfides in sub-arc environment (Avacha Volcano, Kamchatka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Bénard; Luc-Serge, Doucet; Sabine, Palle; Dmitri A., Ionov

    2010-05-01

    Petrogenetic relations in igneous rocks are usually studied in natural samples using classical optical microscopy and subsequent geochemical data acquisition. Multiphotonic Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (MLSCM) can be a powerful tool to section geological materials optically with sub-micrometric resolution and then generate a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction (ca. 106 μm3 stack). MLSCM is used here to investigate textural relations of Monosulfide Solid Solution (MSS) with silicate phases in fresh spinel harzburgite xenoliths from the andesitic Avacha volcano (Kamchatka, Russia). The xenoliths contain MSS disseminated in olivine and orthopyroxene (opx) neoblasts as well as MSS-rich quenched magmatic opx veins [1]. First, Reflection Mode (RM) was tested on vein sulfides in resin-impregnated thick (120 μm) polished rock sections. Then we used a combination of Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) with a transmitted light detector, two photons-excited fluorescence (2PEF) and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). Sequential imaging feature of the Leica TCS-SP2 software was applied. The excitation laser used for 2PEF was a COHERENT MIRA 900 with a 76Hz repetition rate and 800nm wavelength. Image stacks were analysed using ImageJ software [2]. The aim of the tests was to try to discriminate sulfides in silicate matrix as a tool for a better assessment of equilibrium conditions between the two phases. Preliminary results show that Fe-Ni rich MSS from vein and host rock have a strong auto-fluorescence in the Near UV-VIS domain (392-715 nm) whereas silicate matrix is only revealed through DIC. SHG is obtained only from dense nanocentrosymmetrical structures such as embedded medium (organic matter like glue and resin). The three images were recorded sequentially enabling efficient discrimination between the different components of the rock slices. RM permits reconstruction of the complete 3D structure of the rock slice. High resolution (ca. 0.2 μm along X-Y axis vs

  4. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  5. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events

  6. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Qaleh Jegh and Yazdan Abad sections (West of Kopet-Dagh Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Gholami Fard

    2017-03-01

    calcareous marl, marl and argillaceous limestone in upper part. A fossiliferous limestone separates Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations. Sanganeh Formation is 485 m thick comprising siltstones with sandstone, marl (with argillaceous limestone or limestone intercalation. A total of 1286 samples (1006 from Qaleh Jegh section and 280 from the Yazdan Abad section were collected at about 4 m intervals. For the purpose of biostratigraphic investigations, all of the samples were processed using the gravity settling technique (Bown and Young, 1998 and the prepared slides were observed under a Leica DMLP Pol light microscope at ×1000 magnification.   3-    Discussion of Results & Conclusions Nannofossil bioevents have been utilized to biostratigraphically classify the exposed sedimentary succession based on schemes of Roth (1978; modified by Bralower et al., 1993 and Sissingh (1977; modified by Perch-Nielsen, 1985. Overall, 56 species from 28 genera of 14 families in Qaleh Jegh section, and 45 species from 26 genera of 13 families in Yazdan Abad section have been identified and their distribution recorded. Based on the index calcareous nannofossil taxa, the upper part of NC6, NC7A, NC7 (B&C and lower part of NC8 nannofossil zones are delineated in Ghaleh Jegh and the upper part of NC5, NC6, NC7B and lower part of NC7A are recorded in Yazdan Abad. The distributions point to Early to Late Aptian time of deposition for the rocks of Sarcheshmeh Formation and Late Aptian to Early Albian for those of Sanganeh Formation in Ghaleh Jegh, while At Yazdan Abad, Sarcheshmeh Formation ranges from Late Barremian to Early Aptian and Sanganeh Formation dates Early to Late Aptian.

  7. Restoration of Bhoj Wetlands At Bhopal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S. S.; Kulshrestha, M.; Wetland Project, Bhoj

    financial savings as well as devel- opment of in-house expertise. The works have also been taken up manually as far as possible, giving employment opportunities to thousands of poor residents of Bhopal City and nearby villages. This also has ensured participation of masses by default. The project had at the time of its inception envisaged a sum of Rs. 2470 millions. As a result of manual pursuance of work, development of in-house expertise and due to various other cost reduction exercises adopted by the project authorities and engineers the project has so far spent only Rs. 1100 millions thus resulting in huge savings. A part of savings (Rs. 500 millions) has been invested to form a Lake Conservation Authority U a Government body which will look after all the lakes in the entire state 1 of Madhya Pradesh, thus contributing immensely to the cause of lake conservation. One of the special features of this project has been the involvement of masses in its various developmental schemes. This has been ensured by involving more than 55 NGOs and dozens of local educational institutions. Millions of Rupees have been ear- marked for ensuring public participation in various sub-projects. The project on its completion within the next 4 months will contribute immensely to the conservation of both the lakes which can them become role models for other similar wetlands. The paper also details out the various project works like diversion and treatment of nearly 56 MLD of sewage, reduction of harmful inflows of chemicals from activities such as washing activity, idol immersions etc., reduction measures for silt inflow to the lakes, desilting and dredging operations to increase the lake capacity by more than 2.5 M.Cum, improvement in the water quality by reduction of pollution, deweeding oper- ations, nutrient removal by dredging, increased aquaculture activities etc., large scale afforestation (1.6 million trees have been planted in the catchment) and implementa- tion of solid waste

  8. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    :Articles that present innovations / best practicesAbstract: 100 wordsMain Text: 1500 wordsReferences: 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 1 – 2Continued Medical Education:In-depth, substantiated, educational articles presenting core information for the continuing professional development word count: 3500 words (excluding references, figures, and tablesLetters to the Editor:Raising issues on articles published in IJCHCommunications of about 500 – 800 words from readersBook reviews:Critical look at relevant booksMain Text: Up to 500 wordsCommon Interests:Conference Report, Minutes of Meeting, Audited Account Statement of Association & IJCH, Awards, Oration, Remembrance, etc.Editorial WorkflowNote: The IJCH strongly discourages duplication/reduplication of data already published in other journals (even when certain cosmetic changes/additions are made. If and when duplication is detected after publishing in IJCH, the journal will be forced to ‘retract’ such articles.  All papers submitted to IJCH are subject to peer review process. All accepted papers will be suitably edited before publication.Manuscript Handling Charges: (In Two Steps - w.e.f. 07.11.2014The journal charges fee on submission of Original Article, Review Article, Short Communication/Article, Report from the field, Continued Medical education, Letters to the Editor and is a mandatory prerequisite to start editorial screening. (To be deposited within one week of submission1.      Article Submission Fee:In case First Author is Members of IAPSM by NEFT/RTGS/Online Transfer/Net Banking - Submission Fee Rs.500/- and by Cash deposit in account - Rs.550/-.In case First Author is Non-Members by NEFT/RTGS/Online Transfer/Net Banking - Submission Fee Rs.1000/- and by Cash deposit in account - Rs.1050/-.International Author(s by PayPal - 20US$ Submission Fee (Seller e mail: alphacomputerdd@rediffmail.com2.      Article Processing Fee:In case First Author is Members of IAPSM by NEFT

  9. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  10. The Effect of Cryphonectria parasitica Attack on Castanea sativa Histological Properties (Case Study: Visroud Forest- Guilan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Hasani boosari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chestnut (Castanea sativa trees are generally distributed in the northern part of Iran. Chestnut trees provide eaten fruit and good-quality timber in many countries. Dried chestnut wood has a high resistance to decay due to extractive compounds, such as tannins. Chestnut wood is used for many applications, such as the construction of buildings and wooden furniture, shipbuilding, timbers, and musical instruments. This important tree species was used extensively until the occurence of the fatal disease chestnut blight (CBD caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, which is a tree pathogen notable for the disease commonly known as chestnut blight, which primarily affects species of sweet chestnut including the American sweet chestnut (Castanea dentata and European sweet chestnut (C. sativa. The pathogen has been referred to as the chestnut blight fungus. Castanea sativa has a ring-porous wood with larger early wood vessels formed in the spring. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the anatomy and the xylem vessels diameter and some ray attributes of diseased chestnut wood and healthy chestnut wood in the north of Iran. Material and Methods: The sample tree was 20 m in height and 15-40 cm in diameter. The tests specimens were taken at 1.30 m height above the ground in the form of a disc that includes the infected area. In this study the effect of the Cryphonectria parasitica was investigated in wooden and bark samples from healthy and diseased trees in three diameter classes (small medium and large. Both diseased and healthy wood samples with dimensions of 2 x 2 x 2 cm were taken from a diseased chestnut tree to determine the anatomical features of thin (8-15 μm transverse, radial, and tangential sections. This was done by using a microtome (Leica 820, Germany for the light microscopical study of wood anatomy. All of the anatomical sections were prepared as recommended by Parsa pajouh and Schweingruber (1988. Then, some thin

  11. Airborne LIDAR and high resolution satellite data for rapid 3D feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, S. D.; Panditrao, S. N.; Luis, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    This work uses the canopy height model (CHM) based workflow for individual tree crown delineation and 3D feature extraction approach (Overwatch Geospatial's proprietary algorithm) for building feature delineation from high-density light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data in an urban environment and evaluates its accuracy by using very high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) (spatial) and 8-band (multispectral) WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery. LiDAR point cloud data over San Francisco, California, USA, recorded in June 2010, was used to detect tree and building features by classifying point elevation values. The workflow employed includes resampling of LiDAR point cloud to generate a raster surface or digital terrain model (DTM), generation of a hill-shade image and an intensity image, extraction of digital surface model, generation of bare earth digital elevation model (DEM) and extraction of tree and building features. First, the optical WV-2 data and the LiDAR intensity image were co-registered using ground control points (GCPs). The WV-2 rational polynomial coefficients model (RPC) was executed in ERDAS Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) using supplementary *.RPB file. In the second stage, ortho-rectification was carried out using ERDAS LPS by incorporating well-distributed GCPs. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the WV-2 was estimated to be 0.25 m by using more than 10 well-distributed GCPs. In the second stage, we generated the bare earth DEM from LiDAR point cloud data. In most of the cases, bare earth DEM does not represent true ground elevation. Hence, the model was edited to get the most accurate DEM/ DTM possible and normalized the LiDAR point cloud data based on DTM in order to reduce the effect of undulating terrain. We normalized the vegetation point cloud values by subtracting the ground points (DEM) from the LiDAR point cloud. A normalized digital surface model (nDSM) or CHM was calculated from the LiDAR data by subtracting the DEM from the DSM

  12. Creation Greenhouse Environment Map Using Localization of Edge of Cultivation Platforms Based on Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nasiri

    2017-10-01

    based on the visual odometry, global map of the environment is constructed. To evaluate the accuracy of the obtained algorithm in estimation of the position of the corners, Euclidian distances of coordinates of the corners achieved by Leica Total Station and coordinates and resulted from local maps, were computed. Results and Discussion Results showed that the lower edges have been detected with better accuracy than the upper ones. Upper edges were not desirably extracted because of being close to the pots. In contrast, due to the distance between lower edge and the ground surface, lower edges were extracted with a higher quality. Since the upper and lower edges of the platform are in the same direction, the lower edges of the platform have been only used for producing an integrated map of the greenhouse environment. The total length of the edge of the cultivation platforms was 106.6 meter, that 94.79% of which, was detected by the proposed algorithm. Some regions of the edge of the platforms were not detected, since they were not located in the view angle of the stereo camera. By the proposed algorithm, 83.33% of cultivation platforms’ corners, were detected with the average error of 0.07309 meter and mean squared error of 0.0076. Non- detected corners are due the fact that they were not located in the camera view angle. The maximum and minimum errors in the localization, according to the Euclidian distance, were 0.169 and 0.0001 meters, respectively. Conclusions Stereo vision is the perception of the depth of 3D with the disparity of the two images. In navigation, stereo vision is used for localizing the obstacles of movement. Cultivation platforms are the main obstacle of movement in greenhouses. Therefore, it is possible to design an integrated map of greenhouse environment and perform automatic control by localization of the cultivation platforms. In this research, the depth discontinuity feature in the locations of the edges, was used for the localization of the

  13. Geological setting of silica in Dehnow-Abid region (Eshghabad northeast using fluid inclusions studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Yazdanpanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dehnow-Abid area is a part of the geological map of Eshghabad with scale 1:100000 (Aghanabati, 1994 that is located about 20 kilometers northeast of Eshghabad and in the coordinates of 57° 6´ 0" to 57° 10´ 0" eastern longitude and 34° 28´ 0" to 34 21´ 0" northern latitude. The Dehnow-Abid area is located in Tabas block and east of central Iran structural zone. The small continent east central Iran (Takin, 1972 includes blocks: Loot, Tabas and Yazd that constitute Iran's eastern part (Davoudzadeh and Schmidt, 1982. In geology, we can acquire more information about temperature forming minerals and rocks, pressure, density of the fluid and the chemical composition of the ore bearing fluids by fluid inclusions studies. Properties as well as their role in our understanding of the sources and evolution of ore bearing hydrothermal fluids and genesis of mineral deposits are very important (Rodder, 1979. In this study, we tried to use both field and laboratory studies, including petrography and thermometry studies of fluid inclusions, environment formation of quartz in the specified Dehno-Abid. Materials and methods At first, in order to identify the area, the 1:100000 map of Eshghabad was used. Then, for a complete cognition of mentioned area, after a few field visits and sampling of outcrops of quartz, we prepared 16 double polishing sections from some crystalline and milky quartz. Then, 10 thin sections of sandstones of that area were prepared for identification the host rock. Microscopic examinations on fluid inclusions were done by a LEICA DMLSP polarizing light microscope. Fluid inclusion micro-thermometry studies were done by using a Linkam THM S600 heating and freezing stage and with a TMS94 controller. Also, a cooling LNP which is mounted on an Olympus BX-41 microscope in Laboratory Fluid inclusion of Earth Sciences, Damghan University was used. Discussion and results Lithology of the Dehnow-Abid area included dark shale

  14. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    are very grateful to the following companies who contributed to the success of the meeting by presenting trade stands on 9 and 10 April: Agar Scientific, Fischione, Gatan, ISS Group Services and Leica Microsystems. St Catherine's College is thanked for provision of excellent accommodation, superb lecture facilities and the very friendly catering staff who served food and drink during the days. There was even a compliment from some of our French visitors for the cheese board during the conference dinner! Finally, we would like to thank the staff of the Royal Microscopical Society for their expert help in planning and support of this conference - in particular Victoria Masters and her assistant Alice Pyper for their dedicated professional support and always joyful approach to any issues that arose. September 2013 Thomas Walther John L Hutchison

  15. VADASE: a new approach for real-time fast displacement detection - First application to Taiwan High-Rate GNSS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Huang-Kai; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Colosimo, Gabriele; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    with very promising results to GPS single frequency data in occasion of the Emilia Earthquake (Italy, M=6.0 - May 20, 2012) [2] and also to Galileo single and dual frequency data [1]. VADASE, in principle, can be embedded into the receiver firmware and work in real-time. In this respect, at present, in the frame of an investigation project, VADASE has been implemented within the last release of the firmware of Leica Geosystems GR receivers. Here we present the application of the VADASE methodology to data collected at several permanent stations of Taiwan High-Rate GNSS Network in occasion of recent earthquakes occurred on June 2, 2013 (south-west of Buli, M=6.2, USGS) and October 31, 2013 (south-west of Hualian, M=6.3, USGS). Furthermore a solutions comparison with results obtained from co-located accelerometers and seismometers is shown and all the kinematic parameters are investigated. In particular, estimated velocities from VADASE are directly compared with seismometers dataset. Then, VADASE velocities are derived to perform a comparison with data collected by accelerometers. Finally, a comparison in terms of displacements obtained from all the instruments is carried out. With these tests a new strategy to integrate traditional seismic network with the information coming from GNSS data can be better assessed. [1] Benedetti E, Branzanti M, Colosimo G, Mazzoni A, Crespi M (2013). VADASE: state of the art and new developments of a third way to GNSS Seismology. International Association of Geodesy Symposia (Accepted for publication) [2] Benedetti E, Branzanti M, Biagi L, Colosimo G, Mazzoni A, Crespi M (2013). GNSS seismology for the 2012 Mw = 6.1 Emilia Earthquake: exploiting the VADASE algorithm. Seismological Research Letters (Accepted for publication) [3] Branzanti M, Colosimo G, Crespi M, Mazzoni A (2012) GPS near real-time coseismic displacements for the great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, doi:10.1109/LGRS.2012.2207704, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters [4

  16. The orange-brown patina of Salisbury Cathedral (West Porch) surfaces: evidence of its man-made origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gil, Jesus; Martín-Gil, Francisco Javier; del Carmen Ramos-Sánchez, Maria; Martín-Ramos, Pablo

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we attempt to elucidate the composition and origin of the orange patina on the surfaces of the West-Porch of Salisbury Cathedral by comparison to other known patinas: (i) the orange-brown patina on the marble surfaces of the Acropolis in Athens and the Arch of Titus in Rome whose analyses have shown very high amounts of phosphates, and generally amino acids from animal-skin glue or other protein binders; (ii) the phosphated patinas which also contain oxalates, found in 1996 on Catalonian calcareous sandstones and in the calcareous dolomites of the Monastery of Silos, Spain, whose origin is either the application of calcium caseinate, or egg yolk and animal glue; and (iii) the patinas with only oxalates found in some of Verona's monuments (St. Zeno) and Spanish sites as in the Monastery of Guadalupe and Cuenca cathedral, formed either by the mineralization of algal filaments or by biological reactions yielding oxalate from yolk egg (added to stone as part of preservative empirical treatments). In the winter of 2003, the West-Porch of Salisbury Cathedral received conservation works, but the old patina was not entirely removed. This fact has allowed us to collect the samples for its study. The IR spectra were registered with a Golden Gate ATR Mk II system using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FTIR) spectrometry. Mineral composition was determined by XRD (Philips PW 1710 spectrometer with Cu tube), whereas major and trace elements analyses were performed by XRF (Philips PW1480 PW). Microscopy examination was performed on a Leica M655 microscope. Phosphate, oxalate, calcium and sulphate contents were analysed by usual chemical methods. ATD-FTIR spectra of the Salisbury's patina exhibit peaks at 2361, 2341 and 671 cm(-1) (assigned to phosphates); 3410, 1680, 1620, 1122 and 602 cm(-1) (assigned to sulphates); and 1447/1437 and 876 cm(-1) (attributed to carbonates). The little peaks at 1620 and 798 cm(-1) could be assigned to

  17. Small format digital photogrammetry for applications in the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    coordinate system is important to measure the dip angle of geologic features in outcrop. The planimetric coordinate systems would be arbitrary, but may easily be oriented to compass north introducing a direction measurement of a compass. Wooden spheres and a Leica disto D3 laser distance meter added less than 0.150 kg to the field equipment considering that a suitable digital camera was already part of it. Identification of a small digital camera suitable for precise measurements was a major part of this work. A group of cameras were calibrated several times over different periods of time on a testfield. Further evaluation involved an accuracy assessment in the field comparing distances between signalized points calculated form a photogrammetric setup with coordinates derived from a total station survey. The smallest camera in the test required calibration on the job as the interior orientation changed significantly between testfield calibration and use in the field. We attribute this to the fact that the lens was retracted then the camera was switched off. Fairly stable camera geometry in a compact size camera with lens retracting system was accomplished for Sigma DP1 and DP2 cameras. While the pixel count of the cameras was less than for the Ricoh, the pixel pitch in the Sigma cameras was much larger. Hence, the same mechanical movement would have less per pixel effect for the Sigma cameras than for the Ricoh camera. A large pixel pitch may therefore compensate for some camera instability explaining why cameras with large sensors and larger pixel pitch typically yield better accuracy in object space. Both Sigma cameras weigh approximately 0.250 kg and may even be suitable for use with ultralight aerial vehicles (UAV) which have payload restriction of 0.200 to 0.300 kg. A set of other cameras that were available were also tested on a calibration field and on location showing once again that it is difficult to reason geometric stability from camera specifications. Image

  18. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11 and 12 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    components, and publication on a website. Two large research quality microscopes are used to collect all the images required for a virtual microscope. The first is part of an integrated package that utilizes Leica PowerMosaic software and a motorised XYZ stage to generate large area mosaics. It includes a fast acquisition camera and depending on the PTS size normally is used to produce seamless mosaic images consisting of 100-500 individual photographs. If the sample is suitable, three mosaics of each sample are recorded - plane polarised light, between crossed polars and reflected light. In order for the VM to be a true petrological microscope it is necessary to recreate the features of a rotating stage and perform observations using filters to produce polarised light. Thus the petrological VM includes the capability of seeing changes in optical properties (pleochroism and birefringence) during rotation allowing mineral identification. The second microscope in the system provides the functions of the rotating stage. To this microscope we have added a robotically controlled motor to acquire seventy-two images (5 degree intervals) in plane polarised light and between crossed polars. To process the images acquired from the two microscopes involves a combination of proprietary software (Photoshop) and our own in-house code. The final stage involves assembling all the components in an HTML5 environment. Pathfinder investigations: We have undertaken a number of pilot studies to demonstrate the efficacy of the petrological microscope with lunar samples. The first was to make available on-line images collected from the Educational Package of Apollo samples provided by NASA to the UK STFC (Science and Technical Facilities Council) for loan as educational material e.g. for schools. The real PTSs of the samples are now no longer sent out to schools removing the risks associated with transport, accidental breakage and eliminating the possibility of loss. The availability of lunar